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fw;wy;f;

ff ; hd kjpg;gPLfs;

myF – 1

kjpg;gPl;bd; mbg;gilfs; (m) kjpg;gpLjypd; mbg;gilfs;

Nehf;fq;fs;:

fw;wypy; kjpg;gPl;bd; nghUs; kw;Wk; gq;fpid tptupj;jy;.


kjpg;gpLjypd; eilKiw nfhs;iffis mwpjy;.
fw;gpj;jypd; gy;NtW mZFKiwfspYs;s kjpg;gPl;L eilKiwfis Gupjy;.
kjpg;gPl;bd; tiffis NtWgLj;jy;.
kjpg;gPl;bd; KbTfis vg;gb jahupg;gJ vd Gupe;Jnfhs;sy;.

mstpLjy; :-

xU $ilapy; goq;fs; epiwe;Js;sjhf vLj;Jf; nfhs;Nthk;. mij vz;zpdhy;


22 Mg;gps;fSk;> 12 MuQ;RfSk;> 4 md;dhrp goq;fSk;> 8 khk;goq;fSk; ,Uf;fpd;wd.
nkhj;j goq;fs; 62 cs;sd vdpy; ,ij vz;Zk; KiwNa fzf;fPL vdg;gLk;.

,g;nghOJ ahuhtJ ,g;gof;$ilapd; nkhj;j vil vd;d? vd;W Nfl;Fk;nghOJ


mJ vil Nghlg;gl;L 58 fpNyhfpuhk; vd mwpNthk;.

,jd; vil vt;tsT vd;w tpdhtpw;F tpilia mspf;fpd;wJ. MfNt ehk;


vt;tsT vd;w tpdhtpw;F tpil mspf;f KaYfpd;Nwhk;. mjhtJ vt;tsT> (v.fh.)
mjd; cauk;> mOj;jk;> mlu;j;jp vd gy tp~aq;fspy; ehk; mstPl;bid
gad;gLj;JfpNwhk;. mstPL vt;tsT vd;w tpdhtpw;F tpilaspf;fpd;wJ. fy;tpapy;
khztu;fspd; tsu;r;rpapid kjpg;ngz; (m) juk; KiwapYk; Mrpupaupd; jpwd; %yk;
khztu;fspd; elj;ij khw;wk; kw;Wk; gy mstPl;L Kiwfspd; kjpg;gplyhk;.

xt;nthU mstPl;bYk; %d;W Kiwfs; cl;gLj;jg;gLfpd;wd.

Kjypy; nghUspd; njhFg;G mjhtJ nghUs;> rhjdk;> egu;. ,uz;lhtjhf


vz;fspd; njhFg;G kw;Wk; %d;whtjhf tpjpfis (xt;nthU nghUs;fSf;fhd vz;
epu;zak;) nra;tjw;fhd tpjpKiwfs; MFk;. mstPL vd;gJ Njhw;Wtpf;fg;gl;l
tpjpfspd; gb egu;fs; (m) nghUs;fspd; njhFg;gpw;F epu;zak; nra;ag;gl;l vz;fspd;
njhFg;Ng MFk;.

Nrhjid vd;w nray;Kiwia Nkw;nfhs;tjhy; ekf;F xU msT fpilf;fpd;wJ.


,e;j mstpid vz; FwpaPLfshy; Fwpf;fyhk;. cjhuzkhf Mq;fpyg; ghlj;jpy;
khztdpd; mwptpid mse;jwpa Nrhjidf;fhd jhis jpUj;Jtjd; thapyhf Mrpupau;
mtDf;F 70 kjpg;ngz; toq;Ftjhf nfhs;Nthk;. 70 vd;w kjpg;ngz; Nrhjidapd;
thapyhfg; ngw;w xU msT MFk;.

tiuaiwfs; :-

1. xU Fwpg;gpl;l tpjpfspd;gb fzf;fPL vd;gJ vz;fis epfo;Tfs;> nghUl;fs; kw;Wk;


gytw;wpw;F xJf;fPL nra;ag;gLk; nray;KiwahFk;. -ilyu;-1963

2. mstPL vd;gJ nghUs;fSf;fhd vz;fis xJf;fPL nra;a tpjpfspd;gb msTfspd;


gz;Gfis vLj;Jiug;gjhFk;. - (1970)

3. mstPL vd;Gj ve;j xU nghUisg; gw;wpAk; vt;tsT (m) vt;tsT nghpajhd (m)
vt;tsT rpwpajhd vt;tsT mjpfkhd (m) vt;tsT Fiwthd fz;lwptjhFk;.
– (ikf;Nfy;]; fhh;d;]> 1950)

kdpju;fs; nghUs;fs; (m) epfo;TfSf;F ntspg;gilahd tpjpKiwfspd; gb


gz;GfSf;Nfh (m) Fzhjpraq;fSf;Nfh vz;fs; kjpg;G mspj;jiy mstPL
cs;slf;FfpwJ. - fpy;gu;l; Nrf;];

4. mstPL vd;gJ Njhw;Wtpf;fg;gl;l tpjpfspd;gb egh;fs; (m) nghUs;fspd; njhFg;gpw;F


eph;zak; nra;ag;gl;l vz;fspd; njhFg;Ng MFk;. - (
ypz;l;Nkd; gpk;l;h 1979).

5. mstPL vd;gJ nghUl;fSf;fhd tpjpfspd;gb epu;zapf;fpd;w vz;fNs MFk;.


- fpsh]; & ];lhd;yp (1970)

mstpLjy; - nghUs; :-

kjpg;gPL khztu;fspd; tho;tpy; Kf;fpa gq;F tfpf;fpwJ. Fwpg;ghf khztu;fspd;


fw;Fk; ghzpfs;> fy;tpia ikag;gLj;Jjy;> Neuk; xJf;fL P jy; Nghd;wit mstPl;bid
Neupilahf ghjpf;ff;$baJ MFk;.

fy;tpapy; mstPL vd;gJ jdpegiuNah my;yJ FOit rhu;e;j mwpTrhu;e;j


jpwd;fs;> kdg;ghd;ik> ek;gpf;if Nghd;witfis mstplf; $bajhFk;. ,jpy;> fw;Fk;
rKjhak;> tFg;G my;yJ epWtdk; my;yJ njhFf;fg;gl;l fy;tpf;FOit
mstpLjyhFk;.

tiuaiw :-

fpg;]; (2003) kjpg;gPl;bd; MW Kf;fpa gzpfshtd.

1. khztu;fspd; Neuk; kw;Wk; ftdj;ijf; ftUjy;.


2. khztu;fSf;F nghUj;jkhd fw;wy; nray;ghLfis cUthf;Fjy;.
3. khztu;fs; kPJ ftdk; nrYj;jp Njitahd Neuj;jpy; Nghjpa
gpd;tpisTfis toq;Fjy;.
4. khztu;fspilNa NtWgLj;jf;$ba juk; (m) kjpg;ngz;fs; (m) Nju;tpy;
Nju;r;rp / Njhy;tpapd; KbTfis nfhz;L jPu;khdq;fis nray;gLj;jy;.
5. khztu;fspd; juepiy kw;Wk; fUj;Jiuia cl;Gwg;gLj;j khztu;fSf;F
cjTjy;.

ngd;ld; (1996) $w;Wg;gb kjpg;gPL vd;gJ nghUj;jkhd Nju;e;njLf;fg;gl;l


jfty;fis ngWjy; MFk;.

fw;gtupd; kjpg;gPL khztu;fs; jq;fis jhq;fNs kjpg;gL P nra;tjs;fhd


jpwd;fis Nkk;gLj;Jtjw;fhd tha;g;Gfis Nkk;gLj;JfpwJ. NkYk; jq;fSila Ra
nray;ghLfis gw;wp jhq;fNs epiyg;gLj;jp mij NkYk; rpwg;Gwr;nra;jy; kw;Wk;
cz;ikahd kjpg;gPL Kiwfis gad;gLj;j cUthf;Fk;. NkYk; tsu;r;rp kw;Wk;
KOik fhy kjpg;gPl;bd; %yk; khztu;fs; jpwid Nkk;gLj;jpf; nfhs;s toptFf;fpwJ.

kjpg;gPL (Evaluation) :-

nghUs;:

kjpg;gPL= vz; tbthd mstPL+ juf;fzpg;G

kjpg;gpLjy; vd;gJ Neubahf Nrhjpj;Njh> NtW topfspy; mDkhdpj;Njh> nray;


Nrhjidfs; elj;jpNah ngwg;gLk; Gs;sp tptuq;fspd; mbg;gilapy; Nkw;nfhs;sg;gLk;
kjpg;G rhu;e;j jPu;khdkhFk; (Value Judgement).

(v.fh.) uh[p vd;w khztdpd; milTj; Nju;r;rpia fzpjg; ghlj;jpy; 65% vd


mstpl;L khztdpd; Nju;r;rp msT jpUg;jpfukhdJ vd;W kjpg;gpLfpwhu;. ,jpy; cs;s
vz; kjpg;G mstPl;ilr; rhu;e;jJ. mNjhL juf;fzpg;igAk; Nru;e;J KbT nra;Ak; NghJ
kjpg;gpLjy; cUthfpwJ.

Nrhjid (m) fUtpfisg; gad;gLj;jp mstPLfis ngWfpNwhk;. mstPLfisAk;>


juf;fzpg;igAk; gad;gLj;jp kjpg;ig jPu;khdpf;fpNwhk;.

fy;tpapy; ehk; kdpju;fis mjhtJ khztu;fisNah my;yJ Mrpupau;fisNah


mstplNth (m) kjpg;gplNth KbahJ. ehk; mtu;fspd; Fzk; (m) gz;Gfs; mtu;fs;
fw;W Nju;e;jjw;fhd mwpT> Neu;ik> tplhKaw;rp> fw;gpf;Fk; (m) fw;Fk; jpwd;
Nghd;wtw;iw mstplNth (m) kjpg;gplNth nra;ayhk;.

tiuaiw :-

kjpg;gPL nra;gtupd; gpd;dzp kw;Wk; gapw;rp mbg;gilapy; gy


cw;WNehf;fpawpjy;fshy; vLf;fg;gLk; xU jPu;T (m) KbT kjpg;gPL MFk;.
- fpy;gu;l; Nrf;];

kjpg;gPL vd;Dk; nray; jfty;fis tpupj;Jiug;gJ> ngWjy;> toq;Fjy;


KbTfis khw;wpaikj;jy; (m) jPu;khdpj;jy; MFk;. - ];lgPy;gPk;

kjpg;gPL vd;gJ eilKiwg;gLj;Jgtupd; KbTfs; mlq;fpa nray;fis


jpUg;jpahf cs;sjh vd Ma;T nra;J mjDila rpwg;GfSf;F vjpu;ghu;g;GfSf;Nfw;g
jpl;lk; kw;Wk; jpl;lk; rhu;e;j Nehf;fq;fs; tiuTg;gLj;JtJ MFk;.

- lf;Nkd; 1975

fw;wypy; mstPLjypd; gq;F :-

khztu;fs; vg;gb fw;gJ> fw;f Cf;fg;gLj;JtJ Mrpupau; vt;thW fw;gpg;gJ


Nghd;wtw;wpw;F mstpLjy; Kf;fpa gq;F tfpf;fpd;wJ.

fw;wypy; kjpg;gPL :-

jpl;lkplTk;> mwpTWj;jp topfhl;lTk; cl;fhl;rp %yk; Mrpupau;fs; khztu;fspd;


Gupjypd;gb topfhl;lTk;> jpl;lkplTk; NkYk; Nghjpa gpd;D}l;lj;ij toq;fTk; kjpg;gPL
Mrpupau;fSf;F gad;gLfpwJ.

kjpg;gPlhf fw;wy; :-

khztu;fs; jhq;fs; vg;gb fw;fpNwhk; vd;w tpopg;Gzu;it Nkk;gLj;jpf; nfhz;L


NkYk; fw;wypy; Kd;Ndw jftikj;Jf; nfhz;L fw;wypy; mjpf nghWg;Gzu;r;rpia
Vw;gLj;jpf; nfhs;SjyhFk;.

fw;wYf;fhd kjpg;gPL :-

khztu;fs;> Mrpupau;fs; kw;Wk; ngw;Nwhu;fs; tpupthd fy;tpf;fhd rKfj;jpd;


Fwpg;gpl;l Neuj;jpy; milTk; mjd; ntw;wpia nfhz;lhlTk;> jpl;l jiyaPL kw;Wk;
njhlu; tsu;r;rpia Mjupj;jy; Nghd;wtw;iw fw;wYf;fhd kjpg;gPlhf mwpayhk;.

kjpg;gPL vd;gJ mjDila Njitf;Nfw;g jpl;lkplyhFk;. kjpg;gPL kw;Wk;


kjpg;gPl;bw;fhf fw;wy; midj;Jk; khztu;fspd; fw;wiy Nkk;gLj;jTk; mij rupahd
Kiwapy; rkepiyg; gLj;Jk; tifapy; gq;fhw;fpd;wd. tpsf;fk; kw;Wk; Njitapd;
Nehf;fj;jpw;fhf Nrfupf;fg;gl;Ls;s jfty;fspd; gad; kjpg;gPl;bd; Kf;fpa gFjpahFk;.
kjpg;gPlhdJ fw;wy; nray;KiwAld; gpizf;fg;gl;ljhFk;. mJ mwpTWj;jy; kw;Wk;
fiyj;jpl;lj;Jld; xd;iwnahd;W tYthf ,izj;Js;sJ. fiyj;jpl;l ntspg;ghlhd
milit Nehf;fp Mrpupau;fSk; khztu;fSk; gzpnra;Ak;NghJ kjpg;gPlhdJ
mwpTWj;jy;;> mLj;j epiyf;F nry;y khztu;fis topelj;jy;> mtu;fspd; tsu;r;rp
kw;Wk; Kd;Ndw;wj;ij fz;fhzpj;jy; Nghd;wtw;wpy; epiyahd gq;fpid tfpf;fpd;wd.
tFg;giw kjpg;gPL jpl;l nray;ghLfs; kw;Wk; jFe;j kjpg;gPL nra;tjw;fhd
jftikj;Jf; nfhs;Sjy; kw;Wk; jdpkhztu;fspd; Njitf;fhfTk; Mrpupau;fs;
gytifahd nray;ghLfis gad;gLj;Jfpd;wdu;.

tsu;r;rpfhy kw;Wk; KOikf;fhy kjpg;gPL :-

tsu;r;rp fhy kjpg;gPlhdJ fw;wYf;fhd kjpg;gPlhFk; vd fy;tpahsu;fs;


tiuaWf;fpd;wdu;. NkYk; kjpg;gPl;bd; KbTfshdJ fw;gpj;jy; EZf;fq;fis
tiuaWf;fg;gl;l fhy mstpw;Fs; Nkk;gLj;jpf; nfhs;s cjTk;.

KOikfhy kjpg;gPL : kjpg;gPL fw;wy; vd;W $wg;gLfpwJ. Vnddpy; Fwpg;gpl;l


fhy mstpw;Fs; fw;wy; milTfis kjpg;gPL nra;J mjd; KbTfis ntspg;gLj;JtJ
KOikf;fhy (m) njhFj;jwp kjpg;gPlhFk;.

tsu;r;rp fhy kw;Wk; KOik fhy kjpg;gPL tiuaWj;jy; :-

tsu;r;rp fhy kjpg;gPL:

xU fy;tp epiyaj;jpy; xU ghl nray;jpl;lk; nray;gLj;jg;gl;Lf; nfhz;bUf;Fk;


NghNj Nkw;nfhs;sg;gLk; kjpg;gPl;L Kiw tsu;r;rp epiy vd;wiof;fg;gLfpwJ.

fw;gpj;jy; eilngw;Wf; nfhz;bUf;Fk; NghNj fw;wy; Kd;Ndw;wj;ij topelj;jTk;


khztu; kw;Wk; MrpupaUf;F ntw;wp Njhy;tpfs; gw;wp njhlu;e;J gpd;D}l;lk; juTk;
tsu;epiy kjpg;gPL gad;gLj;jg;gLfpwJ. – vd;.Mu;.fpuhz;yz;L.

KOikfhy kjpg;gPL :-

khztu;fSf;F xU gUt Kbtpy; (m) Xuhz;L gbg;G Kbe;jgpd; mtu;fspd;


fw;wy; milit cWjpg;gLj;Jk; tifapy; kjpg;ngz;fisNah (m) gz;Gfisf;
Fwpf;Fk; vOj;Jf;fisNah jPu;khdpg;gjw;fhf Nkw;nfhs;sg;gLk; kjpg;gPl;L Kiwf;F
Kw;Wepiy kjpg;gPL vd;W ngau;.

njhlu; kjpg;gPLfs; Nkw;nfhs;sg;gl;lhYk; gUt ,Wjpapy; my;yJ fy;tpahz;bd;


,Wjpapy; khztu;fspd; fw;wy; milit Nrhjpg;gJ kpfTk; mtrpakhff; fUjg;gLfpwJ.

fy;tpahz;L KbAk; fhy fl;lj;jpy; khztu;fs; ve;j msT tpUk;gj;jf;f fw;wy;


tpisTfisg; ngw;wpUf;fpd;wdu; vd;gij mstPL nra;tjw;F Kw;Wepiy kjpg;gPL
Nkw;nfhs;sg;gLfpwJ. - tpau;];kh & fu;]; v];.[p.

kjpg;gPL nra;tjw;fhd Nehf;fq;fs; :-

kjpg;gPL topKiwfis mwpTWj;JfpwJ.


kjpg;gPL ,af;f fw;wy;
kjpg;gPL khztu;fs; jq;fs; Kd;Ndw;wj;ij njuptpf;fpd;wdu;.
kjpg;gPL fw;gpj;jy; gapw;rpia mspf;fpwJ.
kjpg;gPLjypy; juq;fspd; gq;F
khztu;fs; fw;wy; tpisTfis vjpu;nfhs;shj NghJ
o cau;epiy kjpg;gPL
o Kd; mstpLjy;
o tsu;r;rpepiy kjpg;gPL
o KOikfhy kjpg;gPL

kjpg;gpLjypd; Nfhl;ghLfs; :-

kjpg;gPL vd;W rupahd Kiwg;gLj;jg;gl;l mikg;G kw;Wk;


Vw;GilikAilajhfTk; mNjhL njhlu;Gila mbg;gil tpjpfs; %yk;
khztu;fspd; cs;shu;e;j Nehf;fk; kw;Wk; milTfis ntspf;nfhz;Ltu
nghUj;jkhd epiyfis nfhz;bUf;f Ntz;Lk;.
kjpg;gPL gw;wpa jfty;fs; ntspg;gilahd mZff;$ba kw;Wk; ntspg;gilahd
njspthd Jy;ypakhd> epiyahd kw;Wk; rupahd Neuj;jpy; jfty;fisAk;>
kjpg;gpLk; gzpfis ntspg;gLj;j Ntz;Lk;.
kjpg;gpLjypy; ek;gfj;jd;ik cilajhfTk; jFe;j ,ilntsptpl;L xNu
FOTf;F elj;Jk; NghJ Kuz;gl;l KbTfisj; juf;$lhJ. ek;gfj;jd;ik
nray;fshd mikj;jy;> kjpg;ngz; jUjy;> juepiy kw;Wk; epiyahd
ek;gfj;jd;ikAld; kjpg;gPL mika Ntz;Lk;.
jpl;l tbtikj;jypy; kjpg;gPL jpl;l tbtikj;jypd; xU Kf;fpa gFjpahFk;. ,J
Neubahf jpl;lj;jpw;fhd Nehf;fk; kw;Wk; fw;wy; tpisTfNshL njhlu;GilaJ.
kjpg;gplg;gl;l Ntiy msT epu;tfpf;fg;gl Ntz;Lk;. kjpg;gPL nra;a jpl;lkpLjy;
kw;Wk; fhy msT Mfpait rhjfkhd ek;gfkhd tptuq;fis kjpg;gply;
mspf;f Ntz;Lk;.
xt;nthU kjpg;gPLfspYk; mjd; Nehf;fq;fs; NghJkhd mstpy; ,Ug;gij
cWjpg;gLj;jp mjw;fhd xt;nthU jpl;lq;fspYk; tsu;r;rpfhy kw;Wk; KOikfhy
kjpg;gPL Kiw Nru;f;fg;gl Ntz;Lk;.
kjpg;gpLjypy; MrpupauJ nfhs;iffs; kw;Wk; Aj;jpfs; cs;slq;fp ,Uf;f
Ntz;Lk;. khztu;fis kjpg;gpLjypy; jq;fs; nghWg;GfisAk; gzpfis
kjpg;gpLjypy; <LgLj;j Ntz;Lk;.

khztu;fs; fw;wy; kjpg;gPL nra;tjw;fhd eilKiwapd; Nfhl;ghLfs; :-


1. khztu; fw;wy; kjpg;gPL fy;tp kjpg;GfSld; njhlq;FfpwJ:

kjpg;gPL vd;gJ KbT my;y. fy;tp Kd;Ndw;wj;jpw;fhd xU nrhy;> gads;s


eilKiw vd njhlq;FfpwJ. khztu;fSf;F kjpg;G fw;wy; tiffisAk; mtw;iw
miltjw;F cjt kjpg;gpLtjw;F Nju;T nra;jy;> fy;tp Nehf;fq;fis kjpg;gPLfisAk;
gw;wpa Nfs;tpfSf;F kjpg;G rhu;e;j mZFKiwfSk; ftdpj;jiy Nkk;gLj;Jtjw;fhd
nray;Kiwia mstpl kjpg;G fy;tp xU gapw;rpahf ,Uf;Fk;.

2. kjpg;gPL vd;gJ gy;tifg;gl;l> fw;wy; kw;Wk; xUq;fpize;j nray;ghl;by;


ntspg;gLj;jg;gLk; mwpit gpujpgypf;Fk; NghJ kpfTk; gaDs;sjhf ,Uf;Fk;.

fw;wy; vd;gJ xU rpf;fyhd nray;. ,J khztu;fSf;F njupe;jtw;iw


kl;Lky;y mwpitAk;> jpwikiaAk; kl;Lky;y tFg;gpw;F mg;ghw;gl;l fy;tpiaAk;
ntw;wpf;F topelj;Jk; kdepiyapd; kNdhghtq;fisAk; cs;slf;fpaJ. mNjhL
kl;Lky;yhky; xUq;fpizg;G khw;wk; tsu;r;rp ntspg;gLj;j fhyg;Nghf;fpy; mtw;iw
gad;gLj;jp cz;ikahd nray;jpwd; cl;gl gy;NtW Kiwfs; kjpg;gPL nra;a
gaDs;sjhf mikAk;.

3. kjpg;gPL nray;jpwid Nkk;gLj;Jtjw;F Njitahd jpl;lq;fs; njspthd


ntspg;gilahf $wg;gl;l Nehf;fq;fis nfhz;bUf;Fk; NghJ rpwe;jjhf ,Uf;Fk;.

kjpg;gPL xU ,yf;F rhu;e;j nray;Kiw MFk;. ,J fy;tp Nehf;fq;fSf;fhfTk;


ntspg;ghLfSf;Fkhd fy;tp nray;jpwid xg;gpLtjhFk;. ,j;jpl;lk; ghlj;jpl;lj;jpy;
Mrpupau;fspd; Nehf;fq;fis nfhz;l epWtdq;fspd; gzpapypUe;J ngwg;gl;lit MFk;.
khztu;fspd; nrhe;j ,yf;Ffis mwpe;J nray;Kiwahf jpl;lk; tFf;Fk; NghJ
mjd; Nehf;fk;> rpwg;gk;rk;> cld;ghL kw;Wk; vd;d Nehf;fj;jpw;fhf vd;d juepiyfs;
nghUe;Jk; vd;gij gw;wpa njspthd Nehf;fj;ij nfhz;bUf;f Ntz;Lk;. kjpg;gPL
vq;Nf> vg;gb jpl;l ,yf;Ffis eilKiwg;gLj;j Ntz;Lk; vd;W ftdk; nrYj;j
njspthd> gfpug;gl;l> nray;gLj;jf;$ba ,yf;Ffs; kjpg;gPl;bd; nray;jpwid
Nkk;gLj;Jtjhf mikAk;.

4. kjpg;gPL tpisTfspd; kPJ ftdk; nrYj;JfpwJ. Mdhy; me;j tpisTfSf;F


toptFf;Fk; mDgtq;fSf;F Vw;g kjpg;gPL ,Uf;f Ntz;Lk;.

khztu;fs; fy;tpapd; tpisTfis njupe;J nfhs;tjhy; KbTfs; gw;wpa


jfty;fs; mjpf Kf;fpaj;Jtk; ngWfpd;wd. Mdhy; me;j tpisTfis
Nkk;gLj;Jtjw;F> ghlj;jpl;lq;fs; fw;gpj;jy; kw;Wk; khztu;fspd; Kaw;rpfs; Fwpg;gpl;l
tpisTfSf;F toptFf;Fk;.
5. kjpg;gPl;by; khztu;fspd; mj;jifa mwpTrhu;e;j epiyfis fw;Wf;nfhs;sTk;>
jq;fs; fw;wiy KOikahf Nkk;gLj;jpf; nfhs;s kjpg;gPlL
; tpisTfs; ftdk;
nrYj;JfpwJ.

fy;tp rKfk; KOtJk; gpujpepjpfs; rk;ge;jg;gl;bUe;jhy; kjpg;gPL gue;j


Kd;Ndw;wj;ij tsu;j;Jf; nfhs;fpwJ.

khztu; fw;wy; xU gue;j kWrPuikg;Gf;fhd top. ,jdhy; kjpg;gPL Kaw;rpfs;


rpwpa mstpy; ,Uf;Fk; NghJ fy;tp r%fj;jpy; kf;fis <LgLj;JtNj ,jd; Kf;fpa
Nehf;fkhFk;. ,jpy; Mrpupau; Kf;fpakhdjhFk;. kjpg;gPlhdJ gs;spfSf;F ntspapy;
,Uf;Fk; jdpegu;fisAk; (Kd;dhs; khztu;fs;> mwq;fhtyu;) cs;sljhFk;.

6. kjpg;gPL vd;gJ xU ngupa njhFg;gpd; xU gFjpahf ,Uf;Fk; NghJ mjd;


Nkk;ghl;bw;F toptFf;Fk;.

kjpg;gPlhdJ jhdhf khWk; jd;ik nfhz;lJ. fy;tp nray;ghl;by;


jiyikg;gzpia tsu;g;gNj ,jd; Kf;fpa ,yf;fhFk;. fw;wy;> fw;gpj;jypy; juk;>
jpl;lkply;> epjpepiy mwpf;if> KbntLf;Fk; jpwd; Nghd;wit jiyikg; gz;gpw;fhd
mbg;gil $WfshFk;. NkYk; kjpg;gPL fw;wy; tpisTfis Nkk;gLj;Jk; Kaw;rpfshf
fUjg;gLfpwJ.

7. kjpg;gPl;L fy;tpahsu;fspd; %yk; khztu;fs; kw;Wk; nghJkf;fs; nghWg;Gfis Vw;f


Ntz;Lk;.

fy;tpia gq;fpl;Lf; nfhs;tJ vd;gJ fy;tpapd; Kf;fpa flikahFk;.


khztu;fspd; ,yf;Ffs; kw;Wk; vjpu;ghu;g;Gfis g+u;j;jp nra;Ak; topfisg; gw;wpa
jfty;fis toq;Ftjw;F Mjutspg;gjhf my;yJ mij ek;gpAs;s kf;fSf;F>
khztu;fSk; rKjhaKk; fy;tpahsu;fSk; nghWg;Ngw;Wf; nfhs;s Ntz;Lk;. mj;jifa
Kaw;rpapd; Kd;Ndw;wj;ij Mjupg;gjw;F nghUj;jkhd flik ,Uf;fpwJ.

kjpg;gPl;bw;fhd Kiwfs; Nju;e;njLj;jy; njhlu;ghd Nfhl;ghLfs; :-

1. rpe;jpj;jy; kw;Wk; KbntLj;jy;:

(tpthjq;fis tsu;j;jy;> kjpg;gpLjy;> fzpj;jy;> gpujpgypj;jy;> jPu;T fhzy;)

* fl;Liu
* mwpf;iffs;
* ntspaPLfs;
* fbjk; %yk; mwpTWj;jy; (nfhs;if kw;Wk; nghJeyk; rhu;e;j)
* xU Fwpg;gpl;l fl;lj;jpw;fhd RUf;fkhd epfo;r;rp ciuia jahu; nra;a xU
FOit cUthf;Fjy;.
* Fwpg;gpl;l ehNsl;bid gw;wpa E}y; kjpg;Giu
* may;ehl;L ehNsLfSf;fhd fl;Liufis vOJjy;.
* fl;LiufSf;fhd fUj;Njhl;lk; gw;wpa tpsf;fkspj;jy;.

2. gpur;ridfSf;F jPu;T fhzy; kw;Wk; jpl;lNkk;ghL:

(gpur;ridfis milahsk; fhzy;> gpur;ridfis tiuaWj;jy;> juTfis gFg;gha;T


nra;jy;> kPs;ghu;it nra;jy;> Nrhjidf;fhd tbtikg;G> jpl;lkpLjy;> jfty;fis
gad;gLj;jy;)

* gpur;ridfSf;fhd #o;epiy mwpjy;.


* FOg;gzp.
* gzp rhu;e;j gpur;rid.
* tprhuiz mwpf;iff;fhd FOit jahu; nra;jy;.
* epfo;Tfis gFg;gha;jy;.
* jdpahs; gFg;gha;T.

3. nray; eilKiwfs; gFj;jy; kw;Wk; nra;J fhl;LjYf;fhd EZf;fq;fs; :-

(fzf;fpLjy;> mstpLjy;> fUtpfis gad;gLj;jy;> Ma;tf eilKiwfis gpd;gw;Wjy;>


newpKiwfis gpd;gw;Wjy;> mwpTiufis gpd;gw;Wjy;)

* nra;Jfhl;ly;.
* ebj;Jf; fhl;ly;.
* Ma;tf mwpf;if.
* Fwpg;gpl;l ghu;itahsu;fSf;fhf tpsf;fg;glq;fNshL $ba ifNaL gad;gLj;jy;.
* cz;ikj;jd;ikfis cw;W Nehf;fy; (m) gapw;rp ngw;wtiu nfhz;L
gpd;gw;Wjy;.

4. jd;id epu;tfpj;jy; kw;Wk; Nkk;gLj;jy;:

($l;LwTld; gzpahw;wy;> gzpapy; Rje;jpuk;> Rje;jpukhf fw;wy;> Ra ,af;Ftpj;jy;> Neu


Nkyhz;ik> nray;fis epu;tfpj;jy;> fl;likj;jy;)
* ehNsLfs;.
* njhFg;G.
* fw;wYf;fhd xg;ge;jk;.
* FOg;gzp.

5. jfty;fis mZFjYk;> epu;tfpj;jYk;:

(Muha;jy;> Muha;r;rp> tpsf;Fjy;> jfty;fis fl;likj;jy;> jfty;fis kPs;ghu;it


kw;Wk; kjpg;GiuapLjy;> juTfis Nrfupj;jy;> jfty; tsq;fis NjLjYk;
epu;tfpj;jYk;> cw;WNehf;Fjy; kw;Wk; nghUs; tpsf;fk; jUjy;)

* gpd;Diu tpsf;ff; Fwpg;G.


* nray;jpl;lk;.
* tpsf;fTiu.
* gaDWgzp (m) nray;.
* gaDW gpur;rid.

6. mwpjy; kw;Wk; GupjYf;fhd nray;tpsf;fk;:

(epidT $u;jy;> tptupj;jy;> mwpf;if rku;g;gpj;jy;> kPl;lwpjy;> milahsk; fhzy;>


njhlu;G kw;Wk; cl;njhlu;GgLj;jy;)

* vOj;Jj; Nju;T.
* tha;nkhopj; Nju;T.
* fl;Liu.
* mwpf;if.
* njhFg;G (m) gjpNtLfspd; Jy;ypak; gw;wpa fUj;J.
* fiyf;fsQ;rpaj;jpw;fhd EioT nrhy;.
* A – Z jahupj;jy;.
* thbf;ifahsu;fspd; tpdhf;fSf;F gjpy; mspj;jy;.
* rpWtpdh : rupah jtwh> gyTs; Nju;T tpdh> tpilj;jhs; rhu;e;j (m) fzpdp
rhu;e;j kjpg;gPL.

7. tbtikj;jy;> cUthf;Fjy;> nraw;gLj;jy;:

(fw;gid> fhl;rpg;gLj;jy;> tbtikj;jy;> jahupj;jy;> cUthf;Fjy;> GJik GFj;Jjy;>


nraw;gLj;jy;)

* njhFg;G.
* nray;Kiw.
* toq;Fjy; (m) mspj;jy;.
* mDkhdq;fs;.
* nray;jpl;lk;.

8. njhlu;GgLj;jy;:

(xUtop - ,Utop njhlu;G> FOtpw;fpilNaahd njhlu;G> nrhw;fs;> vOj;Jf;fs;>


nrhw;rhuh njhlu;G> tptupj;jy;> tpthjpj;jy;> thjhLjy;> Neu;fhzy;> Ngr;Rthu;j;ij
elj;jy;> mspj;jy;> Fwpg;gpl;l vOj;JUtq;fis gad;gLj;jy;)

* vOj;Jf;fs; thapyhf njhlu;GgLj;jy;.


o (fl;Liu> mwpf;if> gpujpgypf;Fk; Mtzq;fs;)
* tha;top jfty; mspj;jy; (m) toq;Fjy;.
* FOg;gzp.
* fye;Jiuahly; / tpthjk; / ebj;Jf; fhl;Ljy;.

kjpg;gPl;L jfty;fis Nrfupj;jy; :-

khztu;fs; njupe;Jf;nfhs;sf;$ba kw;Wk; nra;af; $batw;iwg; gw;wpa


jftiy Nrfupj;J> Ma;T nra;jy; kw;Wk; gad;gLj;jy; Mfpait gaDs;s fw;wy;
fw;gpj;jYf;fhd mbg;gilahFk;.

kjpg;gPL> fw;wy; fw;gpj;jy; ,ilNaahd cwT khWk; nray;tpisT nfhz;lJ.


kjpg;gPL jfty;fs; Nrfupj;jy;> gFg;gha;T kw;Wk; gad;gLj;jy; vd;gJ fw;wy;
fw;gpj;jypy; xUq;fpize;j nray;KiwahFk;.

kjpg;gPL nray;Kiw :-

khztu;fspd; milT kw;Wk; fw;wy; Njitfis jPu;khdpf;f kjpg;gPL jfty;fs;


Nrfupf;fg;gLfpwJ. ,J fhyg;Nghf;fpy; khztu;fspd; Kd;Ndw;wk; kw;Wk; milT gw;wpa
gFg;gha;Tf;fhd xU mbg;gilia toq;FfpwJ. NkYk; jdpj;jdp fw;wy;
NjitfSf;fhf Fiwawpa cjTfpwJ.

kjpg;gPL jfty; Nrfupg;G :-


kjpg;gPL gue;jstpyhd Mjhuq;fspypUe;J Nrfupf;fg;gl;l jfty;fs; ntt;NtW
Neuq;fspy; ntt;NtW ,lq;fspy; mlq;Fk;. ,jpy; gpd;tUk; Mjhuq;fSk; mlq;Fk;.

Foe;ijfis gw;wp mtu;fsJ ngw;Nwhu;fsplkpUe;J ngwg;gl;l mwpT.


gs;spfspy; kjpg;gpLjypd; mwpKfk; my;yJ EioT.
Mrpupau;fshy; tbtikf;fg;gl;l tFg;G kw;Wk; gs;sp mstpyhd Nrhjid
KbTfs;.
xt;nthU ehSk; khztu;fNshL njhlu;G nfhz;L ngwg;gl;l jfty;fs; KbTfs;.
Njrpa ju kjpg;gPl;Lf; fUtp %yk; ngwg;gl;l KbTfs;. (PAT) Kw;Nghf;F milT
Nrhjid.
TTLE - fw;wy; - fw;gpj;jYf;fhd kjpg;gPl;Lf; fUtpfs;.
NCEA - fy;tp miltpw;fhd Njrpa mstpyhd rhd;wpjo;fs;.

khztu; nray;jpl;lj;ij ju kjpg;gPL nra;jy; kw;Wk; kjpg;ngz;fs; toq;Fjy; :-

khztu;fs; nray;jpwid kjpg;gpLtjw;fhd gy Nehf;fk; kjpg;ngz; toq;Fjy;


nray;jpwDf;fhd gy;Nehf;F KbTfis Muha;tjhFk;. ,jd; %yk; khztu; fw;wiy
Kd;Ndw;Wtjw;fhd topfspy; ,aq;FfpwJ. NkYk; fw;gpj;jiy Nkk;gLj;Jjy;> kjpg;gPL
nra;tjw;fhd gq;F> jpl;lkpLjy;> Kd;Ndw;wj;jpw;fhd jfty;fis mspf;fpwJ.

gy;NtW tifahd ju epu;zak; kw;Wk; mwpf;if Kiwfs; :-

Ra kjpg;gPl;bw;fhd jfty;fis khztu;fSf;F toq;Fjy;.


Fwpg;gpl;l fy;tp gpiofs; (m) jpl;lq;fSf;F khztu;fisj; Nju;e;njLf;fTk;
milahsk; fhzTk; toptif nra;jy;.
ngw;Nwhu;fs; kw;Wk; gpw Mu;tKs;s khztu;fSf;fhd rhjid milTfis
njhlu;G nfhs;tJ.

KbTfspd; njhFg;ghf;fy; kw;Wk; tpsf;fk; KbTfspd; njhFg;G :-

1. juksTr; Nrhjidfs;:

xU khztd; ngw;w Nju;r;rp my;yJ kjpg;ngz;zpw;F tpsf;fk; jUk;NghJ Nju;r;rp


(m) kjpg;ngz;fis gpw khztu;fNshL xg;gplyhk;. gpw khztu;fNshL khztd; ngw;w
kjpg;ngz;iz taJ> ghypdk;> trpf;Fk; gFjp Mfpatw;iw mbg;gilahf nfhz;L gpw
khztu;fNshL xg;gPL nra;J cupa tpsf;fk; ju KbAk;.

(v.fh.) - jahtpd; kjpg;ngz; gUt Nju;Tfspd; ruhrup kjpg;ngz;fis tpl


Fiwthf cs;sJ.
- ,aw;gpay; myF Nrhjidapy; uhk; 4tJ ,lk; ngw;whu;.

2. FwpasTr; Nrhjidf;fhd nghUs; tpsf;fk;:

xU khztdpd; fw;wy; miltpid gpw khztu;fNshL xg;gpl;L mtdpd;


epiyia jPu;khdpf;fyhk;. xU khztdpd; fw;wy; miltpidg; gpw khztu;fNshL xg;gPL
nra;ahky; Vw;fdNt jPu;khdpf;fg;gl;l elj;ij gz;GfSld; ve;j msT xj;Jg;NghfpwJ
vd;gij mwpa FwpasT Nrhjidfs; gad;gLfpd;wd. cjhuzkhf xU khztd; ngw;w
nkhj;j kjpg;ngz;fis Gythupahfg; gpupj;J ve;jg; Gyj;jpy; ey;y milt ngw;Ws;shd;.
vjpy; vjpu;ghu;j;j msT ngwtpy;iy vd jPu;khdpf;f KbAk;. mwpTg;Gyj;jpy; xUtdpd;
milT rpwg;ghfTk;> czu;Tg; Gyj;jpy; ruhrup epiyahfTk; ,af;fg;Gyj;jpy; ruhrup
epiyf;Fk; fPohfTk; ,Uf;fyhk;. mwpTg;Gyj;jpYk;> ,ju Gyj;jpYk; mk;khztdpd; epiy
vd;d vd;gij jPu;khdpf;f ,aYk;.

(v.fh.) `Puh vOj;Jg;gpio Nrhjidapy; 10-y; 7 kjpg;ngz;fs; ngw;whu;.

3. kjpg;gPl;bd; KbTfis mwpf;ifahf rku;g;gpj;jy;:

fw;wy;> fw;gpj;jy; nray;ghl;by; kjpg;gPL vd;gJ xUq;fpize;j gFjpahFk;. ,jd;


%yk; gs;sp epu;thfk; fw;wypy; jdpegu; ntspg;ghLfis vspjpy; Gupe;Jf; nfhs;sTk;>
mtu;fspd; ngw;Nwhu;fSf;F khztu;fspd; fw;wy; milTfis mwpf;ifahf rku;g;gpf;f
kjpg;gPL gad;gLfpwJ.

kjpg;gPL kw;Wk; mwpf;if tiffs; xU khztdpd; gs;sp tho;f;ifapy; ntt;NtW


Neuq;fspy; NtWgl;bUf;Fk;. xt;nthU gUtj;jpw;F xUKiw ngw;Nwhu;fSf;F Kiwahd
jfty;fs; njuptpf;f Ntz;Lk;. ngw;Nwhu; jq;fs; Foe;ijfspd; Kd;Ndw;wj;jpw;fhf
Mrpupau;fSld; fye;Jiuahb Cf;fg;gLj;jpl Mrpupau;fs; ve;j Neuj;jpYk;
Njitg;gLfpwhu;fs;.

kjpg;gPL mwpf;ifapd; Nehf;fk; :-

tuyhw;W mwpf;if.
jpl;lkpLjy; kw;Wk; KbntLj;jypy; cWJiz.
fw;wy; #oYf;F cq;fs; gq;fspg;gpid Mtzg;gLj;jy;.
nghJ njhlu;G.
jfty;fis gug;Gjy;.
cq;fs; Kaw;rp vg;gb vd;gij ghu;j;jy;.
kjpg;gPL jfty;fs; Nrfupj;jy; kw;Wk; gad;gLj;jypy; gapw;rp gw;wpa fUj;J :-

fy;tpapy; kjpg;gPL vd;gJ (khztu;fs; gw;wpa jfty;fs;) Nrfupj;jy;> tptupj;jy;>


gjpT nra;jy; kw;Wk; fy;tprhu; nray;fspy; gad;gLj;jy; MFk;. jpwk;gl fw;wy; -
fw;gpj;jypy; khztdpd; milT vd;gJ (khztu;fspd; MWjy; kw;Wk; nray;fspy;)
<LgLjy; MFk;. Mrpupau;fs; jq;fs; khztu;fspd; rhjid kw;Wk; Mu;tk; gw;wp mwpT
,y;iy vd;why; mtu;fs; kPJ ek;gpf;if ,Uf;fhJ. Mdhy; Mrpupau;fspd; MjuT
khztu;fs; jq;fs; cs;shu;e;j jpwid mila cjTfpd;wJ. xl;Lnkhj;j kjpg;gPL
mtu;fis mstpLtjw;F kl;Lky;yhky; juj;ijAk; Nkk;gLj;JfpwJ.

khztu;fis fz;fhzpf;f gaDs;s kjpg;gPl;L mikg;G cjTfpwJ. Kd;Ndw;wk;


kw;Wk; milT gaDs;s jpl;lq;fis tbtikf;f cjTfpwJ. Mdhy; kjpg;gPl;L
jfty;fs; jpl;lkpl;l kw;Wk; rpe;jid Kiwapy; gad;gLj;j KbAk;.

ey;y eilKiwia ep&gpj;j gs;spfspy; :-

Mrpupau;fs; kjpg;gPL xU Fwpg;gpl;l Nehf;fj;jpw;fhf Gupjy; kw;Wk; gfpu;e;J


nfhs;tjw;fhd jd;ikAilaJ.
vjpu;ghu;g;Gs;s Mrpupau;fs; jq;fs; khztu;fspd; rhjidfs; kw;Wk; tpUg;gq;fis
gw;wpa mwpT ,Uf;f Ntz;Lk;.
gs;sp Nkyhsu;fs;> Mrpupau;fs; kw;Wk; khztu;fs; kjpg;gpidg; gw;wp fhzg;gl;ld
vd;gij cWjp nra;thu;.
Mrpupau;fs; kjpg;gPl;by; njhopy; tsu;r;rpf;F tha;gg
; spj;jdu;.
jq;fsJ Mrpupau;fis gapw;Wtpg;gjw;fhf jpwk;gl juTfis gad;gLj;j
Cf;Ftpj;jhu;.
Mrpupauhy; tbtikf;fg;gl;l tFg;giw kw;Wk; gs;sp mstpyhd Nrhjid
KbTfs; fz;lwpag;gl;lJ.
gs;sp EioT (m) Gs;spfspy; kjpg;gPL khw;wk nra;jy;.
khztu;fspd; rhjidfspy; Nghf;Ffs; kw;Wk; tbtq;fis milahsk;
fhz;gJld;> gs;spapy; cs;s khztu;fspd; FOtpdupd; rhjidfis xg;gpl;Lg;
ghu;f;fTk; nra;ag;gl;lJ.

tpdhf;fs; :-

1. kjpg;gPL – tiuaW.
2. fw;wypy; kjpg;gPl;bd; gq;F ahJ?
3. KOikfhy kjpg;gPL vd;why; vd;d?
4. kjpg;gPL eilKiwg;gLj;jypd; Nfhl;ghLfs; ahJ?
5. kjpg;gPl;L KbTfis jahupf;Fk; mwpf;ifia ePtpu; vt;thW jahu; nra;tPu;?

myF – 2

tFg;giw fw;wYf;fhd kjpg;gPL

fy;tp Nehf;fq;fs; :-:-

kjpg;gPL eilKiwg;gLj;jypd; Nfhl;ghLfis mwpjy;.


kjpg;gPl;bd; tiffis Gupe;Jf; nfhs;Sjy;.
jug;gLj;jy; gw;wp tptupj;jy;.
kjpg;gPl;by; Mf;fg;g+u;t mZFKiwapid Gupe;J nfhs;Sjy;.
KOikfhy kjpg;gPl;by; tsu;r;rpfhy kjpg;gPl;bd; epiy.

Mf;fg;g+u;tkhd kjpg;gPl;L mZFKiw :-:-

Mf;fg;g+u;tkhd kjpg;gPl;L mZFKiw fl;likj;jy; njhlu;ghd ,yf;fpaj;jpy;


,Ue;J %d;W epiyfshf cUthfpd;wd. ,J fw;wy; #oYf;Nfw;g khw;wj;ij
Vw;gLj;Jfpd;wd.

1. fw;wy; xU njhlu;nray;.
2. fw;NghUf;F fw;wy; mwpthdhf cs;sJ.
3. fw;gtu; jd; fw;wy; nraYf;fhf nghWg;Ngw;fpwhu;.
kjpg;gPL gpujpgypg;G kw;Wk; nray; %yk; cUthf;f gilg;ghw;wy;> nray;Kiw gw;wp
Mokhd GupjYf;Fk;> nraYf;Fk; njhlu;G cs;sJ. xU khztu; mwpthu;e;j
vjpu;g;ghu;g;Gfis mwpe;jpUg;gJld; jdJ nrhe;j Ntiyfis vt;thW jpwk;gl Ma;T
nra;tJ kw;Wk; tpku;rdk; nra;tJ vd;gij Gupe;J nfhs;tNj Mf;fg;g+u;tkhd kjpg;gPL
mZFKiw vd;fpNwhk;. ,e;j nray;Kiw %d;W gbepiyfis nfhz;Ls;sd.

1. Muk;g epiyapy; ,Ue;Nj khztu;fs; jq;fs; Ntiyia epu;zapf;Fk; mstpw;F


Gupe;Jf;nfhs;s cjt Ntz;Lk;.
2. khztu;fsJ nray;jpl;lk; kw;Wk; fhy msT mtw;wpd; Kaw;rp Kd;Ndw;wk;
gw;wpa Mtzk;.
3. nray;jpwd; kw;Wk; gpd;D}l;lj;jpd; %yk; khztu;fspd; Ntiyfis jPu;T
toq;Fjy; kw;Wk; Nkk;gLj;jy;> rpf;fy; jd;ikia khztu;fs; Gupe;J nfhs;Sjy;.

Mf;fg;g+u;tkhd tFg;giwf;fhd kjpg;gPL :-:-

fUj;jpay; mbg;gilapy; Ma;T kw;Wk; mwptpay; Ma;T mbg;gilapyhd


Nfhl;ghL Mf;fg;g+u;tkhd tFg;giwf;fhd kjpg;gPL mbg;gilahdJ ftdk; kw;Wk; Ma;T
gw;wpa Nfhl;ghL MFk;. ,j;jifa mDgtq;fis gpujpgypg;gjd; %yk; VjhtJ xd;iw
vjpu;nfhs;ifapy; mij Ke;ija fhy mDgtq;fNshLk;> fUj;Jf;fNshLk; rupnra;J
nfhs;syhk;. ehk; Gjpa mwpthu;e;j nraiy nra;a Muhae;J njupe;Jf; nfhs;Sjy;>
kw;Wk; nghJikg;gLj;jpf; nfhs;s tFg;giwapy; fw;wiy kjpg;gPL nra;a Ntz;Lk;.

tFg;giwapy; fw;wy; fl;likg;gpay; ghu;it gy;NtW fw;gpj;jy; eilKiwfis


Rl;bfhl;b khztu;fspd; mwpit cUthf;Fjw;F nraypy; cs;s El;gq;fis
gad;gLj;Jtij Cf;Ftpg;gJ. gpd;du; mtu;fs; mwpjy;> kw;Wk; Gupjy; gw;wp NgRjy;
vOJjy; vd Mf;fg;g+u;tkhd khztu;fis Mrpupau;fs; vt;thW njhlu;e;J
nray;gLj;JtJ vd;gij epGzj;Jt; fw;wtu;fshf fw;wwpe;J nfhs;tJld; tFg;giw
#oypy; ed;F jpl;lkplg;gl Ntz;Lk;.

fw;wy; nray;ghl;by; xU nraypy; gq;Nfw;ghsUf;F jftiy ngWeuplkpUe;J


khztu; fl;likf;fpwhu;. Mrpupauhy; topelj;jg;gLk; khztu;fs; Mrpupau;fsplkpUe;Njh
(m) ghlE}y;fspypUe;Njh Ez;zwpTfisg; gad;gLj;Jtij tpl khztu;fspd;
Mu;tj;ij J}z;Lfpwhu;fs;. xU tFg;giwapy; ftdk; MrpupauplkpUe;J khztUf;F
khw;Wtjw;F ftdk; nrYj;JfpwJ. khztu;fis Cf;fg;gLj;j Mrpupau;fs;
fl;likg;gpay; khjpupapy;> gapw;rpfs;> mwpTWj;jy;fs; kw;Wk; mwpit tsu;j;Jf;nfhs;s>
kjpg;gPL nra;a cjtp nra;tJ Nghd;w nray;fis tFg;giwapy; fl;likf;fpd;wdu;.

jw;Nghija nray;fspy; Kuz;ghLfs; ,Ug;gij Nghy Vw;fdNt rpy nray;jpwd;


mZFKiwfis gad;gLj;jp ,Ug;ghu;fs;. Mf;fg;g+u;tkhd Mrpupaupd; tpdhf;fspy;; rpy
gpur;ridfis Kd;itf;fpd;wdu;. gpd;du; khztu;fis gioa mZFKiwfNshL Gjpa
gpur;ridfSf;F jPu;T fhzTk; topfhl;Lk; tpdhf;fSf;F jPu;T fhzTk; topfhl;lg;gLk;.
nray;Kiw El;gq;fis gad;gLj;j>

jq;fs; nrhe;j tprhuizfs;


khztu;fNs Nfs;tpfis tFf;Fk;gb nra;jy;.
gy tpsf;fq;fs; kw;Wk; fw;wy; ntspg;ghLfs; mDkjpf;f.
FO Ntiyfis Cf;Ftpj;jy;> $l;L fw;wy; kw;Wk; ,Uf;Fk; tsq;fis
KOikahf gad;gLj;jy;.

kjpg;gPl;bd; rpwg;gpay;Gfs; :-:-

* fw;wypd; gy;NtW elj;ijfis xg;gPL nra;a gad;gLfpwJ.


* Kiwahf xUq;fikf;fg;gl;l nray;Kiw MFk;.
* ,yf;Ffs; kw;Wk; nray;KiwfSf;fpilNa neUq;fpa cwT ,Uf;fpwJ.
* Mf;fg;g+u;tkhd mZFKiwapd; #oypy; kjpg;gPL> khztu; Kd;Ndw;wj;ij
epu;tfpj;jy; vd Kf;fpa fw;wy; topKiwfis epiwNtw;Wtjpy; Kf;fpa gq;F
tfpf;fpwJ.

kjpg;gPL vd;gJ njhlu;e;J nray;glf; $baJ. Mrpupau;fs; khztu;fsJ fw;wiy


gw;wpa gpd;tpisTfis ngw;W khztu;fsJ fw;wiy Nkk;gLj;j topfhl;Ljy;fs; kw;Wk;
gpd;D}l;lk; mspj;jy; Ntz;Lk;

fw;wy; nray;fspy; midj;J fw;Nghupd; mwpthu;e;j> czu;Tfs; kw;Wk;


jpwd;fSf;Nfw;g kjpg;gPL fw;wy; kjpg;gPl nray;fis toq;Fjy; kw;Wk; Gjpa mwpthu;e;j
nray;fNshL njhlu;GgLj;jp kjpg;gpLjy;.

njhlu;r;rp kw;Wk; KOikahd kjpg;gpL :-:-

C - njhlu;r;rp

C - KOikahd

E - kjpg;gPL

njhlu; kjpg;gPL vd;gJ Fwpj;j fhyq;fSf;nfhU Kiw njhlu;e;J (m) Mz;L


KOtJk; kjpg;gplf;$bajhFk;. ,k;Kiwapy; Kiwahd kw;Wk; Kiwrhu kjpg;gPl;L
El;gq;fis gad;gLj;jp kjpg;gPL nra;ag;gLfpwJ.
KOik kjpg;gPL vd;gJ Foe;ijfspd; xl;Lnkhj;j MSikg;gz;Gfis kjpg;gPL
nra;tjhFk;. ,k;Kiwapy; khztu;fsJ KOikahd tsu;r;rp vd;gJ fw;wy;
nray;ghLfs; kw;Wk; fw;wYf;fhd ,iz nray;ghLfis cs;slf;fpaJ.

njhlu; kw;Wk; KOikahd kjpg;gPL gs;spfspy; khztu;fspd; xl;Lnkhj;j


tsu;r;rpapid kjpg;gPL nra;tjhFk;. ,k;kjpg;gPl;L KiwahdJ ,uz;L tsu;r;rpfspd;
nray;fis nfhz;Ls;sJ. fw;wy; vd;gJ tpupe;j (m) gue;j mbg;gilapyhd fw;wy;
kw;Wk; elj;ij tpisTfis kjpg;gplf;$bajhFk;. ,jpy; njhlu; kjpg;gPL vd;gJ
khztu;fsplk; fz;lwpag;gLfpd;w tsu;r;rp kw;Wk; Kd;Ndw;wk; fw;wy; - fw;gpj;jypy;
mtu;fsJ milit kjpg;gpLtjhFk;. NkYk; KOikahd kjpg;gL
P vd;gJ fw;wy; kw;Wk;
fw;wy; ,iz nray;fspd; khztu;fspd; tsu;r;rp kw;Wk; Kd;Ndw;wj;jpw;fhd
mk;rq;fis Fwpf;Fk;.

njhlu; kw;Wk; KOik kjpg;gPl;bd; Njit :-:-

njhlu;r;rp kw;Wk; tpupthd kjpg;gPL fw;Nghupd; KOikahd tptuq;fis ngw


gs;spfspy; ghl newpapd; nkhj;j fhy ,ilntspapy; tpupTgLj;jg;gLk; fw;wy; kw;Wk;
fw;wy; ,iz nray;fSf;fhd mk;rq;fis kjpg;gpl cjTfpwJ.

khztu;fsplk; cs;s Neu;kiwahd gz;Gfis Nrhjidapd; NghJ milahsk;


fhz cjTfpwJ.

tFg;gpd; IX kw;Wk; X Mfpa ,uz;L tUl fhyg;gFjpapy; khztu;fSf;F


gy;NtW tha;g;Gfis toq;fp khztu;fspd; jdpj;jpwikfis milahsk; fhz
cjTfpwJ.

,j;jifa Mtzq;fs; Nju;tpw;F gpwF ntspaplg;gl;l Nju;T KbTfSld;


mwpf;if rku;g;gpf;f JizGupfpwJ.

njhlu;r;rp kw;Wk; KOik kjpg;gPl;bd; Kf;fpa cl;$Wfs; :-:-

ntt;NtW #oypy; fw;Fk; khztu;fspd; cs;Szu;T kw;Wk; jpwd;fis


milahsk; fhzy;.
khztu;fspd; milTfis fhz cj;jpfis fz;lwpjy;.
gs;spfspy; KOikahd kjpg;gPl;L Kiw jpl;lq;fis Nkk;gLj;j jpl;lkpLjy;.
njhlu;r;rpahd tpupthd gupzhkj;ij miltjw;F nghUj;jkhd fUtpfs; kw;Wk;
El;gq;fis gupe;Jiug;gJ.
gs;spfspd; tsu;r;rpapd; njhlu; kjpg;gPl;il gad;gLj;jy;.
gs;sp kw;Wk; khztu;fspd; tsu;r;rpf;F kjpg;gPl;L fUtpfis Nghjpa mstpy;
gad;gLj;Jjy;.

nray;jpl;lk; :-:-

nray;jpl;lk; vd;gJ gs;spapy; (m) ntspg;Gwj;jpy; khztu;fs; Nkw;nfhs;sg;gLk;


xU nraiyr; Rw;wp xU tpupthd myF jhf;fj;jpid nfhLf;Fk; xU KiwahFk;.

xU nray;jpl;lk; vd;gJ xU r%f #oypy; nray;gLk; nray;Kiw MFk;.

• kjpg;gPl;bw;fhd jpl;lj;ij gad;gLj;jy;.


• njspthd jpl;lkpLjy; kw;Wk; tbtikj;jy;.
• rpe;jid kw;Wk; fhuzkwpjy;.
• nra;J Kbj;jy;.
• gilg;ghw;wy;.
o kjpg;gPL vd;Dk; fUj;jpid mjd; epiyfSf;Nfw;g Gupe;Jf; nfhs;Sjy;.
o jd;dk;gpf;if kw;Wk; RaxOf;fk; rhu;e;j kjpg;gPL.
o khztu;fs; gpw khztu;fNshL ,ize;J nray;gLfpwhu;fs; vd;gij
kjpg;gpLtJ.
o Gjpa mwpit ngWtjw;fhd Cf;Ftpj;jy; kw;Wk; fl;likj;jy;.

fUj;juq;F :-:-

fUj;juq;Ffs; vd;gJ xU Fwpg;gpl;l jiyg;ig tpthjpf;Fk; Nehf;fj;jpw;fhf


kf;fis xU $l;lkhf tiuaWf;fyhk;. ,j;jifa $l;lq;fs; tof;fkhf ClhLk;
mku;Tfshf mike;Js;sd. mjpy; gq;Nfw;ghsu;fs; tiuaWf;fg;gl;l jiyg;igg; gw;wp
tpthjq;fspy; <LgLfpd;wdu;. mku;Tfs; tpUk;gpa ghijapy; tpthjj;ijj; jpir jpUg;g
Nrit nra;Ak; xd;W (m) ,uz;L toq;Feu;fshy; topelj;jg;gLfpd;wd.

fUj;juq;fpd; Kf;fpaj;Jtk; :-:-

xU fUj;juq;F gy Nehf;fq;fSf;fhf (m) xU Nehf;fj;jpw;fhf ,Uf;fyhk;.


cjhuzkhf xU fUj;juq;F fy;tp Nehf;fj;jpw;fhf ,Uf;fyhk;. ,J xU
nrhw;nghopitg; Nghd;wJ. ,jpy; nghUs;tskhdJ xU fUj;ij ed;F Gupe;J
nfhs;tjw;fhd Nehf;fj;jpw;fhf cs;sJ tpthjj;jpy; <LgLk; gq;Nfw;ghsu;fSf;F rpy
jpwd;fs; (m) mwpit ghjpf;Fk; tifapy; fy;tp fUj;juq;fpy; tbtq;fs;
eilngWfpd;wd.
xg;gilg;G :-:-

tFg;gpw;F ntspNa Kbf;fg;gl Ntz;ba gzpfs; Mrpupau;fshy; khztu;fSf;F


xJf;fg;gLk; gzpfis Fwpf;fpwJ. nghJthf tPl;Lg; gzpfisg; nghWj;J gbg;gbahf
vOJtJ> jl;lr;R nra;tJ> gpur;rpidfSf;F jPu;T> gs;sp nray;jpl;lk; (m) gpw
jpwikfSf;F gapw;rpaspg;gJ Nghd;wit xg;gilg;GfshFk;.

Xg;gilg;G xU kjpg;gPl;L fUtp :-:-

ghlf; fUj;Jf;fis Gupe;J nfhs;Sjy;.


ghl xUq;fikg;G.
ghl Kd;dpiyg;gLj;jy;.
gFj;jha;T nra;Ak; jpwd;.
fUj;JUthf;fk;.
ju;f;fk; (m) thjk; nra;jy;.
ghlg;nghUspy; Jy;ypak;.
ghlg;nghUspd; gz;Gfs;.
KOikahd njspTngwy;.
,yf;fzk; kw;Wk; vOj;Jg;gpio.
mbf;Fwpg;Gfspd; tptuj;njhFg;G.

njhFg;G gl;bay; :-:-

njhFg;G gl;bay; vd;gJ Nehf;fq;fs; epiwe;j xOq;fikf;fg;gl;l khztu; gw;wpa


Kiwahd jfty; Nrfupg;G MFk;. ,jpy; khztu;fspd; Kaw;rp> Kd;Ndw;wk; kw;Wk;
Fwpg;gpl;l gFjpfspy; rhjidfs; gw;wp tptuq;fs; ngWjy; MFk;. njhFg;gpy;
cs;slf;fj;ij Nju;T nra;jy;> Nju;Tf;fhd topfhl;Ljypd; tsu;r;rp kw;Wk; jPu;tpw;fhd
tiuaiwfs; ,lk; ngWk;. kjpg;gPL mwpTWj;jYf;Fk; khztUf;Fk; cs;s xU $l;L
nray;KiwNa njhFg;G gl;bay; MFk;.

njhFg;G kjpg;gPL khztu;fspd; Kd;Ndw;wk;> kjpg;gha;T> nray;Kiwfs; kw;Wk;


nray;jpwid typAWj;JfpwJ. ,j;jifa nray;jpwd; ,uz;L mbg;gilfis
nfhz;Ls;sd.
njhFg;G kjpg;gPL vd;gJ tFg;giwapy; MrpupaiuAk;> khztiuAk; kjpg;gPL
nra;Ak; nray;Kiwia cs;slf;fpaJ. ,J ngUk;ghYk; gs;sp fy;tpahz;bd;
,Wjpapy; (m) gUtj;Nju;T Kbtpy; gad;gLj;jg;gLk;.
xU tpjkhd ngupa ghlg;nghUis (m) nray;jpwid tpupTgLj;jYf;fhd
Nehf;fk; nfhz;lJ. kw;Wk; mjd; cs;slf;fq;fis tha;top tpsf;fj;Jld;
mbf;fb ,izf;fpwJ. cjhuzkhf xU gl;lk; (m) xU Ntiyj; jpl;lj;jpy;
gl;lg; gbg;ig kjpg;gPL fUtpahf gad;gLj;jyhk;.

njhFg;G gl;baypd; rpwg;gpay;Gfs; :-:-

nkhop gad;ghL kw;Wk; fyhr;rhu Gupjiy typAWj;JfpwJ.


kjpg;gPL nra;a $l;L mZFKiw gpujpepjpj;Jtg;gLj;jg;gLfpwJ.
thrpj;jy;> vOJjy;> NgRjy; kw;Wk; Nfl;lJ kw;Wk; fyhr;rhu Gupjy; Mfpatw;wpy;
khztu; nray;jpwid gpujpepjpJtg;gLj;JfpwJ.
khztu;fs; vd;d nra;af;$lhJ vd;gjw;F gjpyhf vd;d nra;a KbAk; vd;gij
typAWj;JfpwJ.
Kaw;rp> Kd;Ndw;wk; kw;Wk; milTfis ntspg;gLj;fpwJ.
nray;Kiw kw;Wk; jahupg;G kjpg;gPl;L Kiw mDkjpf;fpwJ.
,izg;G ghl fw;gpj;jy; kw;Wk; fw;wiy kjpg;gpLfpwJ..

juepu;zak; :-:-

fy;tpapy; Nju;T / Nrhjidapy; ngw;w milTf;F Vw;g mtu;fis rpy FO (m)


tiffshf tifg;gLj;JtJ juepu;zak; vdg;gLk;. juepiy Kiwia Kjd; Kjypy;
tpy;ypak; ghup~; vd;gtu; 1972-y; Nfk;gpupl;[; gy;fiyf; fofj;jpy; fy;tp nray;ghLfspy;
gad;gLj;jpdhu;. cyfj;jpy; cs;s gy;NtW ehLfs; gy;NtW juepiyia gad;gLj;jp
tUfpd;wdu;. GPA %yk; cau;epiyg; gs;sp topahf eLj;jug; gs;spapd; khztu;fspd;
juepiyia fzf;fplg;gLfpwJ. ngUk;ghyhd gy;fiyf; fofq;fspy; ,sq;fiy kw;Wk;
gl;ljhup khztu;fSf;F GPA-fs; fzf;fplg;gLfpd;wd. xl;Lnkhj;j juepiy ruhrupahdJ
midj;J khztu;fspd; ruhrupAk; fzf;fplg;gLfpwJ. NkYk; Gs;spfs; rhj;jpakhd
msTfshy; tFf;fg;gLk; nkhj;j Gs;spfs; juKiw mikg;G %yk; KOikahd fy;tp
nray;ghl;bw;Fk; gad;gLfpwJ.
kjpg;gPL kw;Wk; juKiw mikg;G :-:-

kjpg;gPLfs; kw;Wk; kjpg;gPL mbg;gilapy;

Letters Grades and Grading


Standards

“A” (80 – 100%)


“B” (70 – 79%)
“C” (60 – 69%)
“D” (50 – 59%)
“E” (10 – 48%)

A” tpjp tpyf;fhd nray;jpwid Fwpf;fpwJ :-:-


“A

Nfhl;ghL kw;Wk; nghUl;fs; njhlu;ghd Mokhd mwpit gw;wpa tpupthd mwpT>


nghUs; kw;Wk; nfhs;iffs; Mfpatw;iw gad;gLj;Jtjpy; rpy tpjp tpyf;fhd
nray;jpwidf; Fwpf;Fk;

B” ey;y nray;jpwid milahsg;gLj;jy; :-:-


“B

El;gkhd Ez;zwpT kw;Wk; Ez;zwpT Mfpatw;iw Gupe;Jf; nfhs;tJ> jpwk;gl


Gupe;Jf; nfhs;Sjy; kw;Wk; njhlu;G gLj;Jtjw;fhd jpwid milahsg;gLj;jiy
Fwpf;fpwJ.

C” jpUg;jpfukhd nray;jpwidf; Fwpf;fpwJ :-:-


“C

Nfhl;ghL kw;Wk; ghlE}y;fspd; Mo;e;j mwpT gw;wpa mbg;gil Gupjy; kw;Wk;


Gupe;Jf; nfhs;Sk; jpwid gad;gLj;JtJ kw;Wk; njhlu;G nfhs;tjw;fhd jpwdpy;
jpUg;jpia Fwpf;fpwJ.

D” Fiwthd nray;jpwid Fwpf;fpwJ :-:-


“D

gy Nfhl;ghLfisAk;> %yg;nghUl;fis gw;wpa Gupjy; kw;Wk; rpy Fwpg;gplj;jf;f


gFjpfspy; gytPdk; Fiwthd nray;jpwid ntspg;gLj;Jjiyf; Fwpf;fpd;wJ.
F” Njhy;tpia Fwpf;fpwJ :-:-
“F

ghlj;jpl;lq;fs; kw;Wk; ghlq;fis gw;wpa NghjidNah (m) Nghjpa gapw;rp (m)


ghlj;jpl;lj;jpy; Njitahd gzp Kbf;f jtwpaJgw;wpaij Fwpf;fpwJ.

I” KOikahd;ikia Fwpf;fpwJ :-:-


“I

W” nray;jpwdpy; gpd;thq;Fjiy Fwpf;fpwJ :-:-


“W

,Wjp juepiyia jPu;khdpj;


hdpj;jy; :-:-

xt;nthU gs;spapYk; xU khztdpd; juk;> tFg;G gzpfs; kw;Wk; ,Wjpj; Nju;T


Mfpatw;wpd; mbg;gilapyhdjhf ,Uf;Fk;.
xt;nthU MrpupaUk; tFg;giwapy; Nju;T KbTfs; xg;gilg;G kw;Wk; tFg;giw
nray;ghLfs; gw;wp khztu;fNshL Nju;T Kbtpd; juepiyia gw;wp
fye;Jiuahl Ntz;Lk;.
,Wjp tFg;Gfis epu;zapg;gjw;fhd KiwahdJ fhy tupirg; gjptpw;fhd
fhyf;nfLtpw;fhd khztu;fSld; fye;Jiuahlg;gl Ntz;Lk;.
gapw;Wtpg;ghsu;fSf;Fk; kjpg;gPl;L Nehf;fq;fSf;fhf rku;g;gpf;fg;gl;l ,Wjp
Nju;Tfs; jtpu midj;J vOjg;gl;l gzpfSf;Fk; khztu;fs; jq;fs;
gapw;Wtpg;ghsu;fshy; toq;fg;gl;l Ntiy> fUj;Jf;fs; kw;Wk; jukjpg;gPL
epu;zak; nra;jpUf;f Ntz;Lk;.
xt;nthU gbg;gpw;Fk; Mrpupau;fs; khztu;fSf;fhd ,Wjp tFg;gpy; Eiothu;fs;.
Mdhy; juepiy mwpf;iffs; ntspaplg;gl;l MW khjq;fSf;Fs; mjw;fhd
Mtzq;fis mYtyf gjpthsuhy; ghJfhf;fg;gl Ntz;Lk;.
xt;nthU tFg;Gf;Fk; Mrpupau;fs; khztu; jfty; mikg;Gf;F ,Wjp tFg;G
EioTj;Nju;tpy; ,Wjp Nju;T vOjg;gl;l 7 ehl;fSf;Fs;Sk; mLj;J ,Wjp
tFg;Gfspy; Eioe;j NjjpapypUe;J 14 ehl;fSf;Fs; ,Wjp ju KbTfs;
mwpf;ifahf rku;g;gpf;fg;gl Ntz;Lk;. NkYk; Gy Kjd;ikau; mq;fPfupf;fg;gl;l
gpd;G gjpthsu; %yk; juepiy ntspaplg;gLk;.

nray; mbg;gilahd kjpg;gPL / khw;W kjpg;gPL :-:-

nray; mbg;gilahd kjpg;gpLjYk;> khw;W kjpg;gpLjYk; xd;Wf;nfhd;W


,izahdit. mtw;wpd; miltpd; Nehf;fk; xd;Nw MFk;. rpwe;j nray;ghLfis Nju;T
nra;jy; vd;gJ khztu;fSf;F nfhLf;fg;gLk; nray;ghLfis nghWj;J mikAk;.
m/J mtu;fis cz;ik cyfk; rhu;e;j mwptpidAk; jpwidAk; tsu;g;gNj MFk;.

mwpTf;$u;ik vd;gJ tpupthd Jyq;fypd; KbTfs; %yk; mwpayhk;. nray;ghl;L


fhuzpfs; tpidg;nghUs; (m) nray;ghl;L topKiwfs; %yk; khWglyhk;. mj;jifa
nray;ghLfs; ey;y njhFg;ghf mikAk;. mit gy;NtW jpwd;fis Nkk;gLj;j cjTk;.
mitahtd Ngr;Rj;jpwd;> njhFg;G fiyfs; kw;Wk; ,ju jpwd;fshFk;.

cz;ikahd kjpg;gPL vd;gJ gpd; tUtdtw;iw cs;slf;fpaJ. mitahtd>

* cw;WNehf;fy;.
* fl;Liu.
* Neu;fhzy;.
* nray;jpwd;.
* nra;Jf;fhl;ly; kw;Wk; fz;fhl;rp.
* njhFg;Gfs;.
* ehs;NsL
* Mrpupau; cUthf;Fk; Nrhjid.
* Ra (k) rf kjpg;gPL.

Mjhu mbg;gilapyhd kjpg;gPL :-:-

xU Fwpg;gpl;l kjpg;gpLk; Nehf;fj;ij gad;gLj;j Nju;T nra;a> topfhl;Ljy;>


Muha;r;rp (k) Mjhu mbg;gil kjpg;gPL mtrpak;.

Nrhjidapd;
Nrhjidapd; tiffs; :-:-

vOj;J Nrhjid:-
Nrhjid:-

vOj;J Nrhjid vd;gJ fzpdpapYk; kw;Wk; fhfpjj;jpYk; epu;tfpf;fg;gLgit


MFk;. xU vOj;Jj; Nju;T vd;gJ gy cUg;gbfis nfhz;Ls;sJ. nghJthf Nrhjid
cUg;gbfs; ,U tifg;gLk;. (1) fl;Lg;ghlw;w tpilaspj;jy;> (2) epiyahd
tpilaspj;jy;. nghJthf Nrhjidapy; %d;W tifahd cUg;gbfshf cs;sd. mit>
Gwtatpdhf;fs;> rpWtpdhf;fs;> fl;Liu tpdhf;fs; MfpaitahFk;.

gy;tpil tpdhf;fs; :-:-

gy;tpil tpdhf;fs; Gwta tpdhf;fSs; mlq;Fk;. ,J Nju;e;j vL tifia


rhu;e;jJ. ,jd; Kjy; gFjp tpdhthfTk;> ,uz;lhk; gFjp mjw;fhd tpilfSk; (3-5)
nfhLf;fg;gl;bUf;Fk;.

v.fh:

1. 20-d; 20% vd;gJ


(m) 4 (M) 8 (,) 100 (<) 40 tpil : (m) 4

khw;W Jyq;fy; :-:-

nghJthf rupah? jtwh? tpdhf;fs; Nju;e;jpL tifia rhu;e;jit. ,t;tif


tpdhf;fs; nfhLf;fg;gl;l fUj;Jf;fis gbj;J mJ rup my;yJ jtW vdf; Fwpf;f
Ntz;Lk;.

,tw;wpd; FiwghL vd;d vd;why;> xt;nthU tpdhtpw;Fk; ,U khw;W epiyfNs


cs;sd.

Kbj;jy; tif Nju;T :-:-

mspf;Fk; tifia rhu;e;j ,t;tpdhf;fs; FWtpdh mikg;ig rhu;e;jjhFk;. ,jpy;


xU fUj;J my;yJ xU tpjpapd; Kf;fpakhd thu;j;ij tpLgl;L ,Uf;Fk;. mij
khztu;fs; g+u;j;jp nra;a Ntz;Lk;.

nghUj;jy; tif :-:-

Nju;e;jpL tifia rhu;e;j ,t;tif tpdhf;fspy; xd;Wf;nfhd;W njhlu;Gila


nra;jpfis A, B vd;w ,U epiwfspy; ,lk; ngWk;. ,t;tpdhf;fs; midj;Jk;
tpilj;jhspy; xNu gf;fj;jpy; tUkhW ghu;j;Jf; nfhs;s Ntz;Lk;.

fl;Liu tif
tif :-:-

tptupj;jy;> xg;gpLjy;> fhuzk; $wy;> tpsf;Fjy;> rpf;fy; jPu;j;jy; Nghd;w ePz;l


tpil mspf;Fk; tpdhf;fis fl;Liu tpdhf;fs; vd;fpNwhk;. nghJthf ,t;tpdhf;fs;
khztupd; mwpTj;jpwd;> nkhopj;jpwd;> tpsf;Fjy; jpwd;> fUj;Jf;fis ju;f;f uPjpahf
mikf;Fk; jpwd; Mfpatw;iw Ma;T nra;Ak; tifapy; mikAk;.

kjpg;gpd; %ykhf gpd;D}l;lk; mspj;jy; :-:-

gpd;D}l;lk;:-

gpd;D}l;lk; vd;gJ ika epfo;Tfis fzpj;jyhFk;. tpupthd ghlg;nghUis


cl;gLj;jp> fw;wypd; gpd;D}l;lj;ij mwpe;Jf; nfhs;syhk;. ,jd; %yk; mjpf
kjpg;ngz;fs; ngwyhk;. gpd;jq;fpa khztu;fs; jq;fsJ fw;wy; miltpid vl;Lk;
NghJ mtu;fSf;fhd gpd;D}l;lk; mspf;fg;gLk;. ,jpy; kjpg;gpLjy; Kiw vd;gJ kpf
Kf;fpakhd gpd;D}l;lk; mspf;Fk; Kiwahf fUjg;gLfpwJ.

ey;y nray;fs; gpd;D}l;lk; %ykhf njspTgLj;jg;gLfpwJ.


gpd;D}l;lk; Rakjpg;gPl;il Nkk;gLj;JfpwJ.
cau;ju fy;tpia tpsf;FfpwJ.
Mrpupau; - khztu;fs; ,ilNaahd fye;Jiuahlyfis Nkk;gLj;JfpwJ.
,J Neu;kiw Cf;Ftpj;jy; kw;Wk; Rakjpg;ig cau;j;JfpwJ.
,J khztu;fspilNa gy tha;g;Gfisf; nfhLj;J> fhy ,ilntspfis
mfw;Wfpd;wJ.

rf kw;Wk; Ra kjpg;gPL :-:-

rf kjpg;gPL:-:-

fw;wy; fw;gpj;jy; eilngWk; NghJ rpy khztu;fs; ghlf;fUj;ij njupe;Jf;


nfhs;tJld;> jd; fw;wiy fzpf;Fk; jpwik kw;Wk; rf khztu;fis fzpf;Fk;
jpwidAk; ngw;wpUg;gu;. ,j;jifa khztu;fs; fw;wYf;F %ykhf tpsq;Ffpd;wdu;. xU
khztdplk; Mrpupau; fw;wy;> fw;gpj;jy; nray;ghLfspy; <LgLk;NghJ ,j;jifa
khztu;fs; Kd;Ndw fw;gpj;jiy mspj;J Mrpupau; gzpia Nkw;nfhs;tu;. ,j;jifa
khztu;fs; nray;fis gjpT nra;J jfty;fis mspf;f Ntz;Lk;.

Ra kjpg;gpL:-
pL:-

Mrpupau; fw;gpj;j ghlk; njhlu;ghf xg;gilg;Gfs; khztu;fSf;F


nfhLf;fg;gLtjhy;> fw;wtw;iw jhk; Gupe;Jf; nfhz;l msT xg;gilg;Gfshy;
ntspg;gLk;. vdNt xg;gilg;Gfs; khztUf;Fj; jd; kjpg;gPl;Lf; fUtpahfTk;
mikf;fg;gLfpwJ.

Ra kjpg;gPlhdJ khztu;fspd; Rje;jpukhd fw;wYf;F toptFf;fpwJ. NkYk;


mtu;fis Cf;fg;gLj;Jk; xU fUtpahf nray;gLfpwJ. Ra kjpg;gPL %d;W Kf;fpa
$Wfis cs;slf;fpAs;sJ. mitahtd>

1. ,yf;Ffs; epu;zapj;jy;.
2. kjpg;gPl;Lf; fUtpfSk;> topfhl;Ljy; eilKiwfSk;.
3. njhFg;G.

1. ,yf;Ffs; epu;zapj;jy; :-:-

mjhtJ khztu;fspd; fw;wy; epfo;tpy; Xu; mj;jpahtrpa Njit ,yf;F MFk;.


mJ njspthfTk;> mjid milAk; tifapYk; ,Uj;jy; Ntz;Lk;. khztu;fis
Cf;Ftpj;jy; epkpj;jkhf ,Uj;jy; rupahFk;. mtw;wpw;F jkJ ,yf;fpid mikj;jpl
Ntz;Lk;.
2. kjpg;gPl;Lf; fUtpfSk;> topfhl;Ljy; eilKiwfSk; :-:-

khztu;fs; jdJ fw;wy; milTfis jhdhfNt fzpj;jy; my;yJ cw;W


Nehf;Fjy; $lhJ. khztu;fs; jq;fSf;F Njitahd gy;NtW tif Af;jpfis
gad;gLj;jp Ra fz;fhzpg;G kw;Wk; Ra kjpg;gPl;il nra;jy; mtrpak;. khztu;fSf;F
fw;Fk; nghUl;L ,izahd fw;gpj;jy; cj;jpfis ifahSjy; rpwe;jJ. cjhuzkhf>
rupghu;f;Fk; gl;bay;. khztu;fs; jhkhfNt gy cj;jpfis gad;gLj;Jtu;. gpd;G
fye;Jiuahly; epfOk; mjd; %yk; vJ rup? jtW? vd;gij mwpe;Jf; nfhs;tu;.

KOikf;fhy kjpg;gPl;by; tsu;r;rpf;fhy kjpg;gPl;bd; gad;fs; :-:-

khztu;fspd; fy;tpapy; tsu;r;rp fhy kw;Wk; KOikf;fhy kjpg;gPlhdJ Kf;fpa


gq;F tfpf;fpwJ. ,J khztu;fs; fw;wiy Nkk;gLj;Jtjw;Fk;> mjw;fhd topfis
fz;lwpaTk; gad;gLfpwJ. KOikf;fhy kjpg;gPl;bw;fhd Kiwahd gad;ghl;il
cUthf;FtJk;> ngwg;gl;l jfty;fis gad;gLj;jTk; khztu;fspd; vjpu;fhy
tsu;r;rpf;F toptif nra;fpwJ.

khztu;fs; fw;wy; ghzpapd; tuk;ig toq;Ftjw;fhf xU kjpg;gPl;bw;fhd gzpfs;


kw;Wk; tha;g;Gfis tiuaWj;jy;.
khztu;fs; fw;gpg;gtuhf jq;fisg; gw;wpa mwpitg; gad;gLj;Jtjd; %yk; $l;L
kjpg;gPl;bw;Fk; NkYk; jpwikahd khztiu jahu;gLj;jy; MFk;.
kjpg;gPl;bd; KbTfis gad;gLj;Jtjd; %yk; fw;wy; typAWj;jg;gLfpwJ.
,g;NghJ ehd; vq;Nf ,Uf;fpNwd; vd;gij milahsk; fhZk; jpwd; kw;Wk; ehd;
,Uf;f Ntz;Lk; vd;fpw epiyf;Nfw;g khztdpd; jpwid fz;L milahsk;
fhz Ntz;Lk;.
njhFj;jwp kjpg;gPl;L Kiwapid czu;e;J NkYk; fw;wy; khw;wk; %yk; vjpu;fhy
milTfis Nkk;gLj;j tsu;r;rpf;fhy kjpg;gPL gad;gLfpwJ.

tpdhf;fs; :-:-

1. njhlu; kw;Wk; KOikf;fhy tsu;r;rp vd;why; vd;d?


2. njhFg;G gl;bay; tiuaW.
3. Rakjpg;gPL vd;why; vd;d?
4. nray;jpl;lk; vd;why; vd;d?
5. KOikf;fhy kjpg;gPl;by; tsu;r;rpepiy kjpg;gPl;bd; gad; ahJ?
myF - 3: tFg;giw kjpg;gPl;bw;fhd fUtpfs; kw;Wk; El;gq;fs;

Nehf;fq;fs;:
• Mrpupau; fz;fhzpg;Gfspd; Kf;fpaj;Jtj;ij Gupe;J nfhs;s
• fw;wypy; ifahsf;$ba kdk;rhh;fsj;jpd; jhf;fj;ij mwpa
• kdg;gd;ik msitfspd; gz;Gfis mwpa
• rupghu;g;Gfs;> kjpg;gPl;L msTNfhy;fs; kw;Wk; &gpf;]; Mfpatw;wpy; jpwd; tsu
• Nrhjid cUg;gbfis cUthf;Fk; Nfhl;ghLfis Gupe;J nfhs;s

fz;fhzpg;G
midj;J kl;lq;fspYk; fy;tpapd; tpisTfis khztu; fw;wypd; jftiy toq;Ftjw;F
Mrpupau; fz;fhzpg;G jpwd; cs;sJ. Mrpupau; ftdpg;G ,uz;L tifahf tifg;gLj;jg;glyhk;:
jw;nrayhd kw;Wk; jpl;lkpl;l ftdpg;G.
fw;gpj;jy; kw;Wk; fw;wy; ele;Jnfhz;bUf;Fk; nray;ghLfs; Mrpupau; kw;Wk; khztu;fs; ,ilNa
xUq;fpizg;G nra;ifapy; Vw;gLfpwJ. NtWtpjkhf $wpdhy;> xU jpl;lkplg;glhj tFg;giw
eltbf;iffspd; gpd;dzpapy;> Mrpupau; ftdpf;fpwhu;. jdpg;gl;l khztu; fw;wy; rpy mk;rk;. jw;nrayhd
ftdpg;G gad;gLj;jg;glyhk; Kiwahd kjpg;gPl;bw;Fk; Gfhuspf;Fk; xU Mjhukhf itf;fg;gLk; gjpTfs;
rhu;e;J ,Uf;fyhk;.
jpl;lkpl;l fz;fhzpg;G Mrpupau; xU tha;g;ig Ntz;Lnkd;Nw jpl;lkply; mlq;Fk; Fwpg;gpl;l
fw;wy; tpisTfis ftdpf;fTk;. ,e;j jpl;lkplg;gl;l tha;g;G R+oypy; Vw;glyhk; tof;fkhd tFg;giw
eltbf;iffs; my;yJ xU kjpg;gPl;L gzpapd; mikg;gpd; %yk; epfoyhk;.

kjpg;gpLk;NghJ Mrpupau; fz;fhzpg;gpd; tpthjq;fs;:


Mrpupau; ftdpg;G xU Kf;fpak; Mdhy; El;gk; kjpg;gPL gad;gLj;jg;glhj mJ rpy Neuq;fspy;
Mrpupau;fs; ,aw;if R+oypy; khztu;fs; mtjhdpg;Gfs; ,Ue;J nghUj;jkhd kw;Wk; ek;gfkhd kjpg;gPL
jPu;g;Gfs; nra;a Kbatpy;iy vd;W thjplg;gLfpwJ.
Mrpupau; mtjhdpg;Gf;F Mjuthf xU Kf;fpa thjk; Mrpupau;fs; khztu; jd; khztu;fs;
mtjhdpg;Gfs; ,Ue;J fw;wy; gw;wpa ngUk;ghyhd Mjhuk; xU rpwe;j kw;Wk; gytpjkhd mZf
Ntz;Lk; vd;gJjhd;; kw;Wk; Mrpupau;fs; jpwid Nrfupf;f vd;W ehd; rhd;Wfs; ,e;j tuk;gpy; kjpf;fg;gl
Ntz;Lk;. ,y;iynadpy;> khztu; fw;wy; tpisTfis gw;wpa ngUk;ghyhd Mjhuk; xU rpwe;j %y
Gwf;fzpf;fg;gLk; cs;sJ. ve;j tof;fpy;> gpur;rpid mtis Mrpupau; mtjhdpg;Gfs; gad;gLj;j
Ntz;Lk; rhiz ,y;iy. Vnddpy; mtu;fs; Nghjidapd; NghJ mtrpakpy;yhky; gad;gLj;jg;gLfpd;wdu;
- Mdhy; Mrpupau; jPu;g;Gfs; vg;gb KbAk; tYf;fl;lhakhfTk;> Nkk;gl;ljhfTk; ,Uf;f Ntz;Lk;> vdNt
mit Kiwahd Nehf;fq;fSf;fhf gad;gLj;jg;glyhk;.

Mjhuk; Nrfupg;G kw;Wk; gjpT:


midj;J kjpg;gPL khztu; fw;wy; Nrfupg;G kw;Wk; gjpT Njitg;gLfpwJ. ghlj;jpl;lq;fis
nray;gLj;j Mjhuq;fs; ftdk; nrYj;j Ntz;Lk; vd;W gupe;Jiuf;fg;gLfpwJ. fw;wy; tpisTfs;
ele;jjw;fhd Mjhuq;fs; gjpT tpsf;FfpwJ my;yJ fw;wy; tpisTfs cWjpg;gLj;JfpwJ vd;W
Mtzk; Fwpfshtd cs;sJ.
nghWg;Gilik kw;Wk; rupghu;g;G kjpg;gPLfspd; juj;ij cWjpg;gLj;Jtjpy; Kf;fpa fhuzpfs;.
nghWg;Gilik (epahak;) jq;fs; ngw;Nwhu; kw;Wk; kw;w Mrpupau;fs; tpsf;f kw;Wk; khztu;fs;
kjpg;gPl;L jPu;g;Gfs; ghJfhf;f KbAk; vd;W nghUs;.
rupghu;g;G (cWjpg;gLj;jy;) mtu;fspd; KOik nghUj;jKk; cz;ikj;jd;ikia rupghu;f;f KbAk;
vd;w kjpg;gPL jPu;g;Gfs; mbj;jsq;fis kPz;Lk; KbAk; vd;W nghUs;.

Mrpupau; mtjhdpg;Gfs; Kjd;ikahf epfo;Tfs; ,af;fg;gLfpwJ kw;Wk;


eltbf;iffs;. rpy re;ju;g;gq;fspy; xU ifj;jpwd; epfo;tpd; tpisthf cw;gj;jp nra;ag;glyhk;.
nray;jpwd; my;yJ nray;ghL. kw;w re;ju;g;gq;fspy;> ve;j fiyg;gilg;G jahupf;fg;gLfpwJ kw;Wk; epfo;T
nray;jpwd; my;yJ nray;Kiw ftdj;ij xNu Nehf;fk;. xU fyitahdJ fl;baikf;fg;gl;l xd;W.
vLj;Jf;fhl;lhf> xU gzpj;jhs;> vOj;J> xU tbtikg;G Xtpak;> xU tiyg;gf;fk; - NtW
thu;j;ijfspy; $Wtjhdhy;> rpy tifahd jahupg;G. Mrpupau; ftdpg;G Kjd;ikahf ,y;iy ifj;jpwd;
jd;id nfhz;L Mdhy; ,jpy; ifj;jpwd; jahupf;fg;gl;lJ top gw;wpajhfNt vd;W cs;sJ.

Mrpupau; fz;fhzpg;gpw;fhz jpl;lkply;:


jpl;lkply; ,d;wp Mrpupau; fz;fhzpg;G gaDs;sjhf ,Uf;fhJ. Mjhuq;fs; NtWghL
tifahd jpl;lkply; gy;NtW tifahd Njitg;gLfpwJ. vy;yhtpjkhd Mjhuq;fSf;Fk; mtrpakhd xU
Njit fw;wy; tiffis vjpu;ghu;f;fpwJ ntspg;gLj;jg;glf;$ba tpisTfs;. ftdpg;G vd;gJ ,J
kpfTk; Kf;fpak; jw;nrayhd kw;Wk; vq;Nf jPu;g;Gfs; gjpT. ghlj;jpl;lq;fs; GyDzu;T Fwpg;G
Gs;spfshf nray;gLk; fw;wy; tpisTfspd; tbtikg;ig toq;Ffpd;wd. vdNt Mrpupau; ftdpg;Gf;fhd
jpl;lj;jpd; xU Kf;fpa mk;rk; ,J.

Mrpupau; ftdpg;gpd; nry;Ygbf;fhyk; kw;Wk; ghjpf;fr;nra;fpd;w fhuzpfs;:


gjpT Mjhuq;fs; Jy;ypakhf Nehf;fg;gl;l khztu; nray;jpwd; kw;Wk; tpsf;fk; (jPu;g;G)
,e;j Mjhuq;fs; epahakhdJjhd; vd;gij mjhtJ rupahd gjpT kw;Wk; tpsf;fkspf;fg;gl;lJ ve;jtpj
cj;juthjKk; mspf;ftpy;iy.

Rakjpg;gPL
jd;dpaf;f kjpg;gPL khztu;fs; gy Nju;T Nju;Tfs; kw;Wk; juk; jq;fis gjpy;fis ntWkNd
gupNrhjpf;f Ntz;Lk; vd;W mu;j;jg;gLj;jyhk;> Mdhy; mijtpl mjpfkhdit ,jpy; mlq;Fk;. Ra
kjpg;gPL vd;gJ xU nray;Kiwahf kpfTk; Jy;ypakhf tiuaWf;fg;gLfpwJ> ,jd; %yk; khztu;fs; 1)
mtu;fspd; rpe;jid kw;Wk; elj;ijapd; juj;ij fz;fhzpf;fTk; kjpg;gPL nra;aTk;> fw;wy; kw;Wk; 2)
jq;fsJ Gupjy; kw;Wk; jpwd;fis Nkk;gLj;Jk; cj;jpfisf; fz;lwpjy;. mjhtJ> elg;G kw;Wk; tpUk;gpa
nray;jpwd; Mfpatw;wpw;F ,ilNaahd Kuz;ghLfis milahsk; fhz;gjw;fhf khztu;fs;
nray;jpwid Nkk;gLj;Jtjw;fhf jq;fs; nrhe;j Ntiyia jPu;j;Jf; nfhs;Sk;NghJ Ra kjpg;gPL
Vw;gLfpwJ. Ra kjpg;gPl;L ,e;j mk;rk; juepiy mbg;gilapyhd fy;tpAld; neUf;fkhf xUq;fpizfpwJ.
,J khztu; Ra kjpg;gPl;il vspjhf;Fk; njspthd ,yf;FfisAk; juepiyfisAk; toq;FfpwJ.

Ra kjpg;gPl;L nray;Kiw:
Ra-fz;fhzpg;G> jpwikahd Ra kjpg;gPL Njitg;gLk; jpwik elj;ij my;yJ rpe;jidapd; rpy
mk;rq;fSf;F ftdk; nrYj;JfpwJ. Ra-fz;fhzpg;G khztu;fs; jhq;fs; vij nra;fpwhu;fNsh
mijNa Nehf;fkhff; fUJfpd;wdu;. vdNt jd;dpaf;f fz;fhzpg;G rpe;jid kw;Wk; tpopg;Gzu;T gw;wpa
tpopg;Gzu;it Vw;gLj;JfpwJ NkYk; mit Ra kjpg;gPL nra;Ak; NghJ khztu;fs; vd;d nra;tJ
vd;gij tpsf;Fk;.
gapw;rp tpisTfs;:
tFg;giwapy; Mrpupau;fs;> khztu; Ra kjpg;gPL cj;jpfs; gad;gLj;j NghJ mtw;iw
gad;gLj;Jtjw;F xU tpopg;Gzu;T cUthfpwJ. Mrpupau;fSk; khztu;fSk; ,e;j jpwd;fisf;
fw;Wf;nfhs;thu;fs; NghJ mtu;fs; njspthd fy;tp ,yf;Ffis cUthf;fp kjpg;gPL nra;tjw;fhd
kjpg;gPLfis tFj;J khztu;fs; jq;fs; nrhe;j Ntiyia kjpg;gPL nra;a cjTthu;fs;. fw;wy;
nray;Kiwfspy; mtu;fs; jPtpukhf <LgLtNjhL NkYk; fw;wy; kw;Wk; fw;wy; tpisTfSf;F
cWJizahf ,Ug;gjhy; me;j eilKiwfs; khztu;fs; <LgLfpd;wd. khztu; Ra kjpg;gPL
Mrpupau;fs; ,yf;F mikg;ig> kjpg;gPL kw;Wk; gpujpgypg;G %yk; jq;fs; khztu;fSf;F kjpg;gpLk;
nghWg;Gfis fle;J fw;Wf;nfhs;s vd;W $lf; Nfl;ftpy;iy.

tptuz gjpTfis jpl;lkpl;L tFg;giwapy; khztu; elj;ijfs; tptuz gjpTfis jpwd;fs;


kw;Wk; elj;ijfis Fwpg;gpl;l mtjhdpg;Gfs; Fwpg;Gfs; itf;fg;gLfpd;wd. Gs;spapay; gjpTfs;
Kd;Ndw;wk; tptuz gjpTfis jpwd;fisg; ngw;W NkYk; mwpTWj;jYf;fhd jpirfisg; gw;wpa
KOikahd jftiy toq;Ffpd;wd. ghlnewpapd; NghJ ele;Jnfhz;bUf;Fk; mtjhdpg;Gfspd; tpisthf
Fwpg;Gfs; mbf;fb vOjg;gLfpd;wd. Mdhy; khztu; Kbj;Js;s xU jahupg;G my;yJ nray;jpwidg;
gpujpgypf;Fk; tifapy; vOjg;glyhk;. xU Fwpg;gpl;l khztupd; tuyhw;W uPjpahd gjpTfspd; jpl;lkpl;l
Nrfupg;G fw;wy; Kiwfis kjpg;gPL nra;tjw;Fk;> khztu; Kd;Ndw;wj;jpd; epiyj;jd;ikf;F rpwe;j
jfty;fisAk; toq;FfpwJ. ed;F guhkupf;fg;gLk; xU Fwpg;G xU khztUf;F kjpg;Gkpf;f eilKiw
kw;Wk; Fwpg;gpl;l Fwpg;ig toq;FfpwJ.

khztu; elj;ij> jpwd;fs; kw;Wk; kNdhghtq;fs; Mfpatw;wpd; Fwpg;gpl;l Ma;Tfis gjpT


nra;ag; gLfpwJ> mit Ma;thsu;fspd; epfo;r;rpj;jpl;lj;jpd; tpisTfis xj;jit. mj;jifa Fwpg;Gfs;
khztu; fw;wy; gw;wpAk; NkYk; mwpTWj;jYf;fhd jpirAldhd nkhj;j jfty;fisAk; toq;Ffpd;wd.
ghlnewpapd; NghJ ele;Jnfhz;bUf;Fk; mtjhdpg;Gfspd; tpisthf> mndf;nlhy; Fwpg;Gfs; mbf;fb
vOjg;gLfpd;wd> Mdhy; khztu; Kbj;Js;s xU jahupg;G my;yJ nray;jpwidg; gpujpgypf;Fk; tifapy;
vOjg;glyhk;. mit RUf;fkhdit Gwepiy kw;Wk; Fwpg;gpl;l tpisTfspy; ftdk; nrYj;Jfpd;wd.
nghJthf xU Jy;ypakhd eltbf;if vLf;Fk; NghJ my;yJ cldbahf vLf;fg;gl;l Fwpg;Gfs;. xU
Fwpg;gpl;l khztDf;fhd fUj;Jf;fzpg;G Fwpg;Gfs; mt;tg;NghJ khztu;fSld; gfpu;e;J nfhs;sg;glyhk;
my;yJ khztu; Nfhupf;ifapy; gfpu;e;J nfhs;syhk;. mtu;fs; ngw;Nwhu;-Mrpupau;-khztu; khehl;by;
khztu;fs; kw;Wk; ngw;NwhUld; gfpu;e;J nfhs;syhk;.

Fwpg;Gfspd; Nehf;fk;:
1. xU fhyg;gFjpapy; khztu; mgptpUj;jp gw;wpa jfty;fis toq;Fjy;
2. jdpg;gl;l topfhl;b Njitfisg; gw;wp njhlu;e;J gjpTfis toq;Fjy;
3. ,of;f NeupLk; Fwpg;gplj;jf;f elj;ijfs; gw;wpa Ma;Tfisg; gpbf;fTk;
4. khztu;fs; ngw;Nwhu;fs; kw;Wk; Mrpupau;fs; gfpug;glf;$Lk; fw;wy; ele;J Mtzj;ij toq;f.

rupghu;g;Gfs;> kjpg;gPl;L msTNfhy;fs; kw;Wk; &gpf;];

rupghu;g;Gfs;> kjpg;gPl;L msTNfhy;fs; kw;Wk; &gpf;]; Mfpait khepy Fwpg;gpl;l


msTNfhy;fisf; nfhz;Ls;sd> Mrpupau;fs; kw;Wk; khztu;fis jftiyr; Nrfupf;fTk;
khztu;fSf;Fj; njupe;jtw;iwg; gw;wp jPu;g;Gfis toq;fTk; KbfpwJ. mtu;fs; Fwpg;gpl;l elj;ijfs;>
mwpT kw;Wk; jpwikfs; Fwpj;j juTfis Nrfupg;gjw;fhd Kiwahd topfis toq;Ffpd;wdu;. Nrhjid
gl;bay;fs;> kjpg;gPl;L msTfs; kw;Wk; &gpf;]; Mfpatw;wpd; %yk; ngwg;gl;l jfty;fspd; juk;
kjpg;gPl;bw;fhf Nju;e;njLf;fg;gl;l khztu;fspd; Neubahd <LghL kw;Wk; kjpg;gPl;il toq;Ftjpy; cs;s
fUj;Jf;fisg; Gupe;J nfhs;tJ Mfpatw;iwAk; rhu;e;Js;sJ.

rupghu;g;Gfs;> kjpg;gPl;L msTNfhy;fs; kw;Wk; &gpf;]; Nehf;fk; gpd;tUkhW:


• mtjhdpg;Gfs; Kiwahd gjpT nra;a fUtpfs; toq;Fk;
• Ra kjpg;gPL fUtpfs; toq;Fk;
• jq;fs; Ntiyapy; juT Nrfupj;J kjpg;gPL nra;tjw;F Kd; khztu;fSf;fhd mbg;gilj;
Njitfis khjpupfs; toq;Ffpd;wd
• Fwpg;gpl;l jpwd;fs;> cj;jpfs;> kdg;ghd;ikfs; kw;Wk; elj;ijfs; Mfpatw;iw cUthf;Fjy;
• jw;Nghija rhjidfs; xU gjpT toq;Ftjd; %yk; khztu;fspd; topfhl;Lk; Njitfis
njspTgLj;j.
Nkk;ghl;L rupghu;g;Gfs;> kjpg;gPl;L msTfs; kw;Wk; &gpf;];
• khztu;fsplkpUe;J Gupe;Jnfhs;sf;$ba vspikahd tbtq;fisg; gad;gLj;JtNjhL
ngw;NwhUf;Ff; fw;Wf;nfhs;tijg; gw;wpa jftiyg; gupkhWk;.
• gl;bayplg;gl;l gz;Gfs; kw;Wk; tpsf;fg;glq;fs; njspthdit> Fwpg;gpl;lit kw;Wk;
fhzf;$bait vd;gij cWjp nra;aTk;.
• khztu;fsplkpUe;J nghUj;jkhd jFjpfisj; njupe;Jnfhs;s cjTq;fs;. cjhuzkhf> rpf;fy;
jPu;g;gjpy; nray;jpwd; msTfis tpsf;Fk;
• Kd;Ndw;wj;ijf; fz;fhzpf;f Njjpaplg;gLfpd;wd vd;gij cWjp nra;aTk;.
• khztUf;F ed;F mwpKfkhd nghJthd thu;g;GUf;fisg; gad;gLj;jTk;> mjd; KbTfis
(kjpg;ngz;fs;) kjpg;gPL nra;tjd; mbg;gilapy;> gy;NtW tpsf;fg;glq;fs; tpiutpy; Nru;f;fg;glyhk;.
• ,yf;F mikg;ig topKiwfis gad;gLj;jp jq;fs; gl;baiyAk;> mstPl;Lf; fUtpfs; kw;Wk;
Nehf;fq;fSf;fhf cUthf;f khztu;fSf;F kw;Wk; topfhl;ly; toq;fTk;

Fwpg;gpl;l msTNfhy;fis khztu; Mu;g;ghl;lj;Jld; njhlu;Gila rupghu;g;Gfs; nghJthf Mk;


my;yJ >y;iy tbtikg;ig toq;Ffpd;wd.. xU egupd; FO my;yJ KO tu;f;fj;jpd; mtjhdpg;Gfs;
gjpT nra;ag;glyhk;.

kjpg;ngz; msTfs; fw;gpg;ghsuhy; fhl;lg;gLk; elj;ijfs;> jpwikfs; kw;Wk; nray;jpl;lq;fspd;


gl;lk; my;yJ mjpu;ntz;izf; Fwpf;f Mrpupau;fs; mDkjpf;fpd;wd. xU kjpg;gPl;L msT nray;jpwd;
kl;lq;fspd; tuk;ig toq;FfpwJ. kjpg;gPl;L msTNfhy;fs; juepiyapd; juj;ij my;yJ mjpu;ntz;iz
tptupf;f %d;W my;yJ ehd;F gjpy;fis Nju;T nra;fpd;wd.
Mrpupau;fs; fz;fhzpia gjpT nra;a kjpg;gPl;L mstPLfisg; gad;gLj;jyhk; kw;Wk;
khztu;fs; Ra kjpg;gPl;L fUtpfshf mtw;iwg; gad;gLj;jyhk;. vg;nghOJk;> tof;fkhf> rpy Neuq;fspy;>
Fwpg;ghf Fwpg;gpl;l gyk; kw;Wk; Njitfis Rl;bf;fhl;l cjTfpwJ.
kjpg;gPl;L msTNfhy;fs; ,yf;Ffis mikg;gjw;Fk; nray;jpwid Nkk;gLj;Jtjw;Fk;
khztu;fs; jfty;fis toq;Ffpd;wd. kjpg;gPl;L mstpy; njhlu;Gila vz;izf; fhl;bYk; tpsf;fkhd
nrhy; Kf;fpakhdJ. xt;nthU Jy;ypakhd Gs;spf;Fkhd Jy;ypakhd kw;Wk; tpsf;fkhd nrhw;fs;
ek;gfkhd fUtp.
jpwikahd kjpg;gPl;L msTfs; mjpu;ntz; Nghd;w njspthf Gupe;Jnfhs;sg;gl;l
eltbf;iffSld; tpsf;fq;fisg; gad;gLj;Jfpd;wd. epahakhd> ey;yJ my;yJ rpwe;jJ Nghd;w jukhd
mfepiy tpsf;fq;fisg; nghWj;J msTfs; Fiwthf ,Uf;Fk; Vndd;why; xw;iw cupr;nrhy;
msTNfhypy; ,e;j Gs;spfspy; xt;nthd;wpYk; vd;d msTNfhy;fisf; Fwpf;fpd;wd vd;gijg; NghJkhd
jftiyf; nfhz;bUf;ftpy;iy.

khztu;fspd; nray;jpwid kjpg;gPL nra;tjw;fhf &gpf;]; xU msTNfhiyg; gad;gLj;JfpwJ.


mtu;fs; xU epiyahd mstPl;L msT kw;Wk; nray;jpwd; xt;nthU epiy gz;Gfs; gw;wpa tpupthd
tpsf;fj;ij nfhz;Ls;sJ. ,e;j tpsf;fq;fs; jahupg;G my;yJ nray;jpwd; juj;jpy; ftdk;
nrYj;Jfpd;wd msT my;y v.fh. gj;jpfs; vz;zpf;if> xU fUj;ij Mjupg;gjw;fhd cjhuzq;fs;>
vOj;Jg;gpio gpiofs;. khztu;fspd; nray;jpwid kjpg;gpLtjw;fhf xU juj;jpy; tpisit cs;slf;fpa
Nehf;fk; nfhz;ljhf nghJthfg; gad;gLj;jg;gLfpwJ.

mgptpUj;jp nra;Ak; &gpf;]; kw;Wk; ];Nfhupq;


khztu;fspd; fw;wy; kw;Wk; njhlu;G nfhs;Sk; jpwid ,ul;bg;ghf;f ,ul;ilau;fs; ngUkstpy;
mq;fPfupf;fpd;wdu; vjpu;ghu;g;Gfis Neubahf njspthfTk; RUf;fkhfTk; khztu;fs;. xU fw;gpj;jy;
tsj;jpy; ug;gpfis Nru;g;gJ fw;Wf; nfhs;Sk; Mu;g;ghl;lq;fs; vd;d vd;gijf; fUj;jpy; nfhs;sTk;
epiyfspy; tptupf;fTk; tha;g;Gfis toq;FfpwJ.

rhj;jpakhd Nghnjy;yhk; khztu;fsplkpUe;J cs;sPLfs; %yk; &gpf;]; fl;lg;gl Ntz;Lk;. xU


ey;y Jtf;fk; vd;d vd;gij tpsf;Fk; jukhd Ntiy fw;wy; tpisTfis mbg;gilahff; nfhz;lJ.
rhjidf;fhd Kd;khjpupfs; gad;gLj;jg;gl Ntz;Lk; xU rpwe;j my;yJ Vw;fj;jf;f nray;jpwd; vd;d
vd;gij khztu;fSf;F ep&gpf;fTk;. ,J juj;ij xU njhFg;G toq;FfpwJ khztu;fs; Fwpg;G
Fwpg;Gfshf gad;gLj;j Ntz;Lk;. rpwe;j &gpf;]; %d;W Ntz;Lk; jahupg;G my;yJ gzp kjpg;gPL ghFghL
mDkjpf;f Ie;J tpsf;f msTfs;. &gpf;]; ,Uf;fyhk; gy epiyfspy; xt;nthU kjpg;ngz;fisAk;
xJf;fPL nra;tjd; %yk; FwpFwpfisf; Fwpf;f gad;gLj;jg;gLfpwJ.

kzk;rhh; mwpTf;fhd kjpg;gPl;L fUtp


Gupe;Jnfhs;tijf; fz;lwpe;J kf;fis vg;gbf; ifahs;tJ vd;gijg; gw;wp 1965 Mk; Mz;by;
ntspaplg;gl;l xU mikg;gpd; xU gFjpahFk;. ,J xU czu;T njhdp my;yJ Vw;Wf;nfhs;Sjy;
my;yJ epuhfupj;jy; Mfpatw;iw typAWj;Jk; fw;wy; ,yf;Ffis tptupf;fpwJ. rpf;fyhd Nehf;fq;fs;>
vspikahd ftdj;ij rpf;fyhd Mdhy; cs;ehl;by; Fzhjprak; kw;Wk; kdrhl;rpapd; Fzhjpraq;fs;
Mfpatw;wpw;F Nju;e;njLf;fg;gl;l epfo;tpw;F NtWgLtjhy; GwepiyuPjpahf gFg;gha;T nra;a kw;Wk;
kjpg;gpLtjw;F ,J kpfTk; fbdkhd fsk;. ,Ug;gpDk; ,e;j fsj;jpy; khztu;fspd; jpwd;fis
kjpg;gpLtjw;Fk; mstPL nra;tjw;Fk; tpupthd fy;tp nray;Kiw Njit.

kdg;ghd;ik msitfs;
xU mZFKiw mstPl;L vd;gJ xU nghUspd; my;yJ epfo;itg; gw;wpa xU egupd;
czu;Tfspd; jPtpuk; kw;Wk; jpiria (my;yJ mjw;F vjpuhf) Fwpf;Fk; kjpg;ngz;fis cUthf;f
tbtikf;fg;gl;l tpNrl tif Nfs;tpj;jhs; MFk;. mZFKiw khw;wq;fs; ngUk;ghYk; mZFKiw
khw;w Nrhjidfspy; gad;gLj;jg;gLfpd;wd. xU FOthf ,uz;L Kiw msit epug;gTk; rpy
re;ju;g;gj;jpw;F Kd;du; xU njspthd thjj;ij thrpj;J gpd;du; kPz;Lk; kPz;Lk; epug;gTk; Nfl;fg;gLfpwJ.
xU fl;Lg;ghl;L FO thjk; gbj;J ,y;yhky; ,uz;L Kiw msT epug;Gk;. fl;Lg;ghL FO ntspg;ghL
my;yJ eilKiw tpisTfis mstpl gad;gLj;jg;gLfpwJ. xOq;FgLj;jg;gl;l FOtpid Nrhjid
FO cwtpdu; kjpg;ngz;fis khw;wk; mtu;fsJ kdg;ghd;ikapy; mjpfkhfNth my;yJ FiwthfNth
rhjfkhd khwptpl;ld vd;gij> thjj;jpd; tpisTfs; Fwpf;fpwJ.

kzg;ghz;ik msitfspd; rpy Kf;fpa rpwg;gpay;Gfs;


• xU Nfs;tpj;jhs; jahuhf cs;sJ; Nfs;tpj;jhs; cs;s nghUl;fs; %yk; xU tp\ak; tp\ak;
xU nghUis my;yJ mikg;G Nehf;fp xU jdpegu; mZFKiw kjpg;gPL kw;Wk; xt;nthU cUg;gbia
];Nfhu; xJf;fPL.
• xU nghUis my;yJ mikg;ig Nehf;fp jdJ gjpiy ntspg;gLj;Jk;gb xUtu; Nfl;fg;gLfpwhu;
mtupd; gjpy;fspd; mbg;gilapy; mtu; epiyg;ghl;ilf; Fwpf;Fk; ];Nfhu; xJf;fg;gLfpwhu;.
• rpy nghUj;jkhd kw;Wk; kiwKf mwpf;iffs; mZFKiwia ntspg;gLj;jTk;
gad;gLj;jg;glyhk;.
• ,e;j mstpyhd fUj;Jf;fs; Kf;fpakhd epow;glq;fisf; Fwpg;gpLfpd;wd.
• mstpl Kbthd juit rpfpr;ir Kaw;rpAk; vd;whYk; msitfs; ngUk;ghyhd ,aw;ifapy;
tupirnaz;Zf;Fupait cs;sd.
• ,JNghd;w mstpyhd vspikahd tif gjpyspg;gtu; nghUs; rpf;fy; jahupg;G Mfpa
,uz;ilAk; ,uz;lhf gpupj;njLf;Fk; tiffspy; xd;whff; nfhz;bUf;fpwJ.
• mZFKiw mstPL nrjpy;fs; ,aw;ifapy; ,it me;j kw;Wk; gupkhz ,it me;j
tifg;gLj;jyhk;. fpilf;ff;$ba xw;iw gupkhz mZFKiw mstPl;L msTfs; gy;NtW tif
tiufiy kw;Wk; vz;Kiw nrjpy;fs; ckpo;e;j nrjpy;fs; N[hb xg;gPLfs; rk-Njhw;w ,ilntspfs;.

Cf;fg;Lj;Jk; msitfs;

Cf;fg;Lj;Jk kjpg;gPL msitfs; jfty; kWnkhopfs; %yk; tsu;r;rp FiwghLfs; egu;fspy;


gpur;rid elj;ij nray;ghLfis kjpg;gpLfpd;wJ vd;gijAk; juepiyapLk; msTNfhypy; cs;sJ. ,J
16 Nfs;tpfs; mlq;Fk; kw;Wk; xt;nthU elj;ij xU rhj;jpakhd ehd;F mitahtd: 'ftdj;ij
jg;gpj;Jf;nfhs;sy; czu;r;rp kw;Wk; cWjpahd. xt;nthU Nfs;tpf;Fk; MW kWnkhopfs; cs;sd
(xUNghJk; 1 fpl;lj;jl;l vg;NghjhtJ 3 ghjp Neuk; 4 tof;fkhf 5 fpl;lj;jl;l vg;NghJk; kw;Wk; 6
vg;NghJk;). kjpg;ngz;fs; xU Fwpg;gpl;l Jizf;FO nray;ghl;bw;Fs; cUg;gbia kjpg;gPL nra;tjd;
%yk; fzf;fplg;gLfpwJ kw;Wk; me;j Jizf;Fupa ruhrup kjpg;igf; fzf;fpLfpwJ. xd;W my;yJ
mjw;F Nkw;gl;l cau; kjpg;ngz;fis vd;whYk; fUtpapd; Mrpupau;fs; ,jpy; mjpf kjpg;ngz;fs;
vitnay;yhk; Fwpg;gpl Ntz;lhk; me;j nray;ghLfis jdpegupd; gpur;rid elj;ij
eilKiwg;gLj;Jfpd;Nwhk; vd;W mwpag;gl;Ls;sJ.

Nrhjidfis epu;khzpg;gjw;fhd Nfhl;ghLfs;


Nrhjidf;F jpl;lkply;:
• Nrhjidapd; mbg;gilahf fUjg;gl Ntz;ba nghUs; cs;slf;fj;ij ntspg;gLj;Jf.
• Nrhjid %yk; mstplg;gLk; fw;wy; tpisTfis milahsk; fhzTk;.
• tptuf;Fwpg;Gfs; ml;ltiz jahu;.
• fw;wy; KbTfis kjpg;gpLtjw;fhd Nrhjid tiffspd; nghUj;jkhd tiffis Nju;T
nra;aTk;
• tptuf;Fwpg;Gfs; ml;ltizapy; RUf;fkhf.

Nrhjid jahuhfpwJ:
• Nju;e;njLf;fg;gl;l tiffSf;fhd fl;Lkhd tpjpfs; gb Nrhjid nghUl;fis vOjTk;.
• tptuf;Fwpg;Gfs; ml;ltizapd;gb Nrhjid cs;spl;l nghUl;fis Nju;e;njLf;fTk;.
• topfhl;Ljy;fs; gb nghUl;fis Ma;T nra;J jpUj;jTk;.
• cUg;gbfis xOq;FgLj;Jjy; (cUg;gbfis FOg;gLj;Jjy; FOf;fSf;Fs; nghUl;fis
tupirg;gLj;Jjy; FOf;fspd; tupir).
• nghUe;Jk; tif my;yJ gpupTfspd;
• kjpg;ngz; Kiw gw;wp KbntLq;fs;.

Nrhjidfis Ma;T nra;jy; kw;Wk; kWMa;T nra;jy;:


• rpukk; ghFghL kw;Wk; ek;gfj;jd;ikia jPu;khdpf;f Nrhjid gFg;gha;T nra;aTk;.
• gFg;gha;T tpisTfis mbg;gilahf itj;J Njitahdijj; jpUj;jTk;.

Nfs;tpfs;
1. Mrpupau; fz;fhzpg;Gfspd; Kf;fpaj;Jtj;ij tpsf;Ff.
2. tptuz gjpTfs; gw;wpa RUf;fkhd Fwpg;ig jUf .
3. kzg;ghz;if msitfspd; gz;Gfis tptupf;fTk;.
4. nghUj;jkhd cjhuzq;fSld; &gpf;]; tpsf;Ff.
5. Nrhjidfis eph;khzpf;Fk; Nfhl;ghLfis gl;baypf.

myF – 4: tFg;giw kjpg;gpLjypd; gpur;rpizfs;

Nehf;fq;fs;
• kjpg;gPL tzpfkakhf;fyp;y; Kf;fpa gpur;rpidfs; Gupe;J nfhs;s
• juk; Fiwe;j Nrhjidfisg; gw;wp Gupe;Jf; nfhs;s
• kjpg;gPl;by; rPu;jpUj;jq;fis mwptJ
• jpwe;j Gj;jfk; kw;Wk; Md;iyd; Nju;Tfs; gw;wp njupe;J nfhs;s
• Nju;T rPu;jpUj;jq;fs; njupe;J nfhs;s

kjpg;gPl;bd; Kf;fpa mk;rq;fs; kw;Wk; tu;j;jfkakhf;fy;


nry;YgbahFk; jz;ik
nry;YgbahFk; xU gupNrhjidapd; juj;jpw;fhd kpf Kf;fpakhd msTNfhshFk;.
nry;YgbahFk; msit mstpLtjw;F vLf;Fk; vd;d Nrhjid msitf; Fwpf;fpwjh ,y;iyah vd;gij
Fwpf;fpwJ. cau; nry;YgbahFk; xU Nrhjid kPJ nghUl;fis Nrhjid Nehf;fk; ftdk; neUf;fkhf
,izf;fg;gLk;. gy rhd;wpjo; kw;Wk; cupk Nrhjidfs; ,e;j nghUs; xU Fwpg;gpl;l Ntiy my;yJ
Mf;fpukpg;G kpfTk; njhlu;Gila vd;W mu;j;jk;. xU Nrhjid Nkhrkhd nry;Ygbiaf; nfhz;bUe;jhy;
mij Ntiy nra;a Ntz;ba cs;slf;fk; kw;Wk; jpwd;fis mJ mstplhJ. ,JNghd;w R+o;epiyapy;
mtu;fspd; Nehf;fk; Nehf;fj;jpw;fhf Nrhjid KbTfisg; gad;gLj;Jtjw;F ve;j epahaKk; ,y;iy.
cs;slf;fk; nry;Ygbahf;fk; xNu Neuj;jpy; nry;YgbahFk; kw;Wk; Kd;fzpg;G nry;Ygbia
cs;slf;fpa xU Nrhjid nry;Ygbahf;fj;ij kjpg;gpLtjw;fhd gy topfs; cs;sd. xU Nrhjid
Kfk; nry;YgbahFk; rpy Neuq;fspy; Fwpg;gplg;gl;Ls;sJ.

ek;gfj;jd;ik
ek;gfj;jd;ik Nrhjid juj;jpd; kpf Kf;fpakhd $Wfspy; xd;whFk;. ,J epiyj;jd;ikAld;
my;yJ kWgad;ghl;Lld; my;yJ Nrhjidf;Fl;gl;l gupNrhjidapd; nray;jpwDld; nra;a Ntz;Lk;.
cjhuzkhf ,uz;L re;ju;g;gq;fspy; gupNrhjidAld; mjpf ek;gfj;jd;ik nfhz;l xU gupir
ePq;fs; epu;tfpf;f Ntz;Lk; vd;why; ,uz;L Kiw gupNrhjidapd; nray;jpwidg; gw;wpa mNj KbTfis
ePq;fs; milayhk;. Vio ek;gfj;jd;ik xU Nrhjid kWGwk; ,uz;L Nrhjid epu;thfq;fs; KOtJk;
guPl;irf;F kpfTk; tpj;jpahrkhd kjpg;ngz;fis tpistpf;Fk;. NrhjidahdJ rPuw;w kjpg;ngz;fis
tpistpj;jhy; Nrhjid mbg;gilapy; ve;jnthU Fwpg;gplj;jf;f nray;fisAk; vLf;fj; jFjpaw;wjhf
,Uf;fyhk;. Nrhjid kWNrhjid ek;gfj;jd;ik> ,iz tbtq;fs; ek;gfj;jd;ik KbT
epiyj;jd;ikAk; cl;Gw epiyj;jd;ikAk; kw;Wk; ek;gfj;jd;ik cl;gl Nrhjid ek;gfj;jd;ik
fzf;fpLjYf;fhd gy Kiwfs; cs;sd. gy msTNfhy;fisg; nghWj;jtiu Fwpg;gplg;gl;l Nrhjidfs;
Kbitj; jPu;khdpf;Fk; KiwahdJ rupahd Nju;T.

Neu;ik
xU guPl;irapd; Neu;ik ve;jnthU rhu;gpYk; ,Ue;J mjd; Rje;jpuj;ij Fwpf;fpwJ.
,dk; kjk; ghypdk; my;yJ taJ Mfpatw;iwj; jtpu;j;J jFjptha;e;j midj;J gupNrhjidapYk;
Nju;r;rp nghUj;jkhdjhf ,Uf;f Ntz;Lk;. Nrhjid ve;j gupNrhjidNah gupNrhjidapd; FONth
ve;jnthU fhuzj;jpw;fhfTk; gupNrhjpf;fg;glhky; ,Uf;f Ntz;Lk;. gupNrhjid kw;Wk; gupNrhjidapd;
gw;whf;Fiwia Nrhjid nra;tjw;fhd Nehf;fj;ij jtpu NtW ve;jnthU fhuzKk; ,y;iy.
cUg;gbia vOj;jhsu;fs; epahaj;jpwid Fwpf;f Ntz;Lk;. mit nghUl;fis vOJtjw;fhd gzpia
Nkw;nfhs;Sk;. $Ljyhf cUg;gbfs; kjpg;gha;T fl;lj;jpd;NghJ rhj;jpakhd epahakhd rpf;fy;fSf;F
kjpg;gha;T nra;a Ntz;Lk;. rhj;jpakhd rhu;G my;yJ Neu;ik ,y;yhik vd milahsk; fhzf;$ba
ve;jnthU nghUSk; gpd;du; jpUj;jg;gl Ntz;Lk; my;yJ NkYk; fUj;jpy; nfhs;s Ntz;Lk;.

rl;l ghJfhg;G

xU rl;l Nrhjidiag; ngw xU guPl;ir epfo;r;rpj;jpl;lj;jpw;F ePjpkd;wj;jpd; rthypy; epw;Fk;


Nrhjidfspd; juj;jpw;F rhd;Wfs; ,Uf;f Ntz;Lk;. ePq;fs; njhopy;Kiw gupe;Jiuf;fg;gl;l
topfhl;Ljy;fs; tbtikg;G Nkk;ghL kw;Wk; guPl;ir jpl;lj;jpd; guhkupg;G Mfpatw;iw njhlu;e;J gpd;gw;w
Ntz;Lk; vd;gjw;fhd Mjhuq;fis toq;f KbAk;. mnkupf;f cstpay; fofk;> mnkupf;fd; fy;tp
Muha;r;rp rq;fk; kw;Wk; fy;tpf;fhd mstPl;Lf;fhd Njrpa fTd;rpy; Mfpatw;why; Nrhjidf;fhd
njhopy;Kiw topfhl;Ljy;fs; toq;fg;gLfpd;wd. Nrhjid ek;gfj;jd;ik kw;Wk; Neu;ik Mfpatw;wpd;
epahakhd bfpup cs;sJ vd;gij Ma;T nra;aTk; kw;Wk; cWjpg;gLj;jTk; Ma;Tfs; elj;jg;gl
Ntz;Lk;. ePjpkd;wq;fs; ghu;f;f Ntz;ba kpf Kf;fpa $WghLfspy; ed;F elj;jg;gl;l Ntiy gFg;gha;T
kw;Wk; tYthd cs;slf;fk; nry;YgbahFk; (mjhtJ nghUl;fis "Ntiy njhlu;ghd" cau; gl;lk;
Ntz;Lk;). ,Wjpahf guPl;ir jpl;lj;jpd; tbtikg;G Nkk;ghL kw;Wk; gFg;gha;T gw;wpa ey;y
Mtzq;fis Nrfupj;J guhkupf;f Ntz;Lk;.

jpwf;f Gj;jfk; kw;Wk; Md;iyd; Nju;T


jpwe;j Gj;jf ed;ikfs; kw;Wk; jPikfs;
khztu;fsplk; fUj;Jf;fs; jl;lr;nra;tjpy; <Lgl Ntz;ba mtrpakpy;iy mtu;fs; rupahf
Gupe;Jnfhs;Sk; fUj;ij mtu;fs; Gupe;J nfhz;lhy;. ,J rhjhuz fy;tp Kiwapd; xUq;fpize;j
gFjpahf khwpa gupNrhjidapd; mOj;jj;ij mfw;Wk;. mwpthu;e;jtu;fs; Mdhy; fUj;Jf;fs; cz;ikfs;
kw;Wk; gpw juTfis epidtpy; mjpf fbd ciog;gpy; Nghl tpUk;ghj khztu;fs; ,e;j Kiwia
mDgtpg;ghu;fs;. fle;J nry;Yk; rjtPjk; mjpfupf;Fk; vd khztu;fs; NkYk; jq;fs; fy;tp njhlUk;
vd;W mjpfkhf cs;sJ.

jPikfs;
Nju;T miwapy; toq;fg;gl;l jpwe;j Gj;jfj;jpypUe;J khztu;fs; gbg;gij epWj;jptpl;L
ntWkNd efnyLf;Fk;. ntw;wpf;F toptFf;Fk; khztu;fspilNa ,ufrpa tpthjq;fis fl;Lg;gLj;JtJ
kpfTk; fbdkhdjhf ,Uf;Fk;. gh]; mTl;fs; vz;zpf;if mjpfupf;Fk; kw;Wk; jpwe;j Gj;jfj;jpy; 12 tJ
guPl;ir guPl;irapy; Nju;r;rp ngw;w khztu;fs; cau;e;j gbg;gpy; Vw;ghL nra;ag;gLk; mNjNghd;w tif
Nfhupf;iffis NfhUfpd;wdu;> gpd;du; mtu;fs; jpwe;j Gj;jfk; toq;Ftij NfhUthu;fs;. mtuJ
NehahspfSf;F mWit rpfpr;ir nra;Ak; NghJ Gj;jfj;jpd; gf;fq;fisj; jpUg;gr; nra;Ak; mWitr;
rpfpr;iria ntWkNd fw;gid nra;J ghUq;fs;. thupak; guPl;irfs; mtw;wpd; Kf;fpaj;Jtj;ij ,of;Fk;
kw;Wk; rpgpv]; thupaj;jpd; kjpg;ngz;fs; my;yJ juk; mbg;gilapy; xU egupd; jpwd; kw;Wk; jpwid
kjpg;gPL nra;a tpUk;Gtjpy;iy.

Md;iydpy; Nrhjid kw;Wk; topfhl;Ljy;fs;


ed;ikfs;
• Md;iyd; Nrhjidfs; cUthf;Fk; ciog;ig xU Kiw Nrhjid fUk;gyifapy; cs;s
cUthf;fg;gl;lJ vd;whYk; mJ khw;w kw;Wk; gpw fUk;gyifapy; gbg;Gfs; mij kPz;Lk; xg;gPl;lstpy;
vspjhdJ.
• gpshf;Nghu;L khztu;fs; cau;epiy gl;lg;gbg;ig mDkjpf;fpwJ. mtu;fs; xt;nthU gjpYf;Fk;
gjpyspf;Fk; tifapy; khztu;fspd; fUj;Jf;fisg; ngWfpd;wdu;. xU gapw;Wtpg;ghsuhf ,e;j fUtpia
epr;rakhf cs;slf;fj;ij gw;wp khztu;fs; <Lgl kw;nwhU top KbAk;.
• Md;iyd; Nrhjidfs; xj;jpirtw;wit kw;Wk; gy;NtW tifahd rhjdq;fspy; mZfyhk;.
khztu;fs; fUk;gyifapy; nkhigy; gad;ghl;il thq;f vd;why; mtu;fs; $l jq;fs; ];khu;l;Nghd; xU
Nrhjid vLj;Jf; nfhs;syhk;.
• Vkhw;Wtijj; jLf;f fbdkhf ,Ug;gjhy; gapw;Wtpg;ghsu;fSf;F Nfs;tpfis xOq;fikf;f
Nrhjid Neuj;ij tuk;Gf;Fl;gLj;j Kaw;rpfis fl;Lg;gLj;Jtjw;fhf gyfl;l Nrhjidfis
toq;Ffpd;wd. ,Ug;gpDk; Nrhjidfisj; njhlq;Ftjw;F Kd;G vy;yh mikg;GfisAk; khztu;fSf;F
tpsf;fTk;.

• xU Md;iyd; R+oypy; Nrhjid ghuk;gupa fhfpj kw;Wk; Ngdh Nrhjidfs; tpl epiwa ClhLk;
,Uf;f KbAk;. gapw;Wtpg;ghsu;fSf;F mjpf <LghL mspf;Fk; kjpg;gPLfis toq;Ftjw;fhf ky;bkPbah
Nrhjid Nfs;tpfspy; cl;nghjpf;f KbAk;. vLj;Jf;fhl;Lf;F vOjg;gl;l gbtj;jpy; gjpyspg;gjw;F
gjpyhf> Neubahf mijf; fpspf; nra;tjd; %yk; xU Fwpg;gpl;l glj;jpd; xU gFjpia milahsk;
fhZk;gb khztu;fs; Nfl;fg;glyhk;.

• midj;J re;ju;g;gq;fspYk; khztu;fs; Vw;fdNt jq;fs; ghlj;jpl;lq;fSf;fhd Ma;T


cjtpfshf Md;iyd; fUtpfisg; gad;gLj;Jfpd;wdu;. gapw;Wdu;fs; ey;y jfty; nry;YgbahFk;
Mjhuq;fs; ,Uf;fyhk; vd;W ntspNa tsq;fs; jq;fpapUf;f khztu;fs; xg;gilj;J Md;iyd; gapw;rp
Nrhjidfs; Nghd;w tpUg;g nra;ag;gl;l gbg;G cjtpfs; mtu;fSf;F toq;fp> fhl;bYk; khztu;fs;
nray;gLfpd;wd.

• gy tpUg;gq;fisg; Nghd;w Gwepiy Nfs;tp tiffSf;fhf gpshf;Nghu;L jhdhfNt juepiy


khztu; kWnkhopfs; gapw;Wtpg;ghsUf;F Neuk; Nrkpg;G kw;Wk; khztu;fSf;F cldb fUj;Jf;fis
toq;Fk;.

• fk;g;A+l;lupy; vOjg;gl;l Nrhjidfs; jtpu mtw;wpd; fzpdpfspy; cjtf;$ba


njhopy;El;gq;fisf; nfhz;Ls;s FiwghLfs; cs;s khztu;fSf;F Md;iyd; Nrhjidfs; kpfTk;
mZff;$bajhf ,Uf;Fk;.

FiwghLfs;
• xj;Jiog;G jpl;l mbg;gilapyhd Md;iyd; kjpg;gPLfisg; Nghyd;wp Md;iydpy; gy Nju;Tfs;
my;yJ fl;Liuia tFg;giwapy; tpl jdpj;jd;ik tha;e;jjhf czu KbAk;.
• ,J xU Md;iyd; khztu; jdpkdpjdpd; czu;TfSf;F ,l;Lr; nry;Yk;.
• ghlE}y; ntspaPl;lhsuhy; toq;fg;gl;l gy Nju;T tpdhf;fisg; gad;gLj;Jtjpy; kaf;Fk; NghJ>
,e;j tifahd kjpg;gPLfs; gilg;ghw;wy; ,y;yhjit. NkYk; cq;fs; gapw;Wtpg;ghsu;fspd; Fwpg;gpl;l
NjitfSf;F Vw;wjhf ,Uf;fhJ.
• gpshf;Nghu;by; Md;iyd; Nrhjidia cUthf;FtJ kpfTk; fbdkhd kw;Wk; Neuj;ijr;
rhg;gpLk;. cq;fs; Nrhjid ikf;Nuhrhg;l; Ntu;l; gjpg;ig ntWkNd gjpNtw;WtJ mt;tsT vspjy;y.
khwhf gapw;Wtpg;ghsu;fs; xt;nthU Nfs;tpapd; ciu kw;Wk; xt;nthU jdp gjpg;gpd; ciuiaAk;
gpshf;Nghu;by; efnyLj;J xl;l Ntz;Lk;. rupahd gjpy;fisf; Fwpf;fTk;. gpd;D}l;l kw;Wk; tpUg;gj;Nju;T
tpUg;gq;fis jdpg;gadhf;fTk;.
• rpy khztu;fs; Md;iydpy; tpdh-tpil kw;Wk; Nrhjidfis vLf;f gof;fg;gLj;jpf;nfhs;s
khl;lhu;fs; nlf;dhy[pf;Fj; njupe;J nfhs;tjw;F Kd;Ng mtu;fs; nrk];lu; Muk;gj;jpy; rpy ifahy;
itj;jpUf;f Ntz;Lk;.

• xU Md;iyd; Nrhjid kPJ Vkhw;WtJ kw;nwhU rhsuj;ij jpwe;J $fps; Njl my;yJ rupahd
gjpy;fis xU tFg;G Nfl;Fk; Nghd;w vspJ. NkYk;> gapw;Wtpg;ghsUf;F jLf;f my;yJ gpbf;f
Md;iyd; gy Nju;T Nju;Tfs; kPJ Vkhw;WtJ rhj;jpakw;wJ.
• Md;iyd; Nrhjidfs; nra;Ak; njhopy;El;gk; xU ngupa tp\ak; vd;whYk; mJTk; gpur;rpidfs;
Vw;glyhk;. ePq;fs; Md;iyd; Nrhjid nra;jhy; njhopy;El;g rpf;fy;fis vjpu;nfhz;Ls;s khztu;fs;
kw;Wk; ,iza ,izg;Gfis my;yJ Nkhrkhd fzpdpfisf; nfhz;l khztu;fs; rpy ntspg;gilahd
kpd;dQ;ry;fis mDg;g jahuhf ,Uf;f Ntz;Lk;.

,e;jpahtpy; Njh;Tr;rPu;jpUj;q;fs;
"ehq;fs; gy;fiyf;foff; fy;tp xU xw;iw rPu;jpUj;jk; gupe;Jiuf;Fk; ,Ue;jhy; mJ Nju;Tfspd;
vd;W ,Uf;f Ntz;Lk;." - uhjh fpU\;zd; Mizf;FO gupNrhjidapd; 1948 gpur;rid fy;tpapd; kpfTk;
tup tpjpf;Fk; gpur;ridahf cs;sJ. jw;Nghija mikg;G Kiwfspd; Jujpu;\;lkhd tpisTfs; ek;
fz;fSf;F Kd;Ng cs;sd. ehk; jpUg;jpfukhf mij jPu;f;f KbAk; vd;why; khztu;fs; xU ngupa
epthuz ,Uf;Fk; kw;Wk; fy;tp Kfk; NtW ,Uf;Fk;.
ek; ehl;by; Nju;T mikg;G rPu;jpUj;j nghUl;L Kjypahu; Mizak; Nehf;fk; tif Nrhjidfs;
kw;Wk; cs; kjpg;gPL gad;gLj;Jtij kd mOj;jk; jPl;lg;gl;lJ. Nfhj;jhup fkp\Dk; ,e;j
rPu;jpUj;jq;fis kPz;Lk; kPz;Lk; nra;jd. ,e;j Mizf;FO ijupakhf khztu; rhd;wpjo; jdJ KO
nray;jpwd; jhq;f Ntz;Lk; vd;W gupe;Jiuj;jhu; Mdhy; KO Nju;tpy; mtu; fle;J my;yJ Njhy;tp
vd;W tpisT ve;j fUj;J ,Uf;f Ntz;Lk;. ,J kpfTk; ey;y Nahrid vspjpy; eilKiwg;gLj;jg;gLk;.

jw;Nghija eilKiw khjpupia khw;Wtjpy; Kjy; eilKiw mfpy ,e;jpa fy;tp fTd;rpy;
mf;Nlhgu; 1995 y; kj;jpa fy;tp mikr;R epWtg;gl;lJ. ,J gupNrhjid Kiwapd; rpf;fiy jPu;f;f
Kd;Dupik mspj;jJ. And];Nfhthy; 1992 Mk; Mz;by; mwpKfg;gLj;jg;gl;l fy;tp gw;wpa ed;F
mwpag;gl;l ru;tNjr Mizf;FO gupNrhjidia rPu;jpUj;jk; nra;tjw;fhd kjpg;Gkpf;f fUj;Jf;fisAk;
MNyhridfisAk; toq;fpaJ.
fy;tp gw;wpa Njrpa nfhs;if> 1986 njhlu;r;rpahd kw;Wk; tpupthd kjpg;gPL kw;Wk; ,uz;lhk;
fl;lj;jpypUe;J nrk];lu; mikg;G mwpKfg;gLj;jg;gl;lJ.
Gjpa Njrpa fy;tp nfhs;if 1986 gupe;Jiu:
1. "nray;jpwd; kjpg;gPL fw;wy; kw;Wk; Nghjid ve;j nray;Kiw xU xUq;fpize;j gFjpahf cs;sJ.
fy;tp %Nyhghaj;jpd; xU gFjpahf guPl;irapy; juk; tha;e;j Kd;Ndw;wj;ijf; nfhz;Ltu Nju;T nra;a
Ntz;Lk;.
2. jFjp kw;Wk; ek;gfkhd mstpyhd khztu; tsu;r;rp kw;Wk; fw;gpj;jy; kw;Wk; fw;wy;
Nkk;gLj;Jtjw;fhd xU rf;jptha;e;j fUtpahFk; kjpg;gPlL
; Kiwia cWjp nra;tjw;fhd Nrhjid
Kiwia kjpg;gPL nra;tNj Nehf;fkhFk;. nray;ghl;L tifapy; ,J mu;j;jk;:

• tha;g;G kw;Wk; cs;Szu;Tr; msTf;fjpfkhd cWg;G ePf;Fjy;;


• kdg;ghq;fpd; Kf;fpaj;Jtk;;
• fy;tpapd; gy;Yapu; kw;Wk; my;yhj fy;tp rhu;e;j mk;rq;fis cs;slf;fpa njhlu;r;rpahd kw;Wk;
tpupthd kjpg;gPL KONeu gbg;gbahd fhyg;gFjpapy; guTfpwJ.
• Mrpupau;fs; khztu;fs; kw;Wk; ngw;Nwhupd; kjpg;gPlL
; nray;Kiwapd; gaDs;s gad;ghL
• guPl;ir elj;Jtjpy; Kd;Ndw;wk;;

• mwpTWj;jy;fs; kw;Wk; Kiwfspy; cs;s xj;jpirthd khw;wq;fis mwpKfg;gLj;Jjy;;


• ,uz;lhk; epiy fl;lj;jpy; ,Ue;J xU gbKiw Kiwapy; kw;Wk; nrk];lu; mikg;G topKiw

3. Nkw;$wpa ,yf;Ffs; ntspg;Gwg; guPl;irfs; kw;Wk; fy;tp epWtdq;fSf;Fs; kjpg;gPL Mfpa


,uz;bw;Fk; nghUe;Jfpd;wd. epWtd mstpy; kjpg;gPL xOq;fikf;fg;gLk; kw;Wk; ntspg;Gw Nju;Tfs;
Nkyhjpf;fk; Fiwf;fg;gLk;. Fwpg;gpl;l R+oy;fSf;F nghUe;jf;$ba fl;likg;ig GJg;gpj;Jf;nfhs;tjw;fhd
Rje;jpuk; nfhz;bUf;Fk; gupNrhjidapd; mikg;GfSf;F xU topfhl;L newpahf xU Njrpa Nju;r;rp
rPu;jpUj;j fl;likg;ig cUthf;f jahuhf ,Uf;f Ntz;Lk;. "

nray;Kiw jpl;lk; gs;sp kl;lj;jpYk; gy;fiyf;fof kl;lj;jpYk; Nju;r;rp rPu;jpUj;jj;ij


Nkw;nfhs;tjw;fhd gy Fwpg;gpl;l FWfpa fhy kw;Wk; ePz;l fhy eltbf;iffis gupe;Jiuj;jJ. "xU
Njrpa Nju;T rPu;jpUj;jj;ij cUthf;Fk; tifapy;> fy;tpj; jpizf;fsk; ,ilepiyg;gs;sp A+.[p.rp.
vd;.rp.Mu;.b.> V.I.rp.b.,. kw;Wk; I.rp.b.,. kw;Wk; I.rp.b.,. Mfpa fy;tp epWtdq;fspy; cs;s
gpujpepjpj;Jtq;fSld; xU xUq;fpize;j epWtd FOthf mikfpwJ.

njhlf;f epiy:
1. nkhop ehl;by; Fiwe;jgl;r fw;wy; (vk;.vy;.vy;.];) nkhop> fzpjk; kw;Wk; Rw;Wr;R+oy; Ma;Tfs; 1 Kjy;
5 tFg;GfSf;F Njrpa kl;lj;jpy; cUthf;fg;gl;lJ. kPjKs;s gFjp kw;Wk; mbg;gil ghlj;jpl;lj;jpd;
tFg;Gfs; Mfpatw;iw cUthf;Ftjw;F ,NjNghd;w gapw;rp Nkw;nfhs;sg;gLk;.
2. gpujhd fl;lj;jpy; jLg;Gf;fhty; nfhs;if jpl;lkplg;gltpy;iy vd;gjhy;> khztu;fSf;fhd khw;W
cjtp toq;Ftjw;fhf kjpg;gPl;bd; Kf;fpa nray;ghL ,aw;ifapy; fz;lwpag;gLk;.
3. xt;nthU khepyj;jpYk; cs;s rk;ge;jg;gl;l epWtdk; njhlu;r;rpahd tpupthd kjpg;gPl;bd; xU
nefpo;thd jpl;lj;ij Muk;g fl;lj;jpy; jahu; nra;Ak;> vdNt kjpg;gPL nray;Kiw ,e;j fl;lj;jpy;
fw;gpj;jy; kw;Wk; fw;wy; xU xUq;fpize;j gFjpahf nra;a.

,il epiy:
1. xt;nthU khepy thKk; tFg;Gfspy; vjpu;ghu;f;fg;gLk; mstpyhd kjpg;gPLfis fPNo Nghl;L mwpT
kw;Wk; my;yJ Gupe;Jnfhs;Sjy; jfty; njhlu;G jpwd;> Gupjy; gad;ghL gFg;gha;T> njhFg;G jPu;g;Gfs;
Mfpatw;wpd; mbg;gilapy; ,e;j msTfis epiwNtw;Wtjw;fhd Ma;Tfs;> .
2. xt;nthU khepyj;jpYk; ftiy epWtdk; njhlu;r;rpahd tpupthd Nju;T xU nefpo;thd jpl;lk;
Nky;epiyg;gs;sp tiu epiyapy; gy;NtW gFjpfspy; kw;Wk; gs;spfs; tiffspdhYk; ngWtjw;F
Fwpg;gpl;l R+o;epiyfspy; gy;NtW Vw;g jahu; nra;J tpLk;.

cau; fy;tp epiy:


1. midj;J njhopy;Kiw kw;Wk; njhopy;El;g gbg;GfSf;Fk; Nru;f;iff;fhd Nju;T Nrhjidfs;
midj;jpe;jpa mbg;gilapy; elj;jg;gLk;.

2. xt;nthU gy;fiyf; fofKk; mjd; mjpfhu vy;iyf;Fs; jdp fy;Y}up /epWtdq;fs; kw;Wk; Jiwfs;
%yk; tupirg;gLj;jg;gLtjw;fhd tpupthd topKiwfis jahupg;Nghk;. Mrpupau;fis juk; tha;e;j
Kiwapy; mwpKfg;gLj;j jpirkhw;w jpl;lq;fs; Vw;ghL nra;ag;glyhk;.

3. cau;fy;tp epWtdq;fSf;F mDkjpf;fhd EioTj; Nju;Tfs; kPjhd ,af;fk; kw;Wk; khepy


murhq;fj;jhy; Cf;Ftpf;fg;gl;L Cf;Ftpf;fg;gLk;. Njrpa kjpg;gPl;L epWtdj;jpd; Nritfs;
EioTj;Nju;TfSf;F EioT Nrhjidfis tbtikj;jy; kw;Wk; epu;tfpg;gjw;fhd gy;fiyf;fof
Kiwik gad;gLj;jg;gl Ntz;Lk;.
gy;NtW fl;lq;fSf;F NkNyAs;s cj;jpfisj; jtpu (1986) midj;J epiyfspYk; nghJthd gpd;tUk;
jpl;lq;fisf; nra;Js;sJ:
1. Gupe;Jzu;T gad;ghL gFg;gha;T njhFg;G jPu;g;G kw;Wk; ,iz msTUf;fs; Mfpatw;wpd; Kf;fpa
jpwd;fis epidtfk; kl;Lky;y kl;Lky;yhky; mjpf Kf;fpaj;Jtk; tha;e;j ,yf;Ffis miltjw;fhd
vjpu;ghu;g;gpd; msit guprPypg;gjpy; Kf;fpaj;Jtk; mspf;fg;gLk;.
2. ,uz;lhk; epiy fl;lj;jpy; mwpKfg;gLj;jpa nrk];lu; mikg;G kw;Wk; khztu;fsplkpUe;J
nefpo;Tj;jd;ikia toq;Ftjd; %yk; khztu;fSila nrhe;j Ntfj;jpy; njhluTk; ehL KOtJk;
khztu;fspd; Nky;Nehf;fp kw;Wk; fpilkl;l ,af;fk; tpistpf;Fk; tifapy;> tuTnryTj; jpl;lq;fisr;
Nru;f;f Ntz;Lk;.
3. jFe;j gbg;Gfs; gy;NtW tifahd kw;Wk; jdpg;gl;l epiyfs; ngupa mstpy; gapw;rp vd;rp<Mu;b
,ize;J J}uj;jpy; fy;tp Kiwapy; %yk; ,e;jpuh fhe;jp Njrpa jpwe;jntsp gy;fiyf;fof mgptpUj;jp
nra;ag;gLk;.
4. A.[p.rp apy; xU cau;epiyf; fy;tpapy; xU Nju;T rPu;jpUj;jq;fspd; xUq;fpizg;G Mtzq;fs; kw;Wk;
gug;Gjy; Mfpatw;wpw;fhf xU Nju;T rPu;jpUj;j ikak; epWtg;gLk;
5. rpy rl;lq;fs; guPl;irfspy; rk;ge;jg;gl;l gy;NtW KiwNfLfs; njhlu;ghd rl;lj;jpy;
mwpKfg;gLj;jg;gLk;. ,j;jifa rl;lq;fs; rl;lj;jpd; fPo; gy;NtW Fw;wq;fSf;F jz;lidiaAk;
tifg;gLj;jp toq;Ftjw;Fk; Vw;ghL nra;Ak;.
6. Nju;Tfs; kw;Wk; kjpg;gPL rPu;jpUj;jq;fs; fz;fhzpg;G kw;Wk; kjpg;gPL gw;wp xU tYthd kw;Wk;
xUq;fpize;j Kaw;rp ikak; kw;Wk; khepy muR %yk; nra;ag;gl Ntz;Lk;.

gy;NtW rPu;jpUj;jq;fs; gy;NtW FOf;fs; gy Mz;Lfshf njhlu;e;J gupe;Jiuf;fg;gl;L


ntt;NtW khepyq;fspy; NtWgl;l eltbf;iffis vLj;Js;sd. Nju;tpy; rPu;jpUj;jq;fs; Fwpj;J fy;tp
kPsha;Tf; FO Njrpa nfhs;if Mr;rhu;ah jiyikapy; kpftpupthf ntt;NtW FOf;fspd; kw;Wk;
fkp\d;fs; nra;j cw;W gupe;JiufisAk; jpwdha;T nra;jdu;. kjpg;gPl;bd; NghJ kjpg;gPl;L nray;Kiw
kw;Wk; gupNrhjid rPu;jpUj;jq;fs; njhlu;ghf toq;FtijAk; Fwpg;gpl;Ls;sJ. gy;fiyf;fof kw;Wk; gs;sp
kl;lq;fspy; gy;NtW khepyq;fspy; Nju;T rPu;jpUj;jq;fspd; epiyia NPERCA toq;fpaJ. "Nju;T
rPu;jpUj;jk; nray;Kiw Nehf;Fepiy gw;wp nfhz;L xU jdpikg;gLj;jg;gl;l nray;ghL vd fUj
KbahJ. gbg;Gfs; kw;Wk; nefpo;Tj;jpwd; Mfpatw;wpd; gb rPu;jpUj;jj;Jld; Nru;j;J xU njhFg;G NghyNt
khztu;fSf;fhd trjpfis Vw;ghL nra;a Ntz;Lk;. "gpd;tUk; gupNrhjid rPu;jpUj;jq;fs; njhlu;ghf
gupe;Jiufis ,Ue;jd:
1. gupNrhjid rPu;jpUj;jk; xU njhFg;G vd fUjg;gLfpwJ.
2. jdpj;jdp $Wfspd; igrPkpNay; kw;Wk; jw;fhypf mkyhf;fg; gzpfSf;Fg; gjpyhf nkhj;jkhf
njhFg;Gfis nray;gLj;j Ntz;Lk;.
3. njhFg;Gfis eilKiwg;gLj;Jjy; fy;tp mikg;gpd; gue;j NtWghLfs; Nghd;w eilKiw rpf;fy;fs;
kw;Wk; cs; kjpg;gPl;bd; nray;ghl;bd; ek;gfj;jd;ikiag; gw;wpa tpupthd gugug;igg; gw;wp
KZKZj;jJ.
4. cau;epiy mstpy; Njrpa Nju;r;rp rPu;jpUj;j Mizf; FOnthd;iw xOq;FgLj;Jjy; kw;Wk;
fz;fhzpj;jy; kw;Wk; Kd;Ndw;wk; nra;jy; gy;NtW kl;lq;fspy; Nju;T rPu;jpUj;jq;fspy;. Nju;T
rPu;jpUj;jj;jpd; $Wfs; Jz;L czT nray;gLj;jg;gl;lJ kw;Wk; rupahd xUq;fpizg;G ,y;yhky;
KbTf;F te;jJ kw;Wk; ,jd; tpisthf MizapLk; kw;Wk; fy;tp jd;ik kw;Wk; juk; rpijf;Fk; vd;W
KbTf;F te;jJ.

1991 y; vd;. [dhu;j;jd; nul;b Kd;dhs; Kjy;tu; kw;Wk; fy;tp mikr;ru; jiyikapy; fy;tpf;fhd
kj;jpa MNyhrid thupak; gy;NtW fhuzpfs; nray;gLj;j kjpg;gha;T fzf;fpy; mwpf;if vLj;J vd;W
$wpdhu;. "guPl;ir rPu;jpUj;jq;fs; R+o;epiy kw;Wk; gupzhkkhf ,Uf;f Ntz;Lk;. Nju;T rPu;jpUj;jq;fspd;
Kf;fpaj;Jtk; ngupjhf ,Uf;f KbahJ. ehk; vd;W khwhf jdpg;gl;l Kaw;rpfs; kw;Wk; Ma;T cly;fs;
kdr;rha;TfSf;F gupNrhjid rPu;jpUj;jq;fs; tpl;L tpl xU tYthd kw;Wk; xUq;fpize;j Kaw;rpahy;
ikak; kw;Wk; ,e;j gFjpapy; khepy muRfs; ngw;wtuhy; Nkw;nfhs;sg;glNtz;Lk; epidf;fpwPu;fs;. xU
rPu;jpUj;j rPu;jpUj;j Mizf;FOtpd; murpayikg;gpd; fPo; cs;sikf;F Vw;wJ. vt;thnwdpDk;> kw;nwhU
epWtdj;ij cUthf;Ftjw;F gjpyhf NCERT kw;Wk; UGC Mfpait KiwNa gs;sp kw;Wk; cau;
fy;tp Kiwfspy; Nju;T rPu;jpUj;jq;fis Cf;Ftpg;gjpy; kw;Wk; topelj;jypy; Kf;fpa gq;iff;
nfhz;bUf;f Ntz;Lk; vd;W ehq;fs; gupe;Jiuf;fpNwhk;. ,jw;fpilapy; gpd;tUk; eltbf;iffs;
gupe;Jiuf;fg;gLfpd;wd".

• gupNrhjid rPuikg;G eltbf;iffspy; epiy mwpf;ifapd; jahupg;G.


• xU Ne\dy; guPl;ir rPu;jpUj;jj;jpid cUthf;Fjy; Fwpg;gpl;l R+oYf;F nghUe;Jtjw;fhd
fl;likg;ig GJg;gpj;jy; kw;Wk; Vw;Wf;nfhs;Sk; Rje;jpuk; nfhz;bUf;Fk; Ma;T epWtdq;fSf;F
topfhl;L newpKiwfshf nray;gLtjw;fhd fl;likg;G.
• guPl;ir rPu;jpUj;jq;fis nray;gLj;Jjy; fz;fhzpg;G kw;Wk; kjpg;gPL nra;jy; Mfpatw;Wf;fhd
xU gaDs;s El;gj;ij cUthf;Fjy;.
• gupNrhjid rPu;jpUj;jj;jpw;fhd GJikfs; kw;Wk; eltbf;iffspd; Mtzq;fs; kw;Wk; gug;Giu.

Nkw;$wpa tpthjj;jpy; ,Ue;J Rje;jpuj;jpd; Kw;gFjpapy; fy;tp kWrPuikg;G midj;J


KJfiyfspypUe;Jk; te;jNghJ Nrhjid rPu;jpUj;j tof;F rupahd ,lj;jpw;F te;jJ. guPl;ir
rPu;jpUj;jq;fSf;fhd epahag;gLj;jy; fy;tp rhu;e;j guprPyidapy; ,Ue;J vOfpwJ. "guPl;ir kw;Wk; fw;wy;
,ize;J Nju;T cz;ikapy; fy;tp nray;ghl;by; cs;sd. Mz;L KOtJk; guPl;ir epidtfk;
Nrhjid xU fUtpahf ,Uf;Fk;. fw;wy; jpwd;fisg; ngWtjw;fhd xU nkf;fhdpf;fy; nray;Kiwahf
khwptpl;lJ. NkYk; fw;gpj;jy; vd;gJ ngUk;ghYk; guPl;ir gapw;rpf;fhd xU nray;KiwahFk;. fw;gpj;jy;
kw;Wk; fw;gpg;gjw;fhd Nju;Tfs; kw;Wk; juepiyfs; Mfpatw;Wf;fpilapyhd cwT neUf;fkhditahFk;.
,e;j mk;rq;fspy; VNjDk; Kd;Ndw;wk; Vw;gLtJ kw;w mk;rq;fis Nkk;gLj;JtjhFk;. vdNt
gupNrhjid rPu;jpUj;jj;jpd; Nehf;fk; ey;y fy;tpapd; xU fUtpahFk;. guPl;ir rPu;jpUj;jq;fs; rkj;Jtk;
kw;Wk; r%f ePjp Mfpatw;wpd; ghu;itapy; ,Ue;J mtu;fspd; epahag;gLj;jiyf; nfhz;bUf;fpd;wd.
guPl;ir Kiw rpy rYiffis ngw;Ws;s rYif ngw;wtUf;F rhjfkhdjhf ,Uf;fpwJ; rpwg;G Nghjid
fw;wy; nghUs; rpwg;G gapw;rp Nghd;wit. ,J NtWtopahFk; Nrhjid rPu;jpUj;jq;fs;
gupe;Jiuf;fg;gl;Ls;s ,e;j rkkw;w rha;it rupnra;tjw;F. gy;NtW FOf;fs; kw;Wk; fkp\dpd;
gupe;Jiufs; Nju;T rPu;jpUj;jj;jpy; ftdk; nrYj;jpaJ. gy;NtW msTUf;fs; nray;gLj;jg;gLtij Ma;T
nra;tJ Kf;fpakhf apd; mwpf;if Fwpg;ghf Ma;T rPu;jpUj;jq;fSld; njhlu;GilaJ. ,Ug;gpDk;> ,e;j
czT-czT rPu;jpUj;jq;fspy; jPu;T fz;Lgpbf;f kpfTk; fLikahdJ. 1986 fy;tpf;fhd Njrpa nfhs;if
gupe;Jiuj;j rpy Gul;rpfu khw;wq;fs; xNu jPu;Tjhd;.

Nfs;tpfs;
• kjpg;gPl;bd; tzpfkakhf;fy; gw;wp tpthjpf;fTk;.
• jpwe;j Gj;jf Njh;tpd; ed;ikfs; kw;Wk; FiwghLfisAk; gl;baypLlTk;.
• kjpg;gPL rPu;jpUj;jq;fspd; Kf;fpaj;Jtj;jpid tpthp.
• Md;iyd; Nju;Tfs; eilKiw tpthp.
• Nju;T rPu;jpUj;jq;fspd; gy;NtW mwpf;iffs; tptupf;fTk;.
myF-
myF-5
cs;slf;fpa gapw;rpfspy; kjpg;gPL
Nehf;fq;fs;;:
,e;j myif gapd;w gpd;ds; Mrphpa khzth;fshy;

i. tifg;gLj;jg;gl;l kjpg;gPl;ilAk;, fyhr;rhu kjpg;Gs;s kjpg;gPl;ilg;


gw;wpahd mwpitg; gw;wpAk; njhpe;Jf; nfhs;fpd;wdh;.
ii. fw;gthpd; Kd;Ndw;wj;jpw;F Nrhjid gad;ghl;il gw;wp Ghpe;Jf;
nfhs;sKbfpwJ.
iii. milTr; Nrhjid kw;Wk; Fiwawp Nrhjidg; gw;wp njhpe;J nfhs;sTk; ,
Ghpe;Jf;nfhs;sTk;, tbtikf;fTk; KbfpwJ.
iv. kjpg;gPl;by; Neh;ikj; jd;ikiaAk;> fw;wypy; ek;gfj; jd;ikiaAk;
eph;zapf;f KbfpwJ.
v. kjpg;gPl;L Kiw gw;wpAk;> kjpg;ngz; gq;fPL gw;wpa mwpitAk; ngw
KbfpwJ.

tifg;gLj;jg;gl;l kjpg;gPL:-:-
i. myfpd; Kbtpy; elj;jg;gLk; NrhjidahdJ my;y. ,J xU
njhlh;r;rpahFk;. ,jd; mtrpakhdJ fl;lisapid jpl;lkpLtjw;F
ahUnfy;yhk; cjtp Njitg;gLfpwJ vd;gij MuhaTk;, fz;Lgpbf;fTk;
gad;gLfpwJ. MrphpaUf;Fk;, khztUf;Fk; ,J gpd;Dl;lj;ijf; nfhLf;fpwJ.
ii. khzth;fspd; fw;wiyAk;, militAk;, Cf;fj;ijAk;, khdg;ghghd;d;ikAk;,
tFg;giwapy; fw;gpj;jy; njhlh;ghd fl;lisfisAk; gpujpgspf;fpwJ.
iii. khzth;fspd; fw;wiy epUgpf;f gy;tifahd topfis mspf;fpwJ.
Nrhjid (jdp/FO), cw;WNehf;fy;, Neh;fhzy;, Ra-kjpg;gPL kw;Wk; gy tifahd
tbtq;fisAk; nfhz;Ls;sJ.

rhp/jtW ,jDila milahsq;fis gad;gLfpwJ. vJ jtW


vd;gij fz;lwpAk; topfisAk; MNyhrpf;fpwJ.

kjpg;gPlhdJ ,tw;Nwhnly;yhk; njhlh;GilaJ.


i. nray;gLj;Jk; Kiw.
ii. khzth;fspd; fw;wy; khjphpfs;.
iii. khzth;fspd; mwpTj; jpwdpd; msT (G@k;)
iv. khzth;fspd; jpwdpd; msT.

Kd;kjpg;gPL:-:-
Kiw/KiwgLj;jg;gl;lh Nrhjidia fw;gth; ve;j mstpw;F vjph;tUk;
jpwd;, jiyg;G, ghlg;nghUs; kw;Wk; jFjp gw;wp njhpe;Js;shh; vd;gij Fwpg;gpl
gad;gLj;jgLfpwJ. Mrphpah; khzth;fspd; jfty;fis itj;J xt;nthU
khztUapd; Gjpa fw;wYf;F njhlh;Gila Kd;ija mwpT, mDgtk;, jpwd;,
Mh;tk; kw;Wk; kdg;ghd;ikia Muha;e;J mwpfpwhh;.
xU myfpd; jpl;lkpUtjw;F, xd;W, ,uz;L thuq;fSf;F Kd;Ng kpf
Kf;fpakhf Njitg;gLk; jfty;fis Nrfhpf;fg;gLfpwJ. ,jd; %yk;
MrphpaUf;F xt;nthU khzthpd; jpwikfs; kw;Wk; Njitfis Muha Neuk;
fpilf;fpwJ. ,k;khjphpahd kjpg;gPL vd;gJ kpfTk; Kf;fpakhdJ, Vndd;why;
,jd; KbTfis itj;J xt;nthU khzth;f;Fk; vw;g jdpj;jdpahf
tifg;gLj;jg;gl;L. tFg;giwf;fhd ghlj;jpl;l jPl;lg;gLfpwJ. ,tthW
khzth;fspd; jpwikfs; kw;Wk; Fiwfis Kd;dNw njhpe;Jnfhs;tjpy;iy
Mrphpah; kpfTk; jpwikAlk; gzpahw;w KbfpwJ.

Kd;kjpg;gPl;by; cs;s fl;lis gad;fs;:-


• vjph;tUk; jiyg;G/jpwdpw; khzth;fspd; mwpT ntspaplg; gLfpwJ.
• juk;, ghlnghUs; kw;Wk; Nehf;fj;jpy; khzth;fspy; mwpT
Fwpg;gplg;gLfpwJ.
• kWfw;gpj;jSf;Fk;, tFg;Gepiy rhh;e;j fl;lisf;Fk; (m) Nkk;ghl;bw;Fkhd,
Fwpg;gpl;ll Njitfis ntspapUfpwJ.
• khzth;fspd; Mh;tk; , mwpTj;jpwd; , kdg;ghd;ik, tpUg;G/ntWg;Gfs; kw;Wk;
vz;zq;fis ntspapUfpwJ.
• milahsq;fhzg;gl;l jdpegh; kw;Wk; FO Njitfis g+h;j;jpnra;a,
kpfTk; nghUj;jkhd fl;lis Aj;jpfis Njh;Tnra;aTk;, tbtikf;fTk;
MrphpaUf;F toptFf;fpwJ.

Mrphpahpd; gq;F
Gjpa myif fw;f ,U thuq;fSf;F Kd;Ng khzth;fis kjpg;gPL
nra;fpwJ.
jdpegh; Njitia G+h;jpnra;a jpl;lkpUtjw;F VJthd jd;kjpg;gPl;L
fUtpfis Njh;T nra;fpwJ.
jw;Nghija mwpT epiyf;F jdpegh; kw;Wk; rpW FOtpd; Vw;g
ghly;fisAk; nray;KiwfisAk; jpl;lkpfpwJ.
Kiw/Kiwrhuh kjpg;gPl;L fUtpfis cUthf;fTk;, #o;epiyf;F
Vw;whh;Nghy; ve;j fUtpapid gad;gLj;JtJ vd;gjid eph;zapf;f Njitahd
jfty;fisAk; ntspapLfpwJ.
Kd; kjpg;gPl;bYs;s, Gjpa jiyg;G/jpwdpw;fhd xU Cf;fpahf
nray;gLj;jg;LfpwJ.

khzth;fspd; gq;F:-:-
jq;fSf;F njhpe;j/njhpahjtw;iw njhpe;J nfhs;s cjTfpwJ.
epidT te;jpapy; cs;s jq;fsJ mDgtq;fis ghlj;NjhL xg;gpl Njly;
GhpfpwJ.
Ra mwpT kw;Wk; Kd; mDgtq;fis itj;J jiyg;Gfs;
kjpg;gplg;gLfpwJ. Mh;tKs;s ghlj;jiyg;Gfs; milahsq; fz;L
nfhs;sg;gLfpwJ.

kjpg;gpLjypd; nghUs;
kjpg;gpLjy; vd;gJ khzth;fspd; Fzeyd;fspy; Vw;gLk; khw;wq;fis jFe;j
Mjhuj;JlDk;> Ghpe;J nfhs;Sjy; %ykhfTk; Nrfhpf;fg;gLk; njhlh; nray;ghlhFk;.
kjpg;gpLjy; vd;gJ juk;> kw;Wk; msT Mfpa ,uz;ilAk; Nrh;j;J cs;slf;fpajhFk;.
kjpg;gPL nra;jy; vd;gJ fy;tpapd; juj;ij Nkk;gLj;Jtjpy; Kf;fpa gq;F tfpf;fpwJ.
kjpg;gpLjy; gw;wpa tiuaiwfs;
juk;fz;L kjg;gpLjypd; %yk; xd;wpd; gyid cWjpg;gLj;jpfnfhs;Sk; epfo;itNa
kjpg;gPL nra;jy; vd;fpNwhk;. ,JNt Fl; (Good) vd;ghh; kjpg;gpLjYf;F nfhLf;Fk;
tiuaiwahFk;.
ju kjg;gPL

kjpg;gPl nra;jy; = + kjg;gpd; jPh;g;G

msT kjpg;gPL
RUq;ff; $wpd;> kjpg;gPL nra;jy; vd;gJ fw;gpj;jypd; Fwpf;Nfhs;fs;> fw;wypd; mDgtk;
kw;Wk; fw;wypd; mDgtk; kw;Wk; fw;wypd; ntspg;ghL ,tw;wpw;fpilNaahd njhlh;ig
tpsf;FfpwJ.
kjpg;gPl;bd; ,ay;Gfs;

• kjpg;gpLjy; vd;gJ xU njhlh; epfo;r;rpahFk;.


• ,J fw;gpj;jy; Fwpf;Nfhs; fw;wypd; mDgtqfs; kw;Wk; fw;wy; ntspg;ghLfisg;
nghWj;Js;sJ.
• kjpg;gPL nra;jy; KOikahdJ.
• ,/J xw;Wik kdg;ghd;ikia cs;slf;fpaJ.
• ,/J vjph;kiw kw;Wk; cld;ghL Mfpa ,U nray;ghLfisAk; nfhz;Ls;sJ.
• ,J khzth;fspd; epiyiar; Nrhjidapl mth;fspd; tsh;r;rpia
typAWj;JfpwJ.
• kjpg;gPL nra;jypd; KbTfs;> kjg;gpLjy; (tha;nkhop kw;Wk; vOj;J)
Aj;jpfshfpa>Njh;Tfs;> ju msTf;Nfhy;fs;> rhpnra;Ak; gl;bay;> jpus; gjpNtLfs;
Nghd;wtw;iwg; nghWj;jJ.
• ,J juk;>kw;Wk; msT Mfpa ,uz;ilAk; cs;slf;fpAs;sJ.
• ,J khzth;fspd; Kd;Ndw;wj;ij Rl;bf;fhl;LfpwJ.
• ,J khzth;fs; kw;Wk; Mrphpah;fSf;F>fw;Fk; kw;Wk; fw;gpf;Fk; vy;iyiag;
Ghpe;J nfhs;s cjTfpwJ.
• ,J fw;gpg;gjpYk;> fw;wypYk; khzth;fSk; Mrphpah;fSk; rpwe;J tpsq;f
cjTfpwJ.
• ,J khzth;fSf;Ff; fy;tp topfhl;bia mspf;fpwJ.
• ,J rhjidj;Njh;tpd; mbg;gilia mspf;fpwJ.
• ,J rhjidj;Njh;tpd; mbg;gilapy; khzth;fis tifg;gLj;j cjTfpwJ.

tsh;twp kjpg;gPL m (FA(a))


(

jkpo;ehL muR> Mizf;F Vw;g> ts;twp Njh;T m. tFg;giwf; fw;gpg;gpd;NghJ>


khzth;fsp;d; tsh;tpid mwptjw;fhd mspf;fg;gLk; nray;ghLfs; Njh;r;rp
njhlh;ghdjhFk;. ghly;> nghk;kyhl;lk;> GidT ehlfk;. ifNtiy> tpisahl;L>
fij $Wjy; Nghd;wjhf ,r; nray;ghLfs; njhlf;fepiy tFg;Gepiy
tFg;Gfspy; mikayhk;.

njhlh;Gila my;yJ Gj;jhff; Ntiyfs;> njhFj;Jiuj;jy;> xOq;FgLj;jy;


nray;ghLfs;. Clhl;lr; nray;ghLfs;. ty;yik mbg;gilr; nray;ghLfs;.
fz;lwp nray;ghLfs;> FiwjPh; nray;ghLfs; Kjypad ,ilepiy> Nky;epiy
tFg;GfSf;fhd tsh;twp fzpg;gpw;fhd nray;ghf;f nfhs;sg;gLfpd;wd.

tsh;twp Njh;T (m) tpy; Fwpg;gpl;Ls;s fdpg;G Kiwfs; ,e;j ehs;tiu


tof;fpy; ,y;yhj Gjpajhd KiwahFk;. Mrphpah; fy;tpapYk; gzpapilg;
gapw;rpfspYk; ,jd; njhlh;ghd fy;tp chpathW MrphpafSf;F
mspf;fg;gltpy;iy.

fy;tp Vw;ghL mbg;gilapy; tbtikf;fg;glhj ghlj;jp;ll


; k;> ghlj;jp;l;lk;
tiuaWj;jthW cUthf;fg;glhj ghlEhy;> ghlEhy; mikTf;Nfw;g toq;fg;glhj
fw;wy; gDty; Mfpadtw;why; ,j;jifa tsh;twp fzpg;gpid Kiwag;gl
Nkw;nfhs;Sjw;F ngUkstpy; ,lh;fs; Vw;gLfpd;wd. Mrphpah;fSf;F ngUkstpy;
,lh;fs; Vw;gLfpd;wd. Mrphpah;fSf;F mwpKfkpy;yhj Kw;wpYk; khWghlhd
Kiwapidg; Gjpjhfg; Nkw;nfhs;Stjw;fhdg; goF nray;fs;> Mrphpah;
fy;tpapYk; gzpapilf; fy;tpapYk; ,lk; ngwhj epiyapy;. ,f; fzpg;Gngw
,lh;g;ghLf;Fs;shFk;.

ml;ltizapy; xt;nthU gUtj;jpw;Fhpa ths;twp> njhFepiy


fzpg;GfSf;F kjpg;ngz;fs; nfhLf;fg;gl;ld. njhlh; KOik kjpg;gPl;by;.
kjpg;ngz;fSf;F ,lkpy;iy. juf;FwpaPLfNs ,lNtz;Lk;. kjpg;ngz;fisj;
juf; FwpaPlhf khw;Wk; Kiwfisf; fPo;tUk; ml;ltizfs; fhl;Lfpd;wd.

tsh;twp Njh;TfSf;F xt;nthU gUtj;jpYk; cah; kjpg;ngz; 40 mjw;Fhpa juf;


FwpaPL fPo;tUkhW.

kjpg;ngz;fs; juf;FwpaPL juf;FwpaPl;Lg;Gs;sp


37-40 A1 10

33-36 A2 9

29-32 B1 8
25-28 B2 7
21-24 C1 6

17-20 C2 5

13-16 D 4
9-12 E1 -

>8 E2 -

juf;FwpaPl;il kjpg;ngz; msthy; ju Ntz;Lkhapd; FwpaPl;Lg; Gs;spia


10 My; ngUf;fpf; nfhs;s Ntz;Lk;.
Fiwawp fzpg;GfSk; njhFepiyf; fzpg;GfSk; xt;nthU gUtj;jpYk;
Nkw;nfhs;sg;gl;L mtw;wpd; $Ljy; 100 Mtjhy;> mjw;fhd juf;FwpaPLk; juf;
FwpaPl;Lg; Gs;spAk; fPo;tUkhW tiuaWf;fg;gLfpd;wd.
gUtk; FA(a) FA(b) FA SA nkhj;jk;
k; jur;
FwpaPL
nkhj;jk; FA+ SA
1
2
3
gbg;G ,izTg; ghlq;fspd; Njh;r;rpg; gjpTfs;
gbg;Grhh; ghlq;fspd; khzth; ngw;w milTfisg; gjpg;gjw;fhd gbtq;fSk;
KiwfSk; Kd;gFjpfspy; jug;gl;ld. gbg;G ,izTg; ghlq;fSf;fk; njhlh;
KOik kjpg;gPl;by; Kiwfs; fzpg;Gk; gjpTk; Njit.

jkpo;ehL gs;spf; fy;tpj;Jiw jdJ Mizapy; cyf Rfhjhu mikg;G (WHO)


ghpe;Jiuj;j tho;f;ifj; jpwd;fs; 10 gzpg;gl;lwpT (r%jhag; gad;ghL Mf;f
Ntiy) fhl;rp> epfo;e;J fiyfs;. kdg;ghd;ikf;s kjpg;Gfs;> MSik
Nkk;ghl;Lf; fy;tp> ,izTr; nray;fshd rhuzh; rhuzpah;> ehl;L
eyg;gzpj;jpl;lk; kd;whr; nray;ghLfs;> ehl;Lg;Gw tpisahl;Lfs;> gpw jdpepiy
jpwd;fs; Kjypadtw;iwr; gbg;G ,izTg; ghlq;fshff; Fwpj;Js;sJ. ,tw;iwr;
fzpg;gjw;Fk; mstpLtjw;fhd Kiwfs;> gjpNtLfs; Mfpad ,e;ehs; tiu
tiuaWf;fg;gltpy;iy; tiuaWg;gjw;fhd gzpfs; Nkw;nfhs;sg;gl;L tUfpd;wd.
gbg;G ,izTg; ghlq;fs; KOikahfj juf; FwpaPl;L Kiwapidg; gpd;gw;wpNa
fzpf;fg;gLfpd;wd mj; juf;FwpaPLfs;.

A - kPj;jpwk;

B - kpf ed;W
C - ed;W

D - epiwT

E - Kd;Ndw;wk; Njit
vd mikAk;.
gjtpw;fhd gbtq;fisj; Jiw Kifikfsplk; ngwyhk;> ,ilepiyf;
fy;tpw;fhd eLtz; fy;tp thhpak; www.cbsc.nic.in vd;Dk; tiyjsj;jpy; ,g;
gjpTfSf;fhd gbtq;fisj; jUfpwJ. mtw;Ws; rpy vLj;Jf;fhl;Lfs;.
tho;
thof;
;fi; fj; jpwdifj; juf;FwpaPL ,Ltjw;fhd gbtk;.

tho;f;ifj; jpwd; A,B,C,D,E vd Ie;J epiyapyhd juf;FwpaPl;by;


kjpg;gplg;gLfpwJ.
gUtk; jpwDf;fhd juf;FwpaPLs
tpsf;fr; Rl;bfs;

1.

2.

3.

1. jk;ikg; gw;wpa tpopg;Gzj;T


2. rpf;fy; jPh;f;Fk; jpwd;
3. KbntLf;Fk; jpwd;
4. jpwdha;Tf; rpe;jid
5. Mf;fr; rpe;jid
6. gpwUld; njhlh;Gk; ,zf;fKk;
7. gadhh;e;j njhlh;Gj; jpwd;
8. gpwh;kdf; fUj;jwpe;J nray;gly;
9. kdntOr;rpiar; rkhspj;jy;
10. kd mOj;jj;ij vjph;nfhs;Sjy;
,g;gj;Jf; $WfSs; xt;nthd;W fzpg;gpw;Nfw;wdthf cl;$Wfisf;
nfhz;Ls;sJ.

• jk;ikg; gw;wpa tpopg;Gzh;T


khzth;fs; jk; cly;, rKjhak,; czh;T rhh;e;j tpopg;Gzh;T nfhz;bUj;jy;,
jd;khd czh;Tld; ,aq;Fjy; Mf;f, Njf;fg; gz;Gfis mwpe;jpUj;jy; , ey;nyjph;
ghh; mZFKiwapid Nkw;nfhs;sy; , ,lh;fis vjph;nfhs;Sk; Jzpr;ry;
Kjypad jk;ikg; gw;wpa tpopg;Gzh;Tf;Fwpa elj;ijfs;.
• rpf;fy; jPh;f;Fk; jpwd;
rpf;fiy vjph;nfhs;s eilKiwf;Fj; jf;fthW nray;gLjy;> gy;ntW
rpf;fy;fisAk; jpwk;glf; ifahSjy;, rpf;fypd; jd;ikapid milahsk;
fhZjy;, vr;rpf;fiyAk; ntw;wpf;Fhpa gbahff; nfhs;Sjy; , gy;tifg; gl;l
gpzf;FfisAk; jPh;g;gjw;F topfhZjy; Kjypad rpf;fy; jPh;f;Fk; jpwd; rhh;e;j
eltbf;iffs;.
• KbntLf;Fk; jpwd;
kdepiwT juf;$bajhfTk; Vw;GilajhfTk; KbntLj;jy; , gjpYf;Fhpa khw;W
Kiwfis Ma;Tg; Nghf;fpy; Nehf;Fjy;, rPuhd Kiwapy; KbTfis
Nkw;nfhs;Sjy;, rthy;fis vjph;nfhs;s Kisg;GldpUj;jy; Kjypad
KbntLf;Fk; jpwd; rhh;e;jit.
• jpwdha;Tr; rpe;jid
$w;WfisAk; vjph;epiyf; $WfisAk; fzpj;jy;, Gjph;fisf; (problem) $h;e;J
Njh;e;jply;, ftdj;Jld; <Lgl;Lg; gpd;D}l;lk; jUjy;> khw;W KiwfisAk;
jPh;TfisAk; fh KaYjy;, nghUe;jhj Iaq;fis vOg;Gjy; Kjypad
jpwdha;Tr; rpe;jidf;Fhpad.
• Mf;fr; rpe;jid
rpf;fy;fSf;F vOfpd;w ,lh;fSf;Fk; cUg;gbahd Mf;fepiyg;gl;l jPh;Tfisf;
fhZjy;, jdpj;jd;ikAila rpe;jidapid ntspg;gLj;Jjy;, jpwe;j kdj;Jld;
fw;gid nghq;fr; rpe;jpj;jy;, ,f;fl;lhd Neuj;jpy; jdpj;jd;ikNahL KbntLj;jy;.
• gpwUld; njhlh;Gk; ,zf;fKk;
xj;j khzth;fsplKk; MrphpahplKk; jpwk;gl Clhly;, kfpo;r;rpahfTk; el;GlDk;
,Uj;jy;, gz;gl;l rKjhaj; jpwd;fis ntspg;gLj;Jjy;, gpwNuhL ,ay;ghfTk;,
,zf;ffkhfTk; fUj;Jfis khw;wpf; nfhs;Sjy;, gpwh njhlh;Gilahdtw;iwAk;
Mh;tj;ijAk; fUj;jpy; nfhs;Sjy; Kjypad gpwNuhL ,zf;fKld; ,aq;Fk;
gz;gpid ntspg;gLj;Jtd.

• gadhh;e;j njhlh;Gj; jpwd;


FOf; fye;JiuahlYf;Fg; gq;fspj;jy;, fUj;ij ntspg;gLj;Jk;NghJ gzpT,
JzpT, vjph;g;G Mfpatw;wpw;F ,ilNaahd NtWghLfis mwpjy;, jftiy
ntspg;gLj;Jk;NghJ nkhop, nray;, ntspg;ghL Mfpatw;iw Kiwg;glg;
gad;gLj;Jjy;, Nfl;ly; jpwdpy; rpwe;jpUj;jy;, Fuypy; mOj;jj;NjhLk; Vw;w
,uf;fj;NjhLk; nka;g;hl;NlhLk; fUj;ij typAWj;Jjy; Kjypad xUthpd;
gadhh;e;j njhlh;Gj; jpwid ntspg;gLj;Jk; elj;ijf; $Wfs;.
• gpwh; kdf; fUj;jwpe;J nraw;gly;
gpwiu kjpf;Fk; Nghf;fpy; nray;gLjy;, ,d, rKjhag; gpur;ridfisf; fUj;jpy;
nfhs;Sjy;. jhkhf Kd;te;J Njitg;gLNthUf;F kpf cjTjy;. NtWghLfisg;
nghWj;Jf; nfhs;Sjy;, R+oiy czh;e;J nray;gly; Kjypad gpwh; kdj;J}ld;
czh;e;J nray;gly; Kjypad gpwh; kdj;J}ld; rhh;e;j (kdf; fUj;jwpe;J
nray;gly;) gz;Gf; $Wfs;.
• kdntOr;rpiar; rkhspj;jy;
jk; kdntOr;rpia milahsk; fhZjy;, jk; kdntOr;rpiaf; fl;Lf;Fs;
itj;jy;, jk; czh;Tfis xU rhiyah;, FO, ez;gh;fs;, ngw;Nwhh;, Mrphpah; vd
midthplKk; gfph;e;J nfhs;Sjy;, Jd;gk; NeUk;NghJ glglg;gpd;wp kd
,irNthL nray;gLjy; Kjypad kdntOr;rpapidr; rkhspf;Fk; xUthplk;
fhzg;gLk; gz;Gf; $WfshFk;.
• kd mOj;jj;ij vjph;
vjph;nfhs;Sjy;
,lh;fs; gy vjph;g;gLk;NghNjh, vjph;ghuhjd epfOk;NghNjh Vw;gLk; kd
rQ;ryk;/kd mOj;jk; vdg;gLk;. ,JTk; kdntOr;rp rhh;e;j cstpay; gz;ghFk;.
kd mOj;jk; Vw;gLj;Jk; R+oiy milahsk; fhZjy;, mjidj; jpwk;gl
vjph;gl vjph;nfhz;L ePf;Fjy;, ey;tpisTfis vjph;ghh;j;J Kd;NdWjy;,
,f;fl;lhd R+oypYk; cld;ghl;Lr; rpe;jidNahL nray;gLjy;, kdtOj;jKila
R+oypy; rpe;jidr; nrOikNahbUj;jy; Kjypa elj;ijfs; kd mOj;jj;ijj;
jpwk;gl vjph; nfhs;StdthFk;. gbg;G ,izTg; gpw ghlq;fSf;fhd fzpg;Gg;
gbtq;fis Nehf;F Kd;dh;, gy fzpg;Gf; $Wfisf; nfhz;L fzpj;Jj;
njhFepiyahfj; juf;Fwp toq;Fk; Kiwapidj; njhpe;J nfhs;s Xh;
vLj;Jf;fhl;ilf; fhzyhk;. A,B,C,D,E vd;gd gbg;G ,izTg; ghlq;fSf;fhf
toq;fg;gLk; juf; FwpaPLfs;;; ,tw;wpw;fhd vz;Gs;spfs; KiwNa 5,4,3,2,1.

vLj;Jf;fhl;bw;fhfj; jk; tpopg;Gzh;tpw;Fj; njhFepiyahd juf;Fwpapl;il


vt;thW nfhs;tJ vdf; fhz;Nghk;.

tpopg;Gzh;Tg; gz;Gf;$Wfshf Ie;J Fwpf;fg;gl;ld.

t.vz. juf;FwpaP juf;FwpaPl;Lg; Gs;sp


L
1. A 5

2. B 4

3. C 2

4. D 1

5. E 1

ruhrhp 1 3/5=2 3/5=3=C

Fwpg;G: juf;FwpaPL fzf;fpLk;NghJ gz;Gf; $whjYf;F '0' vz;Fwp


toq;fyhfhJ.

njhFg;G kjpg;gpLjy; (Summative Evaluation)


gapw;rpapd; Kbtpy; nra;ag;gLk; kjpg;gpLjNy njhFg;G kjpg;gpLjhyhFk;. xU khztd;
xU fy;tpahz;L KOtJk; vt;tsT rhjpj;Js;shd; vd;gijg; Ghpe;J
nfhs;Stjw;fhfNt Kf;fpakhf ,e;j kjpg;gpLjy; elj;jg;gLfpwJ. tUlhe;jpu my;yJ
nghJj;Njh;tpd; Nehf;fq;fs; njhFg;G kjpg;gPl nra;ag;gLtjhf cs;sJ. ,J
khzth;fsplk; fw;gpj;jypd; msT vt;tsT vd;gijg; Ghpe;J nfhs;s Mrphpah;fSf;F
cjTfpwJ.
vLj;Jf;fhl;lhf xU tUlk; ghlj;jpl;;lk; Kbe;j gpwF nfhLf;fg;gLk; Mz;Lj; Njh;T.
gFjp kjpg;gpLjy;> njhFg;G kjpg;gpLjy;> Fiwawp tif Kjypad; mwptpay;
fw;gpj;jypy; ed;ikaspf;ff; $baitahf cs;sd

myFj; Njh;tpd; gbepiyfs; (Stages of Unit Test)

1.Nehf;fq;fSf;F gfph;e;jspf;fg;gl;l kjpg;ngz;fspd; ruhrhp


(Nehf;fq;fSf;F Vw;w epiwjUjy;
epiwjUjy;)
xU ey;y myFj; Njh;tpy;> Nfs;tpfshdJ me;j myfpd; Nehf;fq;fshd> mwpjy;> Ghpe;J
nfhs;Sjy; gad;gLj;Jjy; jpwd; Mfpatw;wpw;Fr; rkr;rPuhf gfph;e;jspf;fg;gl Ntz;Lk;.
rpy Fwpg;gpl;l myFj; Njh;Tfspy;> tpdhf;fshdJ mwpTj; jpwid kl;LNk
rhh;e;jitahf cs;sd. mjdhy; kw;w Nehf;fq;fshdg; Ghpe;J nfhs;Sjy;>
gad;gLj;Jjy;> jpwd; ,it Nrhjid nra;ag;Ltjpy;iy. vdNt myFj; Njh;tpd;
juj;ij Kd;Ndw;Wtpf;f> rhpahd tpfpjj;jpy; kjpg;ngz;fisg; gfph;e;jspf;f Ntz;LtJ
mtrpakhfpwJ.

fPo;j;njhlf;f epiyapy; kjpg;ngz;fspd; xJf;fPL nra;jy; (%)

Nehf;fq;fs; mwpT Ghpe;Jnfhs;Sjy; gad;gLj;Jjy; jpwd; nkhj;jk;

kjpg;ngz; 40 20 10 30 100

kjpg;ngz;fs;

cah;njhlf;f epiyapy; kjpg;ngz;fspd; xJf;fPL nra;jy; (%)


Nehf;fq;fs; mwpT Ghpe;Jnfhs;Sjy; gad;gLj;Jjy; jpwd; nkhj;jk;

kjpg;ngz; 35 35 20 10 100

kjpg;ngz;fs;

rpy myFfspy;> jpwidr; Nrhjidapl tha;g;G ,Uf;fhJ. ,e;jr; re;jh;g;gq;fspy;


kjpg;ngz;fspd; rjtpfpjk; kw;w Nehf;fq;fSf;Nf gfph;e;jspf;fg;gl Ntz;Lk;.
2.ghlg;nghUSf;F kjpg;ngz;fs; xJf;fPL nra;jy; (ghlg;nghUSf;F epiw jUjy;)

(Allocation of Marks for content) (Weight age given to content)


xU myfpy;> %d;W my;yJ ehd;F Jiz myFfs; ,Uf;fyhk;. Nfs;tpfs;
xt;nthU Jiz myfpypUe;Jk; Nfl;fg;gl Ntz;Lk;. tpdhf;fs; Jiz myfpd; msT>
kw;Wk; Kf;fpaj;Jtj;ijg; nghWj;J xJf;fPL nra;ag;gl Ntz;Lk;.

xU myfpy;> %d;W my;yJ ehd;F Jiz myFfs; ,Uf;fyhk;. Nfs;tpfs; xt;nthU


Jiz myfpypUe;Jk; Nfl;fg;gl Ntz;Lk;. tpdhf;fs; Jiz myfpd; msT> kw;Wk;
Kf;fpaj;Jtj;ijg; nghWj;J xJf;fPL nra;ag;gl Ntz;Lk;.

Jiz myF tpdhf;fs; kjpgngz;fs;

1.rf;jp vd;gjd; nghUs; 1

2.,af;f rf;jp 2
3.Mf;f rf;jp 3

4.rf;jpapd; NtW epiyfs; 4

5.rf;jpapd; %yg;nghUs;fs; 5

3.gytifg;
gytifg;gl;l tpdhf;fSf;F kjpg;ngz; gz; xJf;fPL nra;jy; (gytifg;gl;l tpdhf;fSf;F
epiwjUjy;) (Allocation of Various type of questions) (Weight age to types of questions)

gy tifg;gl;l tpdhf;fis Njh;T nra;tJ myFj; Njh;Tf;F mtrpakhdJ. Kd;


njhlf;f epiyf;Fk;> cah;njhlf;f epiyf;Fk; gytifahd tpdhf;fis Njh;T
nra;tjpy; xU kpfr;rpwpa NtWghL fhzg;glyhk;. Njh;T nra;ag;gLk; gyjug;gl;l
tpdhf;fs; kjpg;ngz;fs; kw;Wk; gy;NtW tifahd Nehf;fq;fSf;Fj; njhlh;Gs;sdthf
,Uf;f Ntz;Lk;.

tpdhf;fspd; tiffs; (Types of questions)

1. Gwta tpdhf;fs
2. kpff;FWfpa tpil tif tpdhf;fs;
3. FWfpa tpil tif tpdhf;fs;
4. fl;Liu tif tpdhf;fs;.

Gwta tpdhf;fs; (Objective type questions)

• Nfhbl;l ,lj;ij epug;Gjy;


• rhpah / jtwh
• rhpahd tpiliaj; Njh;e;njLj;jy;
• xU thh;j;ij my;yJ xUthpapy; tpilaspj;jy;
• tifg;gLj;Jjy;
• nghUj;jpf; fhl;Ljy;

njhlf;f epiyapy; tpdhf;fSf;F kjpg;ngz;fs; xJf;fPL nra;jy;

(Allocation of Marks for questions at primary stage)

kjpg;ngz;fspd;
rjtpfpjk;
Nfs;tpfspd;
tpfspd; tif Nfs;tp vz; nkhj;j
kjpg;ngz;fs;
fl;Liu tpdhf;fs; 20

FWfpa tpil tif

tpdhf;fs; 60

Gwta tpdhf;fs; 20

Nfs;tpfspd; thpir vz; nkhj;j tpdhf;fspd; vz;fisg; nghWj;jJ.

tphpthd tpil (Long answer)

fl;Liu tpdhf;fs; Fiwthd vz;zpf;ifapy; ,Ug;gjhy;> mt;tpdhf;fSf;F xJf;fPL


nra;Ak; kjpg;ngz;fSk; FiwthdjhfNt ,Uf;f Ntz;Lk;.
4.fbdkhd Nfs;tpfSf;F kjg;ngz;fs; xJf;fPL nra;jy; (fbdkhd tpdhf;fSf;F
epiw jUjy;) (Difficulty level and allocation of Marks) (Weight age to difficulty level)
xU rpwe;j myFj; Njh;thdJ 20 ,yFthd Nfs;tpfisAk;> eLepiy tpdhf;fisAk;>
fbdkhd epiy tpdhf;fisAk; nfhz;ljhf ,Uf;f Ntz;Lk;. ,e;j xJf;fPL
khzth;fspd; kdpeiy kw;Wk; myfpd; fbdj;jd;ik Mfpatw;iwg; nghWj;J
khw;wpaikf;fg;glyhk;.

fbdepiy kjpg;ngz;fspd;
spd; rjtpfpjk;

kpf vspa epiy 10

vspa epiy 30

eL epiy 40
fbd epiy 20

5.tpdhj;jhs; tbtikg;G jhahhpj;jy; (Preparation of the blue print)


myFj; Njh;Tf;F> tpdhf;fs; jahhpj;jypy; Nrhjidj; Njh;T Kf;fpa gq;F tfpf;fpwJ.
,q;F tpdhf;fspd; Nehf;fq;fs;> ghlg;nghUs;> tpdhf;fspd; tiffs; kw;Wk;
kjpg;ngz;fspd; ruhrhp ,tw;wpd; mbg;gilapy; tbtikf;fg;gLfpdwd. ,J
Kg;ghpkhzg;glk; vd;Wk; miof;fg;gLfpwJ.

khjphp tpdhj;jhs; tbtikg;G

thpir nghUs; mwpT Ghpe;Jnfhs;Sjy; gad;gLj;Jjy; nkhj;jk;


vz;
epidtpy; nfhs;f: milg;Gf;FwpaPl;Lf;Fs; cs;s vz;fs; kjpg;ngz;fisAk;> milg;Gf;
FwpaPl;Lf;F ntspapy; cs;s vz;fs; tpdh vz;fisAk; Fwpf;fpd;wd.

6.tpdhj;jhs; tbtikg;G mbg;gilapy; tpdhf;fs; jahhpj;jy; (Preparation of questions


according to Blue print)

tpdhj;jhs; tbtikg;G mbg;gilapy; tpdhf;fs; jahhpf;fg;gl;L Kiwahf


thpirg;gLj;jg;gl Ntz;Lk;. Gwta tpdhf;fs; KjyhtjhfTk;> mjidj; njhlh;e;J
FWtpdhf;fs; kw;Wk; fl;Liutpdhf;fSk; mikf;fg;gl Ntz;Lk;. xt;nthU tif
tpdhTf;Fk; rhpahd topfhl;Ljy; nfhLf;fg;gl Ntz;Lk;. vjph;g;ghh;f;fg;gLk;
tpilfSf;Fj; jFe;jthW xt;nthU tpdhTf;Fk; kjpg;ngz;fs; toq;fg;gl Ntz;Lk;.

tpilf;Fwpg;Gfs; jahhpj;jy; (Preparation of answer keys)

myFj; Njh;T jahh; nra;j gpwF>Mrphpah;> tpilfis mtuhfNt jahh;nra;a Ntz;Lk;.


,/J mtUf;F tpdhf;fspYs;s gpiofs; my;yJ vt;tsT tpil xU tpdhTf;F
vjph;g;ghh;f;fg;gLfpd;wJ vd;gijg; gw;wp xU njspthd fUj;ij mspf;fpwJ. ,J fPo;
cs;s gbtj;ijg; ngw;wpUj;jy; Ntz;Lk;.

Nfs;tp vz; tpilf; Fwpg;Gfs; kjpg;ngz;

tpdhf;fisg; gFg;gha;T nra;jy; (Analysis of questions)


tpdhj;jhs; KOtJk; mjpYs;s gpiofs;> kw;Wk; tpdhf;fspd; fbdj;jd;ik> jiyg;G>
Nehf;fq;fs;> rhpahd tifapy; vy;yh tpdhf;fisAk; kjpg;gPL nra;jy; Mfpatw;iw
cWjp nra;J nfhs;tjw;fhfg; gFg;gha;T nra;ag;gLfpwJ.

tpdh nghUs; Nehf;fq;fs; tptuf; kjpg; tpdhf;fspd; fbdj; Neuk;


vz;
Fwpg;Gfs; ngz;fs; tif jd;ik

7-3 mwptpaypy; milTj; Njh;tpd; ,d;wpaikahik (Necessity for achievement test in


Science)
1. xU ghlj;jpYs;s nfhs;iffs;> Nfhl;ghLfs;> tpjpfs; ,tw;iw kpfj;njspthf
khzth;fs; Ghpe;J nfhs;s milTr; Nrhjid Njh;T ,d;wpaikahjjhfpwJ.

2. ,/J xU khztdpd; Ghpe;J nfhs;Sjy;> mwpT> gad;gLj;Jjy; kw;Wk; jpwd;


,tw;wpd; epiyia Ghpe;J nfhs;s mtrpakhfpwJ.

3. xU ghlj;jpy; khztdpd; mbg;gil mwpitr; Nrhjidapl mtrpakhfpwJ.

4. mjpfk; kw;Wk; Fiwe;j rhjidfis;f fz;lwpe;J Njitahd topfhl;Ljiy


mspf;f mtrpakhfpwJ.

milTj;Njh;tpd; tiffs; (Types of Achievement Tests)


1.Mrphpauhy; jahhpf;fg;gl;lit.
2.juk; eph;zapf;fg;gl;lit.

Mrphpah; jahhpf;Fk; Njh;T (Teacher prepared Tests)


,J khztd; vt;tsT fw;Ws;shd; vd;gijr; Nrhjidaplg; gad;gLfpwJ.
tpdhg;gbtkhdJ khzth;fspd; nkhj;j Ghpe;J nfhs;Sk; jpwid mwpa
cjTfpwJ>rpwg;G Nehf;fq;fs; eilKiwapy; cs;sd.

juk; eph;zapf;fg;gl;l Njh;Tfs; (Standardized Achievement Tests)

,J ty;Yeh;fshy; jahhpf;fg;gLfpwJ.,it tpdhj;jhspd; khjphp> nghUs;> kw;Wk;


tpdhf;fisj; njspthf Rl;bf;fhl;LfpwJ. tpdhf;fs; Nrhjid tbtikg;G mbg;gilapy;
jahhpf;fg;gLfpd;wd. ,e;j tpdhf;fs; xU rpwpa KbT nfhLf;fg;gl;L> Mjhuq;fs;
jpul;lg;gLfpd;wd. juk; cahj;jg;gl;l milTj; Njh;T fPo; cs;s Kf;fpakhd
gz;Gfisf; nfhz;Ls;sJ.

1.ek;gfj;jd;ik (Reliability)
vJ ek;gf; $baNjh mJ ek;gfj;jd;ikAilaJ vd;fpNwhk;.xU Fwpg;gpl;l
kjpg;gPl;il ahh; vj;jid Kiw Nrhjid nra;jhYk; mjd; kjpg;gPL xNu
khjphpahdjhfj; jhd; ,Uf;Fk;. vLj;Jf;fhl;lhf Jzpf;filfspYs;s kPl;lh; fk;G
vj;jid Kiw mse;jhYk; xNu tpjkhd msTfisj; jUfpwJ.

2.kjpg;gpLk; jd;ik (Validity)


xU ey;y NrhjidahdJ vij mstpl> Ntz;LNkh mij mstpLjy; kjpg;gpLk;
jd;ik vdg;gLfpwJ.
vLj;Jf;fhl;lhf mwpTj; jpwid Nrhjpf;f Ntz;bait mwpTj; jpwid kl;LNk
Nrhjpf;f Ntz;Lk;. gilg;ghw;wiy Nrhjidaplf; $lhJ.

3.Gwtaj; jd;ik (Objectivity)


vj;jid Kiw Njh;T nfhLj;jhYk;> vj;jid khzth;fs; vOjpdhYk; xNu
khjphpahd tpilfs; ngwg;gl Ntz;Lk;. jdpegh; NtWghL fhuzkhf tpilfspy;
NtWghL ,Uf;ff;$lhJ. gyTs; Njh;T tpdhf;fs;> ,jpy; Kf;fpakhditahFk;.
4.,J vspjhf kjpg;gplg; glNtz;Lk;
5.,J vspjhf kjpg;gplg; glNtz;Lk;
6.,J khzth;fspd; taJf;F Vw;witahf ,Uf;f Ntz;Lk;.

nghUj;Jjy; Njh;T (Matching Test)

• ,J gyTs; Njh;T NrhjidapypUe;J rpwpJ khw;wk; ngw;wjhFk;.


• ,/J ,uz;L gFjpfisf; nfhz;lJ. gFjp xd;wpYs;s cUg;gbfs; gFjp
,uz;Lld; nghUj;jkhdjhf ,Uf;f Ntz;Lk;.
• ,uz;lhtJ gFjpapy; ,uz;L my;yJ %d;W cUg;gbfs; $Ljyhff;
nfhLf;fg;gl Ntz;Lk;.
• Kjy; gFjpapy; cs;sit. nghJthd> my;yJ nghJj; jd;ikfshf
,Uf;f Ntz;Lk;. ,/J ,uz;lhtJ gFjpNahL njhlh;Giladthf ,Uf;f
Ntz;Lk;.
(Kjy; gFjpapy; tpQ;Qhdpfspd; ngah; nfhLf;fg;gl;bUe;jhy; mth;fspd;
gq;fspg;G ,uz;lhtJ gFjpapy; nfhLf;fg;gl Ntz;Lk;)
• nghUj;Jjy; Njh;T nghJthf mwpTrhh; gFjpapy; Ghpe;Jnfhs;Sjy;
jpwDld; ,ize;jJ.

FWfpa tpil tpdhf;fs; (Short answer questions)

• ,e;j tpdhf;fs; xd;W my;yJ ,uz;L kjpg;ngz;fis ngWfpd;wd.


• RUf;fkhf ,/J mwpTj;jpwd;> Ghpe;J nfhs;Sjy;> gad;gLj;Jjy; kw;Wk;
jpwd; rk;ge;jg;gl;lJ.
• tpdhf;fs; jpwe;j tifahf ,Ug;gjhy;> khzth;fs; Nahrpj;Jg; ghh;j;J
my;yJ Qhgfg;gLj;jpg;ghh;j;J tpilaspg;gJ mtrpakhfpwJ.
• ,e;j khjphpahd tpdhf;fs; vy;yh myfpw;Fk; nfhLf;fg;glyhk;.
vLj;Jf;fhl;lhf ,Uk;Gf; fk;pgapdhyhd [d;dy; mbf;fb th;zk;
mbf;fg;gLtJ Vd;?
• rpwpa miwapy; vjpnuhyp Nfl;gjpy;iy Vd;?

fl;Liu tif tpdhf;fs; (Essay Type questions)

• myFj; Njh;tpy; ,t;tifahd tpdhf;fs; vz;zpf;ifapy; kpff;


Fiwthditahf ,Uf;fpd;wd.
• tpilfs; 4 my;yJ 6 thpfspy; vOjg;gLfpd;wd.
• rpwe;j nrhy;yhw;wy; cila khzth;fSf;F mjpf kjpg;ngz; ngWk;
tha;g;G mjpfkhf ,Uf;fpwJ.
• mwpTrhh; gFjpfshd> mwpTj;jpwd;> Ghpe;J nfhs;Sjy;> njhlh;epfo;T>
gad;gLj;Jjy;> kw;Wk; jpwd;fisg; ghpNrhjpg;gjpy; fl;Liu tpdhf;fs;
cjTfpd;wd.
• ,t;tif tpdhf;fSf;Fhpa tpilfs; Gwtaj; jd;ikAld; kjpg;gplg;glhky;
,Uf;fyhk;. vLj;Jf;fhl;lhf mkpyj;jpw;Fk;> fhuj;jpw;Fk; ,ilNaahd
%d;W tpj;jpahrq;fis vOJf.

Fiwawpjy; Njh;T (Diagnostic Test)


mwptpay; cz;;ikfis thrpj;Jg; gbf;f Kbahikf;fhd fhuzq;fisj; njhpe;J
nfhs;tjw;fhf> tbtikf;fg;gl;lNj ,e;j Fiwawpjy; Njh;thFk;.
rpy Fwpg;gpl;l ghlj;ijg; gw;wpf; fw;wy; xU Fwpg;gpl;l jpwd;> nfhs;if my;yJ
Nfhl;ghl;ilg; nghWj;J mikfpwJ. Kd; mDgtk; my;yJ jpwd; ,y;yhj
khzth;fshy; me;jf; Fwpg;gpl;l ghlj;ijg; gbf;f ,ayhJ. ,J jhd; fw;wypy;
mth;fisg; gpd;jq;fpdth;fshfr; nra;fpwJ. mLj;j fw;wy; nray;ghL vspjhf
mikaNtz;Lkhdhy;> ,ijg; Nghd;w jilfs; fisag;gl Ntz;Lk;. mjdhNyNa>
rpwg;Gj; Njh;T Njitg;gLfpwJ. vjw;nfd;why;> ve;jj; jpwd; my;yJ nfhs;ifiaf;
fw;gpj;jhy; mLj;j fw;wy; nray;ghL vspjhf ,Uf;Fk; vd;gijj; njhpe;J nfhs;tjw;Fr;
rpwg;Gj; Njh;T mtrpakhfpwJ. ,j;jifa jpwd; gw;whf;Fiwiaf; fz;lwptjw;Nf
Fiwawpjy; Njh;T elj;jg;gLfpwJ. ,/J Mrphpah;fSf;Fg; gaDs;sjhf ,Uf;fpwJ.
Fiwawp Nrhjidfs; vd;git> Fiwfisf; fistjw;fhf vLf;fg;gLk;
eltbf;iffspd; epfo;r;rpfshFk;. ,J khzth;fspd; fw;wy; jpwik gw;whf;Fiwiag;
gw;wp njspthff; fhl;LfpwJ. Mrphpah;fs; Kaw;rpf;Fg; gpd;Dk; khzth;fSf;Ff; fw;wy;
fbdkhdjhf ,Ue;jhy;> mjw;fhd fhuzq;fis ,e;jj; Njh;tpd; %yk; mwpe;J nfhs;s
KbAk;. mwpTj;jpwd; gw;whf;Fiw my;yJ Kd;dwpTj; jpwd; gw;whf;Fiw my;yJ
mDgtk; gw;whf;Fiw kw;Wk; fw;wypd; fbj;jd;ikf;fhd fhuzq;fis FiwawpT Njh;T
%yk; njhpe;J nfhs;syhk;.
FiwawpT Njh;tpd; %yk;> khzth;fspd; fw;wypy; Vw;gLk; gpur;rpidfs;
fz;lwpag;gl;Ls;sd. mit fPNo nfhLf;fg;gLs;sd.

• cw;W Nehf;fy; mDgtkpd;ik


• ftdpf;Fk; jpwd; ,y;yhik
• fz;fspd; Kjph;r;rpaile;j mirT ,d;ik
• Nghl;b ,d;ik
• Mh;tkpd;ik
• kdepiy rk;ge;jkhd gpur;rpidfs; (czh;T)
• mDgtkpd;ik
• thrpf;Fk; gof;fk; ,y;yhik

FiwawpT Njh;T jahh;nra;jy; (Preparation of Diagnostic Text)

FiwawpT Njh;T jahh;nra;jypd; gbepiyfs; (Steps of Preparing Diagnostic Tests)


1.fw;wy; Nehf;fq;fisAk; tpsf;ff; Fwpg;GfisAk; gFg;gha;T nra;jy;> xt;nthU
tpsf;ff; Fwpg;G nray;ghl;ilAk; Ma;T nra;jy;.
2.tpsf;ff; Fwpg;G gFg;gha;T nra;jiynahl;b Nrhjid jahhpj;jy;> Fiwawp
Nrhjidfs; jpwdbg;gilapd; cs;s jiyg;Gfspy; nghJthfg; gad;gLj;jg;gLfpd;wd.
,/J fzpjk;> fw;fTk;> gbf;fTk; gad;gLfpwJ.

FiwjPh; epfo;r;rpfs; (Remedial programmes)


ruhrhp khzth;fis tplf; fw;wypy; rpy khzth;fs; nkJthfr;
nray;gLfpwhh;fs;. mth;fSs; rpyh; VjhtJ xU ghlj;jpy;> kw;w ghlq;fis tplg;
gpd;jq;fpapUe;jhh;fs;. nkJthff; fw;Nghh; nghJthf mwpT g+h;tkhfTk;> czh;T
g+h;tkhfTk; gytPdkhdth;fshf ,Ug;ghh;fs;. vdNt ,e;j khzth;fsplk; Mrphpah;fs;
jdpf;ftdk; nrYj;j Ntz;Lk;. FiwjPh; gapw;rpfs; ,g;gbg;gl;l gpd;jq;fpa
khzth;fSf;fhfj;jhd; tbtikf;fg;gl;Ls;sd.

Nehf;fq;fs; (Objectives)

gpd;jq;fpa khzth;fsplk; tpsf;fg;gl Ntz;ba jpwd;fs; kw;Wk; nray;ghLfshff;


fPo; cs;stw;iw ,uhgh;l;rd; ghpe;Jiu nra;Js;shh;.
1. NgRjy; kw;Wk; vOJjypy; njhlh;G nfhs;Sk; jpwd; kw;Wk; Ghpe;J nfhz;L
gbj;jy;.

2. mstpLk; jpwd; kw;Wk; fzf;fPL nra;jy;.

3. rpe;jpf;Fk; jpwd;> jPh;g;G> Ngjq;fhl;Ljy; kw;Wk kfpo;jy;

4. ntsp cyifg; gw;wpAk; mth;fs; trpf;Fk; rKjhaj;ijg; gw;wpAk; Ghpe;J


nfhs;Sjy;.

5. mwptpay; jfty;fis mth;fshfNt fz;lwpAk; jpwd;.

6. jd;dk;gpf;if>Ra nfsutk;> Nghd;wtw;iwj; jd;Dila Mw;wy;fSf;Nfw;g


czh;jy;
FiwjPh; epfo;r;rpfs;> ruhrhpf;Ff; fPo; cs;s khzth;fSf;F> kw;wth;fNshL Nghl;b
Nghlj; Njitahdtw;iw> mspf;f cs;s Kf;fpa rpwg;G epfo;r;rpfshFk;. jpl;lkpl;l
fw;gpj;jy;> nkJthfj; fw;gtUf;Fg; gad;gLj;jg;gLfpwJ. Vnddpy; ,J mth;fs; nrhe;j
Ntfj;jpy; fw;Wf; nfhs;s trjp nra;fpwJ. Mrphpah;fs; gs;sp Kbe;j gpwF $Ljyhd
ghlNtis Fiw jPh; gapw;rpf;fhf vLj;Jf; nfhs;s Ntz;Lk;. ,J khzth;fs; ed;whfg;
Ghpe;J nfhs;s> mjpfkhff; fw;Wf; nfhs;s cjTfpwJ. Mrphpah;fs; khzt ika
Kiwiaf;> fw;gpj;jypy; filg;gpbf;fyhk;. ,t;tpjkhf> $Ljyhff; nfhLf;fg;gl;Ls;s
fhyk; kw;Wk; ftdj;jpd; %ykhf> nkJthff; fw;Nghh;> rpwg;ghfr; nra;J ntw;wpailtJ
rhj;jpakhfpwJ.
1. fw;wiyf; fzpj;jy;
xUth;> ngw;w mwpT> kdg;ghd;ik> Mw;wy; Kjypadtw;iwg; gpwpnjhUth; mstpl
,aYk; nray; Nghf;Nf “fw;wy; fzpj;jy;” MFk; ,r; nraypy; jiyikahf
tpsq;Fgth; Mrphpah;> ,r; nray;ghl;;by; Mrphpahpd; Jhz;ly; Kjd;ikahfpwJ.

• fzpg;G Kiwapid Mrphpah; tbtikf;fpwhh;.


• mtNu rhd;Wfis jpul;Lfpwhh;.
• fw;fg;gl;lijAk; fw;fg;glhjijAk; gw;wp mtNu Kbntbf;fpwhh;.

2. fw;wYf;fhd topfhl;ly; fzpg;gPL

fw;wWf;fhd fzpg;gPl;by; khzth;fspd; jw; rhh;gpid kpFtpf;fpwJ. mNj


Ntisapy; Mrphpahp;d;mwpTWj;jYk; $l;L ciog;Gk; NrUfpwJ. ,J rpy
Ntisfspy; ts;twp fzpg;NghL ,iae;jhff; fhzg;gLk;. khzth;fSf;F
kjpg;ngz; my;yJ juf; FwpaPL toq;Fjiyf; fhl;bYk; topf;fhl;lNy
,jpy; NkNyhq;fpf; fhzg;gLk;. ,q;F
• Mrphpah; fw;wiy tbtikf;fpwhh;
• fzpg;gPl;il tbtikj;J khzth;fSf;Fg; gpd;Dhl;lk; toq;Ffpwhh;.
• khzth;fspd; fw;wy; gw;wpa KbTfisj; jUfpwhh;. (mth; jUk;
KbTfs;nfhz;L khzth;fs; jq;fs; fw;wy; epiyapid mwpe;J
Nkk;gLj;Jk; topKiwfis czh;fpd;wdh;).

3. fw;wyhFk; fzpg;gPL.

fw;wyhFk; fzpg;gPL> Fiwawp Njh;NthL njhlh;GilaJ. xU rhuhNuhL


fw;wy; epfo;j;JtjhfpwJ jhNd kjpg;gply;> xU rhuhuhy; kjpg;gplg; ngwy;
Kjypadtw;wpw;F chpajhfj; jpfo;fpwJ. juKila jftiyg;
ngWtjw;Fk; nghWg;Gld; fw;gjw;Fk; khzth;fisj; Jhz;Ljhf mikAk;
fzpg;gPl;by;.
• MrphpaUk; khzth;fSk; fw;wypy; ,ize;J nray;gLfpd;wdh;.
• MrphpaUk; khzth;fSk; ,ize;J fzpg;gPl;il Nkw;nfhs;fpd;wdh;.
• fw;wy; tsh;r;rpf;F MrphpaUk; jk; khzth;fSk; ,ize;J
nray;gLfpd;wdh;.
• fw;wYfhd fzpg;gPLk;> fw;wyhFk; fzpg;gPLk;> fw;gpj;jy; fw;wypy; nrwpthf
,izf;fg;gl Ntz;Lk;. mg;NghJjhd; Clhl;lk;> gpd;Dhl;lk; fw;wy;
,zf;fk;> rpe;jidg; gfph;T> fw;wy; njhlhr;rp Kjypad Vw;gLk;.
4. fw;wiy epfoj;Jk; fzpg;G

fw;wYf;F Mrphpah; mwpTWj;Jk; Nghf;fp;y; miktJ> fw;wy; fzpg;gpL> ,r;


nray; fw;wYf;F topfhl;Lk;NghJ> Mrphpah; epiyapYk; khzth;fs;
epiyapYkpUe;J fzpg;gPL> khzth;fSf;Ff; fw;wYhf;fk; mspf;fpwJ.
MfNt fzpg;gPL fw;wiy epfo;j;Jk; jd;ikahfpwJ.

fw;wiy kjpg;gpLjy; fw;wiy epfo;j;Jjy;

Mrphpah; khzth;fs; fw;wy; fzpg;gPL

jkpo;ehL gs;spf;fy;tpapy; njhlh;KOik kjpg;gPL

ghlj;jpl;lq;fs; khw;wpaikf;fg;gLk; Nghnjy;yhk; fw;wy;


ngUf;fj;jpw;F <L nfhLf;FkhW> kpFjpahd fw;wy; nghUs;fis
khzth;fs; vjph;nfhs;s Ntz;bAs;sJ.

fw;wy; gDty;fs; (Learning Test) kpFjpahd xU GwkpUf;f> mtw;iw


khzth;fs; fw;Ws;sduh vd mwptjw;Fg; nghUe;jpa fzpg;GKiwfs;
gpd;gw;wg; gltpy;iy. Kdg;hlf; fy;tpNa> fw;wy; miltiff;
fUjg;gLk;epiy ,d;Wk; epyTfpwJ. fzpg;gPL Kiwfs gw;wpa gzpapilg;
gapw;rpfs; gy elj;jg;gl;ld. vdpDk;. Mrphpah;fspilNa kjpg;gPL
mZFKiwfs; Koikahd vl;ltpy;iy. Mrphpah; fy;tpepWtdq;fSk;
kjpg;gPLf;Fhpa mOj;jj;jijj; juhjjhy;> ,sk; Mrphpah;fSk; gioa
ghijapNyNa nry;Yfpd;wdh;.

,e; epiyapy; kdpjts Nkk;ghl;L mikr;rf ce;jypy;


,ilepiyf; fy;tpf;fhd eLtz; thhpak; (Council board of secondary
education – CBSE) njhlh; KOik kjpg;gPL vd;Dk; Kiwiag;
ghpe;Jiuj;Js;sJ.

gbg;Gg; ghlq;fs;

eilKiwapYs;s ghlj;jpl;lj;jhy; ghpe;Jiuf;fg; gl;l gbg;Grhh;


ghlq;fs;.

Kjy;nkhop (jkpo;)
Mq;fpyk;
fzpjk;
nghJ mwptpay;
r%f mwptpay;
Mrad gbg;Grhh; ghlq;fs;

gbg;G ,izTg; ghlq;fs;

fy;tp Vw;ghLk; ,izTr; nray;fs;.


tho;f;if Mw;wy;fs;
gl;lwpTg; gzpf;fy;tp
fhl;rp> epfo;j;Jf; fiyf;s;
kdg;ghd;ikfSk; tpOkq;fSk;
MSik tsh;r;rp
fy;tp Vw;ghl;L ,izTr; nray;ghLfs;.

Mfpad gbg;G ,izTr; ghlq;fshff; nfhs;sg;gLfpd;wd.

gbg;Gf; fiy ms;T

Xh; fy;tp Mz;L> #d;Kjy; nrg;lk;gh;tiu Kjy; gUtk; mf;Nlhgh; Kjy;


jprk;gh; tiu ,uz;lhk; gUtk; [dthp Kjy; Vg;uy; tiu %d;whk; gUtk;
vd %d;W gUtq;fshfg; gphpf;fg;gl;bUf;fpwJ.

gbg;Gg; ghlf; fzpg;gPL


t.vz; gUtk; fzpg;G tif fzpg;G Kiw fhy vy;iy Fwpg;G
1. gUtk; -1 Fiwawp a&b1 #d;- nrg;lk;gu; a-6 tsu;twp
fzpg;G-1 fzpg;Gfspy;
#d;-
rpwe;jjpUf;Fk;
nrg;lk;gu; FA1 ehd;fpidf;
vOj;J Njh;T
njhFjp epiy fUJf
(tof;fkhd
fzpg;G Njh;T) 4 x5=20
SA1 kjpg;ngz;fs;
a & b 6 tFg;Gj;
nrg;lk;gu; Kjy; Njh;Tfsp;y;
fpoik rpwe;j ehd;iff;

fUJf 4 x5=20

kjpg;ngz; =60
2 gUtk; -2 Fiwawp -2 a&b1 mf;Nlhgh;- a - 20
mf;Nlhgh;- jprk;gu;
jprk;gu; FA2 vOJ Njh;T (mt;tg;NghJ b - 20
jprk;gu; %d;whk;
njhFjp epiy 60
fpoik
fzpg;G

FA2

3 gUtk; -3 Fiwawp a&b a - 20


[dthp – FA3 b - 20
khu;r;
60

njhFjp epiy vOJ Njh;T 60


fzpg;G

SA1

gbg;Gg; ghlq;fis; tsh;twp. njhFjpepiy Mfpa ,Utifg;gl;;l


fzpg;gPLfSf;F cl;gLj;Jfpd;wdh;. Xt;nthU gUtj;jpYk; mjw;nfd
tiyawf;fg;gl;l fhy mstpy; fzpg;gPLfs; eilngWk;;. mf;
fzpg;gPLfSf;fhd tif Kiw fhy msT kjpg;ngz; xJf;fPL Mfpad
ml;ltizapy; Fwpj;jthW Nkw;nfhs;sg;gl Ntz;Lk;.

gFjp m – ghlq;fs; (gbg;G rhu; ghlq;fs;)

gFjp “m” tpy; cs;s ghlq;fs; tof;fkhd ghlj;jpl;lj;jhy;


tiuaWf;fg;gl;ld thapDk; mtw;wpd; milTfs;> Kd;dh;f; Njhr;rpf;
fzpg;G (FA(a), FA(b), SA) vd %d;W tiffspy; Nkw;nfhs;sg;gLfpd;wd
(FA(b) – vd;gJ tsh;twp Njh;T M.

gapw;rp tpdhfs;:

1. NtWgLj;jgl;lfw;wiy tpthp?
2. kjpg;gPl;by; vt;thW ek;gfj;jd;ikia epiyepWj;Jtha;?
3. xU ey;y Nrhjidf;fhd gz;Gfis tpsf;Ff?
4. ePy ml;ltiz vd;d? ,ij jq;fSila ghlj;jpy; cs;s
vNjDk; ,uz;L myFfSf;F jahh; nra;aTk;.
myF – VI - cs;slf;fpa gs;spfSf;
pfSf;fhd kjpg;gPL
Nehf;fq;fs;
,e;j myfpd; gapd;wgpd; khzt-Mrphpah;fs;
khw;Wj; jpwdhspfis vt;thW kjpg;gpLjy; vd;gij Ghpe;J nfhs;Sthh;fs;.
khw;Wj; jpwdspfSila milt jpwd; ntspg;ghl;il kjpg;gpLjy;.
Mth;fSila jpwid kjpg;gptjpy; gy;NtW tifahd Af;jpfis ifahSjy;
Gpd;Dl;l Kiw gw;wp njhpe;Jk; mwpe;Jk; nfhs;Sjy;.
mth;fSila gpd;Dl;lj;jpd; Muha;jy;.

khw;Wj;jpwdhspfis kjpg;gpLjy;/rpwg;G fy;tpapd; NjitAilNahiu fz;lwpjy;.

midj;J ehLfspYk; fw;w rpf;fYs;s> rpwg;Gf; fy;tp Njitg;gLk; khzth;fis fz;lwptjw;F


kpfTk; njspthd rl;lKiwfs; gpd;gw;wg;LfpwJ. ,Ue;j NghjpYk;> fz;lwpag;gLk; xt;nthU
NjitAk; NtWgLfpwJ> NkYk; me;je;j ehl;bw;F Vw;g Njitia fz;lwpAk; Kiwfs;
NtWgLfpwJ.

rpwg;G fy;tp NjitAila khzth;fis Muk;gj;jpy; kjpg;gpLtjpy; ,uz;L gad;fs; cs;sd.


(1)mYtyfG+h;tkhf xU khzthDf;F fy;tp Njitia eph;zapg;gjw;F $Ljyhf fw;wYf;F
cjtpGhpAk; cgfuzk; NjitgLtijfz;lwpa gad;gLfpwJ. (2)nt;NtW ghlg;gFjpapy;
njd;gLk; fw;wy; mDgtq;fspy; cs;s khzth;fspd;jpwd;fs; kw;Wk; Fiwfis kjpg;gPl;L
fz;lwpa “fw;wy; epfo;Tfs; njhptpf;fg;gLfpwJ”. ,g;gbgl;l jfty;fs; Kiwahf
njhptpf;fg;gLfpwJ. mJ Kjypy; Ra fy;tp jpl;lk; vd;Dk; ngahpy; njhlq;fg;gl;Ls;sJ.

gy;NtW ehLfspy;> khzth;fspd; rpwg;G fy;tp Njitfis fz;lwptjw;fhd mDFKiwfis


ifahSfpd;wdh;. esd;F tiuaWf;fg;gl;l Kiwfspy; cs;s epiyfshdit> tFg;G
Mrphpah;fis cs;slf;Fk; Kiwfis NkNyhq;fpAk;> khzth;fspd; f\;lq;fis ntspf;
nfhz;LtuTk;> gs;spapy; cs;s kw;w jpwd;fis gq;F nfhs;s itg;gjpYk;> filrpahf>
ntspapy; ,Ue;J tUk; rpwg;G epGzh;fis xU JizahfTk; nfhz;Ls;sJ.

,g;gb Kiwahf Nrfhpf;fg;gLk; khzth;fspd; jpwd;fs; kw;Wk; Fiwfs; rk;ge;jg;gl;l


jfty;fis mjpfhpj;Jf; nfhz;Ls;sJ.

,jpy; gy;NtW Jiwfspy; cs;s epfo;fis Rfhjhuk; r%fk; kw;Wk; cstpay;> gq;F
ngw;Ws;sdh; mth;fs; khzth;fspd; fbdj; jd;ikia fz;lwpa gytifahd Fiwawp
Nrhjidfis elj;Jfpd;wdh;> midj;J ehLfspYk; xU epiy my;yJ gyjug;gl;l FOf;fs;
xdwhf ,ize;J Muk;g fl;;lj;jpNyNa rpwg;G fy;tp Njitfis fz;lwpa kjpg;gPL Kiwfis
,izj;Js;sdh;.

midj;J ehLfspYk;> cs;slf;fp kw;Wk; gphpf;fg;gl;l fy;tp R+o;epiyahdJ Muk;g


fl;lj;jpNyNa rpwg;G fy;tp Njitf;fhd fz;lwpjypd; gaid kjpg;gpLfpd;wdh;. ,Ue;j
NghjpYk;> cs;slf;fpa fy;tpapy;> rpwg;G fy;tp NjitAila khzth;fs; kjpg;gPl;by; fl;lhakhf
Nrh;f;fg;gLfpwhh;fs;> Mdhy; jdpg;gl;l/gphpf;fg;gl;l gs;spapy; cs;s khzth;fs;
Nrh;f;fg;gLtjpy;iy.

gpd;Dhl;lk;: gpd;Dhl;lk; Vd; kpf Kf;fpakhdJ? khzth;fspd; fw;wYf;F ey;y jukhd>


njhFf;fg;gl;l> Neuj;jpw;fhd gpd;D}l;lkhdJ Cf;Ftpf;Fk; fhuzpahf cs;sJ. fw;wy;
ntspahLfis Miltjw;F kjpg;gPlhdJ jFe;j gpd;D}l;lj;ij toq;f Ntz;Lk;.
gpd;D}l;lkhdJ khzth;fs; vq;F ed;whf fw;wpUf;fpwhh;fs;> vij fl;lhak; Nkk;gLj;jpahf
Ntz;Lk; vd;gij milahsq;fhzTk;? NkYk; mth;fSila njhFf;fg;gl;l kjpg;gPl;il
eLepiyik gOj;jTk; cjTfpwJ.jFe;j Neuj;jpy; mspf;fg;gLk; gpd;D}l;lk; Kf;fpakhdjhFk;.
gpd;D}l;lj;ij ntF tpiuthf nfhLj;jhYk; khzth;fSf;F mJ ,ila+uhf jhd; ,Uf;Fk;.
Kpf jhkjkhf gad;glh tz;zkhfj; jhd; ,Uf;Fk;. khzth;fSf;F gpd;d}l;lj;jpid? Xh;
Mz;L/gUtk; Kbe;J mLj;j gUtj;jpw;F nry;tjw;F Kd;dNw nfhLf;fg;glNtz;Lk;?
gpd;D}l;lj;jpid $whhky; epWj;jp itf;f $lhJ.

Njh;r;rpngw;w gpd;D}l;lkhdJ fw;wy; ntspg;ghLfis Kd;dpWj;jpajhf cs;sJ. v.fh.


gpd;D}l;lkhdJ> khzth;fspilNa jd;dk;gpf;ifiaAk;> fw;wiy Nkk;gLj;j Cf;fj;jpidAk;>
nray;jpwid Nkk;gLj;jTk;> jtWfis jpUj;jTk;> khzth;fspd; jpwikfs; kw;Wk; Fiwfis
fz;lwpaTk; gad;gLfpwJ.

fw;gtUf;F kpfTk; gad;gLkhW mspf;fg;gLk; gpd;D}l;lk; mspf;Fk; Kiwapid gy tpjq;fspy;


khw;wp mikj;J mjd; juj;jpid Nkk;gLj;jyhk;. gpd;D}l;lj;jpid “ed;W”>” ” vd;W kl;Lk;
Fwpaplhky;> vt;thW ed;whf cs;sJ vd;Wk; Fwpg;ghf $wpdhy; mJ khzth;fSf;F jFe;j
Cf;fj;jpid nfhLf;fpwJ.

Gpd;D}l;lkhdJ khzth;fSf;F> fl;likg;ghfTk;> Cf;Ftpf;FkhWk;> Neh;ikahfTk;”


JizahfTk; ,Uf;fNtz;Lk;. Njitg;gLk; nghOJ mbf;fbAk;> nghUj;jkhfTk; nghLf;f
Ntz;Lk;. Njh;r;rpngw;w gpd;D}l;lkhdJ gpd;tUtdtw;iw khzth;fSf;F $Wgitahf
,Uf;fNtz;Lk;.

1. khzth;fspd; ve;j Ntiy gFjp ed;whf cs;sJ Vd;?


2. khzth;fspd; ve;j Ntiy gFjp Fiwthf cs;sJ> Vd;?
3. vt;thW mth;fs; me;j Ntiyapid Nkk;gLj;j KbAk;?
4. vjph;fhyj;jpy; mth;fs; vt;thW NkYk; jpwk;gl nra;aKbAk;?

gpd;D}l;lkhdJ mjpf fhyj;jpid\Neuj;jpid nfhs;tjhf ,Ue;jhYk; mjid jpwk;gl khw;w


gytopfs; cs;sJ.

• khzth;fSf;F nfhLf;fg;gLk; fw;Fk; jiyg;GfSf;F Vw;wthWk; gpd;D}l;lj;jpid mspf;f


Ntz;Lk;. gpd;D}l;lkhdJ jdpegh; rhh;e;Jk; FOthfTk; ,Uf;f Ntz;Lk;. tha; nkhopahfTk;/vOj;J
g+h;tkhfTk; ,Uj;jy; Ntz;Lk;.
• fzpdpapy; cs;s Ms-Word –iag; gad;gLj;jp khzth;fspd; fl;Liyf; Nfs;tpfSf;fhd
gjpy;fSf;Fk;> mwpf;iffSf;Fk; Ntz;ba gpd;D}l;lj;jpid mspf;fyhk;.
• xU nghJthd ml;ltizj; jhis gad;gLj;jyhk;\cUthf;fyhk;.
• Fwpg;gpl;l Njitg;gLk; gpur;rpidfSf;F jPh;T fhZjy;> jtwhf Ghpe;Jnfhs;sg;gl;l
nfhs;iffSf;Fk;/gFjpfis fz;lwpjy;> nghJthf khzth;fs; vt;thW mwptpay; fUj;Jf;fis
jtwhf Ghpe;J nfhz;L jtwpiof;fpwhh;fs; vd;gij tpsf;Ftjw;Fk; gad;gLfpwJ.

fzpnghwp-
pnghwp-cjtpAld; kjpg;gply;

,k;Kiw kpfTk; NtfkhfTk; jpwk;glTk; khzth;fSf;F gpd;D}l;lj;jpid mspf;f cjTfpwJ.


NeukhdJ kpfTk; gad;gLj;jg;gLfpwJ. ,k;KiwahdJ kpfTk; mwptpay; g+h;tkhdjhfTk;>
fy;tpahsh; vd;d fw;gpf;f tpWk;gpdhh; vd;gij mth;fis rhpahf fw;Wf; nfhz;lh;fsh vd
fz;lwpaTk; cjTfpwJ.

; ,k;KiwahdJ kpfTk; khzth;fspd; fw;wiy kjpg;gpLtjpy; nghpa fUj;JilajhFk;.

,jd; kw;w tbtq;fshts

i. fzpnghwp cjtpAld; kjpg;gply;


ii. fzpdpkakhf;fg;gl;l kjpg;gPL
iii. fzpg;nghwp mbg;gilapyhd kj;g;gPL kw;Wk; fzpg;nghwp mbg;gilapyhd Nrhjidfs;.

fzpg;nghwp mbg;gilapyhd kjpg;gPL vd;gJ fzpg;nghwpAld; Neubahf njhlh;GilaJ. Mdhy;>


fzpg;nghwp cjtpAld; $ba kjpg;gPL vd;gJ kjpg;gPl;L Kiwf;F cWJiz GhpfpwJ.

jpl;lkpLjypy; cs;s Kf;fpa Nfs;tpfs;:-


tFg;giw kjpg;gPL

Mrphpah;fs;> fw;wiy kjpg;gPLk; gytpjkhd Kiwfspy;> tFg;giw xd;whFk;. Fwpg;gpl;l kjpg;gPl;L


Kiwia kjpg;gPL nra;tnjd;gJ> Mrphpah; jahh; nra;Ak; Kf;fpa Nfs;tpfisg; nghhpj;jhFk;.
,t;tpjkhf Nfs;tpfs; ml;ltidapy; Nrh;f;fg;l;Ls;sJ.

tFg;giw kjpg;gPl;il jpl;lkply;: Kf;fpa Nfs;tpfs;

Kjy; Nfs;tpahdJ fw;wy; ntspg;ghl;il (m) fw;gpj;jy; Nehf;fj;jpd; Kbtpidg; nghUj;Js;sJ:


khzth;fs; P vjph;nfhs;tjw;F ehk; vd;d nra;a Ntz;Lk;?

fw;wy; ntspg;gLfs; %d;W tifg;gLk;

i. ntspg;gilahd mwpT-khzth;fs; vd;d Ghpe;Jnfhs;s Ntz;Lk; vd;W ehk; eph;zapg;gJ


(cz;ikfs;> fUj;Jfs;> Nfhl;ghLfs;>nghWikfs;).
ii. Kiwahd mwpT:-khzth;fs; vd;d nra;a Ntz;Lk; vd;W tpUk;GtJ(jpwd;fs;> Kiwfs;>
Af;jpfs;).
iii. kdg;ghd;ik> kjpg;gzh;Tfs;/gof;fq;fs; kw;Wk; kdk;-khzth;fs; vt;thW kjpg;gila xU
Fbkfshf Ntz;Lk; vd;W tpUk;GtJ> Kiwapy;yh elj;ijapid tpsf;FtJ.

Kjypy;> Fwpg;gpl;l kjpg;gpLk; Kiwia Njh;T nra;tJ vd;gJ fw;wy; ntspg;ghLfis


kjpg;gpLk; Kiwapid nghUj;jJ (khh;Nrh> gPf;fp]; kw;Wk; nkf;bNf> 1993);.v.fh.
khzth;fspd; fl;Liu vOJk; jpwid kjpg;gpLtjw;F> rhpahd tpilia njhpT nra;Ak;
Kiwapid Njh;T nra;jhy;> mJ jtwhd KiwahFk;. ,J NghyNt> Ma;T jpl;lj;jpy;
FOthf nray;gl khzth;fspd; jpwid Nkk;gLj;j> tpUk;gpdhy;> mjw;F ehk; FO
nray;ghl;ilAk;> ntspg;ghLfisAk; Ra jpwikAk; mstplNtz;Lk;.

gapw;rp tpdhfs;

1. gpd;D}l;lk; Vd; Kf;fpak; vd;gij tpsf;Ff?


2. rpwg;Gf; fy;tp Njitg;gLk; khzth;fis vt;thW milahsq; fhZtPh;fs;?
3. kjpg;gPl;L mZFKiwapy; cs;s fl;likg;Gfis tpsf;Ff?
4. gytifg;gl;l khzth;fis kjpg;gpLtjpy; jfty; njhlh;G njhopw;El;gj;ij vt;thW
xUq;fpizg;gPh;fs;?
5. kdeyk; ghjpf;fg;gl;l Foe;ijfSf;F mspf;fg;gLk; rpfpr;iria njhopw;El;gk; vt;thW
Nkk;gLj;JfpwJ vd;W tpthp?
myF - 7

kjpg;gPl;Bd; jj;Jtk; kw;Wk; fy;tp mbj;jsq;fs;

ghl Nehf;fq;fs;:

,g;ghlj;ij fw;wgpd; khzt-Mrpupau;fs; fPo;f;fz;l miltpid ngWtu;.

1. RTE rl;lj;jpidAk; kw;Wk; fiyj;jpl;lk;> fw;gpj;jy; kw;Wk; mjd; Mrpupau;fSlDk;


cs;s cwitg; Gupe;J nfhs;Sjy;.
2. gs;sp ,ilepWj;jy; ,y;yh nfhs;if kw;Wk; mjd; gpur;ridfisAk; mwpe;J
nfhs;Sjy;.
3. fy;tp kjpg;gPl;bd; kjpg;gPl;il milahsk; fhZjy;.
4. Nghl;bj; Nju;tpd; gad;fis gFg;gha;T nra;jy;.
5. kjpg;gPl;bd; gy;NtW gupkhzq;fis mwpe;J nfhs;Sjy;.

Nghl;bj; Nju;Tfs; ,y;yhik

khztu;fspd; nray;jpwid kjpg;gpLtjw;F ve;j Nghl;bj; Nju;TfSk; ,Uf;ff;$lhJ. Nghl;bj;


Nju;tpy; Fiwe;j kjpg;ngz;fs; ngw;why; khztu;fs; jho;thf czu;fpwhu;fs;. ,Ug;gpDk;>
njhiyJ}u gFjpfspypUe;Jk; r%f uPjpahf gpd;jq;fpa FOf;fspypUe;Jk; jpwik tha;e;j
khztu;fs;. ngUk;ghd;ikahf Nghl;bapLk; Nju;Tfs; gw;wp njupahJ. ,e;j FOtpypUf;Fk;
khztu;fis guprPypj;jikahy;> ve;jnthU Nghl;bg; Nju;itAk; elj;j $lhJ vd muR KbT
nra;Js;sJ.

gs;sp ,ilepWj;jy; ,y;yh nfhs;if

gs;sp ,ilepWj;jy; ,y;yh nfhs;if vd;gJ ,e;jpa murpd; Kd;Kaw;rpapy; ve;j xU


khztDf;Fk; xNu xU fy;tpahz;by; xU juj;jpy; epWj;jp itf;f KbahJ. ,J XI tFg;G
tiu nray;gLtJ gw;wp tpthjpf;fg;gl;lJ. Mdhy; VIII tFg;G tiu nray; gLj;jg;gl;lJ.
fy;tp cupik rl;lk; (RTE) 2009 ,e;jpa murpayikg;gpd; 21A gpupT fPo; 6 kw;Wk; 14
taJf;Fl;gl;l Foe;ijfSf;F ,ytrkhfTk; fl;lhakhfTk; fy;tp mspf;f Vw;ghL nra;fpwJ.
,e;j rl;lk; murpayikg;gpd; 86-tJ murpayikg;G jpUj;jk; %yk; gFjp - 3 (mbg;gil
cupikfs;) murpayikg;gpy; Nru;f;fg;gl;lJ. ,e;jf; nfhs;ifapd; fPo; VIII k; tFg;G tiu
khztu;fs; ,ilepWj;jy; ,d;wp mLj;j cau; tFg;Gf;F nry;thu;fs;. 2010 Mk; Mz;by; RTE
rl;lj;jpd; fPo; njhlu;r;rpahd kw;Wk; KOikahd kjpg;gPl;bd; (njhlu; kw;Wk; KOikahd
kjpg;gPL) xU gFjpahf eilKiwg;gLj;jg;gl;lJ. njhlu; kw;Wk; KOikahd kjpg;gPL gw;wpa
fUj;jhf;fk; Nkw;fpy; ,Ue;J ngwg;gl;lJ. xd;W my;yJ ,uz;L Kiw Nju;tpy; nray;jpwd;
mbg;gilapy; kl;Lky;y xU tUlk; KOtijAk; fzf;fpl;L kjpg;gPL nra;a ,J
typAWj;JfpwJ.

gs;sp ,ilepWj;jy; ,y;yh nfhs;ifapd; rpf;fy;fs;

gs;spfspy; khztu;fspd; fw;wy; milT Fiwtjw;F gy fhuzq;fs; ,Uf;fpwJ. mtw;wpy;


xd;W khztu;-Mrpupau; tpfpjk;. ,e;jpahtpy; gy muRg; gs;spfs; Mrpupau;fspd; fLikahd
gw;whf;Fiwia vjpu;nfhs;fpd;wd. gs;spapy; ,Uf;Fk; Mrpupau;fs; Mrpupau; gzp my;yhj kw;w
nray;fis nra;tjhy; mJTk; xU jdp RikahfpwJ. NghJkhd mstpw;F Mrpupa khztu;
tpfpjk; milahj tiu ehk; njhlhr;rpahd kw;Wk; KOikahd kjpg;gPl;lhYk; gs;sp
,ilepw;wy; ,y;yh nfhs;ifapYk; ntw;wp mila KbahJ. FiwghLs;s fw;wy; tpisTfSf;F
nghWg;ghd kw;nwhU fhuzpahf gapw;rp ngw;w Mrpupau;fspd; gw;whf;FiwAk; xd;W.
njhlhr;rpahd kw;Wk; KOikahd kjpg;gPL topfhl;Ljy;fis eilKiwg;gLj;Jtjpy;>
Mrpupau;fspd; gq;F vd;d vd;gJ Fog;gkhf cs;sJ. Mrpupau; gapw;Wtpg;G njhlu; kw;Wk;
KOikahd kjpg;gPl;bd; NjitfSf;F Vw;g jpUj;jg;gl Ntz;Lk;. rPu;jpUj;jq;fis
mKy;gLj;Jtjw;fhd mbj;jsj;ij tYg;gLj;j Ntz;Lk;. mjw;F gjpyhf> gioa Nju;r;rp-
Njhy;tp mikg;ig kPz;Lk; nfhz;L tu Ntz;Lk;. mJNt mbg;gil fy;tp cupikr; rl;lj;jpd;
(RTE) rkj;Jt thf;FWjpia Nfs;tpf;Fwpahf;FfpwJ.

fy;tp cupikr; rl;lk;

murpayikg;gpd; (86-tJ rl;lj; jpUj;jj;jpd; gb) rl;lk;> 2002 Mk; Mz;L ,e;jpa
murpayikg;gpy; 21-A I MW Kjy; gjpdhd;F Mz;Lfs; tiuapyhd ,ytr> fl;lha fy;tp
toq;Ftjw;fhf khepy murpayikg;gpy; Nru;f;fg;gl;lJ. ,ytr kw;Wk; fl;lhaf; fy;tp
Foe;ijfSf;fhd cupik (RTE) rl;lk;> 2009> ,J 21-A rl;lj;jpd; fPo; tpjpf;fg;gLk; tpisthf
rl;lj;ij gpujpepjpj;Jtg;gLj;JfpwJ> mjhtJ xt;nthU Foe;ijf;Fk; xU Kiwahd gs;spapy;
jpUg;jpfukhd kw;Wk; rkkhd juj;jpd; KONeu njhlf;f fy;tpf;fhd cupik cz;L. ,J rpy
mbg;gil newpfs; kw;Wk; juq;fis jpUg;jpg;gLj;JfpwJ.

gpupT 21- kw;Wk; RTE rl;lk; 1 Vg;uy; 2010 ,y; eilKiwf;F te;jJ. RTE rl;lj;jpd;
jiyg;ghdJ ',ytrk; kw;Wk; fl;lhak;' vd;fpw ,U thu;ji ; jfis cs;slf;fpajhf cs;sJ.
,e;jpahtpy; xt;nthU FLk;gj;jpYk; xU Foe;ijf;F gs;spapy; ve;jtpj fl;lzq;fSk;
,y;yhky; Nru;j;Jf; nfhs;tNj ,ytr fl;lha fy;tp vdg;gLk;. ,J ve;j xU muR cjtpAk;
ngwhj gs;spfSf;Fk; nghUe;Jk;. 6-14 tajpw;Fl;gl;l midj;J Foe;ijfSk; njhlf;f fy;tp>
Nru;f;if kw;Wk; G+u;j;jp nra;jy; Mfpatw;iw toq;Ftjw;Fk;> cWjp nra;tjw;Fk; nghUj;jkhd
muR kw;Wk; cs;Shu; mjpfhupfspd; kPJ 'fl;lha fy;tp' cs;sJ . ,jd; %yk;> kj;jpa kw;Wk;
khepy muRfspy; rl;lG+u;tkhd flikahdJ RTE rl;lj;jpy; 21A d; tpjpKiwfSf;F ,zq;f>
Foe;ijf;F mbg;gil fy;tpia eilKiwg;gLj;j> xU rl;lG+u;tkhd flikia ,e;jpah
vLj;Jf;nfhz;Ls;sJ.

fl;lha fy;tp rl;lk;

• mUfpy; cs;s gs;spapy; Foe;ijfs; jq;fs; Muk;g fy;tpia ,ytrkhf kw;Wk;


fl;lhakhfTk; ngw cupik cz;L.

• 'fl;lhaf; fy;tp' vd;gJ> mbg;gilf; fy;tpia ,ytrkhf toq;FtJk; MW Kjy;


gjpdhd;F taJ tiuapyhd xt;nthU Foe;ijf;Fk; fl;lha Nru;f;if> tUif kw;Wk; G+uz
fy;tpia epiwT nra;tJ Mfpatw;iwf; Fwpf;fpwJ. ',ytrk;' vd;gJ ve;jnthU Foe;ijf;Fk;
fl;lzq;fs; my;yJ nrytpdq;fis toq;Ftjw;F nghWg;Ngw;f Ntz;Lk; vd;gjhy;> ,J
mbg;gilf; fy;tpia njhlu kw;Wk; epiwT nra;tjpypUe;J jLf;ff;$Lk;.
• gs;spapy; Nruhj Foe;ijf;F jd; taJf;Fl;gl;l tFg;gpy; Nru;f;fg;gl Ntz;Lk;
vd;gjw;fhd Vw;ghLfis ,J nra;fpwJ.

• ,J muR> cs;shl;rp mjpfhurig kw;Wk; ngw;Nwhu;fSf;F ,ytr kw;Wk; fl;lha


fy;tpapd; gzpfisAk; nghWg;GfisAk; ,ytr kw;Wk; fl;lhaf; fy;tp toq;Ftjpy;
ngw;Nwhu;fSf;Fk; kj;jpa khepy muRfSf;Fk; ,ilapy; epjp kw;Wk; gpw nghWg;Gfis gfpu;e;J
nfhs;Sjiy Fwpg;gpLfpwJ.

• khztu; Mrpupau; tpfpjq;fs; (Pupil Teacher Ratio - PTR fs;)> fl;llq;fs; kw;Wk;
cs;fl;likg;G> gs;sp Ntiy ehl;fs;> Mrpupag;gzp Neuq;fs; Mfpatw;wpw;F ,ilapyhd
newpKiwfs; kw;Wk; juq;fis ,J Fwpf;fpwJ.

• khepy my;yJ khtl;lk; my;yJ jLg;Gf;F ruhrupahf> xt;nthU MrpupauplKk;


Fwpg;gplg;gl;l khztu; Mrpupau; tpfpjk; guhkupf;fg;gLtjd; %yk; Mrpupau;fs; jq;fis
gFj;jwpTg; gLj;jpf;nfhs;s ,J cjTfpwJ. ,jdhy; Mrpupau;fspd; ,Liffspy; efu;g;Gw-
fpuhkg;Gw Vw;wj;jho;Tfs; ,y;iy. ,J> kf;fs; njhif fzf;nfLg;G jtpu> cs;Shu;
mjpfhurig> khepy rl;lkd;wq;fs; kw;Wk; ghuhSkd;wk;> kw;Wk; NguopT epthuzk;
Mfpatw;wpw;fhd Mrpupau;fis gzpapy; mku;j;JtJ jil nra;fpwJ.

• jFe;j gapw;rp ngw;w Mrpupau;fis epakdk; nra;tJ> mjhtJ Mrpupau;fs; Njitahd


EioT kw;Wk; fy;tpj; jFjpfSld; gzp mku;j;j ,J tpj;jpLfpwJ.

• (m) cly; uPjpahd jz;lidAk;> kdeyj;ijAk; Jd;GWj;JjYk;;

(M)Foe;ijfs; Nru;f;iff;fhd EioTj; Nju;T (];Nfdpq;) eilKiwfs;;

(,) ed;nfhil

(<) Mrpupau;fspd; jdpahu; gapw;rp kw;Wk;

(c) mq;fPfhukw;w gs;spfs;

,tw;iw jLf;fpwJ.

• murpayikg;gpy; kjpg;gplg;gl;Ls;s kjpg;Gfs; %yk; ghlj;jpl;lj;jpd; mgptpUj;jpf;fhf ,J


toq;fg;gLfpwJ. Foe;ijfspd; mwpT kw;Wk; jpwik Mfpatw;iwf; fl;Lg;gLj;jTk;
Foe;ijfspd; midj;J Rw;W mgptpUj;jpfisAk; cWjpg;gLj;jp> rpWtaJ el;G kw;Wk; Foe;ij
ika fw;wy; %yk; gak;> mjpu;r;rp kw;Wk; gjl;lk; Mfpatw;iwf; Fiwf;Fk;.

tpdhf;fs;

1. gs;sp ,ilepWj;jy; ,y;yh nfhs;if vd;why; vd;d? mjd; ed;ikfs; Fwpj;J


tpthjpf;fTk;.

2. gs;sp ,ilepWj;jy; ,y;yh nfhs;ifapy; cs;s gpur;rpidfis tpsf;Ff.

3. mbg;gil fy;tp cupik rl;lj;ij (RTE) tiuaW. ghlj;jpl;lk;> fw;gpj;jy; kw;Wk;


Mrpupau;fSldhd mjd; cwit tptupf;fTk;

4. kjpg;gPl;bd; gy;NtW gupkhzq;fis tpsf;Ff.

5. Nghl;bj; Nju;T Ntz;lhk; vd muR Vd; epidf;fpwJ vd fye;JiuahLf.


myF – 8

gq;Nfw;G mZFKiw

ghl Nehf;fq;fs;

,g;ghlj;ij fw;wgpd; khzt - Mrpupau;fs; fPo;f;fz;l miltpid ngWtu;.

1. gq;Nfw;G mZFKiw kw;Wk; mjd; eyd;fis mwpe;J nfhs;thu;fs;.

2. gq;Nfw;G mZFKiw rk;ge;jg;gl;l nray;Kiwia Gupe;J nfhs;thu;fs;.

3. gq;F kjpg;gPl;bd; ed;ikfis njupe;J nfhs;thu;fs;.

4. kjpg;gPl;bd; r%ff; fz;fhzpg;ig mgptpUj;jp nra;thu;fs;.

5. kjpg;gPl;by; Mrpupa jd;dhl;rpf;Fs;s Kf;fpa jilfis/ rpf;fy;fis Rl;bf;fhl;Lthu;fs;.

gq;Nfw;G mZFKiw

gq;Nfw;G kjpg;gPL vd;gJ> midj;J taJ kw;Wk; gpd;dzpapy; cs;s rpy r%fq;fsplkpUe;Jk;
kf;fSld; $l;Lwit cUthf;Ftjw;fhd topKiwahFk;. fl;likf;fg;gl;l fye;Jiuahly;fs;
kw;Wk; Ngr;Rthu;j;ij %yk; $l;lhz;ik tsu;f;fg;gLfpwJ.

gq;F kjPg;gPlhdJ Mz;fs;> ngz;fs; kw;Wk; rpWtu;fs; MfpNahUld; jdpg;gl;l Kiwapy;


fye;JiuahLk; nghUl;L:

• mtu;fs; vjpu;nfhs;Sk; Fwpg;gpl;l rpf;fy;fspy; Jy;ypakhd jftiy Nrfupf;fTk;>

• me;jg; gpur;rpidfisg; gw;wpa mbg;gil fhuzq;fisAk; jfty;fisAk; ngwTk;>

• r%fj;jpy; cs;s gy;NtW egu;fspd; jpwikfis Gupe;J nfhs;sTk;>

• mtu;fsJ gpur;rpidfis Kd;nkhopfpd;w mtu;fspd; jPu;Tfis Nfl;fTk;.

gq;Nfw;G mZFKiw Jiz GupfpwJ.

gq;Nfw;G mZFKiwapd; Kf;fpa ed;ikfs;


gq;Nfw;G kjpg;gPLfspd; kpfr; rpwe;j ed;ikfspy; xd;whf mtu;fspd; nrhe;j tho;f;ifj; juj;ij
Nkk;gLj;Jtjw;fhf $l;L eltbf;iffis vLf;fTk;> mtu;fspd; r%fq;fis mzpjpul;lTk;
cjTfpwJ. gq;Nfw;G kjpg;gPLfs; vd;gJ cupikfs; kw;Wk; r%f mbg;gilapyhd
mZFKiwfis eilKiwg;gLj;Jtjw;fhd mbj;jskhf mikfpd;wd.

gq;Nfw;G kjpg;gPLfspd; ed;ikfs;

• khztu; njhlu;Gf;F mjpf NeuKk; jutupirf;F Fiwe;j NeuKk;>

• mjpfkhd tFg;giw gq;Nfw;G

• Neu;kiwahd tFg;giw mDgtq;fs;

• fw;wy;

gq;F kjpg;gPl;il elj;Jtjw;fhd topKiwfs;

gb 1: ,Uf;Fk; jftiy kjpg;gha;T nra;jy;

gb 2: Nkg;gpq; gd;Kfj;jd;ik

gb 3: tprhuizapd; Kiwfs;

gb 4: fUg;nghUisj; Nju;e;njLg;gJ

gb 5: tpthjq;fis Nkk;gLj;Jjy;

gb 6: jfty; Nrfupf;fg;gLjy;

gb 7: njhlu; eltbf;iffs;

gb 8: tpupthd gFg;gha;T kw;Wk; Kd;Dupik

gb 9: gjpT $l;lq;fs;

gb 10: gq;Nfw;G jpl;lkply; nra;Kiwfs;.

r%f mbg;gilapyhd mZFKiw

r%fk; rhu;e;j mZFKiwahdJ r%fj;jpy; cs;s ngz;fSk;> Mz;fSk; jq;fis


Cf;Ftpf;Fk; xU nray;Kiwapy; gq;Nfw;fTk; jq;fs; Njitfis ntspg;gLj;jTk; jq;fs;
mjpfhuj;ijAk;> vjpu;fhyj;ijAk; KbT nra;a mDkjpf;fpwJ. xU nraypy; KbntLg;gjpy;
ngz;fs; jPtpukhd gq;Nfw;ghsu;fshf ,Ug;gij mq;fPfupj;jy; Ntz;Lk;. ,J r%fj;jpd;
ftiyfisAk; Kd;DupikfisAk;> r%f cWg;gpdu;fis mzpjpul;LtjpYk;> ghJfhg;G>
epuyhf;fj;jpy; <LgLtijAk; Gupe;J nfhs;s Kw;gLfpwJ. mfjpfs; jq;fSila nrhe;j
gpur;rpidfisj; jPu;f;fj; jq;fisj; jj;njLf;f cjTfpwhu;fs;. mfjpfSf;fhd If;fpa
ehLfspd; Mizak; (UNHCR) ,d; gq;fspg;G> ghJfhg;G mghaq;fSf;F gjpyspg;gjw;Fk;>
tsq;fis mZFtjw;Fk;> gad;gLj;Jtjw;Fk; KbTfis vLg;gjw;Fk;> r%fj;jpd; jpwikfis
fl;bnaOg;gTk;> gyg;gLj;jTk; MFk;. r%fj;jpd; midj;J mq;fj;jtu;fSila ghJfhg;igAk;
Nkk;gLj;Jtjw;fhd nghWg;Gzu;tpd; gq;fspg;gpy; gq;Nfw;G kjpg;gPL cjtp GupfpwJ. r%f
mbg;gilapyhd NtiyfSf;Fk; xU Kf;fpa mq;fkhf ,J cs;sJ.
kjpg;gPl;by; Mrpupa jd;dhl;rp

Mrpupau; njhopypy; Mrpupau;fspd; jd;dhl;rp xU Kf;fpa mk;rkhf cs;sJ. Raepu;za


Mrpupau;fs; Raepu;zaf; fw;gpg;ghsu;fis cUthf;f KbAk;> NkYk; Fwpg;gpl;l nfhs;iffspy;
murhq;ff; nfhs;iffis jhkhfNt eilKiwg;gLj;j KbAk;. fy;tpf; fofj;jpy; gs;sp rhu;e;j
kjpg;gPL (SBA) ,d; Kf;fpaj;Jtj;ijAk; ed;ikfisAk; Fapd;];yhe;J Ma;Tfs; Mizak;
Nfhbl;Lf; fhl;bAs;sJ: khztu;fSila fw;wy; jpwid Nkk;gLj;Jtjw;fhd jpwd;>
khztu;fs; jq;fspd; epiyahd kw;Wk; tpupthd gpd;D}l;lq;fs; ngwTk; MNyhridfis
Nkk;gLj;jTk; ,J toptif nra;fpwJ. Mrpupau;fs; jq;fs; kjpg;gPl;L mwpT kw;Wk; El;gq;fis
Nkk;gLj;jTk;> ,e;j R+oypy; Mrpupau;fSf;F ,d;Dk; Rje;jpuk; Njitg;gLfpwJ. jq;fs;
khztu;fspd; fw;wy; rpf;fiy jPu;g;gjw;F cjtpahfTk;> topfhl;bahfTk; ,Uf;f Ntz;Lk;.
Mrpupau;fs; jq;fs; khztu;fspd; NjitiaAk; fw;wy; gpur;rpidfis fisaTk; mtu;fSld;
,zf;fkhf ,Uf;Fk; gl;rj;jpy; mtu; rpwe;j kdpjuhfTk;> MrpupauhfTk; milahsk;
fhzg;gLthu;. gs;sp rhu;e;j kjpg;gPl;by; Mrpupaupd; nghWg;ghdJ fw;wy; kw;Wk; fw;gpj;jy;
nray;Kiwapy; xU Kf;fpa mk;rkhf fUjg;gLfpwJ. fw;wy; kw;Wk; fw;gpj;jy; nray;Kiwapy;
kjpg;gPL xUq;fpizg;G> khztu;fspd; cldb fw;wy; rpf;fiyf; fz;lwptjpy; Mrpupau;fSf;F
cjTtNjhL kl;Lky;yhky; gpur;rpidiaj; jPu;g;gjw;Fk; mtu;fSld; Neuj;ij nrytpLtjw;Fk;
Mrpupau;fSf;F cjTfpwJ.

tpdhf;fs;

1. gq;Nfw;G mZFKiwapid tpsf;Ff.

2. gq;Nfw;G mZFKiw rk;ge;jg;gl;l nray;Kiwfis tptup.

3. gq;Nfw;G kjpg;gPl;bd; ed;ikfs; tpsf;Ff.

4. r%f Nkw;ghu;it kjpg;gPl;il tpsf;Ff.

5. kjpg;gPl;by; Mrpupau; jd;dhl;rpia tptup.


myF– 9
Prevalent Practices of Assessment
Fwpf;Nfhs;fs; :
 jw;fhy milTfspd; FiwghLfis Gupe;Jnfhs;Sjy;;
 rpwe;j fw;wy; kjpg;gpLfis Muha;jy;;
 epue;jpu kjpg;gpLfis Gupe;Jnfhs;Sjy;;
 jd;dk;gpf;ifia Nkk;gLj;Jjy;;
 Mf;fj;jpwd; fw;wy; kjpg;gpL gw;wp mwpjy;.
Ntfkhf khwptUk; cyfpy;> ,e;jpahtpy; fy;tp Kiw kPz;Lk; tbtikg;gNjhL
ehs; KOtJk; GJg;gpf;fg;gLfpwJ. ghlj;jpl;l khw;wj;jpd; kpf Kf;fpa gFjpahf
kjpg;gpL kw;Wk; kjpg;gpl;L Kiw MFk;. jukhd cj;juthjj;jpw;fhfTk;>
nghJkf;fs; ek;gpf;ifia NgZtjw;fhfTk;> ,e;jpag; gs;spfSf;fhd ru;tNjr
kjpg;gpL fs; kw;Wk; Gfo;ngw;w ntspehl;L epWtdq;fisg; Nghd;w mjpfhupfNshL
Kf;fpaj;Jtk; tha;e;jjhf fUjg;gLfpwJ. rpgpv];, kw;Wk; I.rp.v];.,. ,y;
gad;gLj;jg;gl;Ls;sgb juepiy kw;Wk; tpjpKiwfSld; fw;Fk; khztu;fis
kjpg;gpLtjw;fhf gy;NtW khepyq;fs; kw;Wk; A+dpad; gpuNjrq;fspy; cs;s fy;tp
thupaq;fs; kw;Wk; fTd;rpy;fs; jq;fspd; nrhe;j cj;jpfisg; gad;gLj;Jfpd;wd.
gy Njrpa mstpyhd fTd;rpy;fs; NCTE> IMC> AICTE> NCERT
Nghd;wit ,e;j KiwapYk; Neubahf <Lgl;Ls;sd.
fy;tp Kiwfs;
,e;jpahtpy; gs;sp fy;tp kjpg;gpL GyDzu;T rhu;e;j fw;wy; tpisTfspy; ftdk;
nrYj;JfpwJ. NkYk;> nrayhf;f ,iz ghlnewp fsq;fspy; Gwf;fzpg;Gg;
gFjpfs; Foe;ij tsu;r;rpf;F rkkhd Kf;fpaj;Jtk; tha;ej
; kw;Wk;
Fwpg;gplj;jf;f gFjpahf ,Ue;jhYk;> Gwf;fzpf;fg;gLfpd;wd. ghlj;jpl;lq;fspy;
ftdk; nrYj;JtJ> fw;wy; rpe;jid kw;Wk; epidthw;wy; Mfpatw;wpy; ftdk;
nrYj;JtJ> ,J tpup rpe;jid> rpf;fy; jPu;f;Fk; jpwd; kw;Wk; Mf;fG+u;t jpwd;
Nghd;w cau;e;j kd jpwd;fspd; Gwf;fzpg;ghy; tifg;gLj;jg;gLfpwJ.
,e;jpahtpy;> Njrpa ghlj;jpl;l fl;likg;G - 2005 mbg;gilapyhd 21 ghlj;
jhs;fis mbg;gilahff; nfhz;L cUthf;fg;gl;lJ. kjpg;gpL kw;Wk; kjpg;gpl;bd;
R+oypy;> eilKiw rPu;jpUj;jq;fs; Njit vd;W Mtzk; $WfpwJ. ntw;wp>
Njhy;tp tpfpjq;fs;> gs;spf; Foe;ijfspd; ntspNaw;wq;fs;> MNuhf;fpakw;w
Nghl;bfs;> kd mOj;jk;> euk;G KwpTfs; kw;Wk; jw;nfhiyfs; Mfpatw;wpy;
mjpfupj;JtUk; Roypy;> jw;NghJ kjpg;ngz;fis Ma;T nra;tJ kw;Wk; ,e;jpa
kjpg;gPl;L Kiwia Ma;T nra;tJ mtrpakhFk;.
kjpg;gpl;L Kiwapd; FiwghLfs;
kjpg;gpL vd;gJ Mtzg;gLj;jypd; nray;Kiw MFk;> nghJthf mstplf;$ba
tifapy;> mwpT> jpwd;> kdg;ghd;ikfs; kw;Wk; ek;gpf;iffs;. kjpg;gPl;L fy;tp
Kiwapd; xU Kf;fpa mk;rkhFk;. fw;gpj;jy; fw;wy; nray;ghl;by; cs;siktpy;
cs;s kjpg;gpL fspd; ed;F jpl;lkplg;gl;l eilKiwfs; %yk;> khztu; fw;wy;
Nkk;gLj;jg;glyhk;. gy Kiw Mrpupau;fs; tFg;giwapy; Nghjpf;Fk; NghJ fw;wy;
Kd;Ndw;wj;ij kjpg;gpL nra;a Kay;fpd;wdu;. kjpg;gpL vd;gJ mwpthw;wy;
kw;Wk; GyDzu;T rhu;e;j gFjpfspy; khztu;fspd; Kd;Ndw;wk; gw;wpa
Mjhuq;fis Nrfupj;jy;> gFg;gha;T nra;tJ kw;Wk; tpsf;fkspf;Fk; nray;.
,e;j Mjhuq;fspd; mbg;gilapy; Mrpupau; khztu;fspilNa milg;G epiyfis
Nkk;gLj;Jtjw;fhf tFg;giw eilKiwfis Nkk;gLj;Jtjw;F rpy KbTfis
vLf;fyhk;. rpy fUtpfs; kw;Wk; cj;jpfs; %yk; Mjhuq;fs; Nrfupf;fg;gLfpd;wd>
gFg;gha;T nra;ag;gLfpd;wd kw;Wk; Gupe;J nfhs;sg;gLfpd;wd. fw;Fk;
khztu;fspilNa fw;wy; Kd;Ndw;wj;ijg; gw;wpa rhd;Wfis Nrfupf;f kpf
Kf;fpakhd fUtpfNs Nrhjidfs; MFk;.
ftdpg;G vd;gJ Fwpg;ghf ,iz-ghNyhyh];bf; gFjpfspy; tsu;r;rpf;Fj;
Njitahd Mjhuq;fis Nrfupf;fg; gad;gLj;jg;gLk; xU Kf;fpakhd El;gkhFk;.
Nrhjidfs; kjpg;ngz;fs; my;yJ jutupirfis toq;Ffpd;wd. ftdpg;G xU
Nahrid my;yJ czu;it mspf;fpwJ. kjpg;gpL vd;gJ xU KbntLf;Fk;
nrayhFk;> ,J khztu;fSf;F rpwe;j nray;jpwd; nfhz;LtUtij Nehf;fkhff;
nfhz;lJ> ,jd; tpisthf fy;tpj; juj;jpy; jukhd Kd;Ndw;wj;ijf; nfhz;Ltu
cjTfpwJ. ,J nray;Kiw kw;Wk; jahupg;G MFk;. ehk; kjpg;gpL nray;Kiw
gw;wp NgRk; NghJ> Kf;fpakhf Mrpupau;> khztu;fs; kPJ ftdk; nrYj;JtJ>
Vd;> vg;NghJ> vg;gb kjpg;gpL nra;tJ kw;Wk; mij vg;gb czu;j;JtJ
Mfpatw;iw KbT nra;tJ. rpe;jidahsu; Mrpupau; khztu;fspd; KbTfisg;
gad;gLj;jp mtuJ / mtuJ nrhe;j fw;gpj;jy; eilKiwfis Nkk;gLj;j
topfhl;Lfpwhu;. fw;gpf;fg;gl;l gFjpfspy; fw;gpg;gtu;fspd; nray;jpwd;> xU
tof;fkhd jw;fhypf fhl;rpapy; fw;gpj;jy; my;yJ gbg;G Kbe;jgpd; kjpg;gpL
nra;ag;glyhk;. Gyikg;guprpy; gFjpfspy; kjpg;gpL ngUk;ghYk; Nghjid kw;Wk;
fy;tpf; Fwpf;Nfhs;fis miltjpy; ftdk; nrYj;JfpwJ.
kjpg;gPl;L Kf;fpa Nehf;fq;fspy; rpy:
• mwpTWj;jypd; jpwid mwpa> fw;gpg;gtu;fspd; Kd;Ndw;w tPjj;ij
jPu;khdpf;fTk;>
• vjpu;fhy fy;tpapay; Kaw;rpfspy; fw;Fk; khztu;fspd; ntw;wpia fzpf;fTk;>
• mwpTWj;jy;fs; kw;Wk; fy;tp Nehf;fq;fspd; milit mwpe;J nfhs;sTk;>
• fw;Fk; khztu;fSf;F rpwe;j fw;wy; milT milaTk;>
• gytPdq;fis fz;lwpaTk;>
• rhjidf;fhd njhlu;r;rpahd gjpit toq;fTk;>
• ju tupirapy; khztu;fs; itf;fTk; cjTfpwJ.
• khztu;fs; kj;jpapy; Ra ek;gpf;if mjpfupf;fTk;.
kjpg;gPl;bw;fhd nray;KiwahdJ> gapw;Wtpg;ghsu;fspilNa nray;jpwd;
Kd;Ndw;wj;ij mwpe;J nfhs;tjw;fhd Mjhuq;fis Nrfupf;f nghUj;jkhd
fUtpfs; kw;Wk; cj;jpfisj; Nju;T nra;tJ.
• rupahd kjpg;ig mstpl my;yJ fzf;fpLtJ fLikahdjhf ,Uf;Fk;.
• Mrpupau;fspd; gzp Rik mjpfupf;Fk;.
• tof;fkhd Nghjid ghjpf;fg;gLk;.
• xU epWtdj;jpypUe;J kw;nwhd;Wf;F ,af;fk; my;yJ ,lkhw;WtJ
rpf;fyhdjhf ,Uf;Fk;.
• gpujhd nghUshsu; gj;jpuq;fs; kw;Wk; nkd;ikahd Mtzq;fspy;
,zf;fj;jd;ik guhkupf;fg;gLtJ xU rthyhf ,Uf;Fk;.
• xNu Neuj;jpy; ntt;NtW ,aw;ifapd; xd;Wf;F Nkw;gl;l jpl;lq;fis
toq;Fjy; rthyhf ,Uf;Fk;.
• $Ljy; Rik epWtdk; mDgtk; ,Uf;Fk;.
• rk;ge;jg;gl;l tp\aj;jpw;F Nkyjpfhup jLf;fg;gLthu;.
• KO Rje;jpuk; my;yJ khztu;fspd; Nju;Tfs; kpf mjpf Kf;fpaj;Jtk;
tha;e;jjhf ,Ug;gjhy;> xOf;fnewpfspd; rpf;fy;fs; elf;Fk;.
• gy;NtW ,aw;ifahd kw;Wk; epiyahd juepiy khztu;fspd; ,ay;ghd
jd;ikiag; nghWj;J rkepiyia guhkupg;gjpy; rpf;fiy Vw;gLj;Jk;. vy;NyhUk;
Jizj; juepiy my;yJ gy;fiyf;fofj;jpypUe;J juepiyf;F khw Ntz;Lk;
vd tpUk;Gfpd;wdu;.
• xt;nthU khztupd; xl;Lnkhj;j gjpTfis guhkupg;gjpy; gpur;rpidfs;
Vw;glyhk;.
• khztu;fs; njhlu;r;rpahd my;yJ cs; kjpg;gpL kw;Wk; kjpg;gPl;bw;F
mjpfg;gbahd mjpfg;gbahd kjpg;gPl;il khztu;fspd; jPtpuj;jd;ikapypUe;J
tpyf;fp tpLthu;fs;.
• gytpjkhd Nju;Tf;fhd Mtzq;fis jahupg;gjw;F ngUk;ghyhd Neuq;fs;
gad;gLj;jg;gl Ntz;Lk;.
• cs;fl;likg;ig mjpfupf;f my;yJ khztu;fSf;F ,lkspf;f Ntz;Lk;.
• ,jd; %yk; nray;jpwd;> rkd;nra;Ak; jpwik tha;e;j kw;Wk; jpwikahd
khztu;fis Cf;fg;gLj;jyhk;.
• Muha;r;rpf; gzpfs; kw;Wk; fz;Lgpbg;Gfs; ghjpf;fg;gLk;> ngUk;ghyhd
Mrpupau;fs; Mtzq;fisj; jahupg;gjpYk; Nju;Tf;F Vw;ghL nra;tjpYk;
<Lgl;bUf;f Ntz;Lk;.
rpwe;j gapw;rp ngWtjw;fhd kjpg;gpL
kjpg;gpL fw;Fk; khztu;fs; jq;fs; gyk; kw;Wk; gytPdq;fis gw;wp
Mf;fG+u;tkhd fUj;Jf;fis toq;Ftjd; %yk; jq;fs; jpwid J}z;l cjt
Ntz;Lk;. kjpg;gpL jd;id jdpahf epw;f KbahJ> ve;j nkhop kjpg;gpLk;
khztu;fSf;Fj; njupe;jtw;iw ep&gpf;f tha;g;gspg;gNjhL> nkhopAld; nra;af;
$ba tha;g;igAk; mspf;f Ntz;Lk;. kjpg;gpL khztu;fs; jq;fs; nrhe;j
thrpg;G kw;Wk; Kaw;rp topfspy; gpujpgypf;f Ntz;Lk;> jq;fs; nrhe;j
mwpthu;e;j tsu;r;rpia kjpg;gpLtjw;Fk;> ,yf;Ffis mikg;gjw;Fk; cjTfpwJ."
(I.Mu;.V. / vd;.rp.b.,, $l;L kjpg;gPl;Lf; FO kjpg;gpL > 1994> gf;fk; 13)
khztu;fSldhd njhlu;r;rpahd njhlu;G %yk;> Mrpupau;fs; fw;gpg;ghsupd;
Ntiyfis kjpg;gpL nra;a KbAk; kw;Wk; gy;NtW khztu;fspd; toq;fpAs;s
gue;j mstpyhd gzp kjpg;gpL vspjhfpwJ.
rpwe;j fw;wy; kjpg;gpL Nghd;w gy;NtW tbtq;fis vLj;Jf;nfhs;syhk;:
Ra kjpg;gPl;L khztu;fs; jq;fs; nrhe;j Ntiy ,Ue;J Fwpg;gpl;l Nehf;fq;fs;
kw;Wk; rhd;Wfs; vjpuhf jq;fs; nrhe;j Kd;Ndw;wj;ij fz;fhzpf;f cjTfpwJ.
fw;wy; kw;Wk; r%f $l;LwT jpwd;fis Nkk;gLj;Jtjw;F FO kjpg;gpL
cjTfpd;wJ.
epue;ju kjpg;gpL
cq;fs; jd;dk;gpf;if epiy ,g;NghJ vd;dthf ,Ue;jhYk;> mij ePq;fs;
Nkk;gLj;jyhk;. Mdhy; ePq;fs; NtW vtUk; Kd;dpapYk; cq;fisAk; kw;Wk;
cq;fs; jpwd;fis ek;g Ntz;Lk;.
cq;fs; jpwd;fisg; ghu;f;Fk; topia Nkk;gLj;Jtjw;fhd topfisj; NjLtjd;
NgJUtpd; jd;dpiwTj; jd;ik Nfhl;ghL ngupa ,lkhFk;. Nfhl;ghl;bd; gb> Ra
jpwd; ehd;F Mjhuq;fs; cs;sd:
• fle;j fhy mDgtq;fs; - fle;j fhyj;jpy; ePq;fs; ntw;wp ngw;w mDgtq;fs;.
• kw;wtu;fs; ngw;w mDgtq;fs; - cq;fisg; Nghd;wtu;fs; ntw;wp mDgtq;fs;.
• r%f J}z;Ljy; - ePq;fs; jpwikAs;stu; vd;W kw;wtu;fsplkpUe;J Nfl;ly;.
• kd J}z;Ljy; – Neu;kiw vz;zq;fs; .Vw;Wnfhs;Sjy;
,e;j Mjhuq;fspy; %d;W (Kjy;> ,uz;lhtJ> kw;Wk; ehd;fhtJ) cq;fs;
fl;Lg;ghl;by; cs;sd. vt;thwhapDk;> ek;ikg; gw;wp ey;y tp\aq;fis
(%d;whtJ Mjhukhf) kw;wtu;fs; nrhy;y Kbahky; vd;W ehq;fs; ep&gpf;f
Kbahky; Nghdhy;> nghJthd ek;gpf;ifAld; Neu;kiwahd fUj;Jf;fisg;
ngWtjw;fhd rhj;jpaf;$Wfis ehk; mjpfupf;f KbAk;.
vy;yhtw;wpw;Fk; Nkyhf mLf;Fkhzp kjpg;gpL kd mOj;jk; xU ngupa
tPf;fj;ij cUthf;f KbAk;.
khztu;fis fl;Lg;gLj;jp> ek;gpf;ifAld;> Gjpa tp\aq;fis fw;Wf;nfhs;tjw;F
jahuhtjw;F ehq;fs; vt;thW cjt KbAk;? kjpg;gpL fis ntw;wpfukhf
epiwNtw;Wtjw;Fk; Gjpa tp\aq;fisf; nfhz;L ek;gpf;if nfhs;tjw;Fk;
mtu;fSf;F vg;gb cjt KbAk;?
1. rj;jkhf nrhy;Yq;fs;
khztu;fs; Kjy; Kiwahf nghUl;fis re;jpj;jhy;> mij xU rf my;yJ
Mrpupauplk; Ngr KbAk; vd;why; mJ gaDs;sjhf ,Uf;Fk;. xU fzpjg;
gpur;rid my;yJ xU cyf nkhop Mfpatw;iwf; ifahSk; tbtj;jpy;
,Uf;fyhk;. xU ek;gfkhd rfhUld; my;yJ MrpupaUld; ciuahlypy;
eilngWk; tha;nkhop nrayhf;fkhdJ> Gjpa jiyg;gpw;F njhlu;Gila nkhop
Kaw;rpf;fTk;> mtiu ek;gpf;ifAld; itj;Jf;nfhs;tjw;fhd tha;g;ig
toq;FfpwJ.
2. gl jpzpg;G
xU Fwpg;gpl;l fhyj;jpw;F Gjpa nghUisf; fw;Wf; nfhz;l gpwF> xU
fhfpjj;jpy; cs;s fUj;Jf;fis khztu;fs; fw;f nra;a Ntz;Lk;. khztu;
fw;wy; kw;Wk; mwpT czu cjTfpwJ. ,J khztu; ek;gpf;ifia cau;j;j
cjTfpwJ. MrpupaUf;F gpd;D}l;lk; ngWk; kw;Wk; ,ilntspfspy; vq;F
,Ug;gijg; ghu;g;gjw;F xU gaDs;s mZFKiw MFk;. ve;jnthU
Nfs;tpfSf;F gjpyspf;Fk; Kd;> xU kjpg;gPl;ilg; ngw;wTld; khztu;fSld;
,e;j kjpg;Gkpf;f mZFKiwiag; gad;gLj;Jq;fs;. rpy khztu;fSf;F> jq;fs;
kdjpy; cs;s jfty;fis itj;jpUg;gJ ftiy kw;Wk; Fog;gj;ij
cz;lhf;FfpwJ. xU fbd Kaw;rp vLj;J> Njitaw;w jfty;fis Jz;bj;J>
ntw;wpf;F khztu; jahu; nra;Ak; top ghu;j;jy; vd;gJ xU jpzpg;G nray;.
gpd;du; ,it> xU Ma;T topfhl;bahf nray;gLfpwJ.
3. xU Neu;f;Nfhl;by; my;y
gy khztu;fs;> fw;wy; Neuhf ,y;iy. xU kjpg;gPl;by;> epidtpy; itf;f
Ntz;batw;iw tupirahf xd;W> Kjy; gy Nfs;tp ,Uf;fyhk;. rpy Neuq;fspy;>
xU khztu;> xU kjpg;gpLk;> Kjy; Nfs;tpiaf; fhz;ghu;> mtu; my;yJ
mtUf;F vJTk; njupahJ. me;j kjpg;gPl;il kPjkpUf;fyhk;. khwhf> khztu;fs;
xU KOikahd mZFKiwia vLj;Jf; nfhs;s Ntz;Lk;> KO kjpg;gPl;il
El;gkhf Nrhjpf;f rpy Neuk; nrytopf;f Ntz;Lk;. Neu;kiwahd EioT
Gs;spf;F mtu;fs; kpfTk; ek;gpf;ifAld; ,Ug;ghu;fs;. ,NjNghy;> Mrpupau;fshf
Gjpa nghUs; fw;wy; EioTg; Gs;spia fUj;jpy; nfhz;L> xt;nthU
Foe;ijf;Fk; ntt;NtW EioT Gs;sp Kf;fpak; vd;gij czu;e;Jnfhs;tJ
mtrpak;> vdNt gy khjpup ,Ug;gJ kpf Kf;fpakhdjhFk;.
4. fhl;rp my;yJ ,ir ,Uf;Fk;
fiyQu; kw;Wk; ,irf;fiyQu; xt;nthU khztUf;Fs;Sk; tho;fpd;wdu;> me;j
gilg;ig J}z;Ltjd; %yk; khztid mwpe;Jnfhs;tjw;Fk;> mwpitg;
ngWtjw;Fk; fl;lhag;gLj;jyhk;
Mf;fj;jpwd; khztu;fSf;fhd kjpg;gpL
,e;jpahtpd; fy;tp KiwahdJ> 19 k; E}w;whz;by; INuhg;ghtpy; tsu;e;j
ntF[d fy;tp Kiwahy; khw;wpaikf;fg;gl;lJ. gpd;du; cyfk; KOtJk;
gutpaJ. ,af;fj;jpd; Ntu;fisf; fz;lwpAk; ,yf;F njspthf cs;sJ -
Foe;ijfis "ey;y" Fbkf;fs; kw;Wk; cw;gj;jpj; njhopyhsu;fs; vd epu;zapf;f
Ntz;Lk;. ,J xU FWfpa fhyj;jpy; jpwd;fisf; nfhz;l xU ,zf;fkhd
njhopyhspf;F njhlu;e;J Njitg;gLk; njhopy;Jiw tajpw;F Vw;wJ. ,d;Wk;
fy;tpr; R+oy; njhopw;rhiyfs; gzpfs;> rPUilfs; kw;Wk; fw;gpg;gtu;fspd;
njhFjp nrayhf;fj;Jld; xj;jpUf;fpwJ.
xU nghUshjhu epiyg;ghl;by; ,Ue;J> ,d;iwa R+o;epiy kpfTk;
tpj;jpahrkhdJ. ,d;iwa Mf;fpukpg;Gfspy; 70 rjtPjk; ,e;j E}w;whz;bd;
,Wjpapy; jhdhfNt khWk; vd;W tau;L gj;jpupif kjpg;gpl;Ls;sJ. ,e;j Gjpa
nghUshjhuj;jpy; kdpju;fspd; gq;F vd;d? Neubahd> tof;fkhd rpe;jidf;F
ve;j ed;ikAk; ,Uf;fhJ. ,J nefpo;Tj;jd;ik> jOty;> Gjpa rpe;jid>
Kd;Djhuzkhd khw;wq;fs; kw;Wk; fz;Lgpbg;G Mfpatw;wpw;F miog;G tpLfpwJ.
xU mwptpay; fz;Nzhl;lj;jpy;> gilg;ghw;wy;> Gjpa mryhd kw;Wk;
fw;gidahd rpe;jidf;F xU nghUj;jkhf cs;sJ. xU fy;tp Kiwapd; rpy
Kf;fpa mk;rq;fis mjd; ikaj;jpy; gilg;ghw;wYld; fye;jhNyhrpf;fyhk;
tpisT: xU Mf;f rpe;jid fy;tp Kiwikapy;> vy;iyaw;w kdpj jpwikfs;
xU rkkhd ,lj;ijf; fhzyhk;. Mf;f rpe;jid fw;wy; ,UtUk; GyDzu;T
kw;Wk; Nkk;gl;l gupkhzq;fspy; tsu;r;rpia cUthf;FfpwJ. mry; kw;Wk;
ntspg;gilahd tpisTfspd; cw;gj;jpf;F toptFf;fpwJ. cly;> kdk;> Mtp
Mfpatw;wpd; ,zf;fkhd tsu;r;rp cs;sJ. cau;-tupir rpe;jid jpwd;>
gilg;ghw;wy;> rpf;fy; jPu;f;Fk; jpwd;> Ra tpopg;Gzu;T kw;Wk; mofpay;
czu;r;rpfspd; tsu;r;rp Mfpait mlq;Fk;.
fw;gpj;jy;: tof;fkhd fy;tp Kiwfspy; Foe;ijfspd; cs;shu;e;j gilg;ghw;wy;
kw;Wk; Mu;tj;ij ,oe;Jtpl;ljhf gy Ma;Tfs; njuptpf;fpd;wd. Mf;f rpe;jid
tFg;giwfspy;> MrpupaUk; khztu;fSk; fw;wy; nray;ghl;by; gq;Nfw;Ws;sdu;.
Mrpupau;fs; fw;wy; ghzpapd; gd;Kfj;jd;ikia fzf;fpy; vLj;Jf; nfhs;Sjy;>
midj;J czu;TfisAk; cliyAk; cl;gLj;JfpwJ> NkYk; ,aw;ifapy;
tof;fkhf mDgtk; tha;e;jit. Rw;Wr;R+oiyg; gw;wp fw;wy; khztu;fs;
rpf;fyhd rpe;jidfisg; gad;gLj;Jtij rthy; nra;fpwhu;fs;> rpe;jpf;fTk; Gjpa
NahridAld; tpisahlTk; Neuk; kw;Wk; jdpg;gl;l mu;j;jKs;s
Ez;zwpTfSf;F toptFf;Fk;.
kjpg;gpLfs;: jw;Nghija kjpg;gPl;L topKiwfs; ngUk;ghYk; xU Kiw> mjpf
msT gq;F jug;gLj;jg;gl;l Nrhjidfis xU FWfpa tuk;Gfis
mstpLfpd;wd. ,e;j kjpg;gpL fspy; guprspj;j khztu;fspd; kjpg;gPl;il
Ma;thsu;fs; Fwpg;gpLfpd;wdu;. gilg;ghw;wiy tsu;j;Jf; nfhs;Sk; kjpg;gpLfs;
cs;Nehf;fj;jpw;F Cf;fkspj;J> xU jdpj;Jtkhd ghijapy; tsu;r;rpf;F cjTk;.
gy;NtW gupkhzq;fis %b> Ra kjpg;gPl;by; mjpf mstpy; jq;fpAs;sdu;.
khztu;fs; Nfs;tpfis vOg;Gtjw;Fk;> Ma;T nra;tjw;Fk;> rhj;jpaq;fis
cUthf;Ftjw;Fk; fw;gidia ntspg;gLj;Jtjw;Fk; khztu;fs;
Cf;Ftpf;fpwhu;fs;.
cs;slf;fk;: ,d;iwa jpdk;> fy;tpapy; cs;slq;fpa cs;slf;fk; xU
cs;shu;e;j gbepiy cs;sJ. 21 Mk; E}w;whz;bd; nghUshjhuk;> cs;slf;f
mwpT mwpTj;jpwd;> rpf;fy; jPu;f;Fk; jpwd;> kdpj cwT Mfpatw;wpd; jpwikapd;wp
rpwpa mu;j;jj;ij nfhz;Ls;sJ. xU Mf;f rpe;jid Kiwapy;> gilg;ghw;wypd;
ve;jnthU tifapYk; kyUk; xU rk tha;g;G cs;sJ> mJ nkhopfspy;>
fzpjq;fs;> fiy my;yJ NtW xd;whFk;. Mf;f rpe;jid> fw;gid kw;Wk;
ntspg;ghL midj;Jk; cs;slf;fj;jpy; Kf;fpa ikakhf ,Uf;fpd;wd.
ghlq;fspy; FWf;F-kfue;jk; kw;Wk; fiy> mofpay; kw;Wk; Kf;fpaj;Jtk;
Mfpatw;wpd; tbtikg;G MfpaitahFk;.
cyfshtpa uPjpapy; rpe;jidahsu;fs;> ngw;Nwhu;fs; kw;Wk; fy;tpahsu;fs;
MfpNahu; ,e;j mikg;Gld; njhlu;Gilatu;fs;. gilg;ghw;wy;> tbtikg;G
rpe;jid kw;Wk; Gupjy; Mfpait 21 Mk; E}w;whz;L jpwdhf
mq;fPfupf;fg;gLfpd;wd. gpd;yhe;J mjd; fy;tp nfhs;iff;F vjpuhd mjpf
kjpg;ngz;fSf;F Mu;tk; fhl;bAs;sJ. ghlj;jpl;lk; kw;Wk; khztu; kjpg;gpL
fspd; kPJ jd;dhu;tj; jpwik nfhz;l cau; jukhd Mrpupau;fisf; nfhz;l
kpfTk; gutyhf;fg;gl;l kw;Wk; nefpo;thd fl;likg;ig mJ gpd;gw;WfpwJ.
juepiyahd Nrhjid vJTk; ,y;iy.
xU ehl;bd; fy;tp Kiw mjd; cs;shu;e;j gyk;> kw;Wk; jdpj;Jtk;
Mfpatw;wpypUe;J ntsptu KbAk;. ,e;jpah fy;tp kw;Wk; Gj;jp[Ptpj rpwe;j
rpwg;ghd ehl;fspd; cj;Ntfk; ngWk;. fw;wy;> ,ir> fiy kw;Wk; ftpijfs;
Mfpatw;Wld; ,ize;jpUe;jJ. cau;-tupir rpe;jid> Ra tpopg;Gzu;T> Mokhd
tprhuiz> mofpay;> cs;Szu;T> fye;Jiuahly;fs; kw;Wk; tpthjq;fs;
fy;tpf;F xUq;fpize;jit. gy topfspy; gilg;ghw;wy; ,yf;Ffis> Kiwfs;
kw;Wk; fy;tp cs;slf;fj;jpy; gutyhf ,Ue;jJ.
Nfs;tpfs;
1. jw;Nghija kjpg;gPl;L Kiwapd; FiwghLfis njspTgLj;Jq;fs;.
2. rpwe;j fw;Fk; kjpg;gPl;il tptupf;fTk;.
3. cq;fs; khztu;fs; Ra ek;gpf;ifia vt;thW cUthf;fyhk;?
4. gilg;G fw;wy; kjpg;gpL gw;wp vOjTk;.
5. khztu;fSf;fhd ek;gpf;ifAld; Gjpa fw;wiy mZFtjw;F ePq;fs; vt;thW
cjt KbAk;?

UNIT – 10

Reporting Quantitative Assessment of Data

Fwpf;Nfhs;:

 miltpd; gaid mwpe;Jnfhs;Sjy;;

 gpujpgypg;G mwpf;ifapd; ed;ikfis gad;gLj;Jjy;;


 khztu;fspd; ,izg;G jfty;fis gw;wp mwpjy;;

 ika Nghf;F mstpid gw;wp mwpjy;;

 njhlu;G msitfs; kw;Wk; mjd; ed;ikfs; gw;wp Gupe;Jnfhs;Sjy;.

mwpKfk;

nray;jpwd; kjpg;gpL vd;gJ khztu;fspd; jpwd;fis kw;Wk; nray;fis kjpg;gpL nra;tjhFk;.


gpd;tUk; tifahd nray;jpwd; kjpg;gpLfs; : gupNrhjidfs; tbtikj;jy; kw;Wk; elj;jy;;
xUq;fpizf;f my;yJ jftiyg; gad;gLj;j Ntz;Lk;. gzpfis epiwNtw;Wtjw;fhf kw;w
khztu;fSld; ,ize;J gzpahw;Wjy;; cgfuzq;fs; my;yJ xU El;gj;ij gad;gLj;Jtjpy;
epGzj;Jtk; fhz;gpj;jy;; fl;bl khjpupfs;; tiuglq;fis cUthf;Fjy;> Gupe;Jnfhs;tJ kw;Wk;
gad;gLj;Jjy;; Nrfupg;Gfis cUthf;Fjy;; jhs;fs;> tpku;rdq;fs;> ftpijfs; my;yJ
rpWfijfs; Mfpatw;iw vOJjy;; Ngr;R nfhLf;Fk;; ,ir thrpj;jy;; tha;top guPl;irfspy;
fye;Jnfhs;tJ; tsUk; mikr;ru;fs;; jlfs jpwd; my;yJ eilKiwfis cUthf;Fjy;

nray;jpwd; kjpg;gPl;bd; ju;f;ftpayhsu;fs;> khztu;fspd; gad;ghLfisg; gupe;Jiuf;fpd;wdu;.


khztu;fspd; Mtzq;fs;> tPbNah ehlhf;fs;> Kd;Ndw;w mwpf;iffs; my;yJ njhlu;Gila
nghUl;fs; Mfpatw;iwf; nfhz;l xU Nfhg;Giwia tpl xU Nghu;l;/NghypNah $Ljyhf
,Ug;gij mtu;fs; epidTgLj;Jfpd;wdu;. khztu;fspd; Fwpf;Nfhs;> khztu;fspdhy; $wg;gLk;
fij> Kd;Ndw;wk;> my;yJ xU Fwpg;gpl;l fhyg;gFjpapy; nra;ag;gl;l rhjid Mfpatw;iwf;
cs;slf;fpajhf ,Uf;Fk;. ,jw;fhf> Fwpg;gpl;l tbtikg;G msTNfhy; xd;iw(Nghu;l;/NghypNah
my;yJ ,izg;G jfty; )cUthf;fp> guhkupf;f gad;gLj;j Ntz;Lk;.

gpujpgypg;G ,jo;

xU gpujpgypg;G ,jo; vd;gJ fUj;Jf;fs;> jdpg;gl;l vz;zq;fs; kw;Wk; mDgtq;fis gjpT


nra;tjw;fhd xU topKiwahFk;> mNjNghy; xU khztupd; fw;wy; nray;ghl;by; cs;s
gpujpgypg;GfisAk; Ez;zwpTfisAk; vLj;Jf;fl;Lfpd;wd. gpujpgypg;G ,jo; khztu;fs;
Mokhf rpe;jpf;f Ntz;Lk;> gioa fUj;Jfis Gjpa jfty;fSld; nra;a> mtu;fs; jq;fs;
nrhe;j vz;zq;fs; kw;Wk; jj;Jtq;fs; fw;W> mtu;fs; jpdrup mDgtq;fs; kw;Wk; vjpu;fhy
eltbf;iffs; xUq;fpizf;f cjTfpwJ. gpujpgypg;G fw;wy; nray;ghl;bd; ed;ikfs; tof;fkhf
jpul;lg;gLfpd;wd> ,jpy; khztu;fs; tof;fkhf njhlu;rr ; pahd Kd;Ndw;wq;fs;> jdpg;gl;l
tsu;r;rp kw;Wk; nray;Kiwapy; Vw;gLk; khw;wq;fisf; fhz;gpf;fpd;wdu;.

gpujpgypg;G ,jopd; ed;ikfs;

nray;jpwd; fw;wy; - gpujpgypg;G nray;KiwahdJ> Kd;Kaw;rpia nraY}f;fkhf vLj;Jf;


nfhs;SkhW khztu;fis Cf;Ftpf;fpwJ; ntt;NtW rpe;jidfspypUe;J jq;fs;
rpe;jidfisAk; czu;r;rpfisAk; fUj;jpy; nfhz;L> fUj;Jf;fs; kw;Wk; fUj;Jf;fis
Muha;e;J jdpg;gl;l gapw;Wtpg;ghsiu mDkjpf;fpwJ. khztu;fs; eilKiwapy; Ra
rpe;jidahsu;fshf khwp> jq;fspd; nrhe;j gpur;ridfspy; jq;fisj; jhq;fNs jPu;j;Jf;nfhs;s
cjTfpwJ.

khztu;fspd; Kd;Ndw;wj;ij Gupe;Jnfhs;tJ - khztu;fspd; rpe;jid vg;gb ,Uf;Fk;


vd;gijg; gw;wpAk;> khztu;fspd; fw;wy; Kd;Ndw;wj;ij Nkk;gLj;Jtjd; %yKk;>
Mrpupau;fSf;F gpujpgypg;G ,jo; rpwe;j tha;g;Gfis toq;Ffpd;wd> ,J ,Wjpapy; khztu;fs;
'fw;wy; nray;Kiwfis Nkk;gLj;Jk;.

vOj;J jpwikfis Nkk;gLj;Jjy; - gpujpgypg;G ,jo; Gjpajhf vOJk; khztu;fSf;F fle;j


fhy mDgtk; fpilf;f tha;g;G ,y;iy. vdNt> ,e;j ntspg;ghL khztu;fspd; vOj;J
jpwd;fspy; Kd;Ndw;wj;ij ntspg;gLj;j KbAk;.
jdpg;gl;l fUj;Jf;fis ntspg;gLj;JtJ kw;Wk; xU Ra-tpku;rdk;> ,jo; fUj;Jf;fis
tpku;rpg;gJ> khztu;fSf;fhd topfhl;ly; kw;Wk; mtu;fspd; fw;wy; nray;ghl;ilg; gw;wp
epidg;gjw;Fk;> fUj;Jf;fs;> jdpg;gl;l mDgtq;fs; kw;Wk; fUj;Jf;fis ntspg;gLj;JtijAk;
Cf;Ftpf;fpd;wd. nghJthf tFg;Gfs; kw;Wk; gapw;rpfs; Ngr tpUk;ghj khztu;fs; gapw;rp
Nkw;nfhs;tjw;fhd Xu; rpwe;j ,lk;.

tpup rpe;jid kw;Wk; gilg;ghw;wy; Mfpatw;iw Nkk;gLj;Jjy; - Ra-gpujpgypg;G


nray;KiwahdJ> cz;ikahd cyf tptfhuq;fSf;F jq;fs; mwpitj; njuptpf;Fk;NghJ
khztu;fs; kj;jpapy; tpup rpe;jid jpwd;fis Nkk;gLj;JfpwJ. ,J khztu;fs; gilg;ghw;wy;
kw;Wk; ntt;NtW rpf;fy;fs; kw;Wk; gpur;rpidfs; Nehf;fp xU Nfs;tpf;Fupa mZFKiw
cUthf;f cjTk;.

,izg;G jfty; my;yJ khztu; njhFg;G

xU khztu; njhFg;G vd;gJ fy;tpj; jpl;lj;jpd; xU njhFg;ghFk;: (1) Nehf;fj;jpw;fhf tFg;Gj;


juk; kjpg;gpL nra;jy;> fw;wypy; Kd;Ndw;wk;> milT Nrhjid Mfpatw;iwf; nfhz;ljhFk;.
(2) gbg;Gfs;> ju-epiy Cf;Ftpg;G> kw;Wk; gl;lg;gbg;G Mfpatw;wpw;fhd khztu;fspd; fw;wy;
juepiyfs; my;yJ gpw fy;tpj; Njitfis G+u;j;jpnra;jjh vd;gij jPu;khdpj;jy;; (3)
khztu;fSila fy;tp Nehf;fq;fisg; gw;wpf; fw;Wf; nfhs;s cjTtJk;> fw;gpg;gtu;fspd;
Kd;Ndw;wKk;; kw;Wk; (4) fy;tpj; njhopy;fs;> rhjidfs;> kw;Wk; gpw Mtzq;fs; Mfpatw;wpd;
ePbj;j fhg;gfj;ij cUthf;Fk;. khztu; gpuptpd; MNyhrfu;fs;> gbg;gbahd Nrhjid>
tpdhf;fs;> my;yJ mjpfkhd ghuk;gupa eltbf;iffis tpl khztu;fs; fw;Wf; nfhz;lJ
kw;Wk; nra;a Kbe;jij tpl khztu; Ntiyfis xUq;fpizj;jy;> Ma;T nra;jy; kw;Wk;
kjpg;gpL nra;tJ Mfpait xU gzf;fhu> Mokhd> NkYk; Jy;ypakhd glj;ij toq;f
KbAk; vd;W thjpLfpd;wdu;. ,Wjpg; guPl;irfs; - khztu;fspd; Neuj;ij xU Fwpg;gpl;l
fl;lj;jpy; njupe;Jnfhs;s kl;LNk mstpLfpd;wd.

tiyjs njhopy;El;g fhg;gfq;fs; kw;Wk; khztu;fs;-cUthf;fpa tiyj;jsq;fSf;F


Mtzq;fs;> Fwpg;Gfs; kw;Wk; tiufiy epug;gg;gl;l Nehl;Gf;FfspypUe;J gy;NtW tbtq;fspy;
,izg;G jfty; my;yJ /Nghu;l;NghypNahf;fs; ngwg;gl;L> mit mbg;gil> eLj;ju kw;Wk;
cau;epiy gs;sp kl;lq;fspy; gad;gLj;jg;glyhk;. /Nghu;l;NghypNahf;fspy; khztu;fshy;
vOjg;gl;l gzpfs;> ,jo; cs;sPLfs;> G+u;j;jp nra;ag;gl;l Nrhjidfs;> fiy> Ma;T
mwpf;iffs;> ,aw;gpay; jpl;lq;fs; kw;Wk; fy;tp Kd;Ndw;wj;jpw;fhd fy;tp rhu;e;j rhjid>
tpUJfs;> nf◌ௗutq;fs;> rhd;wpjo;fs;> gupe;Jiufs;> Mrpupau;fs; my;yJ rfhf;fsplkpUe;J
vOjg;gl;l kjpg;gpLfs;> khztu;fs; vOjpa Ra gpujpgypg;Gfs; ,lk; ngw;Ws;sd. ,izg;G
jfty; my;yJ /Nghu;l;NghypNahf;fs; b[pl;ly; fhg;gfq;fs;> tpsf;ff;fhl;rpfs;> tiyg;gjpTfs;
my;yJ tiyj;jsq;fs; Mfpait cly; gpupitg; NghyNt mNj cs;slf;fq;fisf;
nfhz;bUf;fyhk;> Mdhy; mit khztu; cUthf;fpa tPbNahf;fs;> ky;bkPbah
tpsf;ff;fhl;rpfs;> guty; jhs;fs;> tiyj;jsq;fs;> Gifg;glq;fs; my;yJ gpw b[pl;ly;
fiyg;nghUl;fs; Kyk; fw;wy; MFk;.

Md;iyd; gl;bay;fs; ngUk;ghYk; b[pl;ly; g;uhn[f;l;]; my;yJ ,-GNuhNfhypNah]; vd;W


miof;fg;gLfpd;wd. rpy re;ju;g;gq;fspy;> tiyg;gjpTfs; my;yJ Md;iyd; ,jo; khztu;fshy;
guhkupf;fg;glyhk;> fw;wy; eltbf;iffs;> Kd;Ndw;wk; kw;Wk; rhjidfs; gw;wpa jfty;
jw;Nghija gpujpgypg;Gfspy; mlq;Fk;. fw;wy;> fz;fhl;rp> my;yJ njhg;gp jpl;lj;jpd; xU
gFjpahf> ngw;Nwhu;fs;> Mrpupau;fs; kw;Wk; r%f cWg;gpdu;fsplkpUe;Jk; /Nghu;l;NghypNahf;fs;
nghJthf my;yJ jdpg;gl;l Kiwapy; toq;fg;glyhk;.

fy;tpapy; gy;NtW tifahd gpupj;jy;fs; cs;sd vd;gijAk;> xt;nthU tbtj;jpYk; mjd;


nrhe;j Nehf;fk; cs;sJ vd;gijAk; ftdj;jpy; nfhs;s Ntz;Lk;. cjhuzkhf> "Nfg;];Nlhd;"
gpupitg; nghWj;jtiu> ePz;l fhy jpl;lq;fs; my;yJ ,Wjp kjpg;gpL fspd; xU gFjpahf> xU
eLj;jug; gs;sp my;yJ cau;epiy gs;spapd; cr;repiyapy;> my;yJ xU ePz;l fhy>
gykakhd jpl;lj;jpd; ,Wjpapy; Kbf;fg;gLk; khztu; Ntiyfis epiwT nra;Ak;. xU
Fwpg;gpl;l ghlj;jpy; fw;wy; Kd;Ndw;wj;ijAk; rhjidfisAk; kjpg;gpLtjw;F kl;LNk
Nehf;fkhff; nfhz;lJ> rpy Jiwfspy; xU Fwpg;gpl;l cl;gFjpapy; cs;stw;iw kjpg;gpL
nra;tjw;Fg; gad;gLj;jg;gLfpd;wd> rpy Jiwfspy; vy;yhg; ghlg; gFjpfspYk; cs;s
khztu;fs; jpwd;fis kjpg;gpL nra;fpd;wdu;.

tFg;giwapy; gpupitg; gad;gLj;Jtjw;F thjpLk; fy;tpahsu;fshy; gpd;tUk; thjq;fs;


ngUk;ghYk; nra;ag;gLfpd;wd:

khztu;fs; fw;wy; Kd;Ndw;wk; kw;Wk; rhjid kjpg;gpL nra;ag; gad;gLj;jg;gLk; NghJ


khztu;fSf;F kpfTk; gaDs;sjhf ,Uf;Fk;. khztu;fs; gs;spapy; ngWk; mwpT> jpwikfs;
kw;Wk; gzp mDgtq;fis Mtzg;gLj;jTk;> kjpg;gplTk;> mtu;fs; Mrpupau;fSf;F cjTfpwJ.
Mrpupau;fs; fw;gpg;gjw;fhd topKiwfis gpd;gw;Wtjw;Fk; gad;gLj;jyhk;. MNyhridfs;
tof;fTk;> me;je;j gpupitg; nghWj;J> mwpTWj;jiyr; nray;gLj;JtJld;> mwpTiufis
njuptpf;f Ntz;Lk;> kw;Wk; khztu;fsplkpUe;J njhlu;rr ; pahf gpupj;njLf;fg;gl Ntz;Lk; -
mjhtJ> Nghu;l;NghypNahit xU gzp Kbtpy; kl;LNk kjpg;gha;T nra;ag;gLk; Ntiy
jahupg;Gfspd; ntWikahd fhg;gfkhf ,Uf;ff;$lhJ.

/Nghu;l;NghypNahf;fis Mrpupau;fs; fz;fhzpf;fyhk; kw;Wk; fhyg;Nghf;fpy; fw;wy;


Kd;Ndw;wj;ij kjpg;gpL nra;ayhk;. khztu;fsplkpUe;J tpdhf;fs; kw;Wk; tpdhf;fs; xU
Fwpg;gpl;l fhyf;fl;lj;jpy; khztu;fSf;Fj; njupe;jijg; gw;wp Mrpupau;fSf;F jftiyf;
nfhLf;fpd;wd. Mdhy;> gs;sp Mz;L my;yJ gy Mz;LfSf;Fg; gpwF fw;Fk; khztu;fs;>
Kjpu;r;rpaile;J> Kjpu;r;rpaile;J> vg;gb Kd;NdwpapUf;fpwhu;fs; vd;gij Mtzg;gLj;jyhk;.
rpy fy;tp Mrpupau;fs; xU khztupd; rpwe;j Ntiyfspd; njhFg;Gfshf ,Uf;ff;$lhJ vd;W
thjpLfpd;wdu;> khwhf khztu;fs; fhyg;Nghf;fpy; vt;thW Kd;Ndwpdu; vd;gij ep&gpg;gjw;fhd
rhd;WfisAk; gzpg; nghUl;fisAk; Nru;f;f Ntz;Lk;. cjhuzkhf> xU fl;Liuapd; gy
gjpg;Gfs;> Mrpupau;fs; my;yJ mtu;fsJ rfhf;fsplkpUe;J fUj;Jf;fis mbg;gilahff;
nfhz;L khztu;fs; vt;thW jpUj;jg;gl;L kw;Wk; Nkk;gl;lJ vd;gijf; fhl;lyhk;.

/Nghu;g;nyh]; Gjpa rpf;fy;fs; Kyk; ntt;NtW tp\aq;fis fw;Wf; nfhz;lhu;fsh vd;gij


khztu;fs; jPu;khdpf;f cjTfpwjh? cjhuzkhf> xU Fwpg;gpl;l fzpj jpwid khztu;fs;
fw;Wf; nfhz;lhu;fsh vd;gij Mrpupau;fs; jPu;khdpf;f cjtyhk;. Mdhy; me;j khztu;fs;
nghUshjhuj;ij> Gtpapay;> Fbik my;yJ tuyhw;wpy; rpf;fyhd gpur;ridf;F me;j
jpwikfis gad;gLj;j KbAkh? xU guty; jhs; mikf;fg;gl;l xU ngupa jutpd; Gs;sptptu
gFg;gha;it elj;j mtu;fs; mijg; gad;gLj;j KbAkh? my;yJ mtu;fs; xU rpwe;j
jpl;lj;ij cUthf;f mij gad;gLj;j KbAk;.

mNjNghy;> gs;spf;$lk; my;yhj ghlq;fspy; fw;wy; nra;tjw;Fk; rf khztu;fs;


gad;gLj;jg;glyhk;. cjhuzkhf> xU khztu; xU ,d;lu;d;\pg;gpy; gq;Nfw;why; my;yJ xU
epGzu; MNyhrfupd; topfhl;lypd; fPo; xU jpl;lj;ij epiwT nra;jhy;> khztu;fs; ,e;j fw;wy;
eltbf;iffs; gbg;gbahf gpupit cUthf;fyhk; kw;Wk; mtu;fs; Mrpupau;fisNah>
gs;spiaNah mtu;fs; re;jpj;j rhd;Wfshf rku;g;gpf;f KbAk;. khztu;fSf;F mjpf
cupikiaAk;> fw;wy; nray;ghl;ilAk; nghWg;igAk; Cf;Ftpf;fpd;wd. rpy gs;spfspy;> rf
khztu;fs; jq;fSila nrhe;j Ntiy kw;Wk; fy;tp Kd;Ndw;wj;ij kjpg;gpL nra;tjw;Fk;
kjpg;gpL nra;tjw;Fk; xU topahFk;> ngUk;ghYk; mtu;fsJ rfkhztu;fs; gl;baypy; vd;d
Nru;f;fg;gl Ntz;Lk; vd;gij jPu;khdpf;Fk; nray;Kiwapd; NghJk;> fhyg;Nghf;fpy; tsu;e;J
tUk; Jiwfspd; Mtzq;fis tsu;j;Jf; nfhs;tjhy; khztu;fSf;F> mtu;fs; xU gbg;igj;
vt;thW njhlq;fpdhu;fs;> mtu;fs; vg;gb tsu;e;jhu;fs;> gs;sp Mz;L Kbtpy; mtu;fs;
Kbtile;j ,lj;ijg; gw;wp mtu;fs; rpe;jpf;fyhk;. xU Nghu;l;/NghypNahit kPsha;T nra;Ak;
NghJ> Mrpupau;fs; Fwpg;gpl;l gzpg; nghUl;fs; kw;Wk; fy;tpapd; vjpu;ghu;g;Gfs; kw;Wk;
,yf;Ffs; Mfpatw;wpw;Fk; ,ilNaahd njhlu;ig ntspg;gLj;j khztu;fsplk; Nfl;fyhk;. ,e;j
fhuzq;fSf;fhf> mikr;ru;fSf;fhd Mjuthsu;fs; ngUk;ghYk; xU Nghu;l;/NghypNahtpw;Fs;
NghFk; tp\aq;fisj; jPu;khdpg;gjpy; <LgLfpwhu;fs;> NkYk; Mrpupau;fs; xUjiyg;gl;rkhf
khztu;fs; rk;ge;jg;gl;l KbTfis vLf;ff; $lhJ. rk;ge;jg;gl;l fye;Jiuahly;fSf;fhf>
khztu; <LghL kw;Wk; khztu; Fuy; Mfpatw;iwg; ghu;f;fTk;. ngw;Nwhu;fs; fy;tp kw;Wk; fw;wy;
Kd;Ndw;wj;ijg; gw;wp NkYk; mwpe;J nfhs;sTk;> xU Fwpg;gpl;l fhyj;jpy; vd;d
fw;gpf;fg;gLfpwhu;fs;> tFg;giwapy; vd;ndd;d khztu;fs; gapw;Wtpf;fg;gLfpwhu;fs; vd;gijAk;
njupe;Jnfhs;syhk;. ngw;Nwhu;fs; jq;fs; Foe;ijapd; fy;tp gw;wp NkYk; jfty; ngWk; kw;Wk;
<LgLk; NghJ> mtu;fs; tPl;by; jq;fs; Foe;ijfSf;F Mjuthf xU nraypy; gq;F tfpf;f
KbAk;. ,J fy;tp rhjidfs; kw;Wk; xU ed;ik tpisit Vw;gLj;j KbAk;.

gpujpgypg;G ilupfs; kjpg;gpL

,e;j Gjpa kjpg;gpL mZFKiwapd; kPjhd khztu;fspd; czu;Tfs; kw;Wk; fUj;Jf;fis


Muha;tjw;fhf> kjpg;gPl;bw;Fg; gpwF 18 khztu;fs; ufrpakhf Neu;Kfj; Nju;Tf;F
Nju;e;njLf;fg;gl;Ls;sdu;. Neu;fhzy;fspd; NghJ> khztu;fspd; fUj;Jf;fisg; gw;wp
NgRtjw;fhf Jiw kjpg;gpL mZFKiw> Jiwfis jahupg;gjpy; mtu;fs; mDgtk;> kw;Wk;
mtu;fsJ fw;wy; kPjhd Nghu;l;/NghypNah kjpg;gpL fspd; tpisTfs; gw;wpa mtu;fspd;
fUj;Jfisg; gw;wp Ngr miof;fg;gl;ldu;. njhFjpfspd; %d;W Fwpf;Nfhs;fisg; nghWj;J
Nju;e;njLf;fg;gl;l cUg;gbfspy; toq;fg;gl;l Mjhuq;fspd; juk; kw;Wk; Nfhl;ghLfspd;
mbg;gilapy; jw;Nghija kjpg;gPl;L eilKiw kPjhd gpujpgypg;G Mfpatw;wpd;
mbg;gilapNyNa ilupfs; kjpg;gpL nra;ag;gl;lJ.

xU ey;y gpujpgypg;G ,jo; kjpg;gpL tbtikg;gJ vg;gb?

• cq;fs; ghlnewpfSf;F nghUe;jf;$ba jiyg;Gf;fs; gpujpgypg;G gj;jpupiffs; ,lk;


tfpf;fpd;wdth vd;gij jPu;khdpf;f Ntz;Lk;.

• khztu;fSf;F nfhLf;fg;gl;l vjpu;ghu;g;Gfs; kw;Wk; kjpg;gPl;Lj; jFjp gw;wpa njspthd


fUj;Jf;fs; cs;sdth vd;gij cWjpg;gLj;jTk;.

• Muk;gj;jpNyNa gpujpgypg;G gj;jpupiffspd; Nehf;fk; kw;Wk; eyd;fis khztu;fs; Gupe;J


nfhs;s Kaw;rp nra;a Ntz;Lk;.

• khztu;fSldhd jdpAupik kw;Wk; ufrpaj;jd;ik Fwpj;j nfhs;iffis Mrpupau;fs;


tptupj;Js;sdu; kw;Wk; tpthjpf;fpd;wdu; vd;gij cWjpg;gLj;jTk;

• gj;jpupif ntspaPL Kiwia ghu;f;fTk; (v.fh. thuhe;jpu> khjhe;jpu)

• khztu;fSf;fhd Neubahd fUj;Jf;fis toq;Fjy;.

Nghu;l;/NghypNah kjpg;gpL

fw;Fk; khztu;fspd; tsu;r;rpiaf; fhl;LfpwJ. gpujpgypg;gpd; Kf;fpaj;Jtk; jq;fs; nrhe;j


Ntiyiag; gpujpgypg;gjd; %yk;> khztu;fs; jq;fspd; nrhe;j Ntiyapd; gyk; kw;Wk;
gytPdq;fisf; fz;lwpaj; njhlq;Ffpd;wdu; (Ra kjpg;gpL). ,tw;wpd; Kyk; gytPdq;fs; kw;Wk;
Kd;Ndw;wk; Mfpatw;iw fhzyhk;. Nghu;l;/NghypNah kjpg;gPl;by; Fwpf;fgLtJ juk;> msT
my;y. kw;nwhU Kf;fpa Fwpf;Nfhs;. xt;nthU Nghu;l;/NghypNah ntspaPL mjd; Fwpg;gpl;l
fw;wy; Nehf;fq;fs; my;yJ Fwpf;Nfhs;fisf; Fwpf;f Ntz;Lk;.

ntt;NtW gs;spfs; ntt;NtW tbtq;fis cUthf;fyhk;. rpy gs;spfs; fw;gpg;gtu;fspd;


gzpf;F gpujpepjpj;Jtk; nra;Ak; khjpup gpupit cUthf;Ffpd;wd> mNj Neuj;jpy; kw;w
gs;spfSk; xU fUtp fUtpahfg; gad;gLj;jg;gLfpd;wd> ,J ghuk;gupa tFg;giw Nrhjidfs;
kw;Wk; juepiyg;gLj;jg;gl;l Mrpupa kjpg;gpL fSf;F khw;whf ,Uf;fyhk;.

nghJthf NgRk; xU vOj;jwpTg; gl;bay; vd;gJ khztu;fspd; Kd;Ndw;w epiy kw;Wk;


fy;tpapd; Kd;Ndw;wj;ij gpujpgypf;Fk; gy;NtW fhy Mrpupau;fspd; Ma;T kw;Wk; khztu;
nghUl;fspd; Kiwahd njhFg;G MFk;.

mwpTWj;jy;fs;

xU Nghu;l;/NghypNah> mtjhdpg;G my;yJ khztu; nghUl;fspd; rPuw;w Nrfupg;G my;y; ,jpy;


Fwpg;gplj;jf;f Ma;TfSk;> khztu; jahupg;GfSk; Kf;fpa topKiw ,yf;FfSld;
njhlu;Gilait. cjhuzkhf> Mz;L KOtJk; khztu;fs; itj;jpUf;Fk; Gj;jfg; gjpTfs;
khztu;fspd; gbg;gpw;F Vw;wthW Neu;kiwahd mZFKiwfisAk; gof;fq;fisAk;
cUthf;Fk; mstpw;F gpujpgypg;ghFk;. khztu; ciuf;F mu;j;jk; nghUe;jf;$ba mstpw;F xU
Gupe;Jzu;T eltbf;iffis mspf;Fk;. Neu;kiw mZFKiwfisAk; gof;fq;fisAk;
Nkk;gLj;JtNjhL> mu;j;jj;ij cUthf;Ftjw;fhd jpwid mjpfupg;gJk; ngUk;ghYk; thrpg;G
jpl;lj;jpw;fhd Kf;fpa Fwpf;Nfhshff; fUjg;gLfpwJ.

gd;Kfq;fs;

/Nghu;l;NghypNahf;fs; gd;Kfg;gLj;jg;gl;lit kw;Wk; thrpg;G kw;Wk; vOj;Jfspd; rpf;fyhd


,ay;Gfis gpujpgypf;fj; njhlq;Ffpd;wd. fhyg;Nghf;fpy; mitfs; Nrfupf;fg;gLtjhy;>
mtu;fspd; tsu;r;rp kw;Wk; Kd;Ndw;wj;jpw;fhd gjpTfshf ,Uf;fyhk;. gy;NtW ju mstpyhd
gad;ghl;Lf;fhf tbtikf;fg;gl;l Gj;jfq;fs; kw;Wk; gpw Nju;TfspypUe;J nghUs; cUthf;f
khztu;fisf; Nfl;L> xU khztupd; tsu;r;rp epiy kjpg;gpL nra;ag;glyhk;. me;j juq;fs;
(yhk;kp & `p];kpj;> 1991) njhlu;ghf khztupd; tsu;rr ; p epiyiaj; jPu;khdpg;gjw;fhf
juepiyfs; my;yJ vjpu;ghu;g;Gfis mikf;f Mrpupau;fs; Cf;Ftpf;fg;gLfpwhu;fs;.

kjpg;gplypd; gy;NtW nghUl;fs;

Mrpupau; Fwpg;Gfs;> Mrpupau;-epiwT gl;bayplg;gl;l gl;bay;fs; kw;Wk; khztu; Ra-


gpujpgypg;Gfs;> thrpg;G gjpTfs;> khjpup gj;jpupif gf;fq;fs;> vOjg;gl;l RUf;fq;fs;>
nul;ly;ypq;]; my;yJ tha;top thrpg;Gfspd; MbNah-ghf;];> FO jpl;lq;fspd; xspgug;Gfs;
kw;Wk; gytw;iw cs;slf;fpaJ. (thnyd;rpah> 1990).

khztu; <LghL

khztu;fis kjpg;gPl;by; (bu;dp> fhu;lu;> & Njrha;> 1991) jPtpukhf <Lgl nra;tJ
Nghu;l;/NghypNah kjpg;gPl;bd; Kf;fpakhd gupkhzkhFk;.

gbj;jy; kw;Wk; vOJtij kjpg;gpLtjw;fhd rpwe;j topKiwfs;

fy;tpahsu;fshy; my;yJ ty;Ydu;fshy; jpwk;gl ep&gpf;fg;gl;l gy topfs; cs;sd. mtu;fs;


fw;gpj;jy; KbTfis mbg;gilahff; nfhz;L> khztu; Kd;Ndw;wj;ij (Nfhk;];> fpNut;> &
gpshf;> 1991) kjpg;gpLtjw;fhd jfty;fis Mrpupau;fis toq;Ffpwhu;fs;. khztu;fspd; tsu;r;rp
epiy thrpj;jy; kw;Wk; vOJtjpy; Kd;Ndw;wk; Mfpatw;iw ngw;Nwhu; (nts;sk; kw;Wk; yhg;>
1989) njupe;Jnfhs;tjw;F xU rpwe;j topahFk;. Mrpupau;fs; khztu;fs; ngw;NwhUf;F
mwpf;if nfhLf;Fk; NghJ mtw;wpd; KbTfis Mjupg;gjw;fhf mtw;wpd; Ma;T kw;Wk; khztu;
Ntiy Nrfupg;Gfisg; gad;gLj;jyhk;. /Nghu;l;NghypNahf;fs; khztu;fis cw;rhfg;gLj;jTk;
khztu; Ra kjpg;gpL kw;Wk; Ra Gupjiy Cf;fg;gLj;jTk; cjTfpd;wd (gpNurpau; & ghy;rd;>
1992).

mwpTWj;jYld; tupirapy; kjpg;gPl;il mspf;fpwJ

kjpg;gPl;L ,yf;FfSld; ,zf;fkhd Kiwapy; khztu;fis kjpg;gpL nra;a


/Nghu;l;NghypNahf;fs; xU rpwe;j topahFk;. /Nghu;l;NghypNahf;fspy; "cl;nghjpf;fg;gl;l kjpg;gpL
" xU tbtkhf fUjg;gLfpwJ; mjhtJ> kjpg;gPl;Lg; gzpfshdJ Nghjidapd; xU gFjpahFk;.
Mrpupau;fs; Kf;fpakhd fw;gpj;jypd; Fwpf;Nfhs;fis epu;zapf;fpwhu;fs;. mwpTiuapd;NghJ
ftdpg;G kw;Wk; fw;gpj;jy; rpf;fy;fspy; rpytw;iw Nrfupg;gjd; %yk;> kjpg;gpL Neubahf
mwpTWj;jypy; (\nty;rd;> 1992) ,lk; ngWfpwJ.

kjpg;gPL vd;gJ xU Kf;fpa jPu;khdpg;G> khztu;> mwpTWj;jy; kw;Wk; ghlj;jpl;lj;jpd; (Linn>


Baker> & Dunbar> 1991) %yk; khztu;fs; eltbf;iffs;> vOj;jwpTj;jd;ik kpFe;j
fy;tpawpTilaitahFk;. xU Gjpa kw;Wk; gugug;ghd mZFKiw> khztu;fSf;Fk;>
Mrpupau;fSf;Fk; ngw;Nwhu;fSf;Fk; jfty; nfhLf;Fk; Mjhuq;fs; cs;sd> NkYk; ey;y
kjpg;gpLfspd; mbg;gilapy; kw;nwhU gpujhd gupkhzj;ij (Nfhk];> fpNut;> & gpshf;> 1991)
Nkk;gLj;jyhk;.
ika Nghf;F msTfs;

ikag; Nghf;F xU msT vd;gJ juTfspd; njhFg;Gf;Fs; ika epiyikia milahsk;


fhz;gjd; %yk; juTfspd; njhFg;ig tptupf;f Kaw;rpf;Fk; xU kjpg;G MFk;. mit RUf;f
Gs;sptptuq;fshf tifg;gLj;jg;gLfpd;wd.

ruhrup> ,ilepiy kw;Wk; Kiw ika Nghf;F midj;J rupahd eltbf;iffs;> Mdhy;
gy;NtW epiyikfspd; fPo;> rpy Nghf;Ffs; ika Nghf;F kw;wtw;iw tpl gad;gLj;j kpfTk;
nghUj;jkhdJ. gpd;tUk; gpupTfspy;> ehk; ruhrup> Kiw kw;Wk; ,ilepiyiag; ghu;g;Nghk;>
NkYk; mtw;iw vg;gb fzf;fplyhk; vd;gij mwpe;J nfhs;sTk; kw;Wk; ve;j R+o;epiyapy;
mit gad;gLj;jg;gl Ntz;Lk; vd;gij mwpaTk;.

ruhrup nghUs;

xU Gs;sp tptu njhlupYs;s midj;J cWg;GfisAk; $l;bdhy; fpilf;Fk; nkhj;jkjpg;ig


cWg;Gfspd; vz;zpf;ifahy; tFj;jy; fpilf;Fk; kjpg;G ruhrup MFk;.

kf;fs;njhifapd; ruhrupf;F milahskhf "µ" gad;gLj;jg;gLfpwJ. khjpup "vk;" vd;gJ


khjpupapd; ruhrupf;F gad;gLj;jg;gLfpwJ. Μ f;fhd R+j;jpuk; fPNo fhl;lg;gl;Ls;sJ

Μ = ΣX / N

ΣX vd;gJ kf;fs; njhifapd; midj;J vz;fspd; njhifahFk;

N vd;gJ kf;fs; njhifapy; vz;fspd; vz;zpf;if.

M f;fhd R+j;jpuk; mbg;gilapy; xNu khjpupahdit:

M = ΣX / N

ΣX vd;gJ khjpupapy; cs;s midj;J vz;fspd; $l;Lj;njhif kw;Wk; N vd;gJ khjpup


vz;fspd; vz;zpf;if.

cjhuzkhf> vz;fs; 1> 2> 3> 6> 8 vd;gJ 20/5 = 4 MFk;> vz;fs; KO kf;fs;njhif
my;yJ kf;fsplkpUe;J xU khjpupahf ,Ue;jhYk; rup.

,ilepiy

xU Gs;sp tptu njhlupYs;s midj;J cWg;GfisAk; VW tupir my;yJ ,wq;F tupirapy;


mLf;fp gpd; ngwg;gLk; eLkjpg;G ,ilepiy MFk;.

,ilepiy vd;gJ ikag; Nghf;Ffspd; mbf;fb gad;gLj;jg;gLk; mstPL MFk;. ,ilepiy


vd;gJ xU njhlupd; ikag;gFjpahFk;: mNj vz;zpf;ifahdJ fPNoAs;s ,ilepiyf;F Nky;
cs;sJ. ml;ltizapy; 1 jutpw;fhf> 31 kjpg;ngz;fs; cs;sd. 16 tJ kjpg;ngz;fSf;F 15
kjpg;ngz;fs; kw;Wk; 16 tJ kjpg;ngz;fSf;F Nky; 15 kjpg;ngz;fs; cs;sd vd;gjhy;> 16
tJ mjpfgl;r kjpg;ngz; (,J 20 rkk;) MFk;. ruhrup 50 rjtpfpjk; vd;W fUjyhk;.

KfL

KfL vd;gJ ve;j xU vz; xU njhlupy; jpUk;g jpUk;g tUfpd;wdNth me;j vd; KfL
vdg;gLk;. kpfTk; mbf;fb epfOk; kjpg;G.

rpjwy;

xU Gs;sp tptu gutypd; ruhrupia Rw;wp mg;gutypd; cWg;Gfs; rpjwp fplf;Fk; jd;ikia
mstpLtjw;F rpjwy; vd;W ngau;.
,e;j tiuaiwfs; midj;jpYk;> gutyhd xU Fwpg;gpl;l njhlupd; ika kjpg;igg; Rw;wp kw;w
vy;yh kjpg;GfSk; rpjwpf; fplf;Fk; msitf; Fwpf;Fk; xU kjpg;ghf $wyhk;.

rpjwypd; tiffs;

 tPr;R

 fhy;khd tpyf;fk;

 ruhrup tpyf;fk;

 jpl;l tpyf;fk;

tPr;R

xU Gs;sp tptuj; njhlupYs;s kPngU kjpg;gpw;Fk;> kPrr


; pW kjpg;gpw;Fk; ,ilNa cs;s
tpj;jpahrk; tpr;R vd;W ngau;.

fhy;khd tpyf;fk; (Q.D.)

xU Gs;sp tptuk;> guty; njhlupd; Kd;whk; fhy;khd kjpg;Gf;F xd;whk; fhy;khd


kjpg;Gf;Fk; ,ilNa cs;s tpj;ahrj;ij ,uz;lhy; tFj;jhy; fpilg;gJ fhy;khd tpyf;fk;
MFk;.

fhy;kd tpyf;fk; ' vd;w fUj;J 'Nky; Fthu;l;ily;' (Q3) kw;Wk; 'Nyhtu;
Fthu;bs;' (Q1) Mfpatw;wpd; kjpg;Gfs; kl;LNk fzf;fpy; vLj;Jf; nfhs;Sk;. Fthu;b rpijT
',il-Fthu;l;ly; tuk;G' vd;Wk; miof;fg;gLfpwJ. rpy Fwpg;gpl;l nghUl;fspd; tpOf;fhL
tPo;r;rpailAk; tuk;ig mwpe;J nfhs;tjpy; Mu;tkhf ,Uf;Fk; NghJ ,J xU rpwe;j top.

fhy;khd tpyf;fj;jpd; ed;ikfs;

(I) fzf;fpl vspjhdJ. ehk; Q1 kw;Wk; Q3 kjpg;Gfs; fz;Lgpbf;f ntWkNd Njit kw;Wk;
gpd;du; Fthu;bf; tpyfy; KOikahd kw;Wk; Fzfk; R+j;jpuk; tpz;zg;gpf;f Ntz;Lk;.

(Ii) tuk;ig tpl rpwe;j KbT ,J. tuk;igf; fzf;fpLifapy;> ehk; tpe;ijahd tpyfy;
tp\aj;jpy;> gutyhd rpijTfis cUthf;Fk; jPtpu kjpg;Gfis kl;LNk fUJfpNwhk;> ehk;
fzf;fpy; 50% nghUs;fis fzf;fpy; vLj;Jf;nfhs;fpNwhk;.

FiwghLfs;

(I) ,J ika cUg;gbfis Kw;wpYk; rhu;e;Js;sJ. ,e;j kjpg;Gfs; xOq;fw;w kw;Wk;


mrhjhuzkhf ,Ue;jhy;> tpisT ghjpf;fg;gLk;.

(Ii) mjpu;ntz; njhlupd; midj;J nghUl;fSk; Q1 kw;Wk; Q3 kjpg;Gfs; fz;lwpAk;


tifapy; rkkhd Kf;fpaj;Jtk; nfhLf;fg;gltpy;iy.

(Iii) ,J njhlu;r;rpahdjhf fUjg;gLk; njhlupd; vy;yh nghUl;fisAk; fzf;fpy; vLj;Jf;


nfhs;shJ .

(rp) ruhrup tpyf;fk;

ruhrupahd tpyf;fk; vd;gJ> ruhrup nghUspd; ruhrup my;yJ kPbad; my;yJ gad;Kiwapy;
,Ue;J gy;NtW cUg;gbfspd; ruhrupia vLj;Jf;nfhs;tjd; %yk; ngwg;gLk; kjpg;G vd
tiuaWf;fg;gLfpwJ.

ruhrup ed;ikfs;
1. ruhrup tpyfy; xU njhlupd; midj;J nghUl;fisAk; fzf;fpy; vLj;Jf;nfhs;tjhy;> mJ
NghJkhd gpujpepjpj;Jt KbTfis toq;FfpwJ.

2. khWghLfspd; vy;yh mwpFwpfSk; Neu;kiwahf vLj;Jf; nfhs;sg;gl;ljhy; ,J


fzf;fPLfis vspikahf;FfpwJ.

3. ruhrup FiwghL ruhrup my;yJ kPbad; my;yJ gad;Kiwapy; ,Ue;J tpyfy;fis vLj;Jf;
nfhs;syhk;.

4. ruhrup cUkhw;wk; jPtpu nghUl;fis ghjpf;fhJ.

5. fzf;fpl kw;Wk; Gupe;J nfhs;s vspJ.

6. ruhrup tpyf;fk; MNuhf;fpakhd xg;gPLfis nra;a gad;gLj;jg;gLfpwJ.

ruhrup FiwghLfs;

1. ,J Neu;ikaw;w kw;Wk; midj;J Neu;kiw mwpFwpfs; Neu;kiw mwpFwpfs; vd;W fUJtJ


fzprkhf cs;sJ.

2. Kiw fzpj uPjpahf ,y;iy vd;gjhy;> ,e;j Kiw %yk; ngwg;gl;l KbTfs; ek;gfkhdit
my;y.

3. njhlu;r;rpahd njhlu; my;yJ njhlupd; xg;gPLfis xg;gpLtjw;F ,e;j Kiw nghUj;jkw;wJ.

nghJkf;fs; my;yJ Gs;spapay; Kiwfs; gof;fkpy;yhj FOf;fSf;F toq;fpa mwpf;ifapd;


NghJ ,e;j Kiw kpfTk; gaDs;sjhf ,Uf;Fk;.

xl;LwT gFj;jha;T

ika epiyg;Nghf;F msitfs;> rpjwy; msitfs; Mfpait xU khwpapd; jd;ikfis gw;wp


$Wfpd;wd. eilKiwapy; ,uz;L my;yJ mjw;F Nkw;gl;l kwpf;fSf;fpilNa njhlu;G
epyTfpd;wJ. ,t;thW xU khwpapd; kjpg;gpy; Vw;gLk; khWjy; fhuzkhf mNjhL njhlu;Gs;s
kw;nwhU khwpapd; kjpg;gpYk; khw;wk; Vw;gl;lhy; ,ij xl;LwT vdg;gLfpwJ.

tiffs;

 Neupil kw;Wk; vjpupil xl;LwT

 jdp> gFjpru; kw;Wk; gyjug;gl;l xl;LwT

 Neu;f;NfhL kw;Wk; Neu; Nfhlw;w xl;LwT

 G+[pa xl;LwT

khwpfs; njhlu;Gilajh ,y;iyah vd;gijj; njupe;Jnfhs;s cjTfpd;w ntt;NtW


Kiwfs; cs;sd.

1. fhu;y; gpau;]dpd; $l;bizT njhlu;G.

2. ju xl;LwT Kiw.

(1) fhu;y; gpau;]dpd; Kiw gutyhf gutyhf njhlu;GgLj;jp mstpLtjw;F eilKiwapy;


gad;gLj;jg;gLfpwJ. ,iz-jpwDld; njhlu;Gila FwpaPlhdJ R milahskhff;
Fwpg;gplg;gLfpwJ.

FWf;F ntl;L Kiw: xNu Neuj;jpy; ntt;NtW taJ epiyfspy; cs;s jdp egu;fis gw;wp
mwpAk; Kiw MFk;.
tiuglq;fs;

tiuglq;fs; %yk; Gs;sptptuq;fis kf;fs; Gupe;J nfhs;s KbAk;. fzpdpfs; cjtpAld;


Gs;sptptuq;fis njspthf Gupe;J nfhs;s KbAk;; Gs;spapay; kjpg;Gfs;> ruhrupahfTk;>
eLepiyahsu;fSlDk;> rpy jftiyr; Rygkhf vLj;Jf; nfhs;Sk; NghJ> jutpd;
njhFg;Gfis mit tbtq;fshf fhl;lhJ. Mdhy;> tiuglq;fs; kw;Wk; tpsf;fg;glq;fs;
mtw;iw nra;fpd;wd.

jfty; tptfhuq;fspd; mbg;gilapy; khztu;fis <u;f;Fk; Kaw;rpapy;> ftu;r;rpfukhd


tiuglq;fs; kw;Wk; tpsf;fg;glq;fis toq;f KbAk;.

tiffs;

 epfo;ntz; guty; nrt;tfglk;

 epfo;ntz; gy;Nfhz glk;

 $l;L epfo;ntz; tisTNfhL

 $l;L epfo;ntz; rjtPj tisTNfhL

gpd;tUk; fhuzq;fSf;f tiuglq;fs; kpfTk; gaDs;sjhf cs;sd:

1. tiuglq;fs; ftu;r;rpfukhdit> ftdj;ij <u;f;ff;$bait kw;Wk; Neuj;ijAk;


Nrkpf;fpd;wd.

2. tiuglq;fs; vspa kw;Wk; cyfshtpa gad;ghL cs;sJ.

3. tiuglq;fs; xg;gPLtjw;Fk; kw;Wk; NkYk; gy jfty; nfhLj;J cjTfpwJ.

Nfs;tpfs;:

1. gpujpgypg;G ,jopd; ed;ikfs; tptupf;fTk;.

2. xU ey;y gpujpgypg;G ,jo; kjpg;gpL tbtikf;f vg;gb?

3. nghUs;> tiffs; kw;Wk; rpijT Kiwfis vOJq;fs;.

4. njhlu;G kw;Wk; gad;ghLfs; Kiwfs; tptupf;fTk;.

5. gpujpgypg;G gj;jpupif kw;Wk; khztu; mikr;ru;fspd; kjpg;gPl;il kjpg;gpL nra;jy;.