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General editor: Miles Taylor

Series editors: Jane Winters, Simon Thafford and Jonathan Blanev

This series is lirr new researchers in history arrcl is manirsccl in association

with the lnstitute of Historical Research (II-{R). By ofIi:ring a practical
introduction to a sub-discipline of tristory, each book equips its reaclers
to navigate a new field of interest. Every volunre provides a survey of the
historiography and current. r'esearch in thc subject; describes relerrant
methodological issucs; looks at irviril:rblc primary sorrrccs in diIÏèrent SIAN BARBER
meclia and fbrmats and the problems of their access and int.crpretati()n.
Each volume includes practical case studies ancl examples to guicle your
research, ancl handy tips on how to avoid some of the pitfalls which nray
lie in wait for the inexperienced reseirrcher.
The guides are suiftrble for aclvancecl final-vear undereraclturtes,
master's and first-year PhD students, as wt:ll as {br indepenclcnt
researchers who wish to take their r,r,ork to a rnore adv:rnc«:d stirge.

. Il
it^ ri\-'

Manchester University Press


Lisl of illustrations ix
l; ( I'rrt:r'al edil()r's introclucti<lrr xi
'\r'krrowledgements xii
( llossary and abbrerriations xiii

I Introduction I

I I Film and history/ B

It Film firrnr and aeslhetics 28
'l Film hist«l'iography 5t
5 Fornrulating research qlresti()rrs 7r
(i Theory irncl rneth<)dolosv tt8
7 Resorrrces 106
l'l Using sollrces 12ô
1) Writing up yr)ur finclirrgs t45

\r'lt'r:t bibliography and res()rrrces 16I

Irrrlcx r73

, ti.

.i-:t:, .

].lut',,r0 likc t«r thank ('\.eryone who has been involved irr the prodtrction
lll,-',r,t b..k, i.t:lrtrli,,13 ..,".yorrc at Mant:hcster Univci'sity l'rcss,
Pahli,',,lr.lu Ernrna
Brennn,, ,nj Rachel ÿÿirtterbr>ttom l'or their iatience l|1O-rk:gree mle ensrrres that ch:rracters and obiects rernain on th(i
flltl p'.,f..ri.rnalism. nly t arrf., also go to Miles Taylor of the lnstitute of sarne sicle ol'the fi'ame. lnvert.ing a scenc' or a shot
,-"'lolical Research, who c«rrnmissioned rne to write this volurne, ancl to within a sequence breaks this rule and the rtrles ol'
'ln'|' \À'i,,,..r. wh() to()k time [() read the or-iginal proposal. continrrity editins
l'lri. project would rrot have c()me to fi'tritir>n without tlre support .llll('rrr theory dominant theory within filrn studies rvhiclr suggcsts a
.-r,,o,,ll.ngr.r.s and stafl at Royal Flolloway'
tJnivcrsity of London ancl singlc c:reat.ive 'author' lcrr a fih'n texl.
.T"s"n'. Llniversitv Ilelfirst. It wotrld ttever have been finished rvithorrt clr iaroscurr)
l"l ,,rpp.,* of Sally Shaw, Oiirrzr (lhanrbcrs, Kinr Akirss and Cathy
stylc of liuhtirrg rvhich clcliber:rtelr" drarvs attcnti()n
t"â\ks who all prrrvidccl rnuch-treeded s<llidarity. F'inally, as always, my to sh:rclorvs and light; o{iel trsed t() create sl.rips «iI'
to paul, *itlr,r,,t whom none ol this rvould have becn possible. sltirclorv acloss the fi'arnc
r'lroker shot shot of fàce or head which Illls tht' rvholc fiarne
close up hea<l-ancl-shotrl<lcrs shot
rlr'«'p fcrcus/
r k'pt lr <>f fielcl acti()n in A scer)e shown in sharp relicf bot.h in tht-'
backglound irn<l the tirreqr()und
rlirgt'tic sound sourrd in a {ilrn wlrich has a sourcc visible on thc
screen arrcl lvhich can bc' hezrrd by tlte characters.
Non diagetic sorrnd c:rn onlv bc ltearrl by the
audience and is not heard by the character or
present within the scene
lladv lcw tax lcvied on llritish cxhibit<.rrs, who werc lequired
t() repav a percentage of cinerna adrnissions back t<l
the proclrrccrs oI' successfirl fi lms
li'aming how the action is irrranged and sltot
llirys Code H«rllyr,r'ootl productior r cocle r,r,hich determincd tlr<:
c()r)tent of Anrericart filrrrs
.lurnp cut a transition betwecn shots rvhich dcliberately
disnrpts tl're expccted r)irrrativc florv ol- a se(lller)cc

by removing an expt:cted shot or mis-rnatchins two
sirnilar shots
a rccrrrring mrrsic:rl cue whir:h accompanies
ctlirractcr or action
Inlsc'-c n-scelle the orsairisecl contents of the fiante and how ther

arrdierrcc are irrviterl lo ser. it
style of editing or combination of shots in seqrrcnce
to achieve a particular effect
P2rrl ca[)era rnoüng l-rorizontally on axis
shot/reverse typical sequence of filrnmakins sh()ts often used ftrr I lrc single most powerfirl obstacle t() the historical use of filrn has beert
converszrtions and close ups tlrt' historian's üew that compared with the tnasses of othcr docurnen-
sutlrre cditing (also known as continuity or invisible editine) t,rr v t'vidence available film was especially unreliable as evidence.l
brings indiüclual shots and f'ootase tosether without
showine the .joins. This ensures that the Ilow of a l'llrrr lrrovides a fascinating insight into the past through documeutary,
sequence is maintaincd and characters' eyelines, for ,urlrivlrl and amateur film firotage and a deliberately constmcted
exampler, rernain at. the s:rme level lrtrtolical world through feature films. Howeveq usine lilrn as 'historical
rilr calnera rnoving vertically on axis r r'rrk'rr<t:' is far fiom straishtfbrward; speci{rc skills are required ttr
verisimilitude a crafted visu:rl impression of reality urrrlclstirnd the complexities of the visual rnedir,rm, its relationship to the
1ur r('ry fïom which it emerees, the indtrstry which created it and those
rllro consumecl it.. Despite these obstacles, fihn is a cntcial tneans fbr
BBFC] British Board of Film Censors, founded in 1912, rrrrrh'r'sl.:rnding the recent past. William Hughes noted that'the public's
known fiom 1984 as ttre British Board of'I;ilm r lruilt'ut the box oflice, proüdes a crtrde lneasure of the accuracy of
(ll irssificirtion
tlrr, litrnmaker's hypothesis about popular values', while Paul Srnith
R!](]TU Rroadcasl.ing, Entertainment, (linematoeraph and ,,rrrsirlt'red that'film recorcls the outlook, intentions and capabilities of
Theatre Union tlrost'who made it; it illustrates irt some way the character of the society
BFI British Film Institute trr wlrich it was produced and fbr which it was designecl'.2
BtJF'VC British Universities Filrn & Vicleo (iruncil l,ilrrr is one of the clominant cultural firrms of the twentieth and
NFFC National Filrn Finance (iorporation. ()ovcmrnent Irr('nty-first cent.uries. What people chose t() see and whirt filmrnakers
body which supported the Rritish lilrn indLrstr-y r lrosc to rnake reveal a great deal :lbotrt the nature of contemporary
lilr', pnrvailing social c()ncerr)s. preconceptions, morals and rnanners.
l'rlrrr r':rn reveals a tryriad clf attitudes, not simply of those who are in the
lrlrrr, lrrrt also those of directors, scriptwritcrs, proclucers irnd financiers.
Nole.' Use of bold thoush thc text inclicates key ter.rns and idezrs. Sonre ol' l'r'rlr:rps most importantly, films can help us understand how past
t.hese arc fèatrrred in the glossary but otl'rers are highlighted within the ,rrrrlicrrr:es responded to issues, characters and ideals. Film and moving
texl. to draw att.errtion to key ideas as appropr.iate in irrcliüdr.ral sections. rn,rg(' ('an help us probe the delicate relationship between culture and
rlr icty, between Ïilm ancl attdience, and benveer) spectat()rs irrr«l the
tlrt.'l'lre filrns that are consumed by a society, the film stars venerated
,rrrrl llrc preferred genres, as well as trends in perftrrrnatrce sÿle,
r ur'nr:rt()graphy and costulne, can all shcd light on preoccupat.ions of
,rrrrlicrr<'es in past decades.

f'he skills acquired in the fielcls of history politics, English lirerarure, ,.r,rrrrirrc British films and cinema. The approach identified here for
sociology, cult.ural and rnedia studies can :rll help to explore film as tlrl slrrrly of British {ilrn, cinema and history can be applied to the:
'historical evidence', hut the sttrcly of film is a cliscipline in its own right. rllllt'rtrrt types of fihn prodtrcecl and consurned any"r,vhere in the worlrl
Filnr cannot bt: treatecl lj-ply as ir historical source, but ratherneeds to tlr(l s() rnay be of use to students and scholars of any kind of film and
be undcrstood as a distinctive mediurn, possessed of visual and textual 111uvirrg irnage.
cocles. f'his study euide is intended to provide a starting point firr those As as being intended fbr those engaged in the study of filrn, this
seekirrs to usc film as a s()urce. It is airned at those who want to use glrrk' is also aimed at those who are keen to use film material in tl'reir
filrn irnd mor,.ing irnaee as the basis fcrr research :urd olïèrs advice on rrrr';rrll). There are many diflèrentways in which filrn can be used to
research methods, theory ancl methodolosv and film-based analysis. ,lrvrloP lesearch, and the films themselves can either contribute to the
Iiverything included here is also intended to be goocl practice, whether rrlr,r ;rll topic of research or perhaps form the main body of the research
it be conductins an interview, visiting an archive, undertakins textual rrr,rtclill. For example, researchers rnight be keen to explore the visual
ilnalysis or definins a research question. r rpr ('s('ntation of the 'blitz spirit' in Rritish wartime fihn culture through

It is likcly that r)()t all sections will be relevant for all readers; some rrlrvrn'cl fbotage or feature filrns, or to consider film propaganda in the
rnay be interested in usins fihn to explore political icleology, others may | \ tr ('rnc fâscist regimes of 1930s. Perhaps the fcrcus might be to examine
be interested in the sttrdy of f'cature films, whilc others may be keen tcr , lr,rrrgirrg masculinity in Amcrican films of the I980s by focusing on stars
expkrre audience responscs to particular groups of films. I.-ilrn is a broad rrr lr irs Harrison Ford, Michael J. Fox and'lbm Cmise. These research
rnedium ancl as well as identiÿing the range of methods throush which prniccts would require the researcher to use film in different ways. It
you c:rn approach it, this work also indicates how works supplementary tr rro( simply a case of watching films to see wh:rt they are about and
to lilm can be explored and ut.ilised within research. With this in mind, rtlr,rt tlrcy mean, but rather to analyse their textrral qualities in detail,
this guide sugsests horv you can gather data on film audiences, identiÿ , rl,lolt'their production and reception contexts, and their relationship
ancl expkrre film industry d«rcnmentation and locate personal papers of' tr rur(lustry and aucliences.
filnr industry insiders. It is:rlso crucial to examine {ilms in terms of ttreir technical qualities
For nrany years filrn was the mass rnedium of education, ,rrrrl clraracteristics: films are both technical objects and a lirrm of artistic
communication and entertainrnent. Yet filrn's position has been , tprtssion, and this du:rlity is crucial to fully understanding them. As
eclipsed by the rapid growth of television :rnd, more recently, thc l,rrrrcs Monaco reminds us, 'every art is shaped not only by its political,
intenrert. While the medium of television operates under a dilïerent plrilosoJrhical and economic factors but also by its technology'.:rIt is
set ()I' cllltural imperatives, funding stnrctures and production r1o1 r'rrough simply to concentrate on the aesthetic aspecls of film; the
determinants, a sreat deal of whirt will be explored in relation to the rrlirlcher must irlso krok at the technical factors in order to consider
visual qualities and research potential of film and its importarrce as tlrr. irrrpzrct of new editing, sound and cinematosraphv techniques as
:r source carr also be applied to television. Howeveq television as ir rrrll rrs special effècts and computer-aided design.
sep2rrate rnecliurn is not the principal lbcus of this work. This book will l{r'st'arch into film could seek to understand film genres ()r
lbcus predominantly on fihl, ancl specifically on British films and the rrrr\,('rncllts further, to utilise film theory to explain the popularity of
resources that perurin to this body of work. The focus is mainly British; rplcili<' types of films in particular historical periods or to sugeest a link
Hollpvood films are also refèrred to in passinu, yet are not explored Itr'tw('('n the üsual culture of a decade and the preoccupations of the
in sisnificant depth or detail. The reason fbr this is twofbld: firstly, rur ictÿ which created and consumed it. lt coulcl seek to understand how
to include zr considcration ol American resources would drastically irrrlrrslry and economics shape film products or explore how audiences
increasc tl)e paranleters of this work, and secondly, there are a sreal rlrlrrrrrrled to specific films or film events, such as Star Wars (1977),
number of works which fbcus on Flolllwo<td cinerna and use Holllwood t itttt' toi.th the Wind ( 1939) or Alien (I979). Research could focus on how
filrns as research exarnples. This work is intended to scrutinise British rr,wsl)irpers respond to speci{ic lilm texts such as the'video nasties', or
tllrn crrlturc atrd to o11èr ideas on how to explore, analyse, use ancl lrow lilrn theorists understand and critique the work of Lars von Trier or

.fean Vigo, or how researchers seek to make sense of the use of historv rrrrt kirrg on a topic, and how to identiÿ a usefirl approach. This chapter
in films about the past. ,rlro ittt lrrdes two detailed cirse studies. Ohapter 6 will fbllow on fiom the
In order to clo.justice to any of these topics, an understanding of lilm 1ll{H('sli()ns oflêred in Ohaptcrs ,[ and ]1 and dernonstrate horv a topic or
as an object is required. Film is a crafted artefact. It is rarely produced by n'lr';rrrlr area can be rnatchecl with an appropriate nrethodology and a
a sinS4lc person, but rathèi clepencls on the creative and technir:al skills liarnework. Drawinc on somc of the kcy theories and zrpproaches
r t llir':rl
of a range of people. It is also never produced in a cultural and social trlnrtilicd in Chapter 3, this ch:rpter will also show how these theories
vacuum. It is both a product of a society and an object of consumption r,lr irrrrl have been used. The exarnples reveal how scholars working
ltrr society. Resardless of its genre and thematic preoccupiltions, filrn rtltlr lilrn have utilised dillèrent critical and methodological approaches,
will always suggest sonrethine about the period in which it was rnade. .rtttl rlctnonstrate the usefirlness of existing work in helping to stmctrrre,
Orucially, film is essentially a visual rnedium and analysis of visual style r,-rrirlch and approach your own {ilm-related topic.
is a key part of'understanding the film itself. Fihn and visual material (llrirpters 7 and il relate tri the resonrces that can be used to help
docs not -iust present straishtforward narratives in simplistic ways. , \l,l()l'c and understand fihn. Ohapter 7 will ofl'er a detailed survey
Historian.f.A.S. Grenville observed that fihn is much more than simply a ,,1 tlrt'specilic kinds of resources available, where they are held and
collection of irnases, noting 'the adclition of zr sound track can be made lrul tlrey can be irccessecl. This expkrration will include conventional
to influence the visual irnpact of what the camera shot. Montage or the r'\r)lu(:es suclt as books and :rcademic.jor.rrnals, but rvill also contain
art of film editing, can create the efIècts clesired by the film maker.'l The lrloltrration about primary sources, archival material ancl the extensive
study of lilm reqtrires an unclerstancling of all aspects of procltrction, ,ligitirl collections that are accessible. Ohapter 8 suggests ways in which
reception and visual style, and this work will suggest rvays in which this tlrr rlillèrent sorlrces can be used. Exarnples here will draw upon
can be achieved. m'wsl)irper material, account books and ledgers, pcrsonal papers and
The first chapters of this book deal with the relationship that trrtr.tview transcripts. fhe chapter will also slrssest horv such rnaterial
exists between history zrnd filrn, filnr aesthetics and fbrrn, and thn r,ur lx: interrosated, fcrr example how film reviews can be read and
historiography. Chapter 2 considers the way in which the past has been rrrl('r'stood, how interviews should be conducted, how to access visual
created on screen and how film rnaterial has been usecl as a source to ,,r rvlitten material in an archive ancl the valtre of online fan sites. F'inally,
explore the past. In doins so it will suggest how even the most inaccurate, Llr,rPtcr 9 olIèrs ideas on how research can be written up, the kind of
fictitious and crude lilnric representations can be used to exarnine trrlolrnation which shoulcl be included in essays or research projects,
noti()ns of the past and how such nraterial should be approached. Irow lhe analysis should be writtcn, what tonc you shorrld adopt, how
Chapter 3 will consider the characteristics that are particular to fihn as r,rrrl work should be stnrctured and t.he way in which material should
a source, specifically a visual source. It will demonstrate how to 'read' lx' rtlèrenced.
a film, to exarnine how the l,isual and textual language of films has 'l'lrc book aims to provide the tools to undertake film-related analysis.
been deliberately crafted and how it can be understood and explored. \\'lril<' ambitious in sc<-rpc, this work cannot hope to cover everything.
Ohapter 4 will explore the trends that have infcrrmed filrn scholarship l)r'tlriled explorations of ncw media, television, anlateur filrns and
and the way in which filrn has been viewecl, uuderstoocl :rnd studied \i rrr'lirbe content can all be lorrnd elsewhcrc and will only be nrcntioncd
in different periods. This chapter will also examine how trends irr Irrn'where relevitnt.,This suidc is intended to be of use fbr fihn and
historiography can be discerned within ancl mapped alongside trends trtcrlia studies undereraduates and also lirr those who use film as part oI'
ir.r filrn scholarship. ,rrlvirncecl research who may not h:rve studied the subject be{i)re. It will
The next lèw chapters will move awav fiom the theoretical ancl ,rirrr to provicle arlswers to ttre f<rllou,ing qrresti<>ns:
the historical and suegest a practical approach fcrr studying filrn ancl
usins it as a source. Chapter 5 will offer suggestions on how to iclenti§, o How do I identilÿ s()urce materials?
achievable research questions that clraw trpon and relate to film sources. r How carr I analyse my material?
It will inclicate how research questions can be clevised, how to begirr r What critical approach shoulcl I adopt?

o How do I devise a rnethodoloe./? 3 James Monaco, Horu l,o Rcad a l'ilm:

'I-hc Workl ql Moties, Media, an,d
. What are the best sources to use irt lilrn :rrrulvsisi' Multim,edia,: Lan44mge, History, Tlzeorl (New York and ()xfirrd: Oxfbrd
o Do I need to visit an archivc? University Prcss, 2000), p. 49.
o How should I stnrcturc rny lvork? 4 (lrerrvillc, Iiilrn, as Hi.st,or1, p.17.
5 .|amcs Cl'rapman, l,:ihn an.d l{islr»1 (B:rsingstoke: Pirlgravc Macmillan,
As well as ofïering answers to these qucstions, t.lris i4-tritk':tlso sit.ttates 2013); Maartin Perebootn, Ilistorl antl l"il,m: Moaing Pidttres und Llrc Sludl
film-related research work within a tradition ol rrcark'rrri< sclrollrrship of thc I'a.st (Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson, 2010); Mar-nie llughes-
and deliberately challenees outdated notiorrs ol lilrrr ;rs :rrt rrrtt'cliable Warrington, Ilisloty Got's Lo t,lu Mouies: Studying llisLory orL l;ilm (Lonclon:
Routleclee, 2007).
historical source. This wnrk does not set ()llt to rcirrvt'rrt llrc rvlrct'l: therc
are a larse number of exceller-rt works which adrlrcss llrt' topi<' ol f ilm irs
a hismrical source, including recent ptrblications on Iilrrr irrrrl lristory by
Jarnes Chapmirn, Martin Pereboorn artd Marnie Husltcs-\{hrli rt gtotr.r' In
addition toworkwhich is specific to the discipline ol'filrn slrrrli<'s, thcre art-'
also numerotrs usefirl publications which :rddress lrow histori:rrrs tnake usc
of rnoüng imase. Within suc1.r publications, the iclea of filrn as a source is
usually addressecl, though the textual specificities of the lilrn rneclium are
sometimes overlooked in :r desire to align film with rnore conventional
sources. f'his work intcnds to adclress both issues; it will strggest how tcr
concluct film-related research :rnd zrlso olTer guiclelines on bclth tcxtual
analysis and the rrse ol supplernentary eüclence which extends beyond
the text itsclf. This work refers to the work of others in appropriatc detail,
but in the sections where the sorlrces noted are illustrative, the texLs ancl
authors are rnentionecl only briefl1,. This is t() prevent the inclusion of a
ranse of sample sources within the text itself and bibliographv.
Some readers may also fèel that the archive ancl archival lilrn researclr
inclurled here receives sreirter attentiorl tlrirn textual analysis. This is
due to both the intention of this work to foregrouncl the uses of filrn as
a source and the need ltrr a work which provides a usefirl stnrting point
for those kecn to expkrre {ilm-related archive material.


1 J.A.S Grenville, Fihn as Lli.sLorl (llirnrineham: Universitv of Birmineharn

Press, l97t), p.,1 (inaugural lecttrre rielivered irr the University of
Bilminghirm, 5 March 1970).
2 William l{ughcs, 'The evaluation ol lilrn as evidencc' in Paul Smith
(ed.), ltilm anrL th.c Historia'n (Ciirnrl:;ridge: (.larnbridse University Press,
1976), p. 71; ar.rd I'aul Srnith (cd.), film u.ru\. tlLe l:lisLoriun (Carnbriclgc:
Oarnbriclge University Press, 1976), p. 7.

à I
;rrr«l more to dcl with makingç narratives of the past accessible ancl
t'rrtt:rtaining for audiences. AsJohn Tbsh has observed, 'rvhen the past is
. (,nserved or re-enacted for otrr ent.erl.ainment, it is usually presented in
its most attractive light.'2 Films noted for their cavalier treatrnent of the
l):rst, including those mentioned above, are usually highly converrtional
FIL/V\ AND HISTORY irr filmic terms. They obey all the rules of classical filmic storytelling
- rrarrative, structure, characl.er-, plot resolution - and it is in terms of
lilrnmakins, rather than in terms of history, that these films shor-rld first
The peculiariry of historical films is that thcy are defined irt't'oltlittg to For all their srandiose claims for historical accuracy and authenticity,
a discipline that is completely outside the cinema.l lristorical films can never oflèr an interpretation of history 'as it really
wirs' and are rirrely tryir.rg to attempt such a feat, prefèrring instead to
Whcn thinking about film as a source, one of the kev clttt:sliotts which on a version of history rvhich can be sold to audiences. We can use
emerses is the lilrn's relationship to the past it represettts and ltou' lilrns to explore what versions of the past are pref'erred by audiences,
filrns operate as historical obiects. The relationsltip benvccn lilm and Irow and why filrns use the historical p2rst to entcrtain or to educal-e, and
the historical past is a curiorts onc and so this chaPter will cxplore a lrow history is used to allay contemporary fèas.
number of difl'erent approaches avirilable t() th(: resear-cher lo better Historical representatiolls may range from the reverential to the
trrrclerstancl this relationship. Firstl,v, this chapter rvill briellv c<lnsiclet' lillald, fiom cavalier to camp and mocking to rnelodramatic. However,
the rvays in which the historical past is presenterl ()n screen and thc cvcn films which deal with the past in farcical, comical and irreverent
challenses this can pose t() the histori:rn. Films never Preserlt th<: past in wilys are not useless or unworthy of study, Ilor can it. be saicl that. such
a straightlbrward way and so cliff'erent approaches to charircter, narrative lilrns simply present 'bad' history. Canl Ort u,p t,he Khybn (1968) may say
and period need to be delicately probed- Secorrdly. the import.ance ol' little ab«»rt British lndia, but says a great <leal about attitudes towards
filrns as historical s()urces will be discussed. This section will consider llritish imperialism, colonialism, race, gender and ideas of comedy and
the range and imp()rtance of diflerernt types of'rnovitts inrage ancl nirtional identity in late 1960s llritain. Sometimes it is the treatment and
their usefirlness 1.() contemporary historians. As rvcll as feature filnrs lrandling of the historical subject that is most interesting, rather than
about the past, docunlentary and alchive li)otafï(:, aln:ltetlr ftrotage ancl lristorical accuracy.
nelvsrcels rvill also be briefly examitte'cl ancl their relcvance fcrr historians Representations of the past will also differ according to the period in
critiqued. Thirdly, ttris chapter will strggest wa,vs in rvhictr tristorians can wlrich they are macle. For example, Kenneth Branap;h's 1989 aclaptation
use moving inrage in mindful wavs alrd the key qtl(:sti()ns which shotrld ol Shakespeare's Henry V is a very different film to f-aurence Oliüer's
be considered when trndcrt.aking analysis «rf rnoving imase material. rutrchlaucled 1944 irnagining. Although both filrns are drawn fronr
The last section i1cllfles tw6 distinct case stuclies u'hich inclicatt: cxzrctly the same source text and follow the same narrative with the sarne
different ways to explorc the relat.ionship between historv ancl film. ( haracters, visually they are very clifïèrent. Olivier's version was macle at
tlrc height of the Second World War in 1943 and released into cinemas
irr 1944. AsJames Chapman has shown, wartime audiences would have
THE HISTORTCAL PAST ON SCREEN lJrpreciated the war narrative, while the need fbr the film to be positive
rrrrd upbeat accourrts fbr its lack of bloodshed.3
Big-btrdget fèature films such ts liobi'n llood: Ptiru:e of 'l'ILiettes (1991), By contrast Branagh's 1989 adaptation is dirty, gritty and viciously
Brauehearl (1995) and PenrL [:larbor (2001) arc frequently ridiculed for bloody. Scenes fiom the original play that were rem()ved fiorn Olivier's
presenting irtaccurate or fictitious accourlts of the past. But this kinrl vcrsion such as Henry's decision to execute the prisoners, Henry's
of historical filrn l'ras less to do nith history as Atr acadcmic clisciplinc «krubts on the eve of' battle, ancl the Kins's assression and warlike

demeanour are all present in Branagh's interpretation. Macle over lbrty r ('ntllry settings described in Thomas Hardy's original novel. InJoseph
years later, the Branagh fihn has a very clillèrent purp()se and w«ruld l,,rsey's 'l'h,e Go-Behrcen (1971), the grand houses and wide ourdoor
have been seen by audiences fâr more used to graphir: clcpictions of \l)aces are bathecl in slightly sour sunlight, while the modernity of the
warfare. Since the conclusion of' the Second World War, tclevised r lurracter's mannerisms and the way in which the dialogue is delivered
wars, includins Korea, Vietnâm and the first Gulf War, had presented rits awkwardly alongside the period costumes and setting. The anxieties
audiences with glimpses of rnodern warfare. 'fhe Branagh filrn builds , rl 1970s fernininity are evident within the film and the casting
of 3O-year-
on this tradition; the Iighting scenes are graphic and visceral and depict ,rl<l.fulie Christie as L.P. Hartley's l9-year-old heroine Marian only adcls
behaviour - including the pillaging of corpses on the battlefield and the to the awkwardness which pervades this heritage-infused drama of life
slitting of throals ol'enemy soldiers - which would never have fèatured .rrr<l loss.
in a film rnade in 1944. One of the most interesting issues with adapting the past is how
It is also crucial to remember that Shakespeare's Hmry V cannot lilrrrrnakers return f.ô the work of certain authors again and again.
be seen as an accurate historical portrayal but rather a piece of Tudor Srrzanne Pucci and.|arnes Thompson suggest that the constant return of
propaganda which itself needs to be scrutinised as a historical source. lroth filmrnakers and audiences toJane Austen and the Regency period
Any discussion of the film adaptations would have to take note of the lr:rs a great deal to do with nostalgia fbr an imagined past, the mediation
versions of history at work in both the filmic interpretation and within l)('tween past and present and the residual cultural capital of Austen,s
the original play. Issues of adaptation loom large in discussions of' rvork which continues to make her world and its character's relevant for
history on filnr. lf exploring historical adaptation, you need to consider rr rodern-day audiences.a
if the fllm is based upon a novel such as Marsaret lrwin's bestselling 'fhe adaptation of.fane Austen's Etnmainto the high-school
YoungBess, a poem such asTennyson's'The charse of the LightBrigade' (llu,eless (1995) shiftstheprescriptiveRegencysocietysatirisedbyAusten
or a play like Oh! What a, I-oue$ Wr. to modern-day Beverley Hills. Within this adaptation the teenage
Films adapted fiorn pre-existing material have a further layer of llrr)tasonists are preoccupied with clothes, scandal, sex and popularity
authorship that needs to be acknowledged and explored. The past is never ( ()ncerns that also dominated Regency society. In this
way the Regency
simply being recreated but rather it is being interpreted. A screenwriter p:rst is made relevant for modern audiences, specifrcally young cinema-
may be aclapting an earlier source text into a film, but to what extent is ;ioing audiences lamiliar with high-schooI comedies. This selÊconscious
the author of the source text then influential in shaping the film itselfi r ()ntemporary feel, which Andrew Higson identifies, is not conlined to

For exarnple, the swashbuckline adventures <tf Tbm Jones (7963) are '\rrsten but can also be discerned in updates of Dickens and Shakespeare.
based on the novel by Henry Fielding and set in the eighteenth century. liilrrrs made in this period include: Baz Luhrman's Wiltiam Shahespeare,s
While the character, narrative and setting are Fielding's, the lilm's visual lir»neo andJu,liet (1996); 10 Things I Hate About You (l9gg), which is an
style, costumes, performance and rnusic must all be seen through a filter rr;r<late <>f' Tirming of th.c Shrcrul O (2001), a modernday interpretation of
of the period when the film was made and are the result of deliberate {)thello; and Great Dxpectations (1998), re-imaginecl by Alfbnso Cuar«in.i
choices by the filmmakers, screenwriters, actors and technical crew. The l\lrtking the past relevant for teenagers is a key feature of all of these
film is a costumed romp which incorporates traces of the heady, sexually lilrrrs and while their settines may not be historical, the historical source
Iiberated and vibrant 1960s and blends them with the historical past rr raterial makcs these modern-day adaptations important contributions

t() create a {ihn lbr contemporary audiences. Albert Finney swaggers to the broad church of historical and heritage films (see fig. l).
across the screen as Fielding's eponymous hero, fighting, drinking and While there are cross()vers. it is important not to conflate ideas oI'
fcrrnicating with scant regard for period trappings. lrcritagc and of history; heritaee carries with it a set of expectations that
,SinrilarlyJohn Schlesinger's l'ar from the Maddi.ng Croud (1967) also olicn bear little resemblance to more conventional history. Alclrew
takes a traditional literary narrative and brings it to the screen in sun- lligson contends that'one oI the key characteristics of the modern
drenched, colour-saturated glory which cannot but remind audiences of l,,rrglish past represented in costume dramas ... is the display of heritage
the 'swinging 1960s' rather than evoking the more muted nineteenth- spt'ctacle, in terms of landscape, architecture and interior design,.6

'l'hese fihns ancl proerammes are lbcused on rcpreselrtine a period

,rrsthetic to make the past appealing. Regçardless of the activities of the
r llu':rcters and the development of thc narrative, it usually takes place
rvitlrin the con{ir}es of a specifically irnagined and lovinsly recreated
lrist<>rical world of wealth and privilege. Such films fbcus on the lives
ol the wealthy and well-born, and the narrativc is usually preoccupied
witlr mone,v, marriage and class. A heritagc filrn does not need tr>
r ornmunicate or represent a cornplex historical past but rather simply
llr'('sents a beautifully crafted worlcl. Yet, in orcler fbr tl-rese films to be
ttttrlerstood, well received and populaq thc world theli recreate needs
t(, be instirntly recoenisable t() audiences. The popularity of British
lrcritage cinema, both in Britain and beyond indicates the consistent
lrrrl resicluzrl appeal of this specific representation of the past, brlt ho\,v
( lrn these kind of flhns be understood and used as historical sources irr
llr<'ir own right?


As well as beine artist.ically created olrjects, films :rre also artelàcts rvhich
ollcr evidence of an historical past; that is, the past in r,r.hich they were
rttirde rather than the period in which they are set..J.A.S Grenville has
obscrved that the 'realit'l' which Iilms present is 'rearrangcd to suit the
lilrnmaker's artistic, social or political intentions' and that filmmakers
citn banish ternporal ancl spatial limitations through a variety of difÏerent
lcchniques.T \Vhen (]rcnvillc wrote about usins fihn as evidence he was
l)r'edominantly concerned - as were the maior:ity of modern cultural
lristorians - with docurnentary filrn, specifically with film lbotage rvhich
captured 'real' events and used 'real' people. Tbny Barta confirmed
I Shakespcar-c reworked; PatrickVerona (Heat.h Leclger) woos feisty
this historical prcoccupation, notins how 'writers of scholarly history
K:rt:rrina Stratfirrcl (Julia Stiles) in 10 7-hings I ËInLe Abotrl l/oz (1999)
tt:main unent.husiastic about a cinematic comparison: fihn is still easier
lo see as either an authentic (recordecl) past or a fàke (acted) past'.8
ln I980, Pierre Sorlin boldly challenged the assurnptions that
Within this cateuory he inclucles the lavish Merchant Ivory adaptations newsreels and documentary fiLn fbotage were authentic, asserting
srtch as Room aith a ViaLt (1985) and lJotuards End (1992), country- instead, 'we are obliged t() treat newsreels as 'distorted' or rather as
house period drarnas such as Rerna,i,ns of the Dary (1993) and Sha,doularul,s rlirected imaees of society'.!' Ixlay, in our mediatised world, much of
(1993) ancl the Austcn adaptations. fb this sroup we could also adcl what we absorb as part of our everyday lived experience is specifically
televisiorr dramas llke Upstnirs l)ownstuir.ç (1971-1975), 'l'he House of generated lirr the purposes of being seen, and many, if not all, of our
Elliott (1991-1994) and [)outn,ton Abbq,(2010-present) which all share a rnedia experiences are directed. The way in which we experience visual
similar heritage aesthetic :rnd narrative preoccrrpati()ns. t:rrlture h:rs also changecl: Iilms are now available to download, televisior-r

rlrns fi)r twenty-fbur hours and can be pauscrl, x'torrl«'rl irrrrl nrplayed, r orrllicting accounts zrnd the importance ol hist.orical evider-rce.
while the internet ofIèrs a seerningly cndlcss s(t'ouln ol rrrovirrg irnaee l{ost:nstone considers that the straightlbrward narrative stratesÿ
and has becorne the ultirnzrte viewins arrrl slralirrg pl:rtlirlrrr firr user- rlr'ployed in many c()nventi()nal historical films 'denies historical
generated rnaterial. ,tltcrnatives, does away with cornplexities of motivation ot' causation,
While the experience of waictrirrg arr<l vicrvirrg lrrrs < lrrrrrgt:cl, the ,rrrrI banishes all subtlety fiom the worlcl of history'.r'r
material which is now so easily ar.'ailalrlt: r'<'rrririrrs rr rrsclirl trrltural ls this reallv the czrse? Film as a lbrm can ofÏ'cr a rnultiplicity of
indicator and can be efÏèctively rtsod to t'xplor'<' llrt' prr'<orrcuptions rrrr':rnings and interpretations, and this arnbiguity shares a great. deal
and concerns of modern society. Our unrlt'rslurr<[irrg ()l llt(' itnlx)rtancc witlr the nlrance ancl subjectivitywhich is so irnportant to the discipline
of visual culture as a historical ancl culttrrirl sotrr'<t'lurs rk'r'1>r:ned, ycl ol lristory. Fihn is not without nuance and rnany films can and clo
discussions about the unreliable natur'(' ()l [i'irlur'(' Iilrrr irrrrl rnoving rrtilise their storytelling capzrbilities in mcaningfirl ways; fbr exarnple,
image as historical evidence persist, r'vitlr rrr,,r'irrg irrr;rgc rnaterial rkrcttmentaty lilrns fiequentlv use Iihnmaking techniqrres to adclress
constantly cited as a flawecl source. Ignolirre tlr<' Potcrrti:rl of using l)iuticular issues, while in earlier periods political ideolosy has becn
films as sources misses the point tl'rat:lll s()llrl'('s irlt'Ilirrv<'«l, zrnd that attt hored in inclividual filrls in order t() present a particular l,iew of thc
rnoving image sources simply need t.() bc trt:at«'tl witlr tlrc slrrrrc rigorous lrirst. The epic filrrrs rnacle by Sersei Eisenstein such as lSatLllslrip PoLernhitt
investisation as traditional sources. f,rrrlrnillir.forrlirrrovrr Iras pointed (11)25) ancl Ohtobn (192U) provicle an insisht into both c()nternp()rary
out, 'inevitably some documents are ill()rc r-t'li:rlrlt', l<'ss ovt'r'tly rncdiatecl Soviet society and alsr» hiehlight key events from the historical past.
than others, but all, by their very nature, :rrt' rrorrctht'lt'ss rrrcrliat.ions'.rl' l'lrrough his use of montage, editir-rg and sound, Eiscnstein oflers a
Film - whether a cinema newsreel, a documcnlirlv witlr irn ()v('r't political lritical historical perspective, nhich illuminates Soviet filmmaking in
agenda, a light I930s musical comedy or thc lutcsl irrslrrllnr('nt in thc tlrt' 1920s and the politicirl ideology which underpinned the production
Harry Potter franchise * must be evaluated in t.clrrrs ol its olrjcctive and ol his filrns.
bias as well as its content, aesthetics:rnd lirrnr. In this wlr,v lilrns are n() .fust as filmmaking can be political, thoughtfül and nuanced,
diffèrent from conven tional written s()urces. ,rrrdiences also respond to Iilms in inlbrmed and thor-rghtful ways.
Sorlin suggested that, while newsrcels ofTt'r' Iilrrrerl :rrrrl seler:ted üews l'ltc 'meaning-making' power of thc audience has frequently beer)
of the past, feature fihns possess rnuch nron' inlrercrrt valrre as they arc ovt:rlooked in critiques of film, with experts deploril'rg historical
texts which are produced by an inclustry :u'rd c<>rrsrrrrrerl by audiences. irrlccuracies arrd srrssestins that audiences will accept the mytholoeised
He argued that it is this relationship bct.wcen procluction and reception irrrd often fantastical worlcls presented ()n screen zrs 'fâct'. But this is to
which makes feature films so fascinatins as histolical r:viderrce, as they lulderestimate the capabilities of both audie nces and fihnmakers. Tony
can be used to explore contemp()rary mr)res, nranncrs. expcctations and llirrta sussests that the hostility of historians to fihnic representations
attitudes.rr But does this make the rnoving irnage less reliable t.han other ol the past has rnore to do with anxieties about the discipline of history
sources? Robert Rosenstone acknowledges that the discipline of history itst:lf. He observes that 'instant hist.ory on the screen fore-grouncled
involves privileging specific narratives, representing particular points oI' "lristory" the process - as unstable and open', perhaps sugsesting that
view and focusirrg on key events to expkrre wider issues. In this way he irllowins hoi polloi without historical training to acccss the past. in such
sugsests that to a certain exterrt written uarratives are 'r,erbal fictions' anrl ir way permitted àudiences to ensase with the past in a way which was
concedes that 'visual narratives will be "risual fictions" ... not mirrors of n()t dependent on historical scholarship.''' Moclern audiences are filû)
the past but representations of it'.'2 Tl'ris is the case fcrr all films, not simplv slwy, hiehly aware arld heavily critical. They are also carefuliy attuned
those which are set in or abotrt the past. All filrns offer zr representation oI' to Iilmic conventi<-rns and tropes, particularly those used to present the
reality, but film is not, and never cal) be, a rnirror of socieÿ. 1xrst, such as the fiaming of the past through the lens of the present with
Another charge levellecl at representatiorr of'history on filrn is that characters looking back on past events ancl accompanied by flashbacks
throush the srand narrative of storytelling, elements which are held ol voiceovers, or the accessing of the past through a historical object
so dear to historians are overlooked, specifically historical nuance, srtch as a diary, a painting or letter.

It is also irnportant to note that filrns are n()t tlrt' orrlv sorrrces thal t() represent diflèrent pasts and appeal to diflèrent audiences'.r" Unlike
claim to present unbiased'tnrth'. Diaries, persorral ir((()llnls, Iir-rancial lcirdemic history, films are cleliberatcly intended to appeal to audiences
ledgers, newspaper articles, interviews, wil.ncss stlrl('rn('lrts, official irrr<1, in exploring films set in the past or about the past we nee d to think
proclamations and n)any other s*ources rnirkt: ur':rrttlir»s«' r'Iitinrs fot' lllout what audiences need to know and understancl. The past on lilm
historical autherlticity and ilccuracy. Wc shorrlrl nt'vt'r' rr( ('('l)t :rny o1' is rnade relevant fbr audiences fbr a varicty of'clifïèrent reasons. Pierre
ttrese sotrrces at face value but rathcr bc sccpt.i('rl ol rvlrirt tlrcy clainr Sorlin notes:
to do and carefirlly evaluate the source. All sorrrt:t's lravc lrias irrrd films
arc no diffêrent. As William Hughes points out, n,ith [ilrrr ls wit]r other- 'Ihe cultural heritage ol every c()untry and every community includes
sources we rnust be concerned with thc lirrniliar- prrrlrlcrrrs of dating. dates, cve nts and characte rs known to all mernbers of that community
authorship, point of view, aut.hentication anrl vclilicaliorr.r" ... it is enough to select a Ièw details fiom this firr the audience to
Along with documentaries and ne\^/s rep()rts, Iirirtul'c Iilrns can als<r known lhat it is watching a historical film and to place it, at least
seek to ofler'authentic'versions of the pastby irrc<»rpollrtirrg leal lilmed approximately.ri
fbotage of past events or drirwing on other visruü irrragt'r'r''. 'fhe lavish
biopic of Queen Victoria, Sixty Glnrious Iaars (1938), rrst:s lvcll-knowrt lrr this way, he arlrres, historical film allorvs lristorizrr-rs to establish
paintings, engravings and portraits to recreate set-pie(:e tltblt::nrx suclt llre 'basic historical knowleclge' of a society and explore the way in
as the marriage of Victoria ancl Albert, Victoria in mourrrirrg and the which that knowledee is cornmunicirted, developed, challenged and
Queen and her larnily visiting the Crimean War wouncletl in hospital. confronted tlrroush the film rnedium.rs Peter llurke also noted l.hat
Using existing source rnaterial in this way creates a sense o1'authenticitr lrrltur:rl history enables the 'translation' of the lansuage of the past
arrd lamiliarity within the mise-en-scene. The operring sequcnces of 'l'hi.; irrto that of the present, rnakins ttre past 'both visible ancl intelligible'.r1'
is li'ngllnd (2006) also refèr'ence a historical past, but in a diflèrent wav. 'l'his is certirinly the case with the historical fihn, which strives to make
Director Shane Meadows uses historic:rl news footage of events such as tlre past accessible fbr film aucliences, but-just as we cannot speak o1'
the election of Marearet Thatchcr and British Nation:rl I'arty marches 'tlre past' it is also difficult to seneralise about 'the historical film'. We
to create periocl authenticity and to locate the narrative {irrnly rvithin a nr:ed to consider what kind of historical film it is. Is it a costurne filrn,
specilic tirnefiarne. It also serves to make audiences aware of'key events ir literary adaptation or a heritase fihn? Is it a srandiose tristorical epic
such as the Falklands \À'ar which are so important to the development oI or a low-budget romp? Does it base its relationship to the past upon a
thc film's narrative. s()urce text, a novel, pailtirrg, persoll or scries of historical events? And
It is als<,r important to think about the context in which these films lr«rw is it using historical nraterial; does it tell a story, is it being used to
ofTer their retelling of the past. For exarnple, the Biblical epics producecl krcate a specific narrative, does it provicle periocl cletail or authenticity,
in 1950s Holll.lvood reliecl on extensive sets, a vast hrrclget and a cast of or is it beins used to reflect upon the pâst?
thousands. This cycle of fihns drew upon classical antiquity - Ancient
(}reece, Rorne and Egypt - fbr their fihns about the past. Fihns of this
type inclurled 7'he Robe (1953), 'fhc Tbtt Com'man,dmen,rs (1956) and Ben.- HOW TO USE THE MOVING IMAGE
Hur (1959). Holly,r,vood's decisions to focus on a distant past and far A5 A HISTORICAL SOURCE
away lands allowed firr a presentation of the exotic otherness of the past
zurd to sidestep both the USA's own relativc lack of I'ristory and its more l'ilm is not like written history irnd its purp()se is rrot sirnply to educate
contentious history, notably slavery and civil war as well as contemporary or to infbrm. Its purpost: is gcnerirlly commcrcial entertainrnent ancl
anxieties such as the Mc(larthyisrn which stalked Hollyr',ood. in ordcr firr a filrn to bc a success thc subject matter-, narrative and
.fust as the past is not 'fixed', neither is our interpretation of it. characters need to be appealing in a competitive market. The lives
Andrew Hisson has suesested that within films, 'clifïerent aesthetic and of fourteenth-century peasants, eishteenth-century workers, failed
ideological traits, cliffèrent cultural traditions and identities are adopted revolutionaries destined fbr anonymitv, plantation slaves or oppressed

citizensûraynotbeobviotrsbox-olli<<'tlt:trvs:tttrlil r.tttlrt;rrlr:rllt'trgettr positioned in the rnarket. If the film is intended to tap into the heritage
make these narratives appcalirrg to t ittt'ttt:t:tttrlicttr t s. ( )ttc rt';rv irr which rrrirrket and the production has a suhstantial budget, then it is likely
to enliven such tâles of minr>r'ity B11)tll)s is 1,, li, liotr,tlisr'.r\l)('( ls ol these tlr:rt the setting will be laüshly authentic with a high level of attention
narrativesandthusmovenwtryfirrlrrllrcsoli<llortttrl:rtiottsol lristoryand to detail. Stately homes have stood in as key locations in a range of
into the realms of historical 1:rntast'. lrist<rrical films from Golford Park (2001), Vanity Fair (2004), Aktnemen,t
Films can olten ltt: most ilttt'r't'stirrg irr rrlt:tl lltcr (l() ll(,1 sltt>w; for (?{)07) ancl Ja.ne Eyre (2011) with production designers making use
example, the inforrnation that is ilrrplir'<l itr st l rL silirr. tttttsit ol ( ()stumc ol the magnificent exterior and interiors of locations such as Castle
but never said. If the p:rst is ltcirrg pttst ttlt'rl itt lt p:ttlir ttlltt way, thc lloward and Chatsworth to create a 'look' of the past but also to suggest
researcher'sjob is not to bctnoittt tlt«' lltt l< ol :tttlltt ttlir itt « rirk'rrt. in thc r lirss or wealth through thc sct dressins and the resulting mise-en-scene.
perioddetail,buttoaskwhythelxrs(ltltslrt'«'ttttrottligtttt'rlittstt<'haway. lrrlirrmation about fllm locations arrd the specific look desired by set
We should consider: who thc Iilrrr is:rirrr«'tl ltl, rvlt:tl tvt tt' lltc irrlt'tttions ol rl«'signers and cinematoeraphers can often be found in magazine zrnd
the directoq whatwere the iltf lttt'tt< t's ott lltt'st'l lttttl ( ()sllllll(' rlt'signers. r('wspaper articles and provide a useful insight into the reasorls behind
All films oflèr a range of vicrvitre plt'ltstttts lirr tlrt ir :rttrlicttt«'s and it t lrc choice of specific locations.2r As well as location filming, re searchers

is important to recognise tlte spcciIit t'x1x'tit'ttrts llr:rl rlolltt's, music, rlrould think about how the sets have been constmcted. Are they well
dialogue, character and narrirtivc olli'r' irr <lillt'r ('ttl kirr(ls ol lristorical r r';rfted and realistic looking? Is more suggested by the set than simply
{ilms and films wl'rich use the past. All rltt<'sliotts :tlxrttl Iltc rv:tys in which lristorical accuracy or loc:rtion setting? A clever set desisner will make
the films construct a historical pâsl ll('('(l lo lrt' lilttttt'rl :ttrrttltrl general tlrt: film set suggestive of far rnore than simple historical period. Artist
qrtestions of wlrat the film is trying l.o rlo :trr<l Irorv il is <loirrg it. l)t'rekJarman fàmously designed the city walls of seventeenth-century
As with all scholarship, film sottrccs Itct'tI lo lrt' ittl«'t t og:ttt'<l and their l,oudun in Ken Russell's aclaptation of The Deuik (197I) to krok like a
probitychallenged. Inordertouse anyfilrrrirsrrs()tIr'((',w('l)ltlstaskhow prrblic lavatory. The grubby white tiles not only provide a sordid and
ithas been created, why it has been crelttcrl lrrtrl rvlro il lr:rs lrt't'tt created rk'gradecl backdrop to the narrative of religious corruption which
for. We need to exalnine what it presents tlrl(l wltitl is srrgg«'stt'tl thror'rgh rrrrlolds but also fit in with the source material in which Aldous Huxley
the narrative but we should zrlso look lirr t>tttissiotts, olrlits<'at.i<lns and rlt'clared that the exorcism of SisterJeanne was similar to'a rape in a
absences within the text. Are the anachrortistrts rlt:lilrt't lttt', or simply the prrblic lavatory'.2?
result of poor research? We also must consider if the past is being fashioned for a particular
Difl'erent films visualise the past in diflclcnt \\rays arr(I, as Natalie Irrrrpose - lbr example, to appeal to a modern, young audience. Does
Zemon Davis points out, there catr be rnany pitl:rlls in a visualised tlrc dialogue sound authentic or is it anachronistic? Does it sit well with
historical past. She draws attention to 'obtrtlsiveness or staginess of props tlrc rest of the Iilm or does itjar with the fihn's üsual style? Is everyone
or costumes' which can obscrtre the historir:zrl period and the narrative rpeaking with cut-glass English accents or in drawling American tones?
but she also consiclers that an ovet'done period look can render a filn) llas there been an effort to make the characters sound as if they
'static' and emotionless.20 StanleyKrrbrick and his cinematosrapher [ohn r orne from a difl'erent era? Is reuionality expressed in the accents of

Alcott clrew inspiration for his adaptation of Thackeray's Bolry Lyndon irrclividual characters and, if so, does this relate to class, status, wealth
(1975) from landscape paintings by Lawrence and Watteatl, while the , rl background? Is music used within the film to create a period feel? Is

influence of the portraits executed by Larvrence and (]ainsborough cart it rnusic from the time in which the film was set - fbr example, classical
be seen in the visualisation of the courtly characters in DerekJarman's picces which may be recognisable to audiences - or is it deliberately
reworking of 'l'he Tbrnpest (1979). But wtrat does this kind of attention ,rrrachronistic to challenge ideas of historical authenticity? For example,
to historical detail suggest about the production of the fihn and the rlrc anachronistic touches in Sofia Ooppola's Mnrie Antoinette (2006)
creative personal behind it? irrclude the use of pop rnusic on the soundtrack and shots of modern
Money is a key factor in film production and the costs behind any Ilainers underneath hooped ball-sowns. Such deliberate touches need
film reveal a sreat deal about its intended atrclience and how it is being to be considered as part of the film's mise-en-scene and seen as evidence

of the specific decisions made by set arrrl ('()slurn('«lt'sigrrt'r's. Othcr trrken within the BBC television series 7h, T'udors (2007-2010), which
questions to ask c<luld be: has the nrrrsic llct'rr spccili<:rlly r'<lrnposerl locuses upon the sex and scandal ofthe period. Such an approach
fcrr the lihn ancl if so, who composcd it.? Ar<'a vllictv ol rrrrrsical pieccs 1»icks rrp on the promise implicit in Alexander Korda's The Priaate
included? Do characters within tht: filrn t'orrtrilrtrlt' l() tll(' musical Life of Henry VIII (1933) but delivers fâr more graphic and salacious
aspects of the film by plirying an instnrrrrt:nl lrs l)lll ol llr<' rrarrativci rrraterial due to altered notions of acceptability, relaxation of
Piano perfbrmances f'eature heavily in hrr-itaec lilrrrs rrrr<l lrclit>rl dramas t cnsorship ancl changes in attitudes towards monarchy.
and the music used and the way in whir:h it is rk'lir'<'rtrl is olit'n heavilr Interpretations of the past are less about historical accuracy and
linkecl to character. It is irnportant [() rcnr('nllrcl llrirl sorrrr<l includes rrrore about entertainment, costurnes, visual style, character and
much more then simply music: whirt sotrrt<ls <iur ll<'rlisct'r'rtcrl on tht' spectacle. We need to search fbr nuance and implication in the rnise-
soundtrack ancl wtrat. kind of sctting, moorl or li't'lirrs tlo llrcy evoke? ('n-scene, in precisely the same \,vay that historians search lbr nuance
:rnd strbjectivity in sources. As Natalie Zemon Davis has wondered:
'lIow then is historical atrthenticity conceived in the common
Case study: lrarlance of the film world? Most frequently it is a matter of the look
the Tudors on film ol'the past or rather "the pcriod look", "period props" and "period
r'ostume".'?r'We must consider how rnuch attention has been given
This case study will krok at reprersentations oI tlrr''lirrlor'<lyrxtsty and t«r period detail in the film, what the costumes and textures are like.
the range of ways in which these historical f igrrlcs llrvt' lr<'r'rr explorecl. Are they historically accurate or do they look overdone and ornate or
As Sue Harpcr reminds us, 'History c:rn carrv urr irrlirrit<'r'urrge of :rlternatively cheap and unrealistic? \.Vl-rat kincl of colours have been
meanings and societies resularly refoLnrulitlr: il li»r'<'rrlrt'rrt rrse.'2:t rrsed within the set? If it is a Tüclor-set piece then there is likely to be a
Films which depict the same historical chirrat tt'r' lrtrt wlrich Breat cleal of red and sold to fit in with period detail drawn fïom iconic
are produced in very diUèrent periods ofli:r'arr irrsielrt irrto thc ( ontenlp()rary paintings by Holbein and Hillier.
expectations o1' difIèrent audiences. For cxarnpl<r, ( lut.c Blanchett's It is also helpful to think about conditions of production;
Elizabeth I is vcry different to portray:rls of'tlre Virsirr Qrrt'en by llollpvoocl's take on the hdors will be very differcnt from a British
Glenda.fackson, Bette Davis or Fkrra Robson.:r 'l'ht' granrliose style of rc-imagining. This may be in part due to the arnount of money which
Robson, the imperious theatricality of [)avis an(l tho politic:rl astuteness sttrdios have to spend, but will also say sonrething about aucliences
ofJackson indicate different:lspects of thc salnc fictional character, bul lnd who the film is intcnded for. For example, is it a bi5r-budget epic
also draw attention to the clifferent peliods in which t.hese successive which will appeal to the widest possible audience, or it is a heritage
films were rnade and the modern conc(-'rns rvhich rnay havc shaped production which is targeting the art-house audience? We also need to
audiences' resp()nses. As a firrther c()ntrast, Miranda Richardson's think abor"rt the specifics of the past being shown. For exarnple, is the
simpering Qrreenie in the BB(l television series Rl,achuddar ( 1986) offèrs lilm about HenryVIII gaining a divorce fiom Catherine orArason ancl
yet an()ther portrayal which needs to be viewecl in tl're traclitions of lrreaking wit.h the (lhurch in Rome to marry Arure Boleyn, as in Anne oJ'
hear,y satire fàvor.rrecl by ttris prosramme. tlte T-housand Dals ( 1969) or A Man fnr All Seaso'ns ( 1 966) , or is the firdor
Sirnilarly, representations of Henry MII also vary widely and include settins sirnply the krcation fbr some historical rornping? (see fig. 2).
the serious and sombre portrayals of a monarch battling with his One ol the dilïculties in analysine uses of the past on filrn is fincling
conscience and preoccupied with the late of Eneland, to the sex- < ritical responses that move beyond simplistic notions of historical

obscsscd :rnd bad-ternpered Henry of the Carry On series memorably irccuracy and authenticity. One film reüewer clubbed King Henry \|III
caricattrred by Sid.farnes it Canl On l[enry (1971). Recent historical it'fhe Olher Bolqn, Girlas'nothing nrore than a gullible sex addict
representations have focusecl unashamedly on Henry's love lifè, with in wacky shoulder pads'.2tiYet to disrniss a film fbr being historically
'l'\rc Other Bokln Girl (2008) dwelling on the bedroom antics of the irtaccurate is unhelpful. 'l'he Other llolEn Girlwas rnade as a lavish
monarch as he is caught between two sisters. A similar approach is lrig-btrdget production and featured AJist Hollyr,,rood stars Natalie

o{-the Shakespeare tourist trail - and the rivalry, implied plagiarism

and shared writing experiences with Christopher Marlowe nod towards
the knowins in the audience who may be concerned with debates
in Shakespearean scholarship about the authorship ofthe plays.
llut for the most part, the lilm is a historical romantic comecly. [,ike
rnany other historical lilms of this qpe, shared cultural knowledge
will enhance the audience experience but the film can, of course, be
trnderstood and appreciated without it. In this way, the filrn is using
history and our knowledge of tl-re past in a range ol'dillerent ways in
order to appeal to diflèrent audiences.

Case study:
Ë real footage/real events

As well as fiction films which use all the methods of conventional

<:inema to create a fictionalised historical past, the past also emer€Tes
on film in other guises. The twentieth century exists within newsreel
2 Tüdor magnificence in An,ne of the Thousa'nd Dals ( 1969), starring [ootage, amaterlr moving image collections, nels broadcasLs and
Richarcl Burton as Henry \4II and Genevieve Buiold as Anne Boleyn documentary. All of these different forms will have sought to
capture the past for clifferent reasons. A documentary filmmaker
may have fbllowecl a collection of railway workers, as in Harry Watt
Portman, Scarlett.lohansson and Eric Bana. Based on a bestselling and irnd Basil Wright's Night Mail ( 1936) , or else captured the actions of
popular novel by Philippa G,regory the film's principal pre()ccupation schoolchildren or celebriÿ-hungry exhibitionists, as in Ed,ucating Essex
would have been to appeal to as wide an audience as possible and to (201 1) or Big Rrothn (2000-present). Frequently, such material seeks
present the historical ch:rracters as modern individuals to irppeal to to capture everyday life, real people or evenls and to present images
and resonate with a modern audience. Such a film coukl never include of lif'e':rs itwas'. Such an objective is, of course, problematic as the
a level of historical detail and accuracy which would please historians, very act of filming sornething ensures that it is no lonser real. Material
and the film blends together a few facts with historical {iction to such as that captured in Dziga Vertov's Man atith a Moaie Cameta (1929)
showcase the appeal of the past throueh scandal, ir.rtrigue, sex and indeecl clocuments real life and mundane events within the w«trking
clrama. day, but the footage has been carefully edited together; someone has
We also need to consider whether the narrative is based on 'real' rnade choices about what to include and what to exclude. On a more
events or is a fictionalised account, a missing chapter or a 'secret fundamental level, someone has also made the decision to turn the
history' of a prrrminent individual.John Maclden's Shahespeare in, camera on and begin filrning.Just because the material may have been
Loue (7998) takes a great deal which we do know - Stratford-born shot of real people and real events - such as the fàmous Mitchell and
plalwright, royal patronage, Romeo tmd.lulietand bawdy Elizabethan Kenyon material of factory workers and fairgoe r-s - it does not nlean
humour - and rnixes it with fictional elements, a love affair which it is straightforward and authentic. It must still be interrogated as a
inspired one of Shakespeare's famous plays and a selection of invented crafted and created source.
characters, as well as modern :rnd anachronistic touches which appeal As well as exploring material deliberately shot fbr documentary
to modern audiences. Mention of Anne Hathaway's cottage - a key part purposes, it is important to consider how and why other moving image

material may have been capturt:rl. Nt'rvslt't'ls slrorvrr irr r irrt'rrr:rs wr.re ('v(.nt which exists? If not, then why is this the case? Has other rnaterial
often used to hishliqht recent cvcnts urr<l itcrrrs irr tlr«.rrr.rvs, lul(l ir) lx't'n lost, or there only a sinele canlera to document the event?
times of war or hardship, thc lont: ol srrclr rrrirlcrirrl rvill lrt'rk'lilrclntely ll little lirourge exists, thcn how have filrnmakers acc()unted fcrr this
patriotic and positive. News fiorn tlrc lirrrl n,orrl<l lr;rvt' prrrvirk.<l ornission? Have they stagccl re-enzrctrnents in order to make the shots
important (althoueh heaülv ccrrsorcrl) irrlirr rrr:rtion t() tll()s('l)ir('k nrore drarnatic, as was the case with the fbotasc showing n)en going
h<rme, while governntent-madc shorls srrt'lr ts llrilrtitt ( rut'lirlir lt (L940) (,ve r the top in the propaganda documentary Battle ol tlrc Sont'me
d()cuilrented the irnpact of the Blilz orr l,orr<lorr ;rrrrl rvt r<' rrs«.rI t<r (1916)? And how does this problernatise notions of 'authenticitv' or
stiflèn the resolve of citizens ()n thc horrr<'fiorrt. Sirrrilrrr Ir.', irrr:rgcs of 'rt:ality'?
cheering crowds seeins soldit:rs oll to figlrt irr l1)l.l olli'rcrl rr r'<'t'rtritinq In the sarne way tlral. we InLrst delicately ancl nrethodically explortr
opportunity and a means of' qalvanisi ng ('rr I isl I rt('I I l. lir:tionalised zlccounts of the past, we rnust als<t be aware that fact.ual or
Such collections of filmed mat.('riul nris('(llr('sli()rrs:rlrorrl lrr»w the sr:mi-factual rnoving imase is not a straiqhtfirrward and unproblclnatic
past and how 'real life' are beir-rg captrrr'('([ ;ln(l prtscr vcrl orr Iilrrr. s()urce either. It. must. also be carefully evaluated and its cot)l.ents,
How will they be used in the firturc? Onr' ol llrc rrrost ( ()nrrn()n w:rys ('()ntext and purp()se thoroughly explored.
in which irrchive or ttervsreel ftrot:rgc is rrs<'<[ is its irrt lrrsiorr irr llrtt:r
doctrmentaries or prograrnrnes. K.'n [.o:r< lr's ,\ltirit rtf './5 (20 1i]) rrses
a grcat deal of archive fi)otagc of post-w:lr llritirirr rrrr<l tlrc lilst rlays of CONCLUSION
the NHS and coûrbines it with rcccnlll,r'orr<lrrt lt'«l irrtcr vicw rrurtcrial,
voiceoveq captions and point<rf:vicw rlrr-r'lrliorr. \i.t tlrt' origirrirl archive All films which deal with tl're past arc uselul lbr the hist.orian, but they
firotage was not shot to be includcd in tlris plrlti< rrlirr «lo< trrrrt'rrt:rry. (':rnn()t simply be viewed as rc-enactmetrts of the past capturecl ort
Loach hirs selected it and fashioncd it lo t rr':rl«' lris orvrr lilrrr rrrr<l we cclluloid. They need to be understood within the broader concepts
must be awarc of this reLrse. We nccd [() r'orrsi<tt'r il llr«' rrrovirre irnage of'production and recept.iotr irnd interroqated as rclevant yet flawecl
exists as part of a collection, if it is br'oarllv rrr,:ril;rlrlc orrlirrt'ol by lristorical s()rrrces. 'Ihe fbllowing chapter will suggest how films can bc
appointment only. Such fàc(ors will irlrvur,'s irrlirrrrr lrou, il lrlrs bcen used lulalysed ancl how their diflèrent clcmcnts must be examincd in order
and by whom. t() besl rrrrtlclstanrI llreir rrrearrirrgs.
Documetrtaries and newsrcr:ls prcs('ll( I:r< lrrirl irrrirut's ol llrt: past, but
fiequently sttch fcrotirse is use d orrt o1't <»rrtcx( ()r' ( ()ll)('ri t() l'('J)rcsent
s()met.hing qtrite different. For Cxanrpl<', u|îirrv lrlack-arrrl-wlritc irnages NOTES
of unilbrnred soldiers rnarching acrrrss tlrc rrrrrrltlv, slrt.ll-lolrr fielcls of
Flanders or Beleiurn have becornr: ttcrrr:r'it slrorl-lrarrrl li>r'the carnage I Pierr-e Sorlin, 7he l,:i,Lm in History: Reskt§ng tln Pa.st (()xfbrd: Ilzrsil
of trench warfare durins the First Wolkl War'. Sirnilarly, Iirotase of tslackwell, 19t30) p. 20.
fighter planes in the sky lrsainst a backrlrop ol'Irlling ltornbs - rvhether 2 John Tosh, 77ze Prnsuit of History, 4th cdition (Harlow: Pcarson
it is newsreel footirge c»r shots fionr filrns lrs v:tricrl as'l'lnWay to the Education, 200tr), p. 17.
Slars (1-9411) <tt Memphis Bcllc (l9l)O) - c:rrr lte usecl to susgesr the tsattle 3 .]arrrcs Olraprnan, PasL u,rul Prc.sent: Natioturl ldcntitl and thc British,
of Britain. It is important to understa[rcl that t]re version of history Hi.sk»ical liilm (London: I.B. Turris, 2005), pp. 713-l42.
beinu presented in this 'factual' ftrrmat hzrs being deliberately crafted 4 Srrzirnne R. Pucci andJames Th<>mpson,./rznr: Austen and (h: Rcmuk.ing
for aucliences to understarrd. The lbotaee usecl in documentary the Pa.çt in Corüernÿorary Oulture (Albany, NY: State University of New
York Press, 2003).
programrnes or fèature films will be presented in a particular way, t()
drerw attention to certain things.
5 Arrdrew Fligson, îilm ltngland: Oulturalfi linglish l':ilmrnaking siru:e thc
1990s (L.rlndon: I.R. huris,20ll) pp. i91-192.
As well as thinking about how such rnaterial can and has been used.
6 lbid., p.208.
we need to consicler the context. Is this the only material of a particular
7 Clrerrülle, l"ilm, as Historl, p. 17.

8 Tony Barta (ed.), Screen,ing tlu Pa,.st; FiLm arul the llepresentut,ion of History
(\{'estport, OT: Praegeq l99lt), p. 12. RECOMMENDED FURTHER READING
I Sorlin, 'l'he l,ibn in Hi.sk»y, p. 15.
l0 I-rrdrnilla .Jorrlzrnova, Hisk»'1 itt, Practire (l-onrlon: Hodcler Headlinc, Ilarta, Tony (ed.), Screening the Past: lilm and the Re.presen,tation ol lTislory
200{)). p. 97. (Westport, C'I: Praeger, l99B).
l1 Pierrc Sorlin, 'The lilrn in history' in Marnic [{ug}res-Warringtorr
Chapman, -[anes, lilrn and History (Basingstoke: Palgrave Macrnillan,
(ed.), Historl on Fibn lùa.du (Abingrl<>n: Rotrtledge, 20{)9), pp. l 5-1 6.
201 3).
l2 Robert A. Rosenstone, 'Histoly iu irnaees,/history irr wt>rds' in Hughes-
Htrg;lres-Warrineton, Marnie, I'IisLory Goes to the Mouie.ç: Slud)ing Hi,\tory
Warrington (ed.), History on liilm lleadu, p.37.
on Film (Lonrlon: Routledge, 2007).
13 Ihid., p.31.
Landy, Marcia (ed.), 'l'he Hi.çtorical Fibn: Historl antl Memo'r1 in Media
14 Bzrrta (ed.), Screening the Past, p. 5.
(New Bmnswick, Nf : Rutsers University Press).
15 Huehes, 'The evaluation of film as evidence', p.49.
I6 Higson, Filrnlinglnnd, p. 192. Rosenstone, Robert A., Hi.story on Fil:mftïlm on Hist,ory (Harlow:
t7 Sorlin, l-lu Film in Hislorl, p.20. Pearson,20l2).
18 Il)id.- Smith, Paul (ed.), l:ihn antl the Historian ([,ondon: Carnbridge
l9 Peter Brrrke, Varieties of Cultural Hislc,rl (Cambriclge: Polity Press, 1997) ,
University Press, 1976).
p. 193. Sorlin, Pierre, T-hc lihn in l/istory: Rtstugtng lhe Pu,.çt (Basil Blackwell:
20 Ibid., p. lB. Oxlbrd, i9U0).
2t Cathy Whitlock, 'The grand estates and castlcs of period moves', Stubbs, .fonathan, Historiml l:ilm: A Critical Inlroduction (l,ondon:
Architectural Digest online, wwwarchitecturaldigest.cont/ad/set- Bloonrshrrry. 201 li).
design/2073 / period-movies-set-design-manors-castles-vanity-fair-jane-
eyre-article (accessed l5 October 2014).
Aldous Huxley, 'fhe Datils of Loudun (London: Chatto & Windus, 1952) ,
p. 132.
23 Sue Harper, Picturfury lhe Past: l'he Rise and Fall of the British Oostume lrihn
(London: BFI Publishing, 199a), p. l.
24 Cate Blarrchett played Elizabeth I in the frlm F)lizabeth in lgg8, Glenda
.fackson played the role on television in Elizo,beth Rin 1971, Bette Davis
played the Queen twice, {irst in 'l'he Priua,tc Liues t1f'Elizabeth and F)ssex
in 1939 arrd again in '|he Vir§n Queenin 1955, while Flora Robson was
Elizabeth in l;ire oau Englandin7937.
2l) Natalie Zemon Davis, 'Any resemblancc to persons living or dead: film
and tl'rc challenge of authenticity'in Hughes-Warrington (ed.), Hisbry
on liilm fuadtr, p. 17.
26 Alex vcrn Tirnzelmann, "l'he Other Bolqn Cirl: Hollyoaks in fancy
rlress', ()'uardian, 7 Atgust 2008, www.guardian.co.tk/fr1m/2008/
aug/ 07 / I?INTCMP=SRCH (accessed I 5 October 20 I 4) .

I I Jeffrey Richards, 'Filrn and TV: the rnoving imase' in Barber alrd
l)enniston-Bird (cds.), Hist.ory llqond Lhe lbxl, p. 76. à 5
12 Williarns, Oulture u,nd Socieg l7B0-1950, p.297.
13 Siegl'rierl Klacaucr, I,iorn Caligari tu Ï[itlu: A I'ydtoktgical Studl ol th.e
Oerman lilzz (Princeton, NJ and Ox1brd: Princeton University Press,

200'1), P.6.
Rayrnond Williarns, 'Birse and superstructure in Marxist culturzrl
tlrcory' in Raynroncl Williams, Problcms in Nlaterialis'm a,nd (lultnw
(I.ondon: Verso Eclitions and NLB, 19tt0), p. ,15. QU ESTIONS
l5 Arrdy Mcdhurst, A Nationul-loke: l'oltular Oorncdl and lin,gl,i.sh Oulturul
I d.ctt,t.it,ie.s (Abingrlon: Routleclgc, 2007).
16 McIz, l,il.tn Lunguage, p. 1.
17 Peter Rogers, quoted in Sally t{ibbin and Nina Hibbin, I\hat a Carry 1'his chapter will srrggest holv to identifu ancl fbrrnulate actrierrable
On: Of/tànl Carry On Mouie lJook. ([,ondon: Hamlyn, l9B8), p. 11. research questions. It. will offer advice rtn how to identify an approach
ltl .foharr Huzinga, 'The task ol'cultural history' in John fJ::'z.ilnua, Men which both engases with your own interests and acknowledges and clraws
anrL lduts: Ilisktry, lhe Middle Age.s o.nd. Renai.ssance, trans.fames S. Hohncs on work already undert.aken in the field. The research qrresti()n v()u
:rnd l{ans v:rn Marle (I-ond<>n: Eyre and Spottiswoode, 1960), p. 615. design is closely related to the kind ol research you rvill be undertakins
l9 Williams, Cultun an.d Society l7ll0-1950, p. 310. and the approach that you will follow. There are a number of ways in
which you can begin to formulate your research question. One of the
best ways to beein is to consider what specifically interests 1,otr. Is it ir
RECOMMENDED FURTHER READING partictrlar theory zr series of films, one lilm in p:rrticular or an individual
director? Are you keen to explore stardom, costunre, mrrsic or sound
desiglr? Do yorr want to usc cxisting corrct'pliorrs ol genre or aulll()rship
(Boston, NtL{: N{c(}rarv-Hill, I 993). to f()cus on understtrdied or overlooked material? ln nrder to develop
Bazin, Andr'é, What Ls Oincnur?, essavs selccterl ancl trans Hueh Gray, 2 useful research questions, you need to plan your research zrnd think
vols (Berkeley, CA, ancl London: University of California Press, about how to carry it out. The following sections identiÿ the diffèrent
2005). parts of this process.
Borrlwcll, Davicl, Orz the History of libn ^Sfla (Cambriclge, MA, ancl
London: Harvard University Press, 1997).
Ellis, -|ack O., Hisk»1 ol l;iLn, (Boston, MA, and l,onrlon: Allyn and DEFINING YOUR INTEREST
Cl'rairrge, P:rtrl,.|ancovich, Mark and Monteith, Sharon, l,i,lm Histories: What specilically do yon want to find out? Are yorr interestecl in the
ArL lntrod'ru:tion and Rtnder (Edinburuh: Edinburgh University prodrrction context and filmmaking process related to a specific filrn,
Prcss,2007). or the broader economic and financial deterrninants of a film inclustry
Seclgr,r.ick,.|ohn and Pokorn1,, Michael (ecls.), Az liconomic Hi.stlry of in a particular period? Do you \,vant to fincl out more ahorrt how and
1ùlrz (London: Routlcclge, 2005). why a film or a series of lilms wer-e nrade in a specific period, ()r are you
\Â/illiams, Rayrnoncl, Culture and Societ,y I 7 B0- 1 95 0 (Harmondsrvorth: keen to explore issues ofpopular taste, audience response or box-office
Pcnguin; (lhatto & Winclus, 1961). fieures in relation to a particrrlar decade or ueographical location? Do
you want to study the visual meanings of film, drawing on theories o{'
semiotics, linguistics or psychoanalysis to expkrre a neglected body of
work or to understand the way in which filrns contribute t() or opp()se the


donrinant culture of a given periocl? Is it the technolow of filmmakinc research could offer sornething new. Are yotr basing your work on a new
t.hat intert:s1s you? Do yorr want to exarnine the technical innovation of collection o{ matcrial which has. just beconle availirble? Are you rnzrkine :t
specific perigds and the inrpact such innovation had on filmrnakine? Is bold argument for collaborative auth()rship within sonre of Hitchcock's
there :r parti6lrlirr technologir:al fèattrre such a§ 3D which you fèel needs early films and the irnportance o{'key pers«rnnel in achievine the visual
to be explol6d in relation to issues like the nrarketins and exhibiting of style or lighting concept? Or are you seekine to draw new concltrsions
fihns? fiorn a close analysis of key films? Y<rur research questi()n should draw
All ol (ht:se rnay be valid approachcs ancl topics, but it is important on what already exists and use this material to determine the work yor.r
to devise a research question which draws ()n your interests, is broadly will undertake. If you decide upon an approach which deliberately
achievirble, recoglises the potential pr6ltlems within a giyen topic ar-rd challenges or refutes preüorts scholarship then you need to have a soocl
builds on, develops or ch:rllenses work alrcacly trndertaken by other reason fbr such an approach and a specific and precise methodology.
lescarchcr.s. \Â4rile it is crtrcial to be inspired by vour rescarch t()pic, Reading around the subject can also indicate what has not beet't
you must remain objective. A study of Wcs Anclerson rnay be driven by done. It can help you to identiÿ where the !îaps are in the existinpç
a gcnuinc love of his filrns, but if you are unable to study the fihns or research and where the openings ancl spaces are firr your owrt work.
thc technitlrrcs of the clirector objectir,ely without resortins to glowirrc Remember, there is always somettring usefirl to be gained by looking
enrlorsentt-,111s of the filmmakcr and his filmrnaking style, this perhaps again at origirral sources, even thou!îh they may h:rve been utilised by
is not the rieht topic to choose. Your criteria for selectins your subject other scholars. Researchers look firr diflèrent things in s()urces and it is
should not simply be bccause you like them or enjoy watching thern; much better to explore the original sources (wherever possible) rather
there shorrkl be sonrething about thern which you fèel descrves lurther than depending on the work (no matter how rigorous) of other people .
rcsearch. For example, a researcher may have looked at the personal papers of
Wh:rtever your chosen topic yr»r now need to fincl out m()re about it. Peter Rosers helcl at the BFI to explore the relative costs of rnaking the
Y<ru nuty haye been inspircd by rvatching an individual fihn or hearinu Oarry On films in the 1960s and 1970s. You may be interested in looking
about a p:rr.ticulilr historical period in a lecture. Perhaps you are at the same records, but in order to discover something quite diff-erent
r,vondcrins about the cinerna-soilrq experience itself and how this can be - for example, to establish how rnany women were ernployed on these
studicd usine- diflerent filrns; or perhaps vou are keen to examine how filrns and in what capacity. A researcher in the firttrre rnisht look at the
a certain theorÿ of film analysis can be applicd in a diflêrent way. Maybe sarnt-- material to explore how the production team resp()nded to issues
yott would likc to explore a particular filrn gcnre in more detail, or t<t raised by the British Board of l'ilm (lensors (IIBFC) and the content of
discover rrl()re about cinerna in a different country in a particular erir. the Carry On films. It rnay also be the case that your work can clraw on
newly available resources, such as the Hamtner script archive which has
recently been dcpositcd at f)e Montfort University in Leicester, or the
READING AROUND THE SUBJECT newly catalogued archive papers of producer Michael Klinser held at
the University of the West of England in Bristol, or the emersence of
Once yott have ider-rtified your area ol interest you should begir) to read archival material Ii-om the boncl company Film l'inances. Such resottrces
around the sub.ject and see what work has already been undertaken may not have been available to earlier researchers and a collection of'
in your choscn area. T'here is always a slightly dillercnt way you can unstudied material will allow you t() contribute sornethins nerv to the
approach a r,vell-established and well-covered subject, but it is usefirl t<r existing {ield of work.
be aware of r,vhat has already been written beforc you finalise your own Think about the dif{èrent topics rvhich your research will cover atrd
resear.ch guestion and determine y()ur t_»wn appr.oach. identify a series of kepvords which can help you in your online ancl
For cxa11ple, if you are keen to focus on Alfit:d Hitchcock ancl catalogue searches. Such an approach will also be a usefirl way to help
authorship, yotr nced to be aware of the rnassive amount of rnaterial you find cmcial sources later in your research. 'T'hese and other research
which has been written on this subject ancl think about how your suggestions will be covered in more detail in Chapter 7.

Ycrtr can also look to the work of others to help you identiÿ a r.rseful Once you have read around the t<-rpic and explored the written
approach. If, fbr example, the 1930s has been sttrdied in awaywhich work of other scholars, you shoulcl consider how you will use the visual
is heavily textual, rnaybe you can frnd a w:ry to approach the decade material which relates to your topic. The choices you make about the
diflèrerrtly, perl'raps f'oresr()unding the practices qf the fihn inclustry way in which film material will be used can also help to determine what
or the irnpact of external orÉJarlisati()ns such as the BBFCI. If industrial methodologv you follow and what specific question you devisc.
studies of particular decades dominate, then perhaps you could
consider why thc visual style and technological changes have been
less studied and propose an investisation of visual sÿe. If'the decade HOW TO USE THE FILM MATERIAL
has only been str.rdied in terms of its rnost critically popular films,
then perhaps a reappraisal of a ranse of ottrer fihns rnade in the same Film material can be used in a ranse of difl'erent ways depending on
period is requirecl; suctr films may not have been as popular but they what you want to explore and what yotrr approach may be. Are you pçoing
still ernerse fiom the same irrdustry arld perhaps can ofïèr a di{Tèrent to be fbcusing on film and popular taste, film as a historical object, film
insieht into tlre period. as evidence, film and audiences, film as art or film as cr.rlture?
As well as identifying the ranse of theoretical approaches that have Are you interested in using newsreel film to explore a particular
been used to study the topic you are interested in, you should also historical period? Would you want to use a series of films to explore
consider urlr1 these approaches have been used. Some decades, periods popular taste in the 1960s or 1980s? Perhaps you are keen to study filmic
and bodies of films have richer rnateriirl pertaining to thern than others. issues of representation of gender, race or class, for example. Maybe
You should be careful not to design an approach that depends heavily you want to exalnine how representations of particular issues, such as
on sources which do not exist. For example, devising a study of'audience disability, promiscuity or poverry are presented through Iilm in diffèrent
response to films rnade in the 1970s which clraws heavily on the Mass- historical periods.
Observation material would ellectively mirror an approach undertaken Will you be exploring fihn using close textual analysis, or fbcusing
for earlier decade.s in British cinema. Hower.,er, while Mass-Obser-vation on key scenes or thematic preoccupations within case study films? You
data is incredibly rich for the 1930s and I940s, it does not exist ft)r should consider if you will be tracine the same tropes and tlremes across
the 1970s and so an approach designed in this way woulcl be seriously different film work. Is the fllnr itself the obiect of study or it is simply
flawed. Sirnilarly, if you wanted to study the government's involvement one of a ranse of sources which will be analysed alongside literature,
in the film industry in the 1990s, yotr would struggle to access official music or tclevisiotr prograrttmes?
paperwork for this period as it is not due to become available to the Are you looking to use film to help you understand a historical period
public until the year 2020. Later chapters in this work will indicate what in more detail, fcrr example to study films of the early 1950s to better
rcsources exist and how these can be utilised, but it is useful to bcar undcrstand post-war attitudes to class, or to consider the films of the
potential resources in mincl when deüsing a research question. 1980s as a response to Thatcherism? Are you only interested in film which
You should also consider zlày earlier scholars have set about their had a theatrical release or are you also going to be studying amateur
research in the way that they have. Was their research infbrmed by a filmmaking practices, avant-garde fihns, fiLnmaking co-operatives, Iilms
new trend in fihn scholarship, such as semiotics or lèminist film theory? made fbr television and films made by organisations like the GPO or the
Or does the research aim to readdress a parûcular body ofwork from a Ministry of Information? Your definition of 'film' could include newsreel
diffèrent critical stanclpoint: lirr exanrple, to assess British heritage fllms footage screened in cinemas, or later included in teleüsion documenta-
fiorn a transnational perspective, as Andrew Higson has done in his ries or broadcast news reports. All of this üsual material can be of great
latest work?r ls the research part of a wider study - does it coincide with interest to the researcher, but you need to thiuk carefully about what
the release of new source rnaterial, the conclusion of a funded academic questions you want t() ask of the material and how you will trse it.
project or sovernment papers recently m:rde available under the 3O-year As well as consideringhow yu will use the film material, you again
rule?2 need to think about what approaches have been Iàvoured by other


scholars. Often the kev films front specific decades have been heavily to get hold of the lavish Wilcox-Neagle productions and the fIitchcock
examined. For example the 1970s in Britain has consistently bccn classics, but what about the musicals of George Formby, Gracie Fields
strrdied through films like A Clockwork Orange ( l97l ) , Oet Cartu ( 197 I ) or.|essie Matthews? It may not be possible to track dowtr particular titles
and theJames Bond frlms, as if these {èw texts ary entirelv representative which feature heavily in contemporal)eor$ accounls and lisrs of box-
of filmrnaking in the period. Sirnilarly, in America in the late 1960s, office data.
the films which are consistently analysed are high-quality independent Are you focusing on 'quality' productiorls or those deemed to be
productitrns such as Bonn,ie a,nd, Cl1d,e (1967), Ea.s1 Ritler (1969) and T'he culturally important or valuable by previous scholars? I{ave the filrns
Grad,uate (1967). This is n()t to say that these films are unimport.ant, but you have chosen beerr accorded cult status in recent years, are they held
rather that continued lbcus on a few serninal texts can often restrict up by critics and sch<llars as high points of cinematic art or practice. or
and limit understanding. As any historiah knows, interpretinu the has their quality or importance only been recosnised in recent years?
broadest possible range of sources is fàr more effective in shedding Or are you focusing on low-brow genres such as horror r>r sex comedy
light on a historical period than focusins on a single source. The study and, if so, what clo you hope to gain fiorn your study of these genre-
of franchises and series such as Hamrner horror or the Pink Panther specific films?
comedies fbcus the attenti()n on the popular and successlul but can be
restrictive in understanding the perio«l as a whole.
Considering a period in terrns of what is po1>trlar can be a risky SELECTING YOUR FILM AND NON-FILM MATERIAL
approach, partly because determining what audiences watc.hed and
responded to can be hard to establish. Wrile it may be possible to Once you have deterrninecl how you will use your' films within your
establish what was the rnost popular or most vicwed filrn in a speci{ic: research you will need to start compiling a list of additional sources
year, it does not firllow that everyone who saw this filrn, watched nothing relevant to y()ur topic and approach. This would usually fall into two
else in this particular year. Some cinema-goers may have chosen to see categories - visual material ancl written s()urces - yet could also include
both Tuilight ar,d hon Man \n 200t], while others nray have selected .Sr.x m:rterial which can be accessed online, as well zLs DVD extra features,
ond the City over 'l'he Bay in the Striped \jamas. Sorne people may have commentaries an(l documentary rnaterial. The types of material
seen all of these lilms at the cirrema in this year, while others would available for research will be discussed in Chapters 7 and 8, but this
have been restricted by age categories and misht have seen Wall-lt I
section is concerned with how yor.r deterrnine what will be most uselirl
instead. The relative popularity of these filrns does not necessarily help f<rr y<»rr research.
us understand precisely who went to see them, how they responded to II we consider the filnrs thernselves to be the key sources, then
them and the age and sender composition of that individual viewing researchers are in an enviable position in terrns of availability of
audience. As Robert Allen and Dotrglas Gomery point otrt, the notion of resources. Unlike meclieval manuscripls or rare books, mainstream
a fihn audience is simply'an abstraction generated by the reseirrcher', zrnd theatrically releasecl {ilms are readily available, arld accessine them
and audiences are constantly beine 'constituted, dissolvecl and seldom requires a trip to a library «rr an archive. While you may find
reconstituted with each film-going experience'.3 that the filrns you want to studv are easily available, you should also
As researchers, we must also be aware that in selecting films as objects remember that issues of access and availability can determine and
of study we run the risk of abstracting these objects from their wider influence research. Iiot' ex:rmple, getting hold of a copy of Blad,e Runner
context. When determining a research question ancl identiÿng a range ( 1982) is pretÿ straightforward, but what specifically have you managecl
of material to study, you must be aware of issues of selectiüty, subjectivity to access? Are you exarnininq the version that was released into cinemas,
and bias. Will you look at a range of films frorn the same genre? Or filrns the first D\rD edition, the version which is screened «rn television, or
released in the same year? How will you determine which films you will the more recently released director's cut? !\4-rile these may appear to be
study and which you will not? D<l you have access to all the films you minor issues, it is crucial to rernember that contemporary audiences may
need f'or your research? If you are stu<ÿing the 1930s, it may be easy have seen a cliflèrent version ol the feature film, probably one without

extra f'eatxres and one which may have been cut fbr theatrical release. finalising a question - will benefit any piece of work in this area, from an
This is particularly important when conductinEç detailecl textual anirlysis essay to a dissertation.
and also when considering the audience response to a specific Iilm.
Generally, Arnerican, British and Euro-pean feature films are widely
available, ancl even if they are 'art house' or documentary they can Case study:
usually be trackecl down. Gaining access to copies of rarer lilms or The Lady Vanishes (Alfred Hitchcock, 1938)
prosralnmes can be tricky, but advice on how to do this rvill be offered
in the later chapter on resources. When it comes to identiÿing your Your initiai interest in a topic may stem from an interest in a single
objects of study, it is important to note that studying sorne periods is filrrr, in this case; 'l'he Lady Va'nish,e.s (1938). So how can you devise a
delinitely easier than stuclying others. Many films fiorn the silent period research question or find a specific topic based upon this film?
no lonser exist and what does exist has been heavily studied, perhaps in
order to c()mpensate fbr what is missing. As with any sources, you need
Defining an initial interest
to consider what has been kept and whether the object which remains is
'typical' or completely irspical. Qrrestioning the resources which exist is Firstly, consider why you find the lilm interesting. Perhaps you fbund
a cnrcial part of research; you must consider if a fihn has been retained the narrative particularly absorbins or entertaining, or the characters
because of its status - for example, is it an early film frorn a famous appealed to you. Are there elements of perlbrmance style or mise-en-
director, or is it the only surviüng fiagrnent of a much larger collection scene which you want to f<rcus on? Or are you interested in the specific
which can only be understood as part of that collection? Perhaps an thematic preoccupations of British 'eccentricity' or European politics?
indiüdual lilm is seen as the highlight of a European director's work Maybe you are interested in {indine out more about the production of
and so has been released on DVI), while other lesser works remain the film, the response of audiences and why it emerged at a particular
undigitised and unavailable. Or what of the vast amount of movins historical moment.
image content which does not fall into the commercial or fèature-fihn Any of these issues would be valid ones for research and it is
bracket and so may be difficult to find? Amateur film collections offèr a irnportant to rernember that you do not need to have a finalised
massive :rmount of scope for the researcher but accessing collections of question when yotr begin your research. It is better to have a clear lbcus
amateur footage can be time consuming and difficult. They may also be irnd yet be flexible enough in your approach to incorporate whatever
preserved in a format which depencls on the researcher having access t() y()u may discover dtrring the research pr()cess. This way, your research
the original materials within an archive. It is unlikely that they can be tindings can inforrn your final question, rather than you having to fit
removed and studied at length and the re may be issues of copyright and your research into the limits of your previously defined question.
access. All of these considerations will inforrn how you use the availablc After considering this film in detail, perhaps you have decided tcr
material and what kind of research question you devise. t'xplore how the filrn presents the British characters and how these
rr:presentations resonated with British audiences. However, at this early
stage of research it is wise to be cautious and not to make assertions
DEVISING A RESEARCH QUESTION which cannot be supported or set out to 'prove' something which
cannot be proven. It is far better fbr the research to be undertaken
The advice ollèred above may seem very seneral and so the lbllowing with an open mintl. To this end a possible research question can be a
case studies are examples of how you can begin definins your own rrseful way to begin.
research question ancl what you need to do in order to begin work. This
approach can be applied to any question or topic and the principles Possible research question: How did Hitchcock's The Lady Vanishes
indicated below - such as identiÿing possible sources, reading around (1938) explore and represent aspects of British national identity in the
a subject and acquiring as much readily information as possible before 1 930s?


You have identified your particular interest in the topic ancl now I
Robert James, Popular Culture and Working-Class Taste in Britain
need to start to read around the subject, to devise a methodology and I
1930-39: A Round of Cheap Diversions?
consider the approach that you will r.rse .

This material will provicle infbrmation on the film industry in the 1930s
Approach: Film as a cultural object and as social history and close ar-rd what other films were beins made as well as how the 1930s is being
textual analysis of key scenes. explored by filrn scholars. It would be useful to know r'vhat films were
popular in 193f1 and how these other films clealt with issues of national
Understanding why a film emerged at a specilic historical mornent is identity and presented the British character. This kincl of information
crucial when using film as a source, and research whicl-r draws upon could be gathered fronr the pages of film industry publications such as
a ranse of rnaterizrl allows the lilm scholar to understand both the Kinema,l,ogra,ph Weehly and movie fan magazines such as Picturegw which
process of production ancl the response to the completed film. This fèatures interüews with stars as well as reviews and features.
kind of research alst-r permits the scholar to make observations ancl I
It is easy lirr modern audiences to üew The Ladl Vanishes as an
draw conclusions frorn the evidence, rather than making spurious and exploration of the director's concerns about the immine nt war in
unsubstantiated clairns about 'the audience' or the seneral popularity Europe, yet it is fàr harder to find c()ncrete evidence that Hitchcock
of the film which cannot be established. Of course, the nature of the was actively preoccupied with European politics and decided to use his
research carried out relates closely to what you are trying to lind or.rt. film project to explore British isolationism and the political alliances
In this instance the research may cover a range,of difÏerent ideas and it fcrrming in Europe. Discussing the cultural importance of the film,
may be useful to think of the keywords which ôould be associated with finding c()ntemporary reviews that reflcct on the content of the filrn
your topic and question. and the intentions of the directoq the perfbrmances of the stars, and
the reactions of audiences can all provide an understanding of how
Research areas to be explored/keywords: National identity, audience
the film was received upon its release in 193U. As with any film, the
response, 1930s, visual style, film as social and cultural comment,
possihilities {'or research int<l producticln ancl recepti()n are extensive,
stereotypes, Hitchcock.
and this question fits in well with an approach that explores filnr as a
cultural object and as part of social history. Sarah Street's Rritish Cinen,a
Reading around the subject in Doutmen,ts ofïèrs a useful rnodel for this kincl of approach.a
Befirre focusins specifically on the filrn itself, it is good to cliscover
lf the focus of the research is to understand the popularity of a film
and its possible thematic resonance with audiences, then responses
rnore about the period in questicrn. In this instance the pcriod being
frorn contemporary audiences, box-office data and cinema ledgers
considered is Britain in the 1930s. T<r gain :rn understandins of this
are essential sources. Is it possible to find out rnore information
particular period and of the British frlm indtrstry, as well as seeing what
abotrt where the film was shown? \4rhere did it l-rave its premiere,
other films rvere being made in the period, a range of material should
how lone did it run? Was it distributed in Arnerica or throushout
be identilied such as: t
Europe? Did the filrn encounter any problems with the British Board
Sources of Film Censors and can these records be accessed? Did the film's
Jeffrey Richards, The Age of the Dream Palace: Cinema and Society in stars - Margaret l,ockwood ancl Michael Redsrave- give inten,iews at
'1930s Britain. the time of the film's release discussing the fihnrnaking process? Have
Rachael Low, Film lt\aking in'1930s Britain. they subsequently published autobiosraphies where they talk about the
Jeffrey Richards, The Unknown '1930s: An Alternative History of the making of the film and workins with Hitchcock?
British Cinema 1 929-1 939. To understand why the film was made in 1937, further contextual
John Sedgewick, Popular Filmgoing in '1930s Britain: A Choice of research coulcl be carriecl out, perhaps usine newspapers. maeazines
Pleasures. and radio programmes to explore how national identity was being

conligured for consumption. As part of this research it would be the cast or wittr the director. The BBC archive has an audio recordins
impoitant to establish what characteristics were being presented in this of a propçramme callcd Afred, Hitchcock in his Ozan Words, while the
historical period as being quintessentially 'British' and iI'any of these television archives o1 BBC and ITN nray provide useful interview
qualities can be seen in the representation of the characters within footage with Margaret Lockwood and Michael Redgrave, and the
the film. Again, secondary material can be of use here, including
British Pathé newsreel archive could be searched fbr other information
publications which deal specifically with the issue of national identity
relating t() the stars, the director and the film.
iuch asJeffiey Richards' Iilnts and. British National ld'entity: Fïom l)ickens
to Dod's Arm1.
Case study:
In acldition, it might be usefirl to look at more general material on the
1930s such asJuliet Gardiner's 'fhe Thirties: An Intimate History of Rritu'in'
trade unionism on the screen
Such background research could be developed by considering a ran€Te
ofnewspapers to see how events in Europe were being reported by the This second case study focuses on how both factual film and feature
general press. Are all the headlines about rvar and politics? What other film can be used to explore an aspect of life in Britain - specifically,
stories are making the front pages? Other contextual information should
trade unionism. Once again the first thing you need to do is to
also be considered; specifically, who was in government at the time and
determine your focus. Will you fbcus on the issue of trade unionism
and how this has been represented on screen over a period ofyears,
what was the governrnent's attitude towards the film industry?
Another strancl of this research could be'to consider the importance or are you focusing on a specilic period and the range of different
of the film's director. There are a number of usefül biographies of representâtions within that period?
Hitchcock which may cover his response to the lilm and how he Unlike the preüous case study, which focused on how to develop
a question based on a single lilm, this example draws on imagery
reflected on it at later stages in his career:
and ideas which can be found in a ranse of filmed material: news
reporls, feature films, newsreels and documentaries. So you will need
Mark Clancy, The 39 Steps (British Film Cuides). to consider how these individual representatiolls are senerated, in
Barry Keith Crant and Maurice Yacowar, Hitchcock's British Films'
what form and in what context. Specifically, are they newsreel images
Tom Ryall, Alfred Hitchcock and the British Cinema-
with accompanying voiceover which was relayed into cinernas? Do
they form part of a collection of newsreels such as British Pathé or
Andrew Sinclait Masterworks of the British Cinema: Brief Encounter,
Henry V, The Lady Vanishes. Movietone, and does this help us to underutand why they were made?
François Truffaut, Hitchcock: A Definitive Study of Alfred Hitchcock'
Or are they television reports screened in later decades which are
Robin Wood, Hitchcock's Films Revisited.
making use of earlicr footapçe? Are they filmic representations and,
if so, where do they emerge from - what were the preoccupations of
the actors, the screenwriters, the directors, the producers? Are these
Visual sources fictional representations based on real events? Are they intended to be
As well as watching 'l-he I'ady Vanishes, it would also be helpful to
realistic or comical? Are they designed to appeal to or to challenge an
stucly other lilms made in the 1930s, particular those released at
audience? Can we look at the representations evident on screen and
the same tirne which may have had similarities to the film you are tentatively link them to broader social and political events? And what
sources exist which would allow us to do this?
studying. Other films rnacle by Hitchcock in the period should also be
viewed to look fbr similar thematic preoccupations, while for general Are you focusing on how these imagçes were received as well as
created? If so, it will need to be made clear that audiences understand
background other audioüsual material such as newsreel fbotage of
these images in difîèrent ways in different periods. Representations of
.r.rrÀ ir', the 1930s could provide a useful introduction to the period'
It is a good idea to try and find recorded interview with rnembers of trade unionism in the 1970s and 1980s at the height of public standoffs


between the g«:vernment and trade nnion factions lvill be very diflèrent Yor.r could even trace the discourse about trade union activity through
to reportage of the G.er.reral Strike of 1926 or of trade union activity in articles and editorials in clifl'erent newspapers t() explore a range of
the 1950s or 1960s. attitudes. Reading such detailecl background accounts of the broad
At this stase of the research, your quçnstion coulcl remain very broad topic will also help to indicate a way fbr yolr to narrow dorvn your focrrs.
and could be, for example: For exarnple, it may be that after readinpç abotrt British trade unionism,
you want t<l ftrrther explore the clashes betwcen Thatcher and the
Proposed research question: Trade unionism on the screen: factual unir»ns - specifically the rniners in the 1980s and how this was explored
and fictional depictions of trade union activity 1950-1980 within a range of film mat.e rial. Ytru may have been intrigued about
references to Thatcherism and union activity in films such as Bntssed
This would provicle enoush space to research thoroughly and explorc off (1956) <>r Bitty Elliot (2000).
the broad issue of trade unionisrn on the screen and to c«rver filnts If this is the case, yotr will need to consicler both the period in which
adclressing trade union activity, as well as examinins newsreel footage the films irre set and the period in which they were rnade. Why did the
of trade union action such as the (l.eneral Strike and news coverage film industry in Britain not address union activity in the 1980s, but
«rf strike action in the 1980s. Such an approach would allow for an rather waited r"rntil the fbllowing decade to clo so? Was this to do with
initial comparisr>n between fictional ancl factual representation, but structures of flunding or the way in whiclr the inclustry was organised?
could be narrowed down at a later stage of research. For exarnple, it Work byJohn Hill and Robert Murphy which adclresses both the fihns
rnay be that you identiÿ a shorter period of tinre to explore in detail, and the production context of'the British film industry in the 1990s
or even to isolate a few key years to c()mpare and c()ntrast different will provide a useful introdlrction to the preoccupations of the industry
representirtions fiom different years. in this period ancl valuablc infbrmation on how these two films were
lunded. Lester D. Friedman's Fires Wue Staüed: I)riti.çh Oinema and
Approach: lssues of representation and the use of both factual 'fhatcherism focuses on the impact of this political ideology on the film
and fictional film as a means of understanding depictions of trade industry in Britain and how filmmakers challenged or absorbed the
unionism, film as culture, film as evidence, film as social history, visual Thatcher legacy. As well as rnaterial which relates specifically to the
representation. fihn industry you could also consider work which adclresses Thatcher
and the uni<rns such as David Marsh's 'fhe Nat Pol,itics of'British'Iiade
Research areas to be explored/keywords: National identity, Unionism: Union l'ouer and the ThaLclter l-egac1.
representation, factual film and bias, objectivity, newsreels, audience Another strand of the preliminary research could be to conside r
response, film as social and cultural comment. how feature films tackle the issue of union activity through close
textual analysis and explorations of content and theme. Within these
films, are union activists and the cause which they stand for presented
Reading araund the subiect
sympathetically or are they played for laughs? \Arhat does this then
Once again this will depend on the particular fbcus of the work, but a suggest about the topic of unionism in Britain at this time? Is it possible
general introduction to the subject coulcl inch,rde reading rrp on trade to trace the roots of this kind of cornedy to similar films in British
unionism in Blitain in the twentieth century. Useful work could include: cinema - f«rr example, the representations of the uniorr representatives
in I'm AlrightJath (1959) ancl Carry On at Ytur Conutnimce ( I971)? You
Sources: should als«r draw on work which focuses on the link between Êlrn ald
John Mcllroy, Nina Fishman and Alan Campbell, The High Tide of society, inclnding Anthony Aldgate andJcfliey Richards' Best of British,
British Trade Unionism?: Trade Unions and lndustrial Politics, which includes a chapter on I'm Alright.lack.
1964-79. If you want to explore newsreel representatit)n you shotrlcl rnake
Henry Pelling, A History of British Trade Unionism. sure that you trnderstand how and why newsreel films were made and

why they were exhibited in cinemas. Luke McKernan's Yestetdal's Nezas: 3 Allen and Gomery Film History, p. 156.
The British Cinema Nausreel Readrr.is a goocl introdttction and will hclp 4 Sarah Street, British, Cin,emu in l)ocumenls (f,ondon: Routledge, 2000)
identiÿ what collections of visual material will be most useful and how
this material can be analvsed.


Visual sources

As well as the feature films alreacly mentioned, you should consider Allen, Robert C. and Gomery, Douglas, Fibn Historl: Theory and Practice

other forms of visual materizrl which can help to explore the issue of (Boston, MA: McGraw-Hill, 1993).
trade unionism on the screen. Têlevision proÉïrammes fiom the BBC Chapman,.farnes, Glancy, Mark and Harper, Sue,'fhe Nau Film History:
and ITN archives about the miners' strike and preüous government Sources, Method,s, Atrtpruaches (NewVrrk ancl Basingstoke: Palgrave

resp()nses to trade union activity could off'er a useful ranse of material, Macrnillan, 2007).
while newsreel footage could again ofler an insight into attitucles towards Ô Dochartaigh, Niall, lnternet Research Skills: Htxo tr.t l)o ytur l,ilerature
strike activiqr ancl union activiqr in the early part of the twentieth centrrry. Sean:h and l,ï'nd Research lnfonnation Online (I os Angeles: Saee,
Once you have identified what your interest is you could also track 2007).
down interview material with people such as Arthur Scargill, Margaret Robsorr, Colin, Hou to [)o a Re,çearch I'roject: A G,uide_fctr Underyaduatc
Thatcher,James Callaghan and Harold Wilson, whowill have qiven Studm,ts (Oxford: Blackwell, 2007).
interviews to articulate their views on strikers and union activists. Walliman, Nicholas, Your Rcsearch Prrrject: A Step-1ry-Sl?.P Cuide .l'or thc
liirsL-Lime Rtsearcher (London: Sage, 2000).
Wheatley, Helen, Ik-aiaoingTblatision Historl: Critical Iss'ues in'lbkntision
CONCLUSION Historiogrnphy (London: I.B. Tâuris, 2007).

The twc» case studies outlined above indicate how y()u can set about
devising a research question. Now that you have drawn up a question
or series o[ questions, read around the subject, identified yolrr sources
and devised an approach, you should consider the methodolow of your
research - how you are going to carry it out. Issues of methodology will
be cliscussed in the next chapter, but it is important fbr methoclology to
be closely allied to approach. As will be shown in the following chapter,
a methodology can be devised once the preliminary work is undertaken
and a clearer picture of your specific question begins to emerge.


I Higsorr, FilN È.ttrlrttrrl.

2 As of 2013, the thirty-year rule is being progressively scaled down to
a twenty-year rule, with the process intcnded to be complete by 2022.
See www. nationalarchives. gov. uk/about/ 20-year-rule. h tm (accessed B
December 2014).



h ol plirtt, while online archives misht become unavailable. Paper or

à I rrrovirrg image archives rnay lose their firncling and close to the public,
wlrik' personal papers or gilted collections of material may be lost or
wrt lr([rawn. Even films go out of circulation, and getting hold of television
llt()glirrrlmes, non-broadcast recordings or progralnme rushes can be
RESOU RCES r lrrrllcnging. While this rnay make research difficult, more material is
r orrrirrg to light and being made available all the time. As a researcher
you (:rn only use the resources that are available to you and in doing so
yorr will make choices about whal is irrrpot'tant fbr your research and
The previous chapters have suqgested how you catr select a topic, define Irow you will use it. This chapter will highlight how to make best use of
a question and identiÿ an approach, methodology ancl theoretical tlrr rrraterials you have access to and how to manapîe this aspect of the
fiamework. Having decided upon a topic ancl an approach, y()u now r cscl t'r:lt process.
need to think in cletail abor.rt the kinds of sources you will be usins. lrr order to carry out efiective research you need to first identiÿ what
The next two chapters dcal rvith two distinct areas of your research; this r.'s()llrces exist for the topic you have chosen. Are figçures available to
chapter highlights the tlpes ol sources which exist and how they can be lrclp rletermine what was seen and when? Do cinema ledpçers or account
accessed while Chapter 8 identifies the specific research skills you will lxroks exist which document the various levels of success of the films
nced to elîèctively use these resourccs. irr tlrrcstion? Can it be established h«rw much money each film took
This rnay seern to be a very detailed way of identifying a selection ,rrrrl when it was screened? Can rnovie magazines or fàn letters provide
of research material. However, it is intendccl to highlight the range «rf rvirk'rrce of fllm popularity and audience response to particular stars?
s()urces wtrich exist fbr t.he study of filrn and the moving image and ll;rr,<^ the personal papers of a film's star or director been deposited in a
how different approaches and topics will draw on difîèrent res()urces. l i l rr ir ry or archive and can they be accessed?

This chapter is a trsefirl place to begin when you want to start compiling
a list of sources. These sources may fall into a number of clifferent
categories: primary, seconclary, archival, s()verlln)ent. private papcrs, REFERENCE WORKS
company recr»rds, books,-journal articles, web archives, databases and
websites. In this chapter they are groupecl togcther under a series lrr tlrt' early stages of yolrr research and as already indicated in the
of headings to help you think about the different sorts of materials rcr tions on 'defining your interest' and 'reading around a subject' in
y()u may be trsing within your research. It is less about distinguishing I ,lr;rPtt:r 5, textbooks and relèrence works are a sood place to begin
between primzrry and secondary sources, or digital and print resources, l'ollt l OSearCh.
or film.journals and industry rnagazines but instead is a broad survey Wlrat you select to read will depend upon your fbcus, but renrember
oI'the types of resources which exist. While the lbcus of this work has tlrirt llre more you read, the more you will understand the topic. If your
predominantly been on British cinema, this chapter will also include lolrrs is cinema, then general guides on cinema may be usefüI, but
sources of inforrnatior-r which relate more generally to the movins 1x'r'lrirps a more helpfül way to think about a research question or topic
imase. While such a survey car-rn()t possibly hope to be comprehensive, lr lo itlentiÿ a period or era. This may be a decade, or per-haps a fèw
it will include as many types of resources as possible and also indicate yrilrs, ()r even a film genre or movement such as the French new wave
how different sources of nraterial can be incorporated into your ut tt('w Holl),wood. Once you have identified youl period y1;g sfiould
research. nrr s()rne basic searches on yorlr university or college library catalogue
Many of these sources will be key works, seminal publications or rrsirrg the decade and period and any key terms such as 'new wave' as
popular collections, but even sur-veyine the broad sweep of material klyw« rrds.
available is not without its problerns. Books and journals may g() out

itriàt_k' ,iârimnffimÇË{ÊffiÉq-e.lk- - -
Books rrrrrrrlr<'r't>[ general sources which should not be overkrokerl. TlLe Bùtish
t ttt'»tt. l)ookby Robert Murphy is now in its third e<lition and should be
If your interest is in British cinerna, then the fbllowing works :rddress l,rrrrtl irr the bibliography on any topic rvhich addresses British cinema,
the various decacles and are a good place to start. These secondary ,rr slr<rrrld.ftrstine Ashby and Anclrew Hisson's British Cinerna: Past and
resources will give you a broad understanding of British cinerna and llrrr'rrl :urd Sarah Street's British Natinnal Cinema.t" Other volumes
film in different decades, though, of course, they all havc a different rrrr llritish cinema include work byJirn Leach (British Film) and Arny
specific ft-rcus. \,rrgcrrrrt (British Oinema).tt Even if the period addressed by a specific
The early days of cinerna in Britain are eflective ly covered in Rachael rlor k is not of particular interest lbr your own chosen topic, the level
Low's exceptional seven-vohrme series (-FlisJory of llritislt Film) wl:'ich ,rrrrl rkrtail of research rrrakc all these irnportant s()urces f<rr British
traces the development of film in Britain up to 1939.r The 1930s are r rr('nr:r. Other reference works that mieht prove usefirl inclucle Brian
also covered in work byJohn Sedgw,ick (Popuku Filmgoing) and-feffrev [\lr liru lane's 'l'he linqclopaedia of l]ritish lïlm, Sarah Street and Margaret
Richar<ls (Age ql the Dream l'alace), while the lg40s are dealt with by lfrrkirrsorr's CinemaanrlStatc:'[-lnltilrnLnd,ustryaruL(]oaernmenlandDenis
(llrarles Drazin (The linest lir.ar.s), Robert Murphy (Ittal,ism and l'inse[) ( irllrrrrl's British lïlm Cata,logrtc.t2
and Mark Glancy (IMen Hollyttood Loued Rritain,).2 The war years are l'lrt:rt: is also material which addresses specific aspects of British
often covered separately, and usefirl work includes accourlts published r rr('rrir. For exarnple, A.ndrew Spicer's work on masculinity (l1pical
by Anthony Aldgate irnd.feftiey Richards (BriLai'n Con 'Ihkc ft), James Âlr'rr),.farnes Chapman on history (Past and Prusent), Leon Hunt on
Chapmarr ('l'lu Britislr at War) and Robert Murphy (British Cinema and lrrw-lrr'«rw (British Lmt (htlture), Peter Hutchings on horror cinema
thc Seconrl World War).1 British cinema in the 1950s is the focus of work I llrt»tmu' and Bqond), John Hill on the British new r{ave (Sex, Cla.ss and
by Srre Harper and Mncent Porter (The Deckne of DeJ'erence), while Su llntli:;n), Claire Monk and Arny Sargeant on heritage (British Historical
H<rlmes explores television and filrn (British 7'V and lil,m Cul,l,ule).1 t,trrt'tn,rt), Steve Chibnall ancl R<lbert Murphy on crirne cinerna (British
Melanie Bell considers the relationship between women viewers ancl t ittttr' Oinerna) and Andrew Higson on national identity (lilm Engla,nd).1:l
1950s cinerna (l-cmini'nig in l.he l:rame), while Christine ()eraghty (British r\lsrr rrseful coukl be Charles llilrr's account of Ealing Studios (Ealing
Cinerna in the 1950s) focuses t>n gender and genre." \tuilios), Sue Harper writing on women in the lilm industry (Mad, Bad
British film and cinerna in the 1960s is amply covered by Danny rtrtrl l)tngtruus to Knout), -lustin Smith on cult cinenra (Withnail and Us),
Powell (Studying British Cinemrz) and by Robert Murphy (Sixties British \trr;rrt lfanst-rrl on cinema exhibition (l,iorn Sil,en,t Screen to Multi-Scteen),
Cinemo), while jorrrnalist Alexand<:r Walker <l1Ièrs his take <ln the filrns l,,rrrlic Ede on set design (Brili.sh lribn Design) and l)uncan Petrie on
and indr.rstry in the decade (Holllttood l)ngland).6 A recent surge of r (' natogra phy ('l-he British Cinemalctgapher) .t
r r r r

interest in the 1970s rneans that a nurnber of studies ol'this often- 'l lris range of secondary material on British cinema is rnerely a
overlooked decade now exist, notably eclited collections by Patrl rt.uting point. l,ookins at work ra,'hich addresses the decade <>r period
Newland (Don't Look Nozu) and Robert Shiril (Seuenfies British Cinema) lr)u wirnt to fbcus on shorrld give you some idea of the rnaterial which
and strrclies by Sue Harper and.fustin Smith (Brltlsh lihn Culkuz), Sian Ir,rs lrcen pul:lished and which you can rtse in your «lvrt research. Yort
Barber ('l'he Brüish Film Industrl in the 1970s) and Paul Newland (Ilritish, rlr,rtrld also sttrdy ttre fbotnotes listecl in such work to identiÿ other
lilms ol ttu 1970s).7 lohn Flill's study of British society, the British filrn \our'( cs which may be crucial ftrr the stucly of the period in question. In
industry arrd British films serves as a great introduction to the 1980s pirrtit:ular, you should take n()te t>f .iournal articles published recently
(British Oinema in the 1980s), while work from John Walker drau,s wlriclr address your topic of study. Many of these studies will include
tosether the films of the 1970s ancl 1980s (T'ht On,ce andFuture lilm)." r lscirrch on the social, cultur'al antl political backsrourrd and may draw

Robert Murphy's publication on the 1990s covers this m<lre recent orr prrblications outside the field of film studies. Usins rnaterial which is
decade and explores recent British hits such as Tiainspotting (Itritish wr ittr:n frorn a political, historical or econornic perspective will provide
Cinema of the 90s).tl 1,orr with an understirnding of the period as a whole and could help to

In addition to studies that focus on particular decades, there are a lnrint you in the right direction I'or further research.

This list of key resources which has been briefly compiled here fbr' lrrrlrlit lilrrirry may hold print copies of certain.journals or may subscribe
British cinema can selve as a template frrr other topics. Similar lists tl .r scrvice which lets you access the material online. Much older
could easily be compilecl fbr any other national cinema or indeetl ;rrrlrlicrrtiorrs such as film inclustry publication Kinematography Weekly
for television. ldentifying lists of resources that relate to topics suclr ll,ttt'r' OinemaTV Tbdaÿ or Picturegoer rnay be available on microfilm or
as alternative cinema, avant-garde film or newsreels may be mclre rrrrr rrrlit'he in your university or public library. If your library does not
cornplicated. As a starting point f'or these topics it is again useful to think Ir,r\'r' ir<'cess to a specific journal then you shor.rld check the holdings
about periodisation and to read about the mainstrearn visual culture irt \'()ul local public library and at the British Film Institute Library in
of the period you are interested in. Although you may be interested l,orrrkrrr, which holds a wide ranpçe of cinema and film.journals.
in alternative cinema, you should still research the period in order to 'l'lr«' kinds of
.journals you should consult clepend on rvhat you are
fully understand the context in which both mainstream Iilmmakins or rlrcirrtlring. There are a nurnber of ways for you to find the right
television production and other creative practice is taking place. lf you lr,rrrrurls for your subject. Yor"r should first run some basic kelword
are keen to explore artisLs' {ilm or avant-garde cinema then you will cr,,rrclrcs on the catalogue at your university library. This will give you
need to consider how such artistic practice was organised, where it was ,r lx'tl«'r' idea of the kinds of publications it holds and how you can get
exhibited, how it was funded ancl who were the key players involved. rr r rss t() thern. You coulcl also use the search ensine Google Scholar,
Often such practice was a direct response to the perceived failures of tht: rrlriclr r:an be accessecl from the Google homepage. The search results
mainstream, and so understanding the mainstream and conventional Irr (lrogle Scholar will be articles, reviews and critiques published in
fllmmaking of the period is essential. If you are researching newsreels rrr,r(l('nlic journals, ancl alongsicle the resulLs you will be able to see if
then you will need to understand when and where the newsreels were rorrr irrstitution holcls a copy of the article or if it can be accessed online.
shown, why they were commissioned and who they were aimed at. In lrirr:tlly, a number of internet sites compile usefirl lists of resources.
order to do this, you will need to explore spaces of exhibition and 1,, ,r t'xample, Film Studies fbr l-ree inchrdes a list of accessible resources

examine film programmes to see how cinemas fitted newsreels intcr rur(l ()[)en access .journals.rs Other useful sites include the Museum
their programmine. ul tlrt' Moving Image website, which includes American, European
Whatever you are studying, runnins basic searches in library ,rrrrl irrterrratiorral journals in its list of resources, and Cineaste, which
catalogues will indicate the refèrence books available lirr the topic ancl Itrts <'ritical and popular pr,rblications in the field of film and cinerna
fi'om here you can start to cornpile a list of material to read as you beeirr rl t tr lics. l(;

your research. Along with general texts arld book-length studies, yorr l lrr: fbllor'ving academic journals are the kind of publications that
should also be consulting the key journals in the field to identiÿ what rrr;ry lrt: useful for film and rnoving image related work:
cur-rent research is being carried olrt and how this can be usefrü for your'
own research. . Screen
o llritishlournal of Film and Telatision
c I {istorica,lJournal of Film, Radio and Tblcaision
Journals . lùlm Quarterly
c lùlm Commen,l
There are a ranse ofjournals for film that may be useful to you in your o l,iltn and History
work. As well as indiüdual .journal articles which may address your o (lritical Sludies itt Teleui.sion
research, you can also use the methodology and critical approaches . Sigh.t and Sou'nd
outlined in journal articles as the basis of your own research. Yorr o Oineaste.
should make full use of any footnotes and ref'erences which accompanl
journal articles as they may make reference to work you have not yet Às wt:ll as academic articles, these publications will also contain critical
reacl. Journals will usually either be print or digital. Ytrur universiry or rrvit'ws of films and reviews of recently published work within the



cliscipline. There are also a nr-rmber of .journals that are publishe<l rlr\( ()ulscs about popul:rr taste o11èr opportunities to interrogate ideas
online zrnd are Iiee to access and fully searchable. These include: Ilrlglr/ ,rlrorrt :rucliences, plcasure, taste artd popularity.
I-ights, Senses of Cinema and, St:ope. lirr lilrns released very recently, there rnay be a lack <>f critical
Il' you are interested in a particular aspect of filrn studies - f<rr' rr lrrrlarslrip, so lilm magazines such as Em.pire or Tbtal lilm can help
t.' example, transnatir>nal cinerna, adaptation, early cinema or amateur to lill a gap. The diflèring cultr.rral status and critical authority of any
film - there may be a specialist journal which deals with the subject. prrlrlication should be carefirlly explored before usine it as a source, but
For instarrce, the online .journal Pa,rticipation.s covers audiences anrl tlrl rrlticles, reviews ancl critical insishts as well as the way in which the
audience research, \/hile Vefiigo specialises in independent filrn. rrr,rtclial is c«rnfigured lirr audiences rnake magazines about film and
video and docurnentary.ti Varietl is an essential source ftrr the study ol r rtr('nl:l an important and viable resource for the researcher.
Hollywood, while if your topic is related to a particular national cinema,
you should explore all the public:ltir>ns in English and in the original
language of that national cinema.rs Research in the library and onlint' N.'wspapers
will yield a larse rarrge of resources and it is then up to you to select thc
most useful ones for your areas of sttrdy. Many of these.journals havr: Ncrvsp:rpers are also a uselirl resource for Iilm studies, arrd you can trace
websites and it can be helplul to research the publications online t<r rlll»irlr:s ab<lut screen violence and film funding, access film reviews and
determine which specific publications are rnost uselirl fcrr you. lrrrrl interviews with directors and actors through the pa€ies of tabloid
,rrrrl lrroadsheet newspapers. Many of the Britistr broadsheets have
nrrlirrt' archives which date back a few vears, so goinu to the homepage
Magazines trl I'lte'l'imes, Ohsnuer, Tbkgraph or lrulependenl and accessing their recent
r nrrlcnt is fairly easy. However, some of these newspapers may reqrrire
As well as the film and cinema.journals identified al:<tve, you coulrl rou l() [)ay a fee if you wish t<l explore their online archive material. More
c<rnsider maqazines like l)mpirc, Pict,urugoer, Iïlrns nn,d, hil,min,g and lbt.al r.xtcrrsive archives exist f<rr irrdiüdual newspapers. A useful resource
,l?/rz. Although a very diffèrent kincl of resource from academic.iournals. ir 'l'he Timcs digital archive, rvhich allows you free access to articles
such publications can contain plenty of useful infbrmation in the lrrrlrlislrecl in'l'he'l'imes Êr<>m 1785 to 2006. Similarly, the Daily Mail
firrm of reviews, ne\4/s articles and interviews. In the heyday of cinema, llistorical Archive 1896-2004 is also lirlly searchable. Both resources
ptrblications like Picturegoer <tfLer a revealins insisht into the world ol ,rrrrl rnany more like them, includinu recently digitised material from
popular taste and are particularly useful for exploring idea of stars anrl lrrrl»lications srrch as the BBC masazine 7-he Listener and Picture Post,
star<lom. By c()ntrast, l,ilms and Filming- which ran from 1954 to 1980 r.rrr lrc accessed via subscription. Subscriptions to these resources are
- has a very different tone and includcs critical revicws of middle-brorr' rrrrr:rlly manap;ed try your university library. It rnay be that access to these
cinema as well as poptrlar film releases. At the other end of the spectrurn rcs()ur-ces is through a provider such as Cengage,.JSTOR, Project Muse
you have industry-focused publications sr.rch as Kinemalograph WeeA\, a nr Lt'xisNexis, You should investisate what subscriptions your university
long-nrnnine industry publication which would nrorph into the mon' ,rrxl local library hold and search their websites to see what electronic
audience-focuse<l Oinenm,TV 'lodq in the 1970s, irnd which irrcludcrl r ('s( )rrrces are available to you. Your subject or fàculty librarian should be

details on films in production and more general commentary on filnr ,rlrlc t«r help you access these resources and answer any queries you may
i.l funding, government involvement anrl the work of the Cinematograplr lr.rvr'. They rniry also be able to apply for free trials for specific resources
Films Council. The range of material offered by all of these publications. Io lr«'lp you with your researclt.
as lÿell as their tone, manner of acldress, sq,le, objectives and viewpoint
can all be useful sources in cxploring cliscourses about film and cinema
in different historical periods. Acknowledging the diffèrent intenderl
audiences is important, but careful analysis of the implicit and explicir


Çi{iFlÇffi tÜËiËt6riliir"ffi -
:,iri i

PRIMARY SOURCES a (lheck the library: University libraries have collections of moving
irrrirl5e rnaterizrl and you rnay Iind fihn material which will help
The primary s()urces which can be used in frln.r related research arc yorrl leseat-ch.
eclectic and varied. They range.tom the films thernselves to material t Scarch for it on YouTube: If you have a clear idea ofwhat it is you
which dates from the procluction process, such as scripts, letters and ;rx' kroking for and cann()t lind it elsewhere, then krok for it on
nlemos. As already shown in the chapter on formulating a researclr VrtrTube. lf the rnaterial is there, you shor.rld try and track it down
question, gaining access to the visual material - films, televisiorr to its original source; much Iilm material is housed in o{ficial
fbotaee, amateur material - is the best way to begin your research collections and once you have identified these collections you will
and to become familiar with the textual and aesthetic qualities of the lx' :tble to explore the material ttrey hold.
material. a Oompile key data: Find otrt as rnuch as possible about the visual
rrrlterial you are scarching for and compile key clata about it. 'lhis
way you will be able to searc:h for it by year, by c()ntributor, by title,
Films and moving image lry screening, exhibition <lr release date. It may be the case that
it is available online or within an archive but it has been poorly
Gaining access to I'eature filnrs is relatively straiehtforward, particularly ( lrrated, If this is the case then simply searchins for it by title rnay
if you are looking at films made in Hollywood or any of the other rrot locate it, but perhaps it can be f<rund through a more detailecl
major film industries within the last seventy years. Oopies of films orr st'itrch by clate or by production company.
D\rD can be easily purchased fîom websites, while material which.âas
not yet been digitised can usually be sourced on second-hancl VHS llrl lolkrwing collections all holcl diflèrent kinds of moving image
via websites like eBay or Amazon. However, you may face problems rrr,rtrrirrl. This is n()t an exhaustive list, but rather gives you an idea of
gainine access to films which did not have a theatrical release, avant- rvlrlr c yort can begin looking ftrr caches of material. Again, all of these
pçarde films shown as part of an exhibition or art show silent films iur lliv('s and collections have websites, so rcsearching them and finding
from the early days of cinema ()r rare movinq image content which has lrrt wlr:rt they have online is usually the best way to begin research:
not been digitisecl.
If you want to study this kind of material, you need to think aboul a 'l'he British Film Institute holds an extensive collection of film
how you can set hold of it. There is rro point constructins elaborate television material which can be viewecl at its Londol South
research questions around avant-garde film from 1960s G'ermany if yotr I|:rnk site and at five other mediatheque sites in the UK: Derby,
are unable to obtain copies of the films or to discover anything about Wrcxham, Newc:rst1e, Glasgow and Cambridge.
them. It is very difficult to condtrct cffcctivc research when the object ol a 'fhe British Universities Film and Video Council possesses zrn ofÊ
study is missing; you need to be aware of what is alailable and how yorr ;rir recorcling service and copies of television programmes, and
can access it. rrraterial screened on television can be clrdered from it. lt also hosts
As you beein your research you should start compiling a list of tht' ll l irnge of rnoving imase resources many of which can be obtained
üsual material you want to find. If it is rnainstream fèature-lilm materiirl lirr fiee provided your university holds the correct subscription.
i a basic internet search should lead you to the resources you want. lfyou llUscreen is an online free-view archive of'European teleüsion
cannot find material, it is worth doing the fbllowing: rrraterial which currently holcls 40,000 items from broadcasters
lu<'ross Ettrope.
o Ask your lecturer or teacher: If your lecturer has a particular' a 'fhe European Film Gateway is an online collection of film, irnages
interest in your topic then he or she may have a collection ol' ilnd texts from twenty-four {ilm archives across Europe.
material they may be willing to share with you. If they do not h«rlrl a !'ilm Archives UK is an online site which brings together thirteen
copies they may have a goocl iclea where you can find them. <li[ïèrent regional archives holding broaclcast and amateur fbotage.



a The Imperial War Museums have a substantial collection ol l.oculed on London's South Bank, the British Film lnstitute l,ibrary
rnovins imase material, including propaganda films macle cluring lrrrkls rrratcrial relatine to film production companies. The BFI is art
the First \Àkrrld Wirr. trr cllcnt. resource for both movil'tg image material and for industrial
o British Pathé online has 4n extensive collection of newsret'l rlr orrls, critical reviews and private collections. Sorne of its material is
material and archive footase. p.u I ()l'the BFI Speciai Collections and you will need to make a separate
a Moüetone online database contains newsreels frorn 1929 to 1979. rtplx)intrnent to access it. A search of the BFI general catalogue lbr
o Huntley Films Archive holds over 45,000 films in iLs onlinc 'r orrrpirnies' identified a wide range of rnaterial including:
a The Moving Image Archive is a broad collection of films anrl . r'r'cords {iorn the l,ondon Film Company covering the years
broadcast television material which can be accessed online. r 913-1920;
. general production and distribution company rnaterial, inch.rding
As well as the films ttremselves, risual rnaterial such as documentarit:s lrrochures, marketing; and publicity docurnenls. This wide range
about the production of the filrn or television interviews with the dire ctor' ol' material dates fiom the earliest days of cinema throush to
or cast mernber can also be useful resources. Some of this material carr the 1930s and relates to companies inclucling ()aumont, Jur1,'s
be accessed online or rnay be included as an extra fèature ol) the DVf) ol lrnperial Pictures, Equity British films, Keystone and Hepworth;
a feature filrn. You should make sure that you incorporate yisual sourccs o :rnnual reports from Univcrsal Pictures Company for the years
into your list of resor.rrces and consider how best to use such material irr I 957-1958;
your brozrcler research. // . ('()mpany records fiom the Incorporated Association of
Kinematograph Manufacturers Ltd from the 1940s and 1950s;
In addition to r.isual sources, rnaterials which relate to the productiorr . ( ()mpany records from the British National Film League;
of the film, its distribution, exhibition and reception, akrne with anr r ('xtensive production and distribtrtion material fi'om ABC
records liom bodies related to the fihn industry can be very rrseful. Thesc tt:levision in the l960s;
recorcls have been split into a number of different categories below. . general company information relatins to British Pathé, Anglo-
Amalsamated, Associated British and Ealing;
. r'ecords and correspondence fiom the British and f)orninions Fihn
Company records ( krrporation dated 1931-1934;
o lecords and end-of-year accounts lionr the National Film Finance
(iornpanv reports, financial ledsers and end-oÊyear accollnts can tell Oorporation (NFFC) firr the years 1949-1979.
you a sreat dcal about the industrial processes at work in the filnr
industry. Tracking down this information can be challeneing, but th<' r\s wt'll as records held by the BFI, individual company accounts may
materiirl you do find may proüde details about buclget, marketirrSr. lrr. t ontained within the personal archives of clirectors or producers.
profit, loss, salaries and firndine choices. It is also fàscinatins to consider Millrael Klinger's personal papers include the cornpany accounts of
the development of individual pr«rduction companies, to understan<l lris Swiftdown company and are held at the University of the West of
why certain projects were shelved and why others were pursued. Then' I'lrrglitncl, while papers relating to Don Boycl's company Boyd's (lo can be
is an important clifference between the records of a company or iul lorrrrd in his papers at the University of Exeter. Understirnding how the
orsanisation and the personal papers kept by;rn individual. Cornpanr irrrlrrstry worked in a given decade or period is crucial when condr.rctins
records will include legal and financial documentation as well as lilrrr-r'clated research. It is difficult to understand how films flop or
infrrrmation about personnel and pre- and post-production details. Thr' rrrr'« r'eclwithout understanding the economic and financial contexts of
key location for inlbrmation on the British film industry is the library at lrrorltrction, clistribution and exhibition. Usine the material fbund in
the BFI in London. r ollt'<:tions of company and industry accounts can add depth to yotrr

research and complernents appr()aches which seek to understancl filnr li.rlkirrg down these kinds of records rnay be challenging and shorrld
as both a cultural and c-c<.rnomic procluct. lx' rrtr<lt:rtaken when yorr have a clezrr idea of rvhat you are looking fbr.
As well as rnaterial which relates to the inclustrial sicle of filmmaking, ll yorrr interest is in television, the records of the BIIC are held at
studio papel-s can als<; includc rna,,lLerial which relates much mr»re ll\ rvlitten records centre in Caversham in Berkshire, rvhile records
closely to the procluction of specific fihns. F'or example, the Hammer' ;x'rt:rirrine to the Independent Television Authority (l'fA) - which
script archive has recently been deposited at De Montfort University irr lrr.r irrrrt: the Independent Broadcastine Arrth«)rity (IBA) and later the
l,eicester and offers over 240 items in its collections for scholars keen to Ilrlr'pcndent Television Clommission (ITC) - are held at the University
discovcr m«rre about filrnmzrkins at the làmous hor-ror stuclio. nl lkrrrrnemotrth.

lndustry papers I'rr sonal papers/ private col lections

In addition to accounts lbr indiviclual companies, financial recorcls li;rcking clown archival collections, personal papers, rare visual rnaterial
liorn funcling organisations like the National Film Finance Oorporation, lr ( )lnpany accounts often requires painstaking research. At lirst slance

working papers of govelnnrellt colnmittees like the (linematograplr rrr(' llraterial may not seem to be related to film at all, but it depends
l'ilms (louncil or cultural bodies like the British tr'ilrn Council carr rrr y()rlr research topic and what you are tryine to find out. Begin with
also reveirl how the industry operated. The accounts of these kinds ol tlrc n'sources which are easiest to find. Build up your knowledge of the
organisations may be located in the British Library or The National ' tnpit irncl then start to expand the list of material you want to find. Be
Archives at Kew. lf they are sovernrnent rec()rds they will be subject to rr'.rlistir: about what you carr achieve: if the key material lirr your topic
the thirty-year rule, but if they are outside this timefiame they should lr rr ilr) archive in [,os Angeles, how are you going to access it? Do you
be accessible.re Both the British Library and The National Archives havt' Ir,rvc tirne to visit the archive and who would pay for yotr to s() there?
excellent search ensines attached to their websites. Uselirl resollrces It is also important to be realistic about what you are expected to
fiom these archives include letters and memos charting the development rLr, \tlt will be required to undertake detailed research fbr yorrr final
of government policy on the filrn inclustry in Britain, the establishnrent t'r',tt tlissertation, MA thesis or PhD research and any other significant
of co-production agreernents between Britain and other cotrntries anrl rrrclrrch project, but such intensive research involvins visits to archives
the use of filrn by orgarrisations such as the British (louncil to presel)l ,tttrl rrccessing rare collections will probably not be required 1'or a
ideas of 'Britishness' abroarl. 'Ihe British Board of Film (llassificatiorr rl.rrr<llrrd essay.
now ofï'ers rcsearchers access to its internal document.s which relate t.«r l\'r'sonal papers and private collections may contain everythine fiom
the classification of Iihn Ii'om thc carlicst clays of cinema to the present. ;rrrsorral correspondence, letters, memos, telegrams and newspaper
Paper files relating to material released in the last twenty years art. r lippirrgs to private notes, diaries and messases. There may be detail on
restrictecl, but it has an excellent website lvith a large number of cast' rrrrrclrlised projects, correspondence related t() castins in specific films,
studies and a fully searchable database so you can establish the precisc rlur rrrnents detailing any problems experienced with the film unions or
problems with recently releaserl filrns. Scenario reports and reüews firr rvitlr tlre taxman. Some personal papers contain a massive amount of
films fiom the 1930s to the 1950s czrn be found in the BBFC collectiorr rrr,rtcrial; the papers of director.foseph Losey are extensive and include
at the BFI. lrirlx'r'w()rk which relates to aspects of his personal as well as professional
Recorcls which relate to the exhibition of films in specific areas will Itlr', while Derek Jarman's papers include his personal notebooks
be stored in regional or city archives. For example, data that relate t() Irr wlri<:h he sketcl.res his design ideas f<rr films and include detail on
the screening o{'films in 1970s Portsmouth are held in the city archives I r)\lilrnes, characters, colour and locati<tns.
lirr the early years of the decade and those pertaining to the end ol l,ixploring the personal papers of a director, producer, costume
the clecade are kept in the Hampshire county :rrchives in Winchester. rk'sigrrcr or editor can be very excitinu, but locating them can be

difficult. It rnay also be the case that the personal papers of a certairr nr tlrc lrl.hive itself, you may pick up on ne\{spaper stories about the
incliüdual do not exist in a library or archive. The papers rnay still be irr l;rlrrirrg ol'an archive or the gilting of material by an actor or director's
the possessi<.rn of the fàrnily, or they rnay have been lost or destroyed. ll lrrrnrl)' irr)d so folkrw the trail fiom there. The next chapter will ofïèr
the papers have been lbrmally gifted to an archive or an institution thcrr ,ulr'rr t lrrr<l suegestions on how to go abotrt planning a visit to an archive
they rnay well be open ltrr research arld may even trave been catalogued, ,rr rvt'll lrs how to sift ttrrough the material you may find.
which can help make thern easier to exarnine. Ttre most likely placr.
fbr papers of prominent lilm industry individuals is either a universitl
library or an archive such as the BFI Special (lollections, the Irish Filnr Attrltcnce data
Institute in Dtrblin or the National Library of Wales in Aberystr,ryth.
T'he BFI Special Collections in London has a range of personal llrr ov<'r'ing the experienccs of audiences is notoriously difficult as
papers, including those fiorn Petcr Rogers, John Schlesinger, .|oseph inln( ('s rarely survive. Howeveq specific caches ol inltrrrnation do exist
Losey, Davicl Puttnarn and Michael Balcon. The extensive Stanlt:r' ,rlrl r;rrr proüde fascinating daftr on people 's resp()nses to films aswell as
Kubrick papers are held at the University of the Arts in London whilt' tlrrr lcasons for going to the cinem:r. The Mass-Observation collectiotr
the papers of Linds:ry Anderson are at the University of Stirline. The Bill ,rt tlrc LJniversity of Sussex is a fantastic collection of social research
Douslas (lentre at the University of Exeter holcls papers belonsins to ur.rtcr ill gathered over a period of years and relating to all aspects of
Iilrnrnakers Gavrik l,osey and Don Boyd as well as those of Bill Douglas. rlr r;rl. t'trltural and political life in Britain. This material can be used
Some papers relatins to lilmmaker David Lean are at the Universitv ll cxlrlore how attitudes towards leisure, entertailunent and going
of Readins, and the Kenneth Branaeh collection is held at Queelr's tl tlrt'<:inema changecl in diflèrent periods as well as more specific
Univt'rsity in Bellast. Irrlor rrrirtion on fàvor.rrite lilrn stars and prefêrred filrns. This material
There are a number of very larsc archives in the United St:rtes whert. h r rrlx'ntly being digitised ancl so access to the resottrce is becoming
the papers of important members of the lilm industry are preserved. OI Itrrr lr t'asier. You can always :rsk your library to register fbr a Iïee trial in
c()urse, you should consider whether you are able to visit these archives llr(l('r t() gain access to the material.
befbre researching their holdings or planning a trip. One L»f the larserst It is lare frrr data to exist lirr individual cinemas, btlt research about
collections is the Marsaret Herrick Library, based in Calilbmia and nrrr li('n('es and about cinetnas can turn up in strrprisins Places. Sometimes
by the Acaclemy of Motion Picture, Arts and Sciences. This library has lllrrr prrduction companies gatherecl their own data at test screenings
over a thousand individual collections and includes the papers of Alfrcrl trr cxplore audience response t() one of their films ancl occasionirlly this
Hit.chcock, actors Gresory Peck and lletherine flepburn, directors rl,rt,r srrrfàces in tl're archives of a cornpany or an indiüclual. The BBFC
(ieorge Stevens arrd Hal Ashby, and many rnore. The University ol Ir,rr lrct:rr conducting audience research since the earliest days of cinema.
Wisconsin-Madison holds the papers of renowned Hollywood costunl(' ;\,' wcll as historical data which can be found in some of it^s individual
desisner Edith Head, actor Kirk Douglas, television host Ed Sullivarr Itlrrr lilt:s, data about recent audience research can also be found on its
and director John Ford. The Harry Ransom Center at the Universitl' wllrsitr'. ()ften such research has been carried out in collaboration with a
of Têxas in Austin houses the papers of actor Robert De Niro anrl tr',rrrr <»l'researchers and they often detail the methodology they used as
legendary showman Flo Ziegfield as well as collections relating t<r rvlll lrs «rfferirlg some analysis and conclusions liom their findings.
plalm,rights Eugene O'Neill, Tennessee Williarns, Arthur Miller anrl l'lrt' BFI website also hosts historical and conterttporary statistics
Harold Pinter. f'he UCI,A Film :rncl Television Archive in Califomirt irlrorrt Iilm-going and audiences, exhibition patterns and cinema
includes papers belonsins to.Jean Renoiq Cecil B. DeMille, Ida Lupino rrttru(lirncc. It has been collating weekly box-office reports since 2001
and Mary Pickford. It also h:rs sisnificant industrial holdings, including irrl irlso compiles exit survey data from auclicnces viewirrg a raltse of
papers frorn Colurnbia Prc»duction studios. lilrrrs. All of this data is available on the BF'I website and catt be a useful
Detailed online searchins can help you to locate these personal w,r)' t() help you establish some basic facts and hard data about cinema-
papers. Even if such searches do n«rt lead you directly to the papers goirrg and aucliences.


Digital resources Itlrrr tlr<' r'«rllections ol'the BFI National Archive as well as inforrnation
nrr llr itislr clirectors, actors and prt>ducers.
In addition to all the material covered above you shoulcl also krok at tlrt
vixt ranse of digital resources whicfu exist. I)atabases of clisitised material.
interviews conducted with inclustry insiders, audience data gathered f'or.rr CONCLUSION
particular area or online responses to pzrrticular filrns rnay have been palr
of an earlier rescarch project. It rlay be that the findings of the reseirr<.lr llnrv to rrse this range of materiirl effectivelywill be covered in the next
project are relevant to your own research and you can usually locatr. r lr.rptcl lrut it is irnportant to remember that everything included here
these {indings online throtrgh careftrl searchins. The Bnradcastins. lr lu\t ir broad sweep of the traterial available. Many of the resources
Entertainment, Cinematograpl'r and Theatr«: Union (BECTU) archilr. Illrrtilit'cl here relate to British filrn and nrovirrg image nratclial.
at the Univt-'rsiq, of llast Anglia is a collection of audio interviews witlr lrlrvisiorr material will require a different range of sources, while a
members of the British lihn inclustry. In addition to directors anrl lnpir cr»vcrins an aspect of Holllvood filrn or l'rench cinema will need
producers, the interviews are also with editrtrs, continuity workers. lrr rllrw upon other sources. -But the approach identificd here and the
cxhibitors and technicians and they provide fàscinatine nuts-and-bolts rltllcrtrrt types of sorlrces iclentified shoukl help yorr begçin to compile
detail about the workings of the film indtrstry. Many of the interviews havt' rnrrr list ofresources, regardless oftopic.
been transcribed ancl these written transcripts are accessible online vi;r llowever, you should still be considering what resources will bcst
the BECTLT website. To access this rnaterial, y<.nr will need a site losin, brrr Irrllr you with your research and consicler how to use the rnaterial you
this can be achievecl fairly easily by following instructions on çhe webpagt'. Itrrrl. 'l'lre following chapter will now address how you can best use theser
The websites of the key industry orsanisations should also be explorerl r'\( )l u ('cs and how to make sure that you get the most out of a visit [o an
to cliscover what resources are available and what new initiatives ax' ilr lriv(', how to create an online survey or conduct zr rescarch interview.
being firnded. For exanrple, the BBC archive website includes themerl
collections of moving image and audio material on subjects as diverse as
Enid Blyton, the appeal of.James Bond, Dr Who, coal mining in Britairr NOTES
and a collection of radio interviews with Hollpvood stars, includinr
Bette Davis, Tony Curtis and Katherine Hepburn. All of the rrlaterirl I llrrchacl Low, 'l'he History of' Ilritish ltibn, T vols (London ancl New York:
can be accessed freely from the website and has sreat potential ftrr usc I{outledge, 1997; originally published Allen & Unwin, l94B).
as sorlrce material. '.1 .f olrn Serlgwick, I'opular lilmgting in, 1930s Britain: A Choice of Pleasures
In addition to hostins its own collections of rnovins image and sounrl (llxeter: University ol'F,xeter Press, 2000);.fefTrey Richards, 'I'he Ag o.l
material, the British Universities and Vicleo Council website includes tlLc Dream Palace: Cinemo arul Sot:iety 1930-1 939 (London: Routledge and

details on proiects it is involved with. Recent projects include tht' Kcgan Paul, 1984); Chzrrles Drazin, T-he Fincst Years: Rritish Oinema of thc
1940s (L<tndon: I.B. Tauris, 2007); Robert Murphy, Ilealism and. 'l'in,sel:
Clhannel 4 project at the University of Portsmouth, the publication of
Oinemtt and Socicty in Britain 1939-4ll,2nd eclition (London: Routledge,
600 films frr»n the Têchnicolor cinemasazine Roundabout (1962-1974)
1992); Mark H. Glancy, Whe'n Hollltoood Loucd lJritain: l-hc Hollyiuood
in a collaboration with the BFI and the collation of news material liorrr
llritish Filrn, 1D9-45 (Manchester: Manchcster University Press, 1999).
BB(l Northern Irelancl from the 1960s and 1970s in a database callerl
ll Anthony Aldgate and Jelfrey Richards, Britain Can Thkc It: The Rritislt
Chronicle and freely accessible to all ttrose in British rrniversities. Yorr
Oinema, in the SeconrJ Workl War (Edinburgh: Edinburgh University
shoulcl check these websites regularly and subscribe to mailing lists s<r I'ress, 1994);James Ohapman,'fhe British at War: Cinemo, Slate ond
that you ar-e aware of new developments, publications and collections. l'ropaganda, 1939-45 (London: I.B Tauris, 1998); Robert Murphy,
As well as listings f'or films and upcornins events on the BFI lvebsitr:. llritish Cinema and the Setond World Wrzr (London: Cont.ir-mum, 2000).
their related site, Screenonline, is an online encyclopedia of British filnr .l Sue Harper and Vincent Porter, Ilritish Oin,ema of th,c 1950s: 'l'he Dcrline
and television, fèaturing hundreds of hours of film and television clips ol l)elerence (Oxforrl: Oxford University Press, 2003); Su Holmes, -Brzrisà

,$ffi. r:.]rË*+i§sçs+4-.-:-
7'V a'nd hilm Cult'ure ol the 1950s: OornirLg lo a 7'V Near You! (Ilristol: ll,rrlrt'r', Wotnen in BriLish Oinetna: Mad, Bad a'nd l)anserous b Knout
Intellect, 2005). (t,orrr[on: Continuuln, 2000);.fustin Smith, tr4riti.nrzil aruJ Us: OuLt l"ilms
5 Melanie P,ell, I,'emini'niLy in Lhe lùame: Wmen atul 1950s British Pop1ll(t) ,tttrl liilm (hilts in Britislt Oiru,rna, (l,ondon: I.B. Tauris, 2010); Ilanson,
Cinema (London: I.B. Tâuris, 2009); Christiner (ierarehtl', Briti.sh Cinent,t ltrtrtt .\ilcttL Screett to Mttlti-Srreen; Laurie N. Ede, Brilish lilm Design:
i'n the l-iftics: GenrLo; GetLre antthc'Nau LolrÀ'([-ondon: Routledge, 2000). .l llisttry (London: LIl. 'Iàuris, 2010); Duncan Petrie, l'he llritish
[i f)anny Powell, Studying lJritish Cinnna: T'he 1960s (New York: Autcrrr ( i trn | t r atogru,p ha' ( l,onclon: BFI Publishin g, I 996) .

Prcss, 2009); Robert Murphy, Sixties British Cinemn (l,onclon: BFI. | ', lr tt
2008) ; Alexande r Walke r, I lollluood Enlçland: The British lil'm lndustrt itt l lr rvrvw. rnovingimagesource.us/rcsearch,/guide,/type/23 and wlvr,v.
the 1960.s,Znd edition (l,onclon: Harrap, 1986). r ir r«'itstc.com/recontnrcndecl_links.
7 Ncwland (cd.) , Don't Look Nozu; Robert Shail (ecl.) , Se.uenties llriLish Cinenrtt I i lltrlJt:iltations:_Jou,nt.rilcfAudienceu,tt.d,Ptm:ept'ionStul,ies,tr^tw.particiPations.
(I-ondon: BFI l'ublishing,/Palgrave Macmillan, 2008); Sue Harper antl r n. g', Vrt igo, u,ww.closeupfi lmcen tre.com/vertigo-rnagazi n e.

-fnstin Srnith (eds.), llnll.s/z lilm Cult,urc in, the 1970s:'lhe Bourularies ol lll l?rirtl,http:/ /variety.corn.
Plca,sure (Edinburgh: Eclinburgh University Press, 2011); Sian Barber. l!l .\s ol'2013, the thirty-year rule is being- progressivelv scalecl down to a
'fhe Brit,ish Film Industry in the 1970s: Capital, (htlt,ure arul (heatiuilt rw('nty-year rulc, with the process intcnded to be completed by 2022.
(Basingstokc: Palgrave Macnrillan, 2013);Paul Newland, Ilritish lilns ttl Sr'<' www.nationalarchives. gov. uk/about/ 20-year-rule.h tln (accessed B
thc 1970.s (Mar-rchester: N,Ianchester Universitl, Press, 2013). l)r'r'crnber 2014).
B .)ohn Hill, BriLish Cinema in the 1980s: Issnes and 'l'hemes (()xford.
Clarenrlon Press, 1999);.fohn Walker, Once and luture I'iln: llriti..slt
Cinema in the Seuentie,s arul liighties (London: Methuen, 1985). RECOMMENDED FURTHER READING
9 l{obert Murphy, l}ritish Oiwma o.f the 90s (l.ondon: BFI, 2000).
l0 Robert Murphy, I-he British Cinema Rook,Znd edition (London: Bl'l llr r r r rrws, Elaine el rzl. (eds. ) , Bntish Oinemu So'urce Rook: BFI Arthittc
Publishing, 2001);Justine Ashby and Andrew Higson (eds.), -Britisli Vialing Coÿies and l,ibrary hlaterials (London: BFI PublishinS4,
Cinerru4 Past und Present (Lont7<rn: Routledge, 2000); Sarah Stret't. I 995) .

British National Cine'ma (London: Routledge : 1997) . lirstcr,JanetarrdSheppard,Julia (cds.), llitishArchiues: A C'uidctoArch,itte
11 .firn Lezrch, British liln (OambridgJe: Carnbridge fJniversity Press. liesouru:es in t,he United Kingdom, (Basingstoke: Palgrave, 2002).
2004); Arny Sargeant, IJritish Cinema: A Critical Hi.storl ([,onclon: Bll
Publishing, 2005). WEBSITES
12 Briarr McFarlane ,'l'\rc llntldopa«lia llritish Film,3rd edition (l,ondorr
Methuen, 2008); Margaret l)ickinson and Sarah Street, Cinetrur a,trrl Itl,l( I'l'U: \^,'w\{.uea.ac.uk,/fllrn-tclevision-rnetlia/research/research
State: The lilm Industry u'nd the lhitish Coaernment 1927*19B4 (Lond<irr: -thern es,/british-film-an 11-tr.studies/bri tish-ci nema/ oral-history
BFI l']ublishing, l9B5) ; De nis Cl,iffbrd , llritish lrilm (kttalogue: l:iction l,'il,tr -project.
1895-1991, Vtlnme 1,3rd edition (London: Fitzroy Dearborn,200l). llli I Sr:reenonline: w'll.lv.screenonlinc.org.uk.
13 Anrlrew Spicer, Tlpical Men: Rtpre.sentations of Masculinity in the I'oÿulrn llII l,ibrary: lr,rvw.bfi.org.uk/cduc:rtion-research/bfi-reubenJibrary.
British Oulture (l,ondon: I.B. Tàuris, 2001); Chapman, Pu,st rtntl Prcsent. lh i t ish Pathé: www.britishpathe.com.
[,eon Htrnt, IJritish Lozu Culture: Front Sa,fari Suits to SexploitaLion (Londorr. Itt' l''VC: rwwv.brrFvc.ac.rrk.
Routledgçe, l99B); Pe ter Hutchings, Hammr and Bqond: 'l-ht llritish, Huu» llli( I Written Archives: www.bbc.co.uk/historyofïhebbc/contacts/wac.
Film (Manchester: Manchester Universiq, Press, 1993);-fohn Hill, "l'n. I l:rlry Ransorn (lenter: www.hrc.utexas.edu/collections/filrn.
(lhss and RealisnL: British Cinema 1956*1963 (London: BFI Publishing. l\4rr r'14aret Hcrrick I-ibrary: www.oscars.()rg,/librarl.
19t36); Claire Monk and Amy Sargcant (eds.), British Historical Cinem,, l\4 tss-Observation : www.nr:rssobs.org.uk/ index.httn.

(Lonclon: Routledge, 2002); Steve Chiball and Robert Murphy (eds.). '
l'lrr: National Archives: www.nationzrlarchives.gov.rtk.
Rritish (,rime Cinema (London: Routleclge, 1999); Higson , lihn Lngkmd. I t( ll.A Film ancl Têlevision Archive: www.cirrema.ucla.edu.
14 (lharles Barr, llaling Studios (Moflat: (lameron & Hollis, 1998); Srrt



Irrnt;rgr', lïorn television rlrama to filrned interviews, fiom experimental

+ B lllrrrr Io blockbuster fèatures.


dr rlrowrr in the previous chapteq secondary material such as books and
llrrr rlrls irre an excellent startins point, while magazines, newspapcrs,
rrllrr iirl government papers and conrmissioned reports can provide
The previous chapter has identified the ranse of sources which can lx' IilrIr )r'lilnt contextual detail fbr your research topic.
uselirl lirr the stucly of filnr. 'fhis chapter will ofler suggestions on hou I lsirrg this second group of sources requires a particular approach.
best to use these s()urces. As with any research, the way in which yorr ll tr rrot enough simply t.o look at a range of this rnaterial and use it t<r
use the rnaterial you fincl will clepend a sreat deal on your topic antl rttl,l,(llt your owr icleas. As with all sources, you rvill need to consider
research qr"restion. For example, if you are keen to explore the aesthelir tlrrr uulterial in relation to its bias, nuance, subjectivity and authorship.
qualities of filrn in different periods, you may not gçive mnch attentiorr ll forr lrre examining rnat.erial fiorn a range of diffêrent newspapers or
to lilm funcling. However, if you are explorinu the development of arr rilrll{irlines, you need to recognise and acknowledge that the material
inclisenous national film industry or considering why the fihns of tht' urrrtirirrcd within these publications will be aimed at diflèrent tarset
ttt u lit't tt:es.
new wave ernerged in France when they did, an understanding ôf {ilrl
finance and the econornics of the historical period will be relevant. Vrrr
l'ilrrr reviews are also published in plenty of mainstream
should also ensure that adequate s()rlrces exist for your research. F-or
l )nt('nlporary publications, and the .iuxtaposition of reviews alonsside
tlrr' ;rrlir:les, letters and adverts can give you an insight into both popular
instance, if you are unclertaking a project on audience response anrl
trrit(' rn(l the target audierrce of the particular publication, and of the
want to explore conternporary and historical reactions to the sanl('
Iilm, then you need to be able to access historical audience data anrl lr,rrtir rrlar Iilm. If the sarne filrn or pl-ogram[re is rcviewed in a ranee o{'
yrrlrliclrtions then you shoulcl compal'e the langtrage, tone and response
to analyse it effectively, and also find a way to elicit responses fiorrr ll tlrt' r'eviewers. This kind of discorrrse analysis needs to be located
contemporary audiences watching the same filrn. To do this you rvill rvllrilr lr cultural or rnedia studies tradition irnd would need to take into
need to devise a methoclology that cc»nbines data gathering and anal-vsi' rtrrr)unt the political affiliation of the particular publication, current
with a cornparative historical approach. lr'r'rrls which rnay be shaping the debate around a particular film or
This chapter will indicate how diffèrent kinds of sources - textual. lrrrrrr' :rrrd somethins about the reviewers themselves. If it is zr politician
visual, archival, financial, oral - can be used. Dilïerent skills are neeclt'rl rrr rtinll-a column Ibr a daily rrewspaper, then his or her observations on
in order to usc diflèrent sources effectively. You might neecl to know, firr lrlrrr rnay be very dillerent to that of a filrnrnaker being interviewed
ex:rmple, how to utilise the financial infirrmation contained in ledgers, 'r
rrlrorrt lris or her latest release or a film critic reviewing a selection of the
account books or end-oÊyear records, orhow to conduct effective me<li:r tlrv('st releases into cinernas. Gender, age, class backeround, political
discourse ar-ralysis on newspaper articles, làn letters or film reviews. trllrlirrtion, status ancl personal opinion will all be influencins fact()rs
The chapter will also o11èr suggestions on how to go about conductinq wlrrr lr will shape the review or critiqrrc.
a research interview and what can be gained by using data-gathering r\s well as considerins the articles and reviews which deal with films,
techniques such as questionnaires and fcrcus u«rups. Advice ort how 1,, 1.rrrr slr«mld pay attention to how the publication as a whole has been
analyse a film has already been covered in earlier chapters, but sonrc Irut (()gether. Are the filnrs reviewecl or cliscussed in keeping with the
suugestions will be offèred to help you effectively explore and analysc Iurrc lrrrd style of the rest of the magazine or newspaper? Is the target
a ranse of rnovinq image material, from YouTübe clips to newsrcr'l rrrrrlicrr<'e of the publication made clear; for example, is it firr teenagers
or young adults, fbr horror or fantasy film fans? What clo you know aborrt rlllll. rcrrt.ly to teleüsion documentary sci-fi or fântasy programmes or
the prrblicatior-r? Is it u'ell-estzrblished or newly arrived on the scent , rrr,rvr itcrns. Although the rnoving inrase material may be diffèrent fiorn
What are its circulation figtrres ancl what can you cliscover about its airrrt r lrl\'('ilti()nal feature films, you are still using this filmed rnaterial as a
and objectives? Many prrblications:üso have rvebsites and these may lrr' rrnr( (' lrnd you shoulcl still ask of it some standard research questions
put togcther in a verv diflèrent way to standard print publications - Iirr rrrrrl rrtilise the approach suggested to devise a research question and
example, the adverts could be cliff'erent, suggestine a clil'ferent tzrrgt t Ilr rrrrrllle a methodology.
audience to the print edition. ( )rrcc you have read around the specific qualities of the visual
Official reports on the fihn industrl,, culture o{' broaclcastins or rrcrlirrrrr you can approach your sources and ask some basic questions:
cinerna attendance produced by the government, pressrrre grollps ()r rrlr,rt is it, who macle it, where can it be fbrrncl, who is it intcnded ftrr
industr-v r»rsanisations can providc you with key industry data. If tht rrrrrl wlry was it created? The answers to these straishtforward qr.restions
findings have been published - such as the Williarns (lomrnittee fin<linu\ wtll lr«'lp you to establish how yottr sorlrce material can be understood.
on obscenity and film censorship - then yor"r shor.rlrl be able to access l,ur cxarnple, a YouTirbe video posted online in 2011 will have a very
them from your university library or fiom the BFI Library. If the reports rllltclt'rrt intended audience to that of an amatetrr film of a birthday
have been cornmissioned by an orsanisation, it is worth checking to s<'r' lr.ill!'rn:rde in the 1940s ancl gifted as part of a private collecti()n to alr
if the findings hirve been published or.r its website. While these official 'rt
r lrivt'. A television documentary on disability commissioned following
rep()rts and explorations may provide rich data, you should remembt'r llrr'20 12 London Paralympics will have a diflèrent ptrrpose to a news
that they have been written and producecl fbr a prlrp()se. You need 1,, llrrrr on disability claimants and may be broadcirst at a diffèrent time.
think about who has comrnissioned the strrdy, what their particullu ,\r rvitlr all visual rnaterial, you must think about audience but also the
interest is and what they are trying to find out. The way in which ther lrurlx)sc of the material - is it intended t() entertain, to educate, to
have carried out the research should also be considered; is it Lonclorr I
rr ovi«tt' information?
centric, does it clraw upon a very small sarnple, arc its finclings based orr \irrr should also consider access, transmission and broadcast. If the
other rep()rts or studies? llr.rrr Iras been shown on television, wheu was it rnzrde and broadcast?
l{',rs it transmitted live or was it pre-recorded? \,Vhat does this suggest
irlx rrrt audience and who the item is intended fbr? If you are looking at
VISUAL MATERIAL Irro:rrlcast material, are you studying zr television series and explorine
Ir,rw it.s visual style changes over the course of tirne? Or are you
Analysing a film has been covered in Chapter 3; this section will suggcst lrrrsirlerins how the objectives of the programme shifted during the
some basic ways to approach and analyse dilïèrent types of visrrrrl r nrrrsr' of its broadcast mn? If the item is a newsreel, when was it shown
material - newsreel footaee, docunrentary n-raterial, television items. Irr lirrcrnas? What is being depicted, how are the news events of the clay
YorlTube videos, amateur' ltrotage and online collections. 'Ihere is :r lx'irrg presented, what tone of voice is being used by the narrator or
range of different ways in which yolr can explore moving images, and thc Irr o;rrk:aster? With historical items like this you should also consider how
methodology that y()u adopt will recosnise the unique characteristics ol llrcy can be accessed. Are they stored in an online archive and available
your source material. In order to understand your visual material yorr Itlcly or via subscription? Should they be studied as a body of work
should find written material that explores that lirrm of the medium. For tirllrt'r'than as indiviclual items? Who were they made by and what was
exarrple, if your focus is YouTube or online videos then work by.]earr tlrt' r'thos of the company who macle them?
Burgess and-|oshua Green will be helpful firryour research.r If your fbcrrs lrr the modern era, a great deal o1'rnovit'tp; image material is user-
is newsreels, then work by Ciara Chambers and Luke McKernan will bc'rr grrrcrirted c()ntent which can be macle quickly and then posted online
good starting point.2 Ptrblishecl work wtrich analyses television materiirl rrrrtl seen by millions. Such rnaterial usually bypasses conventional
is extensive and what is useful for you will clepend upon precisely whlt rrrctlr«rds o{'production, distribution and exhibition, ancl its ease of
the television material is - television drama will be approached velr rrr |t'ss makes it f:rr simpler to engage instantly with it tl'ran with other,

rn()re conventional filn'rs or proeramrnes. Yet with such a wealth ()l rllirrt'your search. Oan you lirnit the ranse of dates you are looking at;
material to choose fiom, how do yorl select items ftrr your researclri r,lr y()rr look at televisior-r rather than l\ln and, television; is it possible
Are you looking at online videos posted by the same person or thost' Io lrx'rrs on a particular fihn proiect or specific television prosramme
with the sreatest rrumber of view-t' ()r are you considering a ranse ol tirtlrcr.than trying to cover all the ()utput fiorn a particular individtral?
amateur firotage fi'om zr particular year or which has been collated as rr Ii rrr cirn always rnake fbllow-up visits to the archive but being focused on
specific collection? As a researcher you should think aborlt what makt's yorrl irrrmediate research neecls will ensure that you get everything you
up the body of w<lrk you will explore ancl how you will use it to anslv('l trlr'«l lirr the piece of work you are currently undertaking.
your rescart'h qrrcsti()n. M:rrry archives have specific rules. Copl.ing material may not be
'.i While conve ntional approaches to exploring settillg, lightilu. ;x'rrrritted and srr you should be pleparecl to wrile exterrsivc rtotes.
l'.vmr il'copying is permitted, as is the case at 'l'he National Archives,

c()stume and mise-en-scene may be less than usefirl t'or analysirrg

nrany of these iterms, all of the visual iterns will have been deliberatclr 1rlrolor:opying is expensive and you should not expect to be able to copy
created and craftecl ancl shoulcl be analysed visually as wcll as expkrretl rvrrything. Other archives restrict the use of digit.al photography so
culturally and hist.orically. Studies of filrn have developed over rnarrr r upyirrg documents in this way Inay not be allowed. Vru rnay be allclwed
years, but analysis of rnodern sources such as podcasts and webcasts i: tr) us('a laptop to make notes but sorne archives request that you take
still developing. Using such material as source nraterial oflèrs excitirrg not('s in pencil rather than using pen. If you are l<xrking at very rare
possibilities, but you need to approach it with care, ask relevant anrl trratcrial, you rnay be required t() wear special gloves proüded by the
pertinent questions of the material ancl lrave clear ideas of how you will rrr r lrivc and tr> use file supports on the table to protect the material. You

use it and {irr what purpose. will rrsrrally need to provide sorrte basic inf'ormation on the topic of your
r'rclrlt'h. Most archives havt-- agreements which you are required t<-r sign
wlriclr state that you will not reproduce any of the material without their
ARCHIVAL MATERIAL ;l'r rrrission and that you acknowledge their ownership and copyriuht of
llrr rrraterial.
As indicated in the prcüous chapter, lhere are many different kinrls
of'archives, all holding different types of inforrnati«>n. You may lrc
accessing goverrrfirent material, personal papers or company recorrls. ( nlalogued material
The material rnay be ()pen access or restrir:ted, it rnay be catalogueci or
un-catalogued. Y<lu may be presented with boxes of inlbrmation whit lr ll tlrc rrraterial has been catalogued then you should only be looking at
have been carefully cataloguecl and sorted by date, by filrn or by project. rrrirtcrial which you have requested and which is particularly pertincnt to
or the boxes may be {irll of miscellarteorrs paper which you will need t,, ÿrrul r'(:search. Pcrsonal papers which have been catalogr-red will ustrally
sift through. All archives are different, but befbre visiting an archive or lrt olg:rnised around diffèrent film projects or in chronologicirl order.
rnaking an appointment you should find out as much as you can fiorrr \i rrr slrould also be aware of boxes which are labelled as 'rniscellaneous
their website. Ycru should also contact them before you visit to chet k Irrrlx'r's' or 'c<lrrespondencc', as material contained within them
their procedures, opening hours and if there is anything you need to clo ttrrglrt irlso be relevant t() your research. If you are exploring a box
in advance strch as providing evidence from your university about yorrr Inll ol rnaterial relatins to a particular film project, be aware of what
research or prograrnme of study, or becomins a rnember of the archivc ÿru :rrc looking at. ls it material related to the production or post-
or organisation ancl paying a membership fee. ;rrrxlrrt:tion nf a film? Does it contairr scripts, prodtrction notes, financial
Before you visit an archive you should undertake substantial researclr Irrlor rrrntion, mem()s and letters? 'Iake note of individual items which
on its catalogue, making a note of what you want to access and whiclr ru r inl(:resting, but you shor"rld also look at the material as a whole. [)oes
specific material y()u want to look at. If your catalosue searches hav' tlrr correspondence suggest a tensiorr in the film production process'l
yielded a n)ass of infbrmation then you will need to think about \,vays l{, lhrls it doctrment arsuments between the producer and director over
the marketing of the finished film? Does it reveal infbrmation about cast I lrt r atalogued material
behaviour or salaries? Clan we discern lvhere the filrn rvas being rna<L
and how much it was costing? Is there infbrrnation about distributiorr. ll tlrc rtraterial you are exarnining has not been cataloguecl you will
marketins and exhibition of the finished filrn? Irrcrl lo work throush methodically. When working with material like
If you are lookins at catalogued material from local or nation:ll tlrrr it is alrvays helpful tt.» construct a nalrative of (hc events recorderl
governrnent or industry organisations, then the presentation ol tvtllrin lhe docurnents. For example, if you are tracirrs a film's progress
the rnaterial mav be ver-y diflèrent. Personal papers can contain rr 1111orrglr the BBF'C, thcn you need to be aware of any specific problcrns
lot of extraneolrs inf'ormation, whereas g()vernment and industrr ll ('n(()untered, any clelays experienced in the issuina o{'a ccrtificat.c
collections will not trstrally inchrde personal letters or memorabilia btrt iur(l iury barterins thatwent on between the Bo:rrcl and thc production
rather rvill conrprise only the formal and official document.ation anrl l'nrl)iu)y or distritrutors. If the paper file is a mr-'ss it can br: helpfrrl
correspondence. ln wolk through the material in chronolosiczrl order to est.ablish the
Any nraterial which is used in vorrr own rescarch will need to bt rrllr('nce of events taking place.
properly cited so you must. make sure that you have the document Working with rnaterial in this way requires patience; y()u may not br:
infirrrnation and the inftrrmation which relates to the file in which it'nas rtlrk' lo find precisely what you reqtrire as key evidence ma)/ be missing.
fbund. For cxample, if you are citing the notes from a meeting betweelr ll tlris is the case then you rnust make sure that y()u acc()Lrnt frrr these
members of the government ancl Mary Whitehouse in 1975, you will nrrrissions and clo not simply isnore them. Evcn if thcre arc g:rps in the
need to reference it as fully as possible and according to the refèrenct' r lriv(', what rernains will still be useful. If material is missing, why do yorr
systern you have been instnrcted to use. Archive material refèrenced irr tlrink tl'ris is? Has the nt:rterial been poorly cur;rl.cd or storcd? FIas onlv
a footnote coulcl mn as fbllows: i
nllili:rl documentation been kept and everything else destroycd? Within
tlrr llllFC paper files, a receipt for an issuins certificate should alrv:rys be
Comments by N\ary Whitehouse taken from meeting notes dated 5 lr.'s('nt., as shoukl formal reports frorn at least tw() BBF(I examiners. Alons
February 1975 File HO 3OO/166. wltlr tlris olficial documentatior) there rni.ry also be letters of complzrint
Irorrr rnembers of the public, mcm()s, correspondence between the
'lhc in{ext cilation could be lllrrrrrrakers and the Board, publicity materials f'or t.he film and sornetimes
;rtrss t:lippines. As the BBF() materi:rl is rrn-catalogued and the contenls
(/v1ary Whitehouse, 5 tebruary 1975) nI t lrc liles vary wiclely, it is never clear u,hat,vou rnay find. Some 1970s files
r rlnlirill data on audience research carried out f'or particular filrns, whilc
with the firll reference in the bibliography including detail on tht' llltcts include personal corresponclence fiom film industry luminaries
sper:ific Hornc ()ffit:c filc. rrrllr :s Lindsay Anderson,.foseph Losey and Ken Rtrssell.
(lovernment files or material accesserd fiom any national archive lvill ll the material has not been {ôrmally catalogued thern you shorrlcl
always have a specific relèrence number or code. The above refèrence - rrr;rkc strre that you cite your s()rlrces as comprehensivelv as possible. If,
HO - indicates that the file related to work at the Home Office, while thr' lnt cxatnple, you are citins work liom a classificirtion fihn file then yorrr
sequence nurnber makes it easy fbr arlyone reading your work to folk»r lor)lrr()te could be:
Llp ()n vour references. Refèrencing will depend on the referencing
style favoured by your clepartment or institution and the different fcrrnrs Correspondence between Stephen Murphy (BBFC) and executives
alone with the kind of infbrmatir)n you want to include will be covercrl at Tigon Pictures dated 8 August 1972, taken from BBFC file: Oh
briefly in thc firllowing ch:rpter. ( alcutta!

Aglrirr, the refèrencing system fàvoured lty yotrr departrnent would

rL'lct'rnine how your work is re{trence<I, but the in-text citation could be:



(Stephen Murphy, I August 1972) gorsip. Vru may be reading passages from olcl letters betrveen fiiends
tvlrlrt certain things u'ere written which coulcl be embar-r'assing if'
The main objective is to ensure that anyone following up on y()ur trr.rrlt' Prrblic. Being a researcher means conducting your research in
research can find the same matsrial you explorecl. Citing your researclr iln ('llrical manner; sometimes it is not the lact that. you have fotrnd
as firlly as possible is goocl practice and working with un-catakrgut:<l rnrrrclhing that matters but how you will use it. If it is part of your
rnaterial often requires a high level oI'detail. r'rr';rrch - fcrr example, if it is a letter frorn l{itchcock discussing the
llrlrcirl of a number ol actresses he is considerine casting it Mttrn.ie
(llXi.l) - then it could be relcvant ancl worth reproducing. However,
Using archive material ll tlrt'letter is a personal attack on a specific actress and her limitecl
rtr tirrg :rbilities, then you should consider what purposc it wotrld serve
As with any rnaterial, when you examine it, yr.ru should ask questions Io rrst' such information. You can alwiys allude to such information or
about its pr()venance and note down as much infbrmation as vou call. tr,lncnce non-contentious parts of the correspondence, but including
Ytru should record the author of any documents and their official titl«, nr,rl('ri:rl which is hurtfirl, explosive or damasirrs and which does not
and role. You should try and identiÿ who the key players are withirr rllrcctly relate to your research can be unethical. If you have signccl
the correspondence. If it is helpful to do so you could précis thr' rln ilgreement with the archive which owns the material then it may
corresponclence ol'the report and copy down any relevant paragraphs tr.rlrict you liom publishing anything which rvould be damaging to the
or comments verbatim to be used in your own research. Itrrlividual involved. As with all cases like this, it is a matter of' juclgement.
If you cannot seem to fincl what you are looking frrr within tht, lrr acldition to these ethical considerations, y()u should also be aware
rnaterial, consider why this is. Are the files yoü are looking at the onlr ll issrres of data protection. If you are keen to use material fèatrrred in
place where such infbrrnation cotrlcl be stored? If you are looking at tht llltus from nrembers of the public - for exarnple, people who have
director's pcrsonal papers then think about the other personnel who writt('n to their MP, respondents who have provided infbrmation as
worked on the fihn who may have kept rnaterial fiom the productiorr, lrrul ()f'a social survey, or those who wrote letters of complaint to local
What abotrt the proclucer-, members of the cast or the finallcier funding rorrrr<ils - you should make sure that the people are not narnecl. It is
the production? lf thinss are missins which should be present, thcrr rtrorrgh to note, 'this fèmale resp<tndent suggested ...' or'a father of two
think about where the material could be. Oan you track down the otht'r wr olt' ...' or even 'a viewer fiom Bath complained that ...'. Such phrases
lrall ol intl;ollurtl colresporrtlerrt e witlrin irrdustly orgirrrisatir»ns ol irr rh, lr()1. weaken your work but ensure that the authors of the nraterial you
persorral papers? 'I'tre BBFC's defence of its classification of  Clocfutorl; ril(' lrsing are protected. However, if the material is written by someone
Oratrye (1971) r{as sent to a number of local councils in 1972, but no lrolrling public office or a well-known fiuure, then naming them rnay
copy rcmains in thc BBFC lilc. But a llle in The National Archives dot': lx' irppropriate. For ex;rmple, the prinre ministeq MPs, church lcadcrs,
contain a copy oI. ttris lengthy and explosive letter as it was sent frorrr llrc lrcad of the (linematograph Film (louncil, academics carryine out
one of [,eeds' city councilkrrs to the home secretary to protest aborrr tr.sclrrch, film directors, producers or industry figures, the head of the
thc tsBl-C's tone in the letter. Working with archival rnaterial means llltl( ) or the BFI can all be named. You should always consider whether
consiclering where the material mav have ended up and trackins ir rr;rrrring the individtral is important for your research. If your argument
clown. This detective work c:rn yield exciting results but rnay also requir<. tllics upon the fact that it is someone specific writing about a particular
:r sreat deal of hard work to locate anything of interest. You may har,<. lilttt or issr.re then it is appropriate to name them. (irncerns about data
to make a number of trips to an archive before you find anything prolcction are less of an issue fbr undergraduate work but can becorne
significant. Ycru also cann()t assunle that archive rnaterial is goinpç to prolrlematic when working at MA or PhD level and when your work is
ofïèr revelirtory findings nhich r,r,'ill directly benefit your research. lx'irrg published.
As a researchet you should think about how you will use the rnaterial
you fincl. You rnay discover cxcitilg snippets of inforrnation, scandal or



FINANCIAL MATERIAL il . r)l'lx)ration or orsanisation's finarrcial records, or have they been
ttt,rirrt:d by an individual?

\i »r r should be carefirl about rnaking substantial clainrs base'd solely on
As previous chapters have inclicated, understandinEî the fin:rnci;rl
llrrirrrt i:rl records. The records may only be partially cornplete, and key
realities <lf cliflèrent fllm industriÇs ancl how and why dillèrent filnrs
t(.( I i(,r)s may be missins. If you have found financial data in the company
arc macle relies upon financial data. Ofien this data will have bet:rr
retained, perhaps by financiers, management coûrpanies, governlnclll ttr olrls or accounts, can this data be c«rrroborated by a dillerent source ,
or industry firnding bodies or by the produccr or director themselvcs' hu cxample from the director's owrt personal papers, or liorn the
t('r orrls of the NFFC or the BFI? Beware of trsing inf<rrmation lirund on
When a<:ct:ssitrg records like tlris you need to have a clear idea of w'hrrt
Wikipcdia or the lnternet Movie Data Base (IMDB): the financial claims
you want to find ()ut and how the linancial material can help vou. Yirtt
:l I
rnust also be aware of its limitations.
rr;rrl«'on these websites can be difficult to verifÿ. Intt-'rvicws with the
rllr cctor or proclucer when a filrn has been completecl will ofïen cotrtain
Some flnancial dat:r can help to give you an insight, an overvielv ol

lrruric financial infbrmation which will give you a rouuh idea of cost.s
an indication of film popularity, production costs or profit and loss,
Ittvolved, but in cases like this it can be a good idea t<; itrdicate whert:
but suclt itrftrnnation neecls t.<.1 be carefully contextualised. All fihrr
cornparties will ltave had linanci:rl records and accottnts but they rnar
llrc figures have corne liom when you present the inltrrmation. For
n«rt have beett retained. Sorne filnr production compauies were set lrl)
rxirrrrple, you could note, 'In an intervicw wttlt 'lbtal lilrn, the director
to fund specific films, or t() supl)ort the work of particular directors or trr:rllcd that the filnr's budget was ...'. f'his indicates that it is simply the
rlix'r'tor's recollection o{'thesc figures rather than hard financial data.
proclucers. They nray have been short lived and the records may lravt
Sonretirnes financial records include details of cast salaries - usually
srrbseqtrently disappcared. This is particularly true for the parts of tht
film indust.ry rvhich are very poorly clocumenteclf, such as low-budet'r ltrt'ol'the biggest c<-rsts in filmrnaking. These figures can be illurninating
films or pornographl,. ilrrrl can ofler insights into how the industry operates at a particular
linr(', as well as the indiviclual value of specific stars. S<lmetimes these
Whcr-r conti-ontecl with financial data you need lirst to considt'r
llgrrr'«:s can be srlrprisinu. For exanrple, the Carry On series of fihns was
what it is showing you. Oan you draw conclusions ab()ut the success ()r
lusr'<l around an ensemble cast with tànriliar faces, including Hattie
failure r>l a film fiom the datil pr'ovided? W'here have the data contt'
fi'om and why hirve they been retained? Is it a record of paynrents firrrrr f,lrlrrcs, Barbara WindsoE Sid James and Kennet.h Williarns. Yet the
grrorlrrction and salary infirrmation held in Peter Roscrs' papers at the
the Eacly levy fünd, rvl'rich indicates a level «rf success at the Britislr
box office, rlr it is all acc()tlllt of hclw nruch money was sPent ()lr lll,'l rr-veals that not all of the cast were paid equally ft»' their work orr
llrc lilrns and thatJames ancl Williarns were paid significantly more than
advertising or rnarketing the lilrn? Are the financial figures included irr
an encl<rÊyeirr report or account? Oopies of the National Film Finant t
lltt' r't:st of the cast on the later films. The files also indicale that tht:
lonrl)any had to take out specific health instrrance irr ()rder to crnploy
Corporation end-ofjcar accottnts are held at the BFI Library arrtl
reveal an overview of the rvork of' this organisatit>n in selecting projecls ll;rtticJacques ftrr the later filrns dtre to her declining health. These
rril)l)ets of financial inf'ormation c:rn be used to explore firrther the
to fund an(l t.hc level of success enioyerl. If you are looking at lists <»l
grrorlrrction context of the Oarry On series. Rosers' papers also indicate
popular Iilrns or the most successfirl filrns at the box office, considt'l
Irow rrruch was spent on each film; the nlajority of the filrns were funded
where the inftrrmation hirs cotne fi-orn:rnd what it relates to' Does it

relate only to cinernas in the l,ondt)Il area, or to an individual cinern;rr

lry.l. Arthtrr Rank productions, until (àrr1 On. Iingktntl (1976) was
rL't'rrred too expensive and so Rogers and Thornas applied to thc NFF(I
Is it a globill picture or a rlational one? Does it relate to British filnrs
*rrrl to EMI to firnd the film. The escalatir)s c()sts for each film and thc
in Arncrica or is it all films released in the US in the periocl covered lrt
the recorcls? If the records are historical then yotl need to take rrolt' lrrln'rsingly complex f'urrding arrangernents lbr the final instalrnents in
of flucttratiotrs and variations catrsed by inflation 2rnd Price increast:s. llrr st:ries indicate how film funding was changing, and how and rvhy
tlrt' irrdustry ultimately became reluctant to firnd ncw filtns in a otrce-
rvhile it'they are contemP()rary and Posted online you should try an(l
rprrlirr series.
verify thern with a rar-rse of othor sources. Are the acc()unts part- ()l ;x


I)iscr»verins some relevant financial inf'ormation can be usefül but lr,' I rttrducting your own interviews
careful not to rret too bogged down in the facts and figures. Unless yorr
are a trained accountant or financial analyst, the figures may be diffictrlt l,orrrlrrcting interviews with people in the film inclustry or th()se nou,
to understand and vou should*perhaps think about the ways in whi<l' lelin'rl fiom the industry can give you some {antastic material. I\{ost
thc infirrmation can be useful for your research rather than spendirrii lx'r )lll(' can be reached via agents or companies and some will have their
time trying to understancl the intricacies of film finance. ttTvrr wcbsites with ways to contact them. Or you can track down people
llrt orrgh shared contacts. The format of the interview - email, in person,
rvr.r tlrc phone -will determine what kind of responses you get. For
ORAL SOURCES: RECORDED INTERVIEWS exlrrrple, if you email s()meone a list of qnesti«rns, it is easy for thern tcr
glvc you one-word responses or to avoid questi()ns which they do not
Recorded interviews with film industry fisures can provide you willr l{iurl t() answer. On the telcphone you have more opportunity to builcl
great research material, but you must consider a range of things beftrr, Ê rirl)l)()rt with someone and can ask them to develop their responses or
using it. Specifically, you necd to think about when the material rvrrs hrlkrw up interesting comments, but you will be unable to respond tcr
recorded and whether the interview was desiened to publicise a ncu otrl,vistrirl sigçns or body language. (londucting an interview in person is
project or recorded to celebratc sorneone's achievements. Where was ir d l{r'(,rt opportunity, but you need to think about what you ask and how
shown or broadcast? ls it pzrrt of a broader collection and, if so, how rvlt prtr irsk it. If you ask the tvrong questi()ns or alienate yr»ur respondent
this collection funded and is it attached to a particular project? Wlrirt lltcrr y«ru may not gather anything of particular use; they rnay r.efuse
are the objectives of the project and how might this have influenced tlr, lrl;ruswer any more questions or take the discussion in a clifferent
interview itself,) flas the material been digitised,and can it be accesst,l tllt lclion.
as sound files? If it remains on VHS tapes or câssettes, where can it lrc All interviews are different but there are a few key things that you
accessed, and are there lacilities to view it or listen to it? Finally, if tlrr tltorrlrl consider:
raw material is not. available, are there interview transcripts which curr
be accessed? r Be prepared: Do your homework and make sure that you have
Crucially, you must also take into account how much time has elapst'r I
a sood understanding of the person you are interviewins, their
since the events being described and the inteniew itself-. Intervielt lxrdy of work and their career. \Arhen interviewing, you need to
can yield fascinating information, yet they cann()t be held to be a tnr. rlemonstrate that you have a working knowledge of your topic. If
accolrnt of past events, particularly if the events being discussed tool you ask obvious or naive questions, your interviewee may become
place many years previously. Memory is fallible and people may rett ll litrstratecl, bored or annoyed.
events accordins to their own particular perspective. This does not o Avoid asking personal questions or looking for ,off the record,
make the material worthless - quite the contrary - but again, ideas ol comments: It is unlikely they will want to answer qtrestions like this
sub.iectivity, bias, opinion, memory and ptrrpose must all be discussed irr irnd even if they do, you need to think about how it is relevant tcr
relation to recorded interviews. If you are interested in using recordt'rl your research.
interviews as part ofyour research then you should pay due attention l(, r Do ask if you can record the interview: If they give their consent
methodologies concerned with oral and recorded histories. then agree rvith them that you will tlpe up the transcript of the
As film is such a young discipline, it is always possible that the peopl interview or check their responses with them befbre using it in
y()rr are researchins are still alive and may be willing to talk with vorr your research. Giving thern final approval on wh:rt they have said is
about the filmmaking process and to offer vou their own memories ol good research practice.
events. r When you compose your interview questions, think about rvhat
y()u want to fincl out and how to elicit this infbrmation. Be aware
that asking open questions can break the ice, but they can also


elicit a great deal ()f unfocused or seneric intbrmation. You shorrltl irlrout the press resp()nse to the film's release, and could you tell
be prepared to use a combination of seneral and specific, op<'rr rrre a littlc bit about your own reactions?'
and closed questions to sain infbrmation.
o It is usually best to begin with a discursive question and to explairr
your research interest: For example, you may want t() explore tlrr' Qnline data gathering
fihn indtrstry in the I990s and are asking director Danny Bollt
how difficult it was to get funding fc>r Shalbw (jratrs and wltrrt ll y,,rr irre keen to sather soÛre audience data or to set up a web survey
rnotivated him to work with Film Four'. Io lrclp you elicit responses to a particular filrn then you could either
o Be warÿ of your interüewee taking control of the interüew: Sorrr, lltrrl ;r way of collecting information fiom people in person or set up an
people are usecl to beinc interviewed and rnay only wish to talk nillirrc questionnaire . Setting up a questionnaire, survey or discussion
about specific aspects of their work. tpucr'«rnline may generate rlore data than standing outside the cinerna
. Be gracious and polite: f ,et your enthusiasm fbr your research att t I wltlr ir clipboarcl but. there are a ranse of things that you need to
the topic come throuqh the inteniew but do not sush or be slrrr t lttsirler.
struck. Arr online questionnaire or survey needs to bc presented in the
. Be aware that your interüewee may not want to answer a question: lrrt possible way and to tareet the most useful responclents. If you are
If this happens or if they are uncomfbrtable with a line ol lnvcying teen attitudes towards cinema certiÊcation, Ibr exarnple the
questioning, then you need to respect that and m()ve on. rllll(,r'cnce between the l5 and the 18 certificates" think about whar
o Be careful not to lead the interüew in a particular direction: Avoir I Iltrrls of questions you need to ask. You will need basic demoeraphic
leading questions ancl try and let your interüewee offer their ou'rr lltlnr rnation such as age and eendeq but you should also include
explanations and responses in their own words. lt'is rnuch bettt'r rlttr.slions which allow respondents to responcl quickly with their own
for them to offer their opinions ancl üelvs rather than to simplr r;rirrions or perhaps include a series of options to enable them tcr
confirm what you trave said. ;ttovirlc their answers. Using a mixture of statement questions and
. Be aware that your interüewee's memory of events may not match rlx.n lesponses coulcl provide you with some interesting data. Before
other accounts: If you are enquirins about events which took plzrt r Irrr lrrrling any questions on your survey vou should think about the kincl
a while ago, your responclent's rnemories of the event may lrc ul rlltu you watrt to eather. If you want to ask questions about auclience
diffèrent from what is popularly believed to have happened. Evett t' ritl,('r'icnce then you need to oflèr zr range of options so people can
are always remembered from dillerent persPectives and may lrr Ittrlillrte their preferr-ed response, but you may also want to inch.rde a
shaped by subsequent events. For example, if you are interviewir)!i lulrnl()nt space so people can add their own thoughts. ycru should avoid
a director about a producer he worked with ten years arro and rvi t I r ttrirrg <:ornpletely closed questions and you should make surc that your
whom they have since Iàllen out, the mernories of the pr<rject th< r rlllcslions are well phrased and easy to understand. Avoid repetition ancl
worked on together will be intbrmed by their subsequent feelinll' rftrttlrlt: nesatives and have someorle else look ()ver.your questions to
about each other. Itukt' srrre that they make sense befbre you activate the survey.
o Be sensiüve to past events: Asking for details about why somcolr( ll you are keen to begin this kincl of workyou should take note of
filed for bankruptcy or querying if the press criticism of a specili, Iruw other researchers have undertaken their own clata collection..|ustin
Iilm was particularly painful may be uncomfbrtable topics whit l, §rrritlr's work on neh f'orunrs and cult films and Emma pett,s ar-ralysis of
your respondent may not want to discuss. If you have establish<'rl rtttrli«'rrce responses to a special screening oî lJack to the Fu,tut.e (198b)
a rapport with your interviewee then y<-lt rnay be able to franr, nllrr «lifferent models of how to carry out this kind of work ancl can
such questions in a sensitive and inoffensive manner. For exarnplt' lrr,l;r yorr think carefully about your own rnethoclology ancl approach.:,
'I imagine that criticism of the film was quite a shock. Were vou ll yorr decide t() set up your survey online you should also think about
surprised by the reactions to the film?' or 'What do you remenrb« r Irnw lo get people to answer the survey and wher.e it will be hosted.


Survey site surveyntonkey allows you t() set Lrp a fiee questionnaire cll'l( l Itlhrgy, again oflèrs ereat possibilities. If you choose to utilise these
questions, and potential responclents can be sent zr link to the sun,r'r ' lltrrls of sources, you n)ust remain objective and consicler how yeur
You should consider whether yolr can include the link in an enrail scrrt ll.'tlt()(l()locv will allow you to explore the nrateri:rl, ask pertinent
rolrnd to friends and ask them t{) pass it on. (lan you use any existirrri t;rrr.stions of the conlrnents and of those rnaking the comments and
mailing lists to reach a broader ranse of p()tential respondents? Ar, tlrrsirlcr how all of this work will contribute to y()ur overall research
there social networks or online fomms you can use to help you circullrt( t;ur.stiorr. It is not enough sirnply to search for responses to the latest
your sr"rrvey? If you are keen to survey a broader ranee of people ratlrlr llrrtrrr;rrr filrn and use the comments as quotes. you need to employ skills
than.just your peer group, yotr will need to think of strategies to hcl1, ul rlis<'ourse analysis,.just as yor.r would whcn examinine newipaper or
you clo this. Perhaps you can work with your local cinema and hancl orrt Ittitglrzi ne material.
postcards with the web adclress of the survey to cinema audiences? FIorr
yor"r decide to carry out this resezrrch will again depend on the researr lr
qucstion and what you want to explore. CONCLUSION

Wlrcrr you undertake your research you shoulcl alw:rys bear your
ONLINE SOURCES lrnr,:rlch question firrnly in rnind. you need to be aware of what
yuu iu'e trying to find otrt so that you do not become so entanglecl
As already noted atrove in relation to web sources, you need to thirrl llt yotrr sources - either wrifl_en or visual - that y<tu can no longer be
carefully about using moving image material found online and halt' .r rllrjr'< tive and lose sigtrt of your airns. The further reading incl]cated
clear understanding of how the material was made and who it is rnar l, llr.I rw can help you to approach yorlr sources more specificàlly ancl the
for. You shotücl also consider howyou will use tfle rnaterial to explor, tltt'llrodology and approach you will need to adopt to carry ()ut your
y()ur research question. The same considerations apply with onlirr, tercrrlch eflèctively.
written sources as with online visual sources, alld much of what lr:r.,
already been noted about convent.ional offline sources also appli, .,

to online material. F'or example, online critiques and reviews of filrrr., NOTES
can be very useful, but it can be difficult to diffêrentiate critical, ust'lrrl
reüews fiom opinion pieces and personal blogs which have less vzrlrr, .fcan Burgess and Joshr-ra Green, you'lirhe, Digital Media ancl Society
as objective sorrrces. You rnay know very little about the person postirrl st'ries (Cambriclge: Polity Press, 2009).
or writins the review and they may be writing from a personal ratlr, ,
l, (iiara Chanrbers, Ircktnd in thc Nattsreels (Dublin: Irish Acadernic press,
than a profèssional or critical viewpoint. Howeveq this does not m('iur 2012); t,rrke N{cKernan (cd.), ye.studq,s News: .l.tu British Oinema
that their critique is worthless, but rather - as with all sources - r,,,rr Ntrusrecl Rrodtr (Lonckrn: BUF\IC Press, 2002).
should acknowledge its inconsistencies and its bias and then explort' rr Srnith, WiLhnail an,d Us; Emma pett "'Heyl Heyl I,ve seen this one,
in relation to a range of othcr sources. For instance, you could comp:r r r
I'vc seen this one. L's a classic!": nostalgia, repeat viewing and cult
published reviews of a specific film with comments and responses post ( r I 1rt:rfbrmancc itt Buck t,o the Futule', pnrlici.patitns: .Journal of Au,dienr:e
online to expl()re the dilÏèrence between fan attitudes and indtrsl rr unl Prception Stud.ies l0:l (May 2013), www.parricipations.orgl
attitudes. Such an approach would allow you to explore the responses t, ,
Vrlurne%2010/IssteVo211 /ll%Z0pett%20l0.l.pclf (accessecl 1+
( )ctober 2014).
the film but also to acknowledge the dilIèrent ways in which film can lr,
I www.surveyrnonkey.com.
written about and how all this material can be used to explore audierr, ,
Using web fbmms to investigate online attitudes to various filrrr
related issues, such as casting a popr.rlar fianchise or the endins ol .r



Barber, Sarah and Peniston-Bird, Corinna (eds.), Ilslory Bqond tfu'
'l-ext:: A Student's Guide to AltN»oaching Alttrnatùtc.Sozrr:er (London:
Bloclr, Marc, 'l'he l:listorian\ Orali, trans. Peter Putnarn, preface bv
Peter Burke (Manchester: Manchester Universigv Press, 1992).
Clillham, Bill,'l'he fusearch Inlmint (London: Continr.rum, 2000).
Green, Anna and Troup, Kathlcen, l'hc Hou.çes oJ llistorl: A Crit.irttl Iïlrt'rr it conles to writing up y()ur research, there is no set forrnula to
Read.er in 711)entitth-Cent'ury Hi,sk»y and Theorl (Mancht:ster: Itrlp you get it right, but there are thinss that you can do to ellsure
Manchcster University Press, 1999). lltirt your work is rvell presented, well structured ancl your arguments
.fordanova, l,udmilla, History in l)actit:e,2ntl erlition (Londorr: Hodder' I r,lr('rent and engaeins. Unlike in the sciences, where the writing-up oI'
Arnold,2006). Itrrrrral experiment.s and lab work happens after all research is complete,
Machin David and Mayr, Andre:r, Hozo to Do Critirul Discou.r.se Ana\sas: lf,,r(.:rrch and writins in the arls ancl humanities can often be more fluid.
A Multimodal InLrodudion (l,onclon: Sage, 2012). Fol cxample, it may be the case that vou are writing your essay and then
Tosh, John, 'l'he Putsuit oJ Historl: Aim.s, Melhods urul Ncut Dired.iort.s lllrcr»ver some important material which needs to be inclurled in your
irL the Study of Modern I'listory, 4th edition, (Harlorv: Pearson lltrirl work. Or it may be that you conclude all your researclr, write a first
Lonsnran.2006). tllirli and then go through a series of revisions, cleveloping your ideas
tttrl arguments as you go. Perhaps you berin by researching one area
WEBSITES ltrrl then find tl'rat your research is takine you in a difTerent rlirection
rttrtl so will have to adjust your analysis and conclusions - and even your
www.srlrvevmortker,. cotn. lntrrrrluction and rnethodolow - accordingly. If you are writing a Ionger
;rlcct' of work like an MA or PhD thesis then you may be researching
ilrr(l writin€î up indiüdual chaprers befbre pulling it all together in the
lltt:rl rnonths of yorlr period of srudy.
( )l'cource, writing up any kind of work
requires time managelnent
Inrl planning, br.rt you also need to know what to include in your analysis
rltrrl lrow to presellt it. This chapter will offer adüce on how to write
il1, y()rlr research in an academic way., h<lw to structure your work, how
yotr should undertake and present your analysis, how to explain your
tlrtlx)dology and your review of literattrre and how to ref'erence. Each
ul tlrt: tbllowing sections will include detailed examples of how y()u can
l)tr.s('nt your work in the best way possible.


llclirre you begin the process of wriûng you should make a plan and
rlrtiril how you will present your research findings. Having a clear idea




1 Richard Pears zrrrd Grahanr Shields, Cite thetn lligh.t: 'l'he lissentitrl
Ilcf mru:ing Guide, 9th editiorr (§asingstoke: Palsravc Macmillan, 20 l i',) :

'Audiovisual citation: RUFVC guirlelines fbr referencing mol"ing imagt

and sound', British ljniversitics Film & Vicleo (iruncil. May 20llt. SELECT BIBLIOCRAPHY
http:-/ /bufi,c.at:.uk,/pr<{ects-research,/avcitation (accessed l4 Octobcr


Corrigan, TimothyJ., A Shrtrt Ouide b lù'riting About l,ibn (New York Aaron, Michelle, Spet:ta,torship: 'l'he pozun o.f Loohing Oz (t,ondon: Wallllower
and London: Pearson Loneman, 2007). Press,2007;.
(l,ocsik, Kirren an«l Barsarn, Richard, Witing Ahou.t Mozrler (New York: Aldgate, Anrhony and Richards, .t.he
.feffrey, Ilritain Oan lhke It: tlritish
Norton,2007). Cinema in the Scrorul World War (Ertinburgh: Eclinburgh
Pears, Richard and Shields, Graham, Cite them llight,: 'l'he lissentiaL Press,1994). i'
RcJ'rencing Guid,e, 9th ed i tion ( Ilasi nE;stoke : Pal grave Macrni an,
I I Aldgate, Anthony and Roberrson,James ()., Censonhip in.l-luatre
arul Cinema
20 I 3). (Edinburgh, f,dinburgh University press, 2005).
Rrrdestam, §ell, ancl Newton, Rae, Suruiuing yur l)issertalio'n.: A Allen, Robert C. and Gomery, Douglas, Film Hi.slory: .l.heory and prarlice
(ktmprehe.nsiae Ouùlc Lo ContenL and l)ocess,3rd eclition (London: (Boston, N{A: McGraw-Hill, f 993).
Sage,2007). Ashby,Justine and Higson, Andrerv (eds.), British Cinema, pust
and ],resent
Walliman, Nicholas, Your UndrgraduaLe Dissn'tntion: l'he lissential Guidl (London: Routledge, 2000).
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Tbxt: A Studtnt'.s (]uitle kt Appntachitrg Altcrnatiae Sources (Abingdon:
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(London: Pluto press, 1gB4).
Barç Charles, Ëaling Strulios (Moftàc Canreron & Hollis, lggg).
Barta, Tony (ed.), Sreming tlte past: Fil.m and the Relresentatirtn,
of llistorl
(Westport, CT: Praeger, lgg8).
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G.ray, 2 vols
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Bloch, Marc, 'lhe Historian's Oraft, trans. l'eter Putnam, preface by Pett'r Dickinson, Margaret and Street, Sarah, Oi,nemu and Sktte: .l-he
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Burkc (Manchcstcr: Manchester University Press, 1992). arul the British ()oucrnment 1927_lggq (f,onclon: BFI publishing, gt35).
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MA, and London: McG,raw-Hi1l, 200,1). RorrtJedge, lgg3.).
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Julia (ed,s.), tlritish Arclùues: A Guùle to An:ltiue
Brrrrons, Elaine r-f a/. (ecls.), 7'h? Brilù\h Cinuno Soun:e Book: Bl-l Archiur Rcsource.ç in the llnitcl Ktnglom (Basingsrokc: palgrave,
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Chambers, Oiara, IrelaruL i'n th.e Natsreels (Dublin: lrish Ac:rdemic Prcss, I-ook' (L,ondon: Routledge, 2000).
201 2). Gibbs, .John, Mi.se-tn-Scene: Fitm Sryte nrul Intultretalitrn (
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Chapman,.farnes,'l-he Rritish at Wrl: Cinemu, Sl,ate arul Px$aganda, 19)945 Press,200l).
(l.ondon: I.B Tauris, l99tt). GifIbrcl, Derris. Brrll.çà ttil»t Caluktgte: l,ict,ion tilm lg95_l 991,
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(New york:
Macmillan, 2007). Norton, 2007).
Chiball, Steve and Murphy, Robert (ects.), .IlnlrsÀ Crime Cinema (Lonclon: Grainge, Paul, Jancovich, Mark and Monteith, Sharon, lilm
l_Iistorie.ç: Art
Routledge, 1 999). Introd,ucLion and Read,er (Eclinburgh: Edinburgh Universiq, I,rcss,
ii (lolman, Felicity (cd.), lilm, 'l'heory and Phikt.srÿh^l: 'l'he Kq'I'hinhers (Durham, 2007).
NC: Acumen,2009). Green, Anna and Troup, Kathleen, ,l,he Llouses of Histurl: A (,ritù:al Ruul.cr
(l<rok, Pam, l-ashioning the Nation: Cosl.unte arul ldenlity in Brili,sh Cineml in Tluc,ntieth-Oentu.r1 Hislory arul .l.heor1 (Manchestcr: Manchester
(London: BFI Prrblishing. 1996). University Press, I ggg).
Cook, Pam aucl Bernink, Mieke, l-he Oin.ema Book,2r,d eclition (t,ondon: BFI Grenülle, l.A.S., [ilm as Hislory (l]irmingham: University of
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Oorrigan, Tirnothy _1., A Short ()uide to Writing About liltn (New York anrl Hanson, Stuart, Prorz Silent Soeen, to Muhi-ljcreen: A Hist,orl
of-Oinenut Exhihil.ion
Londott: Pearson Lonernan, 2007). in lJritain since I Bc)6 (Manchester: Manchester University press,
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