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Tutorial 6 (Week 7) Solution

1. An analyst can evaluate the following DFD characteristics:

- Quality walkthrough with the user.
- Discover black holes and miracles.
- Evaluate readability of a DFD by measuring the overall complexity of each model component and evaluating it with the rule of
seven plus or minus two.
2. Black hole is a file when data enters but does not leave. It can be detected by comparing the content of data outflows to data
inflows. When data is flowing in, data should flow out itself.

Thinking Critically

1. The data flow definitions are as follows:

Transaction-summary report = Title page + {order detail} + Report=-totals

Title-page = Start date + End date + Date prepared + Time prepared
Order-detail = Order number + Order-date + Order total + Payment method + 1{Order-item-detail} + {Return-item-detail}
Order-item-detail = Item number + Quantity- ordered + price
Return-item-detail = Item number + Quantity returned + price
Report-totals = Total-order-amounts + Total return amounts + Average-order-total + Average-item-price + Average-return price.
The process description is as follows:

Print title page

Initialize Report-totals to zero
For each order-transactions with (Start-date <=Date) AND (Date <=End Date) do
Read from Order, Order Item and Return-item with matching Order-number
Print Order-detail
Update Report-totals
Print Report-totals.
Activities Data Entities
Course Enrollment Offered Course Student
Schedule Course CRUD
Enroll Student CRUD R R
Produce Class List R R R
Case Study

1. Context Diagram
2. Event-partitioned DFD

Real Estate Provides Information

Agent On the Listing

Listing Date
Information on

Update on Changes to the Listing Data 2.0
Information Listing
Listing File
Listing Create Listing

Yearly Listing Information

Produce Listing Creates Listing agent
3. Diagram 1

1.1 1.3
Information on Listing
Enter Database Produce Books

Listing File
Listing Agent

Available Houses Assign
Systems Analysis and Design in a
Changing World, seventh edition
B- 4
Problems and Exercises
1. Assume you are preparing a DFD
to describe the process of creating,
approving, and closing a
mortgage loan by a mortgage
broker. Should the broker be
represented as an external agent
by one or more processes? Why?
What about the closing agent, the
credit bureau, and the bank
that issues the mortgage note?
The answer depends on the
purpose of the DFD and the
analysis phase. If the intent is to
document requirements for a new
loan processing system for a bank,
activities outside the
control of the bank (that is, the
broker, the closing agent, and the
credit bureau) should be
represented as external agents. All
activities within the bank would be
modeled as processes,
data flows, and data stores.
If the intent is to document
requirements only from the
perspective of any specific party,
other parties are represented as
external entities, and the party
being modeled is represented
using processes, data flows, and
data stores. If the intent is to
reengineer the entire process of
creating a mortgage loan, all
participants should be represented
as processes.
2. Examine the course registration
system described in Figure B-6. Are
there any other processes
that would be required to
implement a fully functioning
system? Hint: Black holes and
may indicate processing steps that
were left out of the DFD.
All data flowing out of the Student
data store is a miracle. Therefore,
those system activities
that add data to or modify data in
the Student data store need to be
added to the model. In
addition, the model is missing a
master list of courses and some
indication of how the academic
department selects from the
existing courses. This may indicate
missing parts of the system, or
it may simply reflect the desire of
the analyst to leave the academic
departments outside the
scope of the model.
3. Assume that the transaction
summary report for the RMO CSS
order-entry subsystem (see
process 5 in Figure B-12) contains
a listing of every order that was
created during a date range
entered by the user. The report
title page contains the report
name, the date range, and the date
and time the report was prepared.
For each order, the report lists the
order number, order date,
order total, and form of payment.
Within each order, the report lists
all order items and returns,
including item number, quantity
ordered (or returned), and price.
Report totals include the sum
of all order totals, average order
total, average item price, and
average return price. Write a data
flow definition entry for the report
and then write a process
specification for the process that
produces the report.
The data flow definitions are as