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OCR Maths S1

Arrangements and Combinations

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(iii) On Wednesday 8 boxes are selected, and on Thursday another 8 boxes are selected. Find the
probability that on one of these days the number of boxes containing fewer than 42 matches is 0,
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and that on the other day the number is 2 or more. [3]

18 An examination paper consists of 8 questions, of which one is on geometric distributions and one is
on binomial distributions.

(i) If the 8 questions are arranged in a random order, find the probability that the question on
geometric distributions is next to the question on binomial distributions. [3]

Four of thedown
(i) Write questions, including
the values of a, the
b, cone
, d, eonand
geometric
f. distributions, are worth 7 marks each, and [4] the
remaining four questions, including the one on binomial distributions, are worth 9 marks each. The
7-mark
The totalquestions
number are the discs
of red first four questions
chosen, out of on thedenoted
3, is paper, but
by Rare arranged
. The table in random
shows order. The
the probability
9-mark questions
distribution of R. are the last four questions, but are arranged in random order. Find the probability
that
r 0 1 2 3
(ii) the questions on geometric distributions and on binomial distributions are next to one another,
P(R = r)
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1
10
k 9
20
1
5
[3]
(iii) the questions on geometric distributions and 2 on binomial distributions are separated by at least 2
other questions. [4]
1 Some observations
(ii) Show of bivariate
how to obtain data
P(were = 20
9
.and the equations of the two regression lines were [3]
of bivariate data produce the following results, denoted as (xi , yi ) for i = 1, 2, 3, 4, 5.
foundobservations
to be as follows. (Q8, Jan 2005)
9 Five
(iii) Find the value of k. y on x : y = −0.6x + 13.0 [2]
(13, 2.7) (13, x4.0) (18,
on y : x = −1.6y + 21.0
2.8) (23, 3.3) (23, 2.2)
(iv) Calculate the mean and variance of R2. [5]
[Σ x = 90, Σ y = 15.0, Σ x = 1720, Σ y 2
= 46.86, Σ xy = 264.0.]
(i) State, with a reason, whether the correlation between x and y is negative or positive. [1]

27 A(ii)
committee
(i) Show of the
Neitherthat 7 people is to be
regression
variable chosen
line
is controlled. of y at
onrandom
Calculate x an
hasestimate of −0.06,
from 18
andoffind
the value y = 7.0. in the form
its equation
x when [2]
y = a + bx. [4]
(i)
(iii) In how many
Findregression
(ii) The
different
of xisand
the valuesline y. to estimate the value of y corresponding to x = 20, but the value x =[3]
ways
used
can the committee be chosen? [2]
20
The 18 is accurate
volunteers only to theofnearest
consist whole
5 people fromnumber. Calculate
Gloucester, 6 fromthe difference
Hereford and between the largestThe
7 from Worcester. and
the smallest
committee is to 5bevalues
chosen that the estimated
randomly. value of y couldthat
take. willthe bag. If it is red[3]
2 A bag contains black discs and 3 redFind the
discs. Aprobability
disc is selectedthe
at committee
random from it
is(ii)
The consistinofethe
replaced
numbers , ebag.
, e ,Ifeit
12 people
2 3 from
e black,
, is it is not
are defined byreplaced. A second disc is now selected at random from
4 5 Gloucester, 2 people from Hereford and 3 people from Worcester, [4]

= a Worcester,
+ bxi − yi for i = 1, 2, 3, 4, 5.
the bag.
(iii) include exactly 5 peopleefrom i [4]
Find the probability that
(iii) The values of e1 , e2 and e3 are 0.6, −0.7 and 0.2 respectively. Calculate the values of e4 and e5 .
(iv) include at least 2 people from each of the three cities. [4]
(i) the second disc is black, given that the first disc was black, (Q7, June 2005) [1]
[2]
4732/S05

(iv) the secondthe

(ii) Calculate discvalue of e2 + e2 + e2 + e2 + e2 and explain the relevance of this quantity to [3]
is black,
1 2 3 4 5
the
(iii) regression lineare
the two discs found in part (i)
of different .
colours. [2]
[3]
(v) Find the mean and the variance of e1 , e2 , e3 , e4 , e5 . [4]
33 Each of the 7 letters in the word DIVIDED is printed on a separate card. The cards are arranged in a
row. 4732/Jan05

(i) How many different arrangements of the letters are possible? [3]

(ii) In how many of these arrangements are all three Ds together? [2]

The 7 cards are now shuffled and 2 cards are selected at random, without replacement.
(iii) Find the probability that at least one of these 2 cards has D printed on it. [3]
(Q3, June 2006)
4 (i) The random variable X has the distribution B(25, 0.2). Using the tables of cumulative binomial
probabilities, or otherwise, find P(X ≥ 5). [2]

(ii) The random variable Y has the distribution B(10, 0.27). Find P(Y = 3). [2]

(iii) The random variable Z has the distribution B(n, 0.27). Find the smallest value of n such that
P(Z ≥ 1) > 0.95. [3]

5 The probability distribution of a discrete random variable, X , is given in the table.

1 The table shows the probability distribution for a random variable X .
(ii) Give a reason why it would not be sensible to use your answer to draw a conclusion about all the
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households in the town. x 0 1 2 3 [1]
PX  x 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4
43 The digits 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 are arranged in random order, to form a five-digit number.
Calculate EX  and VarX . [5]
(i) How many different five-digit numbers can be formed? [1]

2 Two
(ii) judges
Find theeach placed skaters
probability that thefrom five countries
five-digit in rank order.
number is
physicsandmathstutor.com
(a) odd, Position 1st 2nd4 3rd 4th 5th [2]
(b) less than 23 Judge
000. 1 UK France Russia Poland Canada [3]
5 The stem-and-leaf diagram shows the masses, in grams, of 23 plums, measured correct to the nearest
gram. Judge 2 Russia Canada France UK Poland (Q3, Jan 2007)

rank5correlation
Calculate Spearman’s 5 6 7 8 8 coefficient,
9 rs , for the two judges’ rankings. [5]
6 1 2 3 5 6 8 9
7 0 0 2 4 5 6 7 8 Key : 6 2 means 62
53 8 0
(i) How many different teams of 7 people can be chosen, without regard to order, from a squad
of 15? 9 7 [2]

(i) The
the median and of 6 forwards
interquartile and of9 these
range defenders.
masses.How many different teams containing
[3]
3 forwards and 4 defenders can be chosen? [2]
(ii) State one advantage of using the interquartile range rather than the standard deviation (Q3,asJune
a measure
2007)
of the variation in these masses. [1]
4 A bag contains 6 white discs and 4 blue discs. Discs are removed at random, one at a time, without
physicsandmathstutor.com
replacement.
(iii) State one advantage and one disadvantage of using a stem-and-leaf diagram rather than a box-
and-whisker plot to represent data. 2 [2]
(i) Find the probability that
61 (i) The
Jamesletters A, B, calculate
wished C, D and the
E are arranged in a straight line. of the given data. He first subtracted
(iv) (a) the secondtodisc mean
is blue, given andthe
that standard
first discdeviation
was blue, [1]
5 from
(a) each
How of the
many digits toarrangements
different the left of theare
line in the stem-and-leaf diagram, giving the following.
possible? [2]
(b) the second disc is blue, [3]
(b) In how many0of 5these 6 7arrangements
8 8 9 are the letters A and B next to each other? [3]
(c) the third disc is blue, given that the first disc was blue. [3]
1 1 2 3 5 6 8 9
(ii) From the letters A,2 B, 0C,0D 2and4 E,
5 two
6 7different
8 letters areKey
selected
: 1 at2random.
means 12Find the probability
(ii) The random variable X is the number 4732/01
Jan07 which are removed up to and including the first
that these two letters
3 0 are A and B. [2]
blue disc. State whether the variable X has a geometric distribution. Explain your answer briefly.
4 7
(Q1, Jan 2008)
[1]
2 The mean
A random and T
variable standard
has thedeviation of the
distribution data
Geo! 5
". Find
1 in this diagram are 18.1 and 9.7 respectively, correct
to 1 decimal place. Write down the mean and standard deviation of the data in the original
(i) P( T = 4),
diagram. [2]
(ii) P(T > 4), [2]
76 (iii) T ).
A testE(consists of 4 algebra questions, A, B, C and D, and 4 geometry questions, G, H, I and J. [1]

The examiner plans to arrange all 8 questions in a random order, regardless of topic.
3 A sample of bivariate data was taken and the results were summarised as follows.
(i) (a) How many different arrangements are possible? [2]
n=5 Σ x = 24 Σ x2 = 130 Σ y = 39 Σ y2 = 361 Σ xy = 212
(b) Find the probability that no two Algebra questions are next to each other and no two
Geometry questions are next to each other. [3]
(i) Show that the value of the product moment correlation coefficient r is 0.855, correct to 3 significant
Later,figures.
the examiner decides that the questions should be arranged in two sections, Algebra followed [2]
by Geometry, with the questions in each section arranged in a random order.
(ii) The ranks of the data were found. One student calculated Spearman’s rank correlation coefficient
(ii) r(a)
s , and
Howfound
many that rs = 0.7.
different Another student
arrangements calculated the product moment coefficient, R,[2]
are possible? of
© OCR 2007 these ranks. State which one of the following statements is true, and explain your answer briefly.
4732/01 Jun07

(b) Find the probability that questions A and H are next to each other.
(A) R = 0.855
[1]

R =the
(c)(B)Find 0.7probability that questions B and J are separated by more than four other questions.
[4]
(C) It is impossible to give the value of R without carrying out a calculation using the original
data. (Q6, Jan 2009)
[2]

(iii) All the values of x are now multiplied by a scaling factor of 2. State the new values of r and r .
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4

87 Three letters are selected at random from the 8 letters of the word COMPUTER, without regard to
order.

(i) Find the number of possible selections of 3 letters. [2]

(ii) Find the probability that the letter P is included in the selection. [3]

Three letters are now selected at random, one at a time, from the 8 letters of the word COMPUTER,
and are placed in order in a line.

(iii) Find the probability that the 3 letters form the word TOP. [3]
(Q7, June 2009)
8 A game at a charity event uses a bag containing 19 white counters and 1 red counter. To play the
game once a player takes countersphysicsandmathstutor.com
at random from the bag, one at a time, without replacement. If the
red counter is taken, the player wins a prize and the game ends. If not, the game ends when 3 white
5
counters have been taken. Niko plays the game once.
9
8 The
(i) five
(a) letters
Copy of the
and word NEVER
complete the treeare arranged
diagram in random
showing order in a straight
the probabilities line.
for Niko. [4]
(i) How many different orders of the letters are possible? [2]
First counter
(ii) In how many of the possible orders are the two Es next to each other? [2]

19 the firstWhite
(iii) Find the probability that two letters in the order include exactly one letter E. [3]
20
(Q8, Jan 2010)
9 R and S are independent random variables each having the distribution Geo(p).
physicsandmathstutor.com
(i) Find P(R = 1 and S =201) in termsRed
1
of p. [1]
4
(ii) Show that P(R = 3 and S = 3) = p2 q4 , where q = 1 − p. [1]
10
(b) Find theshows all thethat
probability dishes available
Niko will winataaprize.
certain restaurant. [3]
(iii) Use the formula for the sum to infinity of a geometric series to show that
Rice dishes
(ii) The number of counters Main
that Niko takes dishes by X . Vegetable dishes
is denoted
(a) Find P(X = 3). P(R Chicken
= S) =
p
2−p
Boiled rice . Mushrooms [5]
[2]
(b) Find E(X ). Fried rice Beef Cauliflower [4]
Pilau rice Lamb Spinach
9 Repeated independentKeema
trials ofrice
a certain experiment
Mixed grillare carried out. On each trial the probability of
Lentils
success is 0.12. Prawn Potatoes
(i) Find the smallest value of n such thatVegetarian
the probability of at least one success in n trials is more
than 0.95. [3]
A group of friends decide that they will share a total of 2 different rice dishes, 3 different main dishes
(ii) Find the probability that the 3rd success occurs on the 7th trial. [5]
and 4 different vegetable dishes from this menu. Given these restrictions,
(i) find the number of possible combinations of dishes that they can choose to share, [3]
(ii) assuming that all choices are equally likely, find the probability that they choose boiled rice.
[2]
OCR is committed to seeking permission to reproduce all third-party content that it uses in its assessment materials. OCR has attempted to identify and contact all copyright holders
The friends decide to add a further restriction as follows. If they choose boiled rice, they will not
whose work is used in this paper. To avoid the issue of disclosure of answer-related information to candidates, all copyright acknowledgements are reproduced in the OCR Copyright
Acknowledgements Booklet. This is produced for each series of examinations, is given to all schools that receive assessment material and is freely available to download from our public
choose potatoes.
website (www.ocr.org.uk) after the live examination series.
If OCR has unwittingly failed to correctly acknowledge or clear any third-party content in this assessment material, OCR will be happy to correct its mistake at the earliest possible opportunity.

(iii) Find the number of possible combinations of dishes that they can now choose.
OCR is part of the Cambridge Assessment Group; Cambridge Assessment is the brand name of University of Cambridge Local Examinations Syndicate (UCLES), which is itself a department
of the University of Cambridge. (Q7, June 2010)
8 The proportion of people who watch West Street on television is 30%. A market researcher interviews
people at random in order to contact viewers of West Street. Each day she has to contact a certain
number of viewers of West Street.
physicsandmathstutor.com PhysicsAndMathsTutor.com
4
Red
11
6 (i) The diagram shows67 cards, each with a digit printed on it. The digits form a 7-digit number.
10

1 3 3 3 5 5 9
How many different 7-digit numbers can be formed using these cards? [3]

(ii) The diagram below4shows 5 white cards and 10 grey cards, each with a letter printed on it.
10
Blue
A C E J T

A B G L M
The total number of blue discs that Chloe takes is denoted by X .

(ii) Show that P(X = 1) = 35 .

N P Q R Z [2]

From these
The complete cards, 3 white
probability cards and
distribution 4 grey
of X cards
is given are selected at random without regard to order.
below.
(a) How many selections of seven cards are possible? [3]
x 0 1 2
(b) Find the probability that the seven cards include exactly one card showing the letter A. [4]
P(X = x) 1
6
3
5
7
30 (Q6, Jan 2011)
7 The probability distribution of a discrete random variable, X , is shown below.
(iii) Calculate E(X ) and Var(X ). x 0 2 [5]

a P(X = x) 1−a
12
6 A group of 7 students sit in random order on a bench.
(i) Find E(X ) in terms of a. [2]
(i) (a) Find the number of orders in which they can sit. [1]
(ii) Show that7Var
(b) The (X ) = 4include
students a(1 − aTom
). and Jerry. Find the probability that Tom and Jerry sit next[3]
to
each other. [3]
8 Five dogs, A, B, C , D and E, took part in three races. The order in which they finished the first race
The students
(ii) ABCDE
was . consist of 3 girls and 4 boys. Find the probability that
(a) no two boys sit next to each other, [2]
(i) Spearman’s rank correlation coefficient between the orders for the 5 dogs in the first two races
was
(b) found to be
all three −1.sitWrite
girls down
next to eachthe order in which the dogs finished the second race.
other. [1]
[3]
(Q6,race
(ii) Spearman’s rank correlation coefficient between the orders for the 5 dogs in the first June
and2011)
the
third race was found to be 0.9.
(a) Show that, in the usual notation (as in the List of Formulae), Σd 2 = 2. [2]
(b) Hence or otherwise find a possible order in which the dogs could have finished the third
© OCR 2011 race. 4732 Jun11 [2]

OCR is committed to seeking permission to reproduce all third-party content that it uses in its assessment materials. OCR has attempted to identify and contact all copyright holders
whose work is used in this paper. To avoid the issue of disclosure of answer-related information to candidates, all copyright acknowledgements are reproduced in the OCR Copyright
Acknowledgements Booklet. This is produced for each series of examinations and is freely available to download from our public website (www.ocr.org.uk) after the live examination series.
If OCR has unwittingly failed to correctly acknowledge or clear any third-party content in this assessment material, OCR will be happy to correct its mistake at the earliest possible opportunity.
OCR is part of the Cambridge Assessment Group; Cambridge Assessment is the brand name of University of Cambridge Local Examinations Syndicate (UCLES), which is itself a department
of the University of Cambridge.

3 (b) Hence
The Gross findProduct
Domestic the probability
per Capitathat the number
(GDP), of and
x dollars, these
theplants
Infantthat produce
Mortality blue
Rate perflowers is (IMR),
thousand greater
than the number that produce red flowers. PhysicsAndMathsTutor.com
[3]
y, of 6 African countries were recorded and summarised as follows.

n= 6 / x = 7000 / x 2 = 8 700 000 / y = 456 / y 2 = 36 262 / xy = 509 900

9
13 A bag contains 9 discs numbered 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9.
(i) Calculate the equation of the regression line of y on x for these 6 countries. [4]
(i) Andrea chooses 4 discs at random, without replacement, and places them in a row.
The original data were plotted on a scatter diagram and the regression line of y on x was drawn, as shown
below.(a) How many different 4-digit numbers can be made? [2]

(b) How many different odd 4-digit numbers can be made? [3]
y
100 4 discs are put back in the bag. Martin then chooses 4 discs at random, without replacement.
(ii) Andrea’s
Find the probability that

(a) the 4 digits include at least 3 odd digits, [4]

80
(b) the 4 digits add up to 28. [3]
(Q9, Jan 2012)

60 physicsandmathstutor.com
4

7
14 (i) 5 of the 7 letters A, B, C, D, E, F, G are arranged in a random order in a straight line.
x
800 arrangements
(a) How many different 1000 of 5 letters
1200 are possible?
1400 1600 [2]

(ii) The
(b) GDP
How for another
many country,
of these Tanzania,
arrangements endiswith
1300 dollars.
a vowel (AUse the regression line in the diagram [3]
or E)? to
estimate the IMR of Tanzania. [1]
(ii) A group of 5 people is to be chosen from a list of 7 people.
(iii) The GDP for Nigeria is 2400 dollars. Give two reasons why the regression line is unlikely to give a
reliable
(a) How estimate for the IMR
many different for Nigeria.
groups of 5 people can be chosen? [2]
[1]

(iv) The
(b) actual value
The list of 7ofpeople
the IMR for Tanzania
includes is 96.
Jill and Jo. The data of
A group for5Tanzania
people is(xchosen
= 1300,aty = 96) is now
random fromincluded
the list.
with the original
Given 6 countries.
that either Jill andCalculate
Jo are boththechosen
value or
of neither
the product moment
of them correlation
is chosen, find thecoefficient,
probabilityr,that
for
all 7 countries.
both of them are chosen. [4]
[3]
(Q7, June 2012)
(v) The IMR is now redefined as the infant mortality rate per hundred instead of per thousand, and the
8 (i) value of r is variable
The random recalculated
X hasfor
thealldistribution
7 countries. Without
B(30, 0.6). calculation
Find P(X !state
16). what effect, if any, this would
[2]
have on the value of r found in part (iv). [1]
(ii) The random variable Y has the distribution B(4, 0.7).

4
15 (i) How manyP(Y
(a) Find different
= 2). 3-digit numbers can be formed using the digits 1, 2 and 3 when [2]

(a)
(b) no repetitions
Three values ofareY allowed,
are chosen at random. Find the probability that their total is 10. [1]
[6]
(b) any repetitions are allowed, [2]
9 (i) A clock is designed to chime once each hour, on the hour. The clock has a fault so that each time it is
1
(c) each to
supposed digit maythere
chime be included at most
is a constant twice? of 10 that it will not chime. It may be assumed that [2]
probability the
clock never stops and that faults occur independently. The clock is started at 5 minutes past midnight
(ii) How many different
on a certain day. Find4-digit numbers can
the probability that be
theformed using
first time the digits
it does 1, 2 and
not chime is 3 when each digit may be
included at most twice? [5]
(a) at 0600 on that day, [3]
(Q4, Jan 2013)
(b) before 0600 on that day. [3]