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Chapter 2 Sound Absorption

SOUN D-ABSORBING TRSATMEI{T

When sound impinges on the boundary surfaces cf a rcom, pan o{ it* energy is absorbed and transmitted, and part is reflected back into the room. Sound levels in a rgom can be reduced by effective use of saund-absorbing treatment, such as fibrous ceiling boards. cunains, and carp€ts.

ln the room with no acousticaltreatment shown below, office workers

hear direct sound energy from the computer equipment as well as reflected sound energy from the ceiling, floor, and walls. The computer operators, on the other hand, primarily hear direct sound from the nearest sound sgurce, the computer. lf sound-absorbing materials are added to the room, the o{fice workers will hear considerably less sound because the reflected sound is re- duced in their part of the room. The sound level near the computer equipment, however, is due mainly to direct sound and remains unchanged.

Room with No Acoustical Tieatment

Irl9 tl0or

Room with Sound-Absorbing Treatment

1vE

oeaded gould -

absorbi ng

(uibh

plenurt abavc)

**6or;nd-

sbaorbing ,/

rl,all panels

t'

Carpet ( static diseipative)

\r*

'sJf

&?'

Lvusr

Lou,ler

rrvre9-lEYt

lg'ralg

noisa

- {rom coYn?$ter

)

NOISE RSDUCTION OUTDOORS ANtr WITHIN ENCLOSURES

Free Field

Frae-field conditions occur when sound waves are free from the influence

of reflective surfaces {e.9., open areas outdocrs, anechoic rooms*}. Under

free-field conditions, sound en€rgy from poinr sources {e.9., warning siren.

truck exhaust) spreads spherically and drnps off 6 dB for each doubling of dis-

tance from the source. Lne sources of vehicular traffic consist of successive point sources which reinforce each other. Sound energy from line $ources spreads eylindrically, ncr spherically, and drops off only 3 dB for each doubling

of distance.

-s s

rl

{s

-a

g

a

rfl a

d'

9,o,snd

decau in lree f ield"

uhers t*-o,+d"

6dD redrlcNien

{rorn doublin6

dieLe^ce foi point sovt og

dt " Zdr

OiELanaa Frorrr gourr.e (\og $ctle)

Raverberant Field

lndoors, scund energy drops 11ff under free-field conditions only near the

sourcg {usually

there will be little further noise reduction with distance away from the source

< S ft for small roomsi. Because room surfaces reflect sound,

{called

of

reverberant fietdl . fhe more absorption in a room, the less the buildup

sound energy in the reverberani field. As shown on the graph below' the re-

verberant buildup of sound is lower for situation 2 than for situation 1 due to a

greater amount of absorption.

,Afte€hoic roorns have sound-sbso.bing wedges { 2 2 ft deep} cn all six enslosrng surfaces to simulate the fre fi*ld. Th*e extremaly "dead" rooms allcw indoor sfudy of and resfa.ch an dirgtt saund witholt room reflectpn

etfecls.

io

-a

;

!q

-p c

: s

(o

Saund fells

off near

aor,rcc lil*e

,rlrar

csndilions

f irld'

Roverberanf {ield

dr

d*

)60*nd lavel ir

.srerbe.anlt€ld ,rile.i t'ula

disLanol)

( lillie or ao redrction uiin

Naiss redu*iion (HR) due

to adding Sbsorpfion

9ound lgvsl in

(urilh

addsd re,rcrbcrsnt {ield

zbsarpNian)

Oi*lan*e {ro"rr aoffoe ilog acale}

Note: Beyond distance d x JTIG trarn the source, lhe sound level is relatively con- stant and depends primarily on the total room absorption a, where a is measured in

sabins.

4O sano AssoFPTg{

EFFECT OF ADDING SOUNO-ABSORBING TREATMENT TO ROCIMS

ro

-!

(t

(t

-€

(.

:

o

(n

The addition of scund absorption tCI the ceiling of a small room

{< 500

ft:) ean reduce the reverberant sound levels by 10 dB as shornrn below for an example noise source. However, clsse to the source. the reduction willbe cnly

about 3 dB. lf the ceiling and all four walls are treated with sound-absorbing

material, the sound level in the reverberant field drops an additional 6 dB, but the sound levels near the source {in the free field} are rot affected. Note that no reduction is achieved from funher sound*absorbing treatment. Also, in this example the room initially was completely anclosed by sound-reflecting sur-

faces and trad few furnishings to absorb

to I dB in reverberant noise is more likely the upper limit for furnished spaces

sound energy. Thus a reduction sf 6

af comparab'le size.

Free {ield

Reverberant field

10

b0

60L

0,2

Dician ca lrom

44a

UnNreaiad

u,rall6 and

\ \ \ \

\.

\

,

2?.4

gorlnd

source (ll)

ro.gn

(g4paum board

ceil ing, eonorggz i1oor1

,r6ab

drop

per

/

\ \

tr

aoublins'oF

(ovldooY

dis+,ance

reduclion)

r

too

{l- -{l

Ei.

+ll b-o--

$c'

r$B

lnF

ttpr

t:i€

Etss

q)

a

$s

(!t <'.I

E;ei

\tr<

-

<.e.is o-+P

SOUI\ID ABSORPTION COEFFICIENT

The effectiveness of a sound-absorbing material can be expressed by its

coefficient a. This caefficient describes the fraction of the incidenr

absorptian

sound energy that a rnalerial absorbs. Theoretically. it can vary from 0 lno sound energy absorbedl to 1.O {perfect absorption with allincident saund energy absorbed ) . Coefficients are derived from laboratory tests or estimated from measuremsnis in finished rooms. ln the laboratory test, sound ensrgy from all directions is incident on the sample being tested (called random

incidencel.

olo rallecled

olo absorbed

dndtranErailted

Sovnd absorplion

codl+io\ertb'P1)

o too

l.u

Qpgn ruindoulx

ffi

e.a

lh" trrlc.t* glgge {ibel

WI

ffiffir

4d lt,iett" briolr

qb

'1 ft? ol peffeci ab$orplion i5 squvalent ro 1 sabin.

ba

a.bo

2

0.02.

The total room absorption (i.e., the sum of all room surface areas times

their respective sound absorption coefficients) for a space can be found by:

a=ISa

where s s total room absorption {sabins }

5 s surface area {ftr)

c = sound abso,rption coefficient at given frequency {decimal percent}

42 scu'o AssonPTonr

Note: To find metric sabins. divide a by 1O.76.

,Absorption csefficients for building rnaterials normally vary frorn about 0.01 to O.99" However, acoustical testing bboratories sometirnes report coef- fici*nts which exceed perfect absorpticn of 1.0. This apparent impossibility can

occur because of peeuliarities of testing methCIds {e.9", effecrs from size of

test specimen or expossd edges of test samples) and diffraction of sound

energY.

Materials with medium to high sound absorprion coefficients

{usually

> 0.50) are referred ts as sound-absorbing; those with low coefficients

{usu-

ally < 0.20) are sound-reflecring. The effect of a difference in eoefficients be- tween two materials at a given frequency is shown by the following table.

Differen*e in Coefficient Effect for Most $ituations

< 0.10

Liule (usually nor noticeable I

0.1O to O,40

Nsticeable

> 0.40

Considerable

Hxceptions to the differenee in absorption coefficient a given in the table ars room$ used for hearing research. testing of sound-abscrbing materials, and the like. For example, reverberatian room$ used to measure "random inci- dence" e'$ must have highly reflective surfaces {<< 0"20}. Even very small differences in a for the enclosing surfaces are therefore extremely important.

Note: Sound absorption coefficients for normal incidence ao {i.e., sound waves perpen'

dicular to the surface of the ab$orberl can be measured using a closed tube, called an

impedance tube. With the sample to be rested placed at one end of the rube. pure tgnes can be generated and measured within the tube to determine the absorpticn effi- ciency of the sample. For materials with law absorption coefficients, un*a/3, for maler- ials with very high coefficients, ensu. Details of the test are given by ASTM C 384.

RET'ENB€RATP'{ ROOMS

Reverberation r2oms are fairly large {usual}y > 1O,00O ft3}, and all interior boundary surfaces are highly sound reflecting {s < O.Ob al 12$ to 4OOO Hz}. Walls normclly are painted concrete bloek, metal panels, or concr€te' To pro- vide isolation from exterior noises. enclosing constructions usually consist of

double or triple layers (e.g., double walls, flsated floors) and must be com-

pletely isolated lrom the rest of the building. That is, a room is constructed

within a raoml

Reverberation rooms cAn be used to measure the absorprion efficiency of

building materials {under

power levels of noise-producing equipment {ANSI S'1.21, ASHRAE 36}, and can bo the source or receiving room for sound transmission loss TL tests

pravisions of ASTM test method C 423 ) , sound

{ASTM E 90 } and impact noise tests ( ASTM E 492 } .

To

measure sound absorption, s large sample of the material 172 ftzl is

placed in the reverheration room. The time it takes a test sound signal to decay by 60 dS {roughly to inaudibility) after the source of ssund is stopped

is measured first with the sample in the room and again with the room empty.

The difference in decay time defines the efficiency of th€ absorbing materisl. For example, the shorter the decay time, the nnore efficient the sound- absorbing material being tested.

Ler*e rol.elin* vane (to

oroiide t diff rise" gound

'f igld throri ghout, roorn )

> lo,OOO ft3 reverberation

roorn (lor

aoavta+nioTl legAg

$nder oontroltad conditiana)

'lerge o?cnin6 (to

acco-mmodate lloor - 6,giling

coaslrutliano {Er TL and

inpaaN t ael,e,

aee Chap. t )

Removable qlail (to protide

openinS {or TL teetJ panel)

l'Flostad'lloor

+!rucirrrall

(to

isalri*&

q tranEmitted

-

so,tnd )

The sketch above depicts an exarnple reverberation room which has a rc- tatiilg vane to help achieve a diffuse reverberant sound field during test mea- surem€nts by constantly changing the orientation of the suriaces enclosing the sound waves. The goal is to achieve diffusicn over as wide a frequency range as possible. ln addition, panels can be removed to provide openings between adjacent test rooms for evaluating the sound isqlatisn effectiveness of wall and ceiling systems. The two adiacent rooms must be completely isolated from

each olher and from the rest of the building"

Test Refsrences

"Standard Test Method for Sound Absorption and Sound Absorption Caefficients by

rhe Reverberation Room Merhod." ASTM C 423

"Standard Method for Laboratory Measurement of Airborne Sound Transmission Loss

cf Building Partitions," ASTM E 90.

"Standard Method af Laboratory Measurement of lmpact Sound Transmission Through Floor-Ceiling Assemblies Using the Tapping Machine," ASTM E 492.

$ouup AasonPTroru 45

EFFTCT OF THICKNESS ON ABSORPTION EFFICIENCY

46

$ound absorption by porous sound absorbers

{identified

on drawings by a

"ribbon candy" symbol) is predominately the indirect conversion of sound en- ergy into thermal €nergy. The impinging sound wave hss its energy reduced largely due 10 frictional flow resistance from the walls of mazelike intercon- nected pores. The amount of absorptic'n that can be achieved is determined by the physical prop€Ries of thickness, density, and porosity far most porous

materials, and fiber diameter and orientation for fibrous materials" Manufac-

turers try lo optimiu€ these properties to achieve high sound absorpticn effi- ciencies. Fibrous sound absorbers {such as glass fiber or rnineralflber} are sometim€$ referred to as fuez. As shown by the curves below, thickness has a significant effect on the efficiency of a porous sound absarber. ll is also sssentisl that the internal structure of a porous material has interccnnected pore$. For example, plastic and elastomeric foams which have olosed. nonconnected pores provide little sound absorption although they may be effective thermal insulators. A simple t€st to determine if a porous material can be an effective scund absorber is to blow through it. lf the material is rhick and passes air under moderate pressure, it should be a good absorber.

CI,b

C thi"t r

luaa

d

*J g

{}

"!

(+ $ $ (J

c

,9

-p lI- L

(s s

-"*

(!

-a {

:

(J} s

0.6

O,q

0.1.

125 zg?

/

^

600

Frequency (He)

ll thisF f ura

(5la+s itb* or minaral

f iber)

1000 2000 ri000

Note: Fornus sound absorbers are extremely pocr sound

lightweight, interconnected structure, sound energy easily passes

material lo lhe other, $ee Chap. 4 for a diqcl:ssion of the principles of sound isolarion.

isolators! $ue to their soft,

frqm cne side sf the

souuo ABscRPTIoN

RETATIVE EFFICIENCY OF SOUND ASSORBERS

The basic types of sound abscrbers are porous materials. vibrating {or

resonantl panals, and volsme resonators (called Helmholtz resonators). Po-

rous sound absorbers {thick materials or thin materials whh airspace behind} should be placed at location of maximum compression for impinging sound vvaves {e.g., },/4 distance from backup wall surface}. Combinations of porous materials and vibrating panels or volume rssonators can provide the uniform, or "flat," ssund absorption with frequency required in recording or radio/TV studios.

Thin Porous Materials { Convert sound energy into heat by friction }

x

$ g

s)

:t

(t q-

.O

{}

(}

c

.9

{f s_ L

{}

Itt

{a

qa

-s

C

3

o

l-0

0.b

o"6

o.1

o"L

dl o

25

t60

Frgtuen&!

Thin librous

pfnal (luza)

AirEpace (t'o i^lftesa

larr,t-$ragusnoL{

zbsarplilon)'

?" t

hicl<*uzg urii,h eir6?ece benind

inc'reagos w tLh eirsgeca

(iow. I r e opueo aq I o un d' ab sorbin 5

e$l ioienoq

der4,.h increage )

l'/,?." laie* *'tu' wibhooi

airspace Dehind

5a0

( HE)

t7ao ?.000

li000

Thick Porous Materials

Perforatad laeirtg

6

$ :

s

,!

+

(& q)

(") t!

o,6

c o.+

.9

"*

$-

L

$

8az

(!

{'i itric* {ull ui*h

pt rSareted facingi

qd ih;cF lrrrr ( tow-lraqlencu

sou n d - eb S o t.6i a 5. el F.i c'i e n oy-

t^qee'eg ur?h thi 6Knes

incrsrsa)

'to

E

-

('lO s

11-6

5rA t00o zaoo i+000

Freqrrancg (Ha)

';50

Hard bgskup

gutlgs,g

Thich {ibreut

PanOl

(fur*)

H igtr -.f req,uencg

sound-ab6orbin{

eft

iciencq

is

reduced

becerse €olid areeg

o* facin( reTlecl

gound

uavei

Vibrating Panels* {Convert sound energy ints vibrational energy which is

dissipated by internal darnping and radiation )

d

{} .I

.!

(+-

C$ r!

0,9

o.c

3

c

,9 {l s- t.

$ s o ,.2

-s

o,L+

: c

3a

48 gloABsoprrcnr

Sesonanl panel

Airgozoa (aolE eg

'apring\ absorbir'6

c^ct6,\)

Penc,l

( rlifhorrl librorrr

mafarial in ab*paae)

Panel (r.uith fibreus

eirapaaa *o broalan

rnatariEi in

abecrpiion)

L

te5

Fre,qrlcncg (Ha)

63

Lgo

600 pao %aoa

Volume Resonators* { Reduce sound

interreflections within cavity )

energy by friction at opening and by

U

$ c

.*

.*

q-

<{-

r) s

(,

c

o

*l

TL L

$

lt}

$ <!

'o

c,

:t q

\fi

t.6

0,b

0.6

o,q

o.L

OL

b3

128

7ra+$&n&5

t-Valumg

af

Slsttad consrgla

blpok volurrrg

rotenrbor

Opan c*ll ( zir

mAsg creeLes ragananca candiiionr)

resanelor

(varq narrol"l rer\6e

marimum absorpiioa)'

\

Valune resanafor

maieritt in cavilu

+?eq$encu

eriint

6$

u.riih

(to

librouE

increaae

h;{h-

obgarilion

and widen-

loa'l'r*uencu Aosot^elion

ailecls)

-

bg dampin6

rtl

\

26A 600

C ilr)

1000 ?000

'Thes speciali?d fypes of *oufid absorption *n be usad la supplemsnt Foroug marerials oa ta absorb specifle low-frequency sound energy {e.9., l2GHr "hir.rm" from electrical equipment}.

sowo AgsonPrtol 49

NOISE REDUCTION COEFFICIENT

The noise reductian caefficient NRC is the arithmetic average, rounded off to the nearsst multiple of O.05, of the sound absorption coefficients c's at 25O, 500, 1OO0, and 20O0 Hz for a specific material and mounting condition. The o's at 125 Hz and 4O00 Hz, although measured during the ASTM C 423 test, are npt used to calculate the NfiC. Therefsre, the NFC is intended as a single-number rating of sound-absorbing efficiency at rnid-frequencies. lt is not, as its name implies, the difference in sound levels between two conditions or between rooms (see also Chap. 4 ) . The NRC can be found by:

NRC s

ttrso *

c[soo *

tlro* *

ttr*,,

where NRC = noise reduction coefficienr (decimal percent) o = sound absorption coefficient {decimal percenl}

Be careful when selecting a prcduct based on its NRC alone. Because the NRC is an average number over a limited frequency range. two materials may have identical NRCs but very different absorption characteristics, ln addition,

because the NRC does not include the a's ar 125 Hz and 4ffi0 Ha, it should

not be used to evaluate materials for rooms where music or speech perception

is important (e.9., music practice rooms, counrooms). As shown by the two curves at the top of the graph below, fibrous acoustical board panels have far greater absorpticn at 125 Hz than shredded-wood formboard. Although rhe a's differ by more than 0.50 at 125 Hz, rhe NRCs differ by onty 0.1b. Where

low-frequency absorption may not be an important factor

{e.g., lobbies, small

offices), the NHC can be an adequate rating to cornpare materials.

1.0

6

o.b

.5 a.e

.!

o g

r)

.4,{

*

.q

L cr-

a

o

*

a.2

-o

t

s a

rll -o

i26

q o

o o

g

P*

OT

i;d.

d+ E{

u

iio

.:6

C"

\6Q

ri; r

260

aol

Freluenc3 (Ha)

Fi bror.r* eaaugti r.4l baAd

{l.iRC r O.40 $or rnoun{ing: E)

fr_;

\

6hreddcd-u ooi [armboard

{l}\Ct 0.16 fer nouniingi A)

tooo

Cer?Cl o. heavq pad

(rtA'C' O.qO +o.-nounlia( A)

?000 4000

5O souxn AgsoRFTrori

EXAMPLE PROBLFM INNC COMPUTATION}

Find thCI NftC for a carpet with the following sound absorption coefficients:

0.20 at 250 Hz, 0"35 at 500 Hz. O"45 at 1000 Hz, and 0.55 at 2ffi0 Hz.

NRC = 9& t

9' q{

o'+u * o'uu - ll!

.++

= o.3e

This answer must be rounded offto the nearest 0.OS increment. Therefore.

the NRC for this carpet will be 0"ffi6

sor"l*osnSwnO'r $1

SOUND ABSOAPTION DATA FOR COMMON BUILDING MATERIALS I\ND

FURNISHINGS

Marerial

Srund Abmtion Cdstfcient

NRC

12Fllr 250Hr 59OHa 100OHr 300OHr 4000He fiur&er'

Walls{1.s. s. 12l

$ound-Seffecting:

1. 8rick. unghred ?. Brick, unglaaed and painted

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

Conwete, rough Concrete bloek, painted Glass, haavy {large panes} Glass, ordinary window Gypsum board, 112 in thick {naiied ro 2

oci

Gypsum

3s, ]6 in oc with airsprces fill€d with fibrous

X 4s, 16 in

board, 1 layer, 518

rn thick (screwed t$ 1 x

ansulation

)

I. Construction no. 8 with ? layers ol 5/8-in-lhick

10.

gypsum board

Ma&le or glazed tile

1 1. Pta$er on brick

12.

13.

14.

15.

Plagler on concrste block {or 1 in lhick on hrh}

Plasrer on lath

Plyw.od, 3/8-in paneling

Steel

16, Venetian blinds. metal

17, W6od, 1 l4-in paneiing, with airspace behind

18.

Wood, f -in paneling with airspace behind

$ound-Absorbing:

19. Concrete trlock, coarse

20. Lightweighr drapery, 1O o:lyda, flat on wall ilVcre:

Sound-relleeting

at most frequ€ncies. l

2 L Mediumweighr drapery, 14 oz / yd2, draped to half area

{i-e

Heavyweight drapery.

2 ft o{ drapery ro 1 ft of walll

cunain, I

1 /2 oz/yd2,

tt.

18 ozlyd2" drap*d ro half area

d.aped to half

23. Fiberglass fabric

0.0?

o.o1

0.01

s.10

0.18

0.35

0.29

O,55

0.?8

o.or

o"o1

0.12

0.14

o.28

o,05

0,06

o.42

o.1g

UJO

0.03

0.o7

0.14

0.Og

area {Noaei The deepsr the airspace behind the d.apery

(up to 12 in), the greatcr the low'tequency

absorption.

l

24. $hredded-wood fiberboard. 2 'n thick on conqreie

25.

{mtg.

Thick.

A}

fibrous n€tenal behind opsn facirig

2S, Carper. heavy, on 518-in pedorat€d

wirh airspace behind

0.15

0.60

mineral iiberboard 0.37

27. Wood, 112-in paneling. perfo€led 3116-in-dismfier 0.4O

holes, 11 % open area, with 2 1/2-in glass fiber in

a'rspace behind

Floletsle' rll

$ound-fiefleaing:

28.

29.

Concrete or terrazzo

Linoleum, rubber, or asphah dla on concrete

3O. Marble or gla?ed tile

31, Wood

32.

Wood parguet on concreie

0.o1

o.02

0.01

0.15

0.04

$cund-Absorbing:

on concrete

on foam rubber

 

33.

Carpet.

heavy,

 

0.O2

34.

Carper,

heavy.

0.08

3$.

Carpat, heavy. with impermeable

latex bscking on ioam

O.08

rubbe;

36.

lndoor-outdoor carpet

 

0.01

Ceilings{6 rrct 1

Sound-Refe;ting:

3?. Ccncrere

38.

39.

Gypsunr board, 1 l2 in tllck Gypsum t:oad. 1/2 rn thrck, rn suspensron

4S. Plasrcr on lath

4,l. Plywood, 3/8 in thick

systern

o.or

o.29

0.15

o.14

o28

o.o?

o.o2

q.oz

0.05 0.06

0.06

0.t5

0.10 0.o5

0.01

0.03

0.04

0.o4

0.18

*. 14

0"08

o. r?

o.01

0.10

0.o1

0,04 o.o2

0.07

0.1s c.06

8.22

0.10

o.o5 0.07

o.?1 0.]4

0.17

0.09

0.lo

009 0. r0

0.44

0.o4

0.31 0,49

0 3s

0.32 0.68

0.5s

0.31

0.11

4 26

0.75

o.41

0.90 0.80

0.6'

0.82

0.63

o.o1

o,03 0.o3

0.o2

0.01

0.01

0" 14

0.57

0,3S

o.04 0.o7 0.t0

0.06

0.24

a 2'7

o.05 0.10

o,1

1

0.ol

o.10

0.10

o_10 a.?2 0.06

0 02

0.o5

0.o5

0.17

0,o4

a.az

0.06

0.07

0.03

0.12

0.04

0.04

0.o7

0.01

0.o3

0.05

0

05

0.OS

o.10

c.15

0

08

006

0.29

0.17

0.75

0.?2

0.83

0.94

o.80

0.85

0.50

0.0a

0 03

0 01

007

0.06

0.37

069

0.34

0.20

o.02

Q.04

o.04

0.05

o.os

totrnd-,Ab*orbing:

42. Aco*stical board, 314 in thck, in suspension system

lmtg. il

43. Shredded-waod fiberboard. 2 in thick on l*y-in grid

{mtg. t }

0.75

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059 0.51 0 53 A.73

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0.05

o.04

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a.a7

o,13

0.06

0.06

o.39

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o.70

o.3s o.70

0.64

0.60

0.s5

0.{o

0.02

o.o3

0.02

0.o$

0.0€

0.60

o.71

0,48

o.rt5

o.02

o.07

o.07

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0. 10

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o.88

0.07

0.o3

0.10

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0.17

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0.76

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0.38

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0.30

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0.65

0.73

0.63

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0.05

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0.35

0.15

0.55

0.60

0.55

o.60

0.75

0.70

0.65

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Materi.l

lq:{n9l}bsorption

coelficie-nt ---

125 Hz 2$O Hz 6O0 Ha "1000 fir

NRc Z0S Hz 4O0O Hz Numberr

-

44. Thin, porou$ cound€bsorblng

3/4 in thick {mts.

g}

45. Thhk, porous sound-absorting

material,

material, 2 in thick

lmtg. Bl, or lhin nlateriai wilh srrspace behind

lmtg_ &)

46. Sprayed cellulose fibers, 1 in rhick on concrete {mtg.

A}

47. 6ase"fib* roof tab.ic, 12 azfy*

4S- 6ass-fiber roof fabd., 37 1 I 2 oz / vdz { Nare: $oun*

refleeting at mosl trequencies, I 49- Folyurelhane to6m, 1 in thick, open cell, reticular€d

50" Parallel gfass-fiberbcard pa*els, 1 in thick by 1S in dep, sp$c€d 18 in apan, susponded 1t in below

o.10 0.60 0.80 o.38 0.60 0.?s

o.0s 0.29 0.75

0.65 0.71 0.3€ 0.23 0"17

0.81

0.07

0.'t 1

0.20

o.o7 0.:0

0.44

0.82

o,80

0.98

0.86

0.15

o,32

o.$2

ceiling

51. Parallel glass-fbsrboard panal$, 1 in thick by 18 in

deep, spaced 6 1 l3 in apsrt suspendsd

ceiling

12 in below

Seats ahd Aucllencell. s ?. {}t 52, Fakic welFupholslered seats, with perforaled seal pans, uncecuped

53. Leather-cov€red upholstered seals, unoccupiadt

54. Audicnce, seated in upholsteted sealsl

55. Congragaxsn. s€ated in wooden pews

56. Chair. metal or wood geat, unoccupied

5?. Srudenls, infcrmally dress€d, seated in €blet-arm chairs

OpeningSleir

58. Deep balcony. with uphal$ered seats

59. Diffusers or g.iHe3, mechanical system

60.

Stag€

0.10 0,29 0.6!

1.1t

o.ls

0.44

o.39

0,57

o. 15

o.30

0.37 0 56

0.54

0.5?

0.61

0.19 0.12

o 41

0.49

0.75

o,80

0.60

0.67

0.6?

0"94

0.86

0.3S

0.84

o.50-1.00

0^ 15-{.50

0.25-{.75

Miscellaneoi$13's. ltl

61.

62.

63.

64.

65.

Gravel. loose and morsl. 4 in fhick

Grass, marion bluegrass.

Snow,

9oil.

0.25

0, 11

0"45

0.15

0-60

0.26

O.75

0"25

O.Oa

2 in

in thiik

high

freshly fallen, 4