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'' l


The Textile Institute

··~ Manchester
I was invited by the Textile Institut fo 1prepare a textbook whose
main purpose was to help textile students to apply their k~10wledge
of mathematics to the problems presented in textile production and
technology. An inspection of the text will reveal that the level of
mathematics demanded in the solution of most of the examples is
not high. This is intentional. The student whose sights are set on
advanced mathematics will find in most technical sections of book-
I shops yards-sorry, metres-of shelf space devoted to textbooks on
pure and applied mathematics, ranging from the elementary to
10, Blackfriars Street, Manchester M3 5DR
degree and post-degree levels. In contrast, the textile student will

© The Textile Institute 1977
First published 1977 have difficulty in finding any books at all devoted to the mathematics
ISBN 0 900739 24 X of textile technology. It is hoped that this textbook will be at least
an introduction to the subject.
Clearly, every type of reader will not find the scope or treatment
All .rights reserved. No part of this publication m'IY be reproduced, stored in a of the subject matter entirely to his liking, but the material is aimed
retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, at several main types of reader: (i) the technician; (ii) the tech-
mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without the prior nologist; and (iii) the non-textile man whose specialism is in other
permission of the copyright owner.
fields, such as engineering or physics.
The technician's mathematical background may be limited, and
the greater part of Volume I should be of help to him. The textile
technologist will normally be equipped with a sound background
of pure mathematics but be lacking in the application of his know-
ledge to a wide variety of technical problems requiring calculation
in their solution. A non-textile man may possess a high attainment
in pure and applied mathematics but could be at a loss when a
colleague talks about twist constants and cover factors. Many
specialized textile terms are defined in the text and suitable
examples used to illustrate their application.
The machinery used in the examples ranges from the out-dated
to the most modem. Machines change, but the principles of calcula-
tion remain constant,. and the inclusion of some outrageously low
machine speed or production rate must therefore be forgiven. I
apologize in advance for the inevitable errors of fact and calculation.
Readers may care to point out such errors and, in addition, offer
examples, correctly worked out, in topics such as weft- and warp-
knitting, two of the many textile fields outside my experience.
My thanks are due to many colleagues at Bolton for their com-
ments, usually unhelpful, and to Mr. P. W. Harrison, of the Textile
Institute, a gentleman who shows great patience with technical
Print~d and bo.und in Great Britain by authors.
Morrison & Gibb Ltd, London and Edinburgh
I hope that, in spite of its imperfections, this textbook, written,
curiously enough, by a non-mathematician, will be of service to
those who pursue their careers in the old-established technology of
J.E. Boom
The writer wishes to thank various organizations and machinery 7.1 Introduction 377
makers for the ready supply of information, diagrams, and photo- 7.2 Winding Rate 377
graphs; a technical textbook would be difficult to prepare wit~out 7.3 Wind and Traverse Ratio 384
such help. His apologies go to those who may have been omitted 7.4 Cone-winding 390
from the following list: 7.5 Yarn Tension and Tension Devices 397
The Textile Institute; 7.6 Yarn-clearing and Clearing Devices 401
Shirley Institute: 7.7 ·warp Preparation 410
Shirley Developments Ltd: 7.8 Sizing 418
Department of Textile Technology. University of 7.9 Weft Preparation 429
Manchester Institute of Science and Technology; Exercises 442
Wira: Suggested Further Reading 443
G. \\'. Thornton Ltd:

' Zellweger Ltd:

Platt Saco Lowell Ltd:
Leesona Ltd:
8.1 Woven-fabric Structure 445
lnstron Ltd: 8.2 Weaving Mechanisms 458
Schlafhorst Ltd. 8.3 The Geometry of Plain Weft-knitted Fabrics 487
Cook & Co. (Manchester) Ltd: 8.4 The Geometry of Warp-knitted Fabrics 499
8.5 Knitting Mechanisms 505
Columbine Press Ltd (for reproduction of an extract from Exercises
'The Technology of \\!arp Sizing·, edited by J. B. Smith); 508
Textile .\fam~facturer. Suggested Further Reading 509



For the convenience of readers who are concerned with only one
section of the textile industry, this work is divided into three
volumes, Volume I deals with fibres and also includes chapters on
units, a revision of basic mathematics, and graphs and other forms
of graphical representation. Volume II is concerned with yarns and
includes.a chapter on mechanisms, many of which are involved in
the processes of yam production. Volume I II deals with fabrics and
the various preparatory processes in the conversion of yarns into
Exercises and lists of suggested further reading appear at the end
of each chapter, and answers to the exercises are given at the end of
the appropriate volume.
7.1 Introduction
Preparation processes may be considered to include all the yarn
treatment between spinning and fabric production (or thread~ cord,
and rope production). Only rarely does the spun package go directly
to the fabric-making unit, one example being yarn spun in a ring-
frame onto pirns and used as weft, the only preparation in this case
being conditioning. At all stages of preparation, and particularly in
the early stages, the opportunity is taken to inspect the yarn for
faults and to remove them. The preparation of spun yarns will
differ from that of continuous-filament yarns, but the objective is
similar, i.e., to furnish the fabric-making unit with a fault-free yarn,
wound onto the most suitable and efficient supply package, e.g .. the
warp for the loom, the pirn or the cone or cheese for weft, and the
cone for weft-knitting. The examples given here of the calculations
used in preparation can only be a selection of a multiplicity of mathe-
matical problems that confront the student of yarn preparation.

7.2 Winding Rate

This is best illustrated by an example.
_A double-flanged bobbin is wound on a vertical spindle rotating at.900 rey/min.
The centre has a diameter of 4 cm and the maximum bobbin diameter is· 1Z-cm~
The yarn is wound with a slow traverse. How does the winding speed vary from
an empty to a full bobbin?
At any bobbin diameter d cm, the winding rate will be:
bobbin rev/minx "d/100 m/min.
The winding rate is therefore directly proportional to the winding-on diameter.
At the empty bobbin:
. . rate= 900X7TX4~ I I 3 mImm.
wmdmg .
At the full bobbin:
. d"mg rate= 900 x "x 12 = 34-0 mI mm
wm .
winding rate at 4-cm diameterx 12/4= 113 x 3=339 m/min.

The mean winding rate will be:
constant winding rate were required, some mechanis~ w~ulJ be
~~" x (4 ~ 12 )=226 m/min. necessary to reduce the spindle speed as the bobbin d1amct~r
increased. Expressed mathematically, spindle speed x bobbin
Fig. 7. I illustrates the winding conditions in this example. If a diameter is constant.
I . A constant winding rate of 200 m/min is required with the double-flanged
! ! ' bobbin of the previous example. Determine the constant of the equation:
winding rev/minx bobbin diameter=constant.
I I Calculate the spindle speeds at diameters of 4, 6, 8, 10 and 12 cm. Plot the
spindle sp~eds against the bobbin diameter. ·
I f4-4 cm- ! Slow traverse In order to wind at 200 m/min on a 4-cm-diameter bobbin, the spindle speed
is given by:
12 cm 200 x 100 winding rate in cm/min
I I TT x 4 bobbin circumference in cm
= 5000/TT
I I I = 1592 rev/min.
I Since the winding rate in rev/minx bobbin diameter=constant,
I i constant= 1592 x 4=6368.
Hence we have:
spindle speed at 4 cm = 6368/4 = 1592;
spindle speed at 6 cm =6368/6 =1061;
spindle speed at 8 cm =6368/8 = 796;
spindle speed at IO cm=6368/10= 637;
300 spindle speed at 12 cm=6368/12= 531.
Fig 7.2 shows the graph of spindle rev/min against bobbin diameter. The curve
is an example of a rectangular hyperbola.

Winding Rate In the two examples above, the yarn traverse has been slow, the
implication being that the angle of wind is small and its effect on
the winding rate negligible. If the traverse is quick, then the effect
on the winding rate must be taken into account. In Fig. 7.3, a
cylindrical package is rotated in the direction indicated with a
surface velocity Vs. The traverse velocity Vt.is at right angles to Vs.
At the poTni P, we, add an equal and opposite- velocity Vs, effectively
stopping the package and causing the yarn to do the winding on.
Vectorial addition· of Vs and Vt produces the net winding velocity,
Vr. The angle 8 is the 'angle of wind'. Inspection of the diagram
4 12 shows that:
Bobbin Diameter (cm)'
tan 8=traverse velocity/surface velocity, Vt/Vs.
7.1 Winding on a double-flanged bobbin: relation between winding rate and
diameter bobbin The complementary angle of 8 may be termed the coil angle, i.e.,
angle fl.

l I v,
I I v.

I i
' Coil
I I angle
I I v,
' I Direction of
I i package rotation

I '


1600 7.3 Net winding rate on a cylindrical package: angle of wind and coil angle

1200 A cylindrical package is wound on a centre of 5-cm diameter. The spindle speed
is constant at 3200 rev/min. If the traverse velocity is 205 m/min, determine (a)
the net winding-i~t-~ afffie-start of winding; (b) the net winding rate at a packa~
diameter of 16 cm; (c) the angles of wind at the start and at a diameter of 16 cm.
Spindle Speed (a) The surface velocity is given by:
800 5 X TTX 3200
v.=- 100

~503 m/min.
400 The traverse velocity, Vt, is given as 205 m/min. Hence:
tan 0= Vi/Vs=205/503=0·3992,
the, ;angle of wind= 21° 46;.
0 The net wi!lding rate at 5-cm diarnete/= Vt/sin O
4 12 = 205/0· 3708
Bobbin Diameter (cm)
=553 m/min.
(b) The surface velocity at 16-cm diameter=surface velocity at 5 cm x 16/5

7.2 Winding on a double-flanged bobbin: relation between spindle speed and =503x 16/5
bobbin diameter =1610 m/min.

380 381

. 205
tan 0 at 16-cm d1ameter= 1610

the angle of wind= 7° 16'.
The net windin~ r11;te at 16-cm diameter= Vt/sin O
- =205/sin 7° 16'
= 1621 m/min. Surface
(c) The angles of wind have already been determined, i.e., 21° 46' at the start Velocity;
and 7° 16' at the 16-cm diameter. It should be noted that the angle o~ v.
decreases with an increase in package_diameter and tfia~_effect QfJ!ll;Jr!!Yen.e (m/min)
YeIOcltYOnilie net winding rfil!ul_ecrease~as the angl~qecreases. ·
-At the start, the surface velocity is 503 m/min and the net winding rate 553 m/ 400
min, a percentage increase of:
553-503 0
503 x lOO=nearly 10%.
At 16-cm diameter, the percentage increase is:
1621-1610 x 100
1610 ,
i.e., only about 0·68 % increase.

A cone winder fitted with a cam-operated linear-traverse motion is used for the
production of cheeses. Determine the maximum and minimum angles of wind
theoretically available from the fo_llowing particulars:
surface speed of drum: infinitely variable in the range 400-800 m/min; 60 120
cam-shaft speed: infinitely variable in the range 200-400 .-ev/min;
traverse length: 150 mm. Traverse Velocity, Vi (m/min)

What is the maximum surface speed that can be used when an angle of wind of 7.4 Relation between surface and traverse velocities: maximum and minimum
12° is required? (Question taken from ATI Part II Examination, 1970.) angles of wind
With a cam drive to the traverse, one revolution of the cam w'ill move the yarn
guide across the package and back again, i.e., 300 mm. The traverse velocity is Again:
therefore given by: tan Omax= 120/400=0·3
cam-shaft speed x 300/1000 m/min. and
The relationship between the surface velocities and the traverse velocities may be 0=16° 42'.
noted in Fig 7.4 (which is not drawn to scale). Clearly, the minimum angle of The maximum surface velocity is 800 m/min. Can we obtain a winding angle
wind occurs when the surface velocity is a maximum and the traverse velocity a of 12° with the traverse-velocity range at our disposal?
minimum, i.e., 800 m/min and 60 m/min, respectively. Thus: Since tan 12°=traverse velocity/surface velocity,
tan Om1n = 60/800 = 0·075 0·2126= traverse velocity/800.
and Hence:
0=4° 17'. traverse velocity=0·2126x800=170 m/min.
Since the maximum traverse velocity is only 120 m/min, we cannot exploit the
382 maximum sµrface velocity of 800 m/min. We must therefore exploit the maximum


traverse velocity. Since tan 12° =d 20/surface velocity:

maximum practical surface velocity= 120/0·2126

7.3 Wind and Traverse Ratio

:a.564 m/min.

. . ; - ·-·

Traverse length -
The 'wind' of a winding system is ~he number of revolutions made I
by the package during the time taken for the yarn guide to make a
traverse in one direction across the package, The wind will therefore t-
indicate how many coils of yarn are laid on the package sµrface per
3 wind with packages of different circumferences.
single traverse. ~ngle of wind 8 decreases as diareter of package
The 'traverse ratio' is the number of coils laid per double traverse increases
' ~_..,.··-

of the yarn guide, so the traverse ratio is twice the wind. The notes
that follow are based on material given in an article for students in 7.5 Diagram showing 3 wind on cheeses of different diameters: the effect on the
angle of wind with a spindle-driven package
The Textile Institute and Industry in April, 1964. The dimensions
have been converted from inches to centimetres.

7.3.2 PRECISION WINDERS WITH CONSTANT SPINDLE SPEED The rotational speed of the package will decrease as its diameter
On these machines, there is a gear or belt drive between the package increases because of the relation:
spindle and the shaft on which the traversing cam is mounted.
Hence, for every revolution of the cam (which usually corresponds surface velocity= '1T x diameter x speed (rev/min).
to a doUble traverse of the yarn guide), the package makes a fixed The surface velocity and '1T are constant, and thus:
number of revolutions, so that, at all stages of build-up, the wind
and traverse ratiq are constant. The velocity of the guide, Vt, is also
speed (rev/min) oc d" 1 · J
constant but the surface vefocity of the e is ro ortional to , 1ameter
't~ge diameter a_nd therefore increases as windi_!!g_p_roceed~'. The effect of this is to cause a high traverse ratio at the start of
The angle of wind, 8, decreases as winding continues. {These points
winding; which decreases as the package diameter increases (see
were demonstrated in the examples given above.) Fig. 7.5 illustrates Fig. 7.6). '
what happens for a package with a wind of 3. The surface of the
cylindrical package has been opened out and is shown as a rectangle.
The circumference of the second package is twice that of the first. EXAMPLE 7.5 ~
A cheese of traverse length 24 cm is wound on a precision nder onto a centre
of 12-cm circumference. By developing the surface of th cheese into a plane
7.3.3 DRUM-DRIVEN PACKAGES figure, draw one repeat of the yarn path on the centre if th traverse ratio is (a) 3,
(b) 5/2, and (c) 5/3. Note down the number of diamon<JS occurring lengthwise
In this system, the package sits on a cylinder that has a constant and circumferentially round the package and the number' of double traverses for
speed of rotation, and, by friction, with slippage ignored, the a pattern repeat.
package rotates with a surface velocity equal to that of the driving What are the corresponding results for a traverse ratio X/ Y, where X and Y
drum. On some machines, a. separate cam drive to the yarn guide is are whole numbers having no common factor?
used, but on most drum-drive machines the am is controlled by Explain the concept of gain. Calculate the minimum gain in terms of package
revolutions per double traverse for a yarn of diameter 0·25 mm under conditions
groove~o the drum. Thus the traverse velocity and the sur ace (a) and (b). (Question taken from ATI Part II Examination, 1963.)
VeIOcify are c~diti9ns that produce a constant angle of In the course of the solution to this problem, several important winding
wmd and a constant winding rate. principles will be discussed, including patterning and gain.


Drum-driven packages A' B'

3 wind at diameter d
11 wind at diameter 2d t
6cm u
Angle H constant
TT2d 6cm c

Traverse Ratio 3 • - Scm -
Driving drum

7.6 Diagram showing 3 wind on cheeses of different diameters: drum-driven

package causes no change in angle of wind


The surface of the package centre can be represented as a rectangle of length (b)
24 cm (traverse length) and breadth 12 cm (centre circumference). The reader is
recommended to fix a sheet of paper round a cardboard centre and try out the
drawing of the yarn path. When the traverse ratio is 3, the number of coils per
single traverse is l ·5, so a complete coil occupies two-thirds of the traverse
length, i.e., 16 cm. In Fig. 7.7(a), it is assumed that the winding starts at point A.
Note also that points A and A' are, in fact, the same point, and similarly B and B' Traverse Ratio 5/2
are the same point.
The traverse is divided into three 8-cm sections. Moreover, since at the end. of
a single traverse the yarn will end )1alf-way round the circumference, the latter is A'
divided into two 6-cm sections. The first coil is represented by AB', and the
continuation of the next half-coil is BC. Note that we have dropped vertically
from B' to B and that the direction of the arrow-head is still indicating that
the yarn is being wound from left to right. In the discussion that follows, the
transfer from top to bottom points and vice versa wiil be indicated by brackets.
Thus the complete yarn path for a double traverse of the yarn guide is:
AB' (B'B)C CB' (B'B)A', (c)

and the yarn is now back at its starting point A and so completes a repeat in one
double traverse. The number of diamonds occurring lengthwise is 1·5 and the
number occurring circumferentially is 1.
(b) TRAVERSE RATIO= 5/2 Trav~rse· Ratio 5/3
In this case, 2·5 coils will be laid per double traverse, and thus, to make up a
whole number of coils, two double traverses. are required for a pattern repeat. In
Fig. 7.7(b), the conditions are shown in which, at the end of a single traverse,
only l ·25 coils will have been completed, yarn path AE' (E'E)Fi. the point F 1 7.7 Traverse ratios of 3, 5/2, and 513
being one-quarter of the way round the circumference. The traverse length has
been divided into five equal sections and the circumference into four. The full
yam path is:
AE' (E'E)F1 F 1 C' {C'C)A 2 A2C' (C'C)Fa F 3E' (E'E)A'.
The number of diarnonds occurring lengthwise is 2·5 and the number occurring
circumferentially is 2.
Here, S/3 coils are laid per double traverse. For a pattern repeat, the total number
of coils laid must be a whole number, so that three double traverses are required.
At the end of a single traverse, the number of coils laid is 5/6, so the circum-
ference is divided into six sections, each 2 cm wide. A complete coil is laid in
6/5 traverses, and thus the traverse length is divided into five sections, each
4·8 cm wide. For practice, the reader may trace out the complete yam path in
Fig. 7.7(c). The number of diamonds lengthwise is again 2·5 and the number
circumferentially is 3.
When the traverse ratio is X/ Y, where X and Y have no common factor, a linear gain= g
pattern repeat is completed in Y double traverses. At either end of the package, Revolution gain= ~.__g~­
there will be Y reversal points round the circumference, and each of these is an c1 rcumference
apex of a diamond. Thus there will be Y diamonds formed circumferentially. Yarn diameter= d
Similarly, there are X complete coils in a pattern repeat, and each of these coils Angle of wind= (J
meets the generator (ABC. . or A'B'C' .. ) once. There are therefore X apex
points, but, from the mechanism of formation of the diamonds, two such apex g=d/sin 8
points are required per diamond. Hence X/2 diamonds are formed lengthwise.
Table 7.l summarizes these points.

Number of Diamonds
Number of Double
Traverse Ratio
Traverses per Repeat
Lengthwise Circumference

X/Y y X/2 y
3/1 1 3/2 1
5/2 2 5/2 2
5/3 3 5/2 3
7.8 The concept of 'gain' in winding
After a pattern repeat, the yarn returns to its starting point and the next set of g yarn diameter d
coils is laid on top of the preceding ones. This is clearly· undesirable, and the
sin (angle of wind)== sin o·
resulting package would not be very stable or useful. It is therefore essential to
displace the yarn so that, at the end of a pattern repeat, it lies slightly to one side We th~s have: tan fJ under conditions (a)-16
or the other of the first coil. In Fig. 7 .8, the distance g is called the 'linear gain'. from which g=0·25/sin 530 8'=0,25/0·80- :- /12= 1-33 and hence 8= 530 8',
We then have: .-0 3125 mm.
The 'revolution gain' is the linear gain divided by the circumference. In practice,
the revolution gain is possibly the better known quantity, the adjective 'revolu- revolution gain= linear gain/circumference
tion' being dropped and the expression 'gain' used without implying linear gain.
The minimum linear gain will cause successive coils to lie alongside each other, 0·3125
so that they are just touching. If circularity of yarn cross-section is assumed, the =12XT0=0·0026 rev per double traverse.
linear gain will be: Under conditions (b) tan 0-(4 4
g=0·25/sin 58o=0·25/0'.848=0~94; ~~12=1·6 and hence 0=58o, from which

. 'i
We then have: rotation, the surface velocity varies from the small end of the cone
. . 0·2947
revo1ut1on gam per pattern repeat=- =0·00246.
to the large end. Fig. 7.9 shows how, for a constan't traverse velocity,
12 x 10 both the net winding rate and the angle of wind vary across the
I cone. (This diagram could also serve to illustrate a similar effect in
l But one pattern repeat occupies two double traverses, and the revolution gain per
l double traverse is therefore 0·00246/2, i.e., 0·00123. the winding of pirns.) In the notes that follow, some of the simpler
In both cases, good winding would result, with revolution 'losses' of 0·0026 and aspects of cone-winding will be discussed.
0·00123, respectively.

In the example above, the gain has only been introduced to lay
the coils so that they just touch, but, when required, the gain can
be adjusted to space the coils by a certain amount. In winding
packages for pressure-dyeing, this control over the package build
aids good dye-liquor flow through the package. It is this 'precise'
control over coil~positioning that gives the name to 'precision'


We have seen in the last section how a constant traverse ratio can,
without the use of gain, lead to the superimposition: of successive
coils of yarn; the effect is known as 'patterning' or 'ribboning'.
During the build of a drum-wound package, there will tre times
Net winding rate v,, > v,,
when there is a simple ratio between the drum diameter and .the Angle of wind 111 > IJ1
I package diameter, producing a traverse ratio that permits patterning 7 .9 Net winding rates on conical packages

for a limited period, that is, until the package-diameter-drum-
diameter ratio ceases to be a simple one. For example, a package
diameter of 5 cm and a drum diameter of 10 cm give a simple 1:2
ratio. If the package increases in diameter to 5· 1 cm, the ratio ·In Fig. 7.10, the averag~ angle of win~ is esti~ated by developing
becomes 1: l ·9607, which is not a simple ratio. To prevent patterning, the cone surface and usmg the mean diameter, 1.e., the diameter at
which upsets yarn take-off at the next process, 'anti-patterning' a .~o~nt half-"."ay alo~g the c~il pitch. This concept is open to
devices are used on the winding frame. Some lift the package'away cnt1c1sm, but it does give some mdication of the angle of wind.
from the drum at intervals, and others decelerate-and accelerate the
drum to cause package-skidding and so dest!OY any precise relation
between drum rotation and package rotation. T~e cones used for high-speed warping or processes that demand a
high take-off speed are normally wound onto a centre with a small
taper angle of about.' 6°, and, as the cone builds up, the original
taper angle _is mamt~med by.the cone, as in Fig. 7.11. Throughout
7.4 Cone-winding the cone build, the diameter mcreases at the same rate at all points
7.4.l INTRODUCTION along the cone axis. This could be termed a 'uniform' increase in
In the last section, the theoretical treatment dea:lt with the building diameter. With a cylindrical package such as a cheese, uniform
of cylindrical packages, known as cheeses; the approach to the b~ild up is relatively simple, but with a conical package problems
problem is similar for conical packages, but the mathematics are arise .
more complex. One important contributory factor to this complexity . Consider the cone in Fig. 7.11. Two equally wide strips have
is the fact that a cone is a rigid body, and, for any given speed of diameters D1 and D2. In order to build up the cone. at equal rates

390 391


in the two strips, the quantity qt yarn deposited in strips A and ·e

must be proportional to D1 / D2 • Let the lengths of yarn wound across
the strips be a and b. We then have:
a D1
b=D2 •
The lengths· a and b are clearly dependent on the angle of wind at
A and B, and the angle of wind, as we have seen already, is c<;m-
trolled by the surface velocity and the traverse velocity. The surface
velodties are obviously different in value, but has the traverse
velocity to change as the yarn guide moves across the cone?
In Fig. 7.12, we have two strips on a cone. The diameters of A and
Average angle of wind B are IO and 8 cm, respectively, and the strip width is I cm. The
tan 8=p/Trd cone rotates at n rev/min. Across strip A, a I~ngth of yarn 3 cm long
is laid, and hence for uniform increase in diameter the length of
pitch of coil yarn required for strip B will be 3 x 8/10=2·4 cm. The angle of
tan 8 TT. x mean diameter wind, Bi. is 19° 27' since sin 81 =1/3 =0·333.

7.10 The average angle of wind on a conical surface

Taper angle

D2 =8 cm
A Strip diameter, D 1 =10 cm


7.11 Winding a conical package with. a constant angle of taper, i.e., uniform
build-up ·
7.12 Uniform cone build-up
To achieve an angle of 19° 27', the trave~se velocity must be having a similar taper angle to the one in Fig. 7. l 2. The graph in
correct. The surface velocity is mr x IO= Vt. Smee Vt/ Vs= tan 81 = Fig. 7.14 shows how the traverse velocity required increases towards
tan 19~ 27': the nose of the cone. The grooves cut into the driving drum of a
Vi= mr x I0 x 0· 3532 = I I ·09n cm/min.
A similar calculation for strip B can be made. Since sin 82= 1/2·4=
0·4167, 82 =24° 37', and:
Vt at strip B=mrx 8 x tan 24° 37' 13n
=mr x 8 x 0·4582
= 11 ·52n cm/min.
~ 12n
Table 7.2 shows the angles of wind and traverse velocities required ]
at various cone diameters for the cone shown in Fig. 7.13, a cone .,
~ lln
Cone-section Diameter, Angle of Wind, Coil Angle, Traverse Velocity,
D (cm) (J Vt (cm/min)
"' !On

12 16° 8' 73° 52' 10·90n

10 19° 27' 70° 33' 11·09n
8 24° 37' 65° 23' 11·52n 9n
6 33° 45' 56° 15' 12·60n 12 JO 8 6
Diameter of Cone Section
7.14 The relation between.the traverse velocity and cone diameter in the uniform
· build-up of the cone in Fig. 7.13 ·

cone winder have increasing pitch from the large end of cane tQJbe
nose. For a uniformly increasing cone1 diameter, the drums are cut
with so:ca11ed 'half::~cceletated' groo_ves. Where the cone taper angle
12 10 8
has to. mcrease durmg the cone bmld, as for a knitting cone, the
variation in groove pitch is more marked, and the drums are referred
to as 'fuUy accelerated' drums.
Table 7.3 sliows how the product of the diameter at a .particular
cone section or strip and the cosine of the coil angle is a constant
Cone-section Diameter Cosine of Coil Angle.
Dem cos"' D cos"'

12 0·2801 3·36
10 0·3341 3'34
8 0·4192 3'35
7.13 Dimensions required for a specified cone 6 0·5570 3·34

394 395

value. Thus: 301-8n

cone-section diameter x cos (coil angle)= constant. 27·69
We could use the cosine of the complement of the angle of wind: = 10·9n.
cone-section diameter x cos (90- angle of wind)= constant. This result agrees with the value obtained by another method, which
Table 7.4 shows how the product of the traverse velocity afa cone was given earlier (see Table 7.2).
section and the sine of the coil angle is also constant. Thus:
cone-section diameter x sine (coil angle)=constant. 7.5 Yam Tension and Tension Devices
·The most common method of adding tension to a running yarn is
TABLE 7.4 to cause it to rub against a surface or surfaces, the frictional resist-
ances so developed being then added to the existing tension. In
Traverse Velocity Sine of Coil Angle, Fig. 7.15, we see a solid material being pulled over another solid
Vt (cm/min) sin a Vt sin ex
material and requiring a force F to maintain the sliding action. The
!0·90n 0·9606 10·47n ratio of the force F to the force N normal to the surfaces is called
I 1·09n 0·9429 10·46n the coefficient offriction and has the symbol µ.
11·52n 0·9091 10·47n
12·60n 0·8315 10·47n

Again the complement of the angle of wind produces the same value;
cone-section diameter x sine (90- angle of wind)= constant.
7.4.4 TRAVERSE VELOCITY AND CONE-SECTION DIAMETER 7 .15 Simplified plane-friction theory
It can be shown that, for uniform build-up, the traverse velocity v
at a cone-section diameter dis related to the traverse velocity Vat a The coefficient of friction between the two materials is thus given
cone diameter D by the following equation:
V Dtan(JI. µ=F/N.
vyD 2 (l+tan 2 01.)-J2 If one of the solids is a yarn, and this yarn is pressed between two
where 01. is the coil angle. Let us apply this equation to the cone surfaces as in Fig. 7.16, the force required to pull the yarn through
shown in Fig. 7.13. Here the coil angle at a cone diameter of 8 cm is given by:
is 65° 23' and the traverse velocity, v, is 1 l ·52n cm/min. force (or tension) required= 2µN.
Putting these values into the equations, we have:
Load 500 mN
V D tan 65° 23' Input Output 380 mN
11'52n yD (l+tan 2 65° 23')-8 2

We can now calculate the traverse velocity required when Dis 12 cm:
ll ·52n x 12x2·1827 Reaction 500 mN
yl44 (1+4·766)-64
301·8n Added tension 280 mN
7.16 Disk tensioning device
396 397
A yam is fed to a tension device consisting of two steel disks, loaded to give a study 'Friction in Textiles'*. The following example illustrates a
force of 500 mN. If the input tension in the yarn is 100 mN and the coefficient of combined tensioning system.
friction between the yarn and steel is 0·28, calculate the output tension.
The added tension= 2 x 0·28 x 500""' 280 mN. This is added to the input tension EXA_M~~.£J,J_._
of JOO mN to give an output tension of 380 mN. "i\Yarn with an input tension of 50 mN is running through the system of guides
and tensioners shown in Fig. 7.18. The loads applied to the two tensioners are
If the tension device in the example is followed by a similar 50 mN and 100 mN, respectively, and the angle of lap around the three guide
surfaces is 90" in each case. Calculate the value of the output tension in mN if the
device, this time a load to give a force of 600 mN, the second added coefficient of friction between the yam and the surfaces over which it travels is.
tension would be 2 x 0·28 x 600, i.e., 336 mN. This added to the 0·2. (Question taken from ATI Part U Examination, 1967.)
output tension from the first tension device would give . a final 50mN
tension of 380+ 336 = 716 mN. It is important to note that the
increase in tension is obtained by a simple addition to the original
tension and; because of this, the type of device used in the example
a ! b

is called an additive tensioning system. A deadweight type of disk Input tension 90 angle of lap
tensioner is shown in Fig. 7.17. This is additive if the yarn maintains 50mN µ. =0·2
a straight-line path through the device. Reaction

100 m"J

Output tension

7.18 Combination of additive and multiplicative tensioning methods

7.17 A commercial dead-weight disk tensioning device (additive if the yarn
maintains a straight-line path through it) The tension added by the disk tensioner=2 x 50 x 0·2= 20 mN. Note that the
reaction at the bottom disk plays a part. Hence tension at b =tension at a+ 20 =
If the yarn is led over a curved surface, a different type of calcula- 50+20=70 mN (disk tensioners are basically additive devices). ·
tion is necessary. The output tension is a multiple of the input The effects of the two following guide rods can be considered at the same time
by regarding them as one rod with an angle of lap of 180° or rr radians. Hence:
tension, so a tensioning device that employs curved surfaces to
develop tension is termed a multiplicative tensioning system. In tension at-= tension at b xoe"" = 70 x e0o2•
many devices, both additive and multiplicative systems are used =70x 1-875= 131·25 mN.
together. The mathematics of friction on curved surfaces have been Tbe tension added by the second disk=2x 100x0·2=40 mN. Hence:
discussed in Chapter 3 of Volume I.
tension between d and e= 131 ·35 +40= 171 ·25 mN.
The notes above are a simplified approach to the subject of yarn
friction, and for a fuller treatment the reader is recommended to *H. G. Howell, K. G. Mieszkis, and D. Tabor. 'Friction in Textiles', the
Textile Institute and Butterworths, Manchester and London, 1959.
'- .
Finally, another multiplicative device, with an angle of lap of 'IT/2 radians gives: TABLE~°!:) \._ __ ._. __, "' , tt 1 \ \ )...,. .
" . ,.. • ,,<"-'··
tension at f=tension ate x e-'= 171·25 x eo.iK Values of Combined Cost for Diffe.riiJ.t,{,,'!!d.Te1is.ions"'
=171·25x 1·37 Combined cost given bye (pence)=0·0024t+4·5/t+0·087
t e
EXAMPLE 7.8 (g) (pence)
. In an ·investigation into the effect of yarn-winding tension on breaks during
warping, the following relations were found: 5 1·047
b = 0·0081 2 + 0·04 6 0·9234
and 7 0·8474
0·6 8 0·8031
t • 9 0·7814
10 0·7777
where b= breaks per kg during coning, 11 0·7864
w =breaks per kg during warping, and 12 0·8076
t =yarn tension during winding to cone. 13 0·8388
It is estimated that each stoppage during cone-winding costs O· 3p and each 14 0·8788
stoppage during warping costs 7·5p. What yarn-winding tension will give the
most economical combined winding-and-warping cost? (Question taken from
ATI Part II Examination, 1959.) the combined cost by this method, and in Fig. 7.19 the graph is plotted, an
In this problem, we are looking for a minimum value of (bx 0·3)+(wx 7·5). estimate of the minimum cost being made by drawing the tangent AB to the
If e is the combined cost, we have: curve, C being the minimum point and the corresponding yarn tension ·about
9·8 gf.
e= 0·3(0·008t 2 + 0·04) + 7·5(0·6/t+ 0·01)
=0·0024t 2 +0·012+4·5/t+0·075 7.6 Yarn-clearing and Clearing Devices
=0;0024t 2 +4·5/t+0·087. 7.6.1 YARN FAULTS
We can now employ some basic calculus to solve the problem. The yarns produced on perfect spinning systems would be free from
Differentiating, we have: faults, but, even in the most carefully managed mills, the yarns
de 4·5
contain faults such as those illustrated in Fig. 7.20. If such faults ..
dt t• were only detected when the fabric-inspection point was reached,
. de 0 ,,
Puttmg . . . the cost of trying to remove them or classifying the fabric in a low
dt = 1or a nummum gives: grade would be high. The clearing of yarn faults is therefore done
4·5 during yarn preparation, the main stage being at the winding frame,
t• . I where the yarn on the spun package is transferred to a cheese or
Multiplying by t 2 gives:
0·0048t 3 -4·5=0.
'• cone. The device that detects and ·removes yarn faults is called a
yarn clearer. If the clearer functions correctly, any yarn fault for
4·5 which a well-tied knot would be more acceptable in the fabric is
1•= 0.0048 =937·6 detected and removed. The problem confronting the technologist is
and: to decide what constitutes an objectionable fault for a particular
t= ef937-6=9·786 gf. type of fabric. Obviously, the higher the fabric quality demanded,
Without using calculus, the problem becomes one of substituting different the higher is the standard of clearing.
values for t in the formula for combined cost and then plotting the results on a _ To simplify a little, a fault has two dimensions, thickness or
graph. The minimum cost is next found by inspection and the corresponding 'diam~ter' and length. If we call the mean cross-sectional area of
value for t read off. The method is, of course, time-consuming. Table 7'.5 gives
the yarn 0 %, ·a cross~sectional area of + I00 % means a thick place
400 401


...,... 7
- .,@ ••
1·00 7r-c:i .., ..... T,.. .. ,..,.. O,• ....



'8 0·90





t=9·8 gf

5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14
Tension, t(gf)

7.19 The relation between winding costs and the tension applied in· warping

with double the normal thickness. A thin place with half the normal
cross-sectional area would be classed as -50%. Fig. 7.21 shows a
cumulative-frequency curve for the cross-sectional changes of
combed cotton yarn. It. has an asymmetrical shape, positively
skewed, i.e., the longer tail is in the positive direction. The incidence 7.20 Faults in yarn

402 403



Example of a Cumulatlve-
Frequency Curve for Combed
Cotton (Count 40s Engllsh)
Key to the shaded sections
O'<I' 0

A to E
100'000 --- AIB Area of normal irregularity CD E )(
(ideal conditions) zz~
5Q'uaO C Neps, leaf, seed. grit, and
small :hick places
0 Smaller fault,; such as knots, .!!
20'000 small siubs. good piecings, 0
small fly collections c: 3:: c:
io·o~o E Larger faults such as slubs.
.2 E o
-0 ::l -0
fly. bad piecings, etc. Sphere 0 ID(.)
S'ooo of the electronic clearer


200 less frequent
§ more frequent
8 100 faulty thick places

Q; 50

Cl> 10
E 2

-1000/o -500/o Mean Value +1000/o +200 'lo +300°to

Change in Cross-Section D/o .

7.21 Cumulative.frequency curve of yarn cross-section

of the thicker places becomes smaller with an increase in thickness.

Many yarn faults are, in fact, 'rare events' in statistical language,
and long lengths of yarn must therefore be examined before sufficient E
data can be collected. Short winding tests can give false results. ...0

I .
Faults can be classified in terms of length, and, in assessing the
severity of a fault, both thickness and length must be considered. 0
Thus a very short, thick place may be acceptable in a fabric but a Q,
longer thinner fault unacceptable. In Fig. 7.22, the Uster system of ,,e
~ ~

..,.8 ~
~ ~ ~ ~
... ! ~
...8 8

404 405
,, '


classifying faults is illustrated, the example shown being for cotton

yarns of between 20 and 40 tex.


Two basic types of clearer are available, mechanical and electronic.
Mechanical clearers (Fig. 7.23) use calibrated slots or gaps and holes
of known dimensions. The simplest type of slot clearer uses two
fixed metal edges, through which the yarn passes. When a thick
place appears, it is supposed to jam in the slot, the yarn then breaking
on the other side of the clearer owing to the tension caused by the
winding unit's attempt- to continue yarn movement. The winding
operative then finds the two yarn ends and ties them with a knot
that is good enough to negotiate subsequent manipulation, e.g.,
remain secure during warping and sizing and pass through the heald
and reed of the loom. Design improvements for mechanical clearers
include swivelling plates and comb, but, even so, the performance-
of mechanical clearers does not match that of electronic.types. The
setting of the clearer gap requires thought; too close a gap will
result in a string of knots, and too wide a gap will allow objectionable
faults through. A useful method is to try different settings and
examine the faults that are removed. In the winding literature, the
following settings are often given:
for precision and pivoted-blade clearers: l·5-l·75D for
combed-cotton yarns, l ·75-2·25D for carded-cotton yarns,
for comb clearers: 3D,
where D is the yarn diameter.
The yarn diameter is calculated from:
D = l ·47 \/'linear density (tex)
y'cotton count
Here D is in thousandths of an inch, and the formulae expressed in
I: millimetres will therefore be:
7.23 Mechanical yarn clearers
I 1
I 0·037 \/'linear density (tex)
or: We axe, af course, ~that a yarn has a diameter and that the
0·987 formulae a4' dependable, and not all textile technologists would
agree on these points. The values calculated can at least be used as a
y'cotton count guide, to be altered in the light of experience.

Calculate the clearer setting for a combed cotton yarn of ~cleared by a look: Faull fauff

pivoted-blade clearer.
We have: , ~ 5 "
settinginmm=0·037'V30"\'..·~ "=- ,. "A..y
=0·037xH77xJ2 •
Measuring c::onctenser
12 . ) Oocllletor I
=0·3 nun (about 1000 m. ·
Given that a 30-tex yarn requires a gap-setting of 0·3 mm, determme the settmg
for a 20-tex yarn. . . I
Since the setting is proportional to the square root of the lmear density, the I
required setting is given by: L-----·----'
Cutting arrangement
0·3 x (iO =0·3 x v'0-67~0·25 mm.
"'3o Me.1urlng principle of the C•pecltlve Clearer

Electronic clearers are now firmly established as yarn-fault detectors;
and developments in the circuitry have enabled very compact units
to be manufactured. Two principles of measurement are employed, Spinners' doubY ;
and diagrams in Fig. 7.24 illustrate how they work. . Photo-cell
I cont{o11er

In the capacitance clearer, the yarn passes through an au-spaced

condenser, and the change in the capacitance is related to the mass Discriminators for
thick places + spinners'
of the material between the plates. If the mass changes to values doubles
beyond pre-set limits, the cutter operates, and the yarn is cut. It
should be noted that it is the mass of the material that is measured
and not its physical dimensions, such as width or diameter; a soft- Cutting arrangement
twisted place with a large diameter may have the same mass as a ''
highly twisted element with a smalle.r diameter, and the signal
generated is not directly related ~o the visual ~ppearance of the faul~.
In the photo-electric or optical electromc clearer, the yarn is
Meaa"ring principle of tho"Pholo·electric Clearer •
scanned by a light source, and the scanned .portion interrupts the
7.24 Principles of electronic yarn clearers
beam, which thus changes the signal from the photo-electric cell.
In a sense, the device measures the diameter or profile of the yarn.
Here again, if limits are exceeded, the cutter is brought into operation. The percentage increase is thus only .41 ·4 %- An optical-detection
An interesting mathematical point arises. Let us assume circularity
of the yarn cross-section and a normal cross-section equivalent to,
device must therefore be more sensitive than its capacitance counter-
part and its response accurately maintained.
say, a~ If a thick place equivalent to a )2-tex yarn The makers of both types of clearer claim special advantages for
appeared between the plates of a capacitance type of clearer, the each, and at the same time both types have their critics. The problems
change in mass detected would be 1O? ~{ The dia~eter of t~e yarn, of moisture must be consider<'..d with capacitance types and filament-
however, is proportional to the square root of the lmear density, and ageing, dust, etc., considered for optical devices. Nevertheless, both
the increase in diameter would be in the ratio 1:y'72{36, i.e., -1:1 ·414.
.-·~ ~,,·----~· '~~--~" ~--------
types are more efficient than mechanical clearers .
One index of efficiency is a percentage:
. number of objectionable faults detected 100
cIearer effi c1ency = . . . x .
number of objectionable faults m yarn
One source of information suggests that mechanical clearers only
achieve between 50 and 60% efficiency, compared with 90-95% for
electronic clearers.

7.7 Warp Preparation

There are many different methods of producing warps for the loom,
each having some particular advantages for the type of warp made.
The reasons for the different methods are largely matters of type of
yarn, spun or continuous-filament, grey or dyed, for monocoloured
or patterned fabric, large-scale or small-scale production, and so on.
Two principal methods of producing warps on beams ready to be
sized are:
(i) direct or Lancashire beaming (Fig. 7.25); and
(ii) sectional warping, or the Continental silk system
(Fig. 7.26 (a) and (b)).
In the direct-beaming system, the yarn is creeled in cone or cheese l'z:zfnirect warping: the J;lolt High-speed Beamer No. 240,
form, perhaps in a magazine creel, and then wound onto a 'back'
beam, each beam containing, say, 500 ends. Several back beams are The calculations commonly made in relation to processes are
creeled behind the sizing machine and the sized yarns wound onto perhaps concerned more with the production aspect than with the
the loom beam at the headstock of the sizing machine. The system mechanical aspects.
is very suitable for large-scale production.
The sectional-warping system is used for shorter runs on high- EXAMPLE 7.11
class goods. From the creel, the yarn is wound onto large warping An order for 220 pieces of woven fabric, each 110 m in length and I· 2 m wide, is
receivc;d. In the finished fabric, the warp crimp is 9 % and there are 38 ends/cm.
drums or mills, where necessary, in correct colour sequence for The creel of the direct-warping process has a maximum capacity of 500 cones.
patterned. fabric. The number of threads/cm is virtually the same as How many back beams are required, and what length of warp is on each?
that required on the loom beam, and the width of one section is The total number of ends, with selvedge yam neglected, is :
therefore a fraction of the full warp width. After a section of the ends/cm x finished width in cm.
correct length has been warped, the yarn is cut and a new section
made alongside the fi~st. This is repeated until the full warp is total number ofends=38x 120=4560.
com~leted. All the seetions are now run simultaneously from the Since the creel can hold 500 cones, the number of ends per back beam could
warpmg drum onto a flanged beam, which becomes the feed beam conveniently be 456, and 10 back beams should therefore be used.
to the sizing machine. In some modern systems, the warping drum The total length of warp is given by:
can be ?i~connected fro~ the driving gear and transported directly . .
number of pieces x piece length x
to the s1zmg process, which thus cuts out the time spent in beaming 100
off from drum to beam. · &nee•
total length=220x llOx 109/100=26 378 m.

7.26 (b) The wedges on the Schlafhorst Horizontal Beamer

. 24 000 x 3
length/beammg speed=----
=120 min.
Stopped time per three beams is given by:
(i) repairs to breaks= time per break>( number of breaks
420 24 000
7.26 (a) Section-warping: the Schlafhorst Horizontal Beamer =0·9x0·4x--x--x 3
1000 100

,~XAMPLE 7.12
""'109 min;
"" A full beam of 30-tex cotton yarn is 24 000 rn in length and contains 420 ends. (ii) beam changes = 2 x .5 = 10 min;
At a warping speed (exclusive of stoppages) of 600 rn/min, the end-breakage rate (iii) beam-plus-creel change= 15 min.
is 0·4 per 1000 ends per 100 m warped, the stopped time for repair being 0·9 min
per break. Each beam change takes 5 min, and every beam-plus-creel change
takes l 5 min. If the supply package contains sufficient yarn for three beams, total stopped time= l 09 + JO+ 15 = 134 min,
determine: from which:
(a) the running efficiency;
total time=running time+stopped time= 120+ l34=254 min.
(b) the mass of yarn on the full beam; and
(c) the minimum mass of yarn per supply package. We then have:
. ffi . actual running time 100
(Question modified from ATI Part I Examination, 1965.) runnmg e c1ency = . -- x
total !!me
(a) Actual running time per three beams is given by:
= l 20/254 x l 00~4 7 ~~.

(h) We next have:
mass of full beam in grams= length in kilometres x linear density in tex 30240x60 7145 k /h
24000 254 m ·
= JQOO x 420 ~ ~0=: 302 400 g
For the horizontal section-warping system, the yarn length warped in 289·5 min
=302-4 kg. is:
(c) Finally, we have 3000
1000 x 3500= JO 500 km,
24000 or
mass of yarn per supply package= 3 x 1000 x 30=2160 g
10500x60= 2176 k /h
=2·16 kg. 289·5 m ·

V EXAMPLE 7.13 In each case, the sectional-warping system appears to be much less
A horizontal mill warper (sectional warper) is to be used in the production of efficient and productive. Such a comparison may not be strictly fair
warps 3000 m long and having 3500 ends. Each creeling is sufficient for one beam because the sectional wai:per may be producing a warp that could
only, and the warping speed is 500 m/min. It takes 0·3 min to creel a package and
tie in the end and 2·5 min per section for leasing and moving the traverse, etc. not be prepared on the direct-warping system. The significance of
Breaks during warping average 20 per beam, and the average repair time is the creeling time of 150 min in the t.~cond example should be noted.
l ·I min. The beaming speed is 60 m/min, and the time taken to prepare the.warp If a magazine creel could be used, which would allow the use of a
for beaming, change the beam, etc., is 8 min. Determine the time to complete a similar time of IO min (after the third beam in the direct system), a
beam if the creel capacity is 520·supply packages and one operative performs
all duties. (Question modified from ATI Part I Examination, 1967.) saving of 140 min would be made. The running-efficiency figure
With a creel that can hold 520 packages, it is possible to use 500 positions ·and would then become:
complete the warp by using 3500/500, i.e., 7 sections. We can calculate the 42x 100.,,.__28 %
following times: '· 149·5 O'

running time ""3000/500 x 7"" 42 min;

beaming time.,.3000/60 =50 min; The corresponding length warped per hour would be:
stopped time:
breaks =20x M ·=22 min; IO 500 x 60-"'-4200 k /h
~ creeling ""~.~ 0·3""' 150 min; 149·5 m '
leasing, etc. ""2·5 x 7 ""17·5 min; an improvement over the original figure.
beam change== 8 x l "" 8 min;
total stopped time =197·5 min. If a warping system that permitted the drum to be disconnected
We then have:
and replaced by a stand-by were used, even more time would be
saved and the running efficiency and production rate improved.
total time per beam= running time+ beaming time+ stopped time These examples illustrate how basic arithmetic can help the
;42+50+197·5 technologist in deciding on the merits of various systems of
=289·5 min. processing yarns.
If a valid argument were that the running efficiency of this system is similar to
that for direct beaming, then: 7.7.2 SECTION-BUILDING ON THE WARPING DRUM
If a band of 500 ends were wound onto a cylmancal drum without
running efficiency= 2:; 5 x 100 = 14· 5 %,
flanges to hold the edges, the section would collapse. To prevent
a value much lower than the 47% obtained in the previous example. this on the horizontal warping drum, wedges or inclines are fitted at
An alternative method of comparison would be to consider the total length of one end, and, as the yarn builds up, the ends are traversed slowly
yarn warped per hour. For the direct-warping system, the length warped in sideways by movement of the reed. There must be a particular
254 min is: relationship between the rate of traverse, the rate of increase of
24x 420x 3,,.30 240 km,
section thickness on the drum, and the angle of the incline. It would
be possible to calculate the traverse rates and inclines from a tensioned correctly, the warp density on the mill is 0·6 g/cm•. Determine the
theoretical knowledge of yarn diameters, . but a more practical depth of yarn on the mill when the warp is completed and the corresponding
approach has been proved nec_essary. . . reed traverse per section. (Question modified from ATI Part II Examination.
In Fig. 7.27, Jet H be the height of the wedge or mclme and T the 1966.)
length. The angle of the incline is thus the angle whose tangent is Fig. 7.28 is a sketch of the system, not drawn to scale. From the diagram, it
H/T. Suppose a trial run shows that a length of 1000 m of yarn on

7.27 Diagram illustrating section-warping eo
the drum has a thickness of h cm. Then. the height h to which the ""$
section will climb up the incline is known, and from the diagram the "ii
traverse of the reed required can be deduced. We have: 5
/ !!_=H c:
t T' .2
from which: "'f'
t=hx- "'....0""
or: eo

r;:=I::l ·e-

N C:
When the traverse is known, the correct change wheel to give this u
traverse per 1000 m of warp can then be selected. Conversely, if the 00

traverse is fixed, the angle of the incline can be adjusted to suit the "!
warp being prepared.
! '·--.
Some makers of section warpers provide spP.cial computers.
Variables such as linear density, type of yarn, etc., are set, and the
I answer given is the change wheel or angle required.

Multi-coloured warps of a 20-tex spun yarn are wound on a horizontal section-
warping mill of 1·5-m diameter, on which the inclines are fixed at 15° to the
axis. Each warp is 3000 m long and 2 m wide and contains 6500 ends. When

will be seen that the volume of yam ~ill be_ the difference in volume between a film-forming properties on drying. In 'pure' sizing, the objective is
cylinder with a diameter d 2 and one with a diameter di. both 2 m or 200 cm long.
to improve the weavability of the warp, i.e., to reduce the incidence
We have: 3000
mass of the completed warp= 6500 x 1000 x 20
of warp breaks during weaving. For some inferior fabrics, a second
objective is to add 'weight' to the fabrics and, in loomstate form at
=390000 g. least, disguise a lack of fibre content.
Now: For a detailed treatment of the practice and theory of sizing, the
. 390 000 reader is referred to 'Warp Sizing Mechanisms', by T. Ramsbottom,
volume of yarn= mass/density=~
and 'Technology of Warp Sizing', edited by J. B. Smith, details of
=650000cm 3 • which are given in the list of books for suggested further reading at
The volume is also given by:
the end of this chapter. In thp present textbook, the author's inten-
tion is to go through some examples that illustrate how simple
from which: mathematics can help in the appreciation of the sizing process.
200~(d~ -d~)=650 000,
i.e.: Two main types of ingredient are used to make a size-mixing,
d~ -150 2 = 200,,. adhesives and lubricants. The adhesive in the paste is the more
important ingredient, its function being to increase the abrasion-
and thus: resistance of the yarn by giving it a protective film or coating. A
d~ = 1502 +4140=22 500+4140 secondary effect could be to increase the yarn strength, but strength
=26 640, improvement is not the major objective. The film formed by the
i.e.: adhe~ive is improved in its characteristics by the use of the second
d.= \1'26 640 main ingredient, the lubricant or softener. The looin-to-yarn friction
=163·2 cm. and yarn-to-yarn friction ate reduced 1 and the film is more pliable
Hence: and less liable to ,flake. off; Where the yarn is dried on hot cylinders,
the lubricant can· prevent it from sticking to the cylinder surface.
=13·2 cm
and: !here is a multiplicity of ingredients available to the sizing techno-
h= 13-2/2=6-6 cm. logist, each having its own particular advant~ges and disadvantages.
The depth of yarn on the mill, h, is 6-6 cm,. and from Fig 7.28 it will be seen The final choice will be influenced by factors such as the type of
that h/t= tan 15°. Hence the traverse per section, t, is given by: fibre, the yarn linear density, the type of fabric, the cost, the ease
6·6 of. removal, and so on.
t= tan 15 Two other types of ingredient are sometimes used, an antiseptic
6-6 , _!o prevent mildew and a fugitive tint for identification purposes.
0·2679 f{A blue tint may be used to reduce tne yellow of a cotton or a brown
tint to give an Egyptian appearance to a whit~ cotton.)
=24·6 cm.
The traverse per section is thus 24·6 cm. 7.8.3 THE SIZING PROCESS
A conventional warp-sizing machine may be considered as a four-
7.8 Sizing zone process: ·
An important stage in the preparation of~ warp i~ the sizing process, (i) a creel to hold the back warps or beams;
in which the yarn passes through a specially mixed paste that has (ii) a size box, in which the yarn is immersed in the size
418 419
(iii) a drying zone to drive off unwanted moisture; and
(iv) a headstock to prepare the weaver's beam.
For each zone, there are numerous types of equipment, varying in
design, to accommodate both the ideas of different machine makers
and the special requirements of different yarns. Fig. 7.29 illustrates u
a standard type of frame .. For the present discussion, we shall only .,~
be concerned with the calculation of the size percentage on the yarn.


At the time of writing, the definitions of sizing terms are commonly

expressed in imperial units, but fortunately, where percentages are ..."'i::

involved, the actual units cancel out and the mathematical argument i::
is unaffected. Terms frequently used are as follows: c.
size concentration: the mass in lb of oven-dry solid matter in .,8
100 lb of size paste; i::
take-up: the mass in lb of paste taken up in the size box per 0
100 lb of oven-dry unsized yarn; and E
size percentage: the mass in lb of oven-dry size per 100 lb of i::
oven-dry unsized yarn. ·;;;

, :1
In all the above definitions, kilograms could be substituted for
pounds without affecting the meaning. It should be noted that the


oven-dry masses are specified. This means that, if a problem is ilo
posed with the linear density of the yarn in tex, this value is the tex E
value after standard regain has been allowed for, a fact that must .....

be taken into account in solving the following problem. ·=>.
EXAMPLE 7@. ·~
A 20-tex cotton yarn is quoted as having a size percentage of 8 %. Determine the ~ :u
oven-dry mass of size added per kilogram of the unsized yarn. .~
Jn this example, the standard regain of the yarn is 8·5 %. We have by definition: g
. %
regam =
mass of moisture . 100
x .
0 0
oven-dry mass of yarn #~

The oven-dry mass of yarn in 1 kg of the unsized yarn can be derived as follows:
let R be the regain percentage, Y the oven-dry mass of the yarn, and M the mass
of moisture. Then:
M ·..O
y 100=8·5, E
from which: u
100M=8·5Y ... (7.1) ~
M+ Y=IOOO, .•. (7.2)
there being, of course, 1000 gin 1 kg.

. \

From Equation J7.I): stages ~n the sizing machine. A unit length of warp fed to the first
M=0·085Y. stage will be stretched to a length of:
Substituting for Min Equation (7.2) gives:
0·085Y+ Y=lOOO, Ix IOO+Sa= I+ Sa.
from which: 100 100
Y= 1·085= 92 1'7 g, This length is now stretched in the next zone by S 11 " 0
16 give a
length of:
and Mis given by 1000-921·7=78·3 g.
The oven-dry mass of size added is 8% of 921·7 g of yarn, and this equals
73·7 g. (I+ I~~) x (I+ l~~)·
7.8.5 SIZE-PASTE TAKE-UP OR PICK-UP In the same way, the final length will be:
In Example 7.16, the mass of size paste on the warp yarn as it left
the nip of the squeeze rollers and progressed towards the drying
zone was 88·5 kg. The oven-dry mass of the unsized yarn was 59 kg.
(1+ 1~}x (1+ 1~) x (1+I~)·
The size-paste take-up, or pick-up, per IOO- kg of unsized yarn is Let ~he values of the stretch in the three zones be 3, 5, and 2 °...
therefore given by: respectively. A length of warp of, say, 100 m will have a final length
of: ·
88·5 x 59= I50 kg. 100 x l ·03 x l ·05 x I ;02 == I IO· 313 m
i.e., a total stretch of 10·313 %.
~The size take-up by a warp is influenced by many factors, e.g., the
size viscosity, size concentration, sizing-frame speed, and mass and A simple. addition of the individual stretches gives IO%. Whether
coveri!lg of the squeeze rollers. The achievement of the target size ~he practlca~ man would consider the difference of O· 313 % of real
percentage on the warp is a triumph for the man in charge. He uses importance is another matter.
a b!end of technology and art, the latter ingredient impossible to
define mathematically. 7.8.7 SIZING-MACHINE SPEED
In ~ddition to the ~ehaviour of the warp sheet during sizing, the
7.8.6 STRETCH baste f~ctor cont~ollmg the speed at which the machine may run is
In 'The Technology of Warp Sizing'. E. H. Jones descrites stretch the dry1.ng capacity of the cylinders or hot~air-drying systems. The
as the.amount of elongation that occurs in, or is imposed upon, a calc~lat1on of the machine speed from gearing diagrams, etc., is
given length of warp as it passes through the various zones in a straight~orward, although the modern headstocks now incorporate
sizing machine. This amount can be expressed as a percentage, and electr<?mc control systems for which specialized knowledge is
it is pointed out that this percentage may be a negative quantity, ,... necessary.
the warp shripking rather than extending. - \ !he ~xample. that follows illustrates th~ rather long-winded
Control of tension in the warp threads is an important aspect of ant~metic requ1red to calculate a maximum running speed for a
sizing technology, some yarns being more easily stretched and particular warp. ··
damaged than others. The reader is referred to the references on
~.AMPLE 7.16
sizing in the suggested reading list at the .end of this chapter for
information. It is worth pointing out here that, if stretch occurs at ~20-tex <:<>tton warp containing 3200 ends has 12% size added. In each kilo-
gr~ .of size paste, th~re are 80 g of solid ingredients (oven-dr}· mass). The
different stages in the sizing process, the total stretch is not merely max1!11um drying ~pac1ty of the drying zone is 450 kg/h. Calculate the maximum
the sum of the individual stretch percentages. ~uru.!mg speed which ensures that the regain of the sized yarn on the loom beam
Let Sa, Sb, and Sc be•the stretch percentages at three successive IS 8%.

422 423
Consider J km of war.p fed to the size box. If it is assumed that the yarn linear
density is 20 tex at 8·5 % regain, the oven-dry ·mass of the I-km length of warp is: beams between sets, gaiting up the warp, refilling the b..>x
with size, doffing beams, and attending to lappers and other
3200x20~ 1 ~ kg=59 kg. causes of stoppage. Where the operative is in charge of size
The moisture in the yarn fed is given by:
preparation, part of the down-time will be the time taken for
this operation unless, of course, he is willing to leave the
59 x 8·5/100=5 kg.
machine running unattended for a time.
The added size, which is 12 % of the oven-dry yarn mass, is given by:
~The efficienc,Y of sizi_ng machines varies considerably from
59 x 12/100= 7·08 kg.
one mill to another and is frequently as low as 50 %. More-
The total oven-dry mass is: ?ver,_ as the down-time. ~or a given set of warps is largely
yarn+ solids= 59 + 7·08 = 66·08 kg. mdep~ndent of the runm,ng sf:>eed, the efficienfy of a sizjng
In order to pick up 7·08 kg of oven-dry solids, the mass of size paste to be taken ~ach~n_e fall~ ~ff a~ th.f running speed is incre~sed. Thus any
up will be: ·
improvement m running speed, brought about by making
7·08 x 1 = 88 .5 k
0·08 g. ?et~er use of the n:iachine's dr~ing capacity or by increasing
In this mass of 88·5 kg of paste, there will be 88·5- 7·08 kg of water, i.e., 81 ·4 kg it, IS not reflected m a proport10nal increase in production.
of water. To this mass of water we must add the water already in the yarn, i.e., 'This can be shown by co·nsidering the sizing of P lb of
5 kg. The total mass of water in the warp is thus 81·4+5=86-4 kg. warp for which the down-time is T h and for which the
The yarn on the loom beam must have 8 % regain based on the oven-dry mass normal. runni_ng speed of the machine is S, expressed for
of yarn plus solids. The amount of water in the loom beam is therefore:
convemence, m lb of warp per hour. Under these conditions:
66-08 x 8 = 528·64 = 5·286 kg.
100 100 actual running time=P/S h; .... (I)
water to be dried off in drying zone= . actual running time
· total water in warp-water to be left in warp, effi c1ency= . . x 100%
total smng time 0
86-4- 5·286= 81·114 kg .. IOOP 0
With a drying capacity of 450 kg/h, the time to dry off 81·114 kg is: = P+ST%; .... (2)
81-114/450=0·18 h.
This is the time to size 1000 m of warp, and the running speed of the sizing average rate of production of sized warp
machine is therefore:
~=92·5m/min. _ weight sized
0·18 x 60 / - total sizing time
The foflowing extract is taken from Chapter 7,"by E. ~-I. Jon~s, of = P+STlb/h. ..... (3)
'The Technology of Warp Sizing' (edited by J. B. Smith). It is an
excellent example of the use of mathematics in the appreciation of a Let it be supposed that the running speed is increased by
production problem. r %; then the new running time is:
'The rate of production of a sized "".arp from a ~izill:g IOOP
machine depends upon the speed at which the machine IS S(IOO+r)h; .... (4)
run and the efficiency of the sizing process as expressed .by
the ratio of the actual running time to the sum of the runmng . IO OOOP
time and "down-time". The down-time includes the time for the new efficiency= 100 S %. .. .. (5)
. P+ T(IOO+r)
washing the box and squeezing rollers, changing the back
and the new average rate of production of sized warp


PS(IOO+r) depend, of course, on such factors as the type of warp, size-mixing,

lOOP+ ST(IOO+r)lb/h. . ... (6) skill of sizing-machine operative, etc. ·
The curve in Fig. 7.30 shows a fairly flat region between 3·5 and
'If the above formulae are applied to a machine for which 6·5 % size, indicating that the exact amount of size put on the warp
the efficiency is 50 % when the speed of the machine is S, is not too critical and some error is permissible. From an economy
then it will be seen that the average rate of production of
sized warp is 0·5S lb/h. 17
'Suppose the running speed is increased by 50 % (for
example, by the installation of accelerated cylinder drying); 16
then, from formula (5): Total
ffi . _ , 10 OOOP %,
new e c1ency- lOOP+ST(l00+ 50) 0 , 14
'If it be assumed that the value of Tis unaffected by the
increased running speed and therefore that T=P/S as before, "'

the value of the efficiency becomes 40 %, and, by applying § 12

formula (6), the new average production rate works out at
0·6S lb/h. Q,
'The above calculation shows that for a machine on which "'
the down-time is constant, an efficiency of 50 % is decreased ... rn

to 40 % by increasing the running speed by 50 %. Moreover, §

this 50 % increase in running speed brings about only 20 % 9
increase in the rate of warp production. It is therefore not Q,

possible, except where high machine efficiency can be main- ....ol"' 8

tained, to obtain very much advantage in warp production =II 7
from even considerable increases in running speed. This l:Q
point is of importance when consideration is being given to 6
the likely effect on production of re-equipment with new
sizing machines capable of running at high speeds.' 5


It has been stressed earlier that in pure sizing the main o~e is
to improve _!_he .Y:!_avability of war s. Weaving a warpwithout size 3
will resulfTn high en - rea age rates in terms of breaks per 10 000
ends per I0 000 picks. On the other hand, an over-sized yarn will
result in a high warp-breakage rate. Between the two extremes, a
certain size percentage on the warp will lead to a minimum breakage
rate, and this percentage may be called the optimum size percentage.
If a curve is plotted of breakage rate against size percentage on the 0 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
warp, an asymmetrical U-shaped curve is usually obtained, this
being the 'sizing-weaving' curve. An example of such a curve is S=Size %
produced in the following example. The actual curve shape will 7.30 Sizing-weaving curves

426 427

point of view, for size applied must later be removed, an error on Rearranging gives:
the lower side of the optimum would appear preferable to an error
on the high side. Since, however, the sizing-weaving curve normally
rises much more steeply on the lower side of the optimum, a large
The method employed in the above example has used some simple
error on the lower side would lead to serious trouble with the warps
calculus to produce the required answer, and the time required is
in the weaving shed. The aim is therefore to obtain the optimum
size percentage on every warp. clearly much less than that for the solution by graphical methods.
The present textbook has not covered calculus. but the young
EXAMPLE 7.17 technologist would be well advised to study this useful branch of
In weaving a certain warp, it was found that breaks of a certain class were related mathematics.
to the size added by the formula B=20/S+3, the remaining breaks being given
by B=0·8S + 2, where B= the number of breaks per 10 000 ends per 10 000 picks
and S= percentage size added. Plot B against S for each of the two classes of 7.9 Weft Preparation ·
breaks and for the total breaks. Determine the minimum total breakage rate and 7.9.1 INTRODUCTION
the optimum size percentage. (Question taken from ATI Part II Examination,
1963.) A small percentage of the weft used in conventional looms may not
Table 7.6 shows the breakage rates in the two classes and the total breakage receive preparation, the package produced by the spinning unit
rate. Fig. 7.30 shows the two classes of breaks and the total breaks plotted against being considered suitable, e.g., yarn spun directly onto pirns. Such
the size percentage.
weft yarn will contain faults that would normally be taken out
TABLE 7.6 I' during a preparation process. Most weft yarn is rewound into
Size Percentage, S Class (i) Breaks Class (ii) Breaks Total Breaks
packages that can withstand the considerable forces that occur
when the shuttle is accelerated and retarded during picking. The
2 13 3-6 16·6
dimensions and structure of the weft package are related to the type
9·7 4·4 14·1
4 8 5·2 13·2
of yarn being processed, slippery continuous-filament yarns demand-
5 7 6 13 ing differc:lnt treatment from that given to rougher staple-fibre yarns.
6 6·3 6-8 13·1 Such modern looms as the Sulzer or air- and water-jet looms do n'ot
7 5-9 7·6 13·5 use pirns and shuttles, but even so the weft supply is n~rmally in the
8 5·5 8·4 13·9
9 5·2 9·2
form of a cone or cheese whose structure must be suitable for the
10 5 10 15 loom it serves. Some numerical examples showing the problems
likely to be met in weft preparation for c.onventional looms will now
Class (i): B=20/S+3. Class (ii): B=0·8S+2. Total: B=20/S+0·8S+5. be considered.
Inspection of the graph of the total breakage rate against the size percentage
shows that the minimum rate is obtained at the optimum size percentage of 5 %. 7.9.2 WEFT CONSUMPTION OF A LoOM
If we write down the total breakage rate as an equation, we obtain: This is best explained by reference to a few examples.
20 ~ EXAMPLE 7.18
B=s+3+0·8S+2, 1

i.e.: I A loom runs at 210 picks/min at an over-all efficiency of 82 %. The warp width
20 in the reed is 1·2 m and the linear density of the weft is 30 tex. What is the weft
B=s+0·8S+5. consumption per 8 hours?
Differentiating gives: The length of weft per pick is taken to be the warp width in the reed, i.e.,
dH 20 1·2 m. Hence: 1

ds= - s•+ 0·8· length of weft used per hour_ I ·2 x 210 x 60 k

For'B to be a minimum: at 100% efficiency - 1000 m
-s2 +0·8=0. =15·12 km.
At 82% efficiency,· the length used in 8 his: