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Navigacijos katedra


“Medical conditions and their treatment”
Locijos, laivo valdymo ir budėjimo laivo tiltelyje terminija bei kalbos praktika.

Parengė: 19-LI-65 gr. stud. Oleg Kuchorenko

Tikrino: lekt. Vilma Pranckevičiutė

Klaipėda, 2020

Seafaring has always been a dangerous occupation. Long voyages, extreme weather c
conditions, illnesses and accidents can take a heavy toll on the health of crew members. Not only
are they exposed to greater risk, seafarers are also isolated from the usual sources of medical care
and assistance available to people on shore.


2.1.1 Eye Injury:

Protection of eyes is of paramount importance while working on ships. Shipboard jobs such as
welding, chipping, painting, and working with hazardous material such as oil, chemicals etc.
pose great danger to the eyes of ship personnel. Appropriate googles or protective equipment
should be worn while carrying out such jobs.

2.1.2 Hand and Foot Injury:

Working on ships requires handling hot and sharp objects. A variety of gloves are used to
protect hands of the seafarers; however, several accidents have occurred in past because of using
loose or wet/oily gloves. Hand injuries have occurred because of accidents due to trapping of
gloves on drum ends or machinery, slipping of objects, loss of grip etc.
Moreover, inappropriate footwear such as sandals and flip-flops give little protection to
feet from falling loads, hot work and hazardous materials. Such inappropriate footwear can also
lead to trips and falls. It is therefore important to wear proper personal protective equipment for
protection of hands and feet.

2.1.3 Injuries From Falls and Trips

Injuries due to trips and falls occur due to slippery floor, oily surfaces, openings in the
floor, tool/ spare parts lying on floor etc. Accidents because of falling from heights, tripping off
the rails, and slipping over ladders have also been commonly reported in the past.

2.1.4 Head Injury

Head injuries are caused due to failure to duck, when stepping over coamings etc. and thus
hitting the head on the door frame or bulkhead. Such injuries can also be caused while working
on machinery systems or due to slipping and falling. Make sure you are wearing helmets all the
time while working or entering confined spaces.

2.1.5 Injuries from Deck Operations such as Mooring and Cargo Handling
Working on decks during mooring and cargo operations provide the circumstances for
potentially serious accidents. Seafarers should never stand in a bight of a rope or near a rope
under tension. Also, while handling cargo operations, all safety precautions should be followed.

2.1.6 Burns and Scalds

Burns and scaldings are commonly caused by hot pipelines, steam and fire. They are also
caused by shocks from faulty electrical equipment. Hot oils, steam, chemicals and similar
hazardous materials should always be handled with care to avoid such accidents.
2.1.7 Injury from Electric Shock
Unattended electrical connections and exposed wires can lead to fatal accidents on board
ships. Seafarers should be extremely careful while handling electrical connections and no
electrical equipment should be handled without proper knowledge or assistance. Moreover,
personal electrical equipment shouldn’t be connected to the ship’s electrical system without the
permission of a responsible officer .

2.1.8 Injury from Misuse of Tools/ Machinery/ High Pressure Equipment

Injuries can occur due to misuse of tools or while not following the correct procedures for
operating machinery systems. Moreover, not using the correct tools, unattended machinery, and
incorrect methods to use tools also leads to injuries. Failure in using protection when handling
high pressure equipment can also cause serious injuries.

2.1.9 Cuts
There are several sharp equipment and tools on ships. To avoid cuts all these tools should
be handled with care and must not be left lying around where someone may accidentally cut
themselves. Broken glasses, grinders and sharp knifes / tools should be properly disposed or
stored in secured places to avoid cuts.

2.1.10 Back Injury/ Manual Handling

Injuries due to strained muscles are common on board ships. Manual handling of loads
leads to several back injury to seafarers. Heavy loads shouldn’t be lifted alone.

2.1.11 Maritime Hypothermia

Hypothermia is another dangerous risk that seamen face. Not only do they have to worry
about hypothermia in cold waters and weather, but working in any temperature above freezing,
whether on land and water, can contribute to hypothermia. Seamen are known for working long
hours in any type of weather, so extreme caution should be used at all times. Common reasons
for hypothermia in the maritime injury includes:
 Lack of basic safety gear while aboard a vessel or while transporting goods to and from a
 Falling overboard
 Lack of training
 Remaining in adverse weather without the proper clothing
When ship is in port, or near to port where hospital and other expert medical attention are
available, the first aid treatment aboard ship is similar to that practiced ashore. At sea, in the
absence of these facilities.

2.2.1 Parts of body

Frontal region of Arm upper Scrotum
Side of head Forearm Testicles
Top of head Wrist Penis
Face Palm of hand Upper thigh
Jaw Fingers Middle thigh
Neck front Thumb Lower thigh
Shoulder Central upper Knee
Clavicle Central lower Patella
Chest Upper abdomen Front of leg
Chest, mid Lower abdomen Ankle
Heart Lateral abdomen Foot
Armpit Groin Toes

Back of head Back of hand Buttock
Back of neck Lower chest region Anus
Back of shoulder Spinal column upper Back of thigh
Scapula region Spinal column middle Back of knee
Elbow Spinal column lower Calf
Back upper arm Lumbar (kidney) region Heel
Back lower arm Sacral region


Artery Lip, lower Tongue
Bladder Lip, upper Tonsils
Brain Liver Tooth, teeth
Breast Lungs Urethra
Ear(s) Mouth Uterus, womb
Eye(s) Nose Vein
Eyelid(s) Pancreas Voice box (larynx)
Gall bladder Prostate Whole abdomen
Gullet (esophagus) Rib(s) Whole arm
Gums Spleen Whole back
Intestine Stomach Whole chest
Kidney Throat. Whole leg


Evacuation by helicopter should be requested only for a patient in a serious condition:
from the expense of this service, the helicopter crew often risk their lives to render assistance
to ships at sea and their services should be used only in an emergency.
The following guidelines for medical evacuation by helicopter are reproduced from the
International aeronautical and maritime search and rescue manual, Vol. III. London/
Montreal, the I international Maritime Organization and the International Civil Aviation
Organization, 2006.
Requesting helicopter assistance:
 arrange a rendezvous position as soon as possible if the vessel is beyond helicopter range
and must divert;
 give as much medical information as possible, particularly about the patient’s mobility;
 advise immediately of any changes in the condition of the patient.
Preparation of patient before the helicopter arrives:
 move the patient as close to the helicopter pick-up area as the patient’s condition
 ● ensure the patient is tagged to show details of any medication which has been
 prepare the patient’s seaman’s papers, passport, medical record, and other
necessary documents in a package ready for transfer with the patient;
 ensure that personnel are prepared as necessary to move the patient to the special
stretcher (lowered by the helicopter) as quickly as possible;
 the patient should be strapped in the stretcher face-up, in a lifejacket if the
patient’s condition permits.
The following information should be exchanged between the helicopter
and the vessel to prepare for helicopter operations:
 position of the ship;
 course and speed to the rendezvous position;
 local weather situation;
 how to identify the ship from the air (such as flags, orange smoke signals,
spotlights, or daylight signaling lamps).

3.2.1 Distress, urgency and safety signals

MAYDAY to be used to announce a distress message
PAN – PAN to be used to announce an urgency message
SÈCURITÈ to be used to announce a safety message

3.2.2 Requesting medical assistance

 I require / MV ... requires medical assistance.

 What kind of assistance is required?
 I require / MV ... requires
~ boat for hospital transfer.
~ radio medical advice.
~ helicopter with doctor (to pick up person(s)).
 I / MV ... will
~ send boat.
~ send helicopter with doctor
~ send helicopter to pick up person(s).
~ arrange for radio medical advice on VHF Channel ... / frequency ... .
 Boat / helicopter ETA at ... UTC / within ... hours.
 Do you have doctor on board?
Yes, I have doctor on board.
No, I have no doctor on board.
 Can you make rendezvous in position ... ?
Yes, I can make rendezvous in position at ... UTC / within ... hours.
No, I cannot make rendezvous.
 I / MV ... will send boat / helicopter to transfer doctor.
Transfer person(s) to my vessel / to MV ... by boat / helicopter.
Transfer of person(s) not possible.

3.2.3 Helicopter operations

(H: = from helicopter V: = from vessel MRCC = Maritime Rescue Coordination Centre )
 V: I require a helicopter.
~ to pick up persons.
~ with doctor.
~ with liferaft / ... .
 MRCC: I will send a helicopter with ... .
 H: MV ... , I will drop ... .
 H: MV ... , are you ready for the helicopter?
V: Yes, I am ready for the helicopter.
V: No, I am not ready for the helicopter (yet).
V: Ready for the helicopter in ... minutes.
 H: MV ... , helicopter is on the way to you.
 H: MV ... , what is your position.
V: My position is ... .
 H: MV ... , what is your present course and speed.
V: My present course is ... degrees, speed is ... knots.
 H: MV ... , make identification signals.
V: I am making identification signals by smoke (buoy) / search light /
flags / signalling lamp / ... .
 H: MV ... , you are identified.
 H: MV ... , what is the relative wind direction in degrees and knots.
V: The relative wind direction is ... degrees and ... knots.
 H: MV ... , keep the wind on port / starboard bow.
 H: MV ... , keep the wind on port / starboard quarter.
 H: MV ... , indicate the landing / pick-up area.
V: The landing / pick-up area is ... .
 H: MV ... , can I land on deck?
V: Yes, you can land on deck.
V: No, you cannot land on deck (yet).
V: You can land on deck in ... minutes.
 H: MV ... , I will use hoist / rescue sling / rescue basket / rescue net /
rescue litter / rescue seat / double lift.
V: I am ready to receive you.
 H: MV ... , I am landing.
 H: MV ... , I am starting operation.
 H: MV ... , do not fix the hoist cable.
 H: MV ... , operation finished.
The purpose of the International Code of Signals is to provide ways and means of
communication in situations related essentially to safety of navigation and persons, especially
when language difficulties arise. In the preparation of the Code, account
was taken of the fact that wide application of radiotelephony and radiotelegraphy can provide
simple and effective means of communication in plain language whenever language difficulties
do not exist.
Its divided into 4 chapters:
 Chapter 1.—signaling instructions;
 Chapter 2.— general signal code;
 Chapter 3.—medical signal code;
 Chapter 4.—distress and lifesaving signals and Radiotelephone procedures.
Every chapter contain all necessary instructions and notes of how to use codes and codes
tables accordingly to your certain situation. Chapter 3 includes code for medical assistance.
Use of those codes helps to exchange important information between ship and other parties
like emergency team, coast guard, ambulance, rescue team to provide them with condition of
patient health, type of injury, describe a symptoms of certain disease and get advice of correct
medical treatment, that shall be used, or what preparations and medical assistant should be done
before rescue team arrives.