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FIOMO NECANS

TheAnthropology of AncientGreek
SacrificiqlRitual andMtlth

bV
WALIER BURKERT

Translated
by
PETERBING

UNIVERSITYOF CALIFORNIA PRESS


Berkeley LosAngeles London
f-.

-L .;

i1,
cr

For ReinholdMerlcelbsch

Originally published in German by Walter de Gruyter & Co., Berlin,


under the title Homo Necans(1972).

University of California Press


Berkeley and Los Angeles, California

University of California Press, Ltd.


London, England

@ 1983by
The Regents of the University of California

Library of CongressCatalogingin PublicationData


Burkert, Walter r93r-
Homo necans.
Translationof: Homo necans.
Bibliography: p.
r. Ritesand ceremonies-Greece. z. Sacrifice.
3. Mythology, Greek. 4. Greece-Religion. I. Title.
sr788.a8V3 rg8) zgz' .38 77-93423
rsrwo-5zo-o5875-5

Printed in the United Statesof America

456789

The paper used in this publication meets the minimum requirements


of American National Standardfor llformation Sciences-Permanence
of Paperfor Printed Library Materials,ANSI 49.48-r984.
xcti rair' Eart rd. puarr1pca, cvueltovrt
gduut. gouoL xo.i ragoc

Clementof Alexandria

et nos servasti_sanguine fuso


Mithraic inscription,Santaprisca,Rome
Contents

Translator'sPreface xi
to theEnglishEdition xiii
Preface
Listof lllustrations xvii
lntroduction xix

I . SACRIFICE,HUNTING, AND FUNERARYRITUALS


r. Sacrificeasan Act of Killing 1
z. TheEtsolutionary Explanation: PrimitiaeMan as Hunter 72
3. Ritualization 22
4. Myth and Ritual 29
5, TheFunctionand Transformation of Ritual Killing J5
6. Funerary Ritual 48
7. TheSexualizationof Ritual Killing: Maiden Sacrifice,
PhallusCuIt 58
8. FatherGodand GreatGoddess 72

il. WEREWOLVESAROUND THE TRIPOD KETTLE 83


r. Lykniaand Lykaion 84
z. Pelopsat Olympia 93
3. Thyestesand Harpagos 1o3
4. Aristaiosand Aktaion 1o9
5. TheDelphicTripod tr6
6. A Glanceat Odysseus t3o

m. DISSOLUTION AND NEW YEAR'SFESTIVAL a35


r. FromOx-Slayingto thePanathenaic
Festiaal t36
Dipolieia q6
Skira 74)

IX
Arrhephoria 71'o
Panathenaia 754
Excursus: The Troian Horse 1 5 8
2 . Argos and Argeiphontes 16r Translator'sPreface
) . Agrionia $8
4 . Tereusand the Nightingale a79
5 . Antiope and EPoPeus 185
6 . The Lemnian Women 79o
7. The Return of the DolPhin t96
8 . Fish Adaent 2o4

IV. ANTHESTERIA 273


walter Burkert'sstyle is often suggestiverather than explicit, his
7. Testimoniaand Dissemination 213 descriptionsare vivid (at times almost visionary)rather than dryly ac-
2. Pithoigia and Choes zt6 ademic,and he does not hesitateto use colroquiarismsso as to make a
3 . Carians or Keres zz6 point more forcefully. In the processof translation, such featuresin-
i
?' SacredMarriage and Lenaia-Vases z3o evitably undergo a certain levelling. I have tried, however, to main-
5 . Chytroi qnd Aiora 48 tain the drama and drive of ProfessorBurkert'sprose.In the German,
6 . Protesilaos 243 Homo Necansis remarkable for being both an exemplary piece of
scholarshipand just plain good reading. It is my hope that itiemains
V. ELEUSIS 248 so in the.English.
Among the many friends and colleagueswho helped me at vari-
t. Documentation and Secret 248 ous stagesin this translation,specialthanks are due to fames Fanto,
z. TheMyth of Koreand Pig-Sacrifice256 ProfessorBruce Frier, ProfessorLudwig Koenen, Charlotte Melin,
3. Myesisand Synthema 265 ProfessorWilliam Owens, and ProfessorSusan Scheinberg.I was
4. TheSacrificein the Telesterion274
privileged to spend severalenjoyable and productive days revising
5. Oaercoming Deathand Encountering Death:Initiationand
the manuscript with ProfessorBurkert in Uster. Finally my thanki
Sacrifice zg3
to Doris Kretschmer of the University of California piess who en-
trusted this project to me and politely,but firmly, kept my nose to the
and Bibliography 299
Abbreaiations grindstone.
Indexof Cult Sitesand Festiuals 3o9 PHILADELrHIA, NovEMBnn rg8z
Index of Namesof Godsand Heroes 3a3
PeterBing
and Things )79
lndexof Persons
lndex of GreekWords 33a

xi
Prefaceto the English Edition

It is with some hesitation that I present this book, conceivedin


the sixties, to an Anglo-American public of the eighties. An holistic
synthesisin the field of anthropology may appear preposterousand
inadequateat any time; and changesin approach, method, and in-
terest, which have been especiallymarked in these decades-be it
through progress in the individual branchesof study, be it through
changes.ofparadigmsor even fashions-make such an attempt all the
more questionable.When this book appearedin German in 1972,it
could claim to be revolutionary in various respects.To a field still
dominated largely by philological-historicalpositivism or by the resi-
due of the Tylorian approach in Nilsson and Deubner, it brought a
comprehensiveand consistentapplicationof the myth-and-ritual po-
sition; it introduced, after Harrison's Themis,functionalism to the
study of Greek religion; it used a form of structuralismin interpreting
the complexesof mythical tales and festivals;and it made a first at-
tempt to apply ethology to religious history. In the English-speaking
world, ritualism and functionalismhad made their mark long before,
and much more on all theselines has beenworked out, disseminated,
and discussedin the last decade.What was originally novel and dar-
ing may thus soon apPearantiquated.The socialaspectof religion in
generaland the central role of sacrificein ancient religion are taken
for granted today.Much of the credit goesto the schoolof Jean-Pierre
Vernant and Marcel Detienne in Paris. Ren6 Girard's Violence and the
Sacred, which appearedin the sameyear as HomoNecansand may be
seenas largely parallelin intent (cf. L5.n.r), was also instrumental.
More generally,we have seen the swift rise of semiology and struc-
turalism, which, though judged by some to be already past their
apogee, still command attention and discussion.We have likewise
witnessedthe emergenceof sociobiology,which aspiresto a new syn-
thesisof natural and socialsciences.To keep up with all thesedevel-
opments and iniegrate them into HomoNecans would virtually require

xlll
PREFACE TO THE ENGLISH EDITION PREFACE TO THE ENGLISH EDITION

another book replacing the tentative essay that now constitutes my for sacrifice has been called into question again (see
I.z.n.6). yet the
first chapter. historian of religion still insists that religion must have
come into ex_
Chapters II through V appear less problematical. They elaborate is.tence at some specific point_chimpir,re"s are apparentlv irreli_
basic ritual structures reflected in myth, demonstrating correspon- gious-and that it first becomes disceinibre with funera.y
uni nrr.,t_
dences and integrating isolated pie-9gsinto a comprehensive whole. ing ritual. In view of all this it is essential to note that
the lor.r" or
As a description-this *ill prorr. ualid.in its own right. The attempt, historical development as delineated in Homo Necqnsdoes
not at any
however, to extrapolate from this an historical-causal explanation of stage require that "all" men acted or experienced things
in a certain
the phenomena-that is, to derive sacrifice from hunting and religion way-e'9., that all hunters feel sympathy for their quairy
or remorse
from sacrificial ritual-could be condemned by the stern rules of over their hunting-but only that ro*" iid indeed instiiute forms of
many a methodology. Yet I have decided to run this risk rather than behavior that became traditional and had a formative
influence on the
limit my perspectives by preestablished rules. high cultures accessible to historical investigation.
For the srrange
In so doing, I have inevitably made use of various hypotheses prominence of animal sraughter in ancient rer'igion
this still seems to
concerning prehistory, sociology, and psychology that are open to er- be the most economical, and most humane, exllanation.
ror and to the possibility of attack and falsification in the course of dealing with tradition, Homo Necanstakes a
. -F stance that is
further research. There is no denying that a decisive impulse for the hardly popular: it restricts the role of creative freedom
a.d fantasy; it
thesis of Homo Necans came from Konrad Lorenz's On Aggression, reduces "ideas" to the imprinting effect of cultural transfer.
on the
which seemed to offer new insight into the disquieting manifestations other hand, modern insistence on ,,creativity,, may simply
be an at_
of violence, which are so prominent in human affairs and not least in tempt to compensate for the enormous anonymous constraints
at
the ancient world. Lorenz's assertions about the innate roots of ag- work in our society. Nobody wants to question the spiritual achieve-
gression and its necessary functions have come under vigorous attack ments of mankind, but these may have it.ung" and opaque substruc-
by progressive sociologists. Some overstatements no doubt have been tures. In pointing them out it is perhaps wisest not even to shun
the
corrected, but some of the criticism and subsequent neglect may be accusation of reductionism, for, though from a structuralist-semiotic
viewed as part of the schizophrenia of our world, which pursues the perspective one may well describe religion as the relations between
ideal of an ever more human, more easygoing life amid growing inse- men and gods, with sacrifice mediating between them, the term
gods
curity and uncontrolled violence. Fashionable psychology attempts to nonetheless remains fluid and in need of explanation, while
sacrifice
eradicate feelings of guilt from the human psyche; ideas of atonement is a fact.
appear old-fashioned or even perverse. The thrust of Homo Necans The thesis that those groups united by religious ritual have his-
runs counter to these trends. It attempts to show that things were dif- torically been most successful seems to conflict *itn tn" modern
ver-
ferent in the formative period of oui civilization; it arguJs that soli- sion of the theory of evolution. That theory now discards the concept
darity was achieved through a sacred crime with due reparation. And
9f qlo"p selection and insists, rather, on ih" self-perpetuation of the
while it has no intention of thwarting modern optimism, it tries to "selfish gene" (see I.3.n.9). It may be pointed out bnce more
that this
warn against ignoring what was formerly the case. is a predictable modern perspective ieflecting the disintegration
of
Great advances have been made in prehistory and especially in our society. whether it applies to the history of culturally dJtermined
primatology. We now know there are hunts with subsequent ,,distri- groups is another question. The thesis of Homo Necansdoes
not hy-
bution of meat" among chimpanzees (seeI.z.n.z3)-showing them to pothesize about genetic fixation of ,,human nature.,, It seeks,
rather,
be more human than had been suspected; a chimpanzee ,,rarar,,has to.confront the power and effect of tradition as fuily
as possibre. In
been observed, and there are reports of intentionaf kitting by gorillas this sense it is radically historical, and factual.
and orangutans (see I.6.n.5). The picture of evolution hai become
ever richer in details but increasingly blurred in its outlines. In reac- pre.paring the translation, I have only been able to rework the
tion to the "hunting hypothesis" of Robert Ardrey and others, spe- ototrography and notes to a limited extent. They still
largely reflect
cialists are now reluctant to lay claim to knowledge of the importance the state of the relevant scholarship in 1972. I have,
howlver, taken
of hunting behavior. what had been taken to be lhe earliest evidence the opportunity to refer to more recent specialized
studies and stan-
PREFACE TO THE ENGLISH EDITION

more complete and up-


dard works and to make the documentation
to-date.
ItremainstothanktheUniversityofCaliforniaPressandPeter
Bing, the translator, for their untiring efforts' List of Illustrations
usrER,yurv r98z
WalterBurkert

following pagefi4
r. Sacrificialprocession.Attic black-figurecup.
z. Preparation for sacrifice. Attic red-figure bell crater.
3. Leopard men hunting stagand boar. Wall painting from Qatal
Htiyrik.
4- Sacrificial feast: roasting and cooking. Caeretan hydria.
5 . Warrior rising from a tripod cauldron. Mitra from Axos.
6. Bulls strolling around an altar. Attic black-figure oinochoe.
n 'Lenaia-vase'. Attic red-figure stamnos.
8 . Mystery initiation: pig sacrifice. Lovatelli urn.
9 . Mystery initiation: purification by liknon. Lovatelli urn.

xvll
Introduction

It is not so much the limits of our knowledge as the superabun-


dance of what can be known that makes an attempt to expliin man's
religious behavior an almost hopelessenterprise.The mass of avail-
able data and interpretation has long exceededthe limits of what an
individual can grasp and assimilate.Perhapsthis stream of informa-
tion will soon be ordered and surveyedthrough a collectiveeffort us-
ing computels, but as long as intellectualindependenceprevails and
an individual must seek to orient himself within his own world, he
may-indeed, he must-take the risk of projectinga model of his sit-
uation and reducing a confusing multiplicity into a comprehensible
form.
A philologist who startsfrom ancientGreek textsand attemptsto
find biological, psychological,and sociologicalexplanationsfoi reli-
gious phenomenanaturally runs the risk of juggling too many balls at
once and dropping them all. And if it is strangefor a philologist to
venture beyond scrupulous discussionof his texts, psychology and
sociologyare just as reluctant to burden their analysesof contempo-
rary phenomenawith an historical perspectivestretchingback to an-
tiquity and beyond. There is a danger that important biological,psy-
chological, and ethnological findings be overlooked, juit as can
happen with archaeologicalfinds, and it is hardly possible for the
non-specialistto give the Near Easternevidencethe expert treatment
it requires. Yet we must not assumethat all subiectsfii neatlv within
the limits of a particular discipline. Even philology depends on a bio-
logically,psychologically,and sociologicallydeteimined environment
and tradition to provide its basisfor understanding.And just as biol-
ogy acquiredan historical dimension with the conceptof evolution,r
so sociology,like psychology before it, should uccepfthe notion that

'H.
Diels, lnternationale wochenshrift ) (1gog), g9o, discussed the "historicizins of na-
ture" through Darwin's the<-rry

xix
INTRODUCTION
INTRODUCTION

understood only by stood' Thus, preciselybecausereligious phenomenaseemmore and


human societyis shapedby the past and.can be
long periods of time' more to elude the modern world's grasp, mere gathering of material
examining its"develoim"nf ou"t
itself presentsus with prob- can shed no more light on them than can the uncontrolledresonances
Of course, ttr" uii of understanding
discussed' If by "understanding" we of emotional understanding.
lems that have been widely
will ultimately correspondto-our exPec- Especiallywhen dealing with foreign or extinct religions, an out-
mean that the outside world
sider finds himself confronted, as it were, with a strange and un-
tutio"'andthoughtstructures,thenweadmitthatthediversityof
known language:to understand it, he must translateit. This means
thatworldisperceivedasthoughthroughapredeterminedfilterand
b" diff"rent kinds of understanding, distinguished ac- first of all that there should be no ambiguity about the languageinto
;ir;;;;r;;fi which one translates.To vacillatebetween transformationand imita-
.*d*_-; individuals and groups. But if reality were not anthropo-
or at leastintellectuallydetermined, then understanding tion will produce the kind of misunderstandingsthat do, in fact,
"iiii?."ify sensewould be altogetherimpossible. The possibility dominate many controversiesin the study of religion. If one tries to
i;;;;rrr;al
fully awareof theseproblems,to translateone religion into the languageof another, one finds, just as
,"-uir* of using our consciousness,
course of receivedtradition,' and to adapt the structures in working with ordinary languagesof different nations, that this is
unravel the
of understanding to the ever-new realities with which we are con- only possible to a limited degree. Equivalent expressionswill fre-
fronted and to *tl.t man, whether he likes it or not, remains tied. quently be lacking, due to the respectivedifferencesin religious prac-
our task is to seek the perspectivesthat give us the broadest and tice and in living conditions. If we take up foreign words such as
clearestview, to project a-modelthat accountsfor the various areasof totem,tabu, and mana,their meaning remains unclear or changesac-
experienceas comprehensivelyas possibleand that is susceptibleto cording to the interpreter'sintent. If we invent new conceptssuch as
frequent factualveiification. We cannot hope that our model will be a aegetation spirit or YearDaemon,3 their legitimacyremains a matter of
finiihed product; it is merely an attempt set forward for discussion, dispute, especiallyif it is unclearat what point the conceptbecomesa
with full knowledge of its tentative nature- new myth itself.
Every religionaspiresto the absolute.Its claims,when seenfrom The languagethat has proved the most generallyunderstoodand
within, make it self-sufficient.It establishesand explains,but needs cross-culturalis that of secularizedscholarship.Its practicetoday is
no explanation.Within this sphereof power, any discussionabout re- determined by sciencein its broadestsense,its systemof rules by the
ligion will almost automaticallybecomea religious Pronouncement, laws of logic. It may, of course,seemthe most questionableendeavor
especiallyas the essenceof religion is an attempt at expressionand of all to try to translatereligiousphenomenainto this language;by its
communication.In this way, however,religion becomesthe agentand self-conception,a religion must deny that such explanationsare pos-
the medium of communication rather than its subiect. This is pre- sible. However, scholarship is free to study even the rejection of
cisely why religious discussionabout religion is effective,for it finds knowledge and repudiation of independentthought, for scholarship,
resonancein nearly everyone.Thus, even when the seriousnessof re- in attempting to understand the world, has the broader perspective
ligious practiceis replacedby the ambiguousand non-binding "as if" here and cannot abstain from analyzing the worldwide fact of reli-
of emotional understanding, this mode of discourseremains entirely gion. This is not a hopelessundertaking.nHowever, a discussionof
respectableeven in a secularizedsociety. religion must then be anything but religious.
The opposite extreme in the study of religion is likewise gener-
3W.
ally accepted and carriesno risk: this is the lexicographicaldocumen- Mannhardt, Die KorndiimonenQ868); Harrison (r9z) 31r-34. Especially dangerous
tation and arrangementof the details that have been observed and is the little word is, which confounds translation, allegory, classification, and onlologi-
caf or psychological realization. See, for instance, Nilsson jgo6) z7: "wenn der Stier des
transmitted to us from the past. And yet a lexiconwill not give us an
Zeus Sosipolis ein Korngeist ist, muss der des Zeus Polieus es auch sein.',
understanding of the language if the grammar is unknown or dis- aE.
E. Evans-Pritchard, Theoriesof Primitiae Religion(1965), offers a survey with pene-
regarded and if the practice under discussion has not been under- trating criticism that leads to the conclusion that the "believer" is s-.rperiorto the "non-
believer" (rzr). still fundamental, however, is E. Durkheirn's Les
formesilimentaires tlela
zFor the fundamental philosophical treatment see H. ttte religieuse(r9rz). Psychoanalytical enterprises-most recently La Barre j97o)-are
G. Gadamer, Wahrheit und Me-
thode Q965\'). also to be taken seriously.

xxl
INTRODUCTION INTRODUCTION

We shall examine religion as an historical and social phenome- active,even if in strangetransformations,_irgmsuperstition


ary tradition to liturgical practice and Christi""'th;;i;;y.t.,ty and liter_
non, as the medium of tradition and communication among men.
This contradicts the common assumptions, if not the practical reality, ancient Greek religion do we find an uninterrupt"J;;:iir; i.,
greatestantiquity in a highly refined culture, unsurpassed of the
of the dominant religious tradition in the West, i.e., Christianity, in its intel_
which views the individual's encounter with the one God, and his lectual and artistic achievement.It was due to this union
of antiquity
subsequent salvation, as the onlyrelevant facts. This perspective has with sophisticationthat the Greekswere the first syst"mati*ri
to call
determined the common scholarly definition of religion as, for in- religion into question' Seen from that distanceind from
c(angrng
stance, "man's experiential encounter with the sacred and his action perspectives,the phenomenon may come into sharper
relief.
in response to the sacred."s And yet individual religions exist in typi- In the following studies, the Greek tradition
wiil hold center
cal and persisting forms precisely because very little unforeseen spon- stage,though it is hoped that we will illuminate important
stagesin
taneity and innovation occur in them. To the extent that we find a the mainstreamof human developmentas well. we
witt not try to ex-
"personal encounter with the sacred," it is performed according to a p]{n nfeigmena by amls.sing,,primitive,,material
fo. lo.r,p'u.iror,,
traditional method and with pedagogical intent. Only those who can stripped of its context and henie utt tn" more difficult
to understand.
attest to a genuine encounter are accepted. The pre-Christian reli- Rathe.r,.we shall proceed from a consistent historical perspective
gions proclaimed with the utmost conviction that only ancestral tradi- stretching back to man's beginnings. we wit pr"." gi*itweigtt
tion could guarantee the legitimacy of religion. Thus, through his ora- on theindividuality of Greericultuie, regardless ""tof how
p?Jr"*or*ry
cle, the Delphic god always sanctioned rites "according to the custom it may be; the anthroporogicalaspectout-weighsthe humanistrc.
nut it
of the city"; and the Boeotian was speaking for many when he re- is preciselyhere that both the primeval rools and the lucidity
of the
marked, in regard to a strange fish-sacrifice at Lake Copais, "There is Greekmaterialbecomesevideni. It can serve,as it were, as
a mirror in
just one thing I know: that one must maintain the ancestral customs which the basicorders of rife, lying far behind us, become
visiblewith
and that it would be improper to excuse oneself for this before an almost classicalclaritv.
others." 6 we shall try to combinethis consistenthistoricalperspective
. with
Ancient Greek religion is distinguished neither by extreme antiq- a functiorralone. within historicalreality, religion is
a sta'uitizr.,gruc-
uity nor by a great wealth of source material. It is far younger than tor of the first order in society.As such it upp"u* in its
enduring as-
either the Egyptian or Sumerian tradition, and in terms of accessibil- pect, always a given tradition which is moaified time and
ug"i; u"a
ity it cannot even begin to compete with a living religion. In spite of never replacedby something entirely new. As it unfords
-iihir, th"
this, the general problems in the study of religion have been repeat- many-facetedplay of sociarforces, various traditions
unite, thereby
edly linked to research on the religion of the Greeks. This can hardly perpetuatingthemselvesor languishingand dying out.
be a coincidental offshoot of the once-ubiquitous humanistic tradi- i:t"J,,l"g 1"d
while tied to social reality, do", .,ot si"mply
tion. If, rather, we take both age and accessibility into account simul- :1",:-t:.1":pect,..religion,
reflec.t that reality; it takeslittle accountof society'sswift changes,
es-
taneously, the ancient Greek religion assumes a unique position after peciallythose regardingeconomicconditions.
Ratheait seemsto deal
all: among the most ancient forms of religion, it is still the most com- wrth more fundamental layers of communal human
life and with its
prehensible and the one that can be obseived from the greatest num- preconditions,which have changedonly ,filf,,ff f.o-
ber of perspectives. For it never disappeared entirely, but remained ffI.^l:,t"-gi.a.l
rne earlresttimes until now If religious forms
have ofien iro"iaua u
focal point for new social and ecinomic
5G Mglsching, developmentr,ii"y'-"."
Die grossenNichtchristlichenReligionenunserer Zeit (rg5+), rJ; RGG3 V more.a prerequisitethan a consequenceof these
developments.,
9 & ; c f . F . H e i l e r , E r s c h e i n u n g s t ' o r n r e n u n d W e s e n d e r R e l i g i o n ( r 9 6 t ) ,,5, U
6 2mi g a n g m i t
At the core of our study u." th" rituals, together
dem Heiligen." wiih the mythic
oAgatharchides,
Ath. z97d; u6ptp r6\tueXen. Mem. t.1.t,
4 . 3 . : ' 6 ,a n d c f . H e s . f r . ; z : . ; TMax
Eur. Bacch. 2o7-2o4i Plat. Leg. 78b-d,; Cotta in Cic. Nat. deor. weber, in his famous study, demonstrated
3.5, 9;Cic. Leg.z.4o;Cic. the influenceof carvinism on capital-
Hat resp. 18-r9. Likewise, early Christianity felt obliged to its ancestors: oix dpels rilv ism (Dreprotestantische Ethikunider Geistdesxopirotir*ur, Ges.Aufsiitze
yeipd oou atro roi uioi oou i) dro fi1s tuyarpog oou, ri,\,),ri dtr6 veornros 6r.6ri{srs rdv ziologie
_,__"6.",I rtrzwt, zur Rerigionsso-
q-zo6), but
[ryzo], L/_zuorl Calvinis- cannot conversely be explained
our Lalvlnlsm --^r-i-^r by
L.. way
-.,--,ol
-/
96Bov roi Beoi (Didache4.q\. capitalism. "r...*.nn\/p,car'ho

xxii xxiii
TNTRODUCTION INTRODUCTION

traditions relating to them. Our aim is to identify and to understand spicuousand understandableform. This requiresa practicablebrevity
relationshipsand structuresthat recur in various guises but always and limitation of scope,a selectivetreatmentof the boundlessmassof
bind certain elementstogetherin the sameway'' We shall consciously material. It would be impossibleto discussall questions in detail or
refrain from trying to arrangethe materialaccordingto a mathemati- refer exhaustivelyto all specializedsecondaryliterature. we have at-
cal model. Theelementsare, on the one hand, so complexand, on the tempted instead to refer to what is basic and what is new The most
other, so directly understandablethat it would be wrong to reduce important sourcesare cited, but the list is by no means exhaustive.
them to a yes/no pattern, thus making them so complicatedthat they we refer the reader to the standardworks of preller-Robert,Deubner
would be obscured.Killing and eating, virgins, mothers and fathers and Nilsson, Farnell and Cook for more completedocumentation.
-these basic configurations of human life are more easily grasped -The aspectsof Greekreligion and of humanity that emergein this
through experiencethan through logical analysis,just as the struc- study are not those which are particularly edifying, not the ideal or
ture of a ritual and of a mythic tale unfolds in linear time and cannot the most likable traits of Greekculture. yet we can invoke the Delphic
be representedby a systemof reversiblepermutations.Thus, the sac- god'sinjuction that mankind should seeitself with absoluteclariry,no
rificial ritual moves from preparationthrough the "unspeakable"cen- illusions: f uio& oaurov.
tral point to the act of "setting up" an order, a pattern which can be
repeatedbut not reversed.
The first chapter deals with basicprinciples and could stand on
its own, although it would then probably seem too dogmatic and
speculative.It pulls together the various threads that appear in the
casestudies of the subsequentchapters. By spelling out the conse-
quences,it lays the foundation that is then assumedfor the rest of the
book. The hypothesisand the applicationconfirm one another, even
though neither is quite self-sufficient.Following this attempt to ana-
lyze the complex of hunting, sacrifice,and funerary ritual both his-
torically and functionally, we turn to an interpretation of groups of
Greek festival rites under various aspects.We examine, on the one
hand, the divisions and interactionsof individual groups at the sacri-
fice of a ram and, on the othet the sequenceof dissolutionand resto-
ration of the order of life, from the city festivals to the Dionysiac
orgies. The sacrificialstructure of guilt incurred and subsequentres-
titution also appearsin the consumption of wine at the oldest festival
of Dionysus; and the mysteriesof the grain goddessDemeterappear
to be likewise organizedby the rhythm of the sacrificialrites. This se-
quenceis not to be understood as historicalstratigraphy.It is increas-
ingly difficult to separateMediterranean,Near Eastern,and Eurasian
elements, and to distinguish Greek from pre-Greek.The structures
are perhaps too basicto follow ethnic distinctions.
The aim of our presentationis to set out the phenomenain a per-

6The following analyses were begun and conducted largely without


reference to
C. L6vi-Strauss'sAnthropologiestructuraleQ958; MythologiquesI-lY 11964-197rl; An-
thropologiestructuraledeuxlt971l). For a closer look at structuralism, see Burkert (1979)
5-a4.

xxlv
I. SACRIFICE,
HUNTING, AND
FUNERARYruTUALS

r. Sacrifice
asan Act
of KiIIing
Aggressionr and human violence have marked the progress of
our civilization and appear, indeed, to have Brown so during its
coursethat they havebecomea centralproblem of the present.Analy-
sesthat attempt to locatethe roots of the evil often set out with short-
sighted assumptions,as though the failure of our upbringing or the
faulty developmentof a particular national tradition or economicsys-
tem were to blame. More can be said for the thesisthat all orders and
forms of authority in human societyare founded on institutionalized
violence.This at least correspondsto the fundamental role played in
biology by intraspecificaggression,as describedby Konrad Lorenz.
Those, however, who turn to religion for salvation from this "so-
calledevil" of aggressionare confrontedwith murder at the very core

'S. Freud
pointed the way in Das Unbehngen in der Kultur (r91o), Ges.Schrit'tenXll
(r9$, z7-t'r4 = Ges.WerkeXlv (1948),4:'9-5o6.K. Lorenz (1963)is basic from the
standpointof the behaviorist.The sometimesspirited criticismsof his approach-for
hstance, M. F. Ashley-Montagu, ed., Man and Aggression (1968);A. Plack, Die Gesell-
schaftund das BijseGg6go);J. Rattner, Aggression und menschliche Natur Q97o)_.did,in-
deed correctsome particularsbut sometimesalso displayedwishful thinking and par-
tisanship; cf. Eibl-Eibesfeldtt (r97o) defensive posture. For application to religious
studies see P Weidkuhn, Aggressiaiti)t,Ritus, Slikularisierung.BiologischeGrundformen
religidserProzesse(1965).
SACRIFICE AS AN ACT OF KILLING
SACRIFICE, HUNTING, FUNERARY RITUALS

the old celebratethe establishmSnl0f world peace and, together


of Christianity-the death of God'sinnocent son; still earlier, family, appearson the reliefsof this Ari pacisur u ru.iiril".,
with his
about only after Abraham had de- p."."a"a
Testamentcovenant could come by servants carrying the sacrificiaraxe. Thus, the -ort;;fi;;d
blood and violence lurk fascinat-
cided to sacrificehis child. Thus, gustan art provides a framework for the bloody sacrifices Au_
ingly at the very heart of religion' at the
centgl.
-,o
Fromaclassicizingpersp"ective,Greekreligionappearedandstill
upp"u., some as Uiigt t and harmlessly cheerful. Yet those
who .. .f$acrificial killing is the basicexperienceof the "sacred.,,Homore-
of the Cross (I Cor. r:23) is on another Iigiosusacts and attains self-awareness us homonecans.Indeed, this is
^jir.,tuir., that the skand"alon what it means "to act,"t'6{ew, operari(whence ,,sacrifice,,is Opferin
i;;;il;;iler overlook the deeperdimension that accompaniesthe
to draw German)-the name merely coversup the heart gf the action with a
fri" 3f the gods as portrayed by Homer. If a man is able euphemism.orhe bliss of encounteringdivinity finds expression
""r, i"-,r," god"s,as the priest Chryseswith Apollo or as Hektor or in
Oiurr"rr, *ith 2".*, he can do so becausehe has "burnt many
"l^', thigh- ryordr, and yet the strange and extraor-clinaryE;6GTh-at ine parfiai-
(II. r.4o, zz.a7o; Od. r.66), for this is the act of piety: pant in the sacrificeis forced to witness are all the more intense
of bulls,, be_
"i"1", eating. It makes no difference if there is causethey are left undiscussedl
tloodshed, slaughter-and
Thanks to the descriptions"inHomer and tragedy,we can recon-
no temple or cull-statue,as often occursin the cult of Zeus. The god is.
struct the courseof an ordinary Greek sacrificeto"the olympian gods
pr"r"r,i at his place of sacrifice,a place distinguishedby the heap of
,,sacred"offerings burnt there over long periods of almost in its entirety.
ashes left from Ihe path that leads to the center or tn" sacred
experienceis complex.frhe preparationsinclude bathing and dress-
time, or by the horns and skulls of slaughteredrams and bulls, or by
ing in cleanclothes,sputting on ornamentsand wreaths;Joftensexual
the altar-stonewhere the blood must be sprinkled. The worshipper
abstinenceis a requirement.'At the start, a procession(rrop.rr),s even
experiencesthe god most Powerfully not just in pious conduct or in
if still a small one, is formed. The festivalpirticipants depart from the
pruy"r, ro.g, u.,I dance,but in the deadly blow of the axe, the gush
everydayworld, moving to a single rhythm and singing. The sacrifi_
Lf Utooa an? the burning of thigh-pieces.The realm of the gods is
cial animal is led along with them, iikewise decoratet and trans-
sacred,but the "sacred" act done at the "sacred" place by the "con-
formed-bound with fillets, its horns coveredwith gold.'Generally it
secrating" actor consistsof slaughteringsacrificialanimals, iepeiecv
is hoped that the animal will follow the processioncompliantly or
ra iepe{a.,It was no different in Israel up to the destruction of the
even willingly. Legendsoften tell of animals that offered tiremselves
tempie.' It is prescribed that daily "burnt offering shall be on the
hearth upon the altar,""all night until the morning" (Lev' 6:z); these 'The basicmeaning
offerings, the remnantsof two one-year-oldlambs cut into pieces,are of 8{ew is "to smoke." Concerningthe ancients,plutarch writes
Theophrastus?) raparrop.evot xai ietp.aivovres"Ep6ew"
"a plea-singodor to the Lord." Thus the principal sin of Antiochus {fgllowiig ltiv Exa\ouu xai
"t'6(ew"' 6s * ptya 6pdures,rd Biew i;trltuyov, conu. f .; z:ouekrlar.il.
2.4o9,cf.
Epiphanesagainst|erusalemwas that he ordered that "the continual
e. 729
r.3r8; Hy. Merc. 436.Likewisein Hebrew and Hittite, the verb to dois usedin
the sense
burnt offeri"g 1U"1taken away" (Dan. 8:rr). Augustus built an altar to of "to sacrifice"; cf. casabona e966) 3or-1o4, who warns against generarizations.
sE.g.,
Od. 4.759; Eur. EL 79t and,J. D. Dennistons Commentary
2On Greek sacrificeseeStengel(r9ro), (r9zo) g5-a5, Eitrem (r9r5); F Schwenn, Cebef e99), ad /oc.;poll.
r'25; Wdchter(r9ro) rt-rz; R. Ginouvds, BAAANEYTIKH; Recherchis
surle batndans
und Opfer (r9z); L. Ziehen, RE XVIII (ry9), 579-627,lll A (tgzg), 1669-79;Meuli I'antiquitdgrecqueQ96z), 299-
3tB.
(1946);burkert (1966);Nilsson $95) tlz-t57; Casabona(1966);E'Forster, "Die antiken
'Animal Sacrifice "xen. Anab.7.r.4o;Aeschines3.77;etc.;J. Kochling,Decoronarumapudantiquosaiatque
i"ti.trt"" tiber das Opferwesen,"Diss. Innsbruck, r95z;E. Kadletz, usu (r9t3); K. Baus, Der Kranzin Antike und Chrisientum(r94o);L.
Deubner, z{RW3o
in Greek and Roman Religion," Diss. University of washington, t976; Detienne and (ty), 7o-ro4; Blech (1982).
Vernant (1979).For
'(ig6S) the pictorial tradition seeG. Rizza, ASAA37l38(195916o)' 121'-45; ?Fehrle
1r9ro),esp. r55-58; for the coan inscription on the sacrificeof a bull for Zeus
Metzger :roZ-trfi. On sacrificegenerally see W' R Smith (r89+); H Hubert and r-olreusseenow SlC, to25 = LS r5t A
M. M-auss,"Essai sur la nature et la fonction du sacrifice," Ann6eSociologique z (1898), 4t_44.
8E.Pfuhl,
I (1968), rgJ-)o7; A. Loisy, historique
Essai sur le De Atheniensium pompissacris
(r9ro); Wilamowitz (t932) j5o_54.
zg-tlg: M. Mauss, oeuures -sacrifice
(iqzoj; n. Money-Kyrle, TheMeaningof Sacrifce(r91o) (psychoanalytical);-E'M' Loeb' "od' 3.412-38.This survived in fork custom until modern times; seeU.
Jahn, Die deut-
')The Blood SacrificeComplex," Mei. Amer.Anthr. Assoc'1o(:'923\;E' O' fames' Sacri- schenopferbriiuchebeiAckerbauund viehzucht
egg4), q6-17, lt5-17, on the proverbial
(:.962);Burkert (r98r). "ox at Pentecost";Megas
ficeand Sacrament Q956)t7. On the meanint otfiepeiovrit erozseeArist. fr. ror;
3R. de Vaux, Lessacrifces t'tut. Uedel.or. 437a:Schol.A. II. r.66;Eust.
deI'AncienTestament i96$; cf. n. 4z below' 49.35.
SACRIFICE, HUNTING/ FUNERARY RITUALS SACRIFICE AS AN ACT OF KILLING

uP for sacrifice,r0 apparent evidenceof a higher will that commands another kind of food. The act of throwing simultaneously
as a group
aisent. The final goit it the sacrificialstone, the altar "set up" long is an aggressive gesture, rike beginnir,g u iight, even if
ihJ;; harm_
ago, which is to be sprinkled with.blood' Usually a fire is already less projectiles are chosen. Indeed, i.r ,ome ancient rituals
stones
u[luru on top of it. Olten a censeris used to impregnatethe atmo- were used.'u Hidden beneathJhe grains in the basket was
the knife,
spherewith ihe scentof the extraordinary,and there is music, usually which now lies uncovered.r'The leader in this incipient drama,
the
tirat of the flute. A virgin leadsthe way, "carrying the basket" (xavr1- iepeis, steps toward the sacrificial animal, carrying the knife
still cov_
gripos)," that is, an untouched girl holding a coveredcontainer (see ered so that the animal cannot see it. A swift cui, uid u f"* hairs
from
fieuresr and z). A water iug must be there as well' the brow are shorn and thrown into the fire. This is another,
though
"
fFirst of all, after arriving at the sacred place, the participants more serious, act of beginning (cipyecgat),rnjust as the water
and the
,,'"i-t off a circle; the sacrificial basket and water jug are carried barley grains were a beginning. Blood has noi yet been
spilled and no
around the assembly,thus marking off the sacredrealm from the pro- pain whatsoever has been inflicted, but the inviorability
of the sacrifi-
fane." The first communal act is washing one's hands as the begin- cial animal has been abolished irreversibly.
ning of that which is to take place.The animal is also sprinkled with Now comes the death blow The *orn"r, raise a piercing
scream:
waterll"shakeyourself,"saysTrygaiosin Aristophanes,''for the ani- whether in fear or triumph or both at once, the ,,Greek
custJm of the
mal'sirovement is taken to signify a "willing nod," a "yes" to the sac- sacrificial scream"'n marks the emotional climax of the
Lo-._
rificial act. The bull is watered again," so that he will bow his head. ilg-ar4t-th-death:ralfle.Theblood nowrnf out is treated "rr".ri,
*itn $*i"r
The animal thus becomesthe center of attention. The participants care. ft may.not spill on the ground; rather, it must hit the altar,
the
now take unground barley grains (orilal), the most ancient agricul- hearth, or the sacrificial pit. If the animal is small it is raised
over
tural product, from the basket. These, however, are not meant for the altar; otherwise the blood is caught in a bowl and sprinkled on the
grinding or to be made into food: after a brief silence,the solemn altar-stone. This object alone may, and must again and again, drip
eJgqp,eiv, followed by a prayer out loud-in a way, more self- blood.'o
affirmation than prayer-the participantsfling the barley grains away The "act" is over; its consequences are the next concern. The
anr_
onto the sacrificialanimal, the altar, and the earth." They are after mal is carved up and disembowelled. Its inner organs are now
the
main focus, lying revealed, an alien, bizarre, and rri.ur,rry sight,
rorge4lrirou and
Bo<is6ixqu Aesch. Ag. 7297;seeBurkert (t966) to7 n. 43; Dio Chrys Or' yet common in the same form to men as well, as is knoin
rz.5r (Olympia);Porph. Abst.t.z5 (Gadeira,Kyzikos);Plut. Pel.zz (Leuktra);Apollon. from
seeing wounded soldiers. The tradition specifies preciselv what
Mir. 11 (t{alikarnassos);Arist. Mir. Ausc.844a35(Pedasia);Philostr' Her. 8 p. 294 must
(Rhesos),17 p.)2g and Arr. Peripl.zz (Leuke);Ael. Nat. an. ro-5o(Eryx), rr.4 (Her- toOritrolurcs
d.ut\ovro I rpoBa\ovro ll. t.449145g, z.4to/42r, and cf.
mione); especiallyfor human sacrificesee Neanthes FGrHist84 F 16 (Epimenides), r' oi)royirae re xardpyecfiat od.
Ori. 3.447; ylputpa
Serv.Aen.3.57(Massalia),Paus. 4.9.4(Messenia); Isaac,accordingto Hellenistictradi- ).++5; cf . Aristoph. pax 96r-67. ro. o;ioJ us tr," ,.ort
ancrentgrain see Theophrastusin porph. Abst.2.6 and
tion, seeJos.Ant. lud. r.z1z; IV Macc. l.1:tz, 16:zo. Cf. J. Schmitt, Freiutilliger
Opfertod schol. Ir. r.44gb; schol. orl.
).44r; Sudao 9o7;Eust. 7)2.25,1,i3.1,2,and cf. Eust. rg59.4g; ur, of a.otru_
bei Euripides(r9zr). rlrqfeia and eigopia seeSchol.A lt.r.449,Schol. Od. ", "*prJrrion
1tJ.Schelp, DasKanoun,der griechische Opferkorb (tg75\; for reproductionssee,e.g., Si- 3.4.4t.VngZcLu. . . duri oiiitu
Paus.,r.4r.9(cf. III.4 below).For ritual stone_throwing around the altar of
mon (1969)r93;Deubner(1912)pl. rr.r; Nilsson(1955)pl. 32.r. l:.t:ro,
t'oserdonat the Isthmian sanctuaryseeo. Broneet
'2E.g.,Aristoph. Pax Hesperia zg (g59),3o1. Cf .L. zie-
956-58, Eur. lph. Aul. t-568;Eitrem (r9r5) 7-29. hen,He-rmes)zQgoz),3gr-4oo;Stengel(r9ro)r)-));Eitrem(r9r5)
z6r-3og,whorecog-
rrAristoph. Pax
96o;6 6' |xoitotov d.uxarauciaTl . .. Porph. Abst.z.g: Parke and lii:l
,1" eSlivalelle.yith,pur,ropJla una *Lriytoptrra; Burkert
1ryoo)to7, n. 4o.
Wormell(1958)II #517;Plut. Q. conu.7z9f., De def. or' 45b-c,437a;Schol. Il' 1.449; r1at.Com. lr.9r \CAF l6z6); Aristoph. pax
94gwith Schol.;Eur. El. gto, iph. Aul.
Schol.Aristoph. Pax96o;Schol.Apoll. Rhod.r.425;cf. Meuli (t946\254,266;J'C'Fra- 1565;Philostr. V Av. r.r
'8Od.
zer, Pausanias' of Creece,
Description 1898,on Paus.ro.5.7;Ginouvds,BAAANEYTIKH, 3.4q6,r4.4zz';Eur.Alc.74-76,El. ht;Eitrem (r9r5)
roneouslymakesthe "beginning,,into a ,,selbstdndige 344_72_who,howeve,er_
3rr-18. 'e'E,\,A1urr<iz dpfergabe,, (44)
raBull-sacrificefor dithyrambic victory: see, e.8., the Munich stamnos z4rz: ARV'z v6p"topa tucraios BoilsAesch. Sept. 269;Od.
3.45o;Aesch. Ag. 595,
ro36, 5 in Stengel(r9zo)pl. V Hdt. 4.r89;L. Deubner,,,Ololygeund Verwandtes,,, Abh. Berlin(ry4r), r.
-rr18;
^ Aip.rlooerv
'sA. W. H. Adkins, "Etyop.at. Eiyd,il and Ei'1osin Homer," CQ tg (196), 2o-))'. "as' rois Bapois poll. t.z7; porph. Absf. r.z5; cf. Bacch.rr.rrr; Aesch.
Sept.
serting his existence,his value, and his claims" (33);this characteristic,a given in Ho- vase-paintingsseen. 2 above;ipviov Od.l.+++(ct. Schol.) :
l75tFo1 ngayeiovpoll.
ro'65' In place of the artar-(Bup'os),the
meric usage,conformsexactlyto the positionof prayerin the sacrificialritual, although iearth gira. inyap,r) or sacriiiciarpit (Bd-
the prayer qua requestcan, as Oriental textsshow, be far more elaborate fpos) can receivethe blood; cf. II.z.n.rg below.
Cf. Stengel(tgro) to5_r25.
SACRIFICE, HUNTING, FUNERARY RITUALS
SACRIFICE AS AN ACT OF.KILLING

be done with eachpiece." First of all, the heart, sometimesstill beat- way to everyday life." The skin of the
sacrificiarvictim is generary
ing, is put on the aitar.r'A seeris presentto interpret the lobesof the sord to benefit the sanctuary,to purchase
new votive offerLgs
liv*er..,in general, however, the ozr),d7Xzc-the collectiveterm for new victims:in this way, the cult insures
its own .onti.,uur.,.u.irl
and
the organsl-are quickly roastedin the fire from the altar and eatenat This rite is obrectionabre,
and was alreadyfert to uu ,o
/ once.Thus the inner circleof activeparticipantsis brought together becauseit so cleariv and directly benefits
man. Is the god ,,to "u;rf
o,.,,
meal,transforminqh91o1into pleasure.Only the bile the sacrificeis made any more than a transparent whom,,
\in excusefor festive
is inedible and has to be disposedof. Likewise, the bones are not to
".o*^unal feasting?All he gets arl the bones, th;
fa; u"d th" ;;[-Uiuia".r.
be used for the subsequentmeal, so they are "consecrated"before- Hesiod says that the crafty prometheus,
the friend of mankind,
hand. The bones, above all the thigh-bones Aqpiq) and the pelvis causedthis to be so in ordei to deceive
are put on the altar "in the proper order."'oFrom the gods, and the burning of
with the tail (rio<pris), bones became a standard joke in Cr""t
bones, one can still seeexactlyhow the parts of thgliving animal comedy.3oCriticism that
the damned the bloody act per se was far more
fit together: its basic form is restored and consecratedJIn Homer, a penetrating.Zarathustra,s
curseappliesto all who rust for brood
"beginning," i.e., a first offering, consisting of raw pieces of flesh and slaughter?attr".l,)inuuu
had enough of burnt o{fering of rams
from every limb, is put on the bonesas well, indicating the entirety of af.r"fat of fed beasts;I do
not delight in the blood of bulls or of lambs
""J
the slaughteredanimal.'{Tne purifying-jire then consumesall these or of he_goats,,, saysthe
Lord through Isaiah.3,Inthe Greek wortJ,
remains]The skulls of buTlsand rams ffigoat-horns are preserved" tne pythag%;;;, u]ia O._
phics demanded that the lives of all creatures
in the sacredplaceas permanent evidenceof the act of consecration' with souls be spared,
and Empedokleswas the most vehement
The flow of blood is now replacedin its turn by the offerings of the ,r i"-"tt]Jffi.nT.r._
nibalisticmadnessof the traditional sacrificiar "il
planter, pouring libationsof wine into the fire and burning cakes.2'As meal, u, utro?.,-"ip.ur-
sing the desirefor a realm of non_violentlove,on
l the alcohol causesthe flames to flare up, a higher reality seemspres- the path toward ,,pu_
rification'"33Ph'osophy then took up
l
ent. Then, as the fire dies down, the pleasing feast gradually gives the criticism of blood-
'i'
i1 28Ofteneverythingmustbeeatenonthespot1o'oo,ffi
'?rStengel 88' st.
Qgto) p-78; Meuli (1946) 246-48, 268-72; cvrnrXayTveierz Aristoph. Par
rrr5; Eup. fr. ro8 (CAF I 286);Ath. 4rob. ,stengel (gzo\
rr6-t7; esp. IG1r': y496ro rtpt'ytuop.evov dudrirnrerveis dvatiltrLarla
zGalen PIac.Hipp. et Plat.2.4 p. 238K; cf. Cleanthesin Cic. Nal. deor.z.z4; Sudax SIG3rc44, 47 = LSAM 72,
17o 47;cf. LSS'6r,Sz_07,,lA+, StC, 982, z3_zl; tS 69, 85. An
(An. Bekk.lz75.to; Et. M. 49z.tz);Hsch. xap6lo0orlct,xap6cou)\xlat,and cf. Luk. Sac- exception:16 6eppa dyi[erfaL IS r5r D
6; Li fil ll ro 66ptra'xqrrri(("irq, o tt
rif. 13; LSSnr.7. 66pp'axararyi(e(rar) meaning "is burned" (sokolowski) ,,is
or torn apart,,(Hsch. xor-
tsG.Blecher,De extispicio aLlaaas and aiyi(et, Sudaat
capitatria (t9o); for the Near Easterntradition seeJ. Nougay- 44; G. Daux, BCI1g7 [ry6j], 61o)?
sSee n.
rol, "Les rapports des haruspicines 6trusque et assyro-babylonienne," CRAI (t955), z4 above;A. Thomsen,,,DerTrug des prometheu
s,,, ARWrz (r9o9), 46o_9o;
jo9- r8. l. Rudhardt, "Les mythes grecs relatifs i l,instauration
r-r5. The basisof the criticismis the du sacrifice,,,MH z7 (r97o)
2aErifsrr:oos Hes. Th. 54r. Meuli (1946)zr5-r7 proved that the p.lpia mentionedregu- conceptthat d rhrerz Lapekrhaidozy rois rleols
(Pla.t.Euthyphr.r4c). Accordingly,
larly in Homer are the bare thigh-bones;6or6,a XeuxaHes. Tir. 54o,sj7.The comic tabl".;;;;;;;;;;.. the gods (rpatre{at\: oxilros16
tptTro Bo6srapteuto r6t Bnt Ib_Iy g74=
poets normally mention dogus and gall; cf. Men. Qrsc. 45r-52 and cf. fr. 264, Sam. SIC399bitpiauu.ur, fifth century n.c.); cf.
L. Ziehen, RE XVIII 6rc-r6; S..Dowand
3gg-4o2;Eub. fr. 95, 1Jo (CAF II tg7, zto); Com.adesp.fr. rzo5 (CAF III.6o6).Vase- D-H 6iit, .The Greek cultrabti,,, a1ao9
(1969'-rc|-n4' yet it is possibre
paintings (see n. z above) portray the dogris and tail of the sacrificial animal on the
then throw the cadaverinto the
to sraughter - a uo., ',for zeusand Helios,,and
-z*iri'ui.,a.r.3.roal3ro;
altar; cf. Aristoph. Pax rc54 with Schol. seaeI i9 ro, t*tuo* t,y-
T'{lp.o$trlcav ll. r.46r, 2.424; Od. pothesesto savethe ,,offering,,-interpretaiiofsee
3.458, rz46r, :^4.427Dion. Hal. Ant. 2.72.t7; Siengel ftgrc1,ry_4). Likewise in
"gtority,', th"egod,s
Meuli (1946)zr8, 256,z6z. Il:?;ii^T*,rre, ir."t from the subjection of
""i "-"l""tio'deriue
"Theophr. Char.zt.7; Schol. Aristoph. Plut.943; Eitrem gy/ , Esp.
14-48; Nilsson (1955) Yasna32.8,rz, ra (G. Widengren,lranische
88, r45. For the accumulationof goat-hornsin the templeof Apollo at DrerosseeS. Ma- Die GathasdesZarathustra Geisteswelt [r96t-j,t55;H. Humbach,
rinatos, BCHfu Qq6), zz4-25, 24r-44.On the Keratonof DelosseeDikaiarchusfr. 85 [rySSl,I Si_Sil.Iti, ,n.l"ur, however,to what extent
sacrificewas reiectedon blood_
W. = Plut. Thes.zr; Callim. Hy. Ap.58-64; E. Bethe,HermesTz(rg), rgt-94. orincipre,-.in." it .onti.,,r"J rn practice:see
(re66),rro; G. Wideneren M. Boyce,/&{S
'z?Oil. . oie'neiigtonen;;i;;;;; 66,92, tos.
3.459-6o; xpi in.;Biet d){ghav ilpiexrov...LS r57 A, and cf. r5r A zo '21s.
r : r r ; c f . 6 6 :r .
intBiew. $The
Pythagorean tradition is divided,
with ilrg{yav an'yec'atagainst 'marorqrov
SACRIFICE, HUNTING/ FUNERARY RITUALS SACRIFICE AS AN ACT OF KILLING

times around the sacrificial stone while ch'dren


sacrifice-above all, Theophrastus, in his influential book on Piety. and threw grass
This book explained animal-sacrifice as having replaced--canlibalism'
flowersonto it. As the prieststoodat the artar,th" k";;;;8iii*
which, in tuin, had been forced on men because of difficult times.y
mal would make a sign of the cross with his knife thiee "",-
ii'#, u.,a
then slaughterthe animar while praying. The brood *ur
After this, a theoretical defense of sacrificial custom was virtually *fiolr"a to
do sprinkle the stone. After this, ortside ihe chapel, the
hopeless..uBoth varro and seneca were convinced that the gods aniriil"woura
in the Diaspora spread more be carved up and the feast prepared. The priest, like
noi demand blood-sacrifice.'u Judaism his ancient
temple counterpart, receivedthe animal'sthigh and skin, as well
easilv because cult practices had become concentrated in one as its head
making outside Jerusalema reli- and feet.3echristianity is here .ro *oiu than a transparent
in lerusalem, thus virtually Judaism cover for
also helped form Christian prac- the ancient form that underlies it: that is to say,for
eion without animal-sacrifice.r'This the sacredact of
iice. which could thus take up the traditions of Greek philosophy. On blood-sacrifice.
the other hand, it gave the idea of sacrifice a central significance and Animal-sacrificewas an ail-pervasiverearityin the
ancientworld.
raised it to a higher status than ever before." The death of God's son is The Greeksa0 did not perceivemuch differencebetweenthe
substance
the one-time and perfect sacrifice, although it is still repeated in the of their own customs and those of the Egyptians and phoenicians,
celebration of the Lord's Supper, in breaking the bread and drinking Babyloniansand persians,Etruscansuna i{o-a's, though
rii.rA a"_
the wine. tails varied greatly among the Greeksthemselves.ni one fu."iiu.rty or
Folk custom, however, managed to defy even Christianization sacrificepresentsa problem for the modern historian:
lreef the com-
and was subdued only by modern technological civilization. The Cer- bination of a fire-altar and a blood_rite, of burning and
eating, corre_
man expression geschmilckttpie ein Pfingstocftse("decked out like an ox ,Megas (1956)
15, and cf. 17, 84, 87, zz4. (The name of the sacrifice,
youpravt, comes
at Pentecost") preserves the memory of the ritual slaughter of an ox at from lslam: Arabic qurban) For animal sacrifice to,'Zeus,,in
Albania see Cook III (r94o)
the church festival (see n. 9 above). In Soviet Armenia the slaughter t t 6 8 - 7 t . S e e n o w G . N . Aikaterinides, Neoetrl4zrris
aip.ar4pis Buoles (Athens.
of a sheep in front of the church is still a feature of regular Sunday 197q.
{Th.eophrastus(Porph.
service. Isolated Greek communities in Cappadocia celebrated the an- Abst.z andcf. n. 34 above),in his study of the development
of
sacrifice,found it naturar to include Egyptians, syrians,
cient sacrificial ritual well into the twentieth century: oPPosite the caithaginians, Et.r.r.ar,r,
Thracians, and srythians. The tradition i-natttre Cyprians
conventional altar in the chapel of the saint would be a sacrificial al- invented sacrifice(Ta'an. r,
Schwartz)goes back to Asklepiadesof Cyprus, FCrHist
tarstone, upon which incense was burned when candles were lit; dur- lP^ i:.6
FGrHist84F 3z = potph. Abst. Z5zF r : Neanthes,
4.15.
ing prayers, it would be decked with wreaths. The sacrificer would arrhe antithesis
betweenorympian and Chthonic cu.rtis often regardedas
fundamentar
bring the animal-a goat or a sheep-into the chapel, leading it three (Rohde[fi98) r4B-52; Harrison
[ryzz) t_1t; Iessschematically, Meuli [ry46] rgl. zrt,
and.cf. Nilsson j9551 4z-y). The antithesisbetween
hea.,enlygoa, u#god, of tn"
Buerr (lambl- V. Pyth. 8z). Cf. J. Haussleiter,Der Vagetarismus in der Antike (ry5), underworld is frequently attestedstarting with Aeschylu
s (Hik. ia, ,S+, ,fS. ;gl; u tu-
79-t6j; W. Burkert, Lore and Sciencein AncientPythogoreanism (1972),r8o-83; Em- miliar distinctionis that between ivali{eJu, "to make
tubu,'o. 6rr6:,prirr,,,tosliughter
pedoklesB 46-39. heroesani the dead, and siep (F. pfisrer, Der Retiquienkutt
sPorph. Abst. 2.22t Bernays, Theophrastos' ::,..1T.::::lt:':11,,".f:,
tm Atlertunttt l19r2l,466_8o;Casabona
J. SchriftitberFrdmmigkeit (1866),86, rt6; 19661zo4_zog,zz5- 29).On the differentways
fiepi ei<repeias(196$, rZ4-75. o f s l a u g h t e r i nsge e S c h o l .A p o l l . R h o d ' r . 5 S r , ' p ; .
W. Potscher,Theophrastos p . 1 1 5M : E r . M . ) q s . z 4 _
"One way out was to posit inferior, more bloodthirsty demons: see Xenokratesfr. 19-.H "'Fritze, ldl 18(r9o3),58-6T.vetbesriesthesacriiicial "rn pits(polpot)tliereare
differentkinds of altars (Barpcol, Ecyap.,t,porph. Antr.6; Schol. Eur. phoen.274; Serv.
z3-25 Heinze.
kDii aei nequedesiderantea nequedeposcuntVarro in Arnob. hs+sl and the complexof Bv<ricitciltuorot(Stengel
7.t; deum. . . non immola- 3::"r^!,:::r:
n:t cor_respond ,sn-,s), Ir9ro] ro5)
to the rearm of the chthonic: sacrificiarmearsare ]amiriar
tionibusnecsanguine multocolendum Sen.fr. rz3 = Lact. Dit,. inst.6.z5.3.Cf . Demonaxin :ues
trom the cult of the &coi to us
Luk. Dem.rr; the Sibyl in Clem. Pr.4.62;(Just.)Coft.ad. Gr. t6. Xfi6urct(Stengel[ryto] r3r-rj3), especiallyEeizya from
hero-cults(A. D. Nock, uTiR
37Withthe exceptionof Passovercelebrations;cf. lz y$aal,i+-iti. Lit"*i"", osaynv and Boiu.,l.ca do
J. ]eremias, Die Passahfeier der Sa- not mutually exclude each other: see Eur.
or. fo5. rn the culi of the dead, the meal
maritaner(1932);Th. H. Gaster,Passoaer: ItsHistoryand TraditionsQ958). during which the dead man is offered
sTd zrlo1a blood (11.4129-34;attrtaxoupia, cf .1.6 below) is
ip"6tv i,ra&n Xprords I Cor. 5:7. For the rest, I refer the reader to iuxtaposedto a rite of burning (It.
function as a prelimi.u?. 4.166- 76).nu-rnt'onerings aloneare rare:they often
H. D. Wendlandand E. Kinder, RGG3IV fi47-56. The ChristianJewsstill made Paul g., lS r5r A z9_36 (cf. burnt_offering/thank_
partakein a sacrificein ]erusalem(Num. 6: r3-zr) and financeit; cf. Acts zt:23-26. On offeringin I Sam. ro : 8, r r, "
9i, lustls .,ingtu;..i.ruf *irf often haveboth the graveof
the other hand, "Petrus"(Clem. Hom.2.44.2)declaresthat the sacrificiallaws of the OT the altar of the gocr:i.e., we are dearingwith an
1l"r:.?"d anrithesiswithin the rituar,
are forgeries. not with two fundamentaty different
and separatJthings. Cf. Burkert (ry66) rcryn.
16.
SACRIFICE, HUNTING, FUNERARY RITUALS SACRIFICE AS AN ACT OF KILLING

of the
sponds directly only with the burnt offerings (zebah'iel1rym) rificing a sheep.The bulr stoodchainedon a rush mat until
it was time
oldTestamento,-althoughthedetailsofUgariticandPhoenician for its mouth to be washed. After this, incantations*o.rlJ
from EgyP. uJ wnis_
sacrificialcults are uncertiin-and thesediffer markedly pered into both its ears, after which it was sprinkled with walr,
pu_
rites' all of
tian and Mesopotamian,as well as-Minoan-Mycenaean' rified with a torch, and.surrounded by a circle of grain. eoiro*i.,"
whichhavenoaltarsforburningwholeanimalsorbones.o.Andyet, prayer and song, the bull was killed, the heart burriea at once,
ani
in cultural tradition un- the skin and left shourder sinew removed to string the tymfanon.
whatever complexities,layers' .and.9trangfs
astounding, details aside, to
J;r1," in" l"ai"ia"al peculiarities,it is After further libations and offerings, the priest worrld beni dbwn to
from Athens to jerusa-
our"."" the similarity of action and experience the severedhead and say,"This deed was done by all the gods; I did
i;;"; ;; io oabyion. A detailed Babyloniantext of which several not do it." one version of the text saysthat the cadaver*oitd be bur-
whose skin was
;;;i"; were made-describesthe sacrificeof a bull ied; an older one forbids at leastthe head priest from eating the meat.
;'J;, the membraneof a tympanon in the temple:s an untouched Fifteen dayslater,in a largelyparallel."r"^or,y, with prepiratory and
Ufu.t U"ff would be chosenfor the secretceremony,which took place closing rites, the new.rycoveredtympanon wis brougnt into the
cen-
in a room enclosedon all sidesby curtains.The complicatedprepara- ter in place of the bull, thus inauguriting it into its fu"nction.
tions included scatteringgrain, offeringbreadsand libations,and sac- Not even the religious revorutioninihe Near East,i.e., the emer-
gence of Islam, could eliminate animal-sacrifice.The high point
in
Likewise,in the Egyptianrealm, sacrificefor the dead and that for the gods have com- the life of a Moslem.is the pilgrimage to Meccaoswhich"stiil today
mon roots: seew barta, Die altiigyptischen opferlistenaonder Friihzeitbiszur griech.-rdm'
see II.r.n.z9'
draws hundreds of thousands of woishippers annually. The central
Epoche Q,g6), r53. On roasting/boiling
{2R.K. yerkes, sacrifcein creekand RomanReligionsandEarlyludaism(11952\; R. schmid, point occurson the ninth day of the holy month, in the journey from
in Israet(1964),therefore assumedthat Israeli burnt offering was a My-
Mecca to Mount Arafat, where the pilgiims stay from noon tiil sun-
DasBundesopfer
"before God." This is-fofowed by the Day of Sacrifice.
cenaeanimportviaUgarit(92),butcf.D,G1||,Bib|ica47$966),255_62:Homer,sfamil. 1o*l praying
iar ptlpiu xaiew is absentfrom Mycenaean. o" ,.h."tenth day, in Mina, the pilgrim must throw sevln pebblesat
sDemostratedby Yavis(1949);cf. K. Galling, Der Altar in denKulturendesAlten Orients an old stone monument and then slaughter-usualry with his own
religionedei Semiti di Babi-
-Mem. seeG. Furlani, "Il sacrificionella
(1925).On Mesopotamia hands-a sacrificialanimal-a sheep,a goat, or even a camel-which
lonia e Assiria," Linc. VI 4 G%2), 1o1-J7o;F. Blome, D\e Opfermaterie in Babylon
is driven up and sold to him by Bedouins.He eatssomeof the animar,
und lsraelogl+j; Y. Rosengarten,Le r'gime desot'frandes dansIa soci'ti sumirienned'apris
de I'agas(196o). On Eq/g1see H' Kees, "Bemerkungen zum
though usually giving-mostof it away or simply leavingit. Saudi Ara_
les textesprtsar_goniques
Tieropferder Agypter und seiner Symbolik," NCG (t942),7r-88; Ph' Derchain, Rifes bia has resortedto bulldozersto remove the carcasses. After this, the
lgyptiensl:Lesaiificedel'oryx(1962),concerningwhichcf.J' Zandee,BiblOr'zo(t96)' pilgrim is allowed to cut his hair again and removehis pilgrim,srobes.
iir_sl,w. Barta, Die alttigyptischen opferlisten(n.4r above).on Ugarit seeB. Janowski, Likewise, sexualabstinenceendJafter his return to Mecca. It is the
Ugarit-Forschungen
-For n Q98o),4a - 59. consecratedman who kills and the act of killing is made sacred.,,In
a sacrificial list from Alalakh see D. J. wiseman, TheAlalakhTablets(t951), rz6.
For a monumentalaltar for bull-sacrificeat Myrtou Pygadeson Cyprus, including horn-
the name of Allah" and 'Allah is merciful" ur" ih" Moslem formulas
symbols, a watering place for cattle, and bull statuettes(ca. rToolrzoon.c') see AA that accompanyeven profane slaughter.
(t962) 118-19, fig. 84. For a depiction of bull-sacrificeat Pylos seeThePalaceof NestorIl Daily routine inevitably made the sacrificialritual an empty for-
(1959)pl. rr9. mality.ftTherefore,in order to stressits importance,especiallyin
The "hearth-house,"out of which the Greek temple developed,is a type known al- the
ancient Near East, ordinanceswere createdstipulatingcountiess
ready in Helladic tirnes:seeH. Drerup, Archaeologia Homerica O (1969),rz1-28. M. H. ob-
servances. The Greeks seem to have given most care to
fameson, AIA 6z (1958), zz3, refersto sacrifice at the hearth in Mycenaean times. Open- the ,,begin_
air sites for burnt offering-ash-altars consistingof piles of ashes and bones-are
abundantlyattestedboth for Greece(Nilsson [1955],86-88; cf. ILr below on Lykaion, the language of the female," see E. Dhorme, Les rerigions
de Babyronieet d,Assyrte
lI.z on Olympia) and for bronze-ageEurope (W. Kriimer, "PriihistorischeBrandop- (rg+g'), zo7-2o9,2t7.
ferpldtze," in Heluetiaantiqua,Festschr. E. Vogtltg66l, r r r -zz). It does not seem possible $Enzyklopiidie
desIslam ll (t.927), zo8-zr1; Encyclopidie de l,tslam III (1965), j3_4o
s.a.
at this time to organizethe various forms of sacrificeat the "hearth-house,"the stone HADJDI;ibid. for the proofthatthe busi. of the pirgrimagu
i.;'piJ-rrt"*i..
altat and the ash-altarinto an historicalsystem. sA
sacrificial list from "r"me.is
qANET Uruk notes 50 rams, z bulls, r ox, and g lambs, among
many
164a8.The main text is Seleucid;others were copied in the seventhcentury sacrifice: ANET jaa. Croesus had
n.c. from older Babylonianmodels. They thereby attest to the survival of the ritual over L,l:.:, r, 1r^:1"_daily 3,ooo animats sacrificed atbelphi:
rlot. 50; 154 cows were boughtfora festival on Delos: /G IIIIIIr $35,
the centuries. On the tympanon and the Kalu-piiest (= Sum. galu),wino"laments" "in leukos gave t,ooo iepeia 35. King Se-
lsheef) and rz cows for a sacrifice at Didyma: OGI zr4, 63.
SACRIFICE, HUNTING, FUNERARY RITUALS PRIMITIVE MAN AS HUNTER

ning" stages (ctpleorloc),


'*ti.f, as if trying to distract attention from the hunting and herding societies,.mostly in
Siberia. Moreove,
ceniral p"oi"t, nonetheless remained permanently fixed. pointed out prehistoric discoveriesthai s.eemed he
to utt"rt iJ .rmilar
Hubert ind Maussn' aptlv characterized
-"sacrali the structureof sacrificialrit- customs by Middle palaeorithictimes. This powerful
and "desacralization"; that is step L"u.t*ura
tf zation" about 5o,oooyears in time.admittedly seemJto
.ual with the concepts explain ibrrurr_ y,r,
/to sav. oreliminary rites, on the one hand, and closing rites, on the obscurius. whether the prehistoric evidencemay be taken
to indicate
lotn"i.'fiumins a centralaction clearlymarked as the emotional climax belief in a supreme being-a kind of primordial
monotheism_is a
"Ololyg6'" This act' however' is the act of
$y a piercing"r.r"u-, the moot question' It seemedressrisky to state:"sacrifice
is the oldest
liffi"i, the Jxperience of death. Thus, a threefold rhythm becomes form of religiousaction.", But muci of the
oldestevidenceremains
evlde"ntin the course of the sacrifice,osmoving from an inhibited, lab- controversial.
vrinthine beginning, through a terrifying midpoint, to a scrupulously Meuli relied on the "buriar of bears" of Neanderthal
offerings frequently comeat the beginning times, as de-
iidy conclusi,on. Vegetable scribed by B;ichlerand others;,-!n"y claimed
libations are also espe- that they nuJ'forr.,a
and again at the end of the ceremony, when bears' skulls and bones, especiaty thrgh bones.
."*i"iy'rJt ,rp i.,
cially iharacteristic. But the offerings can overlap and multiply, en- caves,and that thesecorrespondedto ttie ,,skull_
u"d lo;;ior," ,u.ri
larging the pattern until a triad of sacrificialfestivalsemergeswhich fice" observedamong.Siberianhunters, who
used to"a"porit tn"
yet adheresto the sameunchangeablerhythm: the preliminary sacri- bonesand skulls of their quarry-in sacredpraces.o
r" c*"r.-rii""r, ,".,
iice, the terrifying sacrifice, and the victorious, affirming sacrifice. it,isthe bones,especially-thethigh_bones,that
belong to ine goar.
flhe core is always the experienceof death brought about by human Thebear s specialrole further uppEu* in the "bear
festivals,,of north-
{violence,which, in turn, is here subjectto predeterminedlaws. And ern Eurasiantribes, from the Finns to the Ainus and
on to America.,
\this is nearlv alwavs connected with another human-all too hu- Yet the findings of Biichler have come under serious
uttal liu.."
man-actio.,, .tu-"Iy, eating: the festive meal of those who share in
the sacred. below) and not to Meuli's basicargument.To be sure,
the rattercompretetyo,,r".rooil
the Neolithic Near Easterncomponentby making
an all-too-directconnectionbetween
the Indo-GermanicGreeksand the Eurasianh.,ite.,
and herders.againsrMeuri,sar-
magical interpretation, Mtiller-Karpe (ry66\ zz7-28
fg:oty proposes a rerigious one
that proceedsfrom the experienceof a "tianscendentar
power,,, u"i,iir'ir"p...*ay
what the ritual communicates,and any interpretation
ot rt-even self-interpretatron_
z. TheEaolutionary is secondary(cf. I.3 below).
'zH.Krihn, "Das problem
des Urmonotheismus,,,Abh. Mainz (ry5o), zz, r7, whose
terpretation follows p W. Schmidl in-
: Primitiae Mqn
Explanation well as A. vorbichler, Dasopfer auf den .Der
lJrsprungtler Gottesiiee'Vi pq5j','aaa_5a, *
heute'noch'erreichbaren
attertrn si-uiin iJr- urnrrt _
heitsgeschichte e956), and MtiLiler-Karpe(1966) zz8.
asHunter l!
Bl*hf DasalpinePakiot.ithikum.der Schweiz(r94o);Meuti e946) 217_39.For addi_
tional finds in Central Franken, Silesia,and Siberia,
see tvtLiiler_(aril"(1SOS) .rO; in
Hungary, see I. Trencs€nyi-waldapfer, LJtttersuchunSletr
zur Rerigionsgeschichte e966)
1 9\ . 7 7 .
Karl Meuli's great essayon "GriechischeOpferbrAuche"(rg+6)'
".Y;rrr:l:!N.t,^_,YT. Ot: Jagdritender nordlichen Vcitker
added a new dimension to our understanding of sacrifice.He noted c'EL(ttnno-uugrtenne47 (t9i:l:
Asiens und Europas,.,/. So_
"Kopf-, Schiidel-und Langknochenopfer
striking similaritiesin the detailsof Greeksacrificeand the customsof Rentiervolkern," Festschr. 1 .ci!s,
p. W. Schmidtg9rli1, bei
im Jagdritualder nordeurasischenVolker,,,'Zeiischr. 4r_eA; I. paulson, ,,Die Tierknochen
n T S e en . z . f. Ethnotogie gC bSSq, 27o_gj;
I' Paulson,A Hultkrantz, and K.
sCorresponding Jettmar,oi ni,is,*rrn Nordeurasiens und der amert-
to the special case of the initiation rite, as established by Harrison kanischenArktis (:,962\.
\t927) :r5: rat\orpogia-otapay p.os-dvaBiao c. tA'
I Hallowell, "Bear ceremonialism in the Northern
Hemisphere,,, American An-
tlrolotoSistz8 (t926), t-t75;
'Nilsson's "durchschlagender l_M. Kitagawa,,Ainu BearFestival,,,Historyof Religtons r
Einwand" (rgS), 1.45^. z,,,dass nur geziihmte Tiere, \196r), 95-r5t; I. paulson,."Die rituelie Erhebung des
fast nie wilde geopfert werden," applies only to a problem of historical change (cf. I.5 B?irenschiiders bei arktischen
und subarktischenVolkern,,,Temenos,
t SOSS,-,io'-
iz

73
SACRIFICE, HUNTING, FUNERARY RITUALS
PRIMITIVE MAN AS HUNTER

assemblageof bones cannot be excludedas an-explanltiolgf the al- the skins of the cows he had slaughtert
This, too, is "one
legedbeai-burials.uIt is saferto rely on the evidenceof the Upper Pa- manv sagasabout the origin of ,u..ifi.".jd' of the
la6ofithic, the epoch of homo sapiens.At this period, hunters' cus- One could, of course, try to cut through
these correspondences
toms, including the manipulation of animals' bones and skulls, are with conceptualdistinctions, and r"purut"
r,rnting and sacrificeon
clearly attested]Meuli's iniight-about the antiquity of Siberianhunt- principle.'oIn the nylr, might urgu", killing is not ceremonial
ine riiual is basicallyconfirmed, even if still more ancient layers re- :"*
practicaland subjectto chance;"it, but
^"u',ing. and goal, both quite pro_
^ii" i" the dark. There are placeswhere stag skulls and deer skel- fane, lie in obtaining meat for food;
a _iia U"urt"^.,st b" sererin op_
etons were gathered,as well as the bones of bison and mammoths.' position to a tame iomestic u.ri*ur.
ana y", the very similarity of
At a site in Sberia, twenty-sevenmammoth skulls were found set up huntingandsacrificial customs
ueries^such'"
in a circle around a central point where a female statuette lay buried becomeceremonialevena,monghunters. di;ti"Ji&:riiiilg .""
A
beneatha pile of bonesand partially worked tusks.'This recallsa fre- wouldhaveto performat thebeir f"rtiuui. tamebear,for instance,
quently reproducedgold ring from Mycenae,on which a row of ani- we arsoh";;J;.olpr"t"
mammoth skeleton found on a-high
..ug, u place to which it could
mal skulls borders the processionto the seatedgoddess'' A stylized only havebeendrivenby men.',o"" *r"
pair of horns is the common and omnipresent religious symbol of 5tn"i hana,
theirr.,ii.,g ,it_
uation is often evoked and actedout
in latercivilizations,as if one had
Minoan-Mycenaeanculture. Much earlier, in the household shrines to catch a wird beast so as to sacrifice
ii at a predetermined prace.
of Qatal Htiytik, there are genuine cow-horns set up in rows or in- Thus' Plato combinesthe hunt u"a
ru.riii.e in a semi-barbarouscon-
serted in plaster heads.'oUpper Palaeolithicdeer hunters had at- text, his fictitious Atlantis,'uand in ru.iurr-nunts
tached a reindeer skull to a pole near a place where they used to are attestedin the
marginal areis of Greek curture.'' An
Attic myth tells how Theseus
throw young roes into the water, weighted down with stones-a subdued the w'd bull of Marathon
"sacrificeof immersion."" There is a life-sizeclay statueof a bear in ir,u, it let itserf be red to the
sacrifice-and this is.said ro be the legenaury
"o
the caveof Montespan,which had been coveredwith a genuinebear- origi., of ii"lJ."r r",
tival in Marathon, the Hekaleiu.,,
efio"g the Sumerians, a ,,wild
skin, including the skull." Similarly,hunters in the Sudan covered a bull" was consideredthe most
clay figure with the skins of slaughteredlions or leopards, just as it had long been extinct it', rraesopota-L.'rrr" u.,i*ut, oug^
"."i.,u.,ilu..iri"iut ".r"r,it
farmers in southern Abyssinia did with the skin of a young sacrificial consecrated horns in
the sanctualigsof QatarHriynk ;;.;,-'il;-ever,
bull. Hermes the cattle-thiefand cattle-killerstretchedout on a rock genuinewild bulls;bull_and stag_huniine; st'r obtained from
on
sive
sivewall-paintings there/-^^
wall-nainrinocrho.a iff"""ly? the very impres-
c:r.--^ -, ,;--lpP"ut
(seeFi[ure : ).,
6Against Bdchler's theory, see F. E. Koby, L'Anthropologie5S Ggsr), lo4-3o8; H. G.
ffi; il:",ffi _
Bandi in Helaetiaantiqua(1966),r-8; cf. the discussion in J. Maringer, "Die Opfer der i}},?p1l t",or ' ln
tz4iri (cdd.eui)rriron.
palaolithischen Menschen," in AnthropicaQ.968),249-7r; M. Eliade. Histoire des cro- the-yq,,ir,";k;;:;;;;.;il;",'ril."l',"J:ljlJ:ffJ:i:
"i"i"{I
yanceset desidles religieusesl(t976), 4-27, 391f.
;'*::rYff,'r"i*;?!' lHat'7'zi;'xen' rt rherite-",';l;;;;; p,".-
7Mtiller-Karpe (t966) zz5- 26.
8Jelisejevici:see Mtiller-Karpe (19661zz5. ^tl:r""l objection,n. r above.on the
lll^""- interrelatronof hunt and slaughterin Af-
nca seeStraubee95) r99^2o4.
'Corpusiler minoischenund mykenischen Siegel,ed. F. Matz and H. Biesantz,| (196$ #r7;
"Mriller-Karpe (t966) zz5(Gravettien).
Nilsson (rglS) pl.r7.r; Simon (1959)t8r-83. Even if these were meant to rePresent t6Plat.
Critiasrrgd-e; H. Herter, RhMrcg
animal-headedvessels(Simon), they are a further, symbolizing development of the an- t'For O966),t4o-42.
cient sacrificial structure (seeIV.z.n.39). raupo$rlpla in Thessalysee IG rX
zvs, yt-17; Arch. Dertion76 (t96o),
'0Mellaart j967) r4o-4r, r44-55, r8r.. REG77 Fg6+), rz6: AP o.543; rg5,
on this and on ilie rrrupo*atorf,rain
L. Robert,Ics gladiateurs Asia Minor see
trMtiller-Karpe(1966)zz4-25, pl. 199.45. ians-l,Orient
grcc(rnO"l,lrr_ rn, who alsotreatsthe
and rglpopoldat go913i). foia i'"ia, .un'u,.,,ng
LMtiller-Karpe xuvrly|orcv in Athens seeHypoth.
Q966) zo5 pl. to7.r; A. Leroi-Gourhan, Prthistoirede I'art occidentale ;#.r::.r"
(1965\, 1t3, figs.646-47. For parallels from the Sudan see L' Frobenius, Kulturge- tESoph.
fr. z5 P; Callim. fr.259-6o;264;plut.
xhichte Afrikas 993\, $; from Abyssinia see A. Friedrich, Paideumaz Og4r), 4-24; Thes.4following philochoros,FGrHist
3:8 F ro9; Paus.r.z7,ro. For vase_paintings seeBrommer g96o) 19z_96.
Meuli(1946)z4r;cf. l. Paulson,Temenost(l.96),rfu-6r, onstatuesof bearsassub- teOn
Sumerianwild bulls seeMtiller_Karpe
stitutesfor actualdead ones, "the soul'sresidence." (196g)' II -33E;on eatal Hriytik seeMellaart
(1967)zoo-2o8,pl.
S+_SZ,6r_64; cf . ^. qubo.i".

L4
L5
SACRIFICE, HUNTING, FUNERARY RITUALS
PRIMITIVE MAN AS
HUNTER

ard men swarm around the bull and the stagin thesepaintingsis per- These customs aremore than mere curiosities,
haps almost more suggestiveof a dancethan of hunting. In Egypt, paraeorithichunter n1t ius,t u.,irriry!T-"* for the hunt
of the
the sacrificeof bulls and hippopotami, performed by the pharaoh, !
to the hunt is' rather'oneof the
""" most -.u.,y Thetransrtion
was entirelvstvlizedas a hunt.20 In many partsof Greece,the animals tween man and the other primates'
i'e.iriu" ecorogical changesbe-
chosenfor saciificewere "set free for the god," almost as if they were "the huntins ape',(even ',,rhe Man* can virtuaily be defi'nuo
if n"k"l';;*_ makes a,
wild beasts on sacred land until the time appointed for the bloody title)'" Thisstatementreadsr" ;-;;.;;I indispuiabi"'i..i"#-",r,
";;;;;;eating
"act,"" that the age of the hunter,
,h" p;;;thic, comprises by far the
The continuity between the hunt and sacrificial ritual aPpears largest part of human history.
N;;;il. that estimates range be_
most forcibly in the ritual details that leaveno tangiblearchaeological tween 95 and 99 percent:it is
iear tn"i."""t biorogicar
trace;thesehavebeen set out in detail by Meuli. The correspondences evorutio.nwas
extend from the preparations, with their purifications and absti- 'XT:fi ,:I' ti'" nv'o-il,',o.',tni|"r oJIi,'".".*,"
tllTi?*:,:'1f;
nences, to the closing rites, involving bones, skulls, and skins. In
hunting societiesaccessibleto ethnologicalstudy, hunters are said to
have expressedclear feelings of guilt with regard to the slaughtered
::.f,::*:.;'ii;"*{,i!;ii?J",l,T;il{:Fj:;**i
rng vrolenceas deriving from
the buhu;;; of the predatory
characteristics h"e."." io animal,
animal. The ritual provides forgivenessand reparation, though fre- ill;:" ".q;.""rr, ,,","..,u.;;;;"lo_i.,g
quently taking on a scurrilous characterwhich prompted Meuli to Our conceptionof.primitive
coin the phrase"the comedyof innocence."The ritual betraysan un- i man and his,societywill always
tentativeconstruct;still, there be a
ur" ,o.nf,l
derlying anxiety about the continuation of life in the face of death."/ conditions
*,,ui.u,.,.,ot
r,ur,"
u"", u[;;n*#[:tlil]H'j.:it;
iThe bloody "act" was necessaryfor the continuanceof life, but it is early hunters' The primate's
biorrgi;;i;akeup was not
fiustas necessaryfor new life to be ableto start again.Thus, the gath- new way of life. Man had
to compe?s;i";r, this deficiency
fit for this
bring of bones, the raising of aIIuIIEFstreiihfrg;f a skin is to be de force of ingenious by a rour
understood as an attempt at restoration,a resurrectionin the most culture' arthoueh thatl".l;;;t;;',iri,,r,,o,,r, th";;;-;;,r;; by his
curture;i;ii;;t.kly becamea means of setec_
concretesense.The hope that the sourcesof nourishment will con-
i.nportancewas *.,J
tinue to exist, and the fear that they will not, determine the action of 1:1 _O^t_frt1u.],
man posesvirtually no threat to weapons,without which
beasts."r".r
The
the hunter, killing to live. effectiveat a distancewas earliestweapon that was
the '."ooa"r, ,p"ar hardened
20H. Kees, "Bemerkungen presupposesthe use of fire; by fire.r" This
zum Tieropfer der Agypter und seiner Symbolik," NGG earlier,Uo..Jnua ,;r;;il
(1942), 7r-88. upright posture facilitated,th". ;ffi; Man,s
2lBabrius portant than alr this was.the "r"-;;";;ons. But perhaps more im_
37 Qtooyos &qeroc in antithesis to the plow-ox). For herds of Hera in Croton deverop-""i.r r sociarorder
see Liry 24.3.2, and cf. Nikomachos in Porph. V. Pyth. 2.4, Iambl. V Pyth.6r. For the leading to
#;;" become apartor
;:il:jT,:iij,,*.:::::i:t:irth
herited biolosical A;;;; ffii'ilTr::i:f[T; ourin_
constituiion.
cattle of Argive Hera see III.z.n. z5 below; for Ar.tisBo0s at Miletus see Hsch. s.a.; for a
donkey sacrificed to the winds at Tarentum see Hsch. d.yep.riras; for the sheep of He-
lios at Apollonia/Epirus see Hdt. 9.g); for bulls of Dionysus at Kynaithos see paus. tsMorris
(196) ry-49,
8.r9.2; lor sacred sheep, goats, cattle, and horses at Delphi see OGI
345, t5-rg; for sa-
cred sheep at Delos see IG IIllII? t639, 15; for cattle of ,,Herakles,, in Spain see Diod.
i";;';'(';;;;;:;;:"i,ili!":'',t;[::i:;';;,i
,Xi;::,1:;:':':,1,y,!,,'!lZ!!:::::i):f,lF;*n
t;:::i:W:.:1"i1;ti
,48-68;A Kor,andt,
Current
4.r8.3; for cattle of the "Meteres" in Sicily see Diod. 4.h.6; for,,persian Artemis,,, (Ana-
hita) herds on the Euphrates see Plut. Luc. 24; for rd Sptp.p.ara rils Beol at Kleiror see
Polyb.4.19.4;scillus,Xen. Anab.5.3-9;fortheherdsofpersephoneofKvzikosseeprut.
_;;,ti,"",';,"';;ffi
;;.ffi ; #[ sei31,3,-a.,andcrp lr:[*;::
Luc..ro. Cf. further, in myth, Apollo,s cattle in Thessaly, Uy.
Merc.7o_72; and,Helios, "tr;iil!,i;"'jlT:,,1H,ny.lii
;!i;fl]:f? ,i:::!'!:#:'ican zz8t, r.wirson,
Mann.s.ro
cattle, od. rz. For Atlantis see plat. Critias. ngd, and ci. piot.
similarly, for the Indian A6vamedha a horse is "set free,,:
3zoa,'Aesch.
prom. 666.
,"" w. Kopp". s, wiener Beitr.
y;#,'**'fl1l,i,;i';:: ilil :T,l ;n ru$, ",::* :,t;1"":l Xi*
z. Kulturgeschichte 4 9916), 3o6.
2tMeuli 'ot, Burkert(re67)zfi-87.see
Q946) zz4-52; H. Baumann, "Nyama, die Rachemacht,,, paideuma
4 \agso), il;'i:r,#r'i:rliTuu' generaly K. Lindner,Lt chasse
791-2)0. For a psychiatric perspective see R. Birz, "Tiert6ter-skrupulantismus,,,
/ahr-
buch f . Psychologie und psychotherapie
3 e95), zz6_44.
theMissing
Link(e5o),7e7*2o4;
rfi;rt,,fi;l.f !i.::**'with cf. toe-rs,,,rheAn-

t6
r7
SACRIFICE. HUNTING, FUNERARY RITUALS
PRIMITIVE MAN AS HUNTER

man's work-in contrast to all animal predators-requiring both even enlarged his sphere of influence,
speed and strength; hence the male's long, slender thigh' By contrast'
it w_as,,bec1useplace
naturalinstinctshe developedth" -rn of his
..riesof culturaltradltiin,lnus
since women must bear children with ever larger skulls, they develop tificiallyforming and differentiatinj ar_
r.rltiuri. inuorn'u"iu,r'ior.
round, soft forms. Man's extraordinarily protracted youth, his tteo- ical serectionrather than consci"ul u,o,,rr_
piun"ir.,gdetermined"t-#
teny, which permits the development of .the mind through learning tional processesthat helped fo.".,;;; *ou.u_
,o ihut n" .orrJ f"i, uoup.
and the transmission of a complicated culture, requires long years of himself to his role. A man hud
i; U"*.ou.ug"ous to take part
security. Ihis is basically provided by the mother at home. The man hunu therefore' courage is arways in the
institution universal rr,.i]a"a"ir, ;";"-d,ro.
urr,r*", the role of the family breadwinner-an ideal man' A man hadlo uu."riJutu, or u.,
utie
to human civilizations but contrary to the behavior of all other tary impulse for the sake of u rong-.u.rgeto wait, to resist a momen-
mammals.'u duranceand keep to his word. goal. He had to have en-
il:h;;;.
The success of the "hunting ape" was due to his ability to work h.a
viorpattern
s thatwere.
racLing i n un; ;;:liJ: [T" li'*:[*
cooperatively, to unite with other men in a communal hunt. Thus, closely analogousto the U"nu"i8, 3;
man ever since the development of hunting has belonged to two over-
oif"urr, of prey.r,Above
use of weapons was controlled all, the
by the strictest-if also artificial_
lapping social structures, the family and the Miinnerbund; his world rules: what was allowed una n".""rurf
falls into pairs of categories: indoors and out, security and adventure, ir'ro.r" rearm was absolutely
forbidden in rhe other:,1lrilla;l""."ripf,ri,^ent
women's work and men's work, love and death. At the core of this in the other. The decisivepoint in one was murder
new type of male community, which is biologically analogous to a
is the vlry possibility that man
submitto lawscurbinghis individu"ri"i"iiis!";;;il";;;,uuiri,y may
pack of wolves, are the acts of killing and eating. The men must con- riu: of societar ro.
il-" prldi.tubtityi;; powerof tradition
stantly move between the two realms, and their male children must himin an irreversibt""iu.ur,u" at-
one day take the difficult step from the women's world to the world of p.ocess anatogous to bioiogical
4il|j,Xf#nd
men. Fathers must accept their sons, educating them and looking On a psycho,o*l:ullevel, hunting
after them-this, too, has no parallel among mammals. When a boy behavior was mainly deter_
o{ qec"lil interpiay Igg.urri,u"and sexuatcom_
finally enters the world of men, he does so by confronting death. 11i.:1 ln"
plexes' which thus gave form to "r-tr,?
What an experience it must have been when man, the relative of some of the foundations of human
society'whereas resiarch on biorog"ui
1i the chimpanzee, succeeded in seizing the power of his deadly enemy/ animals, carefully distinguisher
iunu'ior, at reastin predatory
the leopard, in assuming the traits of the wolf, forsaking the role of
i"irurp".irrc aggressionfrom
havior of huntine u.a Ltir.,g,; the be-
the hunted for that of the hunterl But success brought its own dan- ;hi#;;_ction obviously does not
hold for man. Ra"ther,these"two
gers. The earliest technology created the tools for killing. Even the U".*r""rrperimposed at the
when man unexpectedlyassumed time
wooden spear and wedge provided man with weaPons more dan- *r" u"rruuiorof predatory animals.
Man had to outdo himielf in his
gerous than his instincts could cope with. His rudimentary killing in- transiiio., to the hunt, a transition
hibitions were insufficient as soon as he could kill at a distance; and 28A.
Kortlandt, CurrentAnthropolo* U
males were even educated to suppress these inhibitions for the sake tn6rt,
rruit ,n".,TF itit"iortn"rnun,ur
dexterty
of the hunt. Moreover, it is as easy, or even easier, to kill a man as it is eater
ffl ::i": $,il'H:",::T_,::i oranarborear
withrhe,*i ,"j:.:::::,.r.:;l;";;;il"T:J:?,"TffiXtJj.:1,,::r.'::l
to kill a fleeing beast, so from earliest times men slipped repeatedly On the human tendency to submii
to authority see Ejbl_Eibesfeldt(r97o)
il:|:.'
into cannibalism.2'Thus, from the very start, self-destruction was a non
threat to the human race. the biorogicar
factof im.printingseeK. Lorenz,,.uber
tierisches
und
menschriches
If man nonetheless survived and with unprecedented success
I;Hll'il;--";:-f:';i#t9i' ' 'lti-+8,'2"-2,"i*i,e
ry),);E H Hess,
science
,jo
'oMorris (t967)37-39;LaBarre
(t97o\79-81. Ontheroleof manasbreadwinnerseeM.
;ffiffiT.::ffi:-i,,1i".,?"1ffi
ff1,,:.;3:':j'; ;i:''+ll*:iiL*:1,
iij:
Mead, Male and Femalej949, r8B-94. ;;;;;ilil;;:H
rh;;;"; ;:{:i!,:;}';l;;;#
27on
the "gesicherten Tatsache von Ritualtotungen" in palaeolithic times see Mtiller-
Karpe (1966) z4o (Ofnet cave), z3z-33 (Monte Circeo), z3o (peking Man). Cannibalism
ttdeals with secularm-an,
ignorls .":rigi.", .i,""ij. ""
?,1
ifi;;:ij:jl
;:,tln;
'Lorenz
is probable: see La Barre j97o) ,A Su.u"y of Evidence A96:) rc; Eibl-Eibesfeldte97o)
4o4-4o6, \4 n.)o) M. K. Ropea 7_g,with a.polemicagainstR. A. Dart (n. z5
for lntrahuman Killing in the pleistocene ,', Current Anthropilogy to (196),
422- i1g. :llJi];"?"1_lijl,LTi,i;.',i.';';;:"';''n;;;;;',';ii,",,u,,.".
S*rctrii,"Jviousry
r8
L9
FUNERARY RITUALS PRIMITIVE MAN AS HUNTER
SACRIFICE/ HUNTING,

And because the almost brotherly bond that hunters felt for their
requiring implementationof all his spiritual reserves' game,..and the
exchangeabilityof man and animal in sacrifice"r".".r?r-u
t h i s s o r t o f b e h a v i o r b e c a m e s p e c i f i c t o t h e m a l e s e x ' t h aintra-
tistosay' Lyi^otogi_
J'
,,men,swork,,,males.o"iJ-oi" easilyadaptthemselvesto,the cal themein many culturesbesidesthe Greek.35
specific aggressionptog'u-tud for courtship fights and the im- - In the shock causedAythe sight of flowing blood36we clearly
th.e ex_
of a biologlcal, life-preservinginhibition.
prllr", of JJxualfrusiration (seeI'7)' f.'"_t::ry lemlant But
to cooperate'and especiallythe tnar ls preclselywhat must be overcome,for men, aileast,
It is not easy tor adult males could not
out of proportion in order afford "to see no blood,".and they were educatedaccordingly.
"naked ape," whose '"""uUty clearlygrew Feer-
insure that the family would be sup- ings of fearand guilt are the necessary
to bind men to women and thus could be
consequences
one'sinhibitions;yet human tradition,in the form
of overitepping
i"rr,J; in" n"ignt"ned aggressivenessthus aroused or ."rgio.,. clearly
by means of redirection, as does not aim at removing or settling thesetensions.
i;; to the ,"rri." of the iommunity on tle contrary,
for it is precisely group. dem- they are purposefu'y heightened] peace must
irll u*" a"scribed by Konrad Lorenz;3' reign within the
that createsa senseof close group, for what is cailedfor outside,offendswithin.
onstration of aggressiontoward outsiders drder has to be
observedinside, the.extraordinaryfinds release
oersonalcommunity.TheMiinnerbundbecomesaclosed'conspir- without. outside,
;;;i;;;p through the explosjvepotentialof aggressionstoredin- something utterly different, beyona the norm, frightening
but fas_
and bloody cinating, confronts the ordinary citizen riving withii
ternallli This aggrelsion was releasedin the dangerous the tiriits of the
of aggression mutually en- everydayworld. It is surrounded by barriers to be broken
hunt. The inteinal and external effects down in a
hanced the chancesof success.Community is defined by-participa- ,comqlicaled,set-way,correspondingto the ambivalenceof the event:
sacrarlzatlon and desacralization around a-centralpoint where weap-
tioninthebloodyworkofmen.TheearlyhunterSoonsubduedthe
world. lons, blood, and deathestablisha senseof human io.^""ity. The ir-
Becausethehunter'sactivitywasreinforcedbybehavioraimed reversibleevent becomesa formative experiencefor
aI pariicipants,
aggres- provoking feelingsof fearand guilt and increasingdesire
originally at a human partner-that is, through intraspecific. io make .ep-
pf"ce of a biol,ogicallyfixed relationship of beast and quarry' aration, the groping attempt at restoration.For t"hebarriers
,i.i-iri that had
quarry became a quasi-human ad- been broken before are now ail the more willingly .ecognir"a.
something curious occuired: the th"
and treated accordingly' Hunting con- rulesare confirmedpreciselyin their antitheticaltension.
versary,eiperienced as human As an order
centraied on the great mammals, which consPicuouslyresembled embracingits opposite,^always endangeredyet capableof uauftutior,
their and development,this fluctuating bara"nce
men in their body structure and movements, their eyes and enteredthe tradition of hu-
" faces,"their breaih and voices, in fleeing and in fear' in attacking and man culture' The power to kilr ind respect for life ilruminate
each
with man was to be recognized in other.
in rage. Most of all, this similarity
kiilir;g and slaughtering: the flesh was like flesh' bones like bones' with remarkableconsistency,myths teil of the origins of
man in a
phallis like phaiius,ani heartlike heart,33 and, most importantof all'
xMeuli (1946)
ih" *ur- running blood was the same' One could' perhaps' most 248-52,and cf. H. Baumann, paideuma
+ Fg5o), tgg, zoo;Meuliffi
16o.
clearlygrasp the animal's resemblance to man when it died' Thus' the 3sForan
have told of animal substitutedfor a man seethe story of Abraham
ouarrv turned into a sacrificial victim' Many observers Iphigenia..inAulis, Apollod. Epit.
and Isaacin cen. zz: 11;
1.zz; virgin and goat at Munichia, Zen. Athous r.8
p' 35oMiller; Paus.Att. e Erbse;for Veiovisimmolatur
15 ritu humanocapracer. 5.72.1.a.
]rMorris (1967) .roz;putting some limitations on his theses, cf Eibl-Eibesfeldt (r97o) The reversesituation, that a man dies instead
5o' of a sacrificiaranimal, is a berovedmotif
749-BZ, esp. 770-72. in tragedy:see Burkert
eg66) n6. substitution, however,also occursin ritual: seethe
"Lorenz Q961\ z5l-y8; Eibl-Eibesfeldr (r97o) r87-9o.
Bovtucia insteadof human sacrificeat salamis/Cyprus,porph. Abst.
2.54;for the fre-
names from the earliest times' but
quent substitutionof child- and animal-sacrifice
"Human and animal on\ayyva bore the same aiCarthageseeG. Char-les-picard, Les
':l's':": de^t'At'riqueantique ft954), 49r; for children designatedas carvesand
whereas the animal's *"." *"il known from slaughter, human entrails became visible sacrificed
see Luk' syr' D. 58;for a calf treated
only in those wounded in war or during human sacrifice. Their visible Presence was as a child and sairificed see Aer. Nat. an.12.34
(Tenedos).
basic for the consciousness of one's own "subiectivity"-heart, diaphragm, and gall in
rFor
Greek; liver and kidneys as well in other languages (cf. R. B. Onians, Origis of Euro- folkloristic materiar see H. L. strack, Das Brut
int craubertund Abergrauben
Menschheit(t9oo7);F. Rrische, BIut, Leben der
p e a n T h o u g h t[ r 9 5 r ] , e s p . z r - 4 3 a n d 8 + - 8 S ) . rna SnUlrg3o); J. H. Waszink, R/C Il
11954),
RITUALIZATION
FUNERARY RITUALS
SACRIFICE, HUNTING,
acquired its purely religious function outside the context in which
violence'"The CreifLiflc"-
fall,a crimethat is oftena bloodyactof killing was_necessary for life. For the action to be thus redirected and
of modestvegetananrsm'
latedthatthis wasPr".;;;l;y a'golden19: maintained, there had to be ritualization.
I

anthropologists The concept of ritual has long been used to describe the rules of
endingin the "^rrra"i)lll;; ;fi*-o"''{ccordingly' as,:l:::]ginal {r,.
tn" fr"rri"t3' i
oncesawthe peacefulgatherers':l:.Y-^1 of piehistory has'changedthis religious behavior. Biology's recent usurpation of the term appears,
human civilizafion' The study however, to confuse the concept, mixing the transcendent with the
form of
pi.i,,,g,*u.,b"*-u'liili'13',",,:tllla*.lUf
f*,'i,,1,Xff1}$; infra-human. But perhaps these two do indeed meet within the fun-
damental orders that constitute life. Thus, we deliberately start from
111,"ili3:T:::::'T"'rut';i;:"^"TLln::.:":*n"-::n"-'
terizedthe state"f t'itti"a'
divorcedfrom the gods-anddependent
the biological definition of ritual, and from there we will soon be led
deep into the nature of religion.
"Such^arethe conflictsand groan- Since the work of Sir Julian Huxley and Konrad Lorenz,l biology
on food, by quotingE*p"aon"s:born"' As one of the Old Testament
U""n
inqs from which yt"itui" if it has defined ritttal as a behavioral pattern that has lost its primary
t"ll;;;;nl'e tne children of Cain' Yet killing'
miths seemst. shed- function-present in its unritualized model-but which persists in a
the sametime' "You savedus by
was a crime, *u. ,uli-utlon at new function, that of communication. This pattern in turn provokes a
their savior-god'Mithrasthe bull-
ding blood," the Mithiaistsaddress corresponding behavioral response. Lorenz's prime example is the
paradoxhal been iust fact in the
slaver.'"What has;;;;;;ystic triumph ceremony of a pair of graylag geese, which is no longer
beginning. prompted by a real enemy. The victory over a nonexistent opponent is
meant to demonstrate and draw attention to the couple's solidaritv
and is confirmed by corresponding behavior in the paitner, who un-
derstands the ritual communication because of its predetermined
stereotypy. In the triumph ceremony, communication is reciprocal
j. Ritualization and is strengthened by the reactions of each side. But it can also be
one-sided, as, for example, when a threatening gesture is answered
by ritual submission, which thus upholds a hierarchy. This commu-
appearedat its most me- nicating function reveals the two basic characteristics of ritual behav-
Although sacrificebegan in the hunt',it
city cultures' and at its most grue- ior, namely, repetition and theatrical exaggeration. For the essentially
ticulous and brilliant in th; ancient
its form and perhaps even immutable patterns do not transmit differentiated and complex infor-
some in Aztec civiliz"ii""' ft maintained mation but, rather, just one piece of information each. This single
see G' Devereux' piece of information is considered so important that it is reinforced by
on the shock caused by blood
a.qq-7;.For a psychologitutl"-"p"ttlve
Uinii, Ethnopsychiatryand Suicide
(t96r\' t4' 4'-!5... constant repetition so as to avoid misunderstanding or misuse. The
i --^ !L^
the r-.,-e
EnumaFti{ vI'
ErisVr.
f;:::::;:::;;"';';'"* the irood or areberriousgod see fact of understanding is thus more important than what is under-
Ttrawxilg#t''"" Plat'.Le67orc'prob-
n'o)'atcr
ANET68,andcf. ANET,*,i"t'*""t Age'the stood. Above all, then, ritual creates and affirms social interaction.-
'lo-X]lnLl thetransitionto thelron
ablyfollowingtheOrphic;;;; ;;*t cr' w' R' Smith(r894)3o6-1o8;B'Catz'
flishtof Dike,andthe"t"f;i;;i;i;pr'*-o*
';2;;;;;; -7t'
vorstettungen$e67)' 165
;;i;;', 2,,t unasinnuerwandte te vetxiav
santa Priscain RomeQ965), zt7-zo In the lacuna, eternalihad been read, but this can-
$cited by Meuli (1946)zz6; EmpedoklesB ru4 z-in-Porph' Abst l'27 \ilx not have been there: S. Pancierain U. Bianchi, ed., MysteriaMithraeeg7), rqf|.
the parallel traditiori)' Plut Cono' sept' sap' tSir;ulian
Porph., Ex re crova'11[o, D"l', ftilowing Huxley, Proc.Zool. Soc.(r9r$,511-15 on "ceremonies"of the GreatCrested
o.onnPiau&p'ipgvov 6 Beds'trettoir.xe'
r59c-d: Q 6'dueu*o*arr"',1rr;pou rilv"ainoi "Uber das To-
Grebe;Lorenz Qg63)89-tz7;'A Discussionon Ritualizationof Behaviorin Animals
rcinq; rip gitow dpailv litt'Lr}erxov'.A' E' tensen's'tieatment' Kult and Man," Philos.Trans.Roy.Soc.LondonBz5r(t966), 247-526,with articlesby Huxley,
"{*atilr.i"i^'"tg,"
ten als kulturgeschichtlicrre Paideuma.41r95.d' 4- yy,thosunil Lorenz, and others; Eibl-Eibesfeldt e97o) 6o-7o; p. Weidkuhn, Aggressioiidt,Ritus,
.: :
and rich in source material His thesis Siikularisierung
beiNaturadlkernttrrtl, trl-lri,'ir'it"ta1*""t"1 (1965). In defining ritual as "action re-done or pre-di"ne,,,J. Harrison
that he is dependent on organic
that this is the expressio. oi ^u.t basic realization (Epilegomena to the study of GreekRetigionfigztl, xliii) recognized the displacement of
an historical.perspective: it is the ideology of the
food can be made more specific from behaviorbut not the communicatoryfunction. Now E. R. Leach,for example,finds
(t95) zoo-zo4'
hunter, still maintained in the planter's culture Cf Straube that "communicativebehavior" and "magicalbehavior" in ritual are not basicallydif-
e Et nosseruaEtif . . .1 sanguinefuso:inscription in the Mithraeum of SantaPrisca' Rome: ferent (Philos.Trans.Roy. Soc.LondonBz5i,
of theChurchof l:'966l, 4o)-4o4).
and C. C. van Essen, ihe txcauations in theMithraeum
M. |. Vermaseren

2)
SACRIFICE/ HUNTING, FUNERARY RITUALS
RITUALIZATION

, Aggressive behavior evokes a highly attentive, excited response. Radcliffe_Brownhas been


{ P r e t e n d e d a g g r e s s i o nt h u s p l a y s a s p e c i a lr o l e i n r i t u a l c o m m u n i c a -
the most tho
tional perspu.tir", a society developing this
tion. Raising one's hands, waving branches, wielding weapons and cepts and feelingswhich,'in
can exist by meansof commonfunc-
torches, stamping the feet while turning from attack to flight, folding t;;;";;"'I":?.:fl|': con-
through society's
effecton the ini?viuual' "The
the hands or lifting them in supplication, kneeling and prostration: all t"'"-o;'i"Ieloped
these are repeated and exaggeratedas a demonstration whereby the
individual proclaims his membership and place in the community. A
rhythm develops from repetition, and auditory signals accompanying
il!qHg,I#;i",l.m:mt;t*#*':xif
the termsenti ie nt'w ithtnou
giir s;rr, ;;iy_:: :,.y9'ld
perha.ps
reprace
the gestures give rise to music and dance. These, too, are primordial
forms of human solidarity, but they cannot hide the fact that they
j.:X",:,:[:?::::'iii:':,::
I,T,"
r[["xi:,;y,lffiif
call it "statut Jtututttu tion,"' existingorder' we maf
grew out of aggressive tensions, with their noise and beating, attack uttnount-ulihe
is not to say that a rite
cannotestablishana aefine
and flight. Of course, man has many modes of expression that are not a ^;;;,rJl.,his
Besidesthis functio"uf_U"f,uriJri,
of this origin and that can be ritualized. But in ethology, even laughter contra
dictingit,is*' p,v.r'
ou
is thought to originate in an aggressive display of teeth., Gestures of
" ff': :i:,ffj'3liii;il1 ixr: :":H
jdisgust or "purification" are not far removed from the impulses of ag-
;*iJI;:'?ilJ [**ru - A".., too,*-u-iiirl
setbe -
{gression and destruction. Some of these ritual gestures can be traced fiIjl
this view, neurosis b"".,-* T I
]'rl'::L^l:LU:tary' ':'"f
pragmatic function. In
with certainty to the primates, from waving branches and rhythmic
drumming to phallic display and raising the hand in supplication.!
uarbecome,.",,".,?.::":"';#g!il'fr:'*'i1x?ff lil."o.,,-
avoid
anxierd;r"J;; i""l'1,'ji;#iifl :,',,:in".p'y.n- triestoI
It is disputed to what extent ritual behavior is innate or learned.o
cannot accep t ". o,.l1l. :U;:: :":: tr f gj;:T
We will have to wait for further ethological research. There is even a
possibility that specific learning or formative experiences may activate
alit' it seeksto escape-i:;# :
utter madness.Thus, religion ;r,;f,:Tr."l,
rational outburst, a ;ghost " is seen'asan ir-
innate behavior. Universal modes of behavior suggest an innate stock d";;;j;;""'
The contrast, however,
from which they are drawn. Yet, building upon these, cultural educa- is more one of perspective
than of sub_
tion creates special forms delimiting individual groups almost as if
they were "pseudo-species." Fortunately, in studying the effect of rit-
il:ffi; #:,;:ll,X':r,sy ,;u;;;, ;"";;" onehand,
observe
theror_
uals as communication in society, the question of their biological roots
is comparatively unimportant.
I Ever since Emile Durkheim, sociologists
lU:,**J#ri"ffi
forma
'*il*1y,
:#Hj;?;;:""f"",':'#lff
tionof private tu.r..th; ili ji,::Hk ,.::
have been interested in
.ri l:?",,Hy::ff
to
;i;'": :T:::il.ilmplement p'v.f,olo$v.
the role of rites, and especially of religious rituals in society. "it is e .un.,oig,a,p,eri-
through common action that society becomes self-aware"; thus "the construct".rv.'",',ii"".ffi jn*lri
. collective feelings and ideas that determine Isociety's] unity and char-
I acter must be maintained and confirmed at regular intervals."s A. R.
any,case, are impressive
sands
ory"u,r,u,iJ irthey
6:,:*;l:""..".1,;l
evidenc""fo, ^",

"ven
f::i: I;';;;: "",.",n",1".,".,,'i.,"^
";r;;",,;T:ilj,lr::il?i"fr;T:-
2Lorenz
3Burkert
9963) 268-7o; cautiously, Eibl-Eibesfeldt (rg7o) r97.
OgZq 1.9-+S.On drumming see Eibl-Eibesfeldt (r97o) 4o; on phallic display
:?ffilJ,|],
:;[';iH
see I.7 below; on the outstretched hand see Eibl-Eibesfeldt (r97o) zo4-zo5; Morris The first of theseru.to.r
ir ,r"gative. A ritual can
(1967) r57, 166. persistin a com-
oOn the
socially learned behavior of the primate see, for instance, L. Rosenkotter,
Frankfurter Hefte zt (1966),521-13, and cf. Lr.n. r above. -tA.*.nua.ln"-u.o*nh
'7For 'Jll!':::,:,tanders
the ;;,";;:'; ee33)44
sE. Durkheim,
ks formesebmentairesde Ia aie religieuse(rgtz; tg6oa),59g: ,,c,est par l,ac- * Youns,Initiation c,,r^onir,' i Cross-Cutturat
tion commune qu'elle Isc. la soci6t6] prend consiience de soi,,; 6ro: ,,entretenir et raffer-
yj,rliirr:iiit;|u",f: studyof status
mir, i intervalles rdguliers, les sentiments collectifs et res id6es coilectives qui font

;?:it$iilti",::TJ-f,#:ff :Hj:T:3 "",(re7o


) see
s Freu
son
unit6 et sa personnalit6.,,
/ \194t), t2g-
39.
;:,:,:",T d
, wes. Jchr. rc (ry24), 2to_2o =
Ges.Werke

24
25
SACRIFICE, HUNTING, FUNERARY RITUALS RITUALIZATION

munity only so long as it does not threatenthat community with ex- rascal.loIn the Middle Ages, abbots
foug]r^t^:h".d:yil with very
tinction. Somereligious developmentshave indeed tended in this di-
rection. The swift fall of most Gnostic movementsand the final fall of r Drrtrrps
d"devirr-i ip,,ur-
#iq::';?:*,;:rii:'LU*:,*::, 1"*r'".'",e
ro accounttor the durability
real

Manichaeismwere undoubtedly causedby their negationof life, just ritual. of aggressive


as the monks of Mount Athos, who were maintained by the outside The biologicar-functional view of rituarhasa consequence
world's consciousnessof sin, are dying out today. If, however, prac- serdomrearized'beca.use it seemsto go uguinrt the that is
tically all human cultures are shaped by religion, this indicatesthat manism, which sees,itsmission l" intention of hu-
p"."riir",ga phenomenology
religious ritual is advantageousin the processof selection,if not for mind or sourand in discrosing
;;";;;;.oncepts
of the
the individual, then at leastfor the continuanceof group identity.'Re- wilhelm Mannhardt and Rob"erts";;#;, or ideas.Eversince
'/ focusedon ritual' The evidenc" the study of rerigionshas
ligion outlives all non-religious communities; and sacrificial ritual .f th; ii;;;ary tradition
plays a specialrole in this process. isfied' sinceit had becomeevident no rongersat_
that iiwas secondary.Thus,
.tr Furthermore, those rituals which are not innate can endure only ars looked for its rool: in ,,aeepef;',Lore schor-
when passedon through a learning process.The impulse for imita- and is' consideredserf-evident'tn"t primitive ideas.,,,,It was,
titr"l,
tion, which is highly developedin man and especiallyin children, is must dependon an anrecedent;i;;;/;{"n especialryrerigiousritual,
decisivehere, and it is encouragedby the theatricalityof ritual. Chil- out that those peopl:_lnr,: though it afwaysturns
nlri., hul b"ur.,able to
dren act out weddings and funeralsagainand again.This alone, how- practlclngritual ,,no longer,, observe
unaurrtuJir, ,,d""pu. meaning.,, stilt
evet cannot preservethe form of ritual, which remainsrigid and un- the rationaristic bias in,tfre.coffi After
i,
changing over long periods of time. For this, the rite must be instead to'iexperien.":::i-'d;:;f;.*,,t i'rr' ) t_exposed,schorarirooked
establishedas sacred. A religious rite is almost always "serious": .so".,
for
.,3 the roots which, as
j, :;l orosy,however_ nd, in
somedanger is evokedarousinganxiety,which then heightensatten- L
thiiJ:::,J:.lli3lli:,
scase, fl :1:
history-rons aso::1, tioniz";Ti?rtf"$:.ff ali;
revoru
tiveness and lifts the subsequent proceedings out of the colorful
stream of daily experience.Thus, the learning processleavesan in- toPhilostr. ".,i .il
V Ap.4.zo. On the Teufelspeitsche
seeA:
eradicableimpression.By far the greatestimpressionis madeby what z8 (1928),8r-ros. Cf. the
story of the ,,witch..s f:9Uy, Schweiz. errn,, y.iEii,
Heinrich1r85a),I. ch. .r,ira. iil c;,,rr'ila,l"ii:,1; Der
terrifies, and it is just this that makesaggressiverituals so significant. 5 sri)ne
rrFor
' But even this is not enough to guaranteethe permanenceof the instance'Mannhardt
Qg7) 6q
f ritual: deviationsare correctedby elimination. Ritull was evidently so der primitivisten Entwickelu.;-r;;i#" stateshis concrusionas follows: ,Als Uberlebser
Vorstellungvon der Greichartig"keitil ;", -l'r*n,nnen Geisteshat
sich . . . die
important for the continuanceof human societythat it becameone of zeugung 'der Baum hat tilil; una a", Baumesgere*et. Die
Uber_
ejne.SJele*f" a". V""*h,,
the factorsof selectionitself for innumerablegenerations.Thosewho zu b'ihen wie ein Baum'
sind
und aer Wunsch zu wachsen
und
mannigfacherGebrauche die ',"."""in". weitverzwei';tenGlaubens
will not or cannotconform to the rituals of a societyhave no chancein gewesen";that is, the conception und
and wish give rise to the
it. Only those who haveintegratedthemselvescan haveinfluenceand
iJ'lljl;,*X,"t"lilll,:n:.t ortr,"ia"u, u^p."*"a.,"
therituar ..ideen,
t.aditiJn, die
affectaction. Here, the seriouscharacterof religious ritual becomesa men tar idea.r,,,"
_.."0,1".1 il',i."Tl tlfr ::;,li1:-a jffi;
;;*i
"r,J#
very real threat. The psychologicalfailure to meet this threat causes t.e+8'l'33o)sought
behind-ttr" r"t1rt"g'";;r',,#
personal catastrophe.For instance, a child who consistentlylaughs tne building btoiks
of an "Entwickiur!rg.;.*.;ls
Geschichteder Vorsterungen.,
as
''E.g., menschrichenGeistes.,,
during solemn occasionswill not survive in a religious community.-1 Nilston (r95) z:,,Es gibt
Glaubenssdtze . . aus ihnen entspriessen
Apollonios of Tyana once declaredsuch a boy to be possessedby a iujiati,tin
Hanalunien',; we are obliged ,,die . . . die
o"'religicisei Handrungen allee Vorstellungenzuerst auf
demon, but luckily the evil spirit quickly left the frightened young t.rlrlrrl.L-,ii"n"T"'n"n
""]11 (ryo7),42, ror instance,_spoke ,,rerigioser
a""*l:fr,';^t';{::'":;:":y,'iitze or
eSoalready rooks to ,,den Vorstellungenund.in Handlung".r.;';t:;ir: Emprin_
O. Gruppe, RML Suppl., ,,Geschichte der klassischenMythologieund Reli- natLirlich";i1"in In{"ur,
gionsgeschichte" (r9zr), 243. Group selection is not accepted by the molern theory
of evolution-see R. Dawkins, fhi Setfish Genei976)-but it is still granted that,,a
rherite.s
flxi*rk";,"ffu;';n':*:';i;
;*J'iJffi
!;x;:i::;'I;f in which,r."*lirJ.]r*,riurirl,"*
grudger's strategy" is ,,evolutionarily stable,,: iUii. |99_ ror,. demonstrative.#:,:r.i*,,s1._rog,
"
z6
lll SACRIFICE, HUNTING/ FUNERARY RITUALS MYTH AND RITUAL

not Produceritual; rather, ritual itself producesand shapesideas, or express and communicate_as, for instance.,.
the reality of a
even experienceand emotions. "Ce ne sont pas des 6motions ac- transcendentpower or the ,u.."ar,us higher,
tuelles,ressentiesir I'occasiondes r6unionset des c6r6monies,qui en- of life y;;"ur""",,,.,1
problematicto say thatritual has ro-" ;p.,rqose,,, _o.u
gendrent ou perp6tuentles rites, mais I'activit6rituelle qui susciteles its courseis predeterminedand tnui since*" t'o* *,ut
u ,ip"iimposed p.r.poru-.un.,o,
6motions."'n'A specificpracticeor belief . . never representsa direct changeit but can at most provokeii*?t*rr"re.
psychologicalresponse of individuals to some aspect of the outer tion for viewing the ,'idea),"""n Thereis no lustiti.u-
ir.ir, fi].guisticmanifestation,
world. . . . The sourceof their beliefsand practicesis . . . the historic terior to or decisivefor rituar. I"
rh; ii;;;ry of mankind, rituar
as an_
l
tradition."" It is this, by transmittingthe customas custom,that pro- older than linguistic communication.,B is far
Neitirer th" ;;;;, ;;;i"r,grrO
ducesideas, shapesexperiences,excitesdesires. that can be extractedas a partiar
clarification
This changein perspective,of course,takesus back to a basicas- nor the emotionsand,expJanati";r;;;;;rsedby interpreting the rituar
sumption of primitive religion which religious studies constantly try cult are the basis and, origin ,i by participints in the
,f,"li'if,ey simply accompany
to transcend:the sourceof religiouscustomis the "ways of our ances- Thanksto its theatrical,minetic
;;;;;' it.
tha
t its,u..u n"'iil:T-::.::y1 t,"
tors."16Ever since the pre-Socratics,people have stubbornly asked d, r _"r,y ^ i;;;;;;, :"r": :,ll:$"":l"Lilo*1*,
how mankind cameto have its religiousideas;and they have done so "" ""
although all men of the historical era, and certainly countlesspre-
historic generations,were taught their religiousbeliefsby the genera-
tion immediately preceding them. Plato expressedit thus: children
come to believe in the existenceof the gods by observing how "their

i
own parentsact with utmost seriousnesson behalf of themselvesand
their children" at sacrificeand prayer.'' Even the most radicalinnova- 4. Myth andRituql
tions in the history of religion proceedfrom this basis.
To be cautious,let us say that all human action is accompaniedby Ritual, as a form
ideas, surrounded by images and words. Tradition embraceslan- natural' 3f .9om-munication, is a.kind of language. It is F
f then, that verbarized ru"g"ugu,'-an's most effective
Buageas well as ritual behavior. Psychoanalysiseven speaksof "un- \of communication, system
shourd be a;;;Hfi *i*r .it.,ut. Arthough the ac-
conscious ideas." But to what extent these ideas, which are then complishment of language
resides in communicating
raised after all into the realm of linguistic presentation,are just her- and in projecting r3a,"i.or some content
reahty,it'irll'tr," sametirie
meneutic accessoriesor factorsthat exercisea demonstrablecausality "
socialphenomenor,,it brings u^""t**"ty
;;;;;-;;procal personalcontactand
is a difficult question, at best answerableonly in the context of psy-
chology itself. By meansof interpretation,one can attributeideas to H:T::::t:;iT;Tr"' *lo u"to"g'
tJth"s';"t i;;;;;',1",p*
any aiiion.flnituil has an undersiandablefunction within society-of k""p';;;l;,;,;"'*#;L:1,:rlT:il.:Jl].*nTTil.ili,
seemsless important.
course,it often has many, and changing, functions, for, as we know, in everyd;t ltf" i;;; rhat something
biologicalselectionfavorsmultiple functions. Human beingscan usu- *tO roe."th:..i n silenceir'u f_ori'lr.bearabte. is in tact
ally understand ritual intuitively, at least in its constituent parts. ;L:,lg
Doubtlesslor this reason,
ritual and languagehave gone
Thus, ritual makes sensein two ways. It is quite right to speak of hand in
"ideas" or "insights" which are "contained" in ritual and which it can
:$r"J'"J'.tff ma
n.ou,o
,tffntffi#*,'derthar .ffi
gl"e","proc. "o...u.."e'"rr,i;;;;,#;
'uC. L6vi-Strauss,
Le totimisme auiourd'hui (1962) tozf . *1e","procsnenthi,;C"Ts,";;;;;;;,J""rili?;",?l#:r,,i:y;E:;:,
seaenth
i,, llt:,ti:::;,f',lfu'-u1: r""-
'5A. L 't",liffl;t.?.,i1:jl;l:t b r-rxr"",a'):,i)i'o,,n*p"tosist
Hallowell, American Anthroltologist z8 (:1926), 19. M. Mead, Male and Female
(1949\,6r, stresses that even childhood experiences bear the stamp of the adult world, yet speech,"Annals.New 74(ts7zt,
york
zB7-)o7:
r1976). therewas Acatd. scienceszgo
"a process of transmission, not nr"r,1Tt_"-"".,and
to*".putu"oiiii,r.in,,".,,,.r, cannibalism,
and buriat_b", n. p,.,orili
of creation.,,
].t_in tt"
'oCf. Preface
l'1Plat. Leg.
n. 7.
'5ee
oJr*"ir,"
[:. :io.*#:;':;*"lT[:,f ilUiT.v.3i#,:H,""r ir","""'u-
887d. Morris (t9671 zoz- zo6on ,,grooming
talk.,,

z8
29
SACRIFICE/ HUNTING/ FUNERARY RITUALS
MYTH AND RITUAL

hand sincelanguagebegan. Any number of forms are conceivablefor have been unable to dampen .
',, the fascinal
such a combination,and many are indeed attested;from a responsion and-rituar,.n ;"t a"*.','"ir,";3 -
l;[Tj?:l'il :i: mvrh
of expressivecries during the ritual, to naming that which seems Gili to-all
than that of ritual, a solutionsatisfacLry
presentin it and invoking it,2 to a more or lessdirect accountof what A radical way out is to say tnat is virtually n.O"r"it:"
*rJaeri"i"g f;;;;oi"#rrn,
is happening there.lThisleads us to the problem of myth' opposedto saga,fairytale, ur,d ro'.tut", u,
i, i,, connectionwith rituar.o
The theme of myth and ritual is still the subjectof great contro- argue against
this:sioriesthatare;;vorrir,au"_
versy. While some see the ritual backdrop of a myth as the only ac- ffi"#::flfacts
ceptablemeaning for something that at first aPPearsabsurd, others inbothancient;oT'""#f,l:i,?".,:J',ff.1:T:*'ffj;?.l
champion the causeof free fantasyand speculation.After Robertson sponding' expricatorymyths.'a"a utihough
Smith had determined "the dependenceof myth on ritual," which Iack of a correspond;:c; rn antiquiil one could attribute the
iJ i.,.o.npt"te documentation
Jane Harrison then distilled into the theory that myth is often just preservedby chance,it is hard to'attacf
"ritual misunderstood,":5. H. Hooke postulatedon the basis of an- the proofs brought forward
by ethnology.*one courd,
cient Near Easternand biblical material that there was a unity, a nec- derive nonetheressfrom rost"r.o.r^",-Jr-gue that myths wit-houtrituals
rituurr,'?ilut myth is so
essaryconnectionbetweenmyth and ritual: myth is "the spoken part to transmit and takes so.much t"t" much easier
of the ritual." oThe occasionalclaimsthat this thesisresolvedthe ques- grow on its own' Butthis hypothesis "*pu.,re
that tailil;;eud una
tion absolutely have caused a variety of strong reactions,sbut these iun.,ot be verified. Rituaris
older in the history of evolution; far
;il;j;;"es back even to animals,
whereasmyth onlv b"crm" posriui"
'?Thedivine namesPaian(L. Deubner,"Paian," Nlb zz
ftgrgl, 185-4o6;Nilsson [1955]
-i r-rine adventof speech,a
cificallyhuman auitity.yytn, h";";;;;;nnot spe-
54j; see already the Mycenaean pa-ja-wo-ne, G6rard-Rousseau[1968] t64-65) and
the era in which *.iti.,g *u, be documentedbefore
Iakchos (Foucart lr9r4l rrr; Deubner |t%zl 7); Nilsson lt955l 661 aroseout of the cul- i.rt".-#d-,*arthough i;;'.tio.rrty
tic cries i'ficeflarov and "IoxX' 6 "Iax1e. present long before. somewher"
rr, u"i*""n, in the vast reaches
3W R. Smith (1894)t7-zo; for "absurd mythology" seenas "ritual misunderstood" see the unknowabre,are the 'origins.; of
il;;; reft with the fact that sto-
J. Harrison, Mythology and Monumentsof Ancient Athens Q89o), xxxiii. Cf. Harrison ries are somethins
"": ll:"{ri". to Uiofogicallyobservablerituat.
(t927)327-1r, where the meaning of myth is recognizedonce again:"the myth is the this extent' myth does not grow directly Lut of ritual. To
plot of the dromenon" b3r). The connections between myth and ritual were already on the other
donot a;'put"iiui^'.it"r,.,a-y*, .u^" ," u"
strdssedby F. G. Welcker(Die aeschylische TrilogiePrometheus und dieKabirenweihezu Lem-
nos[r8z4l, esp. 159, 249- 50)and Wilamowitz (e.g., EuripidesHeraklesI [1889], 85; "He-
i,fliSiX]ilo"1tic'
phaistos,"NGG 1895,zj4 : Kl. Schr.Y z, 2)-zd. According to the broadest
definition, a mythis a traditional
'S. H. Hooke, ed., Myth and Ritual This is alreadyienough tale.,
Og1;), ), myth is "the spoken part of the ritual," to airpor" or'tr,l opi.io.,, herd
"the story which the ritual enacts."As early as 1910,A. van Gennepstatedthat myth from Xenopha-
is "eine Erziihlung . . . , deren Bestandteilesich in gleicher Sequenz durch religiris-
magische Handlungen (Riten) dussern" (lnternationaleWochenschrilt 4. rr74). In the "i
?;":;;':,l: ;: :;:;;:,, ::',, o,and cf Ni,sson(,m
meantime,empiricalethnologyhad arrivedon the scene:B. Malinowski,Myth inPrimi-
tiae Psychology(1926).For an attempt at an overview see D. Kluckhohn, "Myths and
(,g66);
K,k r,;;;i;;,:;|,lJ:iJ":jr,llS,.i':J?;:I
l:Xn:;;;*,,,jlii,irf:,;:
gre(re6t), and
Rituals: A General Theory," HThR35 Q94z), 45-79; also S. H. Hooke, Myth, Ritualand K. Ker6nvi. Die Lrofuing ;r;;;g;;;r"rrm
only marginalty.Cf. Burkeit Mythos(ts67), therituatrhe_
Kingship(1958);and Th. H. Gaster, Thespis:Ritual, Myth and Drama in theAncient Near :y--"PT"^ t,s8o)l-'''^
East(rg5o, 196r'?).Lord Raglan, The Originsof Religion(1949),and A. M. Hocart, Social
Origins$954\, went so far as to reconstructan Ur-ritual, rooted in ancient Near Eastern ,*:iiilpi"t;i;i;;i;,*#:$i*i:r ,""04ab.ve)
and
ERLeach,
kingship. rituars
,;::j::::: oierrap ratherthan0",",,",".0"|o"llX'Ll,view seeKirk (re7o)z8:
Alongside this debate-carried on almost exclusivelyamong English-speakingschol-
seeE otto' "DasVerhdrtnis von Riteund Myrhusim
ars-are parallel attempts in the early work of G. Dum6zil (k crimedes kmniennes d;;:.il:v',rl:;i,:;:,::"t: (1958),r; c. J' Bleeker,Egyptian
IrS24l; Le problimedesCentaurs[1929])on the one hand, and, on the other, in Germany srri n i;rt tiio)1,'iri.*'8 re't,uats,-r.n
in'riir rl o*
where W. F. Otto, Dionysos(tSlt, 44, spoke of the "Zusammenfall von Kultus und (r97o)z5_zg.
Mythos," and O. Hofler (1934)derived the sagasabout hordes of wild men and about ,rurk
werewolves from ritual. ,,rorKirk (r9zo),the ,,tradj
sH. Rose,Mhemosyne
J. n.s. 3 (r95o), z}r-87; M. p. Ni.lsson.Cults,Myths, Oraclesand ;ffi",T:fti,[:*,ji1'.,'1]1#";1,'i':Tiil:,,'ff
i'"1T:I."*#'lily,l',..1
)o
3a
FUNERARY RITUALS MYTH AND RITUAL
SACRIFICE, HUNTING,

the disputed. There have been attempts, of course, to distinguish


nes up through modern classicists,that myths y:1" :::"":"^1bv etiolog_
poet'sfancy,if not in historicaltimes, then in ?1:hiti"t{:,1"i::1""t^t ical myths referring to cult from"genuine" myths,', bu"t the
di.tin._
telltngand re-
of its origin, myth is characterizedbyits suitabilityfor tion falls apart as soon as one can show in even a few cases that rndis_
telling. Although it does not derive from empiri::.t ",b::T:^t1"1:l;i: putably genuine old myths are subordinate to cultic action, as,
for
dividiral and can be only partiallyverified'at best'^TI^,t: instance, the myth of Pelops is to the festival at olympia. Nor is
it
"*p".i"".." t" generally true that the Greeks saw a correspondence'b"t-u"r, speech
extraordinarily lucid. lts themes are often.surprisingly-::it^t?,"t'
that shape lts un- and action, Xey6p,eva.and 6ptitp,eva,only in mystery cults.', piety was
spite of the many fantasticand paradoxicalmotifs
they return again indeed in the Greek view a matter of ritual, bui myt'h was nonetheless]
mistakableidentity; even though slightly distorted'
For this reason,psycnoa"utysissees myth as a projection ubiquitous. The two were transmitted together because they explained
""a "g"f" structuresin the to,'I, utt elaboration of inborn psychologi- and strengthened each other.
of specific
standpoint' however' This.is-not to say that ritual is a theatrical dramatization of myth.rsg
."ii*p"tiaions." From a strictly evolutionary
like valleys hollowed
*" -.it, suPPosethat even these archetypei, Nor can it be seen as arising from magical ideas with an alleged
pur--
a process of s.election be-
out by ancient streams, were createdby pose. The relationship of the two becomes clear if we take itual
for
Palaeolithic man' And if the ways
tween various ways of life open to what it is, if we accept that its function is to dramatize the order
of -
they
of life were determined by rituals, then from the very start life, expressing itself in basic modes of behavior, especially aggres-
shaped the mYthic Patterns. sion. In its own way, too, myth clarifies the order of iif".'. A, ii well
This is speculaiion' We can be certain, however, that myths and known, it frequently explains and justifies social orders and establish-
is no
rituals successfullycombineas forms of cultural tradition. There ments,r'and in so doing it is related to ritual, which occurs by means
need for the myth itself to be part of the ritual, as the strict orientation of social interaction. The most exciting themes in myth come from the
ap-
of the myth-and-ritual school would have it. Continuous stories realm of sexuality and aggression, and these are alsb prominent in rit-
The ritual can be discussed outside ual communication. The most fascinating stories .or,."..r the periis
p"u, i., ritual only exceptionally.
this
it, o*. context,either in prepaiation or to explain it afterward;.in of death and destruction. These have their counterpart in sacrificial
way, the Greeksconnecteh aimost every ritual with a story explaining killingrJ
ineachcasewhyaquestionablecustomwasestablished.''onlythe
is
oppositequestion, wiether in turn all Greek myths refer to rituals' "E.g., A. E. Jensen,"Echteund,dtiologische(explanatorische) Mythen,,,in K. Kerenyi,
tff[nuns desZugangszum Mythos (967), z6i-7o : Mythos uid
lie Krrt beiNaturuorkern
\1951'), 67-9t' gz-tcn, in which "mythical trurh" is the criterionfor what is
l0,,DerMythos ' . . entsteht in der Phantasiedes Dichters,,,Wilamowitz (lg3t) 4z' a genuine;cf.
To be I.z.n. 38 above.
D,ich.tung
thesis restatedprogramatrcallyby E' Howald, Der.Mythosals !1SlZ), uThus
individual manifestation of a Nilsson (1955)r4n.. It is true that the generalterms (jepris)I<iyos (Hdt.
sure, it is perfecity legitimate t; in;estigate eachparticular 2.5r,z.8r) or \eyop.tvaand iptitp.eva
2.47,
legitimate to slarch for the underlying themes which are the (paus.r.43.2,z.3g.z,2.17.2,9.1o.lr,9.27.2)come
^ytt, U"i it is no less
up.precisely in situations where the content of the
given for every Poet historically known to us' scribed,that is, in the mysteries.So also,for
story and riiual may not be de-
;C. G. (1938),4o3-ro, on archetypesas "Funktionsformen"; idem' instance,Euseb.praep.Ea. ry.r.zretrezcd
1.-,.,g,Eranos-lb. C' G' KqLputrnpld rripgavo rois rcovrporepav p.u|wois
Mon oni uii synbols (tg6+); i . iu.oii, Ko^p\", Archetypus ' Symbolin derPsychologie quidquidestRestumin abscondendo
6tt7"yr1p,aow;Lact.Diz,. ittst.t.zt.39
(Diasreligi1seWeltbild einer frilhen Kultur lrg48l, puero,id iprr^ p* imagiiemgeritur in sacris(mysteries
lungs(t95fl. Following A. E. Jensen of Kuretes);steph. Byz. s.a."Aypa.
. . ,iptn*ta r[ov repi rdu Lr,ovu<tov.
from Jung. Regard-
r3rff.), even Kerenyi 1rgO7)xxiii_xxxiii has now distancedhimself spondenceis not limited to these But the corre-
Knight stated:-,"-ttl-: ut cases:on"sacrifice generafiy see Firm. Err. 16.3:ut
irig the problem of myth and history W' F Jackson acerbarummortium casuscottidiano
tohold the facts of some new event. The container can ,^tt^ltud
be calledan aictimarumsonguiie recrutrescant. Ach. Tat. z.z.z rfis
u i.r"ntai container io?ris iqyoivrat r;arlpa pihov.
archetypal Pattern" (CumaeanGates1ry161'9r)' "SeeFontenrose(1959)
1'?Theearliest examples are Hesiod's Prometheus story (Th 556-57 ' the possibly in- 464, who correctly states:,,Whenevermyth precedesritual,
then drama is produced.,,
those to Apollo
terpolatedverses I/. 2.546-5t, among the Homuic Hymns prirnarily
Dichtung [1963])' to Demeter *re paraliel functions. of rituar and myth see Kruckhohn, ,,Myths
(D. Kolk, Der pythischeApitlonhymnis als aitiologische ion
(n' and Rituals,,
ARW-3r (tgl+l', and to Hermes (cf' I'u at n' r3 above)' On cultic 4 above); Leach, political Systems.
1f. W"htti, ZZ-ti+), 'fuo*ing
etiologies in tragedy i"e W. Schmid. Geschichte der griech' Literatur Il1 Qg4o)' 7o5'7' Malinowski, Uyin in primitiue psychology,on ,,charter
t'r970)154-57. myths,, see Kirk
776.8. Cf . Nilsson (1955\ z7-29.

)2 33
TRANSFORMATION OF RITUAL KILLING
SACRIFICE, HUNTING/ FUNERARY RITUALS

The mythical tale' as


| "The mvth is the plot of the dromenon'" "
withina singleritualtradition'
L'--""'t.";il ;;#;;ili;;'
does not, of course, p'ot'id" an obiective
behavi-oraldescription of 5. TheFunctionand
what occursthere. It i"t"t ift"t which
the ritual intends' Rituals
are
the Transformationof Ritual
redirectedpatterns with a displaced'*f:t:'11}us'
orientationand so
";;;;;i";'
mythical naming, b;;;i;;otlo*' l!::;iginal
a quasi-realitvwhich cannot
be per- Killing
filis the spaceleft vacant'creates ritual' Hu-
is direcfly experiencedin the
ceived with the '""'"' Ut't and thus ritual com-
'o-". Hunting behavior became establishedand, at the same time.
man speech naturai]'"re;;l; "'ui"ct'In hunting and then in
munication gir'", "'i io-*ytftituf.subjects' transferablethrough ritualization. In this way it was preservedlong
behavior between -'"" u1-"diverted
sacrifice,aggressivemodes of after the time of the primitive hunter. This cannoi be explained
the other hand' is a human victim''o
onto animals; in the myth' on myth names some-
simply by the psychologicalmechanismsof imitation and impiinting,
;;;;r;.; displayedin tire Preparatoryrituals; the whereby customs are inherited. Theserituals were indispeniable be-
shapedby g"tiut"t of guilt and
one who is to be feared.tire iit,rat is causeof the particular thing they accomplished.The only prehistoric
strongerbeing t"O
submission;the myth tells of some :t"It^:"I:t: and historic groups obviously able to assert themselveswere those
gestures. contain * n*:t
ii" ^ytf, developswhat the : :,\reatenrng held together by the ritual power to kill. The earliest male societies
out becomesgenuine mourn-
gesturebecomesmurder, so"J* acted ele- banded together for collectivekilling in the hunt. Through soridarity
ing, erotic -o.'"-"iiJ;;;" a story of love and death' The as-if and cooperativeorganization,and by establishingan inviolableorder,
ieality; conversely'the ritual con-
ment in the ritual il;;";;ythical the sacrificialritual gave societyits form.
In this *uyiW mutually affirming each
firms the reality ii" *V*t' As ethology has shown, a senseof community arises from col-
"r force in forming a cultural tra-
other, myth and ritual beiame a strong lectiveaggression.'A smile can, of course,establishcontact,and a cry-
different'
;iii;;, e{,e.,though their origins were in ing child touchesour hearts,but in all human societies,,seriousness,,
To some extent myth can even supplant.ritual' takes precedenceover friendliness and compassion.A community
-especially
ot the group'
and organization
its function of expressingthe unity bound by oaths is united in the "sacred shiver" of awe and enthu-
ritual in its precision and dexterity' One
Speech is far superior tJ siasm-the relic of an aggressivereflex that made the hairs bristle,-
dance' But becauseof its
word, one cry .u,t t"^filtu u tornprttut"d'war in a feeling of strength and readiness.This must then be releasedin
It can easilybe abusedor used
very flexibility,ra,,g'ula;lt "ft" iitxre' it
an "act": the sacrificial ritual provides the occasionfor killing and
to deceive.Thereforesociety-rational always returns to riiual' even though bloodshed. Whether in Israel, Greece,or Rome, no agreemeit, .,o
An
runs contrary to ;h; acieleration of communication''o contract,no alliancecan be made without sacrifice.And, in the lan-
q"tttty.and clearly in words' but it is guageof the oath, the objectof aggressionthat is to be ,,struck,,and
agreement.ur, U"'"*pt"""J
op"t' *"uponless hands
onlv made uff".tr'r" iy a ritual g"'tt""' in a mutual hand-
"cut" becomesvirtually identical*ltn tn" covenantitself:
foedusferire,
;#il;;*uia o"" airother' graiping eachother 6pxtu trrrrd r6,p.vtcu.3Familiesand guildsoorganizethemselvesinto
shake-amutualai'pruyof agg"ression-sealing
thillilf.leviouslv
to conceiveof a reli- 'Lorenz
possible
been merely spoken"simitarly' it ^u{.b:
(1963)esp. 249-318.For criticisms,seeI.r.n.r; Eibl-Eibesfeldt
e97o) t45-.48,
u tutigiott using myth without ritual 1d7-9ois somewhatreluctant;his example
of the suddeneffectof a smilein war (rr3-
gion without *yttt',L"i ""i"f r4) shows how shaky these other kinds of bonding
without ritual''i are. A new theory of how human
practice.There has yet to be a community communityis founded on aggression
has beenset out by Girard 6972\:his model is not
rne hunting pack but the scapegoat
complex(cf. Burkert bgZgl Sg'_ZZl and Dionysiac
a7fapo'yPos-acombinationwhich
t'Harrison (:.927) 11r. is questionable.The practiceof eatingin sacrificeis
not taken into accountby him.
reSeeI.2.n.35 above; cf' at n z above' 'On
auch in Zukunft the "sacredshiver" of awe see Lorenz(t961)
20A. Portmann , Das Tier alssoziales Wesen(t964)' 34o:"Das Ritual bleibt 3^ J75-77.
in allem h6heren' d'h sozialen Le- T s a formula, see
das gewaltige Instrument des Uberindividuellen ll. 3.73 and 19.r9r; Od. 24.4$; R. Hirzel, Der Eid (r9oz); Stengel
(r97o) zo7-zo6'
U".,.y O" sh"aking hands see Eibl-Eibesfeldt

35
34
SACRIFICE/ HUNTING, FUNERARY RITUALS
TRANSFORMATION
OF RITUAL KILLING

sacrificial communities; so too cities at a festival, as well as gatherings ism''" And' in a secularized
of larger political groups. The inhabitants of the Peleponnesus, the form among
Athenian hetairiai,
killingwasan expression corective
of loy"ity.;"riJ", ,n" sacritegium"-r.rr,r,
"island of Pelops," meet at Pelops' grave for sacrifice at Olympia; the
in the sauumno longer ,"*ri.,
islanders celebrate in Delos; the Ionian cities slaughter a bull to Po- ;il:i-"d within the confinesof
seidon at Mykale.5 In the time of Cicero, the cities of the Latin League In a sacrificethc circreof
still had the right "to demand their portion of meat" u from the sacri- side worrd' Compricatedsocilt
participantsis segregated
from the out-
fice of a bull to ]upiter Latiaris. The Ionian League headed by Athens st.uitu"r", rina expression
verse roles the participants in the di_
first met at Delos; Iater, Athens exacted a phallus for the procession at assume;il;" courseof
the various ,,beginnings,,,, the rituar, from
the Dionysia at Athens, and a cow for the Panathenaia.'It is in the through pruy".,
cutting up, to roasting-and, .rtuu't''t"., ,kinn]ig, ur..a
sacrificial procession that the empire's power becomes manifest. a "lord of the sacrific!,, *fl" "U"r?"fi'a1rr.,Ur6ng the meat.Thereis
The closer the bond, the more gruesome the ritual. Those who a"-"r"ri
(actuarry ;;;/, potestas,;; ; ;;
swear an oath must touch the blood from the accompanying sacrifice 9;l;
power of rife)' And as for tttu ;;"_, !': :,,:::,: i:::i:;:!", if:
and even step on the testicles of the castrated victim.8 They must eat .""t, uu.i
and actsaccordingto a precisery iurti.lpur.,t has a set function
the meat of the victim as well, or at least the ozr).c!71ua."It was gener- n-"J'Jraer.tThe sacrificiar
nity is thus a moJer.of iociety commu_
ally believed that conspiracies practiced human sacrifice and cannibal- ;t-;';h;-, divided accordingto oc-
cupation and rank' Henge,
,r," rri"r"-iies manifested
mony are given sreat socialtmportance in th--ecere-
(tgzo) 46-38; Nilsson (ry55) 49-42. On the Semitic "cutting" of a covenant see
An ancientepic, the Thebaid,;"i;;;;;.bedipus u.,a r* ,;i.;;;; *.i""Ur1
E. Bickermann, "Couper une alliance," Archiuesd'Histoire du Droit Orientale 5 Qg5ol5:.), cursedhis sonsbe_
causehe was given the wrong
t13-56.A special case of the encounter with death is passing through the severed pi;;" ;;';.rificial meat.,2
halves of the sacrificial victim: see S. Eitrem, Synfu. Oslo 25 Og4Z), 36-39; for the Hit- murdered Hipparchos, tne pJiistratt'a, Harmodios
tites see O. Curney, RHR 97 j95o), 5-25. On the sacrifice of the /efinleswith the sa- deniedthe honor of being "burk;;;;;ul" ,""u.r." his sister had been
in ,hu panathenaia.,.
cred silex see Latte Qg6o) rzz-23; R. M. Ogilvie, A Commentary on Liuy | (t9611),trz; the Corinthians turned u"gui"riiiu
" And
Burkert $967\ 287. Calling down a curse on oneself (Livy r.z4; Nilsson [1955] r39) does "in their common festivaii a;;;;;r", not reastof alr because
not explain the details of the ritual; the essential point is that the act, during which the tr.,ey_ouii'"i, th";;;;;;r;uv
privilege of founders and, at
one who swears raises himself above annihilation, is irrevocable. This can be shown, ,i"i. r"lriri.""r,"uo*
they did not perform the
for instance, by sinking metal bars in the sea: Hdt. r. r65; Arist. Ath. Pol. 4.5. For this rites of 'beginnine, for,1 ^3r.,
of Corinth, as the
reason the otov\il can take the place of blood sacrifice (cf. L6.n.z6 below). ,nt'$ll1T:i:1y, r.eirteq in thep"r"p,".",iln other coioniesdid,,:
{The phratries are constituted
at the sacrifices of the peiou and xovper.ovat the Apa- Thesacrificiar war.,n
mearis particul'rt.tft,1'r-*o
turia: see Deubner ftg1z) 4z-34. Amasis allowed the Greek merchants to construct rawsthatreg-
"altars and sacred precincts for the gods" at Naukratis (Hdt. r.r78)-the
establishment of a trading company; cf. late Hellenistic Delos.
5Hdt. r. r48; Strabo 8 p.
permanent
.
;"n:5:fl:il:i:T".fi'""
^., ,l
)84; :.4p.619; Marm. Par., FGrHist 49 A z7; G. Kleiner, P. Hom- Lorianos,
conrains di
Loftian^" ^^hr^:-^ ^ ,:: :.D.
r72 see Dio Cass.
7r.4.r. The pniin;t ;i, , h^,,^r L_.
mel, and W. Miiller-Wiener, "Panionion und Melie," ldl Erg.-H. z1 g967); F. Sokolow-
ski, BCH 94 OgTo), to9-7t2; on Pelops see ILz below.
Phoinikika " ]^*
desLoilianosrro:z); *::lffii."ir:lT:';J"'#"
cf. Henri.hr;;p;;;; fiituut,nd
ff,il::T ff H:lj;
Earlychristianr,,' in iy,ioton, theAllegedCrimesof the
oL\vy Frri,;r;;;
l'''a;;:;;tlizor, ,u_ts.
32.t.9, 37.1.4; Crc. Planc. 21. Cf. Latte (96o) t44-46; A. Alfdldi, Early Rome and "Thuc. 8. 73.3,yripBoiov .....
the bztins Qg6), rg-25. dzroxreiuouttty,triirw 6L6oyres
3zc on the request of the Thirty to airois; cf. plat.Apol.
TDelos: Thuc. r.96.2. For the phallus see IG Il/lll? 671.
atriov' The murilation S..."i"" B"i^O*"rorrir-s
B6[u xairavotr)\fiav drayeLu
of the herms ;;;l;i#;lo"rs, atrerjorous ir_orxt1oo,
is flavaSftvata rd pttfya),al haz'cloas lG I' 61 : R. Meiggs and D. Lewis, A Selection symboliccastration(Aristoph. ando.. r .67-and.rikewrse
Lys. tos4,a;i;fi;;. a
of Greek Historical lnscriptions Q96), #69, 55ff ; #q6, 4r; cf . IC I'? ro : SIGr 4r; Schol. 'Jebats 6.27). Ct.alsoDiod. r.zr.z.
fr. 3 Kinkel/Allen-even the
Aristoph. Nuh. 386. oC 'vil round this Grammarianwho wf cited the-passage(schol.
EStengel ^;;i"";;;;;r;;::l:i::T
'11"" primitive, rtt,e.tos soph.
Qgro) 78-85; Hennes 59 Qgz4), 3rr-zr; <rras 6ri ttov ropiav Demosth. 23.68, dodya.sfor the spartal*l:l .d.yevits.Cf. the 6L1rctpio iu
"aas Xen' Ages' 5'r; the double p".ii".'i.r'ir"#",
a n d c f . D i o n . H a l . A n t . 7 . 5 o . r ; P a u s . 3 . z o . g , 4 . 1 5 . 8 , 5 . 2 4 . 9 .C f . I . 7 b e l o w . uet'sratermot"he;';;ff.Ti-'ng' t.--
'Thus Demaratos
adjures his mother at the sacrifice: Hdt. 6.67, iorleis is ras yeipas oi t3Thuc.
6.56.
r('tv orltayyvar,. Cf. Stengel jgzo) 1'16,r4; Aristoph. Lys. zoz with Schol.; Antiphon toThuc.
r.25.4 oihe Kopwt
5 . r : . ; A e s c h i n e s 1 . 1 r 4 ; I s a e u s 7 . 1 6 ; L y k . L e o k r .z o . enoo.,,,ol,u.,iri.'##,;i Jff";'ffJ:f;
fi:rJ, ::::"lf_i[:Hil,_]fl1;:ijJ
36
37
SACRIFICE, HUNTING, FUNERARY RITUALS TRANSFORMATION OF RITUAL KILLING

very
ulate social interaction in distributing, giving, and taking' The Building-sacrifices,for example,are for this reasonwidesprs4cl.rz
fact that eating U".*" l"temonial .'i"utty distinguish*,liT:1::- A house, a bridge or a dam wil stay strong only if ro-"*ri.g
on the vrc- t*,
havior from animal. Once the deadly knife has been used slaughteredbeneathit. one of the most detaiieaLatin descripiions
of
tim, intraspecificaggressionmust b! set aside' This is accomplished a sacrificedepicts the erectionof a border-stone.'sA sacrificialanrmal
anxiety and
through an eating i"itibiti;; evokedby rituals that excite would be slaughteredin a pit and burned together with offerings
of
"Since huriting society must support women and children' ab- incense,fruits, honey,and wine. The stonewis then placedon top of
guilt. a
of others' Thus'
stinencebecomesu.r""*..,,"' we killed'for the sake the remainswhile they were still hot. Thereafter,neighborswould re-
the sacrificer himself, must refrain turn regularly on the anniversaryof that sacrificetJ repeat it. simi-
there is often a rule that the killer,
And this is not so only in human-sacrifice;'u Hermes' the larly, altars and statuescan be set up over a victim in the courseof a
iro-
"utir,g. this rule, and similarly the Pinarii were ritual." Any new creation,even the birth of music, requiresritual kill-
.uitf"-f.iff"i must also obey
excludedfrom the meal in [he sacrificeat the Ara Maxima. Sometimes ing. underlying the practicaluse of bone-flutes,turtre-sheillyres, and
way,
there is a rule that sacrificialmeat must be sold at once;'uin this the tympanon coveredwith cowhide is the idea that the overwhelm-
the ritual inhibition becomes an economic factor. The tabu makes so- ing power of music comesfrom a transformationand overcoming
of
cial interaction all the more intense. death.'?o Thus, a slain man is easily made a hero or even a god, pre_
I The shock felt in the act of killing is answeredlater by consolida- ciselybecauseof his horribleend.i' In any case,apotheosislsalways
Its
ttion; guilt is followed by reparation,destructionby re-construction. precededby death.
simpi-estmanifestation-isin the custom of collecting!o1es, of raising
the skull, the horns, or the antlers, thereby establishingan order
r?Hock(r9o5)
75-83; Nilsson og55)+o+,ro; Miiiler-Karpe(1968))J6, i57,36r; K. Kluse-
ex-
whose power residesin its contrast to what went before' In the mann, DasBauopferGgry); cf . F. S. Krauss, Volksglaube
(r89o), r58-64; B. Schmidt, Das-Volksleben
)nd religiisir Briuci derSildslaaen
periencl of killing one perceivgt t" sacrednessof life; it is nour- der NiugriecheneSlr\, 196_99.According to
the EnumaElit, Ea kills his father Apsu and buil"dshis temple rpo.ri.,i-,
ished and perpetuated by death. This paradox is embodied' acted However, animal sacrifice is rare, and human sacrifice ,rr,utteried, for
ANET6r.
a buitding-
out, and generalizedin th-eritual. whatever is to endure and be effec- sacrifice in the ancient Near East: see R. s. Eris, FoundationDeposits
in Ancient Meso-
tive musipass through a sacrificewhich opens and resealsthe abyss potamiaQ968), 35-45.
r8Gromaticied.
of annihilation.l Lachmannr 4' lapidesin solidamterramrectos conlocabant . . unguento
uelaminibusque et coroniseoscoronabant. in fossis. . . sacrificio
facto hostiaque i^maoti oiqu
15ForMexico see E. Reuterski6ld,,Die Entstehung der speisesakramente (rgr2l,91; for can- incensa facibusardentibusin fossacooperta (Lachmann; -i cdd.i sanguineminstillabanteoque
for Persianyoungsters' Strabo tura et frugesiactabant,faaosquoqueet uinum . . . consumptisque igie omnibusdapibussuper
nibals see E. Volhard, Der Kannibalismus (rg1g), 443-44; 'Fasl.
calentesreliquiaslapidesconlocabaint.
15 p. 734,and cf. G. Devereux,MohaueEthnopsychiatry and Suicide.Qg6r)' 4z-.41;J' P' On the festival see Ov. 2.619_7g.
at-the Attic
Gr;pi;, TheTragicParadox(t968), t6t'-6z See Hy' Merc TJo-))) likewise lT:^ln::.""e
orderin€ the constructionof a statueof Apolto to ward off the prague:
sacrifi- ^arbel, tpgr,. ro34.K. Buresch,Klaros(tgg9), gr_g6: a rarnand
Bupironia, the Bourtnros,who flees and does not reappeat is excluded from_the a sheepare slaughtered
the sacrifice at the Ara Maxima see Latte i96o) zr3-zr' in the sacrificial pit and burned; the fire is extinguished
ciai meal (cf. III.' below). On with wine and sea-water;the
Hal' Anl' statueis then set up on the remains.
On Pinarii see Cic. Dom rS4tYerg. Aen. 8.269-7oand Serv' on 269;Dion'
On the sacrificeto Pelops at Olympia see II'z be- 8Hy.
r.+o; Diod. 4.zt-.2;Macr. Sit. 3.O.ra. Merc.38 r)z 6i Bavylsrore xtv pllXa xa),dv ded6ore; Soph. Ichn. zgr_93. On the
low. On Egyptian customsseeHdt. 2.48'r' I.r.n.44above. On the z<ipoenoXuxega),os ru" pi.,d. pyth. n.-4_24.On
IIT_lu"o".:-""
rrylos see III.4 below. on the head of orpheus
16IG12rgg = LS ro C :I8,zr; LSAM 54,a-J; Hdt. 2.)g; Serv.Aen.8.t83 dehocbotteimmo- see III.7 below. The death of the lyre-
lato Herculi carnescartusztenilebantur causareligionis,et indealter redimebatur-this is not far;r -n-otlust
orpheus but Linos u, *"il--u, a favoritetheme in Greek art (Brom-
evi-
just an expansion of Vergil's phrase perpetuiboois(Latte lt96ol zt7' z) but' rather' l"t,ltsf_lr
8+-8s); cf. Aegisthuswith the lyre on the Bostonoresteia-crater:E. ver-
it is simultaneously to insure exchange and continu- meule, //A 7o (1966),j, pl. 4.
dence of a crrstomwhosefunitlon
to
ity. The Manichaeanstransfer the principle of exchangeand assertionsof innocence murdered, becomes andvilprleios: Aesch. Ag.1547; and
iyd 1qtpwa oJ'6i ri)reoo ohe BBN,ltaoe oihe eis *ll:t-tt"-"mnon,.when
nnesos becomesan dvtpano\aip,av, Eur. Rhes.
ail food, even vegetables: otne oi ;,to
962_n.Among the Hittites, be-
x\i,Bauov E}al,oi <i)t)tdd)r)tos ir.oiqoe ratta xo,i iiveyxi 1t'ot'67<idvattias igayov gg1.'rr the normal expressionfor the death oi lhu kir,g,"""e Otten (1958)
rr9.
;?T"*1
(Hegemon. ActaArchel.rc.6; cf. A. Henrichs and L' Koenen, ZPE 5lr97ol' 146-5$' rne murder and deificationof Caesar
is historicallythe most significant ,u"
as a
E. D-urkheim, ks formesll,mentairesde i:t aie religieuse(r9rz), interpreted totemism furfgrt, Historia n Q96z), i56-76; H. Gesche, bie vergottungCaesars "ri-pt",
with
A. Alfdldi's review in pftoenix z4(g7o), Q,968),
system of reciprocal collaboration and supplementation. t66_76.

38 )9
TRANSFORMATION OF RTTUAL KILLING
SACRIFICE, HUNTING/ FUNERARY RITUALS

Holy again and again so that the ancestral tradition will become
the irreversible."act"
Sacrificetransforms us' By going through their own.
taken consciouslyand
we reacha new ptur',"'-wn"tt"""'"u newstepls
sicrifice' Thus' when cross-
irrevocably,it is inevitabfyf""""tt"a with an Although we can understand the persistenceof sacrificialritual
ing frontierc o, .irr".rlii;-;t; the \wBarilpca;" when opening through its social function, this by no means excludeschange as an
when passing into a new
assembly,there are t;;;;;;P;tifications;" explanation.Ritual is a pattern of action redirectedto serve for com-
societv ther-ewill be sacrifice''o
age grouP or on enteringinlxcl"sive munication, and this means that the terms of expressionare open
of abstln:":"" 1"9 -'f1-"jt:1-'.:""*
Before the sacririce;;;: ;; ;;;iod to substitution, i.e., symbolization-this occurs even in the insect
erected as a sort of reparation' their limits can grve new
;;;;;t-"t" world, when a resourcefulmale offershis bride a white balloon or veil
by a predeterminedprlos,or lifestyle,
definition to life. Ir it is ioll,owed insteadof an edible wedding gift.'?8 Every communicationis symbolic
Tho'u who have undergone the
the sacrificebecomesan initiation' inasmuch as it does not use the real object it wants to communicate,
consecrated'as expressedin
unspeakableare both exoneratedand but substitutesa sign that is familiar to and, hence,understoodby the
lifestyleand.thesacrificeat
the Greekword 6oro0eis''sThus' the new addressee.The object serving as sign is exchangeable.If the sender
o*opnagy is {ollowed by
its inception are almost complementarv: conscious and the receiverare sufficiently familiar with one another, the com-
i"g;;i""itm Killing-t;stifies and affirms life; it makesus plex of signs can be greatly reduced. On the other hand, when in
of tne new order and brings it to power' - competition with rival communications,the sign is exaggeratedand
have used the fol-
Following Rudolf Ott6,'u students of religion heightened.Substitutesigns thus used-whether consistingof natu-
oi th" Holy: terror' bliss'
lowing concePtsto describethe experient" ral or artific.ialobjects,pictures, cries, or words-may be called syrz-
mysterium fas-
and recognition of an absolute auihority' .tremendum' bolsin a pregnant sense.They are not chosenarbitrarily,but are taken
and impressive combination
cinans, and'augusturr'The most thrilling from a continuous tradition; they are neither independent nor self-
iitual: the shock of the deadly
of these elementso.t"t' in sacrificial evident, but bound to the systemin which they function. Their rich-
the bodily and spiritual rapture of festive
ii"* ,"a flowing bl;;, ness of meaning coincideswith the complex effectsthey produce in
;;;e,-ih" ttri.t 6'ae"*roundingth: 1ll:tll:::::t:::::: ll:
the
confront predeterminedinteractions.2'
!ffi?- ilil;;;;;Ji"ort.,Aboie alt,theyo,,"smust In ritual aggression,the ends and the means of aggressionare
exchangeable.Even mammalstear up tufts of grassor shred tree bark
n I l . t t . 7 z 6 - 1 o . F o r t h e s p e c i a l i m p o r t a n c e o f t h e s e - r i t u a l s f o r s p a r t a n s s e e T h u c5 ' 5 4 -
'{'iir'""""*g"^:"tT i"lt::llll;I"j"llHTX;:; when performing the threatening rituals that both introduce and
t gtgt,oi'-7r.'
55,n6;Pritchett in thesea:Hdt 7.54'Alexander
obJects
l.a,u,,r valuabre
ii;*,";ii,lllit:ii#l; postpone a fight.'o The triumphant cries of the greylag gooseare di-
Arr' Anab' r'rr'5-7' rectedtoward a purely imaginary interloper.In human ritual, too, the
*uJ"'"'"t"".o"s sacrificesto the sameend:
eict{vat 1-t'6L'
rDemosth. 54.19rois dplets rous Ex ritv yotpiav' ois xafio.tpouct6tav aggressivegesturecan becomeso important that its objectis unessen-
Aeschines 1 21; Schol Aristoph Eccl rzS'
\uctv. .. . Cf. Harp. xadapotoviSchol' tial. The wildest form of destruction, that of tearing an object to
tnseen. above;V.z below' pieces(nnapayp.os),can be carried out on an ivy plant," and instead
4
25Eur.fr.4j2.12-T'rasr'dtp,ogalous8oitasre\eoo.s.plrpit'6peio't6-q6astiva,o1<iuxar of a deadly club, a safe and flexible narthex stalk can be used.3,Spiri-
rovpfirau paxyos itxXiltrl' 6c;',;l8sis; cf Wilamowitz' BerlinerKlassikertexteYlz(rgo7)'
i,,,t"uj"oi*"f"1' n"t"uys' Theophtastos' Schriftilber Frdmmigkeit
77, r (readingp""a TLorenz
corrupt On dotos see i{arrison (r9zz) 5o4;M' van der (1963)99-ror.
(1866),16o, thought ,",t"o*s REG58 (rg+s)' 'This
rr3-4o' Rec 64 i95t\,4r8; H Jeanmaire' is not far removed from the basic meaning of oiptBo\ov (on which see also
Yalk,Mnemos.Ill/ro1r9az1, performed by a
*inJ*"t" totts"i'J"d through a sacrifice W. Mtiri, "Symbolon," BeiL z.
66-89. on the Delphic toto' e88 lahresberichtdesStadl.Gynn. Bern [ry3]); the biological
presumablya similar contrastbetweenthe and traditional roots should not be lost sight of in the more sublimated use of the con-
6crcrilpsee ll.5.n'47 below-There was the Orphics (Mart' Cap' cePt-see/ for instance, P. Tillich, SymbolundWirklichkeit(1962).
'it"ul egi*wallowlng among
tabu (Plut. Q. conx'.015"1uttJ ro4n'25)' rMorris
,t*) o.l.i".e, uei''a'lrcn' s'ltslil' rrz; Burkert [1968]' (:.96:) ry3-55.
2oR.Otto,DasHeiligelgtT;1929"-"1;thereafterG'Mensching'WesenundLlrsprungder "OJu,. Q. Rom.zgraa[ 1dp Evollotrois paxytxois zrcrfrerltyuvaixes eihig Eri rou xnrdv
Religion:Die grossennichtchristlichen Religionen(1954' 7a-22' 9 e povtaL xa i or ap arr ouo t,6pano p"eva t,r ais Xepc [,v.
27See itiit Ritus Siikularisietung j965)' 6z: "GiPfelPunkt der Faszr t'On
the mock combatof the vapByxogriporsee Xen.Cyrop.2.J.12) Ath.63ra. In myth,
P Weidkuhn, Aggressitr ist die op-
nation . . . ist das oPf", ;;i;;t;elist Gipfelpu"it'a"" tt"*"ndum ' ' ' the thyrsosbecomesa terrifying weapon: seeEur. Bacih.76z.
ferung des Niichsten."

41.
40
SACRIFICE, HUNTING, FUNERARY RITUALS TRANSFORMATION OF RITUAL KILLING

tual forcesthus find releasein a harmlessgame which heightens the hunter, as were his counterparts_inBabylonand Nineveh; the persian
senseof socialordering by meansof dramatization' kings maintained animal parks for hunting, and Alexa.,a", iotto.'-ua
Yet the theatricaliharacter of the ritual may becomeso obvious in their footsteps.of course,it was no longer a question of catching
here that it imperils its necessaryfunction. In groups shaped by ug- one'sdinner, but purely a demonstrationof the ruler,s power io kill.
gression, in the younger generation, forces that question Thus, the most prestigiousquarry was the beastof prey. Through this
"rp"iiully
i'he acceptance of iradition becomeactive. Willfulness stands in the emphasisthe sport remained pragmatic and serious. Heraklts, the
way of t'he impulse to imitate. Thus, along with its theatricality,hu- bearerof the club, was more popular as a lion-killer than as thetamer
man ritual must always have a strong underlying component of se- of the bull.
riousness,and this means that time and again there is a regression we find a transitional phase documentedat
eatar Htiytik.s rhe
from symbolismto reality.A non-instinctiveritual, transmittedby hu- most important religioussymbol in this farming town where goat and
man beings, can fulfill its communicatoryfunction only if it avails it- sheephad long been domesticatedwas a pair of horns from ihe wild
self of a pragmatismthat is unquestionablyreal. bull, and wall paintings containclear,thriiing depictionsof the ritual
In the hunting ritual, aggressionbetweenmen was redirectedto- hunt of a band of leopard men. We can even tru." th" gradual
extinc_
ward an animal quarry which was thereby raised to the status of a tion of wild cattle in eatal Hriytik, though not the .iiti.ui,i"p
tt ut
personality,a blood-relation,even a father.3rIt becamethe object of a followed: in place of the dwindring bandi of wild animars,at,L"su.
"comedy of innocence,"but becauseof the necessityof food, the hard ones were now used for sacrifice.The power of the traditironar
rituar
underpinning of reality was never questioned.This all changedwhen to bind thus remained intact. The animal must, of course,now
be re-
mankind took its most important step, its mastery of the environ- moved from the everyday world; it must becomesacred.
Hence the
ment, in the Neolithic Revolution, the invention of agriculture, some adornmentand the procession,and, sometimes,the animal
being set
1o,oooyears ago.' Thereafter, hunting was basically dispensable. free and recaptured.3'Hence, too, the many stepsof ,,beginning,,r,n"
Characteristically,however, it was retained even in advanced cul- incenseand the music. In addition to the "action,,,whicliis.oiu.,g".
tures, as a ritual status symbol." The pharaoh was celebratedas a dangerous or even difficult, there are also words:
prayers to the
"stronger" powers and myths that tel of
lSee l.2..nn.33-35above;L8 below. them. rne rearity Lt-aea*,
yEarlier and flowing blood is an unmitigated presence,
cultural historiansthought that an era of nomadicshepherdsformed an inter- perhaps ali the more
intensebecausethe reactionis now inspired uy
mediate stagebetween hunters and farmers,but this has been made dubious by pre- a aomestic animal, a
historic finds, especiallythe discoveryof Near EasternNeolithic sites.Nomads seem,
familiar member of the househord.The rapture
attendant on eating
rather, to be offshoots of farming and city culture-see Mtiller-Karpe (1968) uo-zr. gamein the sacrificialmeal is no lessreal
now. Moreover,the domes-
Likewise, there is no archaeological support for the position-still held by some, and tic animal is a possessionwhich must be
given away;* thus, in addi-
usually arguedin connectionwith the theory of a matrilinealsystem(cf. P. W Schmidt,
DasMutterrecht[r955])-that the cultivation of bulbous plants must have preceded
grain-growing;cf. Miiller-Karpe (1968)ll.zt-zz, 249, and P J. Ucko and G. W Dim- lcl !i ". ro, 19 above; Mellaart (196) z6g.On domestication
see R. E. Z;
r; J;.T'1ry*:
F.E.j:1r""": ilg A:'nlhal,-Ani,,ory
bleby, eds., The Domestication and Exploitationof Plantsand Animals(1969).ln this re- ofrechnorogy I ossl, )27_52;
spect, the outlines of a universal history such as A. v. Rtistow's Ortsbestimmungder
il.1 Zeuner,
A Historu
ofDomesttcated
Animars
a;;;;;:ir;;;;i;"i!,'il?,]ll,,l7,rii,,
Dimbleby, hoiestication.The ordestdomestic
GegenwartI (r95r) and A. Weber'sKulturgeschichte (1915;r95o'z)have
alsKultursoziologie Y-tk: 3na animarsare-apart from the
special caseof the ioe-eoats and sheep;shortry
been renderedobsolete. thereaftet the pig appears,fotowed
tn the seventh mi.ilennirim
G. Childe coined the term Neolilfticreaolution(Man MakesHimself[1936],ch' V), cf. by the coi.'e.'u"i.l-,t*is (Die Haustiere,,8961, and
cf' Ebert, Reatr.d. vorgesch.
S. Cole, The NeolithicRevolution1r95g;1963').The term is, however, controversial: see V zrg) that the domestication of the cow occurred
from
u"o start for ,".ru'l ."u"ona, i.e.,
R. Pittioni, Propylden-WeltgeschichteI (196r), zz9; Ucko and Dimbleby, Domestication. ln", for sacrifice, has recently been resurrected: see
E' Isaac,Sciencetrz (to6z\, 195-264;
sFor Egypt see E. Hornung, Geschichte als Fest(196o),t5-ry;E. Otto, /NES g (1950), C. A. Reedin Ucko and Dimbleby,Domestication,
'Assyrische 3z' lt remainsun op"n questionto
164-77; SB Heidelberg (1958),t, zo-zt. For Assyria/PersiaseeB. Meissner, oped beforeanimal-sac.ifice' what extent the rituar of human sacrificehad dever-
jagden," Der Alte Orient 13 z (tgtt). For the reliefs of Assurbanipal see ANEP 626; for The evidencefor ritual sacriiiceof men in the palaeolithic
a8eis overwhelming:
seeXen. Anab.r.2.7, HeI\.4.1.15;on the sarcophagusof seeI.z.n.z7 above.
the animal parks (zrapd6eroor.) ttsee
ro' l.z.n.ur ubor"l
Alexander,etc., see F. Orth, RE IX (r9r4) 558-fu+; i. Aymard, Essaisut leschasses $In
maines(r95r); K. Schauenburg, lagddarstellungen (t969\;
Vasenmalerei
in der griechischen this way' ceremoniesof bartering
sents-thesacrificiar and buying deveroped.on cos, the owner pre-
generally,cf^J.OrtegayGasset,Uberdielagd(1956);W. Frevert,DasiagdlicheBrauchtum bur for Zeus poriius "to tt," dou.,.,.,and Hestia,
tne state,gets i.e., the coffersof
(r959'o). the proceedsof the sale;,"" Lc;i;': SlG3rc25= LS r5r A z3-27.

42 43
SACRIFICE, HUNTING, FUNERARY RITUALS TRANSFORMATION OF RITUAL KILLING

tion to the old fundamental ambivalence of life and death in the sacri- sion had to look for new_objects.Consequently,farming implements
fice, there is now also renunciation and gratification. Even more than assumedthe characrerof weapons. After all, a plow, u ri.ti",-u.ro
u
before, a sacred order is presumed and confirmed in this critical situa- pestle were all used forchopping, cutting, and-tearing apart. Cutting
tion. In any case, with the integration of animal-sacrifice into agri- the wheat could thus-become a symbolic substitute"for castration;
cultural society, a very stable socio-religious structure was estab- grinding the grain and pressingthe wine could take the placeof tear-
lished, which was to survive many thousands of years. ing up an animal in the hunt or sacrifice.plowing and sowing could
No less important was the expanded symbolism brought about be seenas preliminary sacrificialrenunciations.r'
by the newfound sources of food from farming_barley, wheat, the We have already shown how, in hunting ritual, death gives way
fruit of the vine-and added to the themes of ritual killing. The ritual to a new order of life. In agriculture,the victory of life can bE felt with
pattern was so strong and inflexible that a festival meal without even greaterimmediacy.The vine that has been pruned will bear all
the preliminary horror of death would have been no festival at all. the more fruit; the grain that was buried in the earth sends u,, new
The farmer had to be just as reliable, enduring, and farsighted as the shoots toward the light. The sacrificiarritual's power to bind i, p."-
hunter. In particular, it was no mean task to overcome the inclination served on this level as well. Contracts are r"ul"d with libations of
to eat the seed grain rather than throw it on the ground in the mere wine (trrovDal), and weddings are celebratedby cutting up cake or
hope that something would grow. Here, too, the individual's desire bread; cutting or breaking must still precedeeating,nr
for immediate profit could be controlled by the sacred tradition of the luit as slaugh-
tering precedesthe eating of meat. The symbolisir courd easilyLe-
hunting ritual, which established the old order in a new context: re- come detached were it not for a counterforceguiding it back to the
nunciation and abstinence for the sake of long-range success, and frightening reality. This occurs first of all in the mvtf,, for the most
with it a new order. Thus, the harvest is celebrated in a hunting fes- gruesometales of living creaturestorn apart and of cannibalismare
tival and in sacrifice.3'Gathering and storing at the sacred place now presentedin conjunction with the achievementsof civilized life. But
took on a new reality. Most importantly, the seed grain could not be the myth is not enough. Blood-sacrificemust be made at the harvest
touched as long as it was stored in sacred granaries, those myste- festival and at-thepreparationsfor it. Here the savagerybeneaththe
rious, half-buried depositories of wealth.ooAt the same time, aggres- seeminglycivilized exterioris exorcized.In Greece,is iar back as we
can see, the victims were animal. But in the tropics, the very regions
"Shepherds today in Crete will dedicate one of their animals to the village saint, selling that had more favorableclimates, the planters regressedto relular
it by auction on the Saint's Day to give the proceeds to the saintt church": S. G. Spana- human sacrifice,to cultic cannibalism.bnly in thii way, it was said,
kis, Crete, aGuide toTrauel, History and Archeology,Iraklion (n.d.) z9r. Those who sacri-
could the seedgrow and the fruit ripen.nrCivilized rife endures only
fice a goat on the island of Leuke must deposit the buying price in the temple of
Achilles: Arr. Perip. zz, and cf. n. 16 above. by giving a ritual form to the brute fbrce that still lurks in men.
3eThe researches of
Wilhelm Mannhardt (Roggenwolf und Roggenhund 11865l; Die Korn-
diimonen 1fi681; Wald- und Feldkulte j8751771; thereafter GB VII/VIII), who developed "See IV and V below.
the idea of the "Vegetationsdimon," are basic. The fact that it is precisely the "Vegeta- anportioningpresupposesa division, and it is preciselythe latteract that is
tionsdimon" who is killed time and again in the ritual has been explained in various i"o!,cou1se,'
taking/praying/breaking(I Cor. rr:24). Among the Hittites, breaking
ways: the drowning is weather-magic for rain (1fi751 zr4, 4r7), the immolation is a pu- ::lli:':"d,
oreadrs one of the most common sacrificialceremonies(ANEI
y5_5r, 36o_6r);at an
rification (6o7-6o8), the burying is intended for sowing and germination (4r9-zr), the Attic wedding, the groom cuts (xdry'ar) a sesamecake(Aristoph. pax g6gwith schol. :
whole process stimulates the annual cycle of the death and rebirth of vegetation. In- Men. fr. 9ro) and divides it up (Men. Sam.74,125,tgo;phot.
ailoapou). Onthe confar_
deed, in this case the rite cannot be derived from any attested or hypothetical mythol- reatioseeV, below.
3
ogy (l.l-4 above)- The sacrificial rites are a given: no matter how great the hopes for {3Polynesian
myths, especialrythe myth of Hainuwelefrom west-ceram, abouta being
increase and harvest are, the ritual can give form only to death and destruction. that was killed and out'of which
{For
grew edible plu.,ts,;'D"-a," made a greatimpression:
sacred circular structures functioning as granaries ever since Arpachija see Mriller- ,;:11 Ui"t, Dema:Des,iption ani Anatysi,o1Uor;na
Anim Cutture e966);A. E. Jensen,
Karpe (1968) 336. The myth of Trophonios and Agamedes (Telegony, p. ro9 Allen; nqtnuuele (tgld; Das relipi1seWeltbild
einerfri)hen Kultur eg4g) = Die getitete Gottheit.
Charax, FGrHist ro1 F 5; Egyptianized in the story of Rhampsinit's treasure house, Hdt. (ry66); C. G Jung and k. Ker6nvi, Einfiihrung in daswesen
z. rzr) deals with such a Bqaaupog which can be opened only "secretly," accompanied !!'!:!i,::r::!'yhen .Kuttir
:':.r.r!,:ro*9"^!r94t), r3j-go. As applied to ancientmyths and riiuals, s*eeA.
t'2utrrnus,"SMSR Bretich,
by sacrifice. Cf. the underground r}locupds at Messene: Plut. Philop. 19;Li*y 39.5o.3 3r e96o), 61-n9, followed by I. -hirassi, Elementidi culturepre-
(following Polybius). cereali neimiti e riti Greci(Rome,1969).The notion that
this representsa pre-agricultural

44 45
SACRIFICE, HUNTING/ FUNERARY RITUALS TRANSFORMATION OF RITUAL KILLING

Thus, aggression is once again directed toward human beings. tion at a public festival correspondedto a sacrificialritual. In ancient
Although the male societiesthat had been superimposedon the fam- times, the death penalty was not so much aimed at profane murder_
ily structure lost their ostensiblefunction when the hunt was aban- ers as at those who entered an "untouchable" ru"."d precinct, went
doned, they were reestablishedamong planters as secret,or mask, into a house of the mysteriesunconsecrated,or laid a branctr upon
societies.aAt the center was a secretsacrifice,and if the aggression the wrong altar.47 The tabu almost becamean excuseto find a victim
there did not suffice, it was worked out within the society itself. The for releasingthe sacredimpulsesof aggression.
contrast between the sexeswas now played up-Miinnerbund versus There is another, far more serious, way to divert aggressionto_
female power-the more so becausewomen now shouldered the ward the outside world: by integrating large groups of m"e"n in a com-
main burden, supporting the family according to the new agricultural mon fighting spirit, i.e., war.s History, as fir backas we can traceit, is
method. Likewise, the conflict between the generations became the history of conquestsand wars. Ever sinceThucydides, historians
highly dramatized in the initiation rituals. Deprived of its hunting have tried to understandthe_necessityof these events and, if possi-
quarry, the secretsociety makes the initiand himself into a victim.as ble, make them predictable.But it is preciselythe irrationar,compul-
The group's aggressionbecomesfocusedon this man and he is forth- sive character of this behavior mechanism that confronts us more
with killed-symbolically, of course;a sacrificialanimal is substituted clearly today than ever before. war is rituar, a self-portrayaland serf-
at the last minute. However, the bloodshedand the refined methods affirmation of male society..Malesocietyfinds stabiiity in confronting
of torture are very real and guaranteethe seriousnessof the ritual. death, in defying it through a display of readinessto aie, and in the
The gruesome "evil" at work in the ritual fulfills a function, i.e., ecstasyof survival. such modesof behaviorare so bound up with the
to preserve a social structure over the course of generations.Once governmental systems and values of our society that even today,
again, life rises up from the peril of death. Indeed, the individual ex- when modern military technologyhas made -at so distant that its ab-
periencesin himself how, after life had been endangered,there is a surdity is patent, when it is beginning to be the source of discord
resurrection,a rebirth. rather than of solidarity, still final emancipationfrom war lies far in
To some extent, this too was still a game, a show. With the pro- the future.
gressivegrowth of consciousness,civilization cameto dernand abso- For the ancient y9tlq1 hunting, sacrifice,and war were sym_
lute seriousness-one could no longer pretendto kill men. For this bolically interchangeable.The pharaoh and Heraklescould be lord of
reasonthe death penalty becamethe strongestexpressionof govern- the hunt, lord of the sacrifice,and warrior. on grave reliefs, Greek
mental power,ft and, as has often been shown, the criminal'sexecu- yoyjlt appear as hunters, warriors, or athletes.The emphasismay
well have varied accordingto the socialreality.A farmer, for instance.
stagehas, however, been supersededthrough the excavationsatJericho andJarmo: see
n. 34 above. eOn the.
{H. Schurtz, Altersklassen Lykaion precinctseeII. r. n.7 below; on Eleusissee Lity
und MiinnerbundeQgoz);H. Webster,PrimitiaeSeoet Societies 3t.t4, and V r be.low;
Kallias the Daduchos claimed that ii was v6p"os. . . r,arprcs, is-au
(r9o8); H<ifler 0%4; rN. E. Peuckert, Geheimkulte j96t). i,i1 ixenlpnv y.v_
'5Aristoph. Nub.257,and cf. V.3.n.16 orlpiots, retvdyat (cf. V.4.n.45below), Andoc. r.rro-16.
below; Livy ro.38.9admouebatur altaribusmagisut sA "world-History
oictimnquamut sacriparticepsat the initiation into the legiolinteataof the Samnites. On of war" such as L. Frobenius(r9o3) attemptedcould hardly be ac-
'palaeolithic
comPlished today. on the earliest evidence, that of
initiation rites generally seeM. Eliade, Birth and Rebirth(1958). (?) drawings i.i spui.,,
seeF Cornelius,-Geistesgeschbhte derFriihzeitI (196o), 54, pl. J. Today there ire an enor-
sOn the ancient evidence seeK. Latte, RE Suppl. Vll 1599-1619;
on its sacrificiatchar- n11be1 of sociologicaland psychological studies or, th" probl"* of war:
acter seeTh. Mommsen, Riimisches Stralrecht(r8SS),9oo-9o+, 9r8; for an opposing view lous for in-
stance,B. L. Richardson,Armsandrnsecurity: Thecauses
see Latte, RE Suppl. Yll t6r4-:.7; K. v. Amira, "Die germanischenTodesstrafen," Abh. of war ()96"J);G.Bouthour,Les
guerres(r95t). K. R. Eissler,Psychezz (t96g),6a5,
among others, stated that war is ,,the
Miinchen 3:.l (tgzz); L. Weiser-Aall, ARW1o (ry), zo9-27; Gu€pin (1963)84. A traitor of the elder generationon the younger.,,Ontreece, see p Vernant,
dies, according to the "law of Romulus," ris Biy,a toi xataaBouiou Ac6s,Don. Hal. ::::lg" J. ed.,
"::!r:* de.la.guerre
en Glce ancienne (r96g);on the distancingof modern historians
Ant. z.to.3. nom I hucydidesseeA. Momigliano,"some
observationson tlie causesof war in An-
There are clear elementsof a comedy of innocencein the "last meal" before an execu- ci€nt Historiography," in s.tudis in Historiographv
tion and in the expectationof goodwill; cf. also the executioner'smask. For the use of see F. Schwenn, ARW zo (r9-zt), 299_3zrirr'(isrri, <tioor, rrz-26. on the cultic aspe*s
criminals in sacrificial ritual on Leukas, see Strabo rc p. 452; on Rhodes (Kronia), A' 5i}_7r;r, (t921/zl zz4_44; and
Guerre,agonie curtineili Gicio orroiri(gst1. For the Hebrew term
Po1ph./bsf . 2.54;on Massalia,Petron.fr. r Buecheler;Schol.Stat. Theb.rc.793;on the .Brelich, to conse-
sg R. smith (r8ee) 12'2_2:,. on ceremoniatwar in Esypt
Druids, Caes. BGall. 6.:.6. :,::::::^r:!:q: 1"" {.
onq among the AztecsseeE. Hornung, Geschichte
alsFest(rgb6).

46 47
FUNERARY RITUAL
SACRIFICE, HUNTING, FUNERARY RITUALS

to interpret it as a first move toward a metaphysical, transcendent


would put more weight on sacrificial ritual, whereas the nomadic ani-
realm.' It is somewhat more certain that we are dealing with a h.r*u.
mal breeder, wary of slaughtering his proud possessions, would be-
action which may vary from culture to culture but "within a single
come a conquering warrior.
community proceeds according to the same scheme with great con-
Amongihe Greeks, a military expedition was Prepared and ended
stancy over many generations. Behind every burial there is a funerary
by sacrificiil ritual. There was sacrifice before setting off, then adorn-
ritual.'?
ment and crowning with wreaths before battle-all as if it were a fes-
However, the Palaeolithic era, in which burial evolved, was also
tival. A slaughtered victim introduced the subsequent deadly action
the age of hunting. Thus, the ritual of hunting and sacrificing accom-
which, in Homer, is simply called Epyov. Afterward, a monument, a
panied the funerary ritual from the start, each influencing tie other.
tropaion, was set uP on the battlefield as a consecrated, enduring wit-
In prehistory and ethnology it generally holds true that deid men and
ness. This was followed by the solemn burial of the dead, a privilege
dead animals are treated alike:3 both rituals basically deal with death.
the victor could not deny his defeated enemy. The burial, almost as
It makes little difference whether one says that the quarry is treated
important as the battle itself, was far more lasting in its consequences,
like a dead man or whether a dead man is treated like thl sacrificial
for it left an enduring "monument." It almost seems as though the
quarry. Homo sapiens is also homo necans and homo sepeliens. Both
aim of war is to gather dead warriors, iust as the Aztecs waged war in
rituals are, of course, complex, and one can hardly hope to discover
order to take prisoners to use as sacrificial victims.aeThe erected and
the origins of each detail. Nevertheless we can obierve that essential
consecrated monument is what endures, and it embodies the duty of
elements of funerary ritual derive from the ritual of hunting and sacri-
the following generation. For war, necessary yet controlled because
ficing, inasmuch as the necessary functions deal with hun"ting rather
it is ritual, has this function above all: it must integrate the young
than with the death of a member.obid man come to understand death
into the patriotic community. The senatusresolves; the iuaentus must
through the paradox of killing?' one's own death always seems far
fight. As a rule, the Greeks' cnou\ai were for a period of thirty years
at most. Each generation has the right and the obligation to have
'Mtiller-Karpe
its war. $966) zz9 speaks of a "metaphysischen Dimension.,, The pavianes do
not acknowledgedeath: seeG. Devereux,Symb.Oslo (196), g5,
4z 4.
'?w1 here give only a brief indication of the enormous complex of funerary rites. on
;an
prehistory seeMaringer (1956)passim; Mriller-Karpe
eg66) i9_42, (1968) 348_7r. For
Gree_ce see Rohde (1898)z16-58;Nilsson (.SSS)iZ+-SS,
324_84;A. Chudzinski, Tod
und rotenkultusbeidenaltenGriechen
ogoil; J. wiut.,"., Grabund Jenseits (rq,g);M. An-
dronikos, "Totenkult," in Archeologia Homeficaw (1968);!. pini, Beitriige'zii iinoische,
6. Funernry
Ritual Griiberkunde (1958);A. Schnaufer, Friihgriechischer Totenglaube
n' 17below. on the particularly complex problem of how belief
(rgZo); u:n cremation see
and ritual are related in
runerary custom see R. Moss, The Life after Death in oceaniaand
the Malay Archipelago
(1925),who concludesthat the two coexistlargely without
It is a peculiarity of the human race that it caresfor its dead. being related,but that rit-
ual will sooner influence belief than vice ,r".ri i. Meuli,s ,,Ents'tehung
und sinn der
Hence, burials have been among the most important finds from pre- Trauersitten," schweiz.Archiu vorkskunde (a946),
t'. $ 9a-7og, is also of fundamental
history. Along with the use of fire and tools, they testify to the pro- importance.
3Meuli
cess,starting in the early Palaeolithicera,by which man becameman. (r967) r6o on tree-burial; no lessremarkableis the similar bone-interment,
usrng
Frequentattemptshavebeen made to describethe extraordinaryspir- and the specialtreatmentof the skull. Seealso H. Baumann, paideuma
ll1 ":h*l
(r95o),r98, zoo. 4
itual and intellectual step underlying this process,sometimeseven
(1968) cremation; in general, Girard (1972) 152-55. Batsdy
,*;"^y-"]1".:5"rpe
(19tto) 1o2 stressesthat in167.on
teSeeI.7 below.On decorationseeHdt. the wild, dead bodies are eaten by icaveng".r. H".r."
7.2o8-zo9;Plut. [.4c.inst. 218f.; on the cgayta the fantasies of how the dead are
eaten in the underworld, by Eurynome in paus.
see Stengel (r9ro) 9z-roz, (r9zo) 4z-33; Casabona j966) r8o-93; Pritchett (1979)
2''8'z; and by Hecate in a vase-painting, Vermeule o97il ro9. Modern hunters have
83-9o; Epyov ll. 4.47o,etc.; on burial seeThuc. 2.34.On human sacrificeamong the the "great Halili" sounded at thelurial
Ji a hunter as at the end of a hunt: w. Frevert,
AztecsseeHornung, Ceschichte,43. For the metaphorof sacrificeappliedto war see,for DasjagdlkheBrauchtum
eg69,o\, 76.
instance, Pind. fr. 78. On the Delphic oracle for king Philip see Parke and Wormell "see B' M. F. Galdikas, NationalGeographic
(1956)#266 : Diod. r6.9t; Paus.8.7.6. ry7 iggo),g32, on an adolescentorangutan,

48 49
SACRIFICE/ HUNTING/ FUNERARY RITUALS FUNERARY RITUAL

off and uncertain. But, when another dies, the frightening confronta- funerary meal for patroklosshows very clearly that although
- Thu
tion with death and the pleasurableshock of survival leave a deep feasting follows death, the death must be repeatedimmediately b"e_
impression.J fore the feast, through ritual killing. After the mourners circled the
The mo'st widespread element in funerals-so obvious it may corpsethree times while crying out in grief and swearingvengeance,
seemhardly worth mentioning-is the role playedby eating,i'e', the many cows, sheep, goats, and pigs were slaughteredand",,blood
funerary meal. Ethnology and religiousstudieshave dwelt mainly on pou-r:g from the cups flowed all around the dead man.,,,0The corpse
the bizarre and more or less unsuccessfulattempts to feed the dead co-uldhardly be placedmore emphaticallyat the centerof a bloody act
themselves,but it is more often the real and festive meal of the living which, however, at the same time also signals a pleasing m"ui fo,
"in honor of" the dead that is of primary importance. Thus, even 7o,@oMyrmidons. so too in Athens it was customary to eat at the
while mourning the death of Patroklos,Achilles permits his compan- grave;solon was the first to forbid that cows be slaug'hteredthere.r'
ions to "feastthe heart-pleasing burial."oThis unabashedstatement There wa_sno thought of burning or burying such a iow whore, for
refers to behavior that is offensiveto anyone concernedmerely with the meat belonged to the living, while the deid man ,,tookhis fill', of
the dead individual, yet has not been expunged to this day, namely, the blood. The idea that the dead delight in blood obviously emanates
that in an environment of grief, pain, and tears, the pleasureof the from_the reality of the r'rual: the pattern of hunting calls for the
festive meal will thrive. At first the necessarycombination of death bloody "act" at the placeof death. Becausedeath beconieskilling, and
and eating appearedonly in the hunt. Starting here, the ritual meal the participant, a killer," death itself becomesan act of the will, sub-
functioned as a bond within the community.'This is not to say that ject to performanceand repetition. For this very reasonit can be over-
cannibalismwas the earliestform of honoring the dead.8The ritual- come through the festive meal, which confirms the survivor,s will
ization of hunting behavior made possiblea twofold transferral:the to live.
dead could take the place of the quarry-a substitute more serious The sacrificialanalogiesextend to the actions that precedeand
than what it replaces-but in the subsequentfeast,his placecould in follow as well. There is a.periodof preparation,in whicir the corpse
turn be taken by the sacrificialanimal.' lies in stateand is washed and adornedl a processionmarks the tran-
sition from indoors to out. This is then foliowed by wild, ecstaticbe-
Sugito, who drowned his younger foster-sister,Doe: "Sugito . was staring off into havior, bloodshed,and a hearty meal.'3The location in which the ac-
spacewith a funny look that I had never seen before. He studiously avoided looking tion takes place remains sacred forever after-distinguished by a
into Doe's direction. After some time . . . he slowly approached.Then, standing on
monument as the realm of the extraordinary-whereaJat home, the
two legs, he raised both arms over his head and brought them down, fluttering, in
front of him . . . flikel a shaman . . . performing rituals of obsequiousnessto his ordinary order is restored.
god. . . . Sugito . . knew perfectly well that Doe was dead. He had killed her." On The most striking resemblancesbetween hunting and funerary
intraspecifickilling with gorillas, seeD. Fossey,NationalGeographic r59 (r98r), 5o8-5r2. customscan be seen in the treatmentof the bones.Tlie funeral cere-
6ll. 23.29,and cf. z4.8or- 8o+;Od. For eating at the tomb in Geometrictimes see
3.3o9.
J. Boardman,IHS fl6(t966),z-4; cf. M. Murko, "Das Grabals Ttsch,"Wdrterund Sachen n 4. For funerary sacrificealready in the Moust6rien see Miilrer-Karpe(1966)
z (tgro), 79-rh.Cregory of Nazianzusrailsagainsteatingand drinking in churchesat \tl'
2Jr-3i.For horse-sacrifice
in, and bull-sacrificeat, the royal tomb at Archanes(Crete),
the tombs of the martyrs: AP 8.166-69, t72, t7S. After the burial, people met for the see Archneologyzo (196), z7g_79
festivemeal of the rpha, 6uata, rptaxas, iutaiota: An. Bekk.268.t9rfi rpnxocrfi yup trPlu-t.Solozzr.5;A.Martina,
Solone('96g),#465-7o;andcf.n.6above. Forailtaxovpta
iptpS . , . oi rpotrfixouteg qtrq.vreg. . . oauehflovres xowfi iiei,nvouv iri rQ dtro$a- see ILz below.
vowt. xqi roino xafli|pa iraleiro.
TBesidesthis there is the psychologicalexplanationthat the senseof loss is compen- great funerary festival of the Dajak on Borneo (Tiwah) is
l'Jn:.,::^out."ct.in_the
of buffalo-in earlier times, it was a man_whom each parhcrpant
sated for, in a form of oral regression, by eating. This sense of loss could, however, ;:::tTq
trao ..a
to stab with a spear: F. Grabowsky,lnternat.Archia . Ethnographie z (g9g),'ry9;
manifest itself just as well through fasting; it is the ritual constraint that causesNiobe to H. Schiirer, Der Toteikult der NgadjuDajakin f
eat after ten days: Il. 24.62-11. Sijd_Borneo| (1966), zo.
tsA
somewhat different, though no resscharacteristic,
8Allegedlythe customamong the Massagetai;seeHdt. t.zt6, DissoiIngoi 2.r4. sequenceis noted by Herodotus
Thracians.(5.8): rpeis p"iu i11.t
ipas zrpottBelotrov vexpdv xc.i rrcrvroiacg<i-
eS. Freud, Totemund Tabu,Ges. Schr.rc j9zg, 66-88 : Ges. Werke :::lq th"
9 Q94o), 66-88, Sctmes iepitq eiooyeovtol r.pox\auaavtes rp6trov-
iaerra 6i Oarrouct xataxat_
developed the idea of the ambivalencebetween love and aggressionin relationship to oc,zes r) ritrI<rrs xpi,ltavres,lrirg,a
6i ylavres d"y6wartfieiot On the agon seen. 23
the dead man. below. ",

5o 57
SACRIFICE, HUNTING, FUNERARY RITUALS FUNERARY RITUAL

mony often centers not so much on the corpse as on the bones from tion of sacrificial ritual into that of the plant realm. The produce
individual limbs. These are collected and solemnly deposited' The gathered by the farmer replaces the hunter,s quarry; thus, githering
rhythm of the hunting ritual is, thus, repeated: death/tearing apartl bones acquires new meaning.
restoration. In Qatal Htiyuk, as among the Parsees, bodies were set fne." are, of course, aipects of funerary ritual that cannot be
out for scavenging birds, after which the bones were carefully depos- traced to the hunt. It is then all the more characteristic that these ele-
ited in household shrines at the feet of the Great Goddess.'nOften a ments have frequently been taken up in the sacrificial ritual. Above
corpse was intentionally torn aPart, only to be put back together all, lamentallsnro-\^/ggping and wailing, tearing one's clothes and
again. In Egypt, the roots of the mummification ritual are much the hair, scratching the face and beating the breast; then defiling oneself,
same." lt was a widespread custom during the Neolithic to sever the p,caiveo9at-smearing one's face, strewing one's head with clay, dirt,
head and preserve it in a sanctuary, like a Bukranion; head and thigh- and ashes. The large part that aggression plays in these rites is evi-
bones are buried separately at Ugarit.'u Until modern times, ruling dent.z' It is an inevitable group reflex to offer to protect an endan-
houses of Europe used to bury certain parts of their dead in different gered member against a hostile force by means of aggressive threats.
sacred places. With the development of artisan skills, it became possi- when faced with the fact of death, this reflex aggression strikes out
ble to substitute a symbol for the skull: the Roman lararium, for in- into a vacuum and hence returns in upon itself. With no enemy nea,
-
stance, preserved only the masks of the ancestors. the hand raised to strike comes down upon one's own headJ
Among the Greeks and Romans, even cremation" was used for Men, of course, often seek some external substitute as the butt of
the avowed purpose of obtaining the bones quickly. The most sacred their rage: hence those funerary sacrifices that are and intend to be
duty for the next-of-kin is to gather the bones (6cro),oyeiv; ossalegere) merely destructive. When a Hittite king died, for example, a plow ox
from the ashes of the pyre. The fire that burns the corpse is described was sacrificed while the king was invoked: "What you have become,
as a beast of prey, "tearing apart" the dead man with "a furious jaw." '' this too shall become."" Achilles slaughters countless sacrificial ani-
The remains are then united forever in an urn. This act is at once a mals, four horses, nine dogs, and twelve Trojans at the bier of patro-
joining together and a foundation, as in the Latin word condere.When, klos. Once again, death is mastered when the mourner becomes a
as early as Homert description of the death of Achilles, we find the killer. For this reason there is often no clear-cut distinction between
wine jar of Dionysos serving as an urn,'o it is merely the transforma- merely destructive sacrifice and the sacrifice of the funerary meal (cf.
n' 13).
"Melfaart Q967)z4r-45. Unbounded rage can be vented in a life-affirming form through
-. -
rsA. Hermann, "Zergliedernund Zusammenfrigen," Numen
1 $956), 8t - 96.
fighting, through an agon. Karl Meuli demonstrated the extent and
'oOn burying the skull see Maringer inner necessity of the connection between funerals and competitive
Q956) 67-7o, 78-86, rzz-28, 220-22; Mtiller-
Karpe (1966)2)7-34, 239-40; (1968)165-66.The skulls from pre-ceramicJerichothat contests:23it remains to say that an agon can accompany not only a
havebeen formed into portraitsare particularlyimpressive:seeArch.f . Orientforsch. 16
(rgS), l8+; Miiller-Karpe Q968) 349.On skull-burial at Archanes (Crete) see Archaeol-
BSH 8oz, pl. XVI-XX. Bones(unburnt) had been depositedin clay vessels
ogy zo (t967) 276-77; cf. Hdt. 4.26 on the Issedonians.For Ugarit see H. Th. Bossert,
already ?Z Gg$\,
Altsyrien(rg5r),on nr. 154. at Neolithic Lerna:seeMi.iller-Karpe(196g)165.
tTFor post-Mycenaeancremation in Creece, see Mtiller-Karpe (1968) 'oE.
Reiner, Die rituelleTotenklage der Griechen(r91g); E. de Martino, Morte e piantorituale
15r, 166-67;
G. Mylonas, AIA 5z (t948), 56-8r; V. R. d'A. Desborough,The Inst Mycenaeans and n;,l11ondo antico(Turin, 1958).On puaivecfio,rsee,for instance,the law at iulis (Keos),
j964')),71; Schnaufer,Totenglaube,36-45. Cremationis found among r t u ' r z r S = L S S Z ,z 4 - l r ; H d t . 6 . 5 g . r .
Their Successors
aOn
the Hittites, Hurrians, Troy VI, etc., by the second millennium: see Otten bgSB)S; destructiverage in funerary customsseeMeuli (1946)zot-zo7; Antike 77
193-92;Schuteiz. \7947),
U. Schlenther,Brandbestattung und Seelenglaubebg6o);Pini, Beitriige,rg-zr, 58-62. Archiuf . Volkskunde $ (ry46), ro6_ro8.
'8Lanrrew ll. z1.t81;nvpdsp,aXepa 'Oorta 1O1en
Tva$osAesch. Cho. 325. trriTerzalreadyin (1958)g; ll. 4.166-76, and cf. Od. 24.65-66.On btoody sacrificeat the inter-
ll. 4.239, z5z;ouv$eieEur. Hik. rrz6. Accordingto Andron of Halikarnassos,FGrHist ment_and"opening of the mouth" in Egypt, see A.
Wiedemann, .ARWzz (r923t24,1,
ro F ro = Schol.A IL t.5z, Heraklesat Troy was the first to use cremation,burning the 7z-86.
body of the dead Argeios so as to be atr- -, .arry "him" back to his father: see Il. ts'Der,Ursprung_fer
plympischen Spiele,,, Antike ry eg4r), r8g-zog; Der griechische
7.3J4-j5 (contradicted in Schol.S,,d loc.);Thuc.2.34. ^! Kampfsp.tel im Totenbrauch, Totentanz,Totenklage
und Totenlob
(rS68;orig.
'eOd. z4-71-75.Cf. the Dionysiac',ronze-crater irY:.fypf
rrabUttationsschrif
from Derveni,which servedas an urn: t Basel,r 926).

52 53
SACRIFICE, HUNTING, FUNERARY RITUALS FUNERARY RITUAL

deposition ceremony for human bones but animal sacrificeas well. p,f hi:needs, hedisplays his wearthor at reasthis freedom. Arexander
The Greek agon of historical times was a sacrificialfestival. In Rome, Greatactedin.thisway in the Gedrosiandesertwhen he emptied
Ithe
the ancientslcrifice of the October-Horsewas followed by a ritual bat- linto the sanda helmetfilted with water.2"
tle betweentwo groups. Similarly,the Macedonianswould pretend to Here, the social significanceof renunciation rituar and, for thatr
fight a battle after the dog-sacrificeat their Festivalof Purification,the matler,-funeraryritual altogether,is clear.By keeping a space
Xindika.'n Myth applies the same pattern to the hunt, raising it to "_pry0
artificially, one can prevent grasping, greedy,ug[."rii.r" individuals
.
tragic seriousnessin the story of the war between the Aetolians and from clashing,or at least pretend to dtso. rhe
fi6usure of inheriting
the Curetesafter the CalydonianBoarhunt.'uHere, too, as soon as the possessionshas to be masked and at least part of the dead man,s
quarry was killed, the warriors' accumulatedenergy struck into a vac- property renounced. By playing out the breakdown of the socialor_
uum; moreover,their bad consciencemade them willing to suffer for der, even in the easily neutralizedact of self-defilement,that very or_
their "action." der can be gotten under control. such actionspreservethe basicstruc-
fEven more prominent in funerary ritual than in sacrifice is the ture of society,becausedeath is not perceivLdas an ending. Now,
.1willingness to assumeand recognizea pattern of renunciation after human culture needs continuity: to be able to go on, there h"asto be
'the fact. This willingness is primarily shown by offering food in the an authority-recognized through the course Jf generations. Man,s
form of libations, 1ood.Milk, honey,oil, and wine, the preciouscom- neoteny,the lon-gperiod of time he spendsin the
irocess of learning,
modities of a society familiar with dearth and hunger, were poured forged a new relationship betweenyoung and old, aboveall between
away irretrievably; similarly, grain was mashed into pap so it could son and father, in which the catastropheof death becameespecially
drain into the ground. In southern regions, even water is a precious disturbing and.dangerous.And the v-eryelementsthat funerals took
commodity and henceplayed a part in somelibations.Like the sacrifi- over from hunting and sacrificialritual were the ones able to mend
cial ritual, libation would have occurred outside the confines of every- the rift, transformingdeath into killing, celebrationinto an eruption
day reality. There would have been a procession,then the restrained of aggressionfollowed by reparation.tr, thir way, there arosea post-
attitude of prayer, and finally the ecstaticcry (ritrolu74) at the moment humous duty toward the dead. A swing of t"he pendulum trans-
of the libation.'z5 No other act of destructioncan be expressedby ges- formed symbolic parricide into an obliga-tionto worship one,s
an-

Ii tures so noble and sublime:Achilles pouring wine for his dead friend
Patroklos,an unforgettablepoeticalimage." The artfully shapedliba-
tion vesselsstressthe grandeur of the proceedings.By renouncing
cestors' Thus, fathers, chiefs, and kingJ have the most magnificent
funerals;and a pile of stones, the moriument left by collective
ing, will grow until it becomesa pyramid.r"
ston-

personalprofit, man can uplift himself; by humbling himself in spite Funerary ritual alone may almost be enough to confirm
and in_l
in the community. Indeed, among some peoples alllrr
'?aOnOlympia see II.z below; on the Isthmia seeIII.7 belowi on the October-Horsesee :111"_.:",il"ity
etsepale; by comparison.Among the Greeks,ruleis
characteristicatty
Latte (1960)7tg-2r; U. W. Scholz, Studienzum altitalischenund.altrdmischenMarsmythos expectedtheir vassalgto participatein funerals as
a sign of royalty;
(r97o); on the fight for the head see Festus r9o L. On the Xandika see Nilsson (r9o7) the spartans demanded it of the Messenians,the
Corinthians of the
4c,4-4cf, who correctly compares the Platanistas-fightof the Spartan ephebes (4o6- Megarians.'0But a funeral is dependenton circumstance
4o7),which also occurredin connectionwith a dog-sacrifice(Paus.3.2o.8,14.8-ro). and chance,
r"For the head and the tufted hide of the boar," lL requires repetition and regularity.Thus, funerary rit_
9.548;Apollod. t.7o-7t; etc. lllT:r.in"al
ual can be repeatedthrough funerary sa&ifice.-The
H. Usenet the first to collect the ancient evidence for ritual combat (ARW 7 lrgoal, act of kilring re-
297-1a3 : K. Schr.IV [r9r3], $5'47)' saw in it a fight between Winter and Summer; ^Arr'
obiections already in Nilsson Qfi) 44-:^4. The mock-battle among the Hittites Anab. 6.26 ' . ' di<tre eixtT.,..t d.u rwa rorov yeviciat rt&tvtv ixeivo td ou* ^
zrp<is'A)refciv6 pou ixXvfi
(H. Ehelolf, SBBerlinlrg:5l,269-7o;A. Lesky,Ges.Schr.11966l,1to-t7)occursinthe 6v.
context of a sacrifice,which, however, was not discussedby the editor. the Kabylai, a great hunter is buried beneath a pile of rocks,
ljl-
'q-KS upon which new
bAesch. Cho. zz-163, esp. 149 ff.; Perc.6ro-18; for additional evidence see Stengel are always thrown: see H. Baumann, paideuma
B. Schmidt, Nlb y e8y), + (rgSo), r9z; and,cf . plat. kg.
(tgro) 178-86, (r9eo)ro3-ro5; CasabonaQg66)4r-97. t6g-ss; Baudy (r98oj rasf.
:7jb;
u Homer ll. z1.zr8-zo; "Giesse, Myrmidone, den funkelnden Wein ins Land," Gott- jl 5.4 Dehl = Prato;Schol.pind. Nem.
,,ll]l"iot
ruppias 7.r55b = Demon, FGrHist327F rg;
fried Benn, Ges.WerkeI OS6o),rz9. Seealso Lucr. 3.4J4 f . of Erythrai, FGrHist4zr F t.

54 55
SACRIFICE, HUNTING, FUNERARY RITUALS
FUNERARY RITUAL

establishes the context of death;" the dead man becomes the focus of
moved toward the cemetery.No slaveswere permitted: the archon
attention once again, and thus his power is recognized and renewed.
himself drew water from a nearby well, then washed and anointed
Inversely, the Greeks set a funerary monument at almost every place
the-stelesrising up from the gravesof the dead. The myrtle branches
of sacrifice, a tomb that may or may not have been real: the hero had,
and wreaths were also evidently used to decoratethe steles.These
then, his place at sacrifice beside the recipient god, the sacrificial pit monumentshad been set up over the men who fell in battle, and thev
beside the altar, the chthonic aspect beside the Olympian." We see were treatedlike guestsof honor in the sacredceremony.yThe remairi_
here how deeply sacrificial and funerary ritual permeated one an- ing participants had likewise come to the festival turh"d, anointed,
other. By joining together to honor the dead, the survivors, and espe- and wreathed. In the time of Thucydides,robeswere alsobrought for
cially the young, would have been initiated, integrated into the conti- the dead and presumably laid upon the stelesbefore being birned,
nuity of the society, and educated in the tradition all at once. The for we know that a pyre was built in the center-though Fausanias
rituals of sacrifice, funeral, and initiation are so closely related that
also mentions an altar and statue of Zeus Eleutherios. Libations of
they can be interpreted through the same myths and may even par-
milk introduced the sacrifice:children'sfood, in contrastto what fol_
tially overlap. The myth tells of death and destruction, while in sacri-
lowed.'u swiftly drawing his sword, the archon slit the black bull,s
fice an animal is killed. By encountering death as symbolized in word
throat so that the blood flowed onto the pyre. After this, he calledthe
and ritual, succeeding generations are molded into successors. In this
fallen warriors to supper, to "take theii iitK of blood (ai.p"arcoupta).
way society is consolidated and renewe{]f
The remaining participantspresumably ate their fill or ine meat, but
Plutarch provides us with the most detailed description of a fu-
Plutarchdoesnot say.whatever was finaly burnt on the pyre,3othere
nerary sacrifice in Greece." It concerns those who died at Plataea. The
were alwayslibationsof wine at the end. T-hearchon mix# a krater of
cult was active till the end of antiquity, and Plutarch was obviously an
wine from the amphoras that were brought arong, and, in ail rikeli-
eyewitness: just before dawn, a procession was formed leading from hood, poured it over the pyre, which had by riow burned to the
the center of town to the outside, from the marketplace to the ceme- ground. He did so, as he announced, ,,for the men who died for the
tery. The atmosphere was aggressive and warlike; a trumpeter gave freedom of the Hellenes." In just this way, the lord of the sacrifice
the signal for war. But the wagons were loaded with myrtle branches poured wine on a flaming altar, and Achilles extinguishedthe pyre
and wreaths; a black bull trotted along in the middle of the pro- of
Patroklos.
cession. The young men carried amphoras with wine and milk, jugs
Both battle and burial were reenactedin the bloody ritual. Death
of oil and salves. The archon of the city brought up the rear. As head and victory alike were presentin the act of killing. The plataeans
of the civil authorities, he would normally have been forbidden to evi-
had,alreadyexp-erienced their victory as a sacrificein the year
carry weapons and would always have worn white robes. But on the *T]t
ot the battle: the votive offering they presentedat Delphi
day of the sacrifice he was dressed in a purple mantle and was carry- after 479
was a bull''? The ritual celebratingthe defeatof the persians
ing a sword in his belt. Something extraordinary had replaced the is there-
fore not a creation of the historicaievent but, rather, a traditional
everyday order, and bloodshed was imminent. The archon himself form
assimilatingthat event. A unique occurrence
brought a water jug from the Bouleuterion. Thus, the procession was thereby given uni-
sisnfficance and transfoimed into an enduring obiig"ationthat
1111,t
nsted through centuries. of course, this could not!r",n"".rt the
3lJust as "blood is purified through blood," so funerary sacrifice (with an agon) counts de-
as expiation for killing: Fldt. r.166-67. Clytaemnestra alone celebrates the Day of Death
in open triumph, with sacrifices (Soph. El. 277-8t); otherwise, the more profound am- xsee
A P r r . 8 ; I . 5 . n .r g a b o v e
bivalence (n. 9 above) is concealed in gestures of propitiation toward the dead (per),lo-
^.UU libations see Serv. Aen.
cew, i)raoxtnOar). Sometimes it is indeed the dead enemy who becomes a hero: Hdt. lP:
xoma Q9r4); Eisler (r9:5) 5.78;K. Wyss, Die Milch im Kultusiler Griechen
und
is7-gt'w. Deonna, Deux itudes de symborismereligieux
5 . 1 L 4 . 2 ;P l u t . C i m o n t 9 . 5 . U955),2r-11.
32See,for
example, Pelops-Zeus (ll.z below), Pyrrhos-Apollo (1I.5 below), Erechtheus-
and seasonalfruits (o)paio)seeThuc.
Athena (III.r below), Epopeus-Athena (11.5below), Palaimon-Poseidon (IIL7 below). i]3".-"",t
.ee in general Luk' Merc. 3.58.4,and cf. Od. rc.521: 11.J1.
cond zg on ivayi".ltara, ,i..r.,y6.,*"s
33Plul. Aristidesz.r, and cf. Thuc.
3.58.4; Paus. 9.2.5; Nilsson
,l9c6)
455-56; on the pent- uov irrtfliwes crritoi ltipov xai rovcrega-
trivovat xori eiolyoilvrctt.. . .
eteric agon Eleutheria see Paus. 9.2.6; Philostr. Gymn. 8.24. ttPaus.
ro.15.r,16.6.

56
SEXUALIZATION OF RITUAL KILLING
FUNERARY RITUALS

rrl
SACRIFICE/ HUNTING,
il
'l sanctuaryof their family's supporter had to be emotionally bound to his wife, though
i struction of Plataeain 427,but the victors built a
The actors are interchangeable; the regularly having to tear himself away from her to go out into the un-
own for observance irr" cult.$
"r known and hunt. Separationand bonding are thus two aspectsof a
ritual remains.
,i1 single situation. Sexuality defines the specificallymale role just as
irlli
ril much as does hunting and warring behavior.It does so, first, in the
expectationsand educativeimpulses of societyin which women play
ll'
lll I
of Ritual
7. TheSexualization
Killing:MaidenSacrifice,
no small part, and, second, in the psychologicalmakeup that the
male developed in this context. Hunting is, of course, fueled in part
by the powers of aggression,which had their original function in
mating fights. That is to say,from the very start it included an under-
current of sexualmotivation. Male aggressionand male sexualityare
closelybound up with one another, stimulated simultaneouslyand
CuIt
Phnllus almostalways inhibited together.

I lfthethemesofkillingandeatingaresointenselyenactedinrit.
ual that they are able to g.i!, .not", and transformhuman personality'
it is inconceivablethat lhe most powerful human impulse, sexuality,
The actions of bangingnand stabbing, thrusting and piercing
thus all becomeambivalentin deed just as they do in language.There
is no need to enumerate the ubiquitous military metaphors for the
sexualorgans and activity. In ancient literature the Centonuptialisby
Ausonius takes pride of place, consisting as it does of nothing but
Vergilian battle sequencespatched together so as to describea de-
would play no part. On the con1rary,sexuality is always intimately
but, flowering in great detail. Whether it be a stick or a club, a spearor a
involvei in ritual. There is no socialorder without a sexualorder;
always retains the quality of something extraordi- sword, a gun or a cannon, as a symbol of masculinitythe weapon has
,o, sexuality
"rr"r, beenequivalentto and almost interchangeablewith the sexualorgans
nary and strange.
1 Even u-oig primates, sexual behavior is ritually redirected
to from Stone Age drawings'to modern advertising.
Thus, when enthusiastic, aggressivetension reachesits peak,
demonstratepower and differencesin rank' Among someprimates'
his particularlyat the moment of success,it may suddenly turn sexual.If
the male delimits his territory by facing outward and displaying
I
as an invitationto mate is a gesture an opponent is defeated,this tension strikesinto a vacuum and must
i erectphallus.Rump-presentation
find releasein some other way. Thereforein hunting rituals, sacrifice,
an aggressive responsefrom the stronger
l of suLmission inhibiiing
partner.l It is astoundin-ghow correspondingbehavior..recurs
in hu- warlike fighting, and even in funerary cult, there are frequent periods
of license during which sexual impulses stimulated earlier can ex-
man ritual: the function-of the phallus is "apotropaic." The Babylo-
the press themselvesfreely.uSuch practices,which have been observed
nians made their boundary stones in the shape of a phallus; by ethnologists,were of coursealready suppressedin the Greek ur-
Greeksmarked their territory with herms''
Human sexuality was not alone in experiencing inordinate 'See,
of for instance,Ov. Fcsf.2.425-46,and the evidencethat Mannhardt(1875)z5r-1o1
growth, even from t(e standpoint of externals'lRather'it was part (esp.256)assemblesunder the title "schlag mit der Lebensrute."
existence' The
X n"* tension brought about by the polarity of human sFor
the associationsmale/spear, female/being wounded, see A. Leroi-Gourhan, Prl-
histoirede I'art occidental
(r96j), ng;La Barre g97o) 78,r7o. For hunting as "making love
to the animal" among modern primitives, seeG. Reichel-Dolmatoff, AmazonianCosmos
sThuc.
3.68.3. \t97t), zzo. African hunters fear that the dying animal's revenge could affect their
'on phallic display see Fehling Qg7$ Burkert (tqzg) lg-+r. orr_ rump-
1_281 masculinity-they cover their genitals and perceivethe symbolic castrationin initiation
167'68; Eibl-Eibesfeldt
presentation see Lorenz 6ge17 ioj- 'aa; Morris (t967) ry8' as an anticipatory sacrifice to their prey: L. Frobenius, Kulturgeschichte
z8-18. Afrikas (ry}),
(r97o) zor-zoz; Fehling (t97$ 7r*79.
Kudutru (t9zz)' l4-r'
'zF.X. Steinmet zer, Die babylonischen On the herms see H' Her- 6Thus,
phallus' after the gruesomesacrificeof the Tiwah festival(I.6.n.rz above):F. Grabowsky,
ter, RE XIX $88-9z, r.o i'hullor; lbid' 1713-44,on the apotropaic Internt. Archiu . Ethnographie
f z fi899), r99-2oo.
3Morris (tS6Z\S and
Passim.

58 59
FUNERARY RITUALS SEXUALIZATION OF RITUAL KILLING
SACRIFICE, HUNTING,

ban culture, but the ambiguity of the extraordinary could not be sa$ifice, for war, and for the hunt. Artemis is both huntressand vir-
altogethersuppressed.The girl losing her virginity at a sacrificialfes- gin; her servant Hippolytus makes chastity the guiding principle o{
tivalbecame a stock motif in comediesand novels'-an almost pre- his life. And yet, Aphrodite triumphs in his fall, and her temple
dictablefall. When leaving office, the Boeotianpolemarchswere said standsbesidehis sanctuaryand grave.''? In the growth of the individ-
to sacrificeto Aphrodite, the not-altogether-legitimate wife of Ares.' ual, life's necessarypolarity, the far-swinging movementbetween re-
In depicting theiall of Troy, archaic artistsportray Menelaus attacking nunciation and fulfillment, is in constant danger of becoming one-
Helen witli a drawn sword, but everyone knew that he threw his sided and absolute.Beforean agon, which was itself also a sacrificial
sword away the moment Helen bared her breast in supplication. festival, athleteshad to go on a vegetariandiet and abstainfrom sex;
Thus, whaiwould otherwise have ended in death becamethe start of victory and sacrificeat the altar were frequently followed, according
a happy marriage.' Another especially_well-lovedscene portrays to mythic fantasy,by a wedding festival." Many mysteries required
Aias, heavily armed, tearing the virgin Cassandraaway naked from sexualabstinencefor a certain period precedinginitiation; some form
the altar and statue of Athena, the virgin goddess' An apocryphal of sexualitythen would accompanythe blissful shockof the conclud-
variant of the myth tells how he raped her as well. It is the am- ing ceremonY.r{
bivalencein the confrontationbetweenwarrior and virgin that makes The preliminaries correspond to the order reestablishedin the
both pictorial and narrative accountsso thrilling." closingrituals. And just as the realm of the extraordinary-the expe-
Suppliants at a sanctuary are inviolable, especiallyat -an-altar, rience of hunting, sacrifice,and death-is sexualized,so the every-
preciseiybecausethat is the place where blood must be spilled. In a day order is desexualizedbythe tool of civilization, that is, by ritual.
si-ila. vein, Greekswere strictly prohibited from "having intercourse In all human societies,even among "primitives," there is some kind
in a sanctuary."" The very ritual that gives expressionto the realm of of sexualtabu, though observersof foreign culturesmay at first notice
the extraordinaryalso painstakinglycontrols it. only the violation of tabus that they share.Above all, the prohibition
Such prohibitions correspondto the pattern at the beginning and againstincest is universally recognizedby mankind and is the basis
the end oi sacrificialritual. Preciselybecausethe act of killing is sex- t'Paus. z.3z.r-3. For the
ually charged, sexualabstinenceis frequently a Part of preparing for sanctuaryof 'A9po6i"rqsdlri'Irro\it<p in Athens see Eur.
HW. )o with Schol., lGlz 724.69,r9o, 3ro.z8o;W. S. Barret,Euripides Hippolytos(1964),
3-ro. For Hippolytus as a vegetarianand Orphic see Eur. Hipp. 952-54,a crux mter-
TForexample,Men. Ssm.(Adonia); Epif. (Tauropolia)' pretum(cf. Barret ad loc.;Dodds Il95r) t48, 169.86;D. W Lucas,Ce ao jg46l 6S-6g),
8Xen.Hell. actuallyonly a specialaccentuationof the hunter paradox.For the hunter'ssexualabsti-
5.4.4;cl.III.r.n.rr8 below.
,Depicted already on the pithos relief from Mykonos (ca. 67o n.c.), schefold (1964) nence see CB III, r9r -zoo; also HandwArterbuch dt . Aberglaubens lY , 579.The necessary
break between the hunter and the alluring woman is alio manifested through the pot-
t35b; fittle lliad tr. t7 Allen : 14 Bethe;Aristoph. Lys. t55; the Kypselos-chest,Paus' iphar motif in the myth of Peleus(Hes. fr. zo8-zogM.-W.; Apollod.
5.r8.3;Brommer(196o) 297--g7;furtherelaboratedbyStesichoros(zorPage)andlbykos 3.164-26);an un-
successfulbreak, in the myth of Kephalos and Prokris-there, instead of killing a
(296Page).L. Ghali-Kahil, Lesenliuements et retoursd'H€line$95), V-98'
beast,the hunter kills the woman who has pursued him (seePherekydes,FGrHist
t\lliu Persisp. to8, z-6 Allen; Alkaios, ZPE r (196) 8r-95; SchefoldQ96$ 4t-42, 1F
34, and cf. Partheniosro; "Plut." Par.min. troe). The animals flee Enkidu after he
pl. 77; Brommer (196o)z1z-84 the Kypselos-chest,Paus.5.19'5;PR ll, rz66-74' For makeslove to the whore: see the epic of GilgameshI, ANET
74-75.For sexualabsti-
ih" tup" seeCallim. fr. 35;Lycoph. 148-62;Apollod' Epit.5.zz; PRll, tz67-68; C' Rob- nencebeforewar seeI Sam. z.r:6;W R. Smith (r89g) .-.z1; Amphitryon, Apollod. 2.55;
ert, Rom.Mitt. t (tgtB), 15-42- beforesacrifice,seeI.r.n.z above.
rrHdt. 2.64. Myths frequently tell of shocking exceptions:Atalanta with Melanion, t3On
abstinencesee Philostr. Gymn.zz; paul in I Cor.
9.25;on the agon and the wed-
Apollod. 3.ro8, or with Hippomenesin the Srottoof Meter, Ov' Met' rc'686-7o4;Lao- t: the Argonauts on Lemnos, Simonides
Silt, 547 l,age, pind. pyth. 4.:53 with
coon in tie temple of Thymbraic Apollo, Euphorion fr. 7o Powell; Melanippos and schol., Pind. Ol.
4.23-y; for the Danaids, see Apollod. z.zz; paus. j,.rz.z; for penel-
Komaitho in the temple of Artemis Triklaria at Patrai, Paus.7.].9.1;Poseidonand oPe,see Paus.3.rz.r; for Marpessa,
see Bacchyl.zo A, Schol. pind. Isthm.4.gz;for
Medusain the templeof Athena, Ov. Met. 4.798-8o1;the begettingof Theseusthrough rhebes (Asia Minor), see Dikaiirchus
fr. 5.2W.
Poseidonand Aigeus in the sanctuaryof Athena, Hyg. Fab.17;etc. The backgroundis '{Fehrfe
Qgro) 47-18(Demeter/Ceres), r59 (Bacchanatia),ry6- 37(Isis);Schol. Nik.
determined in pirt by hieros-gamosrituals (A. Klinz, "Hieros Gamos," Diss' Halle'
7gt); on the aniient Near Easiern tradition see H. Schmdkel,"Heilige Hochzeit und :tex 47o.Diod. 4.6.4 iv re rais ze,tr.erais
axe6ov
oi p.6uovtais Lrcuvotaxais.dl,Lci xad zcis
dz'clcrarsoriros 6 rleds (scil. flpianos 'IBurpatrros) wyyauet nvos rttrtils, p"era
Fiohes Lied," Abh. f . d. Kunde desMorgenlandesSzlt 11956l;S. N' Kramer, The Sacred Tdtrortosxqi rat6td.s napetcay6pevos Ev tais
Buoiats.
MarriageRile I1969]).

6o 6r
FUNERARY RITUALS SEXUALIZATION OF RITUAL KILLING
SACRIFICE, HUNTING,

for our conceptof the family.'5On the other hand, aggressionplays a giving,her.a life for.a life.'oIn the cult of Aphrodite, deflowering oc-
prominent part in erecting thesebarriers, in providing motivation- curred in the sanctuary itself-admittedly a custom that remained
primarily that of jealousy-and in the methods of regulating them. foreignto the Greeks.2'Andif, on this occasion,virgins had to spend
Mockery plays a specialrole here. Man cannot afford to exposehim- their first night with total strangers,this too servedto removerespon-
self in an aggressivesocietyas out of control and helpless,"the beast sibility in a way familiar to us, once again, from sacrificial rilual.
with two biiks.,, Therefore,all permissibleand necessarysexualac- gometimesit was the groom, in disguise,who assumedthe stranger,s
tivity is restricted to a permanently defined area which is, in turn, role. Reparationsfollowed the wedding "sacrifice,"just as they db in
coniecratedand tabu, almost as though the wild outdoors were Pres- a normal sacrifice.After the fact, the husbandbrought gifts and started
ent within: such is the immovablebed of Odysseus,"built into a wild supporting the new family.,,Thus here too the new order was based
tree rooted in the earth, the lectusiugalis' Marriage is a Oeopds,an on sacrifice.The rituals do not mitigate the transition; rather, they
institution, and, once instituted, it endures in its sacrednessand can- stressit by creatinginhibitions and guilt. It is unimportant whether or
not be abrogated. not an individual leads a placid existence,as long as the continuance
Of course,this order will be violated again and again, only to be of societyis guaranteedby a durable structure.And the human soul
reinstituted.The older generationdies out and the younger one takes is suited to such structurespreciselybecauseof its capacityfor inhibi-
its place.Here, too, sacrificialritual is the meansof reestablishingan tion and resignedobedience.
order of the extraordinary. Even marriage, as initiation, is the product To succeedin the tensionbetweenthe indoor and outdoor worlds,
of sacrificial rites." The sacrificialmeal that sealsthe new bond is per- man must practicerenunciation.In renouncinglove, one'sfrustration
meated by rituals making the bride and groom the butt of make- canbe transformedinto aggressiveability.'?3 The only activity that can-
believeaggression.By hurling flowers" and smashingpots, outsiders not under any circumstancesbe renouncedin a hunting soiiety is the
come to grips with the couple'snew status.Above all, the bride must hrrnt itself, and yet hunting is not innate-it has to be taughi. Each
suffer the male act. Defloration turns into sacrificemainly becauseof
mPoll.
the exclusivelyhuman phenomenon of sheddingblood in first inter- 3.38i1 6i rpd yap"ouBuoia rport\etrr. . . and cf. plat. Leg.774e;Men. fr. 9o3
Koerte;Hsch. yaptuv EBq;for Artemis see Eur. tph. Aul. 433 and cf.
course.The bride's alienationand anxiety can be easedthrough tem- 7rg rporilten
cacirter'v;depending on local customs,Hera, Aphrodite, nymphs, and Iocal heroines
porary ritual substitutes.In Rome, for example,a spear was used to can also be recipients of the preliminary wedding sacrifice.sacrificing the bride,shair is
part the bride's hair, a spear that had dripped with blood and had common:at Troizen (Hippolytus), seeEur. Hipp. t4z3- z7;at Delos (Opis and Hekaerge),
killed men." Greek brides had to make a sacrificecalleda rpor6),oca, seeHdt. 4.34, Paus.7.41.4;at Megara(Iphinoe), seepaus. r.43.4, and cf. paus.
2.33.r
(Troizen),z'34'rz (Hermione);Plut. Am'. narr.
in which they apparently appeasedthe anger of the virgin Artemis, vzb (Hariartos);prut.Aristides:o (pra-
!a9a);Agathocles,FGrHist 472F r (Praisos);procl. 1n Tim. ril 176.26Diehl (Athens).
Likewise, the d.pxreia for Artemis of Brauron and a parallel rite in
Munichia aie prelim-
tsM. Mead, lnternat. Encycl. SocialSciences 0S68), rr5-zz with lit.; La Barre (r97o) inary wedding sacrifices:seeHarp. dpxreiew = fC)Hist
Z :,42Fg, Brelich(1969))+o_Zg,
@'sss. with a goat as substitutevictim iee I.2.n.35 above.characteiistically,
npor'6,Irerocan
t" Od. 23.:.84-2o4,296\rixrpor.oro,\atdv Beop'ov. @eop'osis likewise the name for sac-
ilT T:3"-"pteliminary sacrifice"generalljr-1see
especially
Harp. s.o., An. Bekk. 291.5,LS 4.2),
rificial remains which have been deposited: see LS 44 B 17 = Abh Berlin i9z8), 8' zz. for the mystery initiation (Kratinosfu. r&,, Caf t O7y.
Deubner (tglz) U derives the name Beop'ogoposfrom the latter meaning, the ancient per se, only in southernItalian Lokroi: seeKearchos fr.43 aW.,Just.zr.3;
-t1_":":*
rr' l'nicknet Die LokrischenTonreliefs
tradition from the former. Yet in the act of securing the order the two virtually coincide. (1968),g-r3, who connectsthe votive reliefs (fifth
tTon wedding rites seeK. F. Hermann and H. Bluemner, Lehrbuchdergriech.Priaatalter' with the cult of Aphrodite, and also considerswhether the Ludovisi and
:enfury)
thiimer t.8823), 268-78; V. Magnien, "Le mariage chez les Grecs," Mtl Cumont Q916), rn-n::might belong to this temple of Aphrodite (8S-gr). Seealso the legend
Sllo^n
vr .ne heroof Temesa,Paus.6.6.7_rr.On Cyprus
3o5-2o M. P Nilsson, "Wedding Rites in Ancient Greece," OpusculaIII (196o),24t-5o; seeHdt. r.r99; Justin.rg.5.4;NiIs_
L. Deubner, "Hochzeit und Opferkorb," ldl 4o (t925), zro-23. This is not the Placeto (t9ro) 4o-42. On'ttre presentation to strangers see also
loi_!1?:6)^i65_!Z;
o' r'reud, Das Tabuderfetr_rle
give more than a few references;seealso I.5.n.42 above. Virginitiit, Ges.Schr.5 Og2i, 212_)7 : Ges.Wike e
r6r*8o. e94),
tEOn xaraTigl.taro and related topics seeE. Samter,Familienfeste derGriechenund Rdmer bAvoxa)ruzrripra:
(rpr), t-t4; his animistic interpretation, however, is not compelling: cf. I.r.n.r6 see PhererydesvS 7 B z;A. Briickner,Anakarypteria(g4. wincker-
mannsProgr.rgg); AM
above. -J'^Dollard, t2 (lwil, 7g-r22.
rsCaelibaris hasta:seeFestus 6z-63M.; Ov. Fasf.2.56o;Plut. Rom.t 5.7; Q. Rom.z85a-d; ed., Frustrationand Aggressionugls);L. Berkowitz, rnternat.Encycr. sociar
Jctencest
Arnob. 2.67.' e96g), r6g_7a.

6z 63
SACRIFICE/ HUNTING/ FUNERARY RITUALS SEXUALIZATION OF RITUAL KILLING

new generationmust be forced to hunt, just as, much later, with the Ethnology has shown that maiden-sacrificeoccurred, with dis-
/'progress"
of civilization, eachis forcedinto military service.Hunting concerting frequency,from Mexico to polynesia. perhaps it was not
and war are sanctionedby social custom as tests of manhood, and unknown even among the Greeks,although usually a s mbolic (ani-
they take precedenceover courtship and marriage. Man declinesto mal) substitute was used here as well. Maybe thaf is how we must
love in order to kill: this is most graphicallydemonstratedin the ritual understand the early Palaeolithicsubmersion sacrifices:2'a young
slaughterof "the virgin," the potential sourceboth of a happy union doe, after being killed and weighted down with rocks, *o..ld b"
and of disruptive conflict within the group. In the maiden-sacrifice, pushed into the water in springtime. In Greece,the maiden would be
all the tensions-the jealousy of the elderly, the strivings of the represented-bya goat-for Artemis, a pig for Demeter.2o The myths,
young-are released.An irreparableact transformsan erotic game however, call them Iphigenia and Kore and, at least in some rituals
into fighting fury. Desperate"searching"turns into "hunting." In the (initiation and mystery rites), the substitution is made explicit.
period of preparation, maiden-sacrificeis the strongestexpressionof The great sacrificethat followed, the departure for hunting and
the attempt to renounce sexuality.It comesat the start of fighting ex- war, could thus be psychologicallymotivated as a punitive exlpedi-
peditions and war, and it precedesthe great sacrificialinstitution in tion, as vengeancefor the maiden'sdeath. The maiden-sacrificepro-
farming, namely, the harvest festival.'?a In hunting myth, the sacri- vided the basisand the excusefor the subsequent kilring, and the res-
ficed virgin becomes the bride of the quarry whether it is a bear, a titution that foliowed referred mainly to her ,,disappearance,,:
a whale;'s in agricultural myth, she is connectedwith the she
buffalo, or returned, symbolicallyand ritually restored,as the fbius of the com-
seed that must go beneath the earth in order to insure the return of pany of youths brought togetherby the double sacrifice.For this rea-
the crops. in any case, as a preliminary, maiden-sacrifice stands in son, a city goddesscould also serveas ,,thevirgin.,,rn
contrast, and provides a balance, to the main sacrificethat supplies Among the Greeks,preliminary maiden-sacrificeis for the most
the food. It is a ritual of giving in order to get: in the main sacrifice, part a prelude to war.30when beginning their military service,for ex-
fulfillment comes in the sparagmos, in cutting up and eating; during ample, the Attic ephebesmarchedin a processionand made sacrifice
the preliminaries,however, there is an anticipatoryself-denialwhich in honor of Artemis, the "goddess of the outdoor world,,, Artemis
consequently requires other forms of destruction-submerging in Agrotera;3'they swore an oath in the sanctuaryof Aglauros, a king,s
water, hanging from trees.tu daughter who met with a mysterious death.3rw" t.,o* no details of
2aForthe sacrifice of a virgin before fishing see GB II r47 (Algonquins and Hurons), II
r58 (Guinea), II r49 (lndia), II r5r-52 (Egypt.' cf. E. Mader, Die Menschenopferder alten "Maringer (1956)48-42 on the prelude to the hunt; cf. Mtiller-Karpe(1966) 224_25.
rCf.
Hebrtier und der benachbarten Vdlker lr9o9j, z6-27); before the harvest, see GB VII 237 n. zo and I.2.n.35above;V.z below
(Mexico), and cf. the virgins sent to the dragon at Lanuvium, Prop. 4.8.3-r4. The sacrr nThus,
a myth about the sacrificeof a virgin was linked to the Tycheof Antioch and
the
fice of a virgin appears atavistically especially during famine and drought. It may be citygoddessofLaodikeia:seepaus. Fcr|iistg54Fro;porph.Abst.2.56;cf.paus.3.16.8.
conducted symbolically or in actuality: see Mannhardt ($7) )27-Jj, and cf. the leg- about the (willing) sacrificeof a maiden are mainly connected
end of the [IapSivotKopavi|es, Korinna and Nikander in Ant. Lib. 25, and Ov. Met. l$n"
sanctuaries with particurar
and their rites: Agesilaossacrificedat Aulis (xin. Heil.3.a.3;Rlui.
Ages.6)
4.692-99; for Aio xcipar see n. 33 below. See, in general, D. Wyss, Strukturen der Moral Pelop'zr; on the ritual see pJus. j.9.4,9.rg.6-7).
on the sacrificefor the,,Leuktrian
(1968), g6If ., on "die Verschriinkung von Inzestverbot und Opfermythologem." maidens,"where a colt was substituted
'?5Onthe bride of the bison, a myth of the Blackfoot Indians concerning the origin of the
for the maiden, see Xen. Hell. 6.a.7; Diod.
Pet.z.'-zz; paus.9.r3.5, 743, ,'ptut.. Am. narr.
:.?iry 1-"1
vtrgin 774d.Forthe sacriiiceof the
bison dance, see J. Campbell, The Masks of God. I: PrimitizLeMythology (t95), r$-86. Makaria see Eur. Heracr.4o8-6or; schol. plat. Hp. Mi. 291a.For the sacrifice
vrrgin at Thebessee Paus. of a
On the bride of the whale, a myth of the Chukchis, see I. Trencsdnyr-Waldaptel, Unter-
9.17.r (in conjunction with the pre-wedding ritual, n. ro
suchungen zur Religionsgeschichte(t966), z8-29. ln a similar way Andromeda and He- Sbvo; during the Messenianwar, seepaus.4.9.4(followingMyron). cf. arsothe tear-
sione are given to the sea monster. rn8apartof a dishonored
woman as a call to war, Ot;ud gi ,g,r9.
'?6C.Gallini, "Katapontismos," SMSR "Apreprs
)4 0963), 6r-9o; cf .lll.7-8 below On rcris Eylpagais ... inoprev<rau t!1 ,ApreptLt ri1 'A7por6pg,IG II/III,
]j:t"-"t
d.ncryyo1r,6vr7see Paus. 8.21.6-7; Callim. fr. r87; a hanged woman becomes Hekate, :q.b-9, roo8.7, rotr.t. roz9.g, roz9.6, ro3o.5; Hesperia
ueubner 34 e965), 256;16 $96), f,6;
Callim. fr. 46r; on Helena Dendritis (Rhodes) see Paus. 3.tg.ro; on Ariadne hanged see f91z) zo9.
*Philochoros,
Plut. Tftes. 20.1; on goats hanged in the ritual in which the myth tells of the maiden's FGrHist F ro5;plut. Arc. r5.7;on the ephebic oath see L. Robert,
suicide (Melite) see Ant. Lib. 4.7. Etudesepigraphiques 328
et piilologiques(ty8), z9t-3o7.

64 65
SACRIFICE, HUNTING, FUNERARY RITUALS SEXUALIZATION OF RITUAL KILLING

the sacrificethat surely accompaniedthe oath. Beforesetting off for being through the battle, just as her symbolic substitute had been
war, moreovet the army sacrificedat the sanctuaryof the Hyakinthi- slaughteredin the preliminary sacrifice.similarly, there were tales
des, who, in mythology, were often portrayed as king's daughters Flling how the statueof Athena, the Palladion,fell from heavendur-
who had been killed: in the war between Erechtheus,first king of ing the primordial war between the gods and the giants,3sand how
Athens, and Eleusis, Erechtheus'daughters, of their own free will, Pallaswas named after a creatureof that name whose skin had been
offered themselvesup for sacrifice."Their death, which was repeated removed to serve as her attire.3eIn the paradox that both the god of
in sacrificebefore setting off for war, guaranteedsuccessin the sub- the hunt and the god of war were "virgins" we observethe sexuil ten-
sequentbloodshedand victory in battle. And again, immediately be- sions,the frustration and symbolicsubstitution,upon which hunting
fore battle, animals were slaughteredin great numbers as the enemy and warring behavior feeds.
looked on. If the preliminariesand the aftermathof the greatexperiencecor-
The Spartanssacrificeda femalegoat to Artemis Agrotera:v thus respond, the sequenceof guilt and atonementcan be reversed,that
beganthe deadly activity that then continued in the human slaughter is, the sacrificeof a maiden or woman can follow the battle. This oc-
of battle. A victory meant there had to be restitution, so a stakemade curs mainly in funerary ritual, although there are analogiesin sacrifi-
of oak would be set up and adorned with a captured helmet, shield, cial ritual. The demands of the dead man may, for instance,be recog-
and spear.Through this tropaion,3s a monument to the enemy'sflight, nized through an irrevocableact of renunciation,which mav in turn
those who were conqueredwere made to attest to their adversary's havea symbolicsubstitute.In this way, feelingsof guilt and ieadiness
victory. So, too, hunters already hung up their "hunting trophies"- to atone cT !9 expressed,just as death previously had been given
l horned skulls and, aboveall, skins-on a tree or a stake.3u By adding the form of killing, of an aggressivelyand sexuallymotivated act. If
to the tropaion the skin of the goat, t}l.eaigis,which had been slaugh- the sacrificeof Iphigenia precedesthe Trojan war, the sacrificeof
tered before battle, the stake came to representthe goddessAthena Polyxenafollows it. That is how Achilles gets his share of the cap-
ii with her helmet, shield, and aegis.3'The "virgin" thus came into tured women. A dead father can demand renunciationfrom his son;
his wishes are carried out by youths, veot.e rhe most detailed de-
i1 33See Eur. Erechtheus, in C. Austin, NoaaFragmenta Euripidea,fr. 65.65-89, on annual scription of a cremation with maiden sacrificewas given by an Arab
with chorusesof maidens,burnt offering without wine at the start of a
cattle-sacrifice e.mis9aryto the Rus on the Volga. There, before belng strangled on
war. In addition seePhanodemos,FGrHisfJz1 F 4; Philochoros,FGrHist328F rz. The the dead man'sbiet the victim, a volunteer,had to offJr hersif to all
third group of heroic sistersat Athens is that of the A.ta xopat, honored at the Leoko-
the participantsin the funeral.o'Doesthe namepolyxenapointto simi-
reion; the motivation for their willing sacrifice was a plague (cf. n. z4): Kock, RE XII
2000-2001. lar practices?"A period of licensegives vent to thJ extraordinary;an-
vXen. Iak. Pol. otheract of killing ends and transformsit into an order of renunciation.
4.8; Hell. 4.z.zo;Plut. lyc. zz.z; for the most part, the brief reports do
not even mention a divinity. In this contextthe art of the seeris of decisiveimportance: sexually colored fighting and killing can give rise to yet another
see Hdt. 9.18.r, 4t.4,45.2;Thuc. 6.69.2;Eur. Phoen.ry1-74, rTog-tr; Stengel(r9ro)
92-rO2.
$K. Woelcke,Bonn. -r94);different too is Athena's head-birth, which is linked to the sacrificeof a bull (Cook
lbb. tzo (rgrr), 727-2)5, F. Lammert, RE VII A (rg1$, 6$-71; III [r94o],
556_ZJ9).
Cook II (rgz5) to8-4; A. J. Janssen,Het antieketroryion 9957\. On depictionsin art sPhylarchos,
FGrHistgt F 47; F. Vian, Ia guerre desgtants(rg5z), z7g.
see Metzger Qg65)rt5-r7. The tropaion is called ArdsBpiras, Eur. Phoen.rz5o, Aros
dyaXy.ara, Corg. VS 8z B 6, becauseZeus bestows victory (cf. the inscription from Se- as the skin of Gorgo after she had been killed in the gigantomachy see Eur.
l"l"::^
linus, /G XIV 268). Di,od.3.7o.3-5: DionysiosSkytobrachion , FGrHisllzF 8 (Ad7tsas a fire-

i
::27.-97;
&Meuli (ry67) t59-6o; Callim. fr. monster like the xip.atpa). For Alhena killing her father pallas, who wanted
96; Yerg. Aen. 9.4o7;etc. For depictionsin art and ijil'\g
tu rapeher, and
on his skin, seeCic. Nat.deor.J.59;Clem. pr. z.zg;Schol.Lyk.
epigrams,seeI.z above. l"ttjlg
16.z;Ker6nyi (t952) 57-64. For pallasas a maiden slain by Athena and
37Thismust havealreadyarisenin prehistorictimes;it is symbolicallyreproducedin the ijl:jllT
rEconstifuted.t:t
as a (oavov, seeApollod. ).144_45.
Palladion (G. Lippold, RE XVIII z, t99-zo:^; on a gold ring from Mycenae, see Nilsson *?_R
II ru75-79; Ibykos fr.
3o7page;Simonides fr. 557page;Sophoclesfr. 5zu_zg pear-
Ir955),T.r7.r = Corpusderminoischen und mykenischen SiegelI [1964l,#r7; Simon [1969] so$ Eur. Hec.
ul7-582 (veav,iat5z5);Brommer gft) z9t_99.
r83; on a stucco dish from Mycenae, see Simon [1969]r8r). The old cult-statueof

ri Athena Polias at Athens is different, as it is seated (A. Frickenhaus, AM y lt9o8l,


17- jz; C. J. Herington, AthenaParthenos and AthenaPotias[t9551, 16-27; Simon 11969]
ibn Fodlan,quoted by Jaqut,English transl. in AntiquityI (rg14),
rro^ufeyd. veavt'es, pind.
":nlud fr. rzz.r.
58_62.

66 67
FUNERARY RITUALS SEXUALIZATION OF RITUAL KILLING
SACRIFICE, HUNTING,

cycle of destruction and reparation. When stimulated by sexual jeal- sacrificialram and the phallic Hermes is surely no accident. Thus,
ousy, the destructive rage operating in the battle of man against man too, when the October-Horsewas sacrificedand its tail carried bleed-
wili turn against the adversary's masculinity: when killed, a warrior ing to Regiafrom the CampusMartius, we may suspectthat the "tail"
is immediaLly castrated. This has occurred regularly in wars up until representedthe genital organ; and our suspicionsare raised to the
recent times,i, and it appears to be a basic element in man's fight- Ievel of probability by the fact that a horse'stail has too little blood
ins instinct. lt can also, without further ado, be translated into the to be of use in the ceremony.as Donkeys are sacrificedto the phal-
,'battle" with his quarry.# In mammals, the significance of hc god Priapos, and one etiologicalmyth clearly statesthat the don-
hrinte.t
the male reproductive organs is obvious. They stimulate aggression key's death is due to its remarkable and proverbial lust.aePindar
and hence are accorded special treatment when the quarry is cut up incorporatessuch associationsinto his description of the Hyperbo-
and distributed. It is certain that castration rituals play an important rean donkey sacrifice:Apollo laughs at seeing the animals' "upright
role in sacrifice,nubut because they largely belong to the "unmen- presumPtion."s
tionables," the cippqroz, we hear of them only exceptionally or by The ritual reparationcorrespondingto ritual castrationevidently
chance. For instance, only by virtue of a gruesome joke in Martial* do consistedof an especiallystriking, provocativecustom. A singlephal-
we know that the goat sacrificed to Dionysus was castrated by an as- lus was set up for worship and carried through the city as if in a
sistant at the very moment it received its death-blow. The pseudo- triumph. If this worship entailed submission, the worshipper was
explanation that in this way the meat would be freed of its goat odor forced to assumea female role and appearance-padding his body,
and thus be made edible, simply shows that the procedure was the presenting his rump. Just such practicesare known to us from Di-
same at every he-goat sacrifice, whether to Dionysus or to Aphrodite. onysiacprocessions.sr Scholarshave sought an easy explanationfor
Thus, Clement of Alexandria gives prominence to an apocryphal €G. Devereux,MnemosynelYz1 jgTo), 2g1-3o7,and cf. Eitrem
myth telling of the ram's castration;*'and the frequent association of a Q9r) z8-34; H. Wa-
genvoort, SertaPhilologica Aenipontana Q962.\,z7-87; U. Scholz, Studienzum altita-
lixhen und altrdmischen MarskultundMarsmythos(r97o), tz6- 4o,but cf . C. BennetPas-
arTheinterpretationof Tyrtaiosfr. 7 Diehl/Pratoproposedby F. Dtimmler, Philologus 56 cal, HSCP35 (r98r), 276,2.82.For worship of a horse'sphallus, V6lsi,in the Edda, see
119l,61,
(r8g), 11,has not stood up to criticism(Wilamowitz, Die llias und Homer 95't; F. Genzmer,Edda$979'), r85 nr. 3r; A. Heusler,Zeitschr. f . Volkskunde t3 g9o), z5-39.
F. Jacoby,Hermes51 lrgt}l, 24, ri R. Nierhaus, ldl Sl [1938],9o- r r3), but the non- 'e"Eral."Cat.p.9o Robert= Schol.Germ. p.
7o-p. rz9;Lact. Dia. inst.r.zt.z8, quonnE
Greek evidenceis cleat especiallythat from Egypt (Nierhaus9o);for the oT seeI sam. from Philiskos(fr. z, Tragicorum Graecorum Fragmenta p. 8r9 Nauck,); Ov. Fast.t.3gt-
18:25-27; cf. A. E. Jensen,ed., AltodlkerSild-Athiopiens 095il, 3zZ'For castrationin 44o,6319-48; H. Herter, De Priapo(rg1z), 78-85, 264-67.
connectionwith torture and the death penalty see, for instance,Plat. Gorg.471ciin sPind. Pytft.
rc.13-16; Callim. fr. :186.ro,
4gz;Simmiasand Boiosin Ant. Lib. zo; Apol-
coniunctionwith lynch law seeWilliam Faulkner,Lightin August lodorus, FGrHist 244 F rz6. Aristeas' 'Arimaspeia" may possibly have been pindar,s
*'As any big gamehunter knows, at the moment of death a maleanimalt sexualorgan source.This work may have connectedthe horse-sacrifice of Asiatic rider-nomads-
becomestumescentand emits semen,"writes G. Devereuxin Mnetnosyne 4' 2) \7970)' which has been linked to the EquusOctoberand the A6vamedha(W. Koppers, Wiener
299,though there is no detailedverification.At the great elephant-sacrifice among the Beitriige zur Kulturgeschichte und Linguistik+Itgl6l,279-477; for sourcei-seelJdG IX
Pygmies,cutting off and burying the Procreativeorgan plays a large role: R. P. Trilles, 278-96)-with the donkey-sacrifices of Asia Minor. During the castrationof an animal,
LesPygmlesdela for^t iquatorialeQy), 46o;UdG IV 88-9o, 95-roo; O. Eberle, Cenalora the Moi-Sedang(Vietnaml habituallylaugh (unpubl. note by G. Devereux).
go-5r,88-9o, ro9-rro; seealsoMeuli (1946)247-48,256.During the festivalof srFor
O,gSi), the one Attic black-figure bowl with a phallic procession see Deubner (1932)
the bull at Drdmling (Mark Brandenburg),the genitalsof the slaughteredvillage bull pl. zz, Nilsson (rglS) pl.J5, a new photograph in Pickard-Cambridge(1962)
pl. IV
were hung from the loft: A. Kuhn, MiirkischeSagenund MtirchenQ84), 168-69. (rrorence3897).For the figureson the phallus (one of them xvB6'dro|upaivuu
ttvi,
nsDuringthe sacrificeat an oath and funerary sacrifice:Stengel (r9ro) 78-84, and t*lln:descriptionof asimilarsatyr'sgestureinSoph.
I c h n . n z ) , s e e L u k .S y r . D . z 8
L5.n.8 above.During purification sacrifice:1.5.n.:.3.The uiresof the sacrificialvictim gctr)toug6oot Arcvtv<p
iytipovaw, Euloiut gc)tloior xoli tivipas fu),duousxadlovet,
are kept and carriedin i kernosat the Taurobolionand the Kriobolionof the Meter cult: gleu liv etvexa iyti oix iptri , with a clear allusion to the femalerole (cf. Herter, RE
CIL Xll 1567,XIll 5ro, 522,525,r75r; Hepding Qgo) r9o-93. t?{, 6z; "auf}esetzt," but this does not necessarilymean that the figures are por-
:1
* 3 . r 4 . . . s t a b a t m o r i t u r u s a d a r a s h i r c u s . . . q u e m T u s c u s m a c t a r e d e o c u m o e l l e t h a r u s p e x l a seatedposition).For the rest, seeHerte, RE XIX 1673-gr, ,7ir-r3.
"T"d i"
et acutafalcesecarct I taeterut immundae ,1" pygal symbolism of the padded dancers(who are preciselynof ithyphallic)
dixcrat agresti forte rudiqueuiro I ut cito testiculos ^^":
see.E.
carnis ahiret odor. For a phallus with a he-goat's legs at the Dionysia on Delos see BCH 3r Buschor, AM 51 1rg4), to5-to6; L. Breitholz, Die dorische Faiceim griichischen
':'!*y:! aor dem5. lahrhundert(Gdteborg, 96o\, r4g-54, who is too quickl however,
\7907),5@-507. tu posrt "magic"
otClem.Pr. z.t5.z;V4.n.44below. in place of the purely biological-physicalfactors. In the rite with the

68 69
SACRIFICE/ HUNTING, FUNERARY RITUALS SEXUALIZATION OF RITUAL KILLING

these phallic processionsin the term fertility rlfes, Ieaving open the rather detailed picture of the ritual. A large phallus would be built
question of whether this fertility is animalic or vegetal, or both at from a beam, painted with wax colors, and equipped with large
once. The act which alone producesfruit, that is, the union of male wooden wings. The phallus-bird has long been known to us from an
and female, is preciselywhat the phallusesdo not indicate: they do often-reproducedvotive offering on Delos and from the art of Attic
not stand with their headsin the earth but, rather, upright. They are vase-painters.In the Delian ritual, however, it was driven on a lead-
"erected," "aroused,"" impressive rather than reproductive. It has weighted wagon down to the "river"; while the wagon sank in the
caused some puzzlement that those carrying the phallus are not water,the phallus-bird floatedout to seaand out of sight.s This phal-
ithyphallic, that Dionysus riding the lewd donkey is soft and effemi- lagogiais clearly a closing ritual, for the act of worship includes dis-
nate. This polarity is understandable,even necessaryin view of the posingof the objectof worship. In the mythologicalversion, the same
tensionsand inhibitions containedin sacrificialritual. The phallopho- eventsoccur in the fate of Thoas, son of Dionysus and king of Lem-
ria presupposessacrificialcastrationand assumesthe characterof a nos: after the Lemnian women had exterminatedall other men, Thoas
restoration and reparation consonant with the transition from se- was brought down to the beach in a Dionysiac processionand set
riousnessto merriment, the period of license. afloatin a wooden coffin." There is an even earlierexampleof a phal-
The etiologicalmyth clearly shows that setting up the Dionysiac lus floating away on the sea in Greek mythology. When Kronos, at
phallus is a restorationafter somekind of death. Dionysushimself, as Earth'sinstigation, castratedthe father of the heavens,he threw the
the archetypeof his worshippers,promisedProsymnosthat he would severedportions behind him into the sea-plainly a ritual gesture
submit to him like a woman. Returning from the dead when Prosym- embeddedin a speculativemyth, even though we are no longer able
nos had died, the god set up a phallus made of figwood. Once again, to localizethe ritual.*
Clement of Alexandria exposedthis myth in a polemic," but Lukian The larger the phallus, the greaterthe element of humor, of the
clearly alludes to it, and his allusion is explicitly substantiatedin yel'oiov.For man, the inventor of seriousweapons, the lighthearted
sixth-centuryvase-paintingsof the phallophoria. threats in obscenegesturesare all too transparent.Aggression dis-
Inscriptions from the Delian Dionysia have provided us with a
aThe decisivecontribution is
R. Vallois,"I/agalma des Dionysiesde D6los,,,BCH 46
elephant's phallus, the Pygmy chieftain is dressed as a bride (cf. n. 44 above). At the (:gzz), 94-rrz. G. M. Sifakis, Studiesin the History oi HellenisticDrama(ry67\,
7-r1,
ASvamedha,the queenlies with the horsewhich had been killed; seealso I.8.n.15be- gives an overview of the Delian Dionysia. He is hasty, however, in speaking of the
low. A phallic rite was observed at the Altaic horse-sacrifice:D. Zelenin, lnternat. Ar- god's "epiphany" (rz\, and overlooksthe phallus swimming away. The inscriptions
chiaf . Ethnographie z9 QgzB),$ff .; UdG lX 399-411.It takes place partly before, partly clearly show that the cart remains and is repaired from time to time, but that the
after the sacrifice. winged agalmais producedanew everyy"ur. ih" topographyis uncertain;the inscnp-
52Oclrlrousdyeipew: see Luk., n. tions mention the "Leukothion" and a "river."
5r above; cf. the black-figure lekythos, Athens 969o
(ABV 5o5.r) in Metzger Q96) 5r-52, pl. 25, where satyrs dance around a phallus as For the votive offering of Karystios see BCH 3r (r9o7\, 5o4,fig. r8; for an archaicde-
they would for an ascending goddess (cf. Metzger [1955] 5o). Cf. W. Wickler, Sfan- piction of the phallus-birdseeCh. Dugas,"Les vasesde l'Heraion," DilosX (t928), rz,
#28; cf. C. Berard,AK 9 e966),
mesgeschichte und RitualisierungQ97o) 253 on the herms: "keine Fruchtbarkeits-, son- %-96;8. Vermeule,AK tzfr969), pl. :_r.4t5.
$Val.
dern soziale Drohsymbole." Flacc. Arg. z.z4z-3oz; a red-figure bowl, Berlin z1crc: ARV24o9.43;Burkert
$Clem. Pr. 2.34, and cf. Paus.2.37.5(Ilo)'up"vosCdd. Tzetz. ad Lyk. zrz (flot ivltvos); 1r97o).7-8;III.6 below.Megas(1956)rr7-18 reportsfrom TyrnabosiThessaly that, after
);
Schol. Luk. p. r87 (KoporBos).Dionysus 6z,i p.6cqs (scil. r4s orxfis) 6tiBl Et. M. a testival meal on a mountain, a "king" is consecratedand led, sitting on a donkey
backward, with a phallus through thelillage, and that in the evening-he is
455.25. There is a different etiology for the phallus-cult in the legends about Archi- dumpei
mto the,water.The zrAocogioroin the cult oilsis (Apul. Mel. u,.t7;L. Vidtnu.t,
lochus (Archilochus-monument EIIII, Arch. Eph. lt95zl, 4z-43; M. Treu, Archilochos Isisund
Jarapisbeiden Griechenund Rdmern(r97ol,
[tgSgl, +Z-+8; I. Tarditi, Archilochuslrg68], 6-Z), Pegasusof Eleutherai (i.e., city Di- 76-87\ aie probably a sublimated version of
i the same ritual.
onysia; cf. Schol.Aristroph. Ach. 243,Paus.r.2.5), or Ikarios (Schol.Luk. p. 2lr.r4-

li, zrz.g; z8o.r-rz): the god punishes those who scorn his prophet by making them
ithyphallic, a condition that ends only with the production of artificial phalluses. That
which rises out of the unconscious as something overwhelming and oppressive for
$Hes.

lu":ug:
l*tt.di*
Tft. t76-zoo. Both Anatolian and Cypriot ritual may be in the background;the
presupposesthe sacrificeof a goat for Aphrodite (if. n.
46 above) liie those for
itr':,payia (cf. Simon [r96fl z5z; for an archaic depiction from Argos see
man is rendered "do-able" in the rite and is thereby overcome. The third, Egyptianiz- ggq. On the strange clay figurine from Perachora,a bearded Ap-hrodite
lii ing, etiology.-since Isis cannot find Osiris'sorgan, she erectsartificial phalluses (Plut.
1* ?i bg6gl,
So*i.S-.!p_out of testicles(67515os.c.), see H.
payne, perachora I eg4o), 2.,r' 32,

lii ls. 358b; Diod. r.zz.7; Euseb. Praep.Ea. z.r.zt)-situates the phallus-cult squarely in
the context of restitution following the act of tearing apart.
l:.1o2;
W. Sale,TAPA9z (196r), 5o8-zr . Cf . alsoC. devereuxin Echanges
catons,Mil. Lioi-strauss(tg7o),
rzzg_52.
e:tcommuni-

li'l 7o 71
SACRIFICE/ HUNTING/ FUNERARY RITUALS FATHER GOD AND GREAT GODDESS

solvesinto laughter. It is characteristicthat rituals requiring serious-


sentationsallow us to draw only uncertain conclusionsabout visual
ness could once again symbolicallysubstitutea weapon for the phal- conceptsin early times, and these are no older than Upper palaeo-
lus-the weaponof the hunted animal,the horns of the goat or bull. lithic. But already in Lower Palaeolithicfinds there is evidenceof rit-
According to the myth, for instance,Heraklesbroke off the horn of ual activity in hunting and funerary custom. Under these circum-
the bull-shapedAchelooswhile fighting for his bride Deianeira.u'The stances,any attempt to discover the Ursprung der Gottesideewlll
broken-off horn turned into the "horn of plenty," brimming with simply reflect one's own assumptions;it will be an act of faith. The
flowers and fruit (it is hardly accidentalthat, in one instance, phal- only certaintyappearsto be that from the very start, the rites of hunt-
luses rather than fruits project from Herakles' cornucopiae).'" Already
ing, sacrifice,and funerals played a decisivepart.
in the Upper Palaeolithic representation of the Venus of Laussel, the Studentsof religion havelong attemptedto graspand reconstruct
goddessis holding a horn in her hand.'o And perhaps it is significant stage of religion without gods, a pre-deistic level; belief in gods
a
that on Corinthian vases, Dionysiac padded dancersso often carry would be precededby animism and this, in turn, by a pre-animism
horns from which they drink wine. This too is a horn of plenty; sacri- characterizedby formless notions of Mana and "simple" magical
ficing a bull is after all also part of the dithyramb."' rites. "God is a latecomerin the history of religion."' It has sincebe-
Sexualreproduction and death are the basic facts of life. Mutu- comeclear that the assumption on which this theory is based comes
ally determinant and interwoven, both are actedout in the sacrificial from modern preconceptions.Scholarssaw their own religion as the
ritual, in the tension between renunciationand fulfillment, destruc- culminationof a development,as though it containedno primitive ele-
tion and reparation.The stelebuilt on a gravecan take the form of a ments,and assumedthat this developmentproceededfrom "the sim-
phallus.u' Orgies and death are close neighbors. Thus, ritual itself ple" to the complex-as though life, even in its earlieststages,were
serves in the processby which the group perpetuatesits existence not a vast and intricate systemof balances.Against these tendencies,
through death. Wilhelm Schmidt'gathered impressiveevidence for his theory that
there was a belief in a single, father{ike god at the very start of hu-
man evolution, as it appearsamong the most primitive hunters. He
did not see how this coincided with Sigmund Freud's theory devel-
oped almost contemporaneously,which likewise posited a father-like
god at the beginning of man'sdevelopment.Of course,what Schmidt
B. FqtherGodand saw as a primordial revelation,Freud viewed as a primordial catastro-
phe: patricide.
GreatGoddess
rG. van
der Leeuw Phiinomenologie der Religioneg1),87; cf. the survey in Nilsson
(tg5:).36-67. The theory of animism goes bick to i. S. 'fylor,s primitioe
Culture eBTr)
Trying to reconstructthe ideasor conceptsof preliterateagesis a and affectedthe study of Greek religio-nprimarily througtrJ. Harrison's first great
book
game in which nothing can be verified. The earliestpictorial repre- l*ttJ:t
ed. r9o3). The thesis of pre-animismwas formulated by R. R. Marett (see
rne labu-Mana Formula as a Minimum Definition of Religion,,' ARW
rz lr9o9l, rfl6_
5TArchilochus fr. r8r Bergk : Hsch. pouuoxepa;Diod.4.35.4;Apollod. 2.l.48;Ov. Met. 94)and was followed by Nilsson (seeesp. lrSSSl
+Z-60, 68-7r), Deubner liee t.a.n.z
(r97o), rr-28, 115-19.
9.7-92; cf. H. P. lsler, Acheloos :f-","j Y{b-t7 ltytl,3zr-35; in Chantepiede la Saussaye,Lehrbuchder Religionsge-
nGazetteArchiologique (fi7il, pl. z6; P. Baur, AIA Latte ([1959] iz-t4). The posiiion drew protest froin wat-
) 9 O9oil, 159; Furtwangler, R.&ll YYt:ll'lryz5l,4zt-3o);
ter !' otto (Die GdtterGriechenlands
| 2176. suPPosesthat the belief [1929])and his school. Recently,La Barre (r97o) still
vMtiller-Karpe in god came iaie and was precededby shamanism(ro, +lg,
Q966)z5z, T. 93.r. etc.).
osee n. 'zud-G;
5r above;III.7 below. For the sacrificeof a bull seePind. Ol. r1.r9; Simonides applied to prehistory by H. Ktihn, Dasprobremdesr-Irmonotheismas (Abh. Mainz,
fr. 79 Diehl; Burkert Q,966)98. :z;-criticized by R. Pettazzoni, ,,Das Ende des Urmonotheismus?,, Numen
6lForAsia Minor seeG. Perrotand Ch. Chipiez, HistoiredeI'artY (r89o), ,i]f_oJ1 3
48-5r; Herter, tS0-Sl; 5 Q958), r6t-63. The concept of an Urmonotheism is suspect, but the
RE XIX r7z8-13; F. Poulsen, DelphischeStudien Qgz4), fig. 8; AA (1919), t7t-74. For ;11^9,
wuet m a supreme god is more
widespread ind older than the proponents of evolution
Scandinaviasee E. Mogk, Reallexikon dergermanischen Altertumskundelll, 4t5. had supposed.

72 73
SACRIFICE, HUNTING, FUNERARY RITUALS FATHER GOD AND GREAT GODDESS

Freud'sfascinatingconstruct,developedmainly in his book Tofem that spiritual and-socialstructuresbeganto evolvewhich made killing
andTabu,'proceedsfrom Darwin, on the one hand, and from Robert- the foundation of cultural order.
son Smith'sdescription of sacramentalsacrifice,on the other. Among In hunting, intraspecificaggressionfocuseson the hunted animal
the primitive hominid hordes,brothers joined togetherto kill and eat and is thus deflected from man. But in order for this aggressionto
their father becausehe jealously prevented them from sharing his achieveits goal, instincts that inhibit aggression-namely, responses
women. Yet, this crime was avengedby an inner compulsion within to female sexualityand infant behavioru-have to be blocked. In the
these now-human brothers. Obedient to the dead man, they submit- hunter'simaginationand in mutual actsof encouragement,the quarry
ted to the newly createdorder of renunciation and sexualtabu' The could not appear as woman or child but, rather, had to seem-,,big;,
father becamemightier than before and was worshipped as a god. and "masculine," even when it was only a rabbit. The fact that tfie
Freud seesthe reenactmentof this primordial crime in sacrificialand most profitable game was the largest mammals-cows, bears, mam-
funerary ritual. So, too, within the individual's soul, repressedwithin moths-and that the largest, though not the tastiest, specimensin
his subconscious,stirs the desireto commit the crime of Oedipus: to eachcasewere male, plays into this as well.'The hunter'saggressive-
kill his father and marry his mother. nesswas, however, modified in a remarkableway. It was not his aim
Regardlessof the psychologicalsignificanceof the Oedipus com- to drive the quarry away or destroyit, but, rather,to catchit and make
plex, Freud'sconstruct is, as has long been recognized,a myth, im- it his own. Thus, in a sense,the "big" and "masculine" prey was part
pressivebut unverifiable,oand, in this form, under no circumstances of the group/ gltros in the basic senseof the word.s Masculine, big,
correct.Even if one assumesmatricideor infanticideas the primordial both a member of the family and doomed to die, the quarry becomes
I crime, the samebasicproblem remains:a unique occurrence,no mat- a kind of father, a father-symbol,a father-substitute.conscious kill-
ter how gruesome, could not assume such formative significance, ing is a kind of patricide.
stretchingover thousandsof generations,if there were no genetically Such stylized hunting behaviorbecamevery significant,because
predeterminedtendency for such imprinting, and this can be under- the outwardly directed societalactivity combined here with its inner
stood in biological terms only as an adaptation within a long evolu- tensionsin a specialway. Man's neoteny,the long period of depen-
tionary process.Patricide assumesthe existenceof fatherhood and dencyand learning, causedgravetensions,especiallysince-at.ulir,"
father-bonding,although both are specificallyhuman, civilized inno- aggressiveness was cultivated at the same time. yet boys must learn
vations. It is characteristicof modern biasesabout man that Freud identify with their fathersif they are to be able to perpetuate
fym 1d
and his schooldid not even considerthe areawhere killing had a nec- the achievementsof culture as dictatedby tradition. The human ten-
essary function-a function which in fact determined the course of O."l.t to respect authority offsets aggreisive impulses, as does the
evolution. It was at the time when Australopithecineprimates were older generation'shead start, which itto*s it, at least temporarily, to
killing and eating baboons, and sometimeseven one of their own,' assertits power. The rising generation'slatent rebelliousness,how-
ever,-andits Oedipal inclinations toward patricide are deflectedand
3(tgrzlr3); Ges.Schr.rc jgz4), r-a94 -- Ges.Werkeg (rg4o); enthusiastically taken up ritually neutralized in the hunt, sacrifice,and war. Freud's intuition
by J. Harrison , Epilegomenato theStudyof GreekReligion(r9zr), xxiii; seealso Karl Meuli, that a patricide stands at the start of human development
Agon (1968;written t9z6), zo; criticized by A. L. Kroebet AmericanAn'
is thus to
Der griechische some extent confirmed, although not in the sense
thropologistzz (r9zo), 48-55. of an historically
fixed crime but, rather, in the function of rituar
aSeeR. Money-Kyrle, TheMeaningof Sacrifice
QgSo),rg4; A. L. Kroeber, "Totemand Ta'
symbols and the cor-
respondingstructuresin the soul.
booin Retrospecl," Americanlournal of Sociology 45 Ogiq, 446-5r; R. Fox, "Totemand
TabooReconsidered," in E. R. Leach, ed.., The Structural Study of Myth and Totemism For ritual emphasizesand guides individual fantasies. In the
(t967\, r$-75. In conscious conflict with the teachings of biological herediry Freud -
found himself constrained (Ges. Werk $ lr95ol, zoo-zo8) to postulate some archaic ot
(196) fio-95, 2o'L-2o4;Eibl-Eibesfeldt(r97o)esp.
heritage in man, "Erinnerungen an das Erleben frtiherer Generationen" (zo6).J. W. M. ,lolun, U5-38.
Whiting considered the desire for matricide, rather than patricide, to be central (Fox, -rrntmal friezes on archaic Greek vases frequentry contain confrontations between
"Totem,"r73), whereasG. Devereuxdemonstrates"The CannibalisticImpulsesof Par- 111aator1animals (mainly lions) and their prey; the prey (cow, sheep, goat, boar) is
armost alwaysclearlydepictedas masculine,the'predatoras
ents" (Psychoanalytic Forumr [19661,t73-24) in conjunction with actual casesof infan- sexless.
vn gd)tosas possessive
ticide. Are the aggressiveimpulses more constant and hence earlier than their object? DronounseeM. Landfester,Dasgriechische Nomen',phitos,,
und
setneAbleitungen
sSeeI.z.nn.z5, z7 above. eg66).

74 75
SACRIFICE, HUNTING, FUNERARY RITUALS
FATHER GOD AND GREAT GODDESS

hunter's"comedy of innocence,"the quarry is frequentlyinvoked and


tion that the god is identical with his sacrificialanimal. Zeus, for in_
appeasedas "father."' Ritual restitution includesexpressingone'sbad
stance,transforms himself into a bull,'3 Dionysus into a kid.rnBehind
conscienceand renewing renunciation, submission, and worship;
the story that Prsipha€ copulated with an exceptionalsacrificialbull
preparatoryritual includesanticipatoryrenunciationand giving things
are rituals in which a woman offers herselfsexuallyto the victim.'s Is
away in the hope of success.The gestures-kneeling, Prostration,
Pasiphadto be seen as identical with Europu *uti.,g with Zeus in
folding or raising one's hands, solemn presentation,sighing, crying, form of a bull? The women-of Elis call upon DionysuJto appear as a
and wailing-are taken from behavior found in human interaction. bull:'uthe real bull is doubtresspresentin the sacrificialmeai. But the
Their particular function is in relation to one'sfellow man, promoting assertionthat the father-likegod was relatedto the patricidal charac_
unity and trust rather than aggressivetension. As ritual, as demon- ter of sacrificeprovoked strong resistance,especiallyin an extremely
strativecommunication,they are severedfrom any real objectand in- patriarchalsociety such as that of ancient Greece.Fionoring one,sd_
stead oriented toward something imaginary.This conduct is consoli- ther was central to the consciousmorality, patricide almost unthink_
dated and grows with the urge to imitate and with the pressuresof able.Thus, the crime of Kronos againstutu.tos entered official Greek
tradition: people act collectivelyas though an invisible, quasi-human literature only once under the impact of an orientalizing fashion.''
being were present whom they must worship."'The experienceof a The-complementarycharacterof extraordinaryand ordina[, behavior
transcendentpower is mediatedby the community.At the sametime, could otherwise be expressedonly in the context of secretsocieties
in worshipping this power the individual acquiresa specialfreedom and secretmyths, that is to say,in the mysteries.Hence, it was sim_
and independencefrom his fellow men, since the inescapablecon- pl,9r1ostyle the sacrificialanimal an //enemyof the god.,; The goat is
frontations that result from selfish interestsare replacedby a collec- killed for Dionysus becauseit gnaws at the vine;'. HJra,sanger?rives
tive orientation. When languagecomesto name this imaginary object Io the cow away. But in characteristiccontrast to the Egyp"tians,
and attemptsto describeit, there is at leasta rudimentary "conception for
example,the Greekswere not consistentin this ideology"Lidesignat-
of.god," basedon the experienceshapedby the ritual. ing the victim as an enemy: Io was simultaneouslytte priestess
Yet, by describing the ritual experiencethrough language, by of
Hera,.representing the goddessherself,and Artemis kilred the she-
consciouslyrendering it concrete,great problemsarise.It was certain oearKallrstowho was, howevet consideredthe "most beautiful,,
that the god was intimately linked to sacrifice;in classicalantiquity and
hencethe perfect likenessof Artemis, the ,,most beautiful.,,ro
this is self-evidentin the complex of [ep6vliepeiov,sacerlsacrificare.lt In the
picturesshowing the god and his sacrificialanimal side
was possibleto play with the idea that the god and the sacrificialani- by side in al-
most inner communion, we recognize that heartfelt ambivalence
mal were identical; accordingly,the god would be killed, eaten," de- of
stroyed, and yet later, when the ritual was repeated,miraculouslybe myth, seethe largeamount of evidencein Cook III (r94o)
i,lt.,ll"_Eylpa
afso Ar5_ra; ,""
present once again. The closing rituals could be stagedas a resurrec- W. Btihler, Europa\196g).
'{Apollod.
tion or revivification.'2Certain Greek myths indeed give some indica- 3.29; Ltouunos"EpLgos at Sparta, Hsch. eipaqu}tn1s.
tsEur.
Cretans; C. Austin, Noz,aFragmenta Euripiden (196g),
'E.g., the elephant among the fr. gz; Apollod. 3.g_ro,
Pygmies (I.Z.n.++ above); "lieber Vater Nilpferd, lieber where Poseidon himself tne btirt emerge rio. tn" sea as a sacrifice for poseidon;
kfeiner Vater, lass dich von deinen Kindern fressen" (Abyssinia, Paideumazlry4rl, z). 1a!;
pRrI
lutfl rut rlr 666-n; gr-64. cr. tfr" ritualor the queenat the VedicASva-
roMorris (tg67) t78-8t thinks that medha, I.7.n.sr above.
when the cooperative hunting society reduced the
actual superiority of the individual father, it created the concept of an almighty Father Oa zzgb: aV Page(Poetae MeticiGraeci);cf.Ath. 476a. Onthe bull-Dionysus
as a substitute-a reprise of Freud's ideas rendered harmless. M. Mauss wrote: "La "^O^'::: r. ". Bacch.
::: *:
qw f :oo, 9zo, 7077)Soph. fr. 959pearson;Euphorion fr. 14 powel; Hor-
cr6ation de la divinitd est l'oeuvre des sacrifices ant6rieurs": OeuuresI (1968), 288. Ldrrn.2.r9.)o; Bovyevqsplut. Is. 264f. (Argos-Lerna).
"The idea of a god eaten as a sacrament was spread primarily by J. C. Frazer (GB VIII "-on the long-discussed
rerationbetween Kumarbi and Kronos (ANET no, Hes.
r54-:oo), seeM. L. West, f/r.
48-ro8), following W R. Smith (1894). The provocative problem in this context was, of HesiodTheogony (1966),fi_1t;Kirk (r97o) 214_2r-.
course, the relationship to the Christian communion; cf. E. Reuteskicild, Die Entslehung rleonidas
of.Tarenrum. 11 99*-page : Ap g.gg;Euenos.Ap g ZS(fora Near
der Speisesakramente (rgrz). parallel see M. L."?ig.
West, gSCt, ZtirS6Sl, ,lL_r71; Eratosthenesfr. zz [,owell.
12The
the sacrifice- ;:*1"
focus of myth and ritual is characteristically the death-i.e.,
- un lo seeIII.z below.On Kallistoand Artemis Kalliste(paus.g.35.g)cf. already
whereas the "resurrection" is seldom explicit: cf. Dumuzi/Attis, and Adonis/Osiris; on Mtilfer,^Prolegomena K. O.
zu einer wissentschaftlichen
iytio,ogr, (rgz5), 75; pR I y4_3o5;
Aqhat see II.4.n.34 below; on Dumuzi see V.z.n.3o below. Even in the Gospels, the re- tt below.On the themeof the muriered maiien :goddess
ports of the resurrection are mere appendices to the Passion. :,;il seealsoI.7.in.eo, 39

76
SACRIFICE/ HUNTING, FUNERARY RITUALS FATHER GOD AND GREAT GODDESS

sacrificewhich made it possible for the Greeks to create tragedy.2o theseidols are a part of the femalerealm, but they are also connected
Strangely,mythology often reversedthe crime of Oedipus so that the with hunting quarry, as indicated aboveall in a statuettefound at the
father sacrificedhis own son and even ate him, due to some grue- center of a circle of skulls of mammoths.raFurther, in eatal Huyrik
some madness. In reality, child-sacrificeis attestedwith frightening there are large plaster statuesof a goddess,or sometimestwo god-
frequency2'as a horrible but easy form of substitution, as a deadly desses,set up in household shrines over the bones of the dead. The
solution io the conflictsarising from the generationalgap. Myth itself goddessis portrayed with her legs spread wide so as to give birth;
sometimes seemsto indicate uncertainty: was Athamas or Phrixos, next to her, bull horns and boar skulls dominatethe room.ruIn several
the father or the son, the sacrificialvictim for Zeus Laphystios?" In instances,bull skulls-and, in one case,a ram's skull-are emerging
reality, some kind of substitute,a perfect-and, accordingto myth, from between her thighs.'ushe is the mother of the beasts2'that are
golden-ram,
- was given to Zeus "the glutton." hunted and sacrificed,a life-giving power governing the dead. On
The successionof male generationsis characterizedby conflict the murals, men clothed in leopard skins swarm around a stag or a
and death, and yet culture needsa continuity that can survive catas- bull; in a statuette, the goddessappearsflanked on either sidJ by a
trophe. In order to attain such continuity and demonstrateit, ritual, leopard:" she is attendedby the hunting community, the homonecans,
starting in the Upper Palaeolithic,apparently found a specialdevice: assimilatinghimself to a beastof prey. The iconographyleadsdirectly
the symbolizing of the feminine. to the image of Kybele sitting upon her throne between two lions.
Besidessacrificialand burial rites, remarkableevidence for the Could tl" ygylg boy who is intimately connectedwith the greatgod_
continuity betweenthe age of the hunt and the agriculturalera is pro- dessat QatalHtiynk perhapsbe a predecessorof Attis/Ado;is?,n
vided by the female statuettesthat have come to be known as "Venus In the Neolithic and Bronze ages, the female idols becamein
statuettes,"although that name has long been recognizedto be inap- many ways more developed and differentiated.one cannot simply
propriate. They make their appearancein the Upper Palaeolithicfrom equate the statuettesfrom sesklo and Lerna, the beautiful mar-bl-e
Siberiato Spain and continue, sometimesin further developedvaria- statuesfrom cycladic graves,and the consummatelysplendid statues
tions, sometimesin quite "primitive," simple form, throughout the of goddessesfrom Minoan palaceshrines.But it cani uiaty uu doubted
Neolithic and on into the high cultures." At that point they are not that they reflect a continuity and differentiationgrowing from a com-
easyto interpret, and it is even harder to postulatea unity or clarity of mon root' The goddessesof Greek polytheism, so diffeient and com-
meaning and function for them during the Palaeolithic.In Siberia plementary are, nonetheless,consistentlysimilar in appearanceat an
earlierstage, with one or the other simply becoming dominant in a
mseealso E. Buschor,Phidiasder Mensch(t948\, esP.47-50, 5z-56 on the "gemein-
samen geistigen Raum" in the look and the gesture of the Phidian fighters involved in aSeel.z..n.8
single combat. above;on the femalerealm seeL paulson,A. Hultkrantz, and K.
Jettmar,
Die ReligionenNordeurasiens und deramerikanischen Arktis(1962), 3og_ro
2lSeeDevereux,"CannibalisticImpulses."It is characteristic that Empedokles(VS 3r B sMellaart
r37) describesin detail the eating up of the son, not of the father' Q96) q3-34, 49, a44-45, 46; cf. (rg7o)I 166_85.
26Mellaart
zSee II.4.n.z7below. Q96) :-16-y (sanctuaryVil !, r4o- 4r (VI B 7), 144-46(yl B rg, r47_48
(VI B 8), r48-5o (VI B'ro, ramy;summary
aMtiller-Karpe (1966) 249_52, z:.6-:^9; (1968) 289-3or, J8o-95; F. Hancar, Priihistor' on ro6-ro7. For the goddesson her throne
givin8 birth to a boy seepl. IX (y.+.n.75berow).Miller-Karpe
Zeitschr.lol3r (r91gl4o),85-156;K. |. Narr, Antaiosz(:'96r), 4z-57; R' Lery, TheGate igiores the animarbirths
11t968) 382-83], so as to contestthe identificationof the figure as a goddess.
of Horn (l;g49l : Religious Conceptionsol theStoneAge lt9$))' 54-$, 78-8t; Maringer
(1956)r93-zor. On the Greek Neolithic seeC. Zervos, Naissance dela cioilisationen Grice i"Il^r; Rrimarilf the Eskimos who have a mother of hunting prey, namely, Sedna,
Iuother of seals, a sacrificedmaiden
II (t9$), 565-68,575-79.For the Near East see E. D' van Buren, Clay Figurinesol in the myth (F. Boas, sixth innuat Reportol the
of ern"obgy, K. Iiasmussen
Babyloniaand Assyria(rgJo); I. B. Pritchard, PalestinianFigurinesin Relationto Certain !^y11ou
wefl as a mother of.t884-
5, [1888],583-9r; , rhurefahrtlryz5l,69-7), as
Goddesses Known throughLiteratureOg+); J. Thimme, "Die religiose Bedeutung der Ky- reindeer(Rasmussen,Thurefahrt,245-46;I. paulson, schutzgeister
(der lagdtie.re
und Fische)
in Nordeurasien[Uppsata,ry6!, 266-69),a mother of
kladenidole," AK8 ('96),72-86, criticizedby K. Schefold,ibid.,87-go; P J. Ucko, lf^*rr!r:
the Chukchis(paulson,Schutzgeister,
AnthropomorphicFigurinesof PredynasticEgyptand NeolithicCretewith comparatiaeMate- l:.:vnat:s_among
motherof the horseseepaus.g.g.z(Nestane).
6+_6il. For Rhea/Demeteras
rial from the irehistiric NearEastaid MainlandGreece (tg68), conteststhe interpretation of 4Mellaart
the figurines as mother-goddessesand argues for a plurality of functions and mean- (ry67\ pl. 67t68;tX and plL.
54t55,6rt63.
ings. W. Helck, Betrachtungen zur Grossen Gtjttin (r97r), seesher primarily as a goddess rne statuetteof the goddessand the boy
h howevet from Hacilar(Anat. Stud. rr I196r],59)does
of female sexuality. rrur, depict sexualintercourse;cf. Mellaart e97o)I r7o.

78 79
SACRIFICE, HUNTING, FUNERARY RITUALS
FATHER GOD AND GREAT
GODDESS
l sanctuary or city. Each is the Creat Coddess presiding over a male so-
1ir ciety; each is depicted in her attire as Mistress of the Beasts,3,'and Mis-
his
It is the hunter,sjob ,9
wife
:-upporathe family. He actsfor the sakeof
and his mother. When this merges.with feeling, oiu.,"i"ty
tress of the Sacrifice, even Hera and Demeter. Artemis enjoys the
and guilt, it is comfor,tlq ,o. shift responsibility ,o ur.,Jrn"i
itll closest ties to the hunt, but at the same time Artemis of Ephesus is
very much like Asiatic Kybele.3' Aphrodite3'?recallsOriental origins, will. The hunter sets out to do his deadly work ,,for the
higher
sake of the
the naked goddess, who was herself a transformation of the ancient Mother'" For the time being, this long-rangeobjectiveforces
iijl him to
"Venus statuettes," becoming more sexual and less dangerous in the abstainfrom sexualintercourse.whei sexualfrustration is
added to
course of civilization. The goddess I5tar, however, remained a god- the hunter'saggressivity,it appearsto him as though a mysterious
fe-
dess of war, and Venus could bring victory to a Sulla or a Caesar.r3 male being inhabits the.outdoors. Thus, this highEr wil'i"'*i,,.h
rr"
Bachofen's ingenious but fantastic theory of a prehistoric matriar- submits becomesconsoridatedin the conceptionsand artistic
repro-
chy has hindered the understanding of these female deities. Female ductions, even already in language,as the figure of the
C."", Coa_
dominance is no more possible in Neolithic farming cultures than it is dess,the wife and mother, the bearerof childrlen,the giver
oiilf", b.ra
among Upper Palaeolithic hunting societies.y Moreover, these god- the one who demands death; in her hands, she holds"the
irot"rr_on
desses are characteristically savage and dangerous: they are the ones Horn of P]9nty.$primitive man saw and realizedthat
the mvsierious
who kill, who demand and iustify sacrifice. processof birth, a woman releasingnew life fro- n",
*o"ii, .o"fa
shut the jaws of death. Thus, it was"thewoman who
insured continu-
lOn the Potnia Theron (ll. zr.47o) ity beyond death. Blood sacrificeand death provided
see F Studniczka,KyrerreeSgo),151-65; Nilsson the ,"."rru.y
(t95) 3o8-3o9;E. Spartz,"Das Wappenbilddes Herrn und der Herrin der Tiere,,,Diss. complement.Next to the gocrdesswas her dfing
'Beside partne., the sacriri-
Munchen, ry64; Ch. Christou, PotniaTheron(Thessaloniki,1968).Argive Hera appears cial animal' the.anlhropomorphic goddJss i., qaiai
as mistressof the beasts(simon [1969]4r-45; Hera Argeia with an animal park among iriy,it,.
and in Minoan Crete is the bull represlnting masculinity,
the veneti-strabo 5 p. z't5),as does Hera Lakinia (l.z.n.zr above),Artemis orthia the bulr that
must die' while Isis representsfhe permanence
(R. M. Dawkins, TheSanctuary of ArtemisOrthia, IHSSuppl. 5 ltgzSl), Demeterof phi- -Horus, of the throne, the
galia, the Despoinaof Lykosura.or Athena Alea (R. stiglitz, Die grossen
pharaoh takes office as but always dies as osiris.37Man, the
cijttinnenArkn-
diensft967J,rz5, 16,9o),etc.; Pandora(Hes. Th. SZS-8+). paradigmof mankind in a male society,u.,t"r,
the permanu.,to.a". ,,
At least in Greece,the Master of the Beastsis less prominent (J. Chittenden, "The y.gy"g man, ritually and symboricarytransformeb
: i.,to "trrr *oih".,
Master of Animals," Hesperia$ [ry47], 89-rt4); one ought not to call him in pseudo- bull," as we learn from ongof the pharaonic
Greek +zrjryros,|qpdv (sicNilsson j9551 1og-to). SeegenerallyH. Wozak,,,Herr und epithets,$and sooneror
laterhe must die, iust like the sacrificiai
Herrin der Tiere in Vorderasien"Diss. Wien, ry62; A. Hultkrantz, ed,.,TheSupernatu- u"t,,.,ut Thr;, ;t;
the GreatGoddesi with a chosen.;;;;;" f.oviaes
ral Ownersof Nature(Uppsala, r96r); Paulson, Schut;geister; La Barre (t97o) t$-69, ,,father,, who is both her son and
r89-gr. lover;he is known as attis,r'irhoi the goddessloves,emas_
3rOn Artemis of Ephesussee Ch. Picard,
Ephiseet Claros(r9zz), 45r-53g (who hypo-
culates,and kills.
theticallypositsan origin in the "earth-goddess").
. Th" unspeakablesacrificefollows the maiden-sacrificeand is thus
32G.contenau La diessenuebabylonienne
, Q9t4);H. Herter in Elimentsorientauxdansla
simultaneouily a restitution
of the maiden according to the Great
religiongrecque ancienne j96o),6t-76; Nilsson 995) 5ry-zt.
3tOn Venusaictrix seeC. Koch, RE VIII A 86o-6+. For sSee
the Near EastseeM. Th. Barre- I.7.n.59 above.
let, "Les d6essesarm6eset ail6es,"Syria32 (1959, zzz-6o. For an armed Aphrodite see $Mellaart
(tg6il zt5and passim.
Paus.2.5.r, 1.r5.ro(Sparta:cf. Plut. btc. inst.z39a);Paus.3.zr.r (Kythera).The special "On Isis and the throne
cult of Aphrodite at Lokroi (1.7.n.2rabove) was establishedin thanks for a victory see,H. Frankfort, Kingship andtheGods(ry4g1, 43_45,TheIntel-
tectualAduenture
ln war. of Ancient.ManQg46),r0. rri" priurt-of_sarapis
is changedannuary,
ySee thepriestess or rrir toiar-oni;,;;;:;;:
I.5.n.34above.Seealso S. Pembroke,"Women in Charge:The Function of Alter- X*l-"-.,:"t
unechenund R\mern(g7o\, vidman, rsisund sarapisbeiden
nativesin Early Greekrradition and the Ancient Idea of Matriarchy,"lournalof thewar- 4g_. r.
rramutef:see Frankfort.
burglnst.3o(196),r-15;F.Cornelius,CeistesgeschichtederFri)hzeitl(r96o),67-7t,t7B- King,shipand the Gods e94g), t77_go. The ,,marriage
mother" after the of the
father'smurJer is a routine ^o,ii o?.u..".sion
79l seesthe priority of the patrilinealfarmer,but wants to fit matrilinearityin as a later t-"rnbeft, in a Babylonianmyth:
transitionalstage(83-86). one doeswell to rememberthat in spiteof their tremendous ii^l;, Kadmos
+ (ts6g,64-72= ,tiii'5r7_ra.
"
ror the evidence see Heodingegq);
honor for the mother of god, both Easternand Westernforms of Catholicismare purely awtRonanArt (tg66t. M.;. vermaseren, fhe Legendof Attis in
Greek
male organizations. rtonnaire
o., it ;ij.";,, *.;a ;iii"ji "a"aay,.,seep. chantraine.Dic-
(tymologiquede Ia "
languegrecqut,l (tg6g), s.zt.

8o
8r
SACRIFICE. HUNTING, FUNERARY RITUALS

Goddess'swill. The mother and the maiden, Kore, stand side by side,
meeting in the course of the secret rituals of the Miinnerbund.In my-
thology, the two may become indistinguishable and overlap,noin which
case the Great Goddess is maiden, lover, and mother at once. But the
maiden has her share of sacrificeas well: the ram, an animal consid-
II. WEREWOLVES AROUND
ered a kind of father, was sacrificed to Kore.o' Thus, what appears,
when following up the myth by logic, to cause the most severe con- THE TRIPODKETTLE
tradiction, actually has a necessary function in the drama of human
society in the counterpoint of familial bonds and male activity.
In the religious ritual and the resultant worship of a god, the co-
hesiveness and continued existence of a group and its culture are best
guaranteed through one supreme and permanent authority. The rit-
ual provides the orientation that transforms confrontation into unity.
In the storm of history, it was always those societal organizations with
religious foundations that were finally able to assert themselves: all In the first chapter we tried to see man's basiccondition from a
that remained of the Roman Empire was the Roman Catholic Church. biological,p-sychological, and sociologicalperspective,as indicatedin
And there, too, the central act remained the incredible, one-time and Greek sacrificialritual. However, in spite of ihe evidence adduced
voluntary sacrifice in which the will of the father became one with from prehistory and folklore, we were unable to proceedwithout hy-
that of the son, a sacrifice repeated in the sacred meal, bringing salva- potheticalsupplementsand generalizations;moreover, since the ex-
tion through admission of guilt. A permanent order thus arose- amples used to illustrate the thesis were chosen selectively,doubts
cultural progress that nonetheless preserved human violence. All at- couldbe raisedas to our methodology.The following chaptersreverse
tempts to create a new man have failed so far. Perhaps our future the procedure.we will examinet u.io,rs individuariurt-complexes
as
chances would be better if man could recognize that he still is what he exhaustivelyas possible,then ask to what extent the detailsfit
the
once was long ago, that his existence is defined by the past. perspectivedeveloped in Chapter I. If in so doing we find
ourselves
confronted again and again by sacrificialritual with its
tension be-
a0Hekate(at Ephesus) comes into existence when Artemis puts her own ornaments on a
Y:."" encountering death and affirming rife, its external form con-
hanged girl: see Callim. fr. 46r (1.7.n.26 above). So, too, in the Eskimo myth, Sedna is ot preparations,a frightening centralmoment, and restitution,
:lsttng
tnen we may seein this a confirmationof our
made a sacrificed maiden. For the sacrifice of a virgin for the Great Goddess see Steph.
hypothesis.
Byz. s.t,.Lemnos. Ancient Greek rituarswere b,oundto permanbntlocal groups
o ' S e eV 4 . n . 4 o b e l o w . and
henceto specificlocalitiesas well, i.e., the
sanctuaries and altarsthat
O::" set up for all time. yet, in studying such complexes,
l1o one al_
waysdiscoverssimilaritiesto other rituais
iriother places,jusias vari-
ous myths often reflect a single
structure.Thus, reiatedriiuals can be
they need by no meansinvoke or worship the samegods in
::::|.e91
urqer to be consideredsimilar.
By comparing reratld phenomEnawe
shall find that details wilr
ilruminate each other, thai we can bridge
gaps in the transmission
and surmise certain lines in the tradition
*nt.I_l: notalways correspond
to ethnic or linguistic categories.
rrrst of all, we shall.examinea complex
thit appearslspecially
it reflectsthe ideology or i[" predatory animat pack at
ilt"*;:ilce
"s sacrrtrcial meal,and this in spiteof the faci that cookingin a kettle,
a clearlyculturalachievement,
is an essentiar part of the rite. Antithe-

8z 83
WEREWOLVES AROUND THE TRIPOD KETTLE LYKAIA AND LYKAION

ses and tensions are the stuff of ritual-hence, individual rituals can- Minos'mentionshuman sacrificeat the "Lykaia festival,,as certain
not be explained by their momentary aims; rather, we must under- fact, and Theophrastus5comparesthe sacrifice"at the Lykaia in Ar_
stand them in the larger context. Not just the religious cult, but the cadia"with Carthaginiansacrificesto Moloch.
order of society itself takes shape in sacrifice. Pausaniassaw and describedthe altar of Zeus at the summit of
Mount Lykaion, but he did not participatein the festival, for the sacri-
fice there took place "in secret."To this Pausaniasremarks: "I could
seeno pleasurein delving into this sacrifice;let it be as it is and as it
was from the beginning."uPausaniasalso named and describedthe
other cult sites of Zeus Lykaios: the mysteriousprecinct where none
1,. LykniaandLykaion may enter, on the mountain slope somewhat below the summit-
anyone going in would have to die,' and inside he would cast no
shadow;then the Caveof Rheaand the precinctcalledKretaiaon the
When the wave of Sea Peoples and Dorian migrations destroyed mountain where, it was told, Zeus was born, and fed and caredfor by
Mycenaean culture, only the mountainous region of Arcadia was the Arcadian nymphs;'finally, the Stadium, the Hippodrome, and
able, as a retreat, to assert its pre-Dorian individuality. Later, too, it the sanctuaryof Pan further down the mountain.nrhis is where the
was slow to join in the rise of the city cultures; it developed an urban athleticcompetitions took place during the Lykaia festival. other lit-
center only after 37t, at the newly founded city of Megalopolis. The erary sources supplement Pausanias'indications, and excavations
Arcadians themselves were as aware of the antiquity of their race and have confirmed and expanded our knowledge. votive offerings dat-
customs as were their neighbors: long before the Hellenistic Age dis- ing back to the seventhcentury n.c. have come to light near the altar
covered pastoral Arcadia as the setting for its romantic yearnings, the of Zeus, a simple mound of earth and ash.'o
Arcadians had been known as "acorn eaters" and "older than the But what Pausaniaspiously conceaiedin his description of the
moon."I altarof Zeus, he mentioned in relating the story of Damaichosof par-
Rumors of terrible, primitive activity especially surrounded the rhasia, who won the boxing competition at Olympia in about
4oo
main Arcadian festival to Zeus,2 celebrated in the mountains of Ly- n.c'" It was claimed that he "turned into a wolf at the sacrificeto Zeus
kaion in the heart of Arcadia. There were tales of human sacrifice,
'315c.
cannibalism, and werewolves. Plato is the first source we know who
sln Porph.
mentions this as a current story (mythos) "that is told of the sanctuary Abst.2.27.
of Lykaian Zeus in Arcadia, namely, that he who tastes of one bit of "8.18.2;cf.8.2.6,4.22.7;Kallisthenes,FCrHisttz4F z1;pind.O/. r3.ro8.
7Pa
human entrails minced up with those of other victims is inevitably rs.8.38.6;cf. Theopompos,FGrHistt..5F 141: potyb. t6.rz.7;Architimos, FGrHist
transformed into a wolf ."'Plato compares this eerie metamorphosis 3r5T r (cf. JacobyIII B Notes p. 48 n. 8) : Plut Q. Cr. 3ooa-c;Schol.Callim. Hy. Zeus
rJ; Strabo8 p.
with the development of a tyrant who, once having killed, can no 388;Pliny NH 4.zt; n.y below;Schol.Theocr.r.tzle-f rd eiotpyoltcv<r
\Ea ayoua TivecBat, and cf. schol. callim. Hy. Zeus.,3.on the resultsof the excava-
longer stop. Bloodshed has its consequences. The pseudo-Platonic tionsseeRE XIII zz4o-4r; Cook I (r9r4) 83; thJ
measurementsare approx.60 x 1lo m.
t-\nr".t1t
Paus.8.38.2. 2ri1),atovrrls 'Pias: paus. 8.36.3;cf . g.3r.4; Callim.Hy. Zeus
'Balavqgayot: 1o--r4(the scholionconfusesthe precinct
see the oracle (#1r Parke and Wormell [1958]) in Hdt. r.66; axpov of Rheawith the dBariv: seen. 7 above).Cf.
RE Xtll 2243.On the spring, Hagno, and rain-magic
yeipa Lyk. 483 with Schol.; Verg. Ecl. rc.zo; Plut. Es. carn. indicates a festival: i1o-
'Paus. seepaus.g.:g.l-+.
peicrap.ev i9' i16oui1s.ITpoctiqvot: see Hippys, FCrHist 554 F 7; Eudoxos fr. 4r Gisin- 8.38.5;RE Xlll zz17-4o;Cook I (r9r4) 82.
''K.
ger : Schol. Apoll. Rhod. 4.264; Schol. Aristoph. Nub. Jg7; Callim. fr. t9r.56 and Kourouniotis, Eph.Arch. (ryo4), t13-2a4;
-R e9o), t6r' 78;praktikae9o),64, fi5_
Pfeiffer ad loc.; Lyk.48z with Schol.; etc. -
2W Immerwahr, Die Kulte und Mythen iT;tu\ I iy | 6.1ee;cf.E.'veyei e nIi Oiizl, 22)5
- 44;G. Mytonas,
Crassicar
Honourof W. A. Oldfathere94), rzz-33. On the type see W. kriimer, ,,prihi-
Arkadiens (r8gr), r-24; Nilsson (19o6) 8-ro;
:j:l':.t,t,
srorrsche
(r95) 397-4or; Farnell I (1894) 4t-42, 144-46; Cook I (t9r$ $-9g; Schwenn 1r9t5) Brandopferpliitze,,,
in Heluetiaantiqua(t966), t77_22.
zo-25; loh. Schmidt, F.E XIII (t927), zz48-52; G. Piccaluga, Lyknon, un tema mrtrco a Moretti, Oly-mpionikai
(Rome,1957),#359. The name appearsas Demainetos
(r968).
,,U:t
\''c., :uamainetos)in Skooas(?), FGrHist
,6.r7. 4r3 : Varro in ptiny NAS.Su; Aug. Cia. Dei
3Resp.565d.

84 85
WEREWOLVES AROUND THE TRIPOD KETTLE LYKAIA AND LYKAION

Lykaios, and changedback into a man againin the tenth year thereaf- Kallisto, Lykaon's daughter, who during her amorous encounter with
ter." The condition for being transformed and changed back is just Zeuswas turned into a bear." Thus, the Arcadian par excellence is the
that: "someonewas always turned into a wolf at the sacrificeto Zeus "sorrof abear," on the one hand, and a victim at the altar of Zeus, on
Lykaios, but not for his whole life; if he refrainedfrom eating human the other. This death does not end the story for both Arkas and Nyk-
flesh while he was a wolf, they say he would turn back into a man in tirnos were included in the genealogies as ancestral Arcadian kings.r,
the tenth year;but if he ateit, he remaineda beastforever."12Pausanias ZeUsbrotght his victim back to life,2" according to the myth, or,ly to
probably found the legend of Damarchosin a localHellenistichistory; have him come full circle and return to the sacrificial situation: Arkas
but if it is tied to the victory at Olympia, it goesbackbeyond Plato. was brought up by a goatherd, but upon becoming an ephebe he
The accompanyingmyth is found already in the Hesiodic cata- turned to hunting. Once, while in the region of Mount Lykaion, he
logues" and reflectsthe ritual in a particularly transparentway. What came on the track of his own mother. According to one text, he hunted
was only a vague rumor among Plato'scontemporariesis told here as her down; according to another, they mated.2, These mythical vari-
the crime of the ancestralking of the Arcadians;he is related to the ants attest once more to the ambivalence of weapons and sexuality in
wolf even in his name, Lykaon. Once upon a time, the gods, includ- hunting behavior. The gruesome act occurred in that very precinct on
ing Zeus himself, came to visit him and be entertainedin a common the mountain into which none could enter. For this reason, Arkas and
sacrificialmeal. But the sacredmeal turned into cannibalism,for Ly- the bear had to be sacrificed again "according to the custom,, at the
kaon slaughtered a young boy upon the altar at the summit and altar of Zeus Lykaios. At this point the myth fades, allowing the vic-
poured out his blood on that altar; then he and his helper "mixed the tims to be translated to heaven as stars. The ritual, however, goes on
boy'sentrailsin with the sacrificialmeat and brought it to the table."" in the same place, and in the circuit of time, it is to form an important
Of course, divine punishment followed. Zeus overturned the table, junction in the lives of the Arcadians.
graphically putting an end to the newly formed community, and some curious details were reported by a Hellenistic author called
hurled a bolt of lightning into Lykaon'shouse; most importantly, Ly- Euanthes,22who was read by Varro. Admittedly, his concern is not
kaon himself turned into a wolf. In another, frequently told version, with the Arcadians as a whole but with a single family descended
the gruesomesacrificewas followed by a flood that destroyedmost ol from Anthos, whom the author seems to count as one of his own u.r-
the human race,ttyet Lykaon'sdescendants,the Arcadians,survived cestors' A young boy of the family would regularly be selected by lot
to come togetherat the altar again and again for secretsacrifice. and led to a lake. He had to strip, hang his clothes on an oak tree,
Opinions differed as to the identity of the boy whose entrails and swim across the lake; thereupon he would disappear in the wil-
were slicedinto the sacrificialmeat.The Libraryof Apollodoros speaks derness and turn into a wolf. He would have to live as a wolf among
of an anonymous"native" boy; Ovid callshim a "hostage";Lycophron wolves for eight years, after which time, if he had abstained from hu-
gives him the name "Nyktimos," the "night-like,"'u and makes him man meat, he could return to the lake, swim across it, take down his
Lykaon's own son; the EratosthenicKatasterismoi, by contrast,invok- clothes from the oak tree, and turn into a human again, though he
ing Hesiod as its precedent,lTsaythat he was 'Arkas," the eponymous was now nine years older and a grown man. Thus far, Euanthes. this
hero of the Arcadians,who was Lykaon'sgrandson.His mother was
r8R'
Franz,"De Callistus fabula,"Leipz. Stud.tz (rg9o),
12Paus. t7z6-29; W. Sale, RhM rc5 45- j65; RMLII 9y-35; RE X
8.2.6. e96z), ro8 (t965), n15.
ItPaus. 43-4r;
r3Hes.fr. 163 M.-W., and cf. fr.
354;Apollod. 3.96-97; Eumelos. FGrHist 45r F 8 = 8.3-4, g.z4.r.
Apollod. 3.roo;Lyk. 48o-8r with Schol.;a tragedyby Xenokles,TGF p. 77o;Ov. Met. b"Eratosth."
Catast.:rd.Xw dvatrXaoasdprrcv thrTxev.
r.rg8-219; Clem. Pr. 2.36.5;Nonnus r8.zo-24; RML Il z165-68; PR I rz7-29; Picca' " C^ot,.ppa Robert irrd 6i roi i6iou uioi 6taxop,6vt1v
luga, Lykaon,zg-98. ,,-11 'vi11t'o,t 5z-53 . . . ; dyvoiloas rilu
fi|:f" in Fragmentavaticana(seen. r7), where the last word is written Letween
'{Apollod. rrtsrrh€simatri inscius
3.98;cf . Nikolaos, FGrHist90 F 18. uimt'erreaoluitSchol.Germ. p. 64.2r Breysig.
'5Apollod.
3.98-gg;Tzetz.ad Lyk. 48r; Ov. Met. t.z4o fl.;Hyg. Fab.q6. : Varro in Pliny N.H. 8.8r; Aug. Cio. Dei $.t7.For the Arcadiansbeing
'uApollod. 1'^9rr:r lzo
qescended
1:98;Ov. Met. 1..227;Lyk. 48r. from the oak seeiyk. aso; plut. elRon. zg6a;tor Dryas as the wife of Arkas
t7Fr.:63 M.-W = "Eratosth."Catast.FragmentaVaticana, seePaus.g.a.z.
ed. Rehm QBg), p. z.

86 87
WEREWOLVES AROUND THE TRIPOD KETTLE LYKAIA AND LYKAION

is not identical with the versions reported by the earlier authors.2l rnuralsin QatalHtiyuk as well,?7and their costumesrecall thoseof the
Any link with the pan-Arcadian festival, the Lykaia, is missing; there later Greek centaursand satyrs,those ,,wild men,,who fell upon wine
is selection by lot instead of the sacrificial meal. But the combination jars much like the werewolves in Livland. The leopard, one of the
gfat t,,r and a climbel was.the primate,sarch-enemy.By training
iii of a transformation into a wolf, a nine-year period, and an injunction
to abstain makes the connection very close. Did pan-Arcadian were- himself in the ways of the wolf, man becamea hunter and iord of the
wolf practices and familial customs run a parallel course? It is more earth. Could it be that thesebands of leopard men and wolf men were
likely that some sort of development took place. With the founding of the direct result of this decisive step? werewolves are, in any case,
Megalopolis, urban culture arrived in Arcadia, and there in the agora attestedin antiquity not only in fairytalesbut in a doctor,sclinical re-
Zeus Lykaios was given the most prominent temple.'n Thus, the Ly- port. Markellos of sidon treated casesof "lykanthropy" as a mental
kaia festival was now organized here, and although, as Pausanias disorder,'?8,a special form of melancholy, by the cui!-all of letting
tells us, the Arcadians still sacrificedupon the altar on the mountain, blood' He knew patients who "run out at night imitating wolves and
it is safe to assume that some aspects of the cult were changed at that dogs in every way and gadding about for the most part i"ncemeteries
time and, to some extent, civilized. After this reform, the old ways until dawn." Their legs usually bore the scarsof dog bites. strangely,
could no longer be carried on officially, but only in the tradition of a thesefits of madnessoccurredwith great regularityl accordingto the
particularly conservative family. Plato's testimony comes from before calendar,in-February,the month of the Lupercalia:even in lati antiq-
this time, as does the legend of the boxer Damarchos. Regardless of uity, then, the so-calledmental disorder wis regulatedthrough ritual.
how we conceive of the relationship between family customs and By combining rumors about Arcadian sacrificewith locaimythol-
pan-Arcadian rituals, Euanthes' report at least gives us some idea of ogy,we arrive at a description of an entirely real, institutionalizedrit-
how such wolf-metamorphoses were accomplished. ual. At its center was the secretsacrificialfestival at the ash-altarof
Both Pausanias and Pliny considered these werewolf stories to be Zeus Lykaios. we gather from the name, Nyktimos, that it occurred
clear examples of shameless braggadocio and the shameful gullibility at night. The entrails of many sacrificialanimals were, so they say,
of the masses," and when Plato uses the word mythos he is already slicedin together with those of a man, so that what each persJn ate
expressing a certain skepticism. Paradoxically, the modern researcher was seemingly a matter of chance.Apparently, everything would
be
cannot assume the same critical, enlightened stance. There is no doubt stirred together in a large tripod kettle., and each person"t,adto
fish
that werewolves existed, just like leopard men and tiger men, as a
clandestine Miinnerbund, a secret society, wavering between demonic usee
I.z.n.r9 above;I.8.n.28.For Indians hunting in wolf'.sclothing see F. E.
zeuner,
possession and horseplay, as is common in such a Miinnerbund. In Eu- Geschichte der Haustiere(rg6Z\, S+.
afn
A6t. Amid. 6.rr (Oribas.8.9;paul. Aeg.
rope, there is at least one case of a "werewolf" on record in sixteenth- 1.t6; physrognonr.Graecillzg:),cf. W H.
century Livland. There, the werewolvish activity consisted for the Ky::::throp:iehardetndiFiagntentttesMarceltusuon Side,Abh. Leip-
):^t:l"",rjr ?or^d:,
zrBt7.j (1897);Galen XIXVg Krihn; zepdAuxcloyos
most part of breaking into other people's cellars at night and drinking ij \uxaugp<iroupaul. Aeg.3.16.
"Lykanthropy" no-longer plays.arole
in modern psychiatry(contrapiccalugu,'Lykoon,
any beer found there.26More dangerous and perhaps more ancient 5U):it was culturallydetermined.
were the bands of leopard men in Africa, who conspired to assassi- descriptionsof sacrifice,and most depictionson vases,presentonty
nate others and practice cannibalism. Leopard m"n uppear on the l"U-"::."::-!"leric
on a spit, boiling.hasgone largelyunnoticed;there is nothing about
,l--":, :l::"r,ing ('r.gto:.rgzo).
on the other hand, the significanceof the sacrei tripod
il;"-f^1t
I t d s D e e nlt"lgel
studied(K.schwendemann,
23Stressed
by Nilsson j9o6) 9, ,lg5) 4ut;cf. Cook | (r9rg 71. ldl 36lr9zrl,t5t-g5;pGuillon, Lestripiedsdu
2aPaus.8.3o.z. lllio" I:s+ll, 87-rz+), but without consideringits use as a pot for cooking. Both roast-
cookingin a kettleare repreJentedon a Caeretanhydria] Viila Giulia,
5Paus.8.2.6;Pliny N.H. 8.8o. TtI^,,f :pl : ".9
pt. 4, Detienneand Vernant Oszs) pt.r_rV; ci. a fragmentfrom
;:::^1:r2.i9:6t48)
'z6Ftrofler
Qryg y5ff .; L. Gernet, "Dolon le loup," M6l. CumontQ936\,t89-zo8 : An- "'c acropolis, Craef and Langlotz nr. 654.'.6rn.,c'r-crr)rayxvav,xpetiruirlr4ols in the
thropologie de Ia GriceantiqueQ968), t54-27 W E. Peuckert,Geheimkulte (196r), roo- the,MitesianMolpoi-SrG) =- LSayt ro, boiling at the sacrificeto the
n:::"^:1 SZ 5o..35;
r 17;R. Eisler, Man into Wolf(ry5t); I. z above. Seealso B. Lindskog, AfricanLeopardMen ;:llj:""_:,^:.choros 328F 1Zi. "Partialy boiting and partiailyioasting,,is a standard
(Uppsala, 1954).For werewolvesin Wallis still in the eighteenthcentury see H. G. of banquets:Lykaon, Ov. Met. r.zz8_29;Tf,yestes,Accius
;;:.1'"l""rl:":: tfiu. grue_so1n-e
'.s-zz,5en. z6s_6t:Harpagos,Hdt. 1.119;Tereus,Ov. Met.6.645-40;Dionysus,
Wackernagel,Schweiz. Arch.f . Volkskunde 35 j916), r-rz; 46 (rS+q, Z+.For "dog-men" oF 15 = Clem. pr'z.ia; r.ur.
in Hittite ritual texts see.ANET36o.On the Hirpi SoraniseeServ.Aen. n.785. Cyrioprr.4r-ou, lit, i.i-4o4. Cf . the orphic tabooior)<iy

88 89
WEREWOLVES AROUND THE TRIPOD KETTLE LYKAIA AND LYXAION

out his portion with the sacredfork (the trident?)(seeFigure 4).'For ephebesmust leave.The boy must die if they are to enter the sphere
all must partake of the sacredobject; no participant was allowed to of manhood. But expulsionhas to precedeinclusion. Life as a wolf in
decline.The sacrificialmeal separatedthe "wolves" from the "sons of the wilderness, occurring, as we-seerroughly between the agesof 16
the bear," the Arcadians, just as Lykaon had divorced himself from and 25, was thus analogousto the spartin krypteia which,in turn,
the circle of the gods. Excavatorsat Mount Lykaion, however, have later corresponded to military service.3rAccording to Myron in his
discoveredno human bones among the sacrificialdetritus. Yet, even history of the Messenianwar," Arcadian warriors carried ihe skins of
by daylight it is hard to distinguish a piece of human heart, liver, or wolvesand bearsinsteadof shields.This behavioawild and primitive
kidney from that of an equally large mammal; modern surgeonshave though it was, was enough to preserveArcadian independence.
even pondered the feasibilityof transplants.In the flickering flamesat In discussingthe preparationsfor the sacrificialfestival,the myth
,
night, only the innermost circle of sacrificialservants could know makesmention of the precinct "that none may enter.,,Becauseboth
what was really floating about in the kettle. The power of suggestion Arkas and the bear went in, they had to be sacrificed.33 Those who
comes from tradition, from social constraints.Human entrails may breakthe tabu are damned and consecratedat once, destined for sac-
well have been thought to be present.The proof lay in their effectson rifice. Predatory animals, it was said, would not follow their ouarrv
the participants:each time one or more would be struck with "wolf's pastthis line.v rhus, within this small area they were free utthorrgh
frenzy,"whether spontaneouslyor becausethey were somehow ma- .lygry.i" an inescapabletrap, for the wolves were waiting just out_
nipulated. The "eaters" and the "slaughterers"were not the same. side. The tabu was evid_entlycreatedonly as an excuseani justifica-
The "wolves" disappearedinto the dark and had to avoid human set- tion for the sacrificialkilling. presumablythe sacrificialanimals were
tlements for years. By the time the dawning rays of sunlight hit the set free'only to be caught all the more certainly when thev would
golden eagleson top of the columns eastof the altar,the sacrificewas crossthe line "of their own free will.,, The Arcadians,own .u.rr" *u,
long over. indicatea"bear festival,"which would easilyfit the well-known type.l'
The wolf metamorphosis,as describedby Euanthes,can easilybe It is, of course,doubtful whether bearsstill lived in Arcadia in histori-
seen as an initiation ritual, for stripping off one'sclothes and swim- cal times; perhaps a shaggyram could havebeen used as a substitute
ming acrossa lake are clearly rites of passage.If Damarchoswon an quarry.
Olympic victory after his time as a wolf, he could have been no older It is clear that women would have been excludedfrom the Arca-
than 16 at the time of his transformation.Now it is surely the novice, dians' nocturnal sacrifices.Instead, there is a female realm that is
the first-time participant in the nocturnal festivities,who would be closedto men. only "consecratedwomen" could enter the cavewhere
most susceptibleto suggestion,and henceto the shockingrealization l(hea bore Zeus,u for they representedthe Arcadian nymphs
who
that he had eatenhuman flesh. From this we surmisethat the separa- took careof him. whereas the men gatheredfor sacrifice ,
,'for'the " act
tion of the "wolves" from the "sons of the bear" reflecteda division of killing, the women attendedto n"ewbornlife. Thus, the polarity
of
accordingto age. The myth alwaysspeaksof a "young boy" to be sac-
rificed, that is, a representativeof preciselythat age-classwhich the tJeanmaire
(ty1) 55o-69. Alcaeus, in exile, calls himself ),uxatpiate(r3o.z5
rln Lp).
Paus.4.tr.3; cf. yerg. Aen. g.zgz, Stat. Theb.
p.iy6nrdv, Arist. Probl.ined.S.4l Bussemaker(Paris,r857),and cf. Iambl. V. Pyth. t54; 4 . 1 q f.
Bur -,.
Erar. L4f. r pp.
Ath. 656b;DetienneQ977)t63-2r7. For boiling a ram seelG Xll7, 5r5.78;tor its place 5z_53 Robert.
sAel'
in Roman ritual see Varro Ll. 5.98; for the boiling of meat in Germanic sacrificessee Nal. an. tt 6, who mentions an AJr4 of pan at Mount
Lykaion; it is presurnably
identical w-ith the aparcv
J. de Vries, AltgermanischeReligionsgeschichteI Q956'}), 416-zo; for the Hittites see ^ . 7, )iabove, in accordance with the paraller of the sanctu-
aryofApolloHylatasatKurion(Cyprus).Cf.Ael.
ANET 348/49;for referencein the OT seen. lo below.It is not certainwhether the in- Nat.an.rr.7:there,too,thedogsdo
vention of boiling presupposesthe invention of ceramics;boiling is also possiblein into the sacred'grove, and whoever touches Apollos altar
is
i"""ly:"",n":.llr:,
'rrror^r'^n trom a cliff; cf. strabo r4 p. 693. Anyone who
stretched-outhides, into which hot stoneswould be thrown to heat the water. entered the precinct on Mount
Ly(alon was considered ,,deer,,:
rFor the trident as a fork for meat seeI Sam z:13 (cf. Exod. 27.t;8. D. van Buren, a see plut. e. G;: 3ooa_c (n. 7 above).
t^:1,:^:il_: rather than cipr<zosalready in LSS rr5 B 16 (fourth century
Symbols of theGodsQ94), 48. The trident alsoappearsas a harpoon:Aesch. Sepf.r3r;
,.tji
" { . r , n o t , u s t s i n c e t:o*:t
cf. Bulle, RlfL III 2855;Simon jg6) 8z; J. Boardman, CR zt (rg7t), t41; lll.8.n.zr he Septuagint (thus Frisk, Chanirarne s.r,.).
-Paus.
below. 8.36.3 (n.g above).

90 97
KETTLE
WEREWOLVES AROUND THE TRIPOD
pan'son the other.a3 In genealogicalmyths, Arcadian Pan is said to be
assuredperpetuity in
the sexesbound together the courseof life and the son of Zeus and, hence, the brother or half-brother of Arkas.*
the face of death. Similarly, when it is told that Arkas was raised by a "goatherd,"nsit
to the rift in
Thus, too, there must be a new unity correspon-ding evidently reflects the role played by the cult of Pan in the life of a
the sacrificeat the altar on
^ur"-uo.i"tf due to the sacrifice:following erowing boy. It is thus the polar oppositeof the world of the huntress
further down the moun-
the summit, there was the inevitable agon irtemis, to which Arkas' mother, Kallisto, belongs' Zeus and Pan al-
Arcadian "performed the
i"i". e..".aing to X"t'opnott, Xenia-si-he rnost seem to embody the antithesisbetween aggressionand sexual-
in foreign lands' ln enu-
ivtuiorl sacrifiie and heid an agon"'-'even pindar itv, or at leastbetween order and wild living. The serioussacrificethat
fe"stivals, mentions the "festive
;;;;',r.g ,n" C.""t agonistic ,,the race-trackof Zetts," severaltimes.s divides the group is the antithesisof the unification during a period
;;;-h";i""g of zeus Lyliaios,,, was a of license.But the details of the Program, and its sequencein time,
iii, the oldest of all Greek agons." The prize there escaPeus.
reminder of that
bronze implement, probably a tripod' i. constant
".r"^".ulled A strange abundanceof antithesesis thus impressed upon the
were of course
f'"stival.those wnb naa turned into "wolves" celebrantsat the Arcadianritual: predatoryanimals/sacrificial animals,
who had returned
not allowed to participate in the agon' but those
"igi.,ti*"
wolves/bears,wolves/stags,meat-eaters/acorn-eaters; night/day,sacri-
for Damar-
;;i;;i"" years"abstinencewere peim-ittedto enter' Thus' ficelagon, ZeuslPan; the old/the young, men/women, killing/giving
for.the agon' and
chos, his time as u *otf was a time of preparation birth. Characteristically,theseantithesesdo not merely collapseinto a
won-the victory that
even for the Olympic victory which he tnen uniform duality.They are,rather,generallytransformed,eachinto the
him pan-Hellenic
lifted him out of his Arcadian context, bringing other,like night into day: the hunter becomesthe hunted, the cannibal
f a m e . I n t h e a g o n f o l l o w i n g t h e s a c r i f i c e ' s o c i e t a l r o l e s w e r eto-
reas- turns ascetic,the living are killed, the dead come back to life-the
for others went
rt*O- The exiulsion of soire and the new start "secretsacrifice"revealsthe primordial situation of the hunt'
had to be
eether. The younger members of the rising generation
il; i",;;lli. wild,.outdoors,, white the twenty-five-year-olds,
";;; TheY now
io." *ut.iugeable, entered athletic competitions'n". -were of
beasts
true Arcadians, "acorn-eaters"u' oppot"d to carnivorous sac-
now participate in the
pruy. fn"y had found their way and might
rifice without danger, taking their wrealhs from the altar and dedicat-
2. Pelopsat Olympia
ing their bronze triPods'
who was in-
Strangeto say,there was another god besidesZeus
His sacred grove
volved in the agon-Pan, the lewd goat-like god' Although they were of the greatestantiquity,the Lykaia remained
eponymous official
and sanctuarywere next to the stadium'o'and the abasicallyprovincial, purely Arcadianevent.Theywereclearlyeclipsed
the Lykaia was alternately a priest of Zeus' then a priest of by the Olympic games,held every four yearson the banks of the Al-
oijur,iri.,g
on one side and
Pan." Arcadiar,coins, moreovet display Zeus'shead pheios,at the foot of the Hill of Kronos, in the sacredgrove of Zeus.'

yXen. Anab.r.z.to ra A'uxolaii$uoe xo.id76va E#rlxe' sCook


I (r9r4) 68-7o. On the statueof Pan in the sanctuaryof Zens Lykaiosat Mega-
BOl. ; l ' 7 . 8 1 - 8 4 r, 3 r o 7 - r o 8 '
9 . 9 6 ;N e m .t o . 4 5 - 4 8O
lopolisseePaus.8.1o.z- 3; for altarsof Zeus Lykaiosand Panat TegeaseePaus.8.53.r r.
3ePaus.8.2.r; Pliny NH 7'zo5' Fot a prize of 1atrrds see Pind' Nen ro 45; Polemon *Epimenides,
FGrHist 4:,ZF g : Schol.Theocr.r.1-4c, and cf. Schol.Theocr.r.rz3b;
Ol' l'8+; Arist fr' 6y; Mann Par''
Schol.Pind. Ol.7.t51d 1r.if,i +l.t, cf' Pini' Aristippos, FGrHist317F 4.For Panas the son of Aither, seeAriathos, FGrHisty6 F 4;
u"ii ara," Schol' Pind' OI 9 r41a' For inscriptions asthe son of Hermes, seePind. fr. roo. For Panas the inventor of astronomy,i.e., put-
iirluirt a9 e. t7;riiophanes,
(new foundation ca zr5 n c )
see IG V 2.4q, 549,SS",li' i'5, 671,lY'12 629'lllll.I'1993 ting an end to the primitive rpoat),nvot seeSchol.Lyk.
482.
AYKAIA see Imhoof-Blumer (1886)ro5 # "Eratosth."
For coins with the superscription Catast., p. z : Hes. fr. 163;accordingto anotherversion("Erat." Cat.p. 5z
noFor agonand weddingsee 7'n I t3 above' Robert),the she-bearand her baby are caughtby aizdtror.
r'rz1c' 'E.
arpaus.g.38.5(,,Zufall,"Nilsson bgo6l,+4+.2\;pavrtiouflavosSchol'Theocr' N. Gardiner, Olympia, lts Historyand RemainsQ9z5);W. Hege and E. Rodenwaldt,
o ' I G Y2 , 5 5 o .

93
92
WEREWOLVES AROUND THE TRIPOD KETTLE PELOPS AT OLYMPIA

Thesegameswere the most important expressionof unity aboveall in sift through the archaeologicallayers than to organize and evaluate
the Peloponnesus,but also for all of Greece.Their enormous impor- the literary evidencefor the cults and gamesat olympia, for here the
tance in giving the Greeks a senseof identity in sports and politics, rnost diverse traditions have become superimposed:pre-Doric and
and even in their spiritual existence,is well known. Long after Pin- Doric, Pisan and Elean,-localand pan-Hellenii. Morebver, they are
lri dar, the Greekswere still awarethat this athleticeventwas simultane- frequently distorted by local patriotism or politics or becausegene-

I ously a religious festival, even if only through the Zeus of Phidias,


which was consideredthe most important expressionof their concep-
tion of god. But the fact that both the religious experienceand the
alogieshave becomesystematized.'wecan often do no more than
combinethose items that necessarilybelong togetherbecauseof their
function'
socio-athleticevent were imbedded in a ritual with a striking resem- In so doing, however,we must omit the most famous foundation
blanceto the Lykaia, a sacrificialritual that centeredon the precinctof my_t_h of the olympic games.Although the story of pelops,abduction
Pelopsand the altar of Zeus, receivedfar less notice and hence has of Hippodameia from her father, oinornaos, in the chariot race and
come down to us only in scatteredfragments.'z oinomaos' death in the processwas already a part of the pseudo-
Although there are signs of a pre-Doric tradition, the history of HesiodicGreat Ehoiai and appearedon the liyps^eloschest about
57o
the sanctuaryat Olympia3 seemsto start in the Protogeometricera. 8.c.,and althoughthe pedimentalsculptureo.t the easternsideof the
From then on, the significanceof the gamesconstantly grows. It is greattemple of Zeus depicted the preparationsfor this chariot race,E
probably just chancethat the list of victors beginsin the year 776, for the myth only becameimportant for olympia oncechariot-racinghad
it was about then that the Greek alphabetwas introduced.oPisaand becomethe most prestigious and costiy sport and thus becomethe
Elis fought to possessthe famous site over many generationsuntil, in focal point of the games.However, accordingto the olympic victory
the sixth century,Pisa was destroyedand the pan-Hellenicorganiza- lists, chariot-racingwas only introduced in the twenty-fifth olym-
tion of the Hellanodikaiwas established,with Elis presiding.sThanks piad, that is, in 68o n.c.'Until then, only victors in the ftot-race were
to the excavations,we have detailed knowledge of the sanctuary's recorded.There are, admittedly,reproductionsof war chariotsamong
glorious architecturalhistory aswell as its declinein late antiquity un- the votive offeringslong before6go-as there are in other Greeksanc-
til the emperor Theodosiusabolishedthe games.6But it is far easierto tuaries as well-and perhaps even the name of the wily charioteer,
Myrtilos, can be tracedto Hittite roots, which might thente related
to
OlympiaQ916);L.Ziehen and J. Wiesner RE XVIII (ry$, r-r74; A. Mousset,Olympie the introduction of the war chariot in the middle of tne second
millen-
et lesjeux grecs(196o).On the excavationssee E. Curtius and F. Adler, Olympia Q89o- nium n.c.'oBut all this does.nottouch upon the heart of the
olympic
97); W. Wrede and E. Kunze, Berichtilberdie Ausgrabungen in Olympiat-5 Q944-6$; festival. Rather, in its detairsthe myth of Hippodameia
E. Kunze, Olympische Forschungen fif . $944ff.). For the lists of victors see L. Moretti,
reflects the
strangetabus of Elean animal-husbindry rites;r1
Olympionikni(Rome, 1957). and the fact that it
penetratedto olympia testifiesto growing Elean
'?A.B. Cook, "Zeus,
Jupiter,and the Oak," CR t7 Qgq),268-78, interpretedthe ritual
influence in the sev-
as a battle between the young and the old priest-king; he was followed by F. M. Corn-
ford in Harrison Q.927\279-29. L. Drees, Der Ursprungder OlympischenSpielejg6z) t:]t:*s we will not deatwith the traditionsthat attribute
the founding of the
sees"pre-Doric fertility cults." 5.r.4, p"i.., irni"e""lii:;;;;;;;';?y, n"._
6.zo.e),
^i' 5.8.r,
"1:::l
:l1:j:,Tdy^i:"aactrl
1p.ul_.
rF. Mezo, Geschichte der OlympischenSpiele(r93o); for a hypercritical account see U. l*":i::#i:;1
Kronos(Paus.
tp s-)le,s'4.' ; ;; ;);;;%;' ;ff ilil#
:;.'i;.;,' ffi;
Kahrstedt,"Zur Geschichtevon Elis und Olympia," NGG j9z7),157-76; cf. F. Jacoby, 5.7.to,'g.z.z)
FGrHist III B: Kommenlar zzr-28. 7.on ;Paus.
5.r7 seeM. Lthepedimental
sculptures
,ifi,13*fl,*s;f1..:set,-w
fL. H.
feffery, TheLocalScriptsof ArchaicGreece(t96r), zo-zr. ; !'l;;;;;?';;2i;J';3;;I;;'il;;:i:
::*:* :l:.,::::::i:;;; i'iJiJlJ"i"'i"[
sThetradition is late,confused,tendentious,and unverifiable;Paus.6.22.3-4 (destruc-
teady an alfusion
ePaus.
at ll. z.ro4lli)rotrt A,q{int<p.
"'-
5.8.7; doubted by L. Deubner, Kult und Spiel int alten Olympia
tion of Pisaafter 588),5.9.4;StraboZ p. 351,(cf. F. Bolte, RE VII A t96-97): destruction account of the (1936), z6_27, on
of Pisaby Elis and Spartaafter the (Second?)MessenianWar.On the discusof Iphitos votive offeri.,gs.
'oH.
and Lykurgus, seeArist. fr. 533,and cf. F Jacoby,Apollodors Chronik(tgoz), u6 n. 1o' R. Hall, ,lHS zq (rqoq). tg-zz;
cf . F. Schachermeyr, Anzeiger
*h"ft ,;1;'9,66\',ur" ""u",' fi)r dieAltertumswissen-
tzz-26.

I
uG',Devereux,
5On the protubitionagainstpagancults seeCod.Theod.XYl.to.ro-rz (lgrlgz); the last "The Abduction of Hippodameia
oandry Rite," as Aition' of a Greek Animar Hus-
Olympic gamestook placein 393. SMSR 36 (1965), 3-25; Hai.
+.fo; nut. g Gr. y3b;paus. 5.5.2.

94 95
PELOPS AT OLYMPIA
TRIPOD KETTLE
WEREWOLVES AROUND THE

locatedfar from the Altis of the entranceto the precinct of Pelopsis in the west, the altar of Zeus
enth century.But the Hippodromer'rras was aPProached from the stadium,i.e., from the east.Whereasblood
stadium'by contrast'was in-
Zeus, in the plain of ii"ifpfteios' The was poured into the sacrificialpitl8 for Pelops,that is to say, down-
toward the altar of Zeus'l'?The
side the sacredp.".littand oriented ward, the altar of Zeus grew higher and higher. Thus, the two sacrifi-
preeminent agon at Olyfi;;;t the foot-racein the stadium' and it were united in a polar tension. The hero and the god
cial recipients
ilone had a sacralfunction' the went together like night and day. The name Pelopscan be interpreted
precinct.ofPe.lops.are
The altar ot,".,,, ..n"",,udi,., and.the saying that to mean "dark-face,"te the antithesisof the god of daylight. The agon
at Olympia. If goeswithout
cultic centersof the;;;l;^;y 'mainly 'sacrifiie' Of course' in such a took place in the daytime and could not be continued into the night.'o
of
the cultic activity t";;i;i;J When the schedule started to get too long, the pentathlon and the
there would be a considerablediversity
highly frequentedt;;A;;t horse-racing were moved up, to be followed by the sacrifices,"which
ofritualscurrentutu"yot'"tit"'private'occasionalsacrifice;daily were, in turn, followed by the foot-race in the stadium. Thus, the pre-
becausethe city administration
and annual ,tut" ,ut'i#e-important fina-lly'once paratorysacrificeto Pelopsoccurredat night' "When the Eleanshad
ffili;;;; intimately involved in running Olympia;.and slaughteredthe sacrificialvictim accordingto their custom, its conse-
the gieat fesiival' And yet' to the
every four years,uUitt" 'ut'ifices at god the same slte' we cratedparts would lie on the altar, though not as yet set on fire' The
hero or at
extent that they concernedthe same smaller sacri- runners would stand at a distanceof one stadefrom the altar, in front
belween the
may assumethat there was someanalogy they would ex- of which there was a priest signalling the start with a torch. And the
and the rare;
fices and the larger ones, the frequent or elaborated' winner would set fire to the consecratedparts and then depart as an
press essentiallythe same thing' whether abbreviated Olympic victor." Thus, following ancient sources,Philostratus" de-
than the other heroes
"The Eleansno"ot"a Pelopsas much more says rciiUusthe foot-raceto the altar; one stadelong, hence stadium.And
than the other gods"'
at Olimpia as they honored Zeus mote stat rs:
'Now he in fact, the early stadium ended at the altar.
his unique
Pausanias."e"a urt"ulf fitta- a"tttibes Philostratusalsoconnectsthe double coursewith sacrifice:"When
lying by the'ford of the Al-
is drenched in glorious'blood-offerings' the Eleanshad finished their sacrifice,all the Greek envoys present
altarwhich the most peo-
pn"i.t, -ian his busy tomb right next tothe had to sacrifice.But in order that their processionnot be delayed,the
ii, ple come to visit."'o'The alta;of Zeus is the
true center of the Altis'
heap of runners ran one stade away from the altar, calling on the Greeks to
i;;r"*g;n,il ,n" very end nothing more than a primitive come,then turned and ran back as if to announcethat all Greecewas
an impressive height through
iiiii earth and ash, though it had risen to presentrejoicing. So much for the double course."2'It started at the
.ou'itless visitors'" Not far off' toward the west' was
the sacrificesof altar and returned there in the end. Pausaniasdescribesthe altar
of stones'Beforesacrificing
the precinctof n"foft, u*losed by a circle more exactly:"The custom is to slaughtervictims in the lower part of
thus got the samenumber of
to Zeus,or," ,u.,irilla-io n"ropt'1"tho white
the altar, the so-calledprothysis. Then they take the thighs up to the
sacrificeseven if d; ;"t; tt'ot'u' large' Inloth cases'only very highest point of the altar and burn them there. . . . But only men
and.i'J: 4.:P:: :Yl":::"',*: bff"::;
;;;i;; ;"; J .o"rau'"used,
servant' thewoodman
1'
({urerls)'"Whereas may climb up from the prothysis to the top."zt Thus, the foot-race
Hfi;ffii,"il*ttr*ial
(956), rc.rz; A|A 5z j948)' ttEds
l2E. Kunze, 5' Berichtiiberdie Ausgrabungen in olympia r,iy BofipouPaus.5.r3.2.
"9 ''o'o'
':i^t ' 'ii ipJlio' Plut' 675c;cf' Paus'5'8'6' 8'26'4; ttl.
B. Hofma.,n, Etvmologisches Wbrterbuchdes Griechischen(r95o), s t' rre)ttrvcis;RE
492-gJ.flawa npoohil-,
, Philostr. GYmn. tz luppl. VII 849. Even if Pelopswere-as is more probable-the ePonym of a people,
ll6)\oaes (like Ari,\oaes. Apitotres),the associationwould not be without significance.
"s.tJ.t. 'A\geoir^ r6pot
! - .xltt9eis'
, \ . o ^ : ruP- aPaus.

r11
ilii
t,Ol. t.g-93 viv 6' iv aipcrxortpicrtsd1Lclaiat
Bov d4'gitot ov i1lrl,v
rot'u(evottarq rapd BallQ'
p6y'exrct''

see lI'r'n ro above'


trPaus.
uGymn.5.
5.9.3.
5.9.3:472r,.c.
15paus.
5.t3.8- 1 7 , 1 4 .t- t;cf. Thuc. 5.5o.r. On the tyPe, - Cf . Eumenes'foundationat Delphi, LSS44.r5 6 6i Dp<ipos 7lu lnfiot . . . riTpt
iiii r6Schol. pind. Ol. t.r49a xai npd toi Atos arhQ rois
'H)telous Biew' On the Pelopion' ttvri rdv
Bap"ov,6 6i vutay iganttra ra i.epa.
lilll see Paus. 5.a3.r-).
tzpaus. in inscriptions see Olympia V
(1896)' #62' 64' 72r' r22'
uymn.6.
t'Paus.
5.r1.9-ro.
illj 5.r3.3, r4.z; torfutreus
rlli
llt
724.

97
96
PELOPS AT OLYMPIA
WEREWOLVES AROUND THE TRIPOD KETTLE

presupposesthe bloody act of killing; likewise Pelopswas "drenched The sanctuaryof Pelopswas no ordinary grave. It was said that
with blbod,, in the preliminary sacrifice.The end of the race, its goal, his bones were preservedin a chestnot far from the sanctuaryof Ar-
is the top of the aniient heap of ash, the place where fire must blaze temis Kordax;" an outsized shoulder blade, however,was kept sepa-
and burn up the thigh-bones. The race marks the transition from rately for display, though it no longer existed during Pausanias'life-
blood to pn.ifyir,g fire, from encounteringdeath to the joyful satisfac- time.r Pelops' severedshoulder blade belongs, of course, with that
tion of surviving is manifestedin the strength of the victor. Thus, the other gruesomemyth of Pelopswhich Pindar mentioned in his first
most important agon at Olympia is part of a sacrificialact moving be- OlympianOde, only to rejectit indignantly as a maliciousinvention of
tween the Pelopionand the altar of Zeus. the poets.3lThis myth runs directly parallel to the myth of Lykaon:
The propei victim for Zeus is a bull;" for Pelops,however, it is a with Zeus leading the way, the gods came to visit Tantalosfor a fes-
blackram-this, too, stressesthe dark sideof the ceremony'Pausanias tive meal. Tantalos,however, for whatever reason,turned the divine
describesthe annual sacrificeoffered to Pelopsby the Elean officials: banquet into cannibalism: he slaughtered his own son Pelops and
,,Fromthis sacrificethe prophet gets no share;rather, it is customary offered him to the gods as food; and Demeter, unaware becauseof
to give only the ram's neck to the so-calledwoodman. ' Anyone, her intense mourning for Kore, took the shoulder and ate it. Here,
whlther El-eanor foreign, who eatsthe meat of the victim sacrificedto too, the justice of Zeus was quick to folloW even though there is lit-
26-that is, he may not enter his tle agreementas to the form it took. In any case,Pelops'limbs were
Pelopsis not allowed to go in to Zeus"
precinct or draw near to the altar. Pausaniasstatesthis rule in a 8en- put back together in the sacrificialkettle and he was brought to life
Lral way; it was surely not restricted to the annual sacrificebut ap- once more; only the missing shoulder had to be replacedby a piece
plied toevery Pelopssacrificeprecedinga sacrificeto zeus, especially of ivory."
during the great pentetericfestival. After Pindar, the Greeks often changed the setting of this can-
C-iraracteristiially,the sacrificeof a ram is also present in the nibalistic banquet of the gods to Sipylos in Asia Minor.r, Modern
myth linking Pelopsto Oinomaosand Hippodameia. Oinomaos, so it mythologiststhink that the myths of Tantalosand Lykaon must have
is iold, ,rsed to sairifice a ram, Ietting the suitor get a head start until influencedeachother. But becauseboth clearlydepict a sacrificialact,
the "consecrated"parts of the victim were burned; thereupon he from cutting the victim up and cooking him in a kettle, to the typical
would chaseafter the fleeing suitor and, upon catchinguP with him, closing "revival" by putting together his bones, both are therefore
kill him.r' A series of vase-paintingsdepicts the sacrificeof a ram, bound to a specificlocality through ritual. pelops' shourderwas dis-
basedon scenesfrom tragedy;'?8 admittedly,theserams are white, but P.layed- at Olympia, not in Asia Minor. And jusi as the pelopion, the
altar of Zeus, and the stadium were all'u"ty clor" to eachothbr, so too
this is probably just an iconographicalshift causedby someinterven-
the only woman allowedto enterthe stadiumwas the priestessof De-
ing facior. Even the tale is quite far removed from ritual; yet, in the
seienth century, those who told the myth were moved to combine
DPaus.5.zz.r.
Pelopswith a race and the sacrificeof a ram, just as these had been

I combined in ritual until the time of Pausaniasand Philostratus.

6Do Chrys. Or. rz.5r. On Milon's sacrificeof a bull at olympia seeAth. 4rz-t3a Phy'
larchos, FGrHist8rF 3.
],P1us 5ar3+-6, cf. Lykcoph. 52-56and Schol.54;Apollod. Epit.5.to- rr; Schol.LV
tt. 6.92,Dionysios, FGrHist15 F Firm. Err. .-5.r.pelops,
vlctory of the pelopids over Trov.
)Pind.
ol. ,.ro-r), a7-53.
3; shoulier guaranteedthe

tllii 26Paus. There, the tl Bacchyl.fr. 4z; Eur. Iph. Taur.186-88; Lyk. r5z-55;Apollod. Epit.
5.r3.2. Cf. the sacrificeof a ram at the BabylonianNew YearFestival. ^fn
2'2-l; 1eo_-22,
etc. F. M. cornford in Harrison (ry2.) z4-5r interpietedirt" *y*r ur belongrng
priestsand those who do the slaughteringmust leaveBabylon: ANET 111' to an initiation and New year's
2'Diod. xprcv . . . dyw$iurav 6i riov bpdv rore dpyeoSat festival.the -t<nifeof perops"was kept in the sikyonian
4.73.46 ptivOivop.aogE.f.ue seePaus.6.t9.6, andcf. Pind. Ot. t.4g. There may be a depictionof pelopsrn
roi 6po1.tou. ["^":_lO,
kettle on metope3z from the Heraion at the river Sele:seeE. Simon,
aBrommer :
Qg6o)37o:Calyx-craterBM F z7r D 6, Cook I (r9r4) pl 5; amphora
BM F ;:^",:.lP* /dI g:
,tt-ffi. The myth of Medea,pelias,and the ram in the kettle is far more
C o o kl ( r 9 t 4 ) pt_rpu_
3 ) r : D 7 , C o o k l i r g r a ) p i . 3 ; b e l l - c r a t e r i n N a p l e s zHz. o o :
-iRV' 4og:Bl=
: D
ll37]:
y:-: *e Brommer[196o)348-4g);there,Medeaappearsas the priestessof ,Ar_
,44o.t, FR III i5r, ilarrison (1927)zt8;amphoraat Ruvo : Cook | (tgt4) 4oB ;:11-.,1
temts"(Diod.
the 4.5r;Hyg. Fab.z4),i.e., of Hekate,the nociurnal readerof dogs.

lllllllr
u5f Zeus appears as
4, Anna\i 4 $85r), Pl. QR. For Etruscanurns see EAAY *l'ind.
O/. r.j8, and cf. pR II zg6.
recipient of the sacrificeon D 7, Artemis on B 3.

98 99

ll
WEREWOLVES AROUND THE TRIPOD KETTLE PELOPS AT OLYMPIA

meter Chamyne, who took her place at the gamesuPon an altar op- torious strength emanatingfrom Hippokrates,a sign of the future tyr-
posite the Hellanodikai.'Thus, the Olympic ritual combinesthe very annyof his son, who had yet to be born. Such was the importanceof
gods that went together in the myth-Pelops, Zeus, and Demeter. cookingin a tripod kettle at the pan-Hellenicfestival at Olympia. It is
ihe cannibalisticmyth of Pelopsthat so shockedPindar clearly refers no surprise,then, that-as the excavationshave shown-great num-
to the Olympic festival. bersof tripods were dedicatedthere from the tenth century on.rnAnd
The hero's mythical fate is strangely connected with the ram when, in the fifth century,the great temple of Zeus was constructed,
slaughteredin the Pelopion-on accountof that sameshoulderblade. the architectschosefor the acroteriathis very symbol of Olympic sac-
In Greece,as elsewhere,a ram's shouder blade played a specialpart rifice, namely, the tripod.nOBetweenthe tripods was the battle of the
in the sacrificeof a ram. In such a sacrificefor Poseidonon Mykonos, Lapiths and the Centaurs, and the start of the chariot race between
it is expresslystatedthat "the back and the shoulderblade should be Pelopsand Oinomaos.
cut up, the shoulderblade sprinkledwith wine"3s-i.e., destruction fust as Arkas was the ancestorof the Arcadians, so pelops was
first, then sacredhonors. In Slavicand German folk-religion, a ramb the eponymoushero of the whole "island of Pelops"(peloponnesus).
shoulder blade is used for making predictions,'owhile at Olympia a fust as the Arcadiansgatheredfor the festival of ZeusLykaios, so the
seer would have been present at the sacrificefor Pelops.We do not inhabitantsof the "island of Pelops"and, later, all of Greecegathered
know what was actually done with ramt bones in historical times. for the Olympic festival "in the wooded valleys of Kronos in pelops,
Philostratuswas content to avoid the problem by simply saying that land."n'And just as the sacrificefor Zeus Lykaiosdivided Arcadian
they did "whatever was customarythere" 3tand we too must be satis- society,thereby shedding light on its workings, so too the sacrificial
fied with the realizationthat, in both the sacrificeof the ram and the ritual at olympia accentuatedthe distribution of roles in society.The
myth of Pelops,the tracesof ancient hunting and sacrificialcustoms division is most noticeablein those participatingin the sacrificeof the
shine through preciselyin the way in which the bones are treated. ram to Pelops.This chthonic, dark, nocturnal sacrificeis for eating,
One thing is certain-and once again this connectsthe sacrifice but the "eaters"must subsequentlyshun the daytime sky god, Zeui;
at Olympia with the Lykaia-the big tripod kettle was extremely im- their expulsion is comparableto that of the wereworveso1 Lykuio.r.
portant in thesesacrificialcustoms.At leastpart of the sacrificialmeat of age groups and initiations were no longer part of tire pan-
.course,
would be collectedin such kettles ()'eB4res)and prepared in them, Hellenicfestival; thus, perhaps the meat was given to any socialout-
although at first without fire. This is apparent from a legend current castswho happened to be there. There was one person of sacredsta-
in the time of Peisistratosand retold by Herodotus: Hippokrates, the tus who ate of the ram, namely, the ',woodman,,;consequentlyhe
father of the future Athenian tyrant, "as yet held no public office, was permanentlybarred from the precinctof Zeus. The otherswere
when a greatmarvel happenedto him while he was at Olympia to see probably allowed to purify themselvesand return, as in the parallel
the games. When he had offered the sacrifice, the tripod kettles, case,cited by Pausanias,of a purificatory bath in pergamon.o2 Never-
which were full of meat and water, began to boil without fire and to theless, the "woodman" supplied the wood for buint offerings to
overflow."" Hippokrates was evidently one of those envoys who, ac- 7.eus- whereby the ash-altargi"* higher-a typical distribution
cording to Philostratus,would sacrificeafter the double course. The ot roles.ina comedy of innocence."'u",In sacrificingthe ram, fasting was
fact that the kettlesbegan to boil by themselveswas a sign of the vic- required of the seer taking part, anJ was also requiid of
*tt"il:ty
the athletes.we know with certainty itrat at least until the
late sixth
yPaus.
6.2o.9, 6.zr.t; 8. Bericht iiber die Ausgrabungenin Olvmpia Q967), 69-74.
35SIC3 roz4.5 -- LS xonrero,t, i1 trXarq cneu6erar'. Tearing off the "F.wil|emsen,,,Dreifusskesselvono|ympia,,,o,,*ffi
96.7 vGtroy xai r\arq
arm together with the shoulder blade plays a special role in the crapayp'os; see Eur' the olderpiecesfound *"i" i"-urkaLly numerousaroundthe pelopron;
l]::
'r'-v' :1",
tlerrmann, "Die Kesselder orientalisierendenZeit," orympische
Bacch.trz5-27; Theocr. z6.zz; cf. Hdt. 4.62. Forschungen
6
sF. S. Krauss, Volksglaubeund religi1serBrauchder Sildslauen (1966);rr (rgZq)
Q89o)' 166-67' sPaus.
I'Philostr. Gymn. 5.ro.4.
5.
$Hdt. r.59. Accordingtothebequestof Kritolaos, lGXll7.5r5 = LSS6r, TS,asacrificial "Pind. o/. 3.r3.
'5.t3.3.
ram is cooked and prepared so as to be eaten after the games. On the futrerisseen. 17 above.
WEREWOLVES AROUND THE TRIPOD KETTLE THYESTES AND HARPAGOS

century athleteshad to undergo a thirty-day period of preparation Igonos.onAn aged priestessand a virgin choseneach year, the ,,lou_
with a strict vegetariandiet of cheeseand figs. This was likewise a trophoros,"were responsiblefor ministering to the cuit of the divine
time of sexualabstinence.€Such renunciation and focusing of one's child in the room of Eileithyia.The child'sname seemsto havebeen of
strength was meant to lead all the more certainlyto a final goal, to the little importance. Olympia was unable to establishitself as the birth-
competition, to victory, and to sacrifice.For many kinds of sacrifice placeof Zeuseven though Pindarhad mentionedthe "IdaeanGro tto,',n

illl followed on a victory, with banquets at the state'sexPense;the victory


celebrationalso included an eveningprocession;and in the story that
Artemis Kordax was given hs1112ms4-a name that reflectsa lascivi-
ind a temple was built for the mother of the gods in the fifth century.
Yetit was evidently not so much a question of the child's name as the
expectationexpressedin the ritual act, that the incessantkilling in the
ous dance-because Pelops'companionsheld their processionwithin male sphere where Pelopswas "drenched" with blood must have its
her precinct, we get some indication of the sexualurges that, having counterpartin the female sphere in the mysteriousbirth in the cave.
built up inside, would now break out into the open in the festivalcele- How else could the "city be saved," as the name Sosipollssuggests?
bration. Yet, Pelops'bones were kept in the precinct of Artemis Kor- Thus, Rhea'scave on the slopesof Mount Lykaion has its .eierru.y
dax-that is, sacrifice underlay this uninhibited celebration. After counterpartat Olympia. By combining those aspectswhich the fes-
this, military symbolism would mark a return to order: trumpets in- tival divides, the power of men and the power of women, the circleof
stead of flutes, armor instead of athletic nudity;osthis was the norm life is sealed.
for all Greek men. Theseconnectionswere no longer so obvious when the games
Women,though not virgins, werebarredfrom the Olympic games, grew into a highly organizedbusinessand when sport becameimpor-
under threat of death.* The festival divided the family in order to il- tant for its.own sake,yet the two managedto survive side by side for
luminate its relationships.At Olympia, the women had to play their a thousand years. An olympic victory was a unique socielalevent,
part beforeand after the games.On an eveningat the start of the fes- but the victor's status and the order in which the participating cities
tival, the women, weeping and wailing, would gather in the gymna- wereranked becamevisible mainly in the sacrifice.The winneiof the
sium for sacrifice:this was said to be in honor of Achilles,n'though it foot-racewould be the first to ligtrt the sacrificialfire, after which the
may just have been a secondarymotivation for the comedy of inno- envoyswould sacrificein a specificorder set by the Judgesof the Hel-
cencepreceding the sacrifice.After the games,they had an athletic lenes' Pride in individual achievement,and divine gIory radiating
festival of their own, the Heraia.€The temple of Hera was built much from.the sanctuary were inseparablyunited. The part"icipatingcom-
earlier than that of Zeus, not becauseZeus was any less important munities demonstratedtheir renewed strength each time in the fes-
but, rather, becausethe men gathered around the site where killing tive
-competition,the racebetween the "darK, sacrificeto pelops and
took place, the ash-altat whereas the goddessof women stayed at the fire of Zeus, past death to the sovereignorder of life.
home, in her vads. On the other hand, the men were barred from the
sacredcaveof Zeus Sosipolisand Eileithyiaon the slopesof the Hill of

aTupov ix r6v ra),apotvPaus. 6.7.ro, until the victory of Dromeus (#r88 Morettt,
Olympionikai,484 r.c.), for whom the sculptor Pythagorasof Rhegionmade a statue;
thence, perhaps, the tradition that Pythagoras of Samos introduced a diet of meat
rather than cheese,Porph. V Pyth. 15 (from Antonios Dogenes), Iambl. V Pyth.25'
'Agpo}';aiti,u
j. Thyestes
andHarpagos
dtiyecflol seePhilostr.Gymn.zz; cf .1.7 at n. 13above.For the thirty-day
period see Philostr. U Ap. 5.4J; JohannesChrysostomos,Migne PG 5r, 76. For a train-
ing period of ten months, seePaus.5.24.9,i.27.r1,6.2+.3. The third and most famous, indeed, proverbial, cannibalistic
sPaus. 6.:u.r; cf. Schol. Aristid. lll
564,ro Dndorf ht ivrfi lli)roaos xpeovpyiqdp- rnealin Peloponnesianmythology
is directry preservedonly in liter-
/1oa7o 6 [ld.v.
asPhilostr.Gymn.7; Plut.
Q. cona.63ge;Artemidorus r.63.
BPaus. sPaus'6.zo.z-q,6'z5.4.Onthearchaeo,o,,.u,p,on,"-@
5.6.7,5.2.2;Ael. Nat.an. 5.r7; PNostr. Gymn.ry (II z7oed. Teubn.)
47Paus. studres/orS.
6.23.3. M. RobinJon
I (r95o), yo_5ol
sPaus.
5.16.2;Nilsson Ogcr6)6z; on Hera at Olympia see Simon (r$) 36-18. "Purd. Ol. 5.rg, and cf. Schol. lza

LO2 103
WEREWOLVES AROUND THE TRIPOD KETTLE THYESTES AND HARPAGOS

ary sources: it is the feast of Thyestes (@ueoreca 6eirrva).' Thyestes feastof Thyestesfollowed the form of a sacrifice,as did any meal with
and Atreus were sons of Pelops, and the parallels to the crime of Tan- rneat.In Aeschylus, Atreus servesThyesteshis meal "under the pre-
talos were drawn already in tragedies. Unfortunately, the Atreus of tenseof happily celebratinga feast day" (xpeoupydvfip.o.p),, a name
Sophocles and the Thyestestragedies of Sophocles and Euripides have clearlytaken from sacrificialritual.' At this unusual meal, Thyestes
noi survived, nor have the imitations by Ennius and Accius;'only the sits alone at his own table, as do all the others, "man for man." it *",
late version of Thyestesby seneca remains, along with allusions in sur- in just this way that the men of Aegina sacrificedto poseidonas ,,soli-
viving tragedies, above all in Aeschylus' Aganrcmnonand in the Elec- tary eaters," and this separation of the participants recurs at the
tra and orestesof Euripides.r on the basis of quotations, it is clear that PitcherFeastin Athens.'Some of the entrails were roasted, and the
the myth appeared already in ancient epic, in the Alkmaionls, and in maiority were boiled in a bronze kettle, accordingto Accius and Sen-
early mythography, in Pherekydes of Athens.' eca.'oHere, then, as at Mount Lykaion and Olympia, the tripod kettle
The essential part of the "act" is the same in all versions; varia- makesits appearance.Lykaon, too, it is said, preparedthe meat of his
tion occurs only in the preceding sections and in the motivation. The human victim partially by roasting,partially by boiling. The head and
two brothers struggled for the throne of Mycenae; Atreus slaughtered feet were kept intact, and that is how the father later realizedwhat he
Thyestes' infant sons and served them up for dinner, so that Thyestes had eaten.This specialtreatmentof the head and feet, recurring sev-
unsuspectingly ate the flesh of his own children. Of the brothers, one eral times in Greek sacrificialritual," evidently goesback to primitive
was a killer, the other an eater, but the worse pollution belonged to hunting customs. Finally, Thyestesoverturns the table, just as hap-
the eater. After this meal-all versions agree in this detail as well- pened after Lykaon's crime.'2But the most transparentlink between
Thyestes had to abandon the throne forever and flee the land: thus sacrifice(duos)and the man who ate this feast, with which he re-
Atreus became, or remained, the Mycenaean king. Another set detail mained proverbially associated,is his very name, Thyestes.
in the story is that Thyestes had previously committed adultery with This dreadful sacrificestirred the powers of the cosmos:the sun
his brother's wife, Aerope, whence the motivation for Atreus' dread- reversedits course. During the height of fifth-century speculation
ful deed: the "eater" could not restrain himself sexually either. There- about nature, this wondrous changewas variously rethought and ra-
fore, Atreus, the killer, hurled his unfaithful wife into the sea's tionalized.Theseinterpretationsassumethat at that time the sun be-
It is clear once again how the myth repeats the course of the sac- gan to follow the course which it demonstrably follows todav; the
rificial ritual and adds gruesome details. It is hard to tell how much in world was organized differently beforehand.r3Thus, the crime as-
Seneca's fantastic description derives from ancient tradition-the
children were sacrificed, according to the letter of the ritual, in a se- 6Aesch.
Ag. rygz, and cf. Fraenkel ad loc.; i1 fldtronos xpeoupyia Luk. De salt.
54;
cret sacrificial grove in an obscure corner of the palace groundsn- II.z.n.44above.
thus, effective theatrical pathos springs from the religious mystenum eAesch.
Ag.t15g5, and cf. IV.z.n.z3below
roAccius
tremendum. According to Apollodorus,T the children fled to the altar :zo-zz Ribbeck;Sen.Thy. 765-62;ILr.n.z9 above.
of Zeus, only to be torn away and slaughtered. It is certain that the = L S 5 5 . r o ; f o r t h e p r i e s t s , s e e L sns5 , B 1 6 ;
]tHLaa3nafeetforthegod,seeSlGrro4z
ror the king, seeDemon, FGrHist
3z7F r. Cf. porph. in Euset. praep.Ea. +.g.2;Hsch.
I PRII 291-98;Cook I (r9r4) = e-vlP.ata, Hy. Merc. ry7;Luk. Syr.D. 55;L55 4o B z; LSSrzr; Eitrem (r9r7)
4o5-4og;@uicreta 6eir'ra Achill. Isag.p. 55.18Maass get.(r9ro)85-9r. For this practicein hunting customs 43-48; Sten-
VS ar.ro, and cf. Eur. Or. roo8. seeMeuli e946) z4i; A. Gahs,
restxhrift P. W. Schmid(ry28), z4o; Lldc
2Sophoclespp.91-94 and ft. 247-69 Pearson,Eur. fu. 39t-97; Ennius Scaen.14o-65 lX zgz.
t'S""
II.t..,.14 above;Aesch. Ag. ..6or.On Lesbos,there areas the parentsof Dionysus
Vahlen2,Accius w. 197-2J4cRibbeck.
3Aesch. Ag. togo-97, tr85-93, 't277-2), t581-t6o2 Eur. El. 6gg-n6; lph. Taur' "'opxqt the coupleThyestesand Daito (,,sacrifice,, and ,,meal,,):Schol.Lyk. zrz.
,Arpei
9tz- 17; Or. 8rt - 15, 997-'to7o. i_linopiaes, VS 4r.ro; Plat. Soph. z69ap.apnpilocrs dpa 6rleds
e:.r:vivtxipa;Sophocles,
p.e#Batrev aird
aAlkmaionisfr. 6 p. : Schol.Eur. O'' 995' AP9.98;Hyg.Fah.88;Serv. Aen.r.568;Schol.Stat.Tfteb.
77 Kinkel, and Pherekydes,FGrHist) F t)i 4-3o6;cf.-3;5oHdt. z.r4z. For the sun travelringfrom west to east see Eur.
or. roor-
Cf. Apollod. Epit.z.ro-rz. t^d cf. schol. 8rz; Apollod. Epit. z.rz. ior the scientificreinterpretation
'Soph. Aiasng5-g7, Schol.rz97 = EuriPides,TCF pp.5o7-5o2. lTl that
astronomer,discoveredthe sun'sretrogrademotion in the zodiacseeEur.
oSen.Tlry.64t-788. ltllut,jt_ul
rr'd6r; Polyb. --
tt.z.6 Strabor p. z3; Soph. fr. T3g"pearson; Schol.Eur. Or.99g; Serv.
7Epit.z.rl. A e n .r . s 6 g .

ro4 105
WEREWOLVES AROUND THE TRIPOD KETTLE THYESTES AND HARPAGOS

sumes an almost cosmogonicfunction: ever since that unspeakable actionsare exactly the samein both acts:Atreus kills something and
sacrifice, and becauseof it, the sun has kept to its familiar and reliable hides it; Thyestesgreedily snatchesit up and exposeswhat had been
course.|ust so, the Old Testamentcovenantfollowed the crime and hidden. Similarly, we saw that the Tantalos myth reflected the sacri-
the flood to guaranteethe order of "seed-timeand harvest, cold and ficeof a ram at Olympia and that the Arcadian myth was a gruesome
heat, summer and winter, day and night."'n The kingship of Mycenae elaborationof the sacrificeon Mount Lykaion. There are two roles at
was legitimizedby the sun; Thyesteshad to flee. The great feasttook this sacrifice, kept strictly apart yet closely related; in the Argive
place at night; the next day at dawn the miracle had occurred. Once myth, they are played by two hostile brothers. The nocturnal "sacri-
again, the transition of night into day-the Greek conceptionof time ficer" wins only a temporary victory for the sunrise determines who
always follows this order-corresponds to the dark and the light has won the day: his is a mediating role at an exceptionaltime. Al-
sidesof sacrifice.And just as we saw at Olympia," the man who eats ready in the lliad-even though heroic epic abhorsritual atrocities-
the meat at night is forced to leave;at dawn, the other man, even if he Thyestes'reign is seen as merely provisional. Agamemnon, though
killed, becomesthe victor. known to all as the son of Atreus, did not receivethe king's scepter
From the very start, inthe Alkmaionis,the myth relatesthe broth- from his father; rather, it cameto him via Thyestes."Thus, the socie-
ers' quarrel to an animal, a sacrificial animal-the golden ram or tal rift causedby sacrificehelps to achievethe successionbetweenthe
golden lamb. Ever since Euripides, thii lamb was referred to in the generations-and what happened at Mount Lykaion and at Olympia
feminine, reflecting a familiar tendency in the Greek language;'uthe was no different.
likelihood that it should, rathet be a ram-referred to once in this WhereasArgive mythology becameliterary early on, Argive cults
context with the archaicword dpvet<is"-is suggestedby its counter- sank into oblivion. The only indication that Thyesteswas anything
part at Olympia. Possessionof the crown depends on this golden more than a characterin tragedyin the Argolid is given by Pausanias,
lamb. By rights it belongedto Atreus, and it was consideredthe most who describes"the grave of Thyestes"on the road from Mycenaeto
beautiful animal in his herd. It had, of course,been intended for sacri- Argos. 'A stone ram stands on top of it, becauseThyestestook pos-
fice, but Atreus secretlystrangledit insteadand hid it in a chest (tr<ip- sessionof the golden lamb." Peoplecalledthe site "the rams" (xprci),
vat)." However, with the help of the unfaithful Aerope, Thyestes even though there was only one stone ram. Could the multiple rams
seizedthe lamb and showed it as his own at a great feast. Later ver- in the name point to a custom still in practice,consistingof repeated
sions struggledto connectthe story of the lamb with the feastof Thy- ram-sacrificeat Thyestes'grave?In the samecontext,a bit further on
estes,and already in Aeschylusthis gave rise to the curious doublet toward Argos at the crossingof the river Inachos,Pausaniasmentions
that Thyestes was banished twice.le Starting with Euripides,'othe an altar of Helios." Sacrificinga ram at night, crossing a river, and
wondrous changein the courseof the sun was moved to the first act. then sacrificing to Helios at dawn: the conjunction of these acts
Thus, Thyestes,who had wanted to seizethe crown by stealing the would be most attractive.But there is no proof.
lamb, was overthrown and expelledby the evidenceof the sun; it was Other sources,however,point to an Argive sacrificialfestivalthat
only when he returned that Atreus served him that gruesomemeal. was named after a lamb, and even lent its name to a summer month:
Yet according to the older versions, and by the nature of the myth the "days of the lamb," 'Apw1i6esi1p.6po:r,,
in the month Arneos.r,The
itself, the changein the sun'scourseand the unspeakablesacrificego testival began with the mourning cries of women and girls-just as
hand in hand: what appear as successiveeventsin the story collapse tne women and girls gatheredfor lamentationat the gymnasium on
into a single act as soon as the ritual-symbolicequivalenceof animal
21I/.
and man in the sacrificialritual is recognized.Indeed, the brothers' z.ro6-ro8; cf. Schol.A ro6, where AristarchusarguesagainstLikymnios that Ho-
mer did not "yet" know of the fraternal strife between Atreui and Thyestes.
zPaus.
laGen.8:zz. tsSeeII.z.n.z6above. z.18.r-3. Crossingthe river would correspondto swimming acrossthe lake;cf.
u.t.n.:z above.
'6Eur.El.
@S-Z16;lph. Taur.89; Or.8n,998. alor
the_month "Apz4oe see Schwyzer
'7Schol.Eur. Or. 9o.1; SEGJ Og2g),#112.3; Nilsson (19o6)
998;ariesSen. Thy. zz6; Schol. Stat. Theb.43o6. 43j-38; Callim.ft. z6-3r; Konon, FGrHistz6F r #r9;paus. r.43.7,z.r9.g;Ov. lbis
'6Apollod. Epit. z.rt; Schol.Eur. Or.8:,r. reAesch.Ag. 158617 with Schol.The story of Poineand 573
Koroibos(paus. i.43.7-g; ip 7.r5a)belongsto the
4Eur. El.6gg-216. ntnonia-type: seeIIl.3 below.

r,o6 a07
1[
li
WEREWOLVES AROUND THE TRIPOD KETTLE
ARISTAIOS AND AKTAION

the evening before the Olympic games. The refrain of their lament,
the ai),czov, gave rise to the myth of the death of the young boy, had not obeyed his orders to kill Cyrus, the child of Mandane. There-
Linos. According to the tale, he was Apollo's son by Psamathe,the fore, Astyages sent for Harpagos, thirteen_year_oldson, whom he
daughter of king Krotopos, and grew up among the lambs of the subgegugnlJy slaughtered, tearing him limb from limb; some of his
rl'll royal flock. But he was torn apart by the hounds of his grandfather flesh he boiled, some he roasted.He then servedit to Harpagosat his
i Krotopos. The aijtrcvozlament is sung in his honor at the Festivalof special table while the others-significantly-ate lamb.'Tfie head,
the Lamb, which is held to commemoratehis name and "his youth hands, and feet were coveredin a basketwhich Harpagoshimself had
among the lambs."" It is, of course,only an appealingconjecturethat to uncoverat the end of the meal." The detailsof thl iory were prob-
the main sacrificialvictim at this festival was a lamb, but an ancient ably taken Jrom the feast of Thyestes,for we know thai Herodotus
Argive tradition speaksof a "lamb-singer,"dpvq\os, so calledbecause was preceded by the versions in the Alkmaionis,pherekydes, and
he was awarded the sacrificiallamb as a prize." Thus, it was not Ar- Aeschylus'AgamemnonBut the gory feastis typically connectedwith
give dignitaries but a wandering strangerwho would eat the victim. the theme of the dog, or, rather, the wolf, in thii Median-persian
Callimachus,at least, apparently made the connectionbetween this milieu: Cyrus, the king's son, was brought"ue.r
up by Kyno, ,,thebitch,,_
lamb-singerand the Festivalof the Lamb.'uBut another aspectof the i.e., almost exactly like Romurus and Remus.rdMoreover, the wolf-
festival made a far greaterimpressionand hencebecamethe focus of boy was helped in carrying out his appointedtasksby Harpagos,,,the
our sources:"If a dog happenedto enter the marketplace,they would rapacious,"i.e., the wolf, as his name must have Uee.,,r.aerlstoodby
kill it."'z?The myth explainedthis as vengeancefor Linos; the propo- the Greeks.They knew him as the persiangeneral who relentlessly
nents of nature-allegorysaw it as a symbolicbattle againstthe deadly subduedthe cities of Asia Minor, a terrifyin! characteron whom fit-
heat of the dog-star,Sirius; the "dog-days" coincidewith the "days of ting storieswould be fastened.The "woli-like" man had becomethe
the lamb"-which are close, too, to the time of the Olympic games. eater of human flesh, and this meal transformed him, if only in_
Yet how are we to understand the peculiar role of the boundaries of wardly- invisibly: for under the mask of the devoted servant, he
was
the marketplace,in that a dog would be killed only if it crossedthem? henceforth the inexorableenemy of the king, unwilling to rest
until
This is not an event in nature but a social ordinance. The market of Astyageshad been overthrown. "By reasonor thut ban{uet,,, accord-
Argos stood under the protection of Apollo, worshipped here as ing to Herodotus (r.rz9), the Median empire fell to the irersians.
The
"Lykeios," a name which was taken to mean "wolf-like"; in this con- parties were divided through the sacrifiiial meal, and their
division
text Sophoclescalls him the "wolf-killer," ).uxoxrovos,"possibly a di- determinedthe dynastic succession.
rect allusion to that "day of dog-killing" (the closeaffinity of dogs and
wolves needs no elaboration).Apollo the "wolf-like" was Linos' fa-
ther; the boy-the lamb-was torn apart; thereforethe greedy preda-
tors were henceforth barred from the kingdom of men, that is, from
Apollo's agora.Likewise, Sophoclestells us inhis Electrathat Orestes,
protected by Apollo the "wolf-like," killed Aegisthus, Thyestes'son, 4. AristaiosandAktaion
at Argos, and the impious Aegisthus had also been a provisional
king, between Agamemnon and Orestes.
In his history of the Persians,Herodotus constructeda story in - on the island of Keos there was an animar-sacrificeto ward off
the deadly power of Sirius, ,,tne
the Median-Persianmilieu that correspondsin all its details to the J*.;,--Our evidence dates from
the fourth ur,d thira centuries
feast of Thyestes.fust as Atreus had taken dreadful vengeanceon a.c. and is provided by Aristotre and
his students and by the poets
Thyestes, so Astyages avenged himself on Harpagos, for the latter c"iri-".n"r and Apollonios.r rhe rite
DHdt.
2fKonon, FCrHistz6 F r.ry. sDonysios of Argos, FGrHist r.rog_ro.
3o8F z. tHdt.
26Fr.z6.r-5. '?7Ael.Nal. an. 1.2.)4(on Klearchos,fr. ro3 W); Ath. ,. , ro- r-r; Jr.t r.4.ro-t4; G. Binder,
99e. r7-4, Die Aussetzungdes Kdnigskindesg964),
u S o p h .E / .6 , a n d c f . 6 4 5 , 6 5 5r, j 7 g . 45-57.
'Theophr'
De uentisr4,and cf. Arist. fr.
5n,6n.27;Heracrides fr. r4r wehrli : Cic.diu

ro8
I Lo9

I
WEREWOLVES AROUND THE TRIPOD KETTLE ARISTAIOS AND AKTAION

was not accompaniedby the sort of rnyth that would be used in trag- killer and keeper-we must presumethat his sacrificialvictim for the
i: edy, but only by a foundation legend: once, when the people of the ragingdog-starwould have been, once again, a ram. Nonnus, on the
Aegean islands were threatened by drought, they sought the advice other hand, mentions a bull-sacrificeat the altar of Zeus, and a honey
of in oracle,which ordered them to summon the priest and prophet rnixture.8Aristaios had "discovered"oil and honey in Keos-so it was
llt
II Aristaios, son of Apollo. When he came, he brought with him Arca- told-and libations of oil and honey were clearlylinked to the sacrifi-
dian priests, descendantsof Lykaon,2 and built an altar on a moun- cial ritual, even though we know nothing of the order-so important
taintop to Zeus Ikmaios, "Ze1Jsthe rain 9od";'then he sacrificedto for understanding the ritual-in which they occurred. In any case,
the dog-starand to this Zeus. Suddenly the cooling north winds be- the ritual's nighttime aspectwas followed by a daytime aspect,analo-
gan to blow, just as they do today in July, the "Etesian" winds that gous to the polarity of Pelopsand Zeus at Olympia; and just as Ly-
make the summer heat in Greece bearable. kaon'ssacrificeprovoked a flood, and the feastof Thyestesmade the
Aristaios' activity has been interpreted as weather-magic,o and it sun changeits course, so the sacrificeof Aristaios set cosmicpowers
is easy to empathize with a passionate, desperateyearning for cool- in motion: the supremacyof the "dog" was overturned and the rising
nessand moisture in the arid Greek summers. But the corresponding winds renewed the forcesof life. The Keansawaited the appearance
cult is not mere wish-fulfillment or symbolic rain-making;it is, rather, of the dog-star and the sun "in arms."' It was the men of arms-
a sacrificein traditional Arcadian stvle, by "the descendantsof Ly- bearing age who became consciousof their solidarity and identity
kaon." Its specialform derives from a ritual handed down since an- at this sacrificialfestival; they would naturally have identified with
cient times. Even in the little we know of the Kean festival we can the daytime ordet the winds that dispelled the danger. And they
recognizeanalogiesto the Lykaia. conceivedof their tiny island as the center of the world: the Keans
Like the Lykaia, the Kean sacrificial ritual moves between two claimed that they celebratedthe festival, which Aristaios founded,
poles, oriented on the one hand toward the dangerous"dog," on the "for all the Greeks."'o
other toward Zeus; the one brings searing heat, the other coolness Lykaon sacrificedan Arcadian boy, his son or nephew, as a wolf;
and rain. The dog-starfirst appears in july, just beforedawn' The sac- similarly,Aristaios, the herdsmanwho discoveredoil and honey and
rificerswaited on the mountaintop for this, the brightest star,to rise.5 establishedthe sacrificefor the "dog,"was the father of Aktaion, who
Thus, the ritual began at night and would have been continued in was torn apart by dogs. This leadsus from ritual back to myth, to one
the rnorning and into the day. The first sacrifice was for the dog; of the most famous of all Greek myths, a frequent subjectin art from
thereafter, for Zeus. But only Zeus had an altar.uAccordingly, the archaictimes." As is often the case,the motivating forcesin the story
preliminary sacrifice to the " dog" would have used a sacrificial pit, a are unclear. The only certainty is in what Aktaion suffered, his zriBoi,
Botpos. And since Aristaios was commonly portrayed as a shep- and what Artemis did: the hunter becamethe hunted; he was trans-
herd-specifically, as Agreus and Nomios,T hunter and herdsman, formed into a stag,and his raging hounds, struckwith ,,wolf,sfrenzy,,
(\!oay), tore him apart as they would a stag. The regal anger of an
r.r3o; Callim. tr. 75.12;Apoll. Rhod. 2.5:^6-27with Schol.498;Diod. 4.82.r-1; Clem. ottended goddess is at work here, demanding a victim. Her wrath
Strom.6.z9;Schol.Pind. Pyth.9.tr5; Nonnus 5.269-79.For the head of Aristaios,a was stirred by an oversightwith regard to sacredlaws, by trespassing
stat and a dog on coins from Keos, see HN'1 484;Cook III (t'g4o)z7o' Cf. Nilsson (19o6)
6-8. Aristaiosappearsin myth already in Hes. Ir. zt6l7 M.-W. -
5.27o-7j.For the invention of oil and honey on Keos seeSchol.Apoll. Rhod. z,49gb.
'?Apoll.Rhod. z.5zr and Schol. 'Apwtrlaotfi (= 'Apt-
498. For a cult organizationof 'fthol.
Apoll. Rhod. u.498alw.
ataccrotai) in Boeotia seeZPE 4 Gg79, z5tf.; z5$gV), 45f . toDiod.
3Apoll. Rhod. z.5zz and Schol. 'lxpr.os 4.gz.z.
498; Callim. fr. 75.34;Schol.T ll. r4.tg. u_PR
{Cook III (r94o)265-7o; GB VI I 458-6r; Hes. Tft. 977; a ^ew fragment of Hesiod,s Cataloguesin T. Renner, HSCp
15. u2 (1978),- 282;Stesichorus46 page j pars. 9.2.3;Akusilao FGrHistz F
5'AwcDrirovnpotrapotfieApoll. Rhod. 2.527, and cf. Schol. 498alw;Heraclidesfr' r4r' toxotidesfr. 33; Aesch.
") Diod.
4r7-z4Mette; Eur. Baich.,g; Callim. Hy. 5.7to_a5;
6Apoll. Rhod. z,5zz_,b:ut a sacrifice "for Sirius and for Zeus." "For Zeus, Apollo, 4.gr.4 Apollod.
3^tl For depictions in art see p. Jacobsthal,Maiburger