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INDIAN RAILWAYS

FACTS & FIGURES


2016-17

BHARAT SARKAR
GOVERNMENT OF INDIA
RAIL MANTRALAYA
MINISTRY OF RAILWAYS
(RAILWAY BOARD)
KEY STATISTICS 2016-17
1. Route Length (Kms.) - Broad Gauge (1.676 M.) 61,680
- Metre Gauge (1.000 M.) 3,479
- Narrow Gauge 2,209
  (0.762 M. and 0.610 M.)
Total 67,368
2. Double and Multiple Track - Broad Gauge 22,021
(Route Kms.) - Metre Gauge -
Total 22,021
3. Electrified Track (Route Kms.) - Broad Gauge 25,367
- Metre Gauge -
Total 25,367
4. Number of Railway Stations 7,349
5. Number of Railway Bridges 1,44,698
6. Traffic Volume
Passengers Originating (Millions) 8,116
Passenger Kms. 1,149,835
Tonnes Originating (Rev. Traffic) (Millions Tonnes) 1,106.15
Tonne Kms. (Millions) 620,175
7. Number of Employees (Thousands) 1308
8. Revenue (` in Millions) 1,65,292.20
9. Expenses (` in Millions) 1,59,029.61
10. Rolling Stock
- Locomotives:
- Steam 39
- Diesel 6,023
- Electric 5,399
Total 11,461
- Passenger Carriages 64,223
- Freight Cars/Wagons 2,77,987
Note : All the figures, unless otherwise stated, are as at the end of the fiscal
year i.e. March 31, 2017.
CONTENTS
Review of the year 5
Originating Passengers & Average Lead 6
Passenger Kilometres 7
Passenger Services 8
Passenger Revenue 9
Freight Operations
— Originating Tonnage 10
— Net Tonne Kms. 11
— Freight Train & Wagon Kms. 12
— Commodity wise Loading 13
— Commodity wise NTKms. 14
— Average Lead 15
— Revenue 16
— Commodity wise Earnings 17
Rolling Stock
— Locomotives 18
— Passenger Coaches 19
— Freight Cars/Wagons 20
Track/Route Kilometres 21
Gross Tonne Kilometres 22
Electrification 23
Signalling 24
Telecommunication 25
Personnel 26
Revenue 27
Expenses 28
Net Revenue & Excess/Shortfall 29
Assets 30
Asset Utilisation 31
Engine Kms. per Day per Engine in use 32
Social Service Obligation 33
Tourism 34
Technology Development 39
International Cooperation 44
REVIEW OF THE YEAR 2016-17
In 2016-17 Indian Railways (IR) lifted 1,110.95 million tonnes of
total freight, the bulk comprising revenue-earning traffic of 1,106.15
million tonnes (excluding Konkan Railway). The transport output in
terms of Net Tonne Kilometres (NTKms.) was
621 billion. 8,116 million ‘originating’ passengers generated 1,150
billion passenger kms. Earnings from passenger traffic was `462.80
billion and from freight `1,020.28 billion. The year ended with an excess
of ` 49.13 billion in spite of increased working expenses and payment
of Productivity Linked Bonus to employees.
Construction of 953 kms. of new lines was completed and 2,487
kms. of track renewals carried out. Also, 1,020 kms. of track was
converted from NG/MG to BG and opened to traffic. IR made good
progress in indigenous manufacture of rolling stock and other vital stores
during 2016-17. The production of locos/coaches in 2016-17 was:
Production Unit Product Details
Electric locos Diesel locos Coaches
(BG) (BG)
1. Chittaranjan Locomotive
Works, Chittaranjan 292
2. Diesel Locomotive
Works, Varanasi 334
3. Integral Coach Factory,
Chennai 2,215
4. Rail Coach Factory,
Kapurthala 1,489
5. Modern Coach Factory
Raebareli 576
Electrification of 2,013 route kms. was completed in 2016-17.
5
ORIGINATING PASSENGERS & AVERAGE LEAD
The number of passengers originating and average distance travelled
per passenger for some selected years are given below:
Passengers originating
(Millions)
Year Suburban Non- Suburban Total
1980-81 2,000 1,613 3,613
1990-91 2,259 1,599 3,858
2000-01 2,861 1,972 4,833
2010-11 4,061 3,590 7,651
2015-16 4,459 3,648 8,107
2016-17 4,566 3,550 8,116

average distance travelled


per passenger (Kms.)

Year Suburban Non- Suburban Total


1980-81 20.5 103.9 57.7
1990-91 26.4 147.6 76.6
2000-01 31.1 186.7 94.6
2010-11 33.8 234.4 127.9
2015-16 32.6 273.5 141.0
2016-17 31.8 283.0 141.7

6
passenger kilometres
In 2016-17 the passenger kms. rose by 451% over those in
1980-81.

Passenger KMS. (Millions)


Year Suburban Non- Total
Suburban
1980-81 41,086 167,472 208,558
1990-91 59,578 236,066 295,644
2000-01 88,872 368,150 457,022
2010-11 137,127 841,381 978,508
2015-16 145,253 997,786 1,143,039
2016-17 145,417 100,418 1,149,835

7
passenger services
Passenger services measured in terms of train Kms., vehicle Kms. and
density of train services are shown below:
Suburban Non-Suburban Train kms. per
(Millions) (Millions) running track
km. per day

Year Train Vehicle Train Vehicle Sub- Non-


Kms. Kms. Kms. Kms. urban suburban
1980-81 35.55 601.5 258 5,582 36.6 9.7
1990-91 48.37 840.7 316 7,739 40.0 11.5
2000-01 56.04 1,029.5 397 11,035 47.1 13.8
2010-11 73.25 1,438.5 582 18,207 46.7 19.2
2015-16 86.39* 1,970 684 23,356* 50.0 21.6
2016-17 87.30 2,002 700 24,274 50.6 21.5
*revised

Food being served in Gatimaan Express by IRCTC

8
passenger revenue
Passenger revenue has been steadily increasing, though it formed only
about 28% of the total earnings of the Railways in 2016-17.
Passenger revenue
(` in millions)
Year Suburban Non- Suburban Total
1980-81 905.2 7,369.5 8,274.7
1990-91 3,569.8 27,877.4 31,447.2
2000-01 10,911.4 93,920.2 104,831.6
2010-11 17,862.8 239,193.6 257,056.4
2015-16 25,752.2 417,080.4 442,832.6
2016-17 26,894.4 435,910.2 462,804.6

9
freight operation
1. originating tonnage
The Revenue-earning originating tonnage rose from 195.9 million
tonnes in 1980-81 to 1,106.15 million tonnes in 2016-17 while the total
originating freight rose from 220 million tonnes to 1,110.95 million
tonnes during the same period.
(Million tonnes)
Originating tonnage
Year Revenue-earning Total
    traffic* traffic
1980-81 195.9 220.0
1990-91 318.4 341.4
2000-01 473.5 504.2
2010-11 921.73 926.43
2015-16 1,101.51 1,108.62
2016-17 1,106.15 1,110.95
* Excludes loading of Konkan Railway.

10
2. net tonne kms.
The freight carried in terms of Net Tonne Kms. has increased by
292% over that carried in 1980-81.
Net Tonne Kms. (Millions)
Year Revenue-earning Total
traffic traffic
1980-81 147,652 158,474
1990-91 235,785 242,699
2000-01 312,371 315,516
2010-11 625,723 626,473
2015-16 654,481 655,605
2016-17 620,175 620,858

11
3. FREIGHT TRAIN & WAGON KMS.
The freight train kms. in 2016-17 totalled 391 millions, an average of
11.4 train kms. per running track km. per day. Wagon kms. were 18,403
millions, of which 64.0% were on loaded journeys.
Freight train kms. wagon kms.
Year Total Per running + Total Percentage
(Millions) track km. (Millions) of loaded
per day to total
1980-81 199 7.2 12,165 69.5
1990-91 245 8.5 19,230 65.5
2000-01 261 8.7 27,654 60.9
2010-11 368 11.6 17,749 66.5
2015-16 393 11.69 18,708 64.0
2016-17 391 11.4 18,403 64.0
@ from 2010-11 onward figure in the terms of 8 wheels

Loading at Kakinada Port Vijayawada Division SCR

12
4. commodity-wise loading
The commodity-wise break-up of revenue-earning originating traffic
is given below:

COMMODITY-wise originating tonnage


(Millions)

Bulk 2013-14 2014-15 2015-16 2016-17


Commodities
Coal 508.06 545.81 551.83 532.83
Iron Ores 124.27 112.77 116.94 137.55
Cement 109.80 109.80 105.35 103.21
Mineral Oils 41.16 41.09 43.24 42.42
Foodgrains 55.10 55.47 45.73 44.86
Fertilisers 44.70 47.41 52.23 48.34
Iron & Steel 38.95 42.84 44.79 52.41
Limestone & 23.53 25.53
Dolomite 20.71 21.20
Stones other 15.04 11.09
than marble
(incl. gypsum) 11.61 14.98
Total 954.36 991.37 998.68 998.24
Commodities 102.83 107.91
other than above 97.28 103.89
Grand Total 1,051.64 1,095.26 1,101.51 1,106.15

13
5. commodity-wise NTKms.
The commodity-wise break-up of NTKms. is given below:

COMMODITY-wise NTKms. (Billions)

Bulk 2013-14 2014-15 2015-16 2016-17


Commodities
Coal 271.92 301.52 280.70 249.62
Iron Ores 37.22 36.74 32.42 39.74
Cement 60.50 59.08 55.96 54.60
Mineral Oils 29.74 27.22 29.32 28.52
Foodgrains 70.54 66.98 60.13 57.81
Fertilisers 34.50 38.75 43.70 39.22
Iron & Steel 34.95 37.38 40.44 44.03
Limestone &
Dolomite 12.20 12.96 13.06 12.91
Stones other
than marble
(incl.gypsum) 5.79 7.89 7.42 3.65
Total 557.36 588.53 563.15 530.10
Commodities
other than above 108.45 93.17 91.33 90.08
Grand Total 665.81 681.70 654.48 620.18

14
6. average lead
The average lead in kms. of revenue-earning freight traffic over the
years was as below:

Year Average lead of revenue- Index


earning freight traffic (1980-81=100)
(Kms.)
1980-81 754 100.0
1990-91 741 98.3
2000-01 660 87.5
2010-11 679 90.1
2015-16 594 78.8
2016-17 561 74.4

15
7. Revenue
The revenue earned from freight traffic has registered a sustained
increase from `15,509 millions in 1980-81 to `1,020,278 millions in
2016-17.

Year Revenue* Revenue per tonne km.


(` in millions) (Paise)
1980-81 15,509 10.50
1990-91 82,470 35.00
2000-01 230,454 73.78
2010-11 606,871 96.99
2012-13* 834,788 128.50
2015-16 1,069,406 163.40
2016-17 1,020,278 164.51
* Excludes other goods earnings like wharfage, demurrage etc.

16
8. Commodity-wise earnings
Revenue earned from various commodities is given below:

Commodity-Wise Revenue Earnings


(` in millions)

Bulk 2013-14 2014-15 2015-16 2016-17


Commodities
Coal 391,444 479,385 493,497 452,286
Iron Ores 76,887 78,929 68,963 81,759
Cement 85,074 87,382 88,515 86,299
Mineral Oils 53,440 55,157 59,270 56,863
Foodgrains 79,975 81,383 77,543 75,058
Fertilisers 41,252 51,521 65,534 55,613
lron & Steel 55,969 65,444 71,823 76,722
Limestone & 22,552 21,457
Dolomite 18,601 21,781
Stones other
than marble
(incl.gypsum) 8,499 12,172 12,928 10,900
Total 811,141 933,144 960,625 916,958
Commodities
other than above 104,568 97,858 108,781 103,320
Grand Total 915,709 1,031,002 1,069,406 1,020,278

17
Rolling Stock
Locomotives
With increasing reliance on dieselisation and electrification, IR has been
reducing its fleet of steam locomotives.
Number of locomotives
Broad Gauge Metre Gauge Total
(including NG)
Year Steam Diesel Elec. Steam Diesel Elec. Steam Diesel Elec.
1980-81 4,361 1,866 1,016 2,763 470 20 7,469 2,403 1,036
1990-91 1,295 2,893 1,723 1,482 731 20 2,915 3,759 1,743
2000-01 – 3,881 2,791 33 657 19 54 4,702 2,810
2010-11 – 4,688 4,033 30 310 – 43 5,137 4,033
2015-16 – 5,585 5,214 26 172 – 39 5,869 5,214
2016-17 – 5,757 5,399 26 147 – 39 6 ,023 5,399
* revised

18
Passenger Coaches
The number of coaches and their capacity has grown over the years
keeping in view the increasing passenger demand.
Emu Conventional Other
Coaches# Coaches Coaching
Year No. Capacity+ No.@ Capacity
Vehicles$
1980-81 2,625 5,00,607 27,478 16,95,127 8,230
1990-91 3,142 6,09,042 28,701 18,64,136 6,668
2000-01 4,526 8,59,701 33,258 23,72,729 4,731
2010-11 7,292 13,64,948 45,082 32,54,555 6,500
2015-16 8,805* 15,78,868* 53,171* 37,94,954* 6,704*
2016-17 9,125 16,46,880 53,483 39,37,039 6,714
+ Includes standing accommodation.
@ Includes rail cars.
$ Includes luggage vans, mail vans etc.
# Includes number of DEMU/DHMU coaches and their capacity.
* revised

Demu Train passing through Tea garden in Assam

19
Freight Cars/wagons
The total number of freight cars including brake vans and railway service
wagons in 2016-17 was 277,987.
No. of freight cars/wagons
Year Broad Gauge Metre Gauge Total
(incl. N.G.)
1980-81 309,1940 86,8390 400,9460
1990-91 284,3620 58,5760 346,1020
2000-01 205,9590 15,2940 222,1930
2010-11 225,2590 4,5380 229,9970
2015-16 248,725* 2,449* 251,295*
2016-17 275,8070 2,0630 277,9870
* revised

20
Track/route Kilometres
The total route kilometres as on 31.3.2017 was 67,368 Kms. Out of
this, 32.69% is double/multiple track.

Total route kilometres


Year BG MG NG Total
1980-81 31,827 25,167 4,246 61,240
1990-91 34,880 23,419 4,068 62,367
2000-01 44,776 14,987 3,265 63,028
2010-11 55,188 6,809 2,463 64,460
2015-16 60,510 3,880 2,297 66,687
2016-17 61,680 3,479 2,209 67,368

Double/multiple track
% of Total
Route Kms. Route Kms.
1980-81 13,040 21.3
1990-91 14,331 23.0
2000-01 16,010 25.4
2010-11 19,223 29.82
2015-16 21,237 31.85
2016-17 22,021 32.69

21
Gross tonne kilometres
Percentage of gross tonne kms. by types of traction, is given below:

Passenger

Year Steam Diesel Electric


Loco EMU
1980-81 41.2 33.0 17.2 8.6
1990-91 15.1 47.1 29.5 8.3
2000-01 – 52.8 40.2 7.0
2010-11 _ 49.3 44.9 5.8
2015-16 – 48.3* 44.3* 7.4*
2016-17 – 46.3 46.3 7.4
* revised

Freight
Year Steam Diesel Electric
1980-81 9.0 67.0 24.0
1990-91 0.8 57.8 41.4
2000-01 – 40.2 59.8
2010-11 _ 35.7 64.3
2015-16 _ 34.9 65.1
2016-17 _ 35.5 64.5

22
Electrification
The length of electrified route Kms. on IR for some selected years is:
Year Total Route Route Kms. % age of
Kms. electrified electrified to
total route kms.
1980-81 61,240 5,345 8.73
1990-91 62,367 9,968 15.98
2000-01 63,028 14,856 23.57
2010-11 64,460 19,607 30.41
2015-16 66,687 23,555 35.32
2016-17 67,368 25,367 37.65
Note: Data based on Annual Statistical Statement No. 8

23
Signalling
To increase Efficiency and to enhance Safety in train operations, Advanced
Signalling System with Route Relay/Panel/Electronic Interlocking
(PI/RRI/EI) along with Multi Aspect Colour Light Signals have been
progressively provided at 5,584 stations about 88% of Broad Gauge
stations of Indian Railways, replacing Outdated Multi Cabin Mechanical
Signalling system involving a large number of human interfaces.
Comparative position of each item as on March 31, 2017 vis-à-vis
last year is as follows:
(in units)
As on As on
Installation
31.3.2016 31.3.2017
Panel Interlocking (No. of stations) 4,107 4,155

Electronic Interlocking (No. of stations) 1,005 1,148

Route Relay Interlocking (No. of stations) 281 281

LED Lit Signals (No. of stations) 5,732 5,917

Data Loggers (No. of stations) 5,587 5,758

Colour Light Signalling (No. of stations) 5,832 6,000


Last Vehicle Check by Axle Counters
4,640 4,976
(No. of Block Sections)
Track Circuiting (No. of locations) 31,737 33,054

Automatic Block Signalling (Route kilometres) 2,752 2,866


Intermediate Block Signalling
489 501
(No. of Block Sections)
Interlocked Level Crossings Gates (Nos.) 10,776 10,826

24
Telecommunication
IR has a vast telecom network which is being continuously upgraded
to cater to the requirements of voice and data traffic for administrative/
operational /safety purposes and for various on-line information systems.
Reliability of the network is being enhanced by commissioning optical
fibre cable and quad cable based communication systems. The progress
of installation of telecom equipment on IR is given below:
Important Telecom assets are tabulated below:-
As on As on
Installation Units
31.03.2016 31.03.2017
Optical Fibre Cable Rkms 49,434 51,247
Quad Cable Rkms 58,980 60,458
Railway Telephone Subscribers Lines Nos. 3,95,816 3,95,816
No. of Control Sections provided with Dual Tone 322 322
Nos.
Multiple Frequency (DTMF) control equipment
Mobile Train Radio communication System (Route
kms.):-
GSM (R) based Rkms 2,461 2,461
TETRA based Rkms 53 53
Digital Microwave (7 GHz) Rkms 1,852 1,812
Public Address System Nos. of 4,780 4,893
STNs
Train Display Boards Nos. of 1,090 1,090
STNs
Coach Guidance System Nos. of 534 566
STNs
VHF Sets
5 Watt sets (Hand held) Nos. 1,45,947 1,44,040
25 Watt sets (At Stations) Nos. 9,461 9,425
V-SAT Nos. 1,147 881
Railnet Connections Nos. 1,30,185 1,30,185
UTS/PRS Circuits Nos. 10,760 10,839
FOIS Circuits Nos. 2,209 2,219
NGN & Exchange Circuits Nos. 2,429 2,536

25
Personnel
The strength of railway employees together with the cost is shown
below:

Year No. of staff Wage bill Average Traffic


(000) (` in annual wage unit per
millions) (`) per employee
employee# (ooo)@
1980-81 1,572.2 13,1670 8,4350 2440
1990-91 1,651.8 51,6630 31,8640 3460
2000-01 1,545.3 188,4140 121,2810 5350
2010-11 1,332.0 517,7660 394,1120 1,2910
2015-16 1,330.3* 930,012* 715,726* 1,443*
2015-16 1,308.3 1,152,7130 883,4950 1,4440
# On the basis of average number of staff employed in the year.
@ Traffic unit represents passenger kilometres and net tonne kilometres (Taking
into account open line staff only).
* revised

26
Revenue
IR revenues have steadily gone up and were ` 1,652,922.0 millions in
2016-17 recording an increase of 0.6% over the previous year.
Revenue (` in millions)
Year Passenger Parcels Freight Misc. Suspense Gross
and other (Bills Traffic
Coaching Receivable) Receipts

1980-81 8,274.7 1,157.1 16,175.2 820.8 (–)187.6 26,240.2


1990-91 31,475.0 3,363.8 84,078.7 2,417.6 (–)370.2 120,964.9
2000-01 105,150.7 7,641.6 233,051.0 7,032.5 (–)4,071.0 348,804.8
2010-11 257,056.4 24,698 628,447.2 34,182.7 (+)101.7 945,356.3
2015-16 442,832.6 43,714.9 1,092,076.5 59,258.5 5,425.6 1,643,335.1
2016-17 462,804.6 43,120.0 1,043,385.4 1,03,680.4 -68.4 1,652,922.0

27
Expenses
(` in millions)
2013-14 2014-15 2015-16 2016-17
Genl. Superintendence 55,854.3 60,225.6 61,162.9 70,930.8
Repairs & Maintenance 289,594.3 317,625.5 336,777.0 384,590.5
Operating Expenses 540,234.7 574,451.5 562,132.8 603,331.1
Staff welfare 52,420.8 59,609.1 52,960.7 57,722.6
Misc. Wkg. Exp. 43,246.3 51,399.4 56,119.8 59,029.5
Suspense -2795.2 (-)3,610.4 5,425.6 (-)68.4
Total Ordy. Wkg. Exp. 975,707.6 1,059,958.8 1,077,359.3 1,188,296.1
Contribution to Funds 327,500.0 370,000.0 401,000.0 402,000.0
Total Working Exp. 1,303,207.1 1,429,958.8 1,478,359.3 1,590,296.1
Other Misc. Exp. 11,440.9 11,828.8 13,152.0 14,398.7
Gross Wkg. Exp. 1,314,648.0 1,441,787.6 1,491,511.3 1,604,694.8

28
Net Revenue And excess/shortfall
IR ended the year with a net excess of ` 491,300 millions.

(` in millions)
Year Gross Total Net Net Divi- Excess(+)/
Traffic Working Misc. Reve- dend Short
Receipts Expenses Receipts nue fall (–)

1980-81 26,240.2 25,364.6 399.3 1,274.9 3,253.6 (–) 1,978.7


1990-91 120,964.9 111,538.6 1,711.5 11,137.8 9,381.1 (+) 1,756.7
2000-01 348,804.8 346,673.4 8,580.9 10,712.3 3,076.4 (+) 7,635.9
2010-11 945,356 894,742 12,847.3 63,461.4 49,412 (+) 14,408.9
2015-16 1,643,335.1 1,478,359.3 27,309.0 192,284.8 87,225.1 (+)105,059.7
2016-17 1,652,922 1,590,296.1 (-)1,349,59 491,300 0 (+)491,300

29
Assets
The financial value of assets increased by 10.25% to ` 5,376.70 billions
during 2016-17 as compared with 2015-16. The fixed assets stood at
` 4,290.66 billions.
      (` in billion)
Year Fixed Invest- Invest- Funds Current Total
Assets# ment ment with Assets Assets
in other Central
under Govt.
takings
1980-81 69.35 3.85 1.29 18.02 4.21 96.72
1990-91 206.25 12.19 3.57 40.94 10.85 273.80
2000-01 603.69 22.08 7.64 115.16 29.78 778.35
2010-11 2,186.14 46.01 183.99 311.99 36.20 2,664.34
2015-16 3,818.41 45.23 327.60 639.52 45.90 4,876.66
2016-17 4,290.66 27.71 399.40 613.61 45.32 5,376.70
#  Includes land, building, rolling stock, plant & equipment and miscellaneous assets.

Liabilities
      (` in billion)
Year Loan Invest- Reserves Deposits Misc. Total
Capital ment from Liabili- Liabili-
from other ties ties
funds sources
1980-81 60.96 13.52 6.49 11.54 4.21 96.72
1990-91 161.26 60.75 10.47 30.47 10.85 273.80
2000-01 326.62 306.79 3.59 111.57 29.78 778.35
2010-11 1,116.14 1,200.01 3.42 308.56 36.20 2,664.34
2015-16 2,424.74 1,766.50 108.07 531.45 45.90 4,876.66
2016-17 2,755.84 1,961.92 25.77 587.84 45.32 5,376.70

30
Asset Utilisation
IR has been highly successful in improving productivity of its assets in
2016-17. Some important indices for Broad Gauge are given below:
1980-81 1990-91 2000-01 2015-16 2016-17
Wagon kms. per
wagon per day (+) 73.4 110.5 179.0 214.5 204.2
Net tonne kms.
(millions) per route km. 4.34 6.30 6.96 10.83 10.06
NTKms. per
wagon per day (+) 986 1,407 2,042 7,510 7,359
Passenger kms.
(millions) per route km. 5.15 7.12 9.49 18.66 18.49
NTKms. per engine
hour 6,295 10,393 12,850 17,507* 16,337
(+) From 2009-10 onward figures in terms of 8-wheelers
* revised

Carshead of Metro Railway at Kavi Shbhash Station

31
Engine kilometres per day per engine in use
Engine kilometres per day per engine in use for goods and passenger
services are given below:

Goods
Year Broad Gauge Metre Gauge
Steam Diesel Electric Steam Diesel Electric

1980-81 89 303 274 107 276 206


1990-91 52 445 398 88 399 224
2000-01 – 398 450 18 345 203
2010-11 – 384 478 – 102 –
2015-16 – 367 380 – 65 –
2016-17 – 377 390 – 0 –
* revised

Passenger

Year Broad Gauge Metre Gauge


Steam Diesel Electric Steam Diesel Electric
1980-81 210 610 453 199 541 405
1990-91 189 673 482 185 569 382
2000-01 – 577 542 36 447 385
2010-11 – 594 671 34 390 –
2015-16 – 607 662 29 364 –
2016-17 – 598 709 29 290 –
*revised

32
Social Service obligation
IR has been providing certain goods and passenger services at below
the cost of operation. The losses accruing from such operations, which
are justified for meeting wider socio-economic objectives, are termed
as ‘Social Service Obligation’. The losses are:

(` in millions)
2016-17

– Loss on essential commodities carried


below cost of operation 421
– Loss on coaching services
(a) Non-suburban 341,766
(includes loss of ` 18,553 millions
on uneconomic branch lines)
(b) Suburban 53,888
              Total loss 396,075

– Net social service obligation 296,397


(excluding staff welfare and
law & order costs of
` 99,678 million)

33
Tourism
Indian Railway is the prime mover of tourism in the country by
connecting various tourist destinations across the country by rail. In
addition, it has taken several initiatives to promote tourism in the
country such as operation of tourist train / coach services on popular
tourist circuits in different regions of the country, offering tour packages
inclusive of rail travel, local transportation, accommodation, onboard
services like catering, off board services such as conducted tours etc.
The important train / coach services offering package tours are
(i) Luxury Tourist trains, (ii) Semi luxury trains (iii) Buddhist Special
trains, (iv) Bharat Darshan trains, (v) Astha Circuit trains, (vi) Value
Added Tour Packages and (vii) Steam train etc.
Luxury Tourist trains
Indian Railway has been operating the luxury tourist train ‘Palace on
Wheels’ since 1982, 4 more trains namely ‘Deccan Odyssey’, ‘Golden
Chariot’, ‘Royal Rajasthan on Wheels’ and ‘Maharajas’ Express’ on
similar lines have been added over the years.
All these trains are fully air-conditioned and self sufficient to take
care of their requirements for mostly one week voyage but some with
shorter trips too. Each train is developed on different themes based
on the culture and heritage of India. Each train takes care of modern
amenities and comforts. The train comprises saloons of different types,
multi cuisine restaurants, lounge, Bar / Mini Bar, Gym, Spa, Conference
room etc. On board facilities include individual temperature control, TV,
Wifi internet, telephone, piped music, CCTV, Money changer, laundry
etc. The facilities may slightly vary from train to train.
These trains were operated on 18 different itineraries covering a
number of major tourist attractions of the country on weekly trips or
shorter duration trips during 2016-17. The train offers all inclusive
package covering transportation, accommodation, food, sight seeing

34
and other requirements during the trip, with individual attention. The
trains are also available for charter trips on desired itineraries.
Luxury Tourist Trains on IR-At a Glance
Name of Introduced No. of Period of
Partner No. of days
the train in coaches operation
7 nights /
September/
8 days and
2010 IRCTC 23 October to March /
3 nights/4
April next year
days
New Delhi-Agra-Sawai Madhopur- Jaipur-Bikaner-
Itinerary 1
Maharajas’ Jodhpur-Udaipur-Sevalia-Mumbai
Express Mumbai- Bhusawal-Udaipur- Jodhpur-Bikaner- Jaipur-
Itinerary 2
Sawai Madhopur-Fatehpur Sikri-Agra-New Delhi
New Delhi-Jaipur-Sawai Madhopur-Fatehpur Sikri-.Agra-
Itinerary 3
Gwalior-Khajuraho-Varanasi-Lucknow-New Delhi
Itinerary 4
New Delhi-Agra-Sawai Madhopur-Jaipur-New Delhi
&5
September/
RTDC / 22 7 nights / 8
1982 October to March /
Palace on Rajasthan days
April next year
Wheel
New Delhi-Jaipur-Sawal Madhopur-Chittaurgarh-Udaipur-
Itinerary
Jaisalmer-Jodhpur-Bharatpur-Agra-New Delhi
September/
KSTDC / 7 nights / 8
2008 18 October to March /
Karnataka days
April next year
Golden
Bengaluru-Mysore-Hassan-Hospet-Badami-Goa-
Chariot Itinerary 1
Bengaluru
Bengaluru- Chennai- Pondicherry-Thanjavur-Madurai-
Itinerary 2
Trivandrum- Alleppey-Ernakulam-Bengaluru
September/
RTDC / 7 nights- 8
2009 22 October to March /
Rajasthan days
April next year
Royal
New Delhi-Jodhpur-Udaipur-Chittaurgarh-Sawai
Rajasthan Itinerary 1
Madhopur-Jaipur-Khajuraho-Varanasi-Agra-New Delhi
on Wheels
New Delhi-Chittorgarh-Udaipur--Jaipur-Bharatpur-Agra-
Itinerary 2
New Delhi
Itinerary 3 New Delhi-Jaipur-Bharatpur-Agra-New Delhi

35
7nights /8
September/
MTDC / days and
2004 21 October to March /
Maharashtra shorter
April next year
ones
Mumbai-Nasik Road/ Devlali-Aurangabad/ Daulatabad-
Itinerary 1
Pachora-Kolhapur-Madgaon-Sawantwadi- Mumbai
Mumbai-Vadodara/Viswamitri-Palitana-Virawal-Virangam-
Itinerary 2
Deccan Patan-Nasik Road /Devlali-Mumbai
Odyssey Mumbai- Vishwmitri-Udaipur-Jodhpur-Agra-Sawai
Itinerary 3
Madhopur-Jaipur-Delhi
Delhi-Sawai Madhopur-Agra-Jaipur-Udaipur-Vishwamitri-
Itinerary 4
Aurangabad-Mumbai
Mumbai-Bijapur-Bagalkot-Hospet-Hyderabad-
Itinerary 5
Aurangabad-Pachora-Mumbai
Mumbai-Aurangabad-Ramtek-Warora-Pachora-Nasik
Itinerary 6
Road-Mumbai
Details are available at the following websites:
1. www.irctctourism.com / www.the-maharajas.com (For Maharajas’
Express)
2. www.rtdc.in (For Palace on Wheels and Royal Rajasthan on
Wheels)
3. www.maharashtratourism.gov.in (For Deccan Odyssey)
4. www.goldenchariot.org (For Golden Chariot)
Semi-luxury train
To meet the demand of high end Indians and International tourists
for a tourist train, semi-luxury trains were introduced in 2015-16 to
bridge the gap between Luxury Tourist Trains and Budget tourist trains.
During Financial Year 2016-17 following circuits were operated by
Indian Railway Catering and Tourism Corporation Ltd.:
• Tiger trail (Covering Kanha & Bandhavgarh National Parks and
Bhedaghat)
• Udaipur-City of Lakes (Covering Mt.Abu, Udaipur, Chittorgarh
and Ajmer)

36
• Tiger Express with City of Lakes-Udaipur (Covering Udaipur,
Chittorgarh and Sawai Madhopur)
Details are available at the website www.irctctourism.com.
Buddhist Special Train
The Buddhist Circuit Special Train (Mahaparinirvan Express)
comprises of air conditioned coaches, offers an all inclusive 7 nights /
8 days package covering major destinations related to the life of Lord
Buddha and also includes hotel stay and local sightseeing. The itinerary
starts from and terminates at New Delhi and covers Bodhgaya, Rajgir,
Nalanda, Varanasi, Sarnath, Kushinagar, Lumbini, Sravasti and Agra.
The itinerary is flexible and can be modified on group bookings. It
operates from Delhi during September to April as per demand. Details
are available at the website www.railtourismindia.com.
Bharat Darshan Trains
A special train, to enable common man to visit the places of Tourism/
Religious /Historical importance in the country, at an affordable price. The
packages include rail travel, meals, and sight-seeing at economical rates.
The train operates throughout the year on different itinerates decided from
time to time, as per demand. During the year 2016-17, 67 trips of Bharat
Darshan trains have been operated with 46,374 passengers. Details are
available at the website www.railtourismindia.com.
Aastha Circuit Trains
This train was announced in Rail Budget, 2016. IR in association
with IRCTC launched this train during FY 2016-17 covering various
pilgrim locations across the country. The tour package, priced between
`800 and `900 a day (plus taxes) per passenger, includes rail and road
travel, meals, sight-seeing, accommodation, insurance etc.
State Special Tourist Trains
Indian Railways, in association with IRCTC also operate Special
Tourist Train on behalf of a few State Governments like Madhya

37
Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Rajasthan, Punjab and Uttar Pradesh against
payment of Full Tariff Rates on the circuits requested by the State
Governments concerned. These Special tourist trains cover various
pilgrimage destinations in the country such as Vaishno Devi, Ajmer,
Shirdi, Tirupati, Rameshwaram, Dwarka, Somnath, Shikharji, Amritsar,
Shravanbalgola, Valankini etc. During the year 2016-17, 260 trips have
been operated under the scheme with 2,54,230 passengers.
Steam Train
1855 built ‘Fairy Queen’ rolled again on February 1, 1997 from Delhi
to Alwar. The steam engine was the oldest working engine in the world.
The steam train service is being continued with another steam loco. It
runs on every 2nd Saturday for a one-day trip from Delhi to Rewari and
back during October/November – February/March every year.
Value Added Tour Packages
A number of Value Added Tour Packages, on the lines of tourist
trains, are also available for smaller groups of passengers by utilizing
accommodation on regular trains.
Indrail Passes
To explore the splendor of multi-faceted India, Indrail Passes
provide excellent value for money and enhance the charm of holidays
for visitors from abroad. It offers the visitors the facility of unrestricted
travel over the entire Indian Railway system within the period of
validity of the pass.
Indian Railway Catering & Tourism Corporation (IRCTC)
IRCTC, the tourism arm of IR, mostly through its tourism portal
www.railtourismindia.com, provides one-stop solution to almost every
passenger travel and tourism requirements – tourist trains/coaches,
educational tours, rail / land based tour packages, charter trains / coaches,
hill charters, cab rental, LTC schemes, inbound / outbound packages, hotel
bookings, train / air bookings, corporate travel services etc.

38
Technology Development
RDSO was setup by the merger of the Railway Testing and Research
Centre, RTRC and the Central Standards Organization (CSO) in the year
1957. This is a premier research, design and standards organization set
up with the view to evolve appropriate design of Railway equipments
and systems for improved safety, reliability, and maintainability.
RDSO is also involved in technical reviews, statutory clearances
and testing, apart from giving technical guidance to Zonal Railways.
Vendor development with approval and inspection of major items is
also part of the mandate of RDSO, an ISO 9000:2008 organisation.
RDSO also functions as international platform for interaction with
bodies such as UIC and AAR.
Some of the important activities during the year are given below:-

Safety
• Development of VHF Based Approaching Train Warning System
for Track Maintainers (Rakshak)
• Development of Advance Warning System for UMLC
• Development of Train Collision Avoidance System (TCAS)
• Development of Train Protection & Warning System.
• LHB and Double Decker coaches fitted with Air Suspension in
secondary stage.
• Ultrasonic Broken Rail Detection System.
• Screening of Experienced Loco Pilots for Their Deployment as
High Speed Train Drivers on Trains Having Speed > 110 kmph
Including Rajdhani/Shatabdi.
• Development of Drawings for Derailing Switch for Throughput
Enhancement.

39
Passenger Amenities
• Development of IR-DRDO Bio Toilets in IR BG Coaches
• Development of World Class Interior in Coaches
• Development of Water Purification System in Indian Railway
Passenger Coaches.
• First Indigenous Air-conditioned EMU
• Air Conditioned Metro for Kolkata Metro

Operational Efficiency
• Development of LHB Rake Fit to Run at 200 Kmph on Existing
Track
• Development of Prototype Development of Newly Designed 25T
Open Wagon
• Design Development of 25T Container Flat Wagon
• Prototype Development of New Design High Capacity Parcel
Wagon

Development of Ballastless Track with Indigenous Fastening System


(BLT-IFS).
New Initiatives in Design and Fabrication of Railway Bridges
• Design of 91.44m span has been standardized.
• Bow string girders for NHAI drawings of 42m span bow string
ROBs have been issued for one way two lane.
• Design of 60m Bow Arch Bridge for NHAI one way two lane is
in progress.
• Design of 72m Bow Arch girder has been completed.

40
Indigenous Development
• Development of Micro Processor Based Governor for HHP Diesel
Electric Locomotives
• Modelling and Validation of Interlocking for Railway Signalling
Systems
• OFC Based Backup Interlocked Signalling System

Inspection and Quality Audit


Quality Assurance/Civil Directorate is the inspection agency for
GRSP/CGRSP, GFN Liners, Dowels, CMS Crossings & AT Welding
Portions. Now, total On-line system for product inspection has been
adopted and inspection certificates are uploaded on website.
QA/Civil Directorate is dealing with fresh approval, up-gradation,
quality audit of approved vendors etc. In the year 2016-17 the directorate
has done Quality Audit of 84 firms, up - gradation of 15 firms and fresh
approval of 21 firms.

Consultancy
During the year 2016-17, eight consultancy/Inspection Reports
have been issued to Zonal Railways for various track formation related
problems at different locations.

Export
Design & Development of Fabricated Bogie frame for MG Diesel
Locomotive for Export to Myanmar Railways.

Research and Collaboration


Strategic Technology & Holistic Advancement (SRESTHA):
Setting up of a ‘Special Railway Establishment for Strategic Technology

41
& Holistic Advancement’ (SRESTHA), a world class institution
to undertake the various Research and Development projects in
Indian Railways was announced in Budget 2016 with the following
objectives:
• It shall engage itself in building new products for Indian Railways,
based on available technology in the world and in newer areas, R&D
shall be initiated in synergy with the needs of Indian Railways along
with focus on applied research and development.
• It shall be design Centre for Railways as a ‘System of Systems’
along with being a Technology Incubation & Commercialization
Centre and shall assist to build Design Centres at Production Units
of Indian Railways and other Centres of Excellence in Academic
Institutions.
• It aims to transform Indian Railways from a net technology Importer
to its Exporter in ten years, and work towards a modal ‘Shift to Rail’
in India.

Escalator facility at Secunderabad Railway Station

42
INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION
Indian Railway is conscious of the need to keep abreast with the
latest technological developments and best international practices to
capture the growth opportunities in freight and passenger business and
provide the desired level of services to the customers. It is working
in close cooperation with International Union of Railways (UIC),
International Heavy Haul Association (IHHA), research institute and
similar bodies to gain latest technical know-how to constantly upgrade
its infrastructure and operations to World Standards.
Ministry of Railways has signed Memorandum of Understanding
(MoUs) for technical cooperation in the rail sector with various foreign
Governments and National Railways. The identified areas of cooperation
inter-alia include high speed corridors, speed raising of existing
routes, development of world class stations, heavy haul operation and
modernization of rail infrastructure etc. The cooperation is achieved
through exchange of information on developments in areas of railway
technology & operations, knowledge sharing, technical visits, training
and seminars and workshops in areas of mutual interest.
During 2016-17, Ministry of Railways has signed MoUs/Protocol
for technical cooperation in the rail sector with Germany, Russia, Italy
and Japan.

IRCON: Developing Infrastructure Globally


Ircon International Limited (formally known as Indian Railway
Construction Company Limited), a Mini Ratna and Schedule ‘A’
PSU, was incorporated on 28th April, 1976, mainly for the purpose of
construction and development of Railway Infrastructure in India and
abroad with the expertise from Indian Railways. During its operation of
41 years the company has diversified and developed core competence in
other areas like Highways, Tunnels, Bridges, Flyovers, ROBs, Airport

43
Hangar & Runways, Metro rail and Buildings, EHV Transmission Line
& Grid Sub-stations, Industrial Electrification, Signaling and Telecom
Systems etc.Considering its major share of business from projects
abroad, its name was changed to “Ircon International Limited” w.e.f.
17th October 1995.
IRCON has so far completed about 376 infrastructure projects in
India and 121 projects across the globe in more than 24 countries.

Foreign Projects
IRCON is actively engaged in infrastructure development in several
Asian and African countries.
The Company’s expertise coupled with its experience has helped in
successful completion and commissioning of a mega project valuing
over USD 1 billion in Malaysia, the largest ever Transportation project
completed by any Indian company abroad. In Bangladesh, IRCON has
completed projects of “Construction of 2ndBhairab Railway Bridge with
Approach Rail Lines” and “Turnkey Contract of 2x20 MVA, 66/33 KV
Sub-station at Paro in Bhutan.”Some other Key Railway Projects are
also under execution in Algeria, Bangladesh and South Africa.

International Rail Connectivity Projects


IRCON is executing Rail connectivity projects to Nepal and
Bangaldesh.

Strategic Projects in India


In India, IRCON is involved in the biggest Railway construction
project in Jammu & Kashmir and is also constructing a new Broad
Gauge railway line from Sivok in North Bengal to Rangpo in Sikkim.
During the FY 2016-17 major projects completed include,

44
• 4.5 km long Rail-cum-Road Bridge across the river Ganges at
Patna
• Design, Supply, Installation, Testing and Commissioning of
Ballastless Track of Standard Gauge in elevated section of Aluva
to Petta corridor of Kochi Metro.
Among the ongoing projects, some of the key projects are:
• Civil and Track Works of DFCCIL in three packages between JNPT
- Vaitarana, Vaitarana - Sachin and Sachin - Vadodara sections
• Construction of Railway lines of approx. 300 km length at an
estimated cost of Rs.4,500 Crores in Chhattisgarh
• Construction of Modern Coach Factory at Rae Bareilly
• Supply, Installation, Testing and Commissioning of Ballastless
Track of Standard Gauge and sub-stationworks for Delhi Metro
under phase-III
• Power Supply Distribution works (R-APDRP) at Meerut in the state
of Uttar Pradesh and at Jammu in Jammu & Kashmir.
The company is also engaged in construction of rural Roads under
Pradhan Mantri Gram SadakYojna (PMGSY) and has contributed
significantly in the road sector by completing about 5,000 km of roads
and about 100 nos. of Road over Rail Bridges.

Awards & Recognition


A number of Awards & Accolades were received during the
year 2016-17. Some of them are Dun & Bradstreet Awards for
‘India’s Top PSUs 2016’, ‘Infra Awards 2016 for Best Infrastructure
Project: Setting up of Modern Coach Factory, Rae Bareli Phase-I’,
‘CIDC Vishwakarma Awards 2016 for the Best Construction Project to
‘Modern Coach Factory, Rae Bareli’

45
RITES Limited
RITES, a Mini Ratna Enterprise, Schedule ‘A’, an ISO 9001-2008
certified multidisciplinary consultancy organisation  in transport and
infrastructure sectors offers comprehensive services from concept to
commissioning in railways, urban transport,  highways, bridges, tunnels,
ports, inland waterways, airports,  ropeways, institutional buildings,
renewable energy  and export packages of rolling stock and railway related
equipment. It has operational experience of 43 years in over 62 countries
of SAARC, ASEAN, Africa, Latin America and Middle East region

Overseas Projects
Bangladesh - Feasibility study for setting up a new coach
manufacturing unit and supply of 120 BG stainless
steel passenger coaches and 26 new BG diesel
locomotives -Bangladesh Railways
Botswana - Consultancy services for pre-contract services and
construction supervision of Tshesebe to Masunga
Road Project
Mauritius - Supervision consultancy for LRT project and DPR
for Trident Port Project
Myanmar - Supply of 18 new YDM4 locomotives to Myanmar
Railways.
Senegal - Supply of 6 in-service YDM4 locomotives to M/s
Indorama Energy Pvt. Ltd
Mozambique - Wet Leasing of 15 1350 HP Diesel Locomotives
Sri Lanka - Supply of 6 sets of AC DMUs (13 coaches per set)
and AC EMD Diesel Locomotives for Sri Lanka
Railways

46
Integrated Check Posts: RITES is offering Project Management
Consultancy services for Integrated Check Posts along international
borders at Jogbani, Biratnagar, Birgunj along Indo- Nepal Border;
Dawaki &; Moreh along Indo-Myanmar border.
Domestic Projects
At home, RITES is involved in mega transportation projects like
dedicated freight corridors, metros, high speed rail studies, logistics
parks, rail infrastructure and green energy etc.
• RITES has been associated with the National High Speed Railway
Corporation for Ahmedabad-Mumbai high speed passenger corridor.
Detailed design consultancy for six elevated metro stations for
Metro Link Express for Gandhinagar, GC for Ahmedabad and
feasibility study for high-speed rail corridor between Delhi-
Chandigarh-Amritsar.
• Final report of the Preliminary Engineering-cum-Traffic Study
(PETS) of East-Coast DFC (1,122 km) between Kharagpur and
Vijayawada and study for the Southern Corridor (885 km) between
Chennai and Goa
• Consultancy for country’s key metro rail projects like Delhi,
Bengaluru, Ahmedabad and Nagpur and feasibility study & DPR
for metros in Kochi, Patna, Guwahati, Kanpur, Varanasi, Agra,
Lucknow & Chennai
• Setting up of design, development and testing centre at RWF
(Bengaluru), Self Propelled Accident Relief Train (SPART) on
Indian Railways (IR) system.
• PPP/ JV basis, a rail concession, Bhuj Nalliya Vayor Rail Project,
also involving gauge conversion, from MG to BG for 101 km length
and new line of about 25 km.

47
• Wet leasing of locos to non-railway customers and undertaken
operation and maintenance of more than 100 locos and 1200 wagons
owned by clients.
• Turnkey works for upgrading/modernization of Railway
Workshop.
• RITES and the Indian Railways have set up a Joint Venture
Company, Railway Energy Management Company Ltd. (REMCL)
for renewable energy projects, bilateral purchases, power trading
and energy efficiency projects, in a record time of 10 months, has
commissioned 26 MW Wind Mill in Jaisalmer and also concluded
power procurement contracts for 1200 MW in different states.

48