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CRITICAL BOOK REPORT

GENERAL CHEMISTRY

“ SOLUTION “

The lecturer:

Elfrida Gimting, Ph.D

Submitted by :

Name of Rieviwer : Bismi Amrina


NIM : 4191141012
Study Program : Bilingual Biology Education 2019

DEPARTMENT OF BIOLOGY

FACULTY OF MATHEMATICS AND NATURAL SCIENCE

THE STATE UNIVERSITY OF MEDAN

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PREFACE

First of all, I want to express my thanks to Allah SWT, because of His bless and grace, I can
finish this paper. This paper titled “Critical Book Report General Chemistry “ Solution “”. The
writer rote it to fulfill the assignment from Mrs. Elfrida Ginting Ph. D , to Critical Book Report
subject, I also thanks to her for all the guidance to complete it.

In completing this paper, I faced many problems, but with the help of many people, all the
problems could be passed. May Allah give the blessing for them.

I realize that this paper still has many shortcomings and therefore I apologize if there are
errors in my writing and I also expect criticism and suggestions in this task so that at another time I
can make a better paper.
             Finally, hopefully this Critical Book Report paper can be useful for many people, especially
for readers, and I thank you.

Medan, September 22nd 2019

Bismi Amrina

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CHAPTER I

PRELIMINARY

1.1 BACKGROUND
Critical book report in the form of this paper contains of the conclusions from the summary of
one of the matery in the book. The matery is solution. I will include a summary of solution.
In the critical book of this report , i will describe the problem through the following discussion.
Hopefully this effort can be useful for the general readers and for the authors in particular.

1.2 OBJECTIVES
1. To review the contents and material contained in a book.
2. Search and find out the information in the student development’s book
3. Train to think critically in finding information provided by each book
4. Compare one book to another

1.3 BENEFITS
1. Fully CBR assignments on General Biology courses.
2. Adding broad knowledge about solutions..

1.4 IDENTITY OF THE BOOK


A. The Main Book

1. Title : CliffsQuickReview Chemistry


2. Author : Harold D. Nathan, PhD and Charles Henrickson, PhD
3. Publisher : Hungry Minds
4. City of publication : New York
5. Year of publication : 2001
6. ISBN : 0-7645-6377-7

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CHAPTER II

SUMMARY OF SOLUTION

 Definition
Solutions are mixtures composed of two or more substance in ratios than can change. By
contrast, compounds are also composed of two or more substances ( usually elements ) but in ratio
that cannot vary. In water, there are 8 grams of oxygen for each gram of hydrogen. It won’t be
water if thar ratio changes.

The amount of a substance dissolved in a given amount of solvent is the concentration of the
solute, which can be expressed in terms of molarity or molality. If you know the molarity of a
solution, you can determine the exact volume of the solution that contains a desired amount of
compound.

Solution freeze at lower temperatures and boil at higher temperatures than the solvent itself.
If you know the concentration of the substance dissolved in the solvent, you can calculate how
much lower the solution will freeze or how much higher it will boil than the solvent itself.

CONCENTRATION UNITS

A solution is a mixture of two or more substances that is of the same composition


throughout. The host substance is the solvent and the dissolved substance is a solute. Although the
most familiar solvents are liquids, the general concept of a solution includes solvents that are gases
or even solids.

In a solution, the ratio of solvent to solute is not fixed, and it can vary over a wide range,
unlike compounds that are composed of definite, fixed ratis of the elements that make them up.

 Seawater is an example of a liquids solutions with water as solvent because the dissolved
sodium chloride, calcium carbonate, magnesium bromide, and other solutes are of varying
concentrations.
 Air can be considered to be a gaseous solutions with the abundant nitrogen the solvent and
scarcer oxygen the solute.
 An example of a solid solution is electrum, the alloy of gold and silver. The dominant metal
is deemed to be the solvent in which the minor metal dissolved.

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Measure the concentration

One way to measure the concentration is to measure the relaative weights of the
constituents, usually expressed as weight percents.

Example :

An electrum ingot that was formed by melting 62 grams of gold and 800 brams of silver and then
letting the material cool and solidify. The following is the composition of the ingot in weight
percent :

62 g
Gold : = 0,072 x 100 % = 7.2 % (solvent)
862 g

800 g
Silver : = 0.928 x 100% = 92.8 % (solvent)
862 g

Find the moles

Gold and silver have different atomic weight, and the preceding precents do not represent relative
number of atoms. You can calculate the number of moles of gold and silver in the electrum by
deviding the weight of each metal by the corresponding atomic mass.

47
Ag
Silver
107.87
79
Au
Gold
196.97

 This is done by dividing bthe number of mole of one element by the sum of the number of
moles of both gold and silver In the mixture.
800 g
Moles of Ag : = 7.416 moles
107.87 g /mole
62 g
Moles of Au ; = 0.315 moles
196.97 g /mole
7.416 mole
Moles fraction Ag : = 0.959 moles
7.731moles
0.315 mole
Moles fraction Au : = 0.041 moles
7.731moles
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The mollarity is the number of moles ( or gram formula weights) of solute in 1 litter of solutions.
The other common unit for liquid solution si molality, the number of mole of solute in 1 kg of
solvent. Molality contrast with molarity because it reports the amount of solute relative to the mass
of the solvent, not the volume of the solution.

SOLUBILITY

A solution containing less solute than the maximum that can dissolve is known as a dilute solution.,
and a solution containing as much solute as the solubility limit is described as saturated.

Table Solubilities Of Compounds

Class Anion Description of Solubility


Nitrates NO3- All are highly soluble
Chlorates CLO3- All are highly soluble
Chlorides CL- Highly soluble, except those of silver and mercury
Bromides Br- Highly soluble, except those of silver and mercury
Iodides I- Highly soluble, except those of silver, mercury and
lead
Sulfates SO42- Highly soluble, except those of strontium, barium
and lead
2-
Sulfides S Insoluble, except alkali metals, alkaline earths, and
ammonium
2-
Sulfites SO3 Insoluble, except those of alkali metals, alkaline
earths, and ammonium
Hydroxidas OH- Insoluble, except those of alkali metals, alkaline
earths, and ammonium
Carbonates CO32- Insoluble, except those of alkali metals, alkaline
earths, and ammonium
3-
poshpates PO4 Insoluble, except those of alkali metals, alkaline
earths, and ammonium

Temperature dependence of solubility

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It is important to realized that temperature markedly affects the solubility of most substances. When
compound containing ionic bonds is placed in water, the polar water molecules separate some or all
of the substance into its cations and anions. The separation is referred to as ionic dissociation.

 For ionizing substances that are only slightly soluble, the concentrations of the ions multiply to
a constant called the solubility product in a saturated solution.

 For a hypothetical compound CA, where the single cation is denoted by C and the anion by A,
the solubility equation is
[C] [A] = Ksp

Where the molar concentrations of the 2 ions are labeled with square brackets and the
constant Ksp is the solubility product.Many binary compounds (those with only 2 elements) contain
more than 1 cation or anion. The general binary compound can be written CxAy, in which the
subscripts mean the compound has x cations and y anions.
In this case, the solubility equation is
[C]x [A]y = Ksp
Practice a solubility calculation using silver carbonate (Ag2CO3) as the solute. Dissocation of the
salt yields 3 aqueous ions:
Ag2 CO3 (s) 2Ag+(aq) + CO32- (aq)

Ksp for Ag2CO3 is 8.5 × 10–12. The solubility equation involves the square of [Ag+] because each
formula unit yields 2 ions of Ag+.

[Ag+]2[CO32- ] = 8.5 × 10-12

Because the molarity of CO32- is the same as the overall molarity of Ag2CO3 in the solution, call
the carbonate concentration x and the silver ion concentration 2x.

(2x)2(x) = 8,5 × 10-2


4x3 = 8,5 × 10-12
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X3 = 2,13 × 10-12
x = 1,29 × 10-4 molar

The solution, then, is 0.000129 M Ag2CO3, which is identical to the value


found for the CO32- concentration. Because the gram formula weight of Ag2CO3 is 275,75, each
liter of solution contains

0,000129 moles/liter x 275,75g/mole = 0,0355 gram/liter

and you can describe the solubility of silver carbonate as 0.0355 grams per liter.

Freezing and Boiling Points

For a solution with a liquid as solvent, the temperature at which it freezes to a solid is slightly lower
than the freezing point of the pure solvent. This phenomenon is known as freezing point depression
and is related in a simple manner to the concentration of the solute. The lowering of the freezing
point is given by
ΔT1= K f m
Where Kf is a constant that depends on the specific solvent and m is the molality of the molecules
or ions solute.
A similar property of solutions is boiling point elevation. A solution boils at a slightly
higher temperature than the pure solvent. The change in the boiling point is calculated from
ΔTb = Kb m
Where Kf is the molal boiling point constant and m is the concentration of the solute expressed as
molality. The boiling point data for some solventsare provided.

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