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ВЫСШЕЕ

ОБРАЗОВАНИЕ

А Н Г Л И Й С К И Й ЯЗЫК
Грамматические трудности
перевода

1
ВЫСШЕЕ
ОБРАЗОВАНИЕ

Н. П. Беспалова, К.Н. Котлярова,


Н. Г. Лазарева/ Н. Л. Соколова, Г. 1/1. Шейдеман

АНГЛИЙСКИЙ ЯЗЫК
Грамматические трудности
перевода

Учебное пособие

орофа
МОСКВА
, 2006
Vast
УДК 373.167.1:811.111
ББК 81.2АНГЛ-92
А64

Английский язык. Грамматические труднос-


А64 ти перевода : учеб. пособие / Н. П. Беспалова,
К. Н. Котлярова, Н. Г. Лазарева и др. — М . : Дрофа,
2006. — 78, [2] с.
ISBN 5-358-00706-7
в п о с о б и и представлены соотнесенные с г р а м м а т и ч е с к и ­
ми моделями упражнения по переводу с английского языка на
р у с с к и й . Данный материал способствует выработке б ы с т р о й
реакции как при п и с ь м е н н о м , так и при у с т н о м переводе.
П о с о б и е м о ж е т б ы т ь использовано в с и с т е м е в ы с ш е г о
и среднего образования.
УДК 373.167.1:811.111
ББК 81.2 Англ-92

ISBN 5-358-00706-7 5ООО «Дрофа», 20()(i


CONTENTS
Предисловие 5

THE STRUCTURE OF THE ENGLISH SENTENCE 7


Simple Sentence with, a Fixed W o r d Order 7
Pronoun " i t " 10
The W o r d " o n e " 12

SEQUENCE of TENSES 15

SUBJUNCTIVE M O O D IN COMPLEX SENTENCES

WITH ADVERBIAL CLAUSES OF CONDITION .' 20

PASSIVE VOICE 26

INFINITIVE 31
Infinitive as Subject 31
Infinitive as Part of Predicate 32
Infinitive as Object 34
Infinitive as Attribute '. 35
Infinitive as Adverbial Modifier of Purpose 37
INFINITIVE COMPLEXES 41
Complex Subject 41
Complex Object 46
For-Phrase 49

GERUND 52
Gerund as Subject 52
Gerund as Object 53
Gerund as Attribute 54
Gerund as Adverbial Modifier 55

r-1260 ^ , . ,
PARTICIPLE 58
The Present Participle Active and Passive as
Attribute 58
The Present Participle Active and the Perfect
Participle Active as Adverbial Modifier 58
The Present Participle Active and the Past
Participle Passive Preceded by Conjunctions
(when, while, if, as if, though, as though)
as Adverbial Modifier 60
The Past Participle Passive as Attribute 61
The Nominative Absolute Participial Construction 64

COMPLEX SENTENCE 66
Subject Clause 66
Predicative Clause 67
Object Clause 68
Attribute Clause 70
Adverbial Clause of Time 71
Adverbial Clause of Condition 73
Adverbial Clause of Cause 75

I
ПРЕДИСЛОВИЕ
I
Главной задачей как устного, так и письменного пе­
ревода является максимально точная передача содер­
жания иностранного текста средствами родного язы­
ка. Для правильного и точного перевода необходимо,
прежде всего, понять содержание переводимого текста
и.только после этого приступить к его переводу.
Основой перевода с л у ж и т лексико-грамматический
анализ предложения. Как правило, английское пред­
ложение в своей структуре имеет оба главных члена
предложения — подлежащее и сказуемое. Ф и к с и р о ­
ванный п о р я д о к слов английского предложения о б у с ­
ловлен отсутствием п а д е ж н ы х окончаний.
П о д л е ж а щ е е (1) — с к а з у е м о е (2) — дополне­
ние (3) — о б с т о я т е л ь с т в а (4) ( о б с т о я т е л ь с т в о време­
ни м о ж е т с т о я т ь в начале п р е д л о ж е н и я , перед подле­
ж а щ и м ) . Легче всего в а н г л и й с к о м п р е д л о ж е н и и
найти сказуемое по его формаль^рым признакам
( ф о р м ы времени, залога и т. п . ) , в с е , ч т о с т о и т перед
н и м , — п о д л е ж а щ е е (или группа п о д л е ж а щ е г о ) ; с у ­
щ е с т в и т е л ь н о е , с т о я щ е е после с к а з у е м о г о , — д о п о л ­
нение.
В н а ш е м п о с о б и и м ы будем рассматривать два ви­
да перевода:
дословный перевод, п р и к о т о р о м следует стре­
м и т ь с я к максимально б л и з к о м у воспроизведению
с и н т а к с и ч е с к о й с т р у к т у р ы и л е к с и ч е с к о г о состава, и
литературный перевод, с ч и т а ю щ и й с я в т о р ы м эта­
п о м после дословного перевода и т р е б у ю щ и й переда­
чи с м ы с л а оригинального текста в форме правильной
литературной речи. При э т о м виде перевода исполь-
з у ю т с я такие средства, как аналог, эквивалент, изме­
нение с т р у к т у р ы переводимого предложения (т. е.
перестановка и замена отдельных слов и в ы р а ж е н и й ,
деление предложения на два и более и т. п . ) .
Например: "Quite recently а National Planning Com­
mission, headed by the Prime Minister has been formed
and will draw up a plan f o r the country's economic and
social development f o r the coming fiscal year."
В д о с л о в н о м варианте перевода это предложение
м о ж е т иметь с л е д у ю щ у ю ф о р м у : «Недавно наци­
ональная плановая к о м и с с и я , возглавляемая премь­
е р - м и н и с т р о м , была создана, и она разработает (вы­
работает) план э к о н о м и ч е с к о г о и социального разви­
тия страны на п р е д с т о я щ и й финансовый год » .
После внесения всех н е о б х о д и м ы х р е д а к т о р с к и х
изменений, о которых говорилось выше, литератур­
н ы й перевод этого предложения м о ж е т прозвучать
примерно так: «Недавно была создана национальная
к о м и с с и я по п л а н и р о в а н и ю , возглавляемая премь­
е р - м и н и с т р о м , которая разработает план э к о н о м и ч е ­
с к о г о и социального развития страны на предстоя­
щий финансовый г о д » .
В заключение следует сказать, что переводчику не­
о б х о д и м о иметь определенный запас л е к с и к и , знать
грамматику английского я з ы к а (иначе предложения
останутся только набором с л о в , не связанных друг с
другом), владеть т е х н и к о й перевода, чему м ы попыта­
емся научить в данном пособии, и уметь пользоваться
словарем.
THE STRUCTURE
OF THE ENGLISH SENTENCE

Simple Sentence w i t h a Fixed W o r d O r d e r


В н и м а т е л ь н о п р о ч и т а й т е п р е д л о ж е н и я в табли­
це. Обратите внимание на места г л а в н ы х членов
п р е д л о ж е н и я , на тип с к а з у е м о г о , его в р е м е н н у ю и
залоговую формы.

Обстоя­
Подлежащее Допол­
Сказуемое тельство
Subject Predicate нение
Adverbial
Object
Modifier
This country imports machines from Japan,
The equip­ is imported from
ment the USA.
Russia has , a large
territory.
He was in Paris
(простое) for talks
at that time.
J.apan is a highly developed
country.
The atmo­ was warm and friendly during
sphere the talks.
The talks will be useful for both
(именное coun­
составное) tries.
This country can its trade
may tijurnover.
must
should increase
has to
is to
(составное
глагольное)
• Exercise 1. Find the predicate and name its type,
tense and voice.
1. European C o m m u n i t y f o r e i g n ministers gave
strong support to the Russian leader. They backed his
call f o r an all-European summit this year.
2. His proposal was aimed at discussing European
. stability at a time of social changes in the East Europe-
an c o u n t r i e s .
3. The task o f consolidating all f o r c e s standing on
positions of d e m o c r a c y has moved to the f o r e f r o n t .
4. N o w the French President and the German Chancel-
lor are trying hard to revive the Franco-German alliance.
5. The British delegation had a w a r m reception
everywhere.
6. The German Foreign Minister was in W a s h i n g t o n
f o r top-level discussions preceeding the US-Russia
Summit.
7. On arrival at Santiago airport he was greeted by
hundreds of P a r t y supporters.
8. " W e are ready t o talk and discuss the p r o b l e m , "
he said.
9. "Military force is not a final a r g u m e n t , " he add-
ed. " I t is not a certificate of s e c u r i t y . "
10. " W e are open f o r a d i a l o g u e , " he said. " I t will
lead us to a total and just p e a c e . "
1 1 . "This session will be a turning point in the activ-
ities of the o r g a n i z a t i o n , " Bulgaria's P r e m i e r said.
1 2 . The US can cut its t r o o p presence in Europe now
that the Soviet threat is g o n e .
1 3 . Europe of the future must be a Europe f o r the
people, not the transnationals.
1 4 . This cannot be a matter just f o r g o v e r n m e n t .
The people must also have their say.
15. Zaire's Presidentj.iis to meet A n g o l a ' s Foreign
Minister in N e w Y o r k early next week.

• Exercise 2. Translate into Russian.


1. Relations between New Zealand and France are
warming and should i m p r o v e much f u r t h e r .
2. G o v e r n m e n t s around the w o r l d are ready to r e ­
solve all the obstacles ( п р е п я т с т в и я ) t o a ban on c h e m i ­
cal weapons.
3. The Bulgarian P r i m e Minister and his Russian
counterpart agreed to boost e c o n o m i c cooperation at
the meeting in Sofia on Tuesday.
4. A u s t r a l i a n special e n v o y ' h a s arrived in Paris f o r
talks w i t h French o f f i c i a l s about Canberra's peace plan
f o r Cambodia.
5. " T h e talks had a d i f f e r e n t atmosphere f r o m all
the p r e v i o u s (предыдуш;ие) discussions on the i s g u e , ^ ^
For the first time we have used a c o m m o n l a n g u a g e , "
the Turkish Foreign Minister c o m m e n t e d afterwards.
6. Representatives f r o m the two g r o u p s are to meet
today to discuss the withdrawal (отвод) of their f o r c e s
f r o m their c o m m o n b o r d e r s .
7. South A f r i c a ' s former President repeatedly criti­
cized President Bush and Mr. Blair's policy towards Iraq.
8. " I n the W e s t , citizens have a right to security and
protection against extremism and t e r r o r i s m , " he said.
9. T o lessen the political tension between Russia and
Japan will be important f o r Russian-Japanese relations.
10. The British Conservative P a r t y delegations are
satisfied with their talks w i t h R u s s i a ' s Parliament
members.
1 1 . The P e n t a g o n ' s strategy is to return the US t o
its traditional role as a maritime power.
1 2 . I m p r o v e d relations, trade and e c o n o m i c coopera- ,
tion between Russia and Germany have always been an
i m p o r t a n t f a c t o r in Central E u r o p e . • , -
13. " T h e A f g h a n problem can be settled only b y
litical m e a n s , " the United Nations (UN) Secretary Gen­
eral noted in his annual U N r e p o r t .
14. " D i a l o g u e between N o r t h K o r e a and the US is
the i m p o r t a n t key to the solution of the c r i s i s " . South
K o r e a ' s President said yesterday.
15. The US must h o n o u r the Central A m e r i c a n c o u n ­
t r i e s ' accords on a peaceful settlement in Central
America.

2-1260
1 6 . W e hope that East and W e s t can reach agree­
ment on chemical and conventional ( о б ы ч н о е , не я д е р ­
ное) weapons by the end of the current year or b y the
beginning of the n e x t .
1 7 . B y lunchtime yesterday over a quarter of a m i l ­
lion people were w i t h o u t electricity.

Pronoun " i t "

Личное " i t " переводит­ The African National Congress


ся местоимениями « о н » , (ANC) said that it backed the
«она», «оно» в зависи­ statement of its leader.
мости от рода существи­ Африканский национальный
тельного, которое оно за­ конгресс сказал, что он под­
меняет. держивает заявление, сделан­
ное его лидером.
Указательное " i t " пере­ For at least two reasons it is one
водится словом « э т о » . of the most important ques­
tions of our time.
По двум, по крайней мере,
причинам это один из важ­
нейших вопросов нашего вре­
мени.
1 •

Формальное " i t " (начина­ 1. It was quiet. — Было тихо.


ет предложение, когда 2. It is important to rid the
отсутствует подлежа­ world of nuclear weapons. —
щее, — безличное пред­ Важно избавить мир от ядер­
ложение — или когда ного оружия.
подлежащее выражено
инфинитивом, герундием
или придаточным пред­
ложением). На русский
не переводится.
Часть усилительной кон­ It is for that reason that the
струкции It i s . . . that book is timely and appropriate.
(which, who) переводится Именно no этой причине кни­
словами «именно», «как га считается актуальной и
раз» и др. своевременной.
•r Exercise 1. State the function of the pronoun "it" in
the following sentences. Translate them into Russian.
1. In a letter to the N o r t h Korean Foreign Minister
the Commission made it clear it hoped " t o f o l l o w up the
issues that we raised in o u r d i s c u s s i o n s " .
2. This organization remains a decisive guarantee of
its member-states' s o v e r e i g n t y and security. It makes
an i m p o r t a n t c o n t r i b u t i o n t o preserving stability in
Europe and the w o r l d .
3. " W e strongly s u p p o r t perestroika", she said,
" i t ' s a bold c o u r a g e o u s i d e a . "
4. It is at this m o m e n t t h a t a new mentality is need-
ed f o r the reconstructive processes in the w o r l d .
5. It w a s Russia w h i c h made tlje first step towards
the establishment of confidence amibrig hâtions.
6. Diplomats say M o r o c c o may n o w be ready f o r a
negotiated solution b u t it has yet t o realize this w o u l d
mean b i g c o m p r o m i s e s .
7. It is necessary to act responsibly and not to solve
this i m p o r t a n t question on the streets (during rallies).
8. It is quite natural that a peaceful settlement in
Europe should be guaranteed b y the whole European
Community. '
9. It is m o r e essential now than ever to w o r k f o r
.peace in e v e r y corner of the w o r l d .
10. It w a s the W e s t e r n allies, the U S , Britain and
France w h i c h divided Germany.

J | Exercise 2. Translate into Russian.


1. G e r m a n y is e n j o y i n g an e c o n o m i c b o o m . It is al-
ready the w o r l d ' s leading e x p o r t e r surpassing even Ja-
pan. --- -
2. It was A m e r i c a ' s long-standing allies in the
r e g i o n — Japan and South K o r e a — that o f f e r e d the
m o s t enthusiastic and practical s u p p o r t .
3. Some of A f r i c a ' s g o v e r n m e n t s are making real
p r o g r e s s b u t it is clear that A f r i c a will not escape the
c y c l e o f p o v e r t y and low g r o w t h o n its o w n .

2*-1260
11
4. Outlining his c o u n t r y ' s strategy M o l d o v a ' s Presi­
dent dismissed any thought that Moldova m i g h t one day
seek to join N A T O . "It will remain neutral," he said.
5. The embassy said that it was also planning to set up
a Society f o r Cultural Relations between our countries.
6. I t ' s necessary to remind the w o r l d b y w h o m
W o r l d W a r II was unleashed.
7. R u s s i a ' s spokesman said y e s t e r d a y , t h a t M o s c o w
had received an interesting proposal and was ready t o
discuss i t .
8. It is there, inside Israel's self-declared " s e c u r i t y
z o n e " , five miles f r o m the Israeli b o r d e r , that the 6 0 0 -
s t r o n g N o r w e g i a n f o r c e has its headquarters.
9. It is f o r this reason that the present conference is
considered timely and appropriate.
10. He said it was clear that both the Eritrean P e o ­
ple's Liberation Front and the Ethiopian G o v e r n m e n t
want an end to the 28-year c o n f l i c t .
1 1 . It is with its banning that it would be advisable
to start reducing mountains of arms.
1 2 . It is the US policy to refuse to c o n f i r m or deny
the presence of nuclear weapons on its warships visit­
ing Japanese p o r t s .
13. Some figures close t o the German Chancellor
claim that it is partly Britain that has pushed Germany
back into bed with France.
14. It is not until June that the bill will be published.

The W o r d " o n e "



Неопределенно-личное мес­ One may (must, can)
тоимение не переводится на Можно (нужно)...
русский язык.
Слово-заместитель перево-: The new cabinet shows sig­
дится суп];ествительным, nificant changes from the
вместо которого стоит, или old one.
не переводится совсем. <-, Новый кабинет значитель­
. • ,1 но отличается от старого,
(кабинета)

ч 12
Числительное «один» One of the most important
issues of today is disarma­
ment.
Одной из важнейших
проблем сегодня является
разоружение.

S Exercise 1. State the function of "one" in the fol­


lowing sentences. Translate them into Russian.
1. In Russia Chernobyl has changed the people's at­
t i t u d e s . There is a pre-Chernobyl era and a p o s t -
Chemobyl one.
2. Overpopulation is J a p a n ' s m o s t serious p r o b l e m
and the one that is least discussed.
3. The A m e r i c a n e c o n o m y has b e c o m e not only g i ­
g a n t i c in size, b u t also one with high-quality indices.
4. In that b a c k w a r d c o u n t r y there were no indus­
tries except f o r a f e w u n i m p o r t a n t local ones.
5. One s h o u l d n ' t be misled b y thoughtless calls f o r
the w o r l d free of nuclear weapons when such calls are
not supported by real actions, ц; , ц,;,
6. Steps have been taken t o eliminate one A i r Force
regiment.

Ш Exercise 2. Translate into Russian.

\. One c a n ' t underestimate (недооценивать) the i m ­


portance of o u r cooperation w i t h the W e s t if we want
to take o u r e c o n o m y to a new higher level.
2. The o r g a n i z a t i o n ' s commander-in-chief has u r g e d
the t r a n s f o r m a t i o n of this alliance f r o m a military-po­
litical g r o u p i n g to a political-military one.
3. Head of the International A t o m i c Energy A g e n c y
whose nuclear inspectors were evicted f r o m N o r t h K o ­
rea said W a s h i n g t o n d i d n ' t want t o treat the crisis as a
bilateral one.
4. One should bear in mind that similar actions are
expected on the part of the US A d m i n i s t r a t i o n .

13
5. " D o n ' t think this is the end of the US Marines b e -
cause they are receiving a d i f f e r e n t t y p e of resistance
t o the one they e x p e c t e d , " he said.
6. He emphasized one thing — the U N should take
c o n t r o l of Iraq after the war.
7. A report issued after the meeting stressed the
need f o r specific measures to halt the deployment of
new nuclear missiles in Europe, reduce and then elimi-
nate e x i s t i n g ones, while also substantially reducing
conventional weapons.
SEQUENCE OF TENSES

there were no military


solutions, only political
ones.
не существует решений во­
The Russian Foreign Minis­ енными средствами, а толь­
ter arrived in Finland for a ко политическими.
three-day visit. In his inter­
new hopes for peace had
view he said
appeared because of the
work of world organiza­
tions.
появились новые надежды
на мир в связи с работой
Министр иностранных дел международных организа­
России прибыл в Финлян­ ций.
дию с трехдневным визи­
том. В своем интервью он much would have to be
сказал, что done in Russia not just in
the field of foreign policy.
многое.предетоит сделать в
России, и не только в об­
ласти внешней политики.

PATTERN A

The action in the subordinate clause is simultaneous


w i t h that expressed in the principle clause.

A prominent US advisor on foreign economic policy re­


marked that US businessmen also wanted the US Govern­
ment to remove all the obstacles that still remained for the
normal development of trade with Russia.

15
Известный американский советник по внешнеэконо­
мической политике отметил, что американские бизнес­
мены тоже хотят, чтобы правительство США устранило
все, суш;ествующие до сих пор, препятствия, которые
мешают нормальному развитию торговли с Россией.

• Exercise 1. Translate into Russian, using the pat


tern.
1. The U N General A s s e m b l y Session stressed that it
w a s c o n v e n e d at a time of significant changes c o m i n g
f r o m a consistent i m p r o v e m e n t in relations between
the US and Russia. Fear and mutual suspicion had t o
b e e x p e l l e d f r o m all other areas of w o r l d concern.
2. The Russian e n v o y declared in Beirut it w a s h i g h
time to give peace a chance in Lebanon. H e believed all
the disputes could be solved in a peaceful way.
3. Speaking in Edinburgh the A m e r i c a n State Secre­
t a r y said that the world was n o w f a c i n g its first real
chance of disarmament since Hiroshima.
4. The German Chancellor in his interview to R u s ­
sian press mentioned that the interests c o m m o n to b o t h
sides were always b e t t e r than talks.
5. Four A s i a n states made the proposal in a c o m m u ­
nique issued at the end of their t w o - d a y meeting where
they " h a d t o n o t e " that a concrete answer f r o m the
W e s t was n o t g i v e n to their far-reaching proposals.
6. Expressing his concern the Hungarian leader said
there were some misunderstandings about economic re­
f o r m s w h i c h w e r e h a m p e r i n g them f r o m united ap­
proaches.
7. The President of the Committee w h i c h was set up
t o defend national interests c o n f i r m e d that all Bulgari­
ans were free to visit Turkey or any other c o u n t r y .
8. Stressing the importance of expanding direct con­
tacts with their count j*ymen in Poland, a people's deputy
f r o m Lithuania said the majority of their problems were
t o b e resolved by the Poles living in Russia themselves.
9. Nelson Mandela said in U N that South A f r i c a
c o u l d never take its glace in the world o f nations un­
less apartheid w a s abolished.

16
10. D u r i n g the press c o n f e r e n c e an FBI official said
that the FBI a f f a i r s were becoming less and less secret.
W i t h o u t prejudice he spoke about different political
organizations o f w h i c h there were m o r e than a h u n ­
dred in W a s h i n g t o n , there was n o t h i n g w r o n g w i t h the
people w o r k i n g in these o r g a n i z a t i o n s .

PATTERN В

T h e past action w h i c h is p r i o r t o that expressed in


the principal clause.

In the close past Soviet journalists used to write accord­


ing to scenarios they had been supplied with from high on.
Б недалеком прошлом советские журналисты обычно
писали по сценариям, которые им спускали сверху.

l_ Exercise 2. Translate into Russian, using the pat­


tern.
1. Leading Chinese newspapers pointed out that the
R u s s i a n P r e s i d e n t ' s visit to China had marked the full
restoration of interstate ties which were i m p o r t a n t
milestones in the life of both countries.
2. Official statistics of Russia indicated that b y De­
cember 2001 the industrial output was lower than it
had been d u r i n g the period leading up to December
1989. They stated that the national e c o n o m y had be­
come increasingly unbalanced with a d r o p in p r o d u c ­
t i o n , technological and managerial discipline.
3. Concerning the f o r t h c o m i n g elections to the State
D u m a and the local administration the participants in
the meeting pointed out that mistakes had been made.
4. U N Secretary-General said in his message that
n e w hopes f o r peace had appeared because of the w o r k
o f world o r g a n i z a t i o n s . But he warned that p o v e r t y ,
starvation and environmental deterioration still
threatened peace.
5. The spokesman criticized the f a c t that the U N
had permitted the U S A to deploy " o n e of its most v i o -

3-1260 • '
lent u n i t s " in the area. This had been a violation of the
U N Security Council resolution.
6. A recent statement b y the field C o m m a n d e r of
one of the o p p o s i t i o n ' s units announced that the rocket
attacks on Kabul had b e e n aimed at m a k i n g people
rebel against the present r e g i m e .
7. The British Social Security Minister c o n d e m n e d
the g o v e r n m e n t ' s refusal t o continue upraising child
benefit. He pointed out that the three-year freeze had
reduced the value of child benefit b y a f i f t h .
8. W h i l e c o m m e n t i n g on the situation in Russia a
responsible Russian e c o n o m i s t believed that the crisis
in the c o u n t r y had been promoted by the political bu­
r e a u c r a c y ' s m o n o p o l y on power established long ago
and totally uncontrolled by the people.
9. In its message on TV, the Ministry of Public Health
stated that the money f o r the Children's Fund had been
allocated, but they haven't decided yet how much and
f r o m which part of the budget it had to be taken.
10. The Egyptian Trade Mission published a report
stating that the Mission f o u n d many changes which
had taken place in the Egyptian market o v e r the past
f e w years. The new emphasis on industrialization c o u ­
pled with limited f o r e i g n exchange resources had al­
tered the pattern of i m p o r t .

< r PATTERN С

The action expressed in the subordinate clause is


posterior t o that of the principal clause.

The German Chancellor who is now on a short visit to


Moscow would discuss bilateral relations, the situation in
Europe and urgent international issues.
Канцлер Германии, который сейчас находится в
Москве с кратким визитом, обсудит двусторонние отно­
шения, положение в Еврода инеотложные международ­
ные вопросы. I
T Exercise 3. Translate into Russian, using the pat-
tern.
1. The A f g h a n General reiterated that only an o v e r -
all political settlement leading to the creation of a
broad-based coalition would end the war.
2. The f o r m e r T o r y Cabinet Minister c o n d e m n e d the
adopted resolution as a " m e a n and w r o n g - h e a d e d deci-
s i o n " and said it would mean " a n extra b u r d e n on f a m -
ilies w i t h c h i l d r e n . "
3. A senior Chinese official indicated yesterday that
the dismissed C o m m u n i s t P a r t y leader would not be
put on trial.
4. Vietnamese and Cambodian leaders ended their
three-day talks in Hanoi w i t h a c o m m u n i q u e saying
that nothing would destroy solidarity between their
countries.
5. French President called f o r a new European Com-
m u n i t y treaty. He stressed it would let have m o r e o p -
portunities to build the c o m m o n European h o m e .
6. Great interest was taken at the annual meeting of
the Russian-Japanese Committee in e c o n o m i c coopera-
tion. Some specialists believed it would open a new
stage in relations between the t w o c o u n t r i e s .
,7. The A u s t r a l i a n Foreign Minister predicted the
b r e a k t h r o u g h by the end of next year when the g o v e r n -
ments around the world would largely be able to re-
" solve the obstacles to a ban on chemi«al weapons.
8. The Russian Vice President w h o arrived in China
on the first senior level visit expressed his confidence
that the d e l e g a t i o n s ' meetings "would deepen under-
standing and cooperation between the t w o n a t i o n s " .
9. The Israeli P r i m e Minister said in Vienna yester-
day that the authorities would deal f i r m l y with the o p -
position demonstrations in Gaza S t r i p .
10. Speaking in Strasbourg a m e m b e r of European
Parliament (EP) proposed a j o i n t session of the EP and
Russian P a r l i a m e n t . He said this " g o o d w i l l parade"
would create the d e m o c r a t i c f o u n d a t i o n f o r the politi-
cal u n i f i c a t i o n of E u r o p e .

3--1260
SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD
IN COMPLEX SENTENCES
WITH ADVERBIAL CLAUSES
OF CONDITION
PATTERN A

1. The talks would (could, might) start this week if


(providing, provided) everything were properly arranged.
Переговоры начались бы (могли бы начаться, воз­
можно, начались бы) на этой неделе, если бы все было
как следует подготовлено.

2. The talks would (could, might) have been held last


week if (providing, provided) the agenda had been proper­
ly worked out.
Переговоры начались бы (могли бы начаться, воз­
можно, начались бы) на прошлой неделе, если бы
повестка дня была бы как следует (должным образом)
выработана.

В Exercise 1. Translate into English, using the pat­


tern.
Pattern 1
1. The treaty might be signed today if the terms
were not like that.
2. The m o v e would help to maintain peace if it were
supported b y the sides. ^
3. The talks could start next week if the sides were
ready to discuss the problem.
4. Peace talks could (might) be successful provid­
ing (provided) the US changed its f o r e i g n policy.
5. W e would delude (вводить в з а б л у ж д е н и е , обма­
нывать) everybody if we denied the differences of
opinion existing between the sides.

"20
Pattern 2
1. A l l the issues might have been settled if the
sides had been more flexible.
2. W o r l d W a r II could (might) have been prevented
if Britain had accepted the SU proposal on defence c o -
operation.
3. The talks would h a v e taken p l a c e last week if the
representatives of the C o m m o n w e a l t h countries hadn't
taken so l o n g t o prepare their c o m m u n i q u é .
4. A l l the issues would (might, could) have been
settled d u r i n g the recent talks if ( p r o v i d e d ) they had
been included into the agenda.
5. If Britain and France had been ready to stand
against Hitler when he invaded first the Rhineland,
then A u s t r i a and Czechoslovakia, they could (might)
have prevented h i m f r o m ever b e c o m i n g Chancellor.

• Exercise 2. Translate the sentences into Russian.


1. If we spent more m o n e y on research n o w , we
could develop stations which create their o w n fuel and
b u r n their o w n waste.
2. It would probably be w r o n g if we saw all the
events of the past as u n f o r t u n a t e .
3. If the P r e s i d e n t ' s plane had n o t been delayed in
•New Delhi, there w o u l d have been m o r e time left f o r
the cultural p r o g r a m m e .
4. The sides could ( m i g h t ) have c o m e to an agree-
ment if there had been no differences of opinion on the
problem.
5. If the President's escort had not been delayed and
the two aircraft carrying the members of the Russian del-
egation had not been forced to make an emergency land-
ing, they would have returned to Moscow early on Friday.
6. J u s t imagine what the w o r l d w o u l d be like if we
d i d n ' t have electricity — no heating, no l i g h t i n g , no
t r a n s p o r t , no radio o r T V .
7. It w o u l d be the best solution of the problem if the
sides c o u l d find a c o m p r o m i s i n g decision.

21
8. If we d i d n ' t waste so much e n e r g y , our resources
(coal, oil) w o u l d last longer.
9. If heat accidentally had triggered ( п у с т и т ь в х о д ,
п р и в о д и т ь в д в и ж е н и е ) the explosive devices on board
the Columbia Shuttle, it could have been catastrophic,
but this was unlikely.
10. If the United States granted Russia market econ­
o m y status, it would greatly improve the c o u n t r y ' s im­
age and would help attract more long-term investments.

Ч ' ' PATTERN В ^

1. Unless (если не) the sides agreed to hold negotiations,


the existing problems would (could, might) remain unsolved.
Если бы стороны не согласились провести перегово­
ры, существующие проблемы оставались бы (могли бы
остаться, возможно, остались бы) неразрешенными.

2. Unless the talks had been held in good time, there


would (could, might) have been serious conflicts between
the sides.
Если бы переговоры не состоялись своевременно,
между сторонами возникли бы (могли бы возникнуть,
возможно возникли бы) серьезные конфликты.

• Exercise 1. Translate into Russian, using the pat­


terns.
1. Unless the sides considered the talks necessary,
they wouldn't be held.
2. Unless we thought new research was necessary,
we wouldn't be spending m o n e y on it.
3. The G o v e r n m e n t wouldn't have a Department of
Energy unless they thought it was i m p o r t a n t .
4. W e wouldn't have chosen this kind of holiday
unless we liked driving.
5. W e went on a t o u r of Beverly Hills to see " t h e
houses of the s t a r s " . Unless you had studied film his­
tory, y o u would never have heard of most of them!

'% 22 • •
6. T h e y w o u l d n ' t h a v e c h o s e n this t o u r unless it
had b e e n e s c o r t e d . They c o u l d n ' t h a v e m a n a g e d on
their o w n .
7.1 w o u l d n ' t t a k e the j o b unless they paid me a r e ­
ally g o o d salary with longer holiday and more free
t i m e . I c e r t a i n l y w o u l d n ' t g o anywhere abroad unless
they p a i d m y return f a r e .
8. The argument m i g h t h a v e g o n e o n f o r a l o n g
time unless it h a d b e e n f o r the increasing d i s c o m f o r t
of the sides concerned.
9. The proposal w o u l d n ' t be s t r e n g t h e n e d unless it
c o u l d b e p r o m p t l y (сразу, б ы с т р о ) n e g o t i a t e d .
10. B r i t a i n ' s balance of payments difficulties c o u l d
n o t be wiped o u t unless its m i l i t a r y e x p e n d i t u r e s
abroad were eliminated.

• Exercise 2. Translate the sentences into Russian. '


1. British miners believed that living standards
c o u l d only be ensured p r o v i d e d there were e f f e c t i v e
planning.
2. N e w Zealand could have been seriously affected if
B r i t a i n , its best c u s t o m e r of dairy p r o d u c t s , had j o i n e d
the C o m m o n Market w i t h o u t special arrangements.
3. Unless that accident had interfered with their
research, w o r k , they would have solved the p r o b l e m
by now.
4. Terrorists could hold the nation to ransom (требо­
вать в ы к у п ) if they captured a r e a c t o r .
5. W h a t would happen if there were a serious nuclear
accident? H u g e areas would be evacuated and they could
remain contaminated with radioactivity f o r years.
6. N o insurance c o m p a n y covers nuclear risks. If a
nuclear accident happened in y o u r area, y o u w o u l d n ' t
g e t a penny in c o m p e n s a t i o n . . <
7. If the nuclear industry d i d n ' t keep accidents quiet,
there would be a public outcry (общественный протест).
8. If we listened to the pessimists, none of us w o u l d
sleep at n i g h t . .. , - • -

23
9. Unless the delegates accepted his plan, the G o v ­
ernment would introduce legislation, and if they did
support i t , the G o v e r n m e n t would introduce legislation
anyway.
10. If the trade u n i o n m o v e m e n t decided t o f i g h t to
prevent the G o v e r n m e n t i n t r o d u c i n g a wage restrain­
ing law, it would have to g i v e way.
1 1 . If the $ 2 0 million A d r i a - D r u z h b a pipeline
p r o j e c t were realized, it w o u l d make it possible to di­
rect e x p o r t s of Russian oil to the A d r i a t i c Sea.
1 2 . " I f we had paid due attention to checking f o r ­
eigners b e f o r e , we would ( m i g h t ) have never encoun­
tered problems such as those in the Pankisi G o r g e
( П а н к и й с к о е уш;елье)," a spokesman f o r G e o r g i a ' s In­
terior Ministry told reporters in Tbilisi.
1 3 . Unless G a z p r o m had refused to accept the
Ukrainian national oil and gas c o m p a n y ' s b o n d s (об­
лигации) as payment, it would have to pay 50 per cent
p r o f i t tax on the transaction (сделка) in Russia, said
Gazprom Chief Financial o f f i c e r .
14. U r g i n g the Russian national soccer team to set
high goals f o r themselvelves the Sport Minister said:
" A second place w o u l d be fine but a first place w o u l d be
better."
15. If they banned alcohol f r o m football g r o u n d s ,
there w o u l d be less trouble and violence.
16. Unless much preliminary work had been carried
out b y scientists, designers and technicians, it would
have been impossible to cope with these d i f f i c u l t i e s .
17. If nations had properly heard what was said about
our ailing planet, they w o u l d n ' t have pumped more pol­
lutants (загрязняюш;ий агент, загрязнитель) into the
air, piled up more trash or driven more species to extinc­
tion (доводить виды ж и в о т н ы х до вымирания).
18. Unless clean technologies were g i v e n better
t h o u g h t , the prospects f o r future generations would be
endangered. I'
19. The last years of ecological policy of g o v e r n ­
ments have been the poorest we could have had.

24
2 0 . Unless they had used closed-circuit T V , they
w o u l d n ' t have spotted the shoplifter (магазинный в о р ) .
2 1 . If the entire Earth were covered by ocean, high
and low tides ( м о р с к о й прилив и отлив) w o u l d f o l l o w
one another at regular intervals in response to the rota­
tion of the Earth and the revolution of the M o o n .
2 2 . If people had not been t r y i n g to make their lives
still m o r e sophisticated, c o m f o r t a b l e and satisfying,
the technological changes w o u l d n ' t have been so ad­
verse ( н е б л а г о п р и я т н ы й , в р е д н ы й ) .
2 3 . "Clothes in the States were so cheap! It w o u l d
have been a g o o d idea to take empty suitcases! If we had
done that, the savings on clothes w o u l d almost have
paid f o r the air f a r e ! "
2 4 . T h e y said: "If we had known more about the c i t ­
ies, we w o u l d have spent more time in San Francisco
and less time in Los A n g e l e s . Los A n g e l e s was a bit d i s ­
appointing."
2 5 . " . . . S u p p l i e s of nourishing f o o d could be enor­
m o u s l y increased if, in the richer countries of the
w o r l d , people were prepared to eat some of the f o o d
they feed to their pigs and c a t t l e . . . and to their pet
d o g s and c a t s . " (Dr M a g n u s Р у к е , " H u n g e r and H u ­
manity")
2 6 . Lots of y o u n g people in Britain think c o m p r e ­
hensivos (обш;еобразовательные школы Англии)
could be i m p r o v e d . Schoolchildren would have done
v e r y well academically, if they had been encouraged
enough.
2 7 . Schools o u g h t t o g i v e more advice on careers and
there should be more specific j o b preparation. If school
leavers had known more about j o b possibilities, they
c o u l d ( m i g h t ) have done other subjects to g e t a j o b .
2 8 . Maybe y o u n g people w o u l d behave better these
days if there were m o r e discipline in s c h o o l s .

4-1260
PASSIVE VOICE

PATTERN

1. Talks on questions of economic cooperation between


the EU member states are usually held every year.
Переговоры no вопросам экономического сотрудниче­
ства между странами-членами Европейского союза обыч­
но проводят каждый год.

2. The talks on joint construction of large-scale indus­


trial complexes are being held on the initiative of the EU
member states leaders.
Переговоры о совместном строительстве крупных
промышленных комплексов проводятся по. инициативе
глав государств-членов Европейского Союза.

3. The talks on economic aid to Russia have recently


been held between the EU member states.
Недавно были проведены (состоялись) переговоры
между странами-членами Европейского союза по вопро­
сам оказания экономической помош;и России.

N o t e 1. При наличии дополнения с предлогом


" b y " глагол в страдательном залоге часто переводит­
с я глаголом в действительном залоге (часто в э т о м
случае р у с с к о е предложение начинается с дополне­
ния).

Е. g. The Premier is usually accompanied by the


Foreign Minister and.other officials.
Премьер-министра об^хчно сопровождают министр
иностранных дел и другие официальные лица.

.«1. 26
N o t e 2. Иногда п а с с и в н у ю к о н с т р у к ц и ю п р и х о ­
д и т с я переводить лексически, т. е. подбирать адек­
ватные р у с с к и е э к в и в а л е н т ы .
Е. g. It has been estimated that half of the p o p u l a ­
t i o n regard T V as their main source of n e w s .
По оценкам, п о л о в и н а населения считает телеви­
дение с в о и м о с н о в н ы м и с т о ч н и к о м и н ф о р м а ц и и .

• Exercise 1. Translate into Russian, using the pat­


tern.
1. Until 1966 the Morning Star was published un­
der the name of the Daily Worker.
2. The Morning Star was supported by its readers'
contributions.
3. It was once said that freedom is the r e c o g n i t i o n of
necessity.
4. The legal status of the National areas is defined
b y the State D u m a o f the Russian Federation.
5. A c c o r d i n g to the Ministry o f F o r e i g n E c o n o m i c
Relations some 8 0 projects are at present being built
in Russia b y f o r e i g n w o r k e r s .
6. " P r e p a r a t i o n s f o r Russian-Chinese Summit were
being guided by the principle of achieving the greatest
possible r e s u l t s , " said R u s s i a ' s Foreign Minister.
7. A r m e n i a ' s nuclear power station has been closed
down and the one being built ai Krasnodar has been
stopped.
8. In Bulgaria maternity leave ( о т п у с к no у х о д у за
р е б е н к о м ) can be taken under the same conditions by
the f a t h e r o r even the g r a n d m o t h e r of the baby if she is
still employed.
9. The proposals t o cut strategic arms b y 50 per cent
and t o eliminate chemical weapons had been widely
discussed but were not being implemented.
10. China announced yesterday that a new law on
demonstrations was being drafted and that the recent
student protests in the capital would be discussed in
parliament n e x t m o n t h .

4'-1260
• Exercise 2. Find passive constructions, analyse
them and translate into Russian.
1. In Great Britain evening newspapers are p u b ­
lished in series of editions t h r o u g h o u t the whole day.
2. The survivors of the disaster said that not e n o u g h
aid is being given to the v i c t i m s and their families.
3. A number of people were being questioned b y p o ­
lice yesterday after cannabis ( к о н о п л я ) w o r t h 3 million
pounds had been seized in a raid.
4. A pistol, rifle and some other a m m u n i t i o n were
discovered d u r i n g a routine search of the German-reg­
istered y a c h t .
5. Very few concessions are made in Britain f o r work­
ing parents compared with other European countries.
6. The Bank of England was f o r c e d t o intervene once
more to stop the pound sinking still further on the i n ­
ternational money markets.
7. " N o r t h e r n Ireland is n o w ruled b y a military b u ­
r e a u c r a c y , " said Labour P a r t y of Ireland leader.
8. Positive action policies f o r w o m e n across the Eu­
ropean C o m m u n i t y are being taken up b y trade unions
and employers.
9. Cooperatives selling imported g o o d s will now be
f o r c e d to sell them at state prices.
10. T o x i c algae (['аг1ф1:] — м о р с к и е водоросли) were
c o n f i r m e d yesterday at 20 British reservoirs and lakes.
Hundreds more are being tested.
1 1 . In the opposition-ruled region officials said that
a great number of g o v e r n m e n t supporters had been de­
tained b y police, vi :•
1 2 . Health Secretary yesterday spoke about new
rules which will be imposed on general practitioners
(врач-терапевт) f r o m next year.
13. The Russian Foreign Minister was told b y his
Japanese counterpart in New York last week that he was
ready to discuss the subject of opening disarmament
talks to reduce tensions between the two countries.
14. Over 70 trade unionists yesterday demonstrated
at a Leicester plastics f a c t o r y where t w o trade u n i o n -
.ik. 28
ists had been sacked f o r r e f u s i n g to w o r k on g o o d s des­
tined f o r Iraq.
15. T w o " v i o l e n t " prisoners were being hunted yes­
terday after they had attacked police o f f i c e r s and es­
caped. The pair were b e i n g taken f r o m L i v e r p o o l ' s p o ­
lice station to W a l t o n jail.
16. A great deal of media attention has recently
been directed towards one-parent families.
1 7 . Labour M P s were yesterday told by the party
leadership that the p o u n d should be put into the E u r o ­
pean exchange rate ( в а л ю т н ы й к у р с ) m e c h a n i s m .
18. Over 50 military ambulances ( м а ш и н а « с к о р о й
п о м о щ и » ) were being'deployed at police stations across
L o n d o n yesterday in readiness t o c o v e r accident and
e m e r g e n c y calls o v e r n i g h t .
1 9 . Since the Bill ( з а к о н о п р о е к т ) w h i c h will c o m e
b e f o r e the C o m m o n s is being given a f a i r w i n d b y the
G o v e r n m e n t it stands a g o o d chance of b e c o m i n g a law.
2 0 . T h o u g h there had been strikes in previous y e a r s ,
the press had not reported them because then strikes
were considered a violation of w o r k discipline or even
political acts.
2 1 . Deputy Foreign Minister stressed the hope f o r
B r i t a i n ' s " a c t i v e i n v o l v e m e n t " in the disarmament
process once 50 per cent cuts had been achieved in the
f o r t h c o m i n g talks.
2 2 . R u s s i a ' s proposals f o r a ' E u r o p e a n S u m m i t on
conventional arms were f o r m a l l y presented yesterday
at the E a s t - W e s t talks in Vienna. M o s c o w envisages
that the meeting will be preceded by a f o r e i g n m i n i s ­
ters meeting to o v e r c o m e outstanding obstacles being
f a c e d at the talks.
2 3 . Labour yesterday urged the British P r i m e M i n ­
ister to hold direct talks with A r g e n t i n i a n leaders o v e r
the Falklands — once diplomatic relations are restored.
S h a d o w (теневой кабинет) F o r e i g n Secretary said that
i n f o r m a l talks between British and A r g e n t i n i a n o f f i ­
cials would be held in Madrid.

29
2 4 . The proposed unilateral reduction and the prac­
tically complete reduction of nuclear w e a p o n s , when
relevant accords h a v e n ' t yet been achieved, cannot be
considered justified and approved.
' 2 5 . In Russia a law has been passed granting the
r i g h t to strike to all w o r k e r s except those in key indus­
tries w h o under the terms of the law will be banned
f r o m taking strike action. The law w h i c h was drafted
b y R u s s i a ' s trade unions together with the Council o f
Ministers has generally been welcomed as necessary.
2 6 . The Central Committee plenum o f China's C o m ­
munist P a r t y is engaged in fierce debate o v e r e c o n o m i c
strategies, Chinese sources said yesterday. A l t h o u g h
the plenum is not being reported in the Chinese, press,
diplomats and Chinese sources say that the lines of the
debate are evident in newspapers.
2 7 . Black South A f r i c a n nurses whose hostel in J o ­
hannesburg was destroyed b y fire have been refused
permission to stay at the nearby whites-only hospital,
said officials yesterday. The hospital superintendent
(комендант) said that the permission f o r the nurses to
stay at the whites-only hospital had been refused b y su­
periors.
2 8 . Yesterday it was revealed that the e c o n o m i c sit­
uation in R o m a n i a was m u c h worse than anticipated
because the f o r m e r regime had g i v e n false reports of
the y e a r ' s harvest. The newspaper Romania Libera
quoted an A g r i c u l t u r a l Ministry report as saying that
the harvest figures had been exaggerated.
2 9 . Republican news said that the documents c o n ­
cerning an a n t i - I R A (Irish Republican A r m y ) operation
revealed that the British g o v e r n m e n t had been in­
v o l v e d in a spying operation since 1 9 8 4 . The paper
claimed that the operation was aimed at infiltrating
and recruiting i n f o r m e r s in the Irish c o m m u n i t y in
Germany. it |
3 0 . A great deal has been accomplished o v e r the past
f e w years. W e have created a new moral and intellectu­
al climate and a new soeial consciousness.

30
INFINITIVE

I n f i n i t i v e as Subject

PATTERN A

To elect and to be elected is the right of every Russian


citizen.
Избирать и быть избранным является правом каждо­
го гражданина России.

PATTERN В

It was not enough to win concessions on dictatorship


when the task was to completely eliminate it.
. Недостаточно было добиться уступок от диктаторско­
го режима, задачей было его полное уничтожение.

• Exercise 1. Translate into Russian, using the pat­


terns.
l . T o i g n o r e the objective c o n n e c t i o n between the
cuts in strategic o f f e n s i v e weapons and limitation in
A B M (anti-ballistic missile) systems is to undermine
strategic stability and international security.
2. T o c u r b inflation requires the implemention
of the labour m o v e m e n t ' s A l t e r n a t i v e E c o n o m i c Stra­
tegy.
3. T o p u t f o r w a r d the prospect of a partnership b e ­
tween the g o v e r n m e n t , unions and employers, is to
refuse t o learn the lessons of the past, the Labour
leader sedd.

31
4. The Education Secretary accused the N U T (the
National Union of Teachers) leadership's behaviour as
being " a p p a l l i n g " . To take the money but continue ac­
tion was " i n e x c u s a b l e " , the trade union spokesman
said.
5. To behave c o n t r a r y t o this line and to subordi­
nate commercial and e c o n o m i c ties to political aims, is
like t r y i n g to hold up w o r l d p r o g r e s s , stated the party
leader.
6. To continue to victimize decent, principled w o r k ­
ers is part of a p r o g r a m m e of t r y i n g t o destroy trade
unionism through fear.
7. It is impossible to eradicate low pay w i t h o u t de­
structive inflationary consequences.
8. It is up to the TUC (Trade Union Congress) to de­
mand a realistic e c o n o m i c policy with a high social
wage.
9. It is strange to remember this g o v e r n m e n t claims
that wage settlements should be lower to solve Brit­
ain's e c o n o m i c problems.
10. It is a key aspect of g o v e r n m e n t strategy to dis­
guise the appalling level of y o u t h u n e m p l o y m e n t .
t'.

I n f i n i t i v e as Part o f P r e d i c a t e

PATTERN A

A s Predicative ^
; (именная часть с о с т а в н о г о с к а з у е м о г о )
Н а р у с с к и й переводится словами: « з а к л ю ч а е т с я в
том, чтобы; состоит в том, ч т о б ы » , а в настоящем
времени ч а с т о не п е р е в о д и т с я .

A t the current stage,, our objective is to bring the sys­


tem into full conformity with this concept.
Ha данном этапе наша цель — привести нашу систе­
му в полное соответствие с этой концепцией.

32
PATTERN В

A s Part of a C o m p o u n d Verbal Predicate


(часть составного глагольного с к а з у е м о г о )

Last week the bank decided to reschedule a 60-million-


dollar loan that was to be used to help finance an agricul­
ture project.
Ha прошлой неделе банк решил пересмотреть график
предоставления займа в 60 млн долларов, который дол­
жен быть использован для финансирования сельскохо­
зяйственного проекта.

• Exercise 2. Translate into Russian, using the pat­


terns.
1. The aim of the new G o v e r n m e n t is to g i v e the
country more democracy.
2. N e w highway and railway b o r d e r crossings are al­
so to be investigated, said the Interior Minister.
3. U n d e r the six-point plan the talks should be at­
tended by international observers.
4. The published tables will have to be placed on the
n e g o t i a t i n g table of conventional forces in Europe
f r o m the A t l a n t i c to the Urals.
5. T h e p o l i c y of Russia is to bring about a disarma­
ment and to do away with an arms race.
6. A mass meeting today w i l l - a l s o hear that any
changes in w o r k i n g practices must be negotiated with
the full consent of the w o r k f o r c e .
7. A U N observer mission is due to open its headquar­
ters in Managua today, ItarTass news agency reported.
8. Scientists should be campaigning to get rid of nu­
clear weapons, not helping to build more and more of
them.
9. T h e association also criticized loans o f f e r e d to
families on i n c o m e support w h i c h had to be repaid b y
d e d u c t i o n s f r o m their benefits.
10. The key issues f o r today are to increase mutual
cooperation between all states and take the necessary
steps toward the ending of military b l o c s .

5-1260
33
I n f i n i t i v e as O b j e c t

PATTERN A

Peru and Jamaica at the weekend refused to recognize


the new Panamanian government.
В конце недели Перу и Ямайка отказались признать
новое панамское правительство.

PATTERN В

The treaty signed in May, calls on both nations to cut


their strategic nuclear arsenals by about two thirds.
Договор, подписанный в мае, призывает обе страны
сократить свои арсеналы стратегического ядерного во­
оружения приблизительно на две трети.

PATTERN С

' The President asked to be relieved of the post of state


president.
Президент попросил освободить его от занимаемой
должности. • : j

SI Exercise 3. Translate into Russian, using the pat­


terns.
1. US President called o n the new Iranian leader to
help release US hostages held by pro-Iranian militants
in Lebanon.
2. A s y l u m applications in Britain reached record
levels last year and the g o v e r n m e n t has pledged to cut
the numbers in half within seven m o n t h s .
3. A t least 20 Labour M P s will back a m o t i o n calling
f o r new nuclear weapons programmes to be cancelled.
4. The US prosecutor general called yesterday on
Congress to form a comniittee to investigate m o u n t i n g
public charges of official c o r r u p t i o n . . , . . ^

•% 34
5. D u r i n g the W a s h i n g t o n s u m m i t , the t w o sides
agreed to observe the Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty.
6. Ethnic minorities and prisoners leaving jail tend­
ed to be refused help.
7. T h e first o f Namibian exiles began f l y i n g h o m e
yesterday saying that they were delighted to be re­
t u r n i n g after years in exile.
8. In a response to the p r e s i d e n t s ' call f o r peace
talks, the National Liberation Front o f f e r e d to open a
dialogue with their c o u n t r y ' s f a r - r i g h t g o v e r n m e n t .
9. But Ecuador — while u r g i n g the general to step
down — stressed that it opposed US military i n t e r v e n ­
tion in Panama.
10. Sri Lankan President called o n all political par­
ties in the c o u n t r y to take part in peace talks on Sep­
tember 13.
11. Russia is u r g i n g the United States to engage
N o r t h K o r e a in six-side talks. Deputy Foreign Minister
said on Tuesday.
12. China told the United States to mind its own
business on human r i g h t s , after W a s h i n g t o n accused
B e i j i n g ' s C o m m u n i s t rulers of c o m m i t t i n g an array of
rights violation last year.
13. Sakha President signed a resolution ordering
the r e p u b l i c ' s Finance Ministry to p r o v i d e 100,000 ru­
bles ( $ 3 , 2 2 5 ) t o the families of the students w h o died
in the f i r e .

I n f i n i t i v e as A t t r i b u t e

PATTERN A '

Proposals to cut strategic arms by 50 per cent and to


eliminate chemical weapons had been widely discussed.
Широко обсуждались предложения сократить на
5 0 % стратегические вооружения и уничтожить химиче­
ское оружие.

35
6--1260
PATTERN В

The Bills to be adopted during the parliament's three­


day session involve amendments to certain articles of the
country's constitution.
В законопроекты, которые должны быть приняты на
трехдневном заседании парламента, включены поправ­
ки к некоторым статьям конституции страны.

• Exercise 4. Translate into Russian, using the pat­


terns.
1. I tarTass said that the 160­member observer team
would be the first U N mission to supervise e l e c t i o n s in
a sovereign independent c o u n t r y .
2. " N o nukes (ядерное о р у ж и е ) by 2 0 1 0 " — this is
an important task to b e s o l v e d b y those w h o are f o r a
safer w o r l d .
3. The first of Namibian exiles to b e r e p a t r i a ­
ted f r o m A n g o l a and Zambia began flying h o m e yester­
day.
4. I ndonesian President yisited Russia in a bid t o
s t e p up relations and seek Russian h e l p in m o d e r n i z ­
i n g the c o u n t r y ' s armed f o r c e s .
5. The Labour leader said that the Russian Presi­
dent was "fundamentally t r u s t w o r t h y " . A n d there was
n o t h i n g t o b e astonished at. |
6. This is an important conclusion to b e drawn I
f r o m the P r e m i e r ' s statement. M a j o r differences
still remain between t w o leaders over nuclear disarma­
ment.
7. A criminal gang using insider i n f o r m a t i o n has
robbed the British Council of £ 5 0 0 , 0 0 0 b y presen­
ting fictitious bills t o b e paid into overseas ac­
counts.
8. E g y p t has received nq, requests t o g r a n t a s y l u m
to I raqi officials or freeze I raqi state assets, the E g y p ­
tian P r e s i d e n t ' s political adviser said.
9. The Organisation of A m e r i c a n States early yes­
terday called o f f its e f f o r t s t o m e d i a t e a settlement o f
P a n a m a ' s political crisis.
1 0 . Officials of the t w o countries were preparing a
j o i n t d o c u m e n t , " o n the basis of the clearly defined
principles of the new Sino-Russian r e l a t i o n s " , t o be
signed at the s u m m i t .
1 1 . Saudi A r a b i a has banned satellite dishes in a bid
t o c o n t r o l the p r o g r a m m e s watched in the Muslim
kingdom.
1 2 . T h e struggle to halt and reverse the arms race
must take p r i o r i t y o v e r all e c o n o m i c and social o b j e c ­
tives.

I n f i n i t i v e as A d v e r b i a l
Modifier of Purpose

PATTERN A

To build "a Common European home" everybody in the


West must understand the importance of solving all dis­
putable questions through negotiations.
Для того чтобы построить «общеевропейский д о м » ,
все на Западе должны осознать важность решения всех
спорных вопросов путем переговоров. '

PATTERN В

CND (the Campain for Nuclear Disarmament) support­


ers marched to Downing Street yesterday to hand in pro­
test letters to the Prime Minister. , , ... ,,.v "i
Сторонники движения за ядерное разоружение при­
шли вчера на Даунинг-стрит, чтобы вручить премьер-
министру письма протеста.

37
• Exercise 5. Translate into Russian, using the pat-
terns.
, 1. In Cape Town a crowd of 250 school teachers
marched to protest against detentions, and police fired
rubber bullets and teargas at 2 , 0 0 0 university stu-
dents.
2. To clear the w o r l d of nuclear weapons by 2 0 1 0 ,
the British Premier should change his views on the per-
manence of the nuclear weapons.
3. The companies, meeting in Canberra, said in
a statement that they w o u l d work with g o v e r n m e n t s
to achieve a global ban on chemical weapons.
4. A number of e v e n t s , services and ceremonies were
organized around the c o u n t r y at the weekend to com-
memorate the 60th anniversary of Britain's declara-
tion of war against Nazi Germany.
5. Tens of thousands of members of the ruling S o -
cialist P a r t y rallied in Berlin last night to hear party
chairman.
6. Russia is supplying t e c h n o l o g y to Iran to build its
first nuclear plant, in the southern c i t y of Bushehr.
7. To assess the results of the French President's
visit to Great Britain, one should be in the know of the
previous French-British relations.
8. In Dar es Salaam, commercial capital of Tanzania,
Congo President and leaders of the tribal f a c t i o n s
opened talks to stem the bloodshed.
9. To deal with this crisis, the peoples and g o v e r n -
ments of the world will have to engineer c o m m o n ac-
tion on an unprecedented scale.
10. Russian officials admitted in A p r i l that they
were concerned that Tehran m i g h t be enriching urani-
u m in order to develop nuclear weapons.

• Exercise 6. Stat& the functions of the infinitive


and translate the sentences into Russian.
1. It will be possible to mobilise even wider sections
of the people around that organised f i g h t i n g c o r e .

—ik,
2. Basically, Alliance supporters will have to be
s h o w n that their interests are opposed to those of b i g
business.
3. B i g business puts up prices to maintain and in-
crease its profits level.
4. The US g o v e r n m e n t has no right to f i x an upper
limit to the size of any national delegation at the U N .
5. A mass meeting of council unions voted o v e r -
w h e l m i n g l y t o build a s u p p o r t c a m p a i g n culminating
in a 2 4 - h o u r stoppage.
6. The c o a l i t i o n ' s goal is not to make Iraq a
c o l o n y — b u t a d e m o c r a c y , the first in the A r a b w o r l d .
7. The real issue at stake f o r the US in Panama is
the c o n t r o l of the canal, s o v e r e i g n t y o v e r w h i c h is due
to be returned to Panama next y e a r .
8. W e have advanced the idea of remote control o v e r
sea-based Cruise missiles. H o w e v e r , the US side re-
fused t o run a j o i n t experiment in this field.
9. If jobs are to be created, the c o u n t r y ' s m a n u f a c -
t u r i n g base must be rebuilt. That will require a h u g e
and massive modernisation p r o g r a m m e , i n v o l v i n g mas-
sive i n v e s t m e n t .
1 0 . Measures to build confidence between nations,
and t o prevent international t e r r o r i s m , were also p r o -
posed..
1 1 . In his speech R u s s i a ' s IV^nister paid particular
attention to the need t o halt nuclear testing.
1 2 . Britain and the United States agreed on Tuesday
n i g h t to step up their "contacts on a more regular
basis".
1 3 . A major p r o g r a m m e of a n o n y m o u s screening to
discover how many people are infected with the A i d s
v i r u s was announced yesterday.
14. W i t h o u t doubt the gross inequalities in the dis-
tribution of wealth around the globe must be eliminat-
ed if lasting grievances are to be r e m o v e d .
1 5 . A d v a n c e toward prosperity requires G o v e r n -
ment restrictions on the e m p l o y e r s ' ability t o pursue
their own interests at the w o r k e r s ' expense.

39
16. s t u d e n t s are set to lose out again after it was an-
nounced yesterday that their grants are to rise b y just
7.4 per cent n e x t year.
17. The change to the Nationality, Immigration and
A s y l u m A c t is part of a plan to stem the f l o w of asylum
seekers into Britain.
18. To create jobs f o r the people w h o want them a
number of serious questions will need to be tackled.
19. To be sure, co-operation has g o t to be two-way.
Here, mutual interest must be strictly considered, and
all restrictions, b o y c o t t s and embargoes completely re-
nounced.
2 0 . Investments will be shifted out of Britain to de-
liberately undermine the g o v e r n m e n t ' s policies..
2 1 . The g o v e r n m e n t plans to cut b u d g e t spending b y
2 8 . 5 billion rubles ( $ 9 1 0 million) n e x t year to pay f o r
tax cuts to stimulate e c o n o m i c g r o w t h . Finance Minis-
ter said on Tuesday.
22. It took W a s h i n g t o n a long time to recognize that
t e r r o r i s m in Chechnya is not too different f r o m terror-
ism in Israel, Saudi A r a b i a o r New Y o r k .
2 3 . A g r o u p of f o r m e r intelligence specialists called
on the President to investigate the CIA and other spy
agencies f o r failure t o u n c o v e r weapons of mass de-
struction in Iraq.
2 4 . Ten students were hospitalized with burns and
fractured limbs after j u m p i n g out of the s c h o o l ' s w i n -
dows to escape the flames.
INFINITIVE COMPLEXES

C o m p l e x Subject

PATTERN A

expected
reported
said
Smb (smth) is to do smth
believed
likely
unlikely

French-British talks are expected to start tomorrow.


Ожидается, что франко-британские
Предполагается, переговоры начнутся завтра.

M Exercise 1. Translate into Russian, using the pat­


tern. ,• • :.,
1. Russian President was expected to make a state­
ment after meeting the Labour leader and British busi­
ness people. But he only gave a short interview in
w h i c h he said: " W e can work together with under­
standing, trust and g o o d relations between o u r t w o
countries."
2. US and R u s s i a ' s delegations resumed talks in
Geneva. The sides are expected to prepare grounds f o r
w o r k i n g o u t a draft on S T A R T (Strategic A r m s R e d u c ­
tion Treaty). Russia's proposal in Geneva is likely to
arouse f r i c t i o n o v e r some items of S T A R T .
3. Armenian and British Foreign Ministers were
expected to sign an agreement on capital i n v e s t m e n t s .
the issuing visas and the c o n s t r u c t i o n of a school in A r ­
menia b y Britain.
4. The U S and Russian Presidents were expected
to meet in Geneva. The U S President was reported t o
have started on his~f light early in the m o r n i n g .
5. The existing state of affairs between these t w o
A f r i c a n states is m o r e likely to lead t o another war
than t o a stable peace in that r e g i o n .
6. A s it is repeatedly pointed out in British press the
present visit of the French President is not likely to
solve major differences, existing between the two states.
7. The PLO's (the Palestine Liberation Organiza­
t i o n ) intensified campaign f o r international recogni­
t i o n is likely to win f u r t h e r backing at an e m e r g e n c y
s u m m i t of the A r a b League in M o r o c c o .
8. H a v i n g been discussed behind closed d o o r s yester­
day the issue is expected to come up b e f o r e the whole
assembly f o r a decision todaiy or t o m o r r o w .
9. There are said to be indications that the London
talks discussing timetables f o r Iraq's independence and
A m e r i c a n troops withdrawal f r o m Iraq are nearing
completion.
10. T h e US-British talks are not e x p e c t e d to last
m o r e than two days and even in this c r o w d e d schedule,
the US President visited a f a c t o r y in W a t f o r d and held
talks w i t h the Labour leader.

PATTERN B

• ' expected 'V


reported
Smb (smth) is f ; to have done
believed
likely.;
unlikely

The British delegation is reported to have left home


yesterday. .•^^ ^
Как стало известно, английская делегация
По сообщениям прессы, отбыла на родину.

42
Note. П р о с т о й и н ф и н и т и в (типа to do) после к о н ­
с т р у к ц и и t o be expected (reported, e t c . ) о т н о с и т дей­
ствие к б у д у щ е м у , п е р ф е к т н ы й и н ф и н и т и в типа
to have d o n e — к проп1лому.

• Exercise 2. Translate into Russian, using the pat­


terns.
1. Three Palestinians were reported to have died as
a result of Israeli army actions yesterday — t w o f r o m
w o u n d s sustained in p r e v i o u s clashes and one shot in
the heart yesterday.
2. Later, after v i s i t i n g W e s t m i n s t e r A b b e y , the
President and his wife were reported to have stopped
to chat with the cheering c r o w d s .
3. W e s t e r n Bank. About 2 0 0 people were repor­
ted yesterday to have been detained o n d i f f e r e n t
charges.
4. The U S President's address to the assembled
press outside 10 D o w n i n g Street yesterday appeared t o
have been a success.
5. Syrian t r o o p s were reported to have been sent
recently to the Kaura and Batroun districts of N o r t h ­
ern Lebanon.
6. About 130 p e o p l e were yesterday r e p o r t e d t o
•have been arrested on d i f f e r e n t char^'es in Ulster.
7. The r e c e n t visit may b e said to have b e e n a new
attempt f o r both G o v e r n m e n t s to participate more
v i g o r o u s l y in the process of disarmament and particu­
larly in relation to the question of tactical nuclear
weapons.
8. R e c e n t l y the US plans in that part of the w o r l d
seemed to have assumed a new character and to have
become m o r e aggressive.
9. The first high-level talks since the new US A d ­
ministration came into o f f i c e a p p e a r t o h a v e g o t off to
a reasonably g o o d start, the State Secretary qualified
them as " v e r y useful and p r o d u c t i v e " , the French For­
eign Minister called them " g o o d negotiations in a g o o d
atmosphere". ы • : тч:;-,.:-.;- у.,, .,

43 •.
10. The meeting, which lasted just o v e r half an
h o u r , is understood to have taken place at the P r i m e
M i n i s t e r ' s request.^

II Exercise 3. Translate the sentences.


1. Last m o n t h the President suffered a mild stroke
f r o m which he is reported to be r e c o v e r i n g well.
2. The US g o v e r n m e n t is well known t o have been
persistently c o n d u c t i n g a f o r e i g n policy aimed at a re-
duction of the strategic offensive weapons and their
complete liquidation.
3. P o l a n d ' s new P r e m i e r , elected yesterday, pledged
to cooperate with the United States and respect c o m -
mitments to the signed Treaty.
4. The coalition g o v e r n m e n t to be appointed b y the
Premier is expected to g i v e the interior and defense
ministers to the centrists.
5. The new Prime Minister is expected to r e f o r m P o -
land's system of property to m o v e it toward a mixed
e c o n o m y including a capitalist sector.
6. K H A R T O U M . Peace talks between the Sudan's
military leaders and the rebel Sudan P e o p l e ' s Libera-
tion a r m y in Ethiopia this weekend are unlikely to
reach agreement, the rebel radio said.
7. The warnings are now shown to have been fully
j u s t i f i e d : thousands of workers will get the sack.
8. The m o v e is expected to be in force by the begin-
ning of n e x t year.
9. M a k i n g people pay f o r the amount of water they
use is likely to encourage people t o cut d o w n on their
-Consumption.
10. He repeated the P o n s h leader's call f o r a coali-
tion g o v e r n m e n t but the opposition despite seeking a
c o m p r o m i s e approach, is expected t o reject that appeal.
11". Further troop reinforcements are reported to
have been b r o u g h t in d u r i n g the last three days.
12. A full provisional g o v e r n m e n t is unlikely t o b e
set up because of the pfpblems of naming ministers

44
w h o live in the Israeli-occupied W e s t Bank and Gaza
Strip.
I
13. The news is likely to create discontent in many
quarters, including bodies currently o f f e r i n g arith-
metic tests. It has been argued that y o u n g s t e r s w h o
gain these qualifications sometimes still lack arithmet-
ical ability.
1 4 . So far the P r i m e Minister is said to have
achieved half a success o n l y .
15. The BBC is considered to play an i m p o r t a n t role
in w o r l d news b r o a d c a s t i n g .
1 6 . A m o n g the popular newspapers the Daily Mir-
ror can be considered the best k n o w n .
. 17. He is understood to have held t o p administrative
posts in the previous administrations.
18. The p r o g r a m m e is called an intellectual p r o -
g r a m m e because its style and presentation are intended
to satisfy intellectual and cultural interests.
1 9 . The police arrested a man w h o is stated t o have
been t r y i n g to sell the miniature and is said to have
confessed to h a v i n g stolen i t .
2 0 . Fresh f r o m re-election v i c t o r y , the French Presi-
dent appeared yesterday to b e t r y i n g t o f o r m a centrist
g o v e r n m e n t rather than immediately call new elec-
tions.
2 1 . The French F o r e i g n Minister* a c c o m p a n y i n g the
President in this visit will take part in the talks e x p e c t -
ed t o take place immediately after the P r e s i d e n t ' s visit
to 10 D o w n i n g Street.
2 2 . The Russian President scored diplomatic and
p o p u l a r t r i u m p h s in L o n d o n . Steps which he is e x p e c t -
- e d t o make are an attempt to c o m e t o a mutually-bene-
ficial agreement.
2 3 . The Socialist-led Left Coalition appeared to hold
the balance o f p o w e r as results came f r o m Greece's
Sunday parliamentary elections. The P r i m e Minister
hinted that he w o u l d try to f o r g e a political deal with
the coalition in order t o retain his hold on the g o v e r n -
ment.

45
2 4 . India is known to possess such metals as copper,
tin, lead, zink but they are p o o r l y prospected as yet.
The c o u n t r y appears t o have been acquainted with iron
and steel f r o m an early age.
2 5 . The new Strasbourg assembly is expected to have
almost doubled the 20 green members that it had before
the elections.

C o m p l e x Object

PATTERN A

to want
to expect
to like smb/smth to do smth
to, hate
would like
W e want the UN to be the first to learn of our new im­
portant decisions.
Мы хотим, чтобы ООН была первой организацией,
которая узнает о наших новых важных решениях.
to feel

^ smb do smth
to hear •
to watch • '* ,'-
Everybody who was present at the press conference saw
, the President, before answering the journalist's question,
exchange several remarks with his counterpart.
Bee присутствовавшие на пресс-конференции видели,
как президент обменялся несколькими репликами со сво-
" им коллегой, прежде чем ответил на вопрос журналиста.
to consider
to think
>smb/smth (to be/to do) smth
to believe
to declare
The recent session of the UN General Assembly de­
clared the use of N weapons to be a direct violation of
the UN Charter and a crime against humanity.
Ha недавно состоявшейся сессии Генеральной А с ­
самблеи ООН было заявлено о том, что использование
ядерного оружия является прямым нарушением Уста­
ва ООН и преступлением против человечества.
to make
smb do smth
to let
Life is making us abandon established stereotypes and
outdated views and discard illusions.
Жизнь заставляет нас отказаться от привычных сте­
реотипов, устаревших взглядов и ненужных иллюзий.

• Exercise 1. Translate into Russian, using the pat­


terns.
1. Russia wants the U S to lift sanctions imposed on
Iraq after its invasion of K u w a i t .
2. W e expected the long-term agreements between
Russia and the EU to be signed in the nearest possible
future.
3. People all over the w o r l d would like both Russia
arid the U S to convert their huge military c o m p l e x e s
t o c o m m e r c i a l use.
4. W e hate the Americans to write in their history
school b o o k , that it was their c o u n t i ^ that w o n the v i c ­
t o r y o v e r fascist Germany in W o r l d W a r II.
5. China urged the US to lift sanctions on e x p o r t of
the US high-tech g o o d s to their c o u n t r y .
6. The W a s h i n g t o n A d m i n i s t r a t i o n consider this
item on the agenda of the Congress to be of utmost im­
portance.
7. The U N declared Europe to b e the zone free of
all kinds of N weapons.
8. In the period of 1 9 3 9 - 1 9 4 0 the US and some other
states watched Hitler occupy many European states
one b y o n e , without making any steps to stop h i m .

47
9. He heard the rain stream beat against the leaves.
He leaned far out of the w i n d o w , and saw the first rays
of the sun spread all o v e r the garden.
10. The U N cannot make all member states refrain
f r o m use of threat of f o r c e in interstate relations.

• Exercise 2. Translate the sentences into Russian.


1. The people of Russia expect a majority of the newly
elected MPs to support their fight against bureaucracy.
2. W e want political and legal m e t h o d s to prevail in
solving whatever problems may arise.
3. A Palestinian said his torturers wanted him to
say the Communists were terrorists.
4. The meeting organised by the South Cumbria Brit-
ish-Russian friendship Society heard their president say
he was tremendously impressed by his visit to Russia.
5. A n y o n e w h o heard the Russian President speak at
thè Guild Hall w o u l d have been left in no doubt about
the way things are g o i n g to develop in f u t u r e .
6. Public opinion in the c o u n t r y made the opposition
leader get the Foreign Minister to arrive at a settle-
ment w i t h his f o r e i g n c o u n t e r p a r t .
7. The transition f r o m the observance of the A B M
Treaty to the so-called regime with the emphasis o n
strategic defense, proposed by the US delegation, will
not allow the parties to reach agreement on 50 per-cent
cuts in strategic o f f e n s i v e weapons.
8. The wife of the assassinated Swedish Premier con-
fronted the man accused of his murder and said she had
seen him staring at her dying husband after the shooting.
9. Only 11 per cent of Britons want the G o v e r n m e n t
to press ahead with Trident submarines if the US and
Russia agree to half their long-range nuclear missiles.
1 0 . A c c o r d i n g to the poll 33 per cent of Britons want
the Government to cancel Trident if the US and Russia
make a 50 per-cent reduction in their strategic weapons.
1 1 . Some 32 per cejit o f the population want Britain
to i n t r o d u c e Trident b u t hold it at c u r r e n t firepower
levels.

48
1 2 . Other observers believe m u r d e r to be just one
element of a m u c h wider strategy by local reactionary
businessmen in their thirst f o r new m a r k e t s .
13. Officials said that there were still issues to be
discussed with PLO wanting the Israeli t r o o p s to w i t h ­
draw f r o m the occupied A r a b territories.
14. The A n g o l a n representative said that he e x p e c t ­
ed o t h e r delegations to support their proposal b e f o r e it
was debated in the c o m m i t t e e .
15. The Council of Ministers c o n f i d e n t l y expected a
m a j o r i t y of the M P s to support their plan f o r the c o u n ­
try's renovation.
1 6 . The recent session of the U N General A s s e m b l y
declared the use of nuclear weapons t o be a direct v i o l a ­
tion o f the U N Charter.
17. The Russian P r e m i e r said he expected the M P s
to s u p p o r t the draft e c o n o m i c plan b e f o r e it was v o t e d
upon at the State D u m a .
18. E v e r y b o d y t h o u g h t that the US President would
try to g e t the French President to begin negotiations
with the Iraq issue.
19. Public opinion compelled the A d m i n i s t r a t i o n t o
. get the P e n t a g o n to abandon their plans f o r additional
subsidies.
2 0 . He remained dubious whether the most p o w e r f u l
members o f the U N would allow* such a process to de­
velop.

For-Phrase

PATTERN

It is for the Government to make a statement by the


end of the work of the State Duma.
Именно правительство должно выступить с заявле­
нием до конца работы Государственной Думы.

49
• Exercise. Translate the sentences, using the pat-
tern.
1. " I t is unwise and futile f o r some f o r e i g n countries
to t r y to exert pressure on China t h r o u g h political and
e c o n o m i c m e a n s , " said a f o r e i g n o f f i c e spokesman in
Beijing.
2. Calls came f r o m the Labour MPs f o r the next year
to be made the year of clearing Europe of all kinds of
weapons.
3. N o w the v e r y r u m o u r that a nuclear power sta-
tion m i g h t be build in an area is enough f o r a public
c a m p a i g n to be m o u n t e d against i t .
4. The resolution allows f o r an e m e r g e n c y session o f
the General A s s e m b l y to be called at 2 4 - h o u r notice b y
a vote of seven members of the Security Council.
5. It is f o r the US military to evaluate Russia's state
of preparedness f o r w a r .
6. The first tiling f o r the US President t o do is
t o f o l l o w R u s s i a ' s initiatives in solving the Iraqi prob-
lem.
7. I t ' s neither f o r Russia nor f o r the US to decide
the destiny of other countries and people.
8. The first thing f o r the US and Russia to do is to
evaluate the present situation in the w o r l d and arrive
at a p r o p e r decision.
9. " I t ' s high time f o r the torrents of w o r d s to be ac-
companied by the daily hard l a b o u r , " said one of the
delegates.
10. The Trade Union spokesman said it was not usu-
al f o r the discussion t o be interrupted f o r a couple of
days f o r a more detailed consideration.
1 1 . It is expected that at the closing meeting of the
State D u m a a proposal will be discussed f o r an alterna-
tive e c o n o m i c plan to be presented f o r the further con-
sideration at the fortl^coming session of the Soviet of
the Federation. I
1 2 . Calls came yesterday f r o m the leaders of the
Labour Party and thej^iberal Party f o r next year to

50
be made the year o f struggle against T o r y d o m e s t i c
policy.
13. He dismissed calls by some r i g h t - w i n g poli-
ticians f o r Latvian t e r r i t o r y t o be integrated i n t o
NATO.
1 4 . The draft c o n s t i t u t i o n will be discussed in the
assembly n e x t week where t w o thirds of the deputies
have to agree f o r it to be adopted.
GERUND

G e r u n d as Subject

PATTERN

Winning the readers of the paper is central to the


fight against the existing regime.
Завоевание газето!! широкого круга читателей явля­
ется главной задачей в борьбе против суш,ествующего ре­
жима.

• Exercise 1. Translate into Russian, using the pat­


tern.
1. N o t k e e p i n g p a c e w i t h the time must cause in
the end great disbalance in e c o n o m y .
2. S e t t i n g up a c o m m o n E u r o p e a n m a r k e t was a
long and complicated process.
3. Jesse J a c k s o n ' s h a v i n g failed at the elections
was a great disappointment to his voters.
4. R e c o n s t r u c t i n g the e c o n o m y o n m a r k e t p r i n c i ­
ples is the main thing o n o u r agenda today.
5. P u t t i n g things off till t o m o r r o w can no longer be
tolerated.
6. S e l l i n g c a n d i d a t e s like s o a p is widely spread in
the election campaigns of the U S A .
7. Arm­twisting is the policy of the ruling circles in
the junta ruled regimes.
8. Last night's c l o s i n g the U N General A s s e m b l y
session t o o k place in a solemn atmosphere.
9. F a m i l y p l a n n i n g is thé first problem in China t o ­
day. Better housing is hardly possible in the n e x t five
years.

52^
10. R e f o r m i n g o u r p o l i t i c a l system is a p o w e r f u l
tool f o r tackling seriously o u r problems and imple­
m e n t i n g all o u r initiatives.

G e r u n d as O b j e c t

PATTERN

1. Instead of setting territorial disputes by negotia­


tions, Iraq started military aggression against Kuwait.
Вместо того чтобы решить территориальные споры
путем переговоров, Ирак начал военную агрессию про­
тив Кувейта.

2. The military Commission set up after the Korean war


accused the US of having deployed some 1,000 nuclear
warheads in South Korea.
Созданная после корейской войны комиссия обвини­
ла Соединенные Штаты в том, что они разместили око­
ло 1000 ядерных боеголовок в Южной Корее.

• Exercise 2. Translate into Russian, using the pat­


tern.
1. Labour M P s called on the g o v e r n m e n t t o ban the
German ship f r o m entering Britain with its c a r g o o f
2,000 tons of t o x i c chemicals.
2. W e think that jointly w i t h the p r e v i o u s US A d ­
ministration we had done a great deal f o r making spe­
cific decisions.
3. D u r i n g the recent national poll 35 per cent o f men
and o v e r 50 per cent of w o m e n were against placing nu­
clear missiles o n British soil.
4. W e m u s t advance as quickly as possible towards
signing an agreement to reduce strategic arsenals.
Trade c o u l d also serve making peace and c o n f i d e n c e
between people.

53
5. Finally the total elimination o f nuclear weapons
is possible along with displaying g o o d w i l l in other
spheres.
6. Committee objected to t a k i n g any decision w i t h ­
o u t a t h o r o u g h - d i s c u s s i o n . The p r o b l e m needs u r g e n t
attending t o .
7. The N A T O ministers' meeting in P o r t u g a l ac­
cused Russia of h a v i n g m o d e r n i s e d l o n g - r a n g e n u ­
c l e a r w e a p o n s and called on it to bring them down t o
current N A T O levels.
8. The P o r t u g u e s e news agency i n f o r m e d about For­
eign Minister's h a v i n g come back from W a s h i n g t o n
after his f o u r days of talks w i t h the US State Secre­
tary.
9. Concern f o r the f u t u r e is the inner impulse that
sparks the need in people to j o i n p e a c e m a k i n g .
10. A l l initiatives w h i c h came f r o m Russia are di­
rected at e x p a n d i n g and deepening the process of re­
laxation of tension.

G e r u n d as A t t r i b u t e

PATTERN

A new mode of political thinking preserves the su­


preme value of life — peace for the people.
Новый стиль политического мышления сохраняет
главную ценность жизни — мир для людей.

• Exercise 3. Translate into Russian, using the pat­


tern.
1. A peaceful way of solving all disputable prob­
lems in the Middle East is welcomed.
2. The idea of creating a common European h o m e
was advanced b y the Russian leader.

54
3. There was the arms race i m p o s e d o n us in 1980s
w i t h a view to w e a r i n g us d o w n e c o n o m i c a l l y and p i c ­
t u r i n g the USSR as a military threat t o peace.
4. The task of placing the nuclear p o w e r engineer­
i n g under the e f f e c t i v e public c o n t r o l is a key p r o b l e m
at the m o m e n t .
5. There are ways of d e m o c r a t i c p l a n n i n g and ways
of combining elements o f planning with the market
conditions.
6. The time f o r juggling with economic and politi­
cal words is o v e r .
7. A m e r i c a n and I raqi officials f o r m e d a peace c o m ­
mittee w i t h a definite purpose of arriving at an agreed
settlement.
8. G e r m a n y felt a special responsibility f o r building
the Common European home.
9. T h e task of preserving peace and ensuring uni­
versal security was so pressing that it concerned
e v e r y o n e — politicians, business people and scientists.
10. M o s c o w and W a s h i n g t o n have b e c o m e the s y m ­
bol of the people's desire f o r changing their relations
for the better.

G e r u n d as A d v e r b i a l M o d i f i e r

PATTERN

1. Distrust and hostility must be overcome by deepen­


ing international détente.
Недоверие и враждебность должны быть преодолены
углублением международно!! разрядки.

2. Major savings could be made in military spendingsaf­


ter having taken a wide range of steps in disarmament.
Основные средства могли бы быть сэкономлены на во­
енных расходах после принятия широкого круга мер по
разоружению. ,

55
Exercise 4. Translate into Russian, using the pat-
tern.
1. The treaty cannot be signed w i t h o u t s o l v i n g all
disputable problems.
2 . The m o v e m e n t - f o r democratization is healthy in
itself. Life demanded the process of p r o m o t i o n of activ-
i t y , rectification of mistakes. W i t h o u t m a k i n g these
a d v a n c e s we cannot solve e c o n o m i c , ideological, politi-
cal and ethnic problems.
3. A f t e r visiting W e s t m i n s t e r A b b e y , the Russian
President and his w i f e made an unscheduled stop to
chat with n u m e r o u s cheering c r o w d s .
4. In p r o c l a i m i n g its m o d i f i e d e c o n o m i c p o l i c y the
Russian G o v e r n m e n t must convince the international
c o m m u n i t y that it has the will and ability to make a
breakthrough.
5. B e f o r e l e a v i n g the Iranian capital T e h e r a n
f o r M o s c o w the senior Islamic Republic official said
that his t r i p would " o p e n a new chapter in their rela-
tions".
6. In s t r u g g l i n g f o r the liberation of S o u t h e r n A f -
rica the national liberation movement always had the
support and aid of all honest people t h r o u g h o u t the
world.
7. A f t e r m a k i n g the s t a t e m e n t the Iraqi Foreign
Minister said he would meet A m e r i c a n and British rep-
resentatives in L o n d o n later that m o n t h .
8. The policy of market e c o n o m y gained a p r o f o u n d
understanding and s u p p o r t a m o n g the w o r k i n g class
and intellectuals therefore no decision can be taken
w i t h o u t discussing it w i t h the people.
9. These happy events occurred w i t h o u t any r e c o m -
m e n d a t i o n h a v i n g b e e n m a d e by the Education Secre-
tary and indeed w i t h o u t his h a v i n g been officially in-
formed.
10. Fully in k e e p i n g w i t h the spirit of time Russia
has adopted a course towards market e c o n o m y .

^56
íj» Exercise 5. State the functions of Gerund and
translate the sentences.
1. A fundamentally new m e c h a n i s m f o r regulating
mutual relations m u s t be in keeping with the demands
of a market-type i n t e g r a t i o n .
2. Peacemaking is a need, one m i g h t say, p r o d u c e d
by m u c h s u f f e r i n g to preservé life and gain immortali-
ty t h r o u g h c o m i n g generations.
3. T r a n s f o r m a t i o n s will be impossible if we fail to
f o s t e r and p r o m o t e human d i g n i t y and independent re-
sponsible way of thinking and expressing o n e ' s v i e w s .
4. The two leaders have different political c o n v i c -
tions b u t b o t h of them oppose war as a means f o r set-
tling political disputes.
5. A f t e r having been rejected b y the A m e r i c a n side
the A f g h a n proposals still require m u c h attention t o .
6. The postwar history has ended and w e open a new
chapter w i t h the inscription of c h a n g i n g the world in
f a v o u r of c o o p e r a t i o n and against c o n f r o n t a t i o n .
7. Chemical weapons is the most d i s g r a c i n g p o w e r .
I t ' s w o r t h m e n t i o n i n g that there are evidences of its
having been used by some c o u n t r i e s .
8. Greece accused T u r k e y of breaking international
law b y expelling the Greek consul-general in Istanbul
after A t h e n s having ordered o u t a Turkish d i p l o m a t .
T h e expulsion was an " a c t of p o l i t i c a L r e v e n g e " .
9. Our special c o r r e s p o n d e n t g a v e a review o f the re-
sults o f the last chess t o u r n a m e n t . He said he c o u l d n ' t
help a d m i r i n g that w o n d e r f u l result of the Russian
team.
10. The f o r m e r German Communist leader was ac-
cused of the power abuse, c o r r u p t i o n , financial swin-
dles and of having deprived the G D R people of their na-
tional d i g n i t y .
PARTICIPLE

T h e Present Participle A c t i v e
a n d Passive as A t t r i b u t e

PATTERN A

1. Population in big cities is suffering from increasing


pollution of the environment.
Население больших городов страдает от растущего
загрязнения окружающей среды.
2. The problem being discussed now is of great impor­
tance for our future work.
Обсуждаемая сейчас проблема имеет большое значе­
ние для будущей работы.

T h e Present Participle A c t i v e
a n d t h e P e r f e c t Participle A c t i v e
as A d v e r b i a l M o d i f i e r

• \ ' v . ^ ' r ; . , ; : PATTERN в

1. Opening a new session of Parliament, the Prime Min­


ister gave a high evaluation o f the present-day. situation in
Europe.
Открывая очередную Ьессию, премьер-министр дал
высокую оценку современной ситуации в Европе.
2. Having commented on the talks, the paper pointed to
the need of further bilateral contacts.
Прокомментировав переговоры, газета отметила не­
обходимость дальнейших двусторонних контактов.

58
Note. The perfect participle active emphasizes that
the first action is completed before the second one starts.

B Exercise 1. Translate into Russian, using the pat-


terns.
1. In W a r s a w the Polish President signed f o u r
agreements with his visiting Italian c o u n t e r p a r t , cov-
ering e c o n o m i c , political and cultural ties between the
two countries.
2. The questions being discussed were included into
the agenda of the m e e t i n g .
3. Paying a return visit to France, the British For-
eign Secretary had talks with the French Foreign M i n -
ister.
4. Having signed the agreement o n non-interference
in the internal affairs of each o t h e r , the sides p r o v i d e d
f o r e x t e n t i o n of business links.
5. A t the c o n f e r e n c e opening today in M o s c o w , the
French President will call f o r new relations in E u r o p e .
6. The issue b e i n g discussed behind closed d o o r s is
expected t o come up b e f o r e the whole assembly f o r a de-
cision t o d a y or t o m o r r o w .
7. Giving the news, the French Foreign Minister de-
clined to g o into details.
8. Having r e a c h e d at least relative stability on the
m a r k e t , w e ' l l be able to m o v e f o r w a r d and have f i r m
g r o u n d under o u r f e e t .
9. Three people died and nine were i n j u r e d on M o n -
day in street clashes between security f o r c e s and w o r k -
ers staging a two-day strike.
10. The paragraph being revised matters m u c h to
the f u t u r e trade relations o f b o t h c o u n t r i e s .
1 1 . Speaking at the m e e t i n g , the Foreign Minister
o f Japan said that his g o v e r n m e n t stood f o r e c o n o m i c
c o o p e r a t i o n with the f o r m e r socialist states on the ba-
sis of equality and mutual benefit.
1 2 . Having achieved positive results at the s u m m i t
talks, the sides agreed t o continue the dialogue in the
nearest f u t u r e possible.

59
T h e P r e s e n t Participle A c t i v e
a n d t h e Past Participle Passive P r e c e d e d
b y C o n j u n c t i o n s ( w h e n , w h i l e , if, as if,
t h o u g h , as t h o u g h ) as A d v e r b i a l M o d i f i e r

PATTERN С

1. The US President gave no definite answer to that


question, when answering the journalists' questions at the
press conference.
Отвечая на вопросы журналистов во время пресс-кон­
ференции, президент США не дал определенного ответа
на этот вопрос.

2. When asked what impressed him most, the President


said "the constructive attitude to the subject" of his coun­
terpart.
Когда президента спросили, что произвело на него
наиболее сильное впечатление, он сказал: «конструктив­
ный подход к проблеме» со стороны его партнера.

& Exercise 2. Translate into Russian, using the pat­


tern.
1. The workers have suspended their strikes w h i l e
s e e k i n g a return to the negotiating table, but will con­
sider an all-out stoppage if there is no m o v e m e n t .
2. Both the US President and the Russian President,
w h e n discussing the international problems at the
s u m m i t , seemed to be ready f o r a reasonable c o m p r o ­
mise.
3. W h e n left t o themselves, the Heads of State con­
tinued t o discuss the problems of environmental p r o ­
tection.
4. W h e n signed the p r o j e c t will probably lead to
Palestinian sovereignty.
5. W h e n elected. President Kennedy seemed a c o n ­
ventional cold war D e m o c r a t and his early months in

60
o f f i c e suggested that he w o u l d continue those anti-
C o m m u n i s t , anti-Soviet policies.
6. When asked if the rebel m o v e m e n t had been d i s ­
cussed, the spokesman said "national r e c o n c i l i a t i o n "
i
was likely to have been included.
7. If asked what can be d o n e , the reply will b e
definite — the negotiations should g e t their way.
8. They could face the death penalty if found g u i l t y .
9. The spirit of j u s t struggle f o r f r e e d o m and inde­
pendence, though crushed, was n o t b r o k e n .
10. The British F o r e i g n Secretary d i d n ' t g i v e posi­
tive answer t o that question, when answering the j o u r ­
n a l i s t s ' questions at the press c o n f e r e n c e .

T h e Past Participle Passive


as A t t r i b u t e

PATTERN D

The information received is being carefully studied by


the most representative international bodies.
Полученная информация тщательно изучается наи­
более представительными международными организа­
циями.

• Exercise 3. Translate into Russian, using the pat­


tern.
l . T h e US P r e s i d e n t ' s proposals, supported b y
N A T O , envisaged o n l y the reduction t o equal levels of
the f o r c e s of t w o powers — the U S S R and the US —
stationed on the t e r r i t o r y of allies.
2 . Expelled f r o m China A s s o c i a t e d Press c o r r e s p o n -
tents had to return h o m e .
3. Five m o n t h s a g o the international c o n f e r e n c e
convened in Paris sent a ray of hope f o r the elimination
of chemical weapons.

51
4. The Israeli g o v e r n m e n t informed beforehand was
ready to respond with m o r e repression.
5. W a s h i n g t o n ' s decision to g i v e military aid to o p -
j position groirps contradicts agreements reached in
• Jakarta to reduce f o r e i g n arms deliveries t o all sides
in the c o n f l i c t .
6. The Sri Lankan President imposed a state of
e m e r g e n c y yesterday f o l l o w i n g a week-long b u s strike
organized b y the rebels.
7. Talks aimed at ending violence will begin tomorrow.
8. The recent disarmament agreements signed be-
tween Russia and the US will w o r k , p r o v i d e d all other
N powers start the process of disarmament t o o .

• Exercise 4. Translate into Russian. State the func-


tion of the participle.
1. Expressing the will and the fundamental inter-
ests of the Russian people the g o v e r n m e n t declared
that it would persistently and purposefully p r o m o t e
the process of revolutionary changes in the c o u n t r y .
2. " W e need a policy ensuring our c o n t r o l o v e r the
Panama Canal m u c h later than the year 2 0 0 0 , " de-
clared the m e m o r a n d u m prepared f o r the m e e t i n g .
3. The plan f o r unconditional peace talks with the
rebel forces was approved by all 750 deputies attending
a special session of the parliament.
4. The Security Council, representing the most p o w -
erful countries in the w o r l d , demanded the immediate
withdrawal of Israeli troops f r o m the occupied A r a b
territories.
5. Having shifted the accent f r o m c o m m e r c i a l to p o -
litical problems the US President demanded that R u s -
sia "let Europe be whole and f r e e " .
6. Strikers at the W e s t End store taking part in the
second of t w o planned daily stoppages yesterday were
jubilant at the sticcess of their picketline.
7. The R u s s i a n - A m e r i c a n declaration projects a phi-
losophy which if acted upon would o v e r c o m e the d i v i -
sion of the c o u n t f y .

62
8. H a v i n g r e f u s e d t o accept the reason given by P r e -
toria f o r its sudden withdrawal f r o m negotiations in
Brazzaville last week, the Cuban leader said that his
c o u n t r y would never tolerate any S o u t h A f r i c a n role in
v e r i f y i n g the withdrawal of Cuban internationalist
troops from Angola.
9. R e s p o n d i n g to the Russian P r e s i d e n t ' s c o n c e p t of
a c o m m o n European h o m e , the US President said he
w o u l d tell H u n g a r y and Poland d u r i n g his s u m m e r v i s -
it that freedom of m o v e m e n t was needed.
1 0 . W h e n a s k e d to c o m m e n t o n the results of the
Japan leader's visit to Great Britain, the British P r i m e
Minister replied that they were b o t h satisfied w i t h the
results.
1 1 . A t t a c k s had intensified o v e r the weekend, with
Iraq using tanks, aircraft and chemical b o m b s .
1 2 . Belgian anti-apartheid a c t i v i s t s , released f r o m a
S o u t h A f r i c a n j a i l , later tore up a pledge that they had
renounced armed struggle against P r e t o r i a .
1 3 . Fearing to m o v e i n t o any area unless accompa-
nied b y massive armoured s u p p o r t , the t r o o p s left
m u c h of Beijing u n o c c u p i e d .
1 4 . The problem will be highlighted at the subse-
quent talks o n strategic o f f e n s i v e armaments w h i c h
will f o c u s on the structure of the remaining strategic
o f f e n s i v e weapons.
15. Referring to the US President's proposal, the R u s -
sian Foreign Minister said that the total number of US
and Russian ballistic missiles could be reasonably cut.
1 6 . This d o c u m e n t , published in a Panamanian daily
paper last year, lays bare the US strategy.
1 7 . This d o c u m e n t , if published, will reveal a se-
c r e t , aggressive policy of W a s h i n g t o n .
18. Having pointed o u t that it was clear t o "all w h o
are n o t blinded b y p r e j u d i c e " that there was no threat
to Britain f r o m Russia, the spokesman called f o r an i m -
mediate abandonment of that p r o g r a m m e .
19. The P r i m e M i n i s t e r ' s unscheduled propaganda
visit t o Namibia on Saturday lost some of its gloss
t h r o u g h the outbreak of hostilities.

63
2 0 . Brain cancer patients once g i v e n only months to
live are leading normal lives due t o an improved way of
treating t u m o u r s , it was announced yesterday.
2 1 . " T h e people are e x p e c t i n g peace, and the main
question confronting us is peace and w a r , " said the A f ­
ghan e n v o y detailing many initiatives taken by the
g o v e r n m e n t to halt the war.
2 2 . There is little hope of improved relations with
W a s h i n g t o n after its interference in Iran and the " d i ­
rect war declared on the c o u n t r y b y the U S A " .

The Nominative Absolute


Participial C o n s t r u c t i o n

PATTERN E

The document being ratified, the summit started in an


atmosphere of friendship and cordiality. »
Когда документ был ратифицирован, переговоры на
высшем уровне начались в атмосфере дружбы и сердеч­
ности, i^*

• Exercise. Translate into Russian, using the pat­


tern.
1. The duty c o m p l e t e d , the Heads o f State had a
t w o - d a y rest (теперь к о г д а ) .
2. The talks h a v i n g ended, the m e m o r a n d u m will be
published (после з а в е р ш е н и я ) .
3. The visit b e i n g a s u c c e s s , the plans f o r the f o r t h ­
c o m i n g meeting were w o r k e d o u t .
4. It b e i n g pretty late, the meeting was postponed
f o r the n e x t day.
5. The debt b e i n g paid, the troops left the c o u n t r y .
6. The a r m a m e n t s b e i n g r e d u c e d , the atmosphere
becomes less tense.
.««,

^^64
7. Developing countries f i g h t f o r independence,
R u s s i a , as b e f o r e , f o l l o w i n g the c o u r s e of non-inter­
ference in the internal affairs o f other states.
8. Conciliation f a i l i n g , f o r c e r e m a i n s ; but f o r c e
f a i l i n g , no f u r t h e r hope of conciliation is left ( е с л и . . . ) .
9. C i r c u m s t a n c e s p e r m i t t i n g , the n e x t summit will
b e held in A u g u s t this year ( е с л и . . . ) .
1 0 . A lot of questions h a v i n g remained on the agen­
da, the Defence Ministers decided to continue the talks.
1 1 . A s k e d if Israel w o u l d deploy troops in the south­
ern suburbs, the military adviser said: "The s i t u a t i o n
c o m i n g to t h i s , we will not allow it t o c o n t i n u e " (ес­
ли...).
COMPLEX SENTENCE

Subject Clause

PATTERN A

What the developing countries need most to solve


their economic problems is assistance of the EEC.
To, в чем больше всего нуждаются развивающиеся
страны для решения своих экономических проблем, —
это помощь стран-членов ЕЭС.

PATTERN В

Whether the government's economic programme will


prove viable is doubted by some deputies of both radical
and conservative views.
Окажется ли экономическая программа правитель­
ства жизнеспособной, ставится под сомнение некоторы­
ми депутатами как радикальных, так и консервативных
взглядов.

PATTERN С

In the world as it exists today, it is important that re­


spect for the sovereignty of all the states of Europe is
honoured.
В ныне существующем мире важно, чтобы соблю­
далось уважение к суверенитету всех государств Ев­
ропы. К

66
•/Exercise 1. Translate the sentences, using the pat­
terns.
1. W h a t these companies really want is cheap la­
b o u r and a g o o d return on their i n v e s t m e n t s .
2. W h a t the countries need now is a b u d g e t w h i c h
cuts military spending.
3. Whether they will succeed is a question w h i c h
can be answered w i t h the passage of t i m e .
4. Whether the new president will be successful in
his will for improvement of the country's relations
with the East is rather d o u b t f u l .
5. W h a t the U S needs most of all now is a w o r l d
market, not a closed Latin A m e r i c a n m a r k e t .
6. W h a t the United States wants to see now is a
decision reached t h r o u g h discussions and round-table
negotiations.
7. It is vital that the countries of Eastern Europe
be allowed to resolve their problems in their own way
without interference.
8. W h a t has happened in the W e s t European
countries in the way of democratic and popular
changes is irreversible.
9. W h a t has survived from the past is m o s t l y the
lifestyle of the r u l i n g class.
10. " W h a t was heard yesterday was a statement of
goals n o t a coherent p o l i c y , " the Labour leader said.
11. " I t is ironic that control officers employed by
the London Ambulance Service, are being offered
only 6.5 per cent and being denied the right to arbi­
tration," c o m m e n t e d a staff spokesman.

P r e d i c a t i v e Clause

PATTERN

The question is whether the EEC members are ready to


act in contradiction with the US interests.
Вопрос заключается в том, готовы ли государства-
члены ЕЭС действовать вразрез с интересами США.

67
I Exercise 2. Translate the sentences, using the pat­
tern.
1. The truth is that the invasion of Panama is not
something forced on the U S by recent events.
2. The U N Secretary General said: " T h e situation is
that we have to be f o r it or against i t . "
3. The Scottish reality is that m o s t people voted
the Labour.
4. The essential point now is that the labour move­
ment puts the a r g u m e n t s clearly before the British
people.
5. The T o r y assumption was that market forces
would determine wage levels.
6. Then there is the question of waste. The f a c t is
that the industry pushed ahead and gave the problem
of dealing with waste a very low priority.
7. The Labour leader's central theme was that La­
bour was the party of the n a t i o n , determined to undo
the p r o m o t i o n o f wealth and power f o r the rich.
8. The market is when you earn more money than
someone else because y o u w o r k h a r d e r and m o r e ef­
fectively; war is when you have m o r e money because
you stole it from others.
9. The political position of Russia in the world arena
has i m p r o v e d . W h a t is not certain is w h e t h e r this i m ­
provement will help R u s s i a solve its economic diffi­
culties.
10. The problem is that the extra benefits a n d pay­
ments will c o m e n o t f r o m the p o c k e t of the c o a l in­
dustry but from the state budget.

O b j e c t Clause

^PATTERN A ••

Russia's message to the US Administration said Russia


would be true to its obligations.
В послании России администрации США говорилось,
что она (Россия) б^^Де^ верна своим обязательствам.

68
PATTERN В

A statement from the office insisted that the Delta op­


eration was "fully compliant with the Anti-Ballistic Mis­
sile Treaty".
В заявлении министерства утверждалось, что опера­
ция «Дельта» проводится в полном соответствии с до­
говором по ПРО.

PATTERN С

" W h a t the extremists could not achieve Pakistan plans


to help them implement on May 14," added general U.
«То, чего не смогли достичь экстремисты, Пакистан
планирует помочь им осуществить 14 мая», — сказал
далее генерал Ю.

L. Exercise 3. Translate the sentences, using the pat­


terns. ,
1. The G o v e r n m e n t s of the newly liberated c o u n t r i e s
k n o w they can win not only political but economic in­
dependence only through hard struggle against mo­
nopoly domination.
2. Canon W . said he hopad that the Tories and
Scottish Nationalists, who have b o y c o t t e d the c o n v e n ­
tion, would still forward their views.
3. Personnel training was also requested b y the P o l ­
ish g o v e r n m e n t , with an invitation to f o r e i g n e x p e r t s
t o g o and see what needed doing, and then t o set up
t r a i n i n g in P o l a n d .
4. A s we recall the outbreak of the Second W o r l d
W a r , we must not f o r g e t what the men and women
w h o defeated fascism fought to create.
5. British companies have been particularly success­
ful in telling the military what the military want,
rather than in w a i t i n g f o r contracts t o b e o f f e r e d .

• • • • . 69
6. In the c o m i n g year, a critical review of the nucle­
ar industry will take place to decide what the TUC
(Trade Union Congress) should do in the longer term.
7. In yesterday's debates, several speakers did
sound a note of caution about what Labour would be
able to achieve in a first term of office.
8. People are aware that behind the civil nuclear
programme stands the military nuclear programme.
9. It is doubted whether the civilian spin-offs from
defence research and development are of much sig­
nificance.
1 0 . It is clear that despite all attempts to reconcile
the sharply antagonistic interests of the rival imperi­
alists, any planning of capitalism will remain largely
cosmetic.
1 1 . Russia is waiting to see what the US Adminis­
tration decides to do about huge oil contracts in Iraq
as well as Baghdad's billion-dollar debt to Moscow be­
fore backing an end to UN sanctions, a top official said.

A t t r i b u t e Clause

PATTERN

The report the head of the US Administration made in


the UN was listened to with great interest.
Доклад, с которым выступил в ООН руководитель ад­
министрации США, был выслушан с большим интересом.

• Exercise 4. Translate the sentences, using the pat­


tern. H'" •; •
1. The treaty, which the U S and Russia both agree
should be finalized by next year, w o u l d p r o v i d e f o r
m a j o r cuts in troops,; vehicles and combat aircraft.
2. The State Duma resolution said Georgia was pav­
i n g the way f o r quick entry into N A T O , which would
bring the western alliance to Russia's doorstep.
«4,

70
3. The British g o v e r n m e n t picked the top H o n g
K o n g people it wanted to b e able to settle in Britain
after the c o l o n y was handed back to China.
4. The Russian P r e m i e r proposed slashing the n u m ­
ber of ministers and state c o m m i t t e e s that existed five
years a g o .
5. The French Foreign Minister c o m m e n t e d : " W e
m u s t n o w work towards European disarmament. The
m o m e n t will c o m e when foreign troops based in other
countries will have to leave."
6. Rescue officials s t r u g g l e d Tuesday t o reach vic­
tims buried by a landslide that roared through a re­
mote gold-mining town in Bolivia's tropical lowlands
and killed at least four people.
7. It is the entire crisis o f the capitalist s y s t e m ,
which the government has been trying to manage.
8. W e s t Cornwall has its own peculiar p r o b l e m s ,
caused by rural p o v e r t y , u n e m p l o y m e n t and high
rents. One place where this reality is met head on is in
Penzance.
9. A Brazilian c o u r t early yesterday struck d o w n the
presidential candidacy of a popular television personal­
ity, whose last-minute attempt to enter the race took
him straight to the top of the opinion polls.
10. The coalition must develop tactics that allow
them to minimize the suffering of innocent Iraqi citi­
zens.
1 1 . US Brigade General accused the Iraqi r e g i m e of
using civilians as human shields and punishing those
w h o seemed to favour coalition forces.
1 2 . The lower house of the Russian parliament d e ­
layed the ratification of a nuclear arms reduction trea­
ty that the two Presidents signed last May.

A d v e r b i a l Clause o f T i m e
Introduced by the conjunctions: w h e n , w h e n e v e r — вся­
кий раз когда; w h i l e —• в т о время как, когда, пока; as —
когда, в то время как, по мере того как; a f t e r — после т о -

71
го как; b e f o r e — прежде чем, д о того как; till, until — п о ­
ка, д о тех пор пока (не); as s o o n as — как т о л ь к о ; as long
as — пока, д о тех пор пока; since — с тех пор как;
h a r d l y ... w h e n — едва только ... как; п о sooner ... t h a n —
едва т о л ь к о .Г. как, не успел ... как и д р .

PATTERN А

While the US defence budget continues to grow, Rus­


sia has embarked on reducing military spending.
В T O время как военный бюджет в США продолжает
расти, Россия приступила к сокраш;ению военных ассиг­
нований.

" PATTERN В

Speculators pocketed millions as they turned London


and New York into casino cities.
Спекулянты набивали свои карманы миллионами, по
мере того как (они) превращали Лондон и Нью-Йорк в
города- казино.

• Exercise 5. Translate the sentences, using the pat­


terns.
1. For years British exports have been stagnant, as
imports have soared, leaving this c o u n t r y ' s balance of
trade in chronic d e f i c i t .
2. W a t e r unions are stepping up their campaign t o
stop the denationalization of their industry as opposi­
tion to the government plans mounts.
3. A Vietnamese man was killed while singing
karaoke after being electrocuted by his microphone,
police said. Tran Quoc D u , a 23-year-old taekwondo
teacher, died d-n the spot when his karaoke micro­
phone short-circtiited while he was singing in his
home.
4. While the agreement bans the transport or stor­
age of nuclear weapons on Spanish soil, it r e c o r d s
M a d r i d ' s agreement not t o ask US ships what they are
carrying.
5. A f t e r a c k n o w l e d g i n g his failure M r . M. said he
f a v o u r e d a non-political g o v e r n m e n t until new elec­
tions c o u l d be held early next year.
6. The Former Greek P r e m i e r was given three days
to t r y and f o r m a g o v e r n m e n t yesterday after the New
Democracy leader failed to win sufficient support.
7. Russian-Irish political dialogue received a b o o s t
yesterday as Russian President made a two-hour
stopover en route to Cuba for talks with Irish Pre­
mier at Shannon airport.
8. G r o w i n g understanding between East and W e s t
will intensify as long as the present trend to disarma­
ment and lowering of tension continues.
9. The flight f r o m the International Space Station
(ISS) marked the first landing on a Russian-made c r a f t
since the U S grounded its space fleet after the Co­
lumbia shuttle disaster on February 1.
10. Even as Mozambique, Angola and Guinea-Bis­
sau were struggling for their independence in the
early 70s P r e t o r i a was b u i l d i n g a political and m i l i t a r y
alliance with P o r t u g a l .
11. Russia has been a n x i o u s t o secure UN i n v o l v e ­
ment to prevent W a s h i n g t o n f r o m taking full c o n t r o l
of B a g h d a d ' s oil riches untjl it hands over power to an
Iraqi administration.
1 2 . A r e p o r t t o the UN H u m a n R i g h t s Commission
u r g e d sending m o n i t o r s to the c o u n t r y as soon as it's
safe.

A d v e r b i a l Clause o f C o n d i t i o n
Introduced by the conjunctions: if, unless — если т о л ь к о
не, разве только; so long as — если, при условии, что; p r o ­
v i d e d ( t h a t ) , providing ( t h a t ) , o n condition ( t h a t ) - - при
условии, что; supposing ( t h a t ) , suppose ( t h a t ) — предпо­
л о ж и м , что. ... . •

73
PATTERN
1
South African Foreign Minister threatened to throw out
the UN peace-keeping force unless the UN Security Coun­
cil condemned the "incursion" by rebel fighters.
Министр иностранных дел Южно-Африканской Рес­
публики пригрозил выдворить из страны войска ООН по
поддержанию мира, если только Совет Безопасности
ООН не осудит «вторжение» боевиков.

• Exercise 6. Translate the sentences, using the pat­


tern.
1. The Left A l l i a n c e , headed by the Greek Socialist
P a r t y , has up to n o w insisted that it will not ally with
the r u l i n g Party unless those linked to corruption
charges stand down.
2. The institute's principal policy o f f i c e r pointed
o u t that authorities w o u l d lose subsidy if they paid
benefits above the limit.
3. Such a p r o g r a m m e cannot become a reality unless
it is backed up by political agreements.
4. The speaker claimed that teachers should receive
more pay f o r e f f e c t i v e teaching. The m o n e y was there,
provided teachers' unions agree it should be tied to
work contracts.
5. A f g h a n i s t a n accepted counter-revolutionaries
back into the c o u n t r y providing they gave their back­
ing to the revolution.
6. The industry has g o t to realize that unless it is
able to convince the public that the proposition is via­
ble in terms of safety and health, it is d o o m e d .
7. Interviewed o n Israeli R a d i o M r . P. warned:
"There w o n ' t be peace so long as Shamir heads this
government."
8. The recent disarmament agreements signed b e ­
tween Russia and the US will w o r k , provided all other
N powers start the process of disarmament too.
9. The official trade unions here are usually c o n ­
trolled by the a d m i n i s t f e t i o n t h o u g h they do have
broad^rights if they want to use them.

. , 74 , • •
10. "Death f r o m disease and malnutrition will soar
unless we help with a massive injection of medical
aid," warned the Transport and General W o r k e r s '
U n i o n representative.
1 1 . If the US-Russian p a r t n e r s h i p is to have a fu­
ture, it has to be based o n , a m o n g o t h e r t h i n g s , j o i n i n g
f o r c e s against t e r r o r i s m and c o n t r o l l i n g the p r o l i f e r a ­
tion of weapons of mass destruction ( W M D ) .

A d v e r b i a l Clause o f C a u s e
Introduced by the conjunctions: because — потому ч т о ;
as — так как; since — так как, поскольку; f o r — так как,
ибо; n o w t h a t — теперь когда, поскольку и д р .

PATTERN А

Negotiations will be held on two levels, for the object is


to sign an agreement acceptable for both sides.
Переговоры будут проведены на двух уровнях, так
как их целью является подписание приемлемого для
обеих сторон соглашения.

PATTERN В

Since the agreement has been ratified by both parties,


the negotiating sides can move on to new treaties.
Так как соглашение ратифицировано обоими участ­
никами переговоров, договариваюп];иеся стороны могут
перейти к обсуждению новых договоров.

• Exercise 7. Translate the sentences, using the pat­


terns.
l . N e w R u s s i a ' s initiatives in Vienna are gaining
support of increasing number of people for they offer
truly splendid prospects for a safer world.

. 7 5
2. Since such agreements have never been signed
before scepticism is not entirely unjustified.
3. Massive fare rises are clearly unacceptable, since
they are already far too high.
4. Since it makes a luxury car, Japan relies heavily
on sales overseas, particularly in the United States.
5. Organizers have had problems f i n d i n g an alterna­
tive site since Brazil's Sao P aulo, originally awarded
the G a m e s , was dropped because of financial and or­
ganizational problems.
6. Now that working people are increasingly stand­
ing up for themselves and the Tory P arty is sliding in
the opinion polls, some in the Party are b e c o m i n g rest­
less.
7. People in countries which have nuclear weapons
may exhibit less concern about the threat they pose since
they consider the weapons as deterrents to nuclear war.
8. I mports have exceeded e x p o r t s of late. Since
there are variations from m o n t h to month, it is better
to look at the first three m o n t h s .
9. Now that much of the industrial base has been
destroyed instead of built on, the S N P (Scottish Na­
tionalist Party) v o t e has turned f r o m positive opti­
mism into negative frustration.
1 0 . Since most legislatures must deal with a great
variety of bills a division of labour is necessary to be
set u p .

Exercise 8. State the types of clauses and trans­


late the sentences.
1. W h e t h e r M r . N . remains as T o r y P a r t y leader is
not really the main question f o r the m a j o r i t y of Brit­
a i n ' s people.
2. Such an approach means rejecting totally policies
of consensus or class collaboration, which are essential­
ly what the Alliance stands f o r .
3. I t was unclear yesterday whether the Socialist
P a r t y leadership changées and the prospects of f u r t h e r
dialogue would suffice to defuse opposition calls f o r a
two­hour national protest strike on Monday. * < , .* <
.«1, -.r-

Ч 76
4. The death toll in the South A f r i c a n railway t r a g e -
d y when a c o m m u t e r train j u m p e d the rails on a sharp
b e n d near Durban rose to 6 3 .
5. It is always w o r t h w h i l e to see divisions appear in
the T o r y P a r t y , since the weaker the party is the m o r e
chance there is of w o r k i n g p e o p l e ' s interests being
served.
6. It was g r a t i f y i n g that the Russian Foreign M i n i s -
ter c o n f i r m e d that R u s s i a remains in f a v o u r of a U S -
Russia summit.
7. It is impossible to eradicate l o w pay w i t h o u t de-
s t r u c t i v e inflationary consequences, unless there is a
redistribution of i n c o m e in w h i c h h i g h earners receive
smaller increases than the low-paid.
8. " W h a t happens n e x t will be determined b y o u r
national executive c o m m i t t e e , " M r . S. stated.
9. M r . C. added that while the scale of j o b losses was
regrettable, many miners wanted t o take advantage o f
i m p r o v e d redundancy t e r m s , b e f o r e the payment peri-
o d expires n e x t M a r c h .
10. " A s u m m i t meeting is also a realistic possibili-
t y , " R u s s i a ' s Foreign Minister emphasizes, " i f that is
w h a t the US side w a n t s . "
1 1 . It is v e r y important that each side can express
its point of v i e w and listen to the o t h e r .
1 2 . It is d i f f i c u l t to understand exactly what the US
authorities seek to gain f r o m their unjustifiable deci-
sion to expel 25 Russian diplomats based at the United
N a t i o n s in N e w Y o r k .
13. " W h a t we w a n t is a break up of these empires in
o r d e r to i n t r o d u c e more competition and choice into
the i n d u s t r y , " said the spokesman.
14. N o contacts can replace direct dialogue between
N o r t h K o r e a and the United States. There is a defined
set of questions that only these t w o sides can solve.
1 5 . It was W a s h i n g t o n ' s intention t o have discarded
the treaty in the n e x t seven years f o r it is precisely in
seven years that they plan to prepare space weapons f o r
deployment.

77
1 6 . W h a t was needed f r o m the N U T (the National
U n i o n of Teachers) e x e c u t i v e was m o r e v i g o r o u s ef-
f o r t s to extend L o n d o n ' s action.
1 7 . Since the adverts appeared in the newspapers on
H i r o s h i m a Day, A u g u s t 6, calling f o r s u p p o r t f o r R u s -
s i a ' s proposal to ban nuclear testing, there have been
f e w signs of d e v e l o p m e n t .
18. T h e hope was that the adverts t o ban nuclear
testing w o u l d stimulate a campaign t h r o u g h o u t the
country.
19. It is difficult to see n o w how the so-called invisi-
ble earnings f r o m the financial markets could make up
f o r the situation.
2 0 . The f a c t is that we face a v e r y serious balance of
payments crisis.
2 1 . M i n i s t r y of Defence sources have made it clear
that the expected pay o f f f r o m Star W a r s has not o c -
curred.
2 2 . It has always been a cause f o r concern that pro-
gressive political views have never had sufficient facil-
ity f o r transmission and broadcasting.
2 3 . It is much to the credit o f public service w o r k -
e r s ' unions that they have rejected arbitrary limits i m -
posed b y the g o v e r n m e n t .
2 4 . Unemployment has killed thousands of people
since the T o r y g o v e r n m e n t came to p o w e r , the Labour
health spokesman said yesterday.
2 5 . To blame perestroika, the Russian leader o r
mistakes w h i c h have been made in implementing pere-
stroika f o r this situation is like blaming the diagnosis
and the prescription f o r the illness.
2 6 . T h e incident came just three days after the em-
bassy was besieged by a n g r y anti-war protesters w h o
broke several windows with;stones and chanted f o r the
embassy to be closed d o w n .
2 7 . K i n g U r - N a m m u expanded the Sumerian empire
and made his capital the wealthiest city in Mesopota-
mia. A r t s and literature flourished under his succes-
sors until the enemies destroyed the city.

7B
2 8 . "Before the war started there were enough sup-
plies for a normal medical situation," a spokesman for
the World Health Organization said.
29. Russian firms have the most to lose in a postwar
Iraq as they have signed contracts worth $ 4 billion
with the former Iraqi government.
3 0 . Since US-led war in Iraq began, Russia has
joined France and Germany in pushing for the UN to
play a central role in Iraq's postwar reconstruction.
3 1 . Arab and Islamic nations said they would push
for the adoption of a resolution in the UN General A s -
sembly against the war in Iraq.
32. US troops fighting in Iraq since Washington
launched its war to oust Saddam Hussein on March 20
have faced criticism over incidents in which unarmed
civilians were killed.
3 3 . " W e are drawing some military-political conclu-
sions, because this conflict makes us remember the
words of (Russian Tsar) Alexander III who said 'Russia
has only two reliable allies — the army and the n a v y , ' "
the Defence Minister said.

J
I
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Беспалова Нина Петровна • • ! ,^ •


/ . ­ Котлярова Клара Николаевна
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, : Соколова Наталия Леонидовна ^ •, , '
Шейдеман Георгий Игоревич

АНГЛИЙСКИЙ ЯЗЫК
ГРАММАТИЧЕСКИЕ ТРУДНОСТИ ПЕРЕВОДА
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