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DESIGN OF PILE FOUNDATION

A PROJECT REPORT

Submitted by

SWETHA.R (110113103050)

SYEDALIZAMRUTH.N (110113103052)

VENKAT.P (110113103058)

SONIYASEVI.V (110113103501)

in partial fulfillment for the award of the degree

of

BACHELOR OF ENGINEERING

in

CIVIL ENGINEERING

AALIM MUHAMMED SALEGH COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING

AVADI IAF, CHENNAI -55

ANNA UNIVERSITY::CHENNAI 600 025

October 2016
DESIGN OF PILE FOUNDATION

A PROJECT REPORT

Submitted by

SWETHA.R (110113103050)

SYEDALIZAMRUTH.N (110113103052)

VENKAT.P (110113103058)

SONIYASEVI.V (110113103501)

in partial fulfillment for the award of the degree

of

BACHELOR OF ENGINEERING

in

CIVIL ENGINEERING

AALIM MUHAMMED SALEGH COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING

AVADI IAF, CHENNAI -55

ANNA UNIVERSITY::CHENNAI 600 025

October 2016
ANNA UNIVERSITY: CHENNAI 600 025

BONOFIDE CERTIFICATE

Certified that this design report “DESIGN OF PILE


FOUNDATION” is the bonofide work of “SWETHA.R (110113103050),
SYEDALI ZAMRUTH.N (110113103052), VENKAT.P (110113103058),
SONIYA SEVI.V(110113103501)”, who carried out their design project work
under my supervision.

SIGNATURE SIGNATURE

Mr. K. JAYAGANESH. M.E, Ph.d Mr.R.MAGESH.M.E,

HEAD OF THE DEPARTMENT SUPERVISOR

Asst.Professor Asst.Professor

Department of Civil Engineering, Department of Civil Engineering,

Aalim Muhammed Salegh Aalim Muhammed Salegh

College of Engineering, College of Engineering,

Muthapudupet, Avadi IAF, Muthapudupet, Avadi IAF,

Chennai-600 055. Chennai-600 055.

Submitted for the viva voce held on ………………


ABSTRACT

The pile foundation is the substructure which is located below the ground level.

The super imposed load is transferred to the pile foundation through the columns.

It is provided for the saturated soil condition and heavy settling propertied soil.

The pile foundation plays a vital role in heavy industrial buildings. The pile

foundation is located, where the water table is high.

To design the pile foundation considering the live load, spacing of pile by referring

the code book IS456-2000 (plain and reinforced concrete) and IS 6403-1981

(determination of safe bearing capacity of soil for deep foundation) and using this

software as STADD Pro and STADD Foundation

For this design M 25 Grade concrete and Fe 415 HYSD Bars (High yield strength

deformed bars) are used.

i
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

We gratefully acknowledge our sincere thanks to our Chairman Alhaj Dr.


S. M. Shaik Nurddin, Founder & Chairman for giving the opportunity to study
in this organization. We wish to express our gratitude to our Secretary &
Correspondent Alhaj S.Segu Jamaludeen for granting us permission to
complete our design project successfully.

We would also like to thank our principal, Prof.Dr.M.Afzal Ali Baig,


Aalim Muhammed Salegh College of Engineering, for his support and guidance.
We express our sincere gratitude to Mr.K.Jayaganesh, M.E, Phd, Asst.Professor
and Head of the Department, Department of Civil Engineering. Aalim Muhammed
Salegh College of Engineering, for his constant help and valuable encouragement
given to us for completing this Design project on time.

Our heartful thanks to our Design Project Guide Mr.R.Magesh,


M.E,Asst.Professor, Department of Civil Engineering, Aalim Muhammed Salegh
College of Engineering for helping us with the required technical support and for
his valuable contribution and commitment in solving the various problems faced
during the execution of project.

We all thank all the Faculty members of the Department of Civil


Engineering and also our heartful gratitude to our parents and friends for their
cooperation to make this Design Project a success. Above all we thank the
Almighty, for his countless blessings and hidden assistance rendered upon us.
TABLE OF CONTENTS

CHAPTER NO. TITLE PAGE NO

ABSTRACT i

LIST OF TABLES v

LIST OF FIGURES vi

LIST OF SYMBOLS vii

1 INDRODUCTION 1
1.1 GENERAL 1
1.2 TYPES OF FOUNDATION 1

2 LITERATURE REVIEW 3

3 METHODOLOGY 5

4 PILE FOUNDATION 6

4.1 PILE FOUNDATION 6


4.2 TYPES OF PILE FOUNDATION 6
4.3 TERMINOLOGY 7
4.4 DESIGN METHODS IN PILE FOUNDATION 8
4.5 STATIC FORMULA METHOD 9

5 DESIGN CALCULATION

5.1 SITE SELECTION 12

5.2 MANUAL CALCULATION FOR BUILDING 12

iii
5.3 STAAD PRO ANALYSIS 14

6 DESIGN OF PILE CAP

6.1 MANUAL CALCULATION FOR PILE CAP 17

6.2 ANALYSIS OF PILE IN STAAD FOUNDATION 19

6.3 PILE CAP REINFORCEMENT 55

7 COMPARISION OF RESULTS 56
AND CONCLUSION

iv
LIST OF TABLES

TABLE NO TABLE NAME PAGE NO

1 Input data for STAAD Pro 5

2 Input data for STAAD foundation 16

3 Comparison of results 56

v
LIST OF FIGURES

FIGURE NO FIGURE NAME PAGE NO

1 3D- 6 FLOOR FRAMED STRUCTURE 12


2 WHOLE STRUCTURE OF THE BUILDING 13
3 DISPLACEMENT OF THE BUILDING 13
4 3D STRESS VIEW OF COLUMN 14
5 PILE CAP REINFORCEMENT 52

vi
LIST OF SYMBOLS

A - Area of footing in cm2

A' - Effective area of footing in cm2

B - Width of strip footing, width of footing, Side square footing, diameter of

circular footing in cm

B' - Effective width of footing in cm

b - Half of B

c - Cohesion in kgf/cm2

c1 - Undrained cohesion of the top layer in kgf/cm2

C2 - Undrained cohesion of the lower clay layer in kgf/c

Df - Depth of foundation in cm

Dw - Depth to water table in cm

d - Depth of top clay layer with undrained cohesion c1

de, dq - Depth factors

e - Eccentricity of loading in cm

en - Eccentricity or loading along the width in cm

eL - Eccentricity of loading along the length in cm

H - Horizontal component of loading in kgf

vii
ie, iq - Inclination factor

Kd - Depth factor (varies linearly from 1 for

(depth Dt - 0 to 1.33 for depth Dt - B)

L - Length of footing in cm

L' - Effective length of footing in cm

N - Corrected standard penetration value.

Ne, N'e, Nq, N'q, N - Bearing capacity factor.

q - Effective surcharge at the base level of foundation in kgf/cm2

qn - Net soil pressure for a specified settlement of 25 mm in kgf/cm2

qd - Static cone penetration resistance in kgf/cm2

fd - Net ultimate bearing capacity based on general shear failure in kgf/cm2

q'd - Net ultimate bearing capacity based on local shear failure in kgf/cm2

R - Relative density of soil

W' - Correction factor for location of water table

Sa, Sq - Shape factors

α - Inclination of the load to the vertical in degrees

φ - Angle of shearing resistance of soil in degrees

γ - Bulk unit weight of foundation soil kgf/cm3

viii
CHEPTER -1

INTRODUCTION

1.1 GENERALS

FOUNDATION: Foundation is a substructure which is always in contact with soil


to transfer super imposed load safely to the soil, so that the soil should not fail in
shear as well as soil should not fail in excessive settlement.
FOOTING: A footing is the bottom most portion of the foundation which is
always contact with soil to transfer super imposed load safely to the soil.

1.2 TYPES OF FOUNDATION:


O Shallow foundation
O Deep foundation
SHALLOW FOUNDATION:
A Foundation is shallow if its depth is less than or equal to the width.
Df ≤ Bf
The shallow foundations are of the following types,
1. Strip footing
2. Combined footing
3. Spread footing
4. Raft/mat foundation
5. Strap footing

DEEP FOUNDATION:
A Foundation is deep if its depth is greater than the width.
Df > Bf
1
The deep foundations are of the following,

o Well foundation
o Caisson foundation
o Pile foundation

NEED FOR STUDY

If the soil is in the loosest state, the given load is cannot transferred to the hard
soil. Such cases pile foundation is need to transfer the load to the hard strata.

OBJECTIVES

 To design the pile foundation.


 To Analysis the pile foundation.

2
CHAPTER- 2

LITERATURE REVIEW

STAMANTE.M AND GIANESELLI.L (1982): The design analysis according


to the unified method indicate that the maximum load( sustained load plus drag
load) is well within acceptable limits for the pile structural strength and that the
expected settlement of the piled foundations will be smaller than the assigned limit
of 25mm. Therefore, the performed tests prove that the project piles can be
constructed to bearing in the glacial till and do not need to be taken onto or into the
bedrock.

H.FELLELIUS AND OCHOA.M (2009): Design for a large refinery expansion


was undertaken at a site reclaimed from a lake 40 years ago. The natural soil
consist of sand deposited on normally consolidated, compressible post glacial
lacustrine clay followed by silty clay till on limestone bedrock found at about 25m
to 30m depth below existing grade. The site will be raised an additional 1.5m ,
which will cause long term settlement .Some of the new units are 30m to70m in
height and will be supported on piles several thousand in all. In anticipating
negative skin friction to develop , the initial design called for subtracting the drag
load from the allowable load determined from the pile capacity. Initial design also
expected the piles to be constructed to bed rock. However a review of the design
made clear that a drag load is a problem for the axial structural strength of a pile
and should not be subtracted from an allowable load based on bearing capacity.
Moreover analysis of the results of full scale static and dynamic loading tests
demonstrated that it was not necessary to reach bedrock, but the pile would
develop adequate capacity in the clay with till and they would not experience

3
excessive down drag duo to settling clay. The final revised design resulted in a
saving of close to 25 million dollars and considerable construction time . the piles
selected for the foundation were 457mm(18”)diameter bored piles installed to
about 1.5m into the glacial till. The paper presents site conditions, test results, and
the design principles employed.

UK NATH AND PJ HAZARIKA(2005): The pile foundation resist not only the
loads from the superstructure but also large lateral forces from other sources. The
pile cap is a crucial structural element in a pile foundation that is often massive and
deeply buried and design to provide significant resistance under the lateral loads. A
comprehensive manual study of pile cap under lateral load is presented. The
parametric study of pile – soil-cap interaction under lateral loads is performed
different pile groups. This study shows that the pile cap contributes approximately
good amount of lateral resistance.

4
CHAPTER - 3

METHODOLOGY

SITE SELECTION

COLLECTION OF SOIL DETAILS

LOAD CALCULATION

COLUMN PROVITION

PILE CAP DESIGN

MANUAL STADD FOUNDATION


DESIGN DESIGN

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

CONCLUSION

5
CHAPTER – 4

PILE FOUNDATION

4.1 PILE FOUNDATION


A Pile is basically a long cylinder of a strong material such as concrete that is
pushed into the ground to act as a steady support for structures built on top of it.

Where it is placed?

The pile may be placed separately or they may be placed in the form of cluster
throughout the length of the wall.

Where it is adopted?

Piles are adopted when the loose soil extended to a great depth. The load of the
structure is transmitted through piles to hard stratum below or it is resisted by
friction developed on the sided of the piles.

4.2 TYPES OF PILE FOUNDATION

PILES BASED ON THEIR FUNCTION

 End bearing piles

 Friction piles

 Compaction piles

 Anchor piles

 Sheet pile

6
 Uplift piles

 Batter pile

 Fender pile

 Dolphin pile

BASED ON MATERIAL:

 Concrete pile
1. Cast insitu cement concrete pile
2. Precast cement concrete pile
3. Prestressed cement concrete pile
 Steel pile
 Cast iron pile
 Timber pile
 Composite pile
 Sand pile

EFFECT OF INSTALLATION

 Displacement piles

 Non displacement piles

4.3 TERMINOLOGY:

NET LOADING INTENSITY:


The net loading intensity on the foundation is the gross intensity of loading
minus the weight of displaced soil above the foundation base.
ULTIMATE BEARING CAPACITY: The minimum cross pressure intensity
7
acting on the base of the footing on which a soil fails in shear.
SAFE BEARING CAPACITY: Maximum intensity of loading that the
foundation will safely carry without the risk of shear failure of soil irrespective of
any settlement that may occur.
SAFE BEARING PRESSURE OR NET SOIL PRESSURE FOR SPECIFIED
SETTLEMENT:
The intensity of loading that will cause a permissible settlement or specified
settlement of the structure.
ALLOWABLE BEARING CAPACITY:
The net intensity of loading which the foundation will carry without
undergoing settlement in excess or the permissible value for the structure under
consideration but not exceeding net safe bearing capacity.
4.4 DESIGN METHODS IN PILE FOUNDATION

 Static formula method


 Dynamic formula method
 Pile load test method
 Cone penetration method

8
4.5 STATIC FORMULA METHOD:

Qu = Qb + Qf

Qb = qb × Ab

qb = CNc + 0.3γBNγ + σ’Nq ; σ’ = γL

(B is very small. So Neglected)

qb = C + σ’Nq

Ab = πd2/4

Qf = (αC + σ tan 𝛿) πdl

For sandy soil, C=0,

QU = γLNq × πd2/4 + KγL/ 2 tan 𝛿 × πdl

9
For clay soil, φ = 0

Nq = 1; Nc = 9 ( Skempton’s theory )

For concrete pile, 𝛿 = 3/4 φ (𝛿 =0)

QU = 9C × πd2/4 + αC πdl

10
CHAPTER -5

DESIGN CALCULATION

5.1 SITE SELECTION

The Sandy soil present in coast (sea area) such as thiruvanmayur,


kottivakkam, santhomes, George town, Tondiarpet.

Soil details are collected from “PRINCE CONSTRUCTIONS” in


Tondiarpet.

5.2 MANUAL CALCULATION FOR BUILDING

Live load = 3 kN/ m

Self weight of beam = 0.3× 0.25 × 1 × 25 = 1.875 kN/ m

Self weight of column = 0.45 × 0.35 × 1 × 25 = 3.94 kN/ m

Self weight of slab = 1 × 1 × 0.15 × 25 = 3.75 kN/ m

Self weight of waist slab = 0.195 × 1 × 1 × 25 = 4.875 kN/ m

Self weight of staircase = 0.15 × 0.25 × 1 × 25 / 2

Load on stair per meter = 0.469/ 0.25 = 1.876 kN/ m

Load for one floor = 14.475 kN/ m

Load for six floors = 14.475 × 6 = 86.85 kN/ m

Factored load (Qu ) = 1.5 × 86.85 = 130.23 kN/ m for 1 m2

= 23.7 × 10^ 5kN for 18210.85 m2

12
For group pile, Qug = 9CB2 + 4CBL

= 9 × 24.5 × 602 + 4 × 60 × 20

= 78.8×103kN

Number of columns:

Assume Column spacing = 10 feets = 3m

No of columns = 400

Load on one colomn = Qu / Number of columns

= 78.8×103 / 400

= 1917.5 kN

13
5.3 STAAD PRO ANALYSIS

INPUT DATA FOR STAAD PRO

(TABLE 1)

S.NO PARTICULARS SPECIFICATIONS

1
Column size 0.45m × 0.35m
2
Beam size 0.3m× 0.25m
3
Supports Fixed
4
Live load 3KN/m
5
Materials M25 Grade

Concrete Fe 415
steel

FIG 1 (3D 6 FLOOR FRAMED STRUCTURE)

14
FIG 2 (WHOLE STRUCTURE OF THE BUILDING

FIG 3 (DISPLACEMENT OF THE BUILDING)

15
FIG 4 (3D STRESS VIEW OF COLUMN)

STAAD.Pro Report
To: from
:

Copy Date: 26/09/2016 Ref: ca/ Document1


to: 10:40:00

Materials
E Density 
Mat Name 
(kN/mm2) (kg/m3) (/°C)
3 STEEL 205.000 0.300 7.83E 3 12E -6
4 STAINLESSSTEEL 197.930 0.300 7.83E 3 18E -6
5 ALUMINUM 68.948 0.330 2.71E 3 23E -6
6 CONCRETE 21.718 0.170 2.4E 3 10E -6

16
CHAPTER -6

PILE CAP DESIGN

6.1 MANUAL CALCULATION FOR PILE CAP:

Assume diameter of pile = 0.5m = 500mm

Length of pile = 20m

Spacing between the pile = 3d = 3 × 500

=1500mm

Assume number of piles under the pile cap = 4

Size of column = 0.45 × 0.35 m

Load on each pile = 1917.5 / 4

= 492.88 kN

Assume overall depth of pile = 500mm

Effective depth of pile = 500 – 50 = 450mm

Ultimate moment(Mu) = 0.53 × 1150 = 609.5 kNm

Mu = 0.87× fy × Ast × d (1- 0.42 Xu /d)

609.5 × 106 = 0.87 × 415 × Ast × 0.5 (1- 0.42 × 250/500)

Ast = 4273751.5 mm2

Provide 20 mm diameter bars,

17
Spacing = 1000 × ast × 2/ Ast

= (1000 × π × 302 / 4) / 4273751.5

= 146.4 mm

Take spacing = 150 mm

Effective depth of pile cap = 500-(100+20+20) x 2

=220mm

Effective depth of pile cap = 250mm

Take overall depth of pile cap = 300 mm

18
6.2 ANALYSY OF PILE IN STAAD FOUNDATION

TABLE 2 INPUT DATA FOR STAAD FOUNDATION

S.N0 PARTICULARS SPECIFICATIONS


1
Number of columns 400mm
2
Diameter of pile 500mm
3
Depth of pile cap 300mm
4
Length of pile 20m
5
Number of piles in a pile 4
cap
6
Diameters of bars used 20mm
in pile cap

7
Spacing 300mm

19
PILE CAP DESIGN

Design For PileCap P620


Design For PileCap P696
Design For PileCap P697
Design For PileCap P772
Design For PileCap P773

PILE ARRANGEMENT

Column Dimensions

Column Shape : Rectangular


Column Length - X (Pl) : 0.450 m
Column Width - Z (Pw) : 0.350 m

Pedestal

Include Pedestal? No
Pedestal Shape : N/A
Pedestal Height (Ph) : N/A
Pedestal Length - X (Pl) : N/A
Pedestal Width - Z (Pw) : N/A

Pile Cap Geometrical Data

Pile Cap Length PCL = 2.500 m


Pile Cap Width PCW = 2.500 m
Initial Pile Cap Thickness tI = 0.300 m

Pile Geometrical Data

Pile spacing Ps = 1.500 m


Pile Edge distance e = 0.500 m
Pile Diameter dp = 0.500 m

20
Pile Capacities

Axial Capacity PP = 500.000 kN


Lateral Capacity PL = 100.000 kN
Uplift Capacity PU = 300.000 kN

Material Properties

Concrete f'c = 25000.004 kN/m2


Reinforcement fy = 415000.070 kN/m2

Concrete Cover

Bottom Clear Cover CCB = 0.050 m


Side Clear Cover CCS = 0.050 m
Pile in Pile Cap PCP = 0.100 m

Loading applied at top of cap

Critical load case for thickness is reported only when required thickness is more
than the given minimum thickness
LCoaasde
Fx (kN)
Fy (kN)
Fz (kN)
Mx (kNm)
My (kNm)
Mz (kNm)

1 -0.011 -211.877 0.014 0.022 0.000 0.019


2 -0.021 -162.682 0.028 0.045 0.000 0.039
3 -0.048 -561.839 0.063 0.100 0.000 0.088
Pile Cap size (in investigated direction) H = 2.500 m
size (in investigated perpendicular B) = 2.500 m

21
PILE CAP DESIGN CALCULATION

Pile Reactions

Arrangement Reaction

Maximum bar size allowed along length # 20


Maximum bar size allowed along width # 25
Bending Moment At Critical Section = -159.820 kNm (Along Length)
Bending Moment At Critical Section = -175.047 kNm (Along Width)
Pile Cap Thickness t = 0.524 m
Selected bar size along length # 10
Selected bar size along width # 10
Selected bar spacing along length = 125.79 mm
Selected bar spacing along width = 125.79 mm

Pile Cap Thickness Check

Calculated Thickness (t) = 0.524 m

22
Check for Moment (Along Length)

Critical Load Case : 3

Effective Depth(def) = 0.370 m


Depth of neutral axis for balanced section (xu) = 0.177 m

Critical load case for thickness is reported only when required thickness is more
than the given minimum thickness
As Per IS 456 2000 ANNEX G,G-1.1 C
Ultimate moment of resistance (Mulim) = 1178.424 kNm
We observed Mu < = Mulim. Hence singly reinforced and under reinforced section
can be used
Check for Moment (Along Width)

Critical Load Case : 3

23
Governing moment (Mu) = -175.047 kNm
We assume singly reinforced and under reinforcement section
Effective Depth(def) = 0.370 m
Depth of neutral axis for balanced section (xu) = 0.177 m
As Per IS 456 2000 ANNEX G,G-1.1 C
Ultimate moment of resistance(Mulim) = 1178.424 kNm
We observed Mu <= Mulim.

Hence singly reinforced and under reinforced section can be used

Check for One Way Shear (Along Length)

Design Shear Force for One-Way Action Vu = -246.888 kN


As Per IS 456 2000 ANNEX B,34.2.4.2 B-5.1 and Clause No
Design Shear Stress (Tv) = -267.267 kN/m^2
Allowable Shear Stress (Tc) = 308.007 kN/m^2
Where Beta = = 17.041
and percentage of steel required (pt) = 0.170
Here Tv <= Tc. Hence safe.

24
Check for One Way Shear (Along Width)

Design Shear force (Vu) = -277.341 kN


As Per IS 456 2000 ANNEX B,B-5.1 and Clause No 34.2.4.2
Design Shear Stress (Tv) =-300.234 kN/m2
Allowable Shear Stress (Tc) = 308.007 kN/m2
Where Beta = 17.041
and percentage of steel required (pt) = = 0.170
Here, Tv <= Tc. Hence safe

Check for Two Way Shear (Along Length)

Design Two-Way Shear force = -608.712 kN


As Per IS 456 2000 Clause 31.6.2.1
Two Way Shear Stress (Tv) = -535.216 kN/m^2
Where,perimeter of critical section (b0) = 3.078 m
As Per IS 456 2000 Clause 31.6.3.1
Allowable shear stress = 1250.000 kN/m^2
Where, ks = 1.000
Ratio of shorter to longer dimension (Bc) = 0.778
and, Tc = 1250.000 kN/m2
Tv < KsTc. Hence Safe.
25
Calculation of Maximum Bar Size
Along Length

Selected maximum bar size = 20 mm


Bar diameter corresponding to max bar size(db) =20.000 mm
As Per IS 456 2000 Clause No 26.2.1
Development Length (ld) = 0.806 m
Allowable Length (ldb) = 0.975 m
ldb >ld. Hence, safe

Along Width

Selected maximum bar size = 25 mm


Bar diameter corresponding to max bar size(db) =25.000 mm
As Per IS 456 2000 Clause No 26.2.1
Development Length (ld) = 1.007 m
Allowable Length (ldb) = 1.025 m
ldb >ld Hence, safe.

Selection of Bottom and Top Reinforcement

Top reinforcement is provided same as bottom reinforcement

Along Length

Critical Load Case : 3

As Per IS 456 2000 Clause 26.5.2.1


Minimum Area of Steel (Astmin) = 1551.000 mm2
As Per IS 456 2000 ANNEX G,G-1.1 b
Area of steel required (Asq) = 1551.000 mm2
Area of steel provided (Ast) = 1551.000 mm2
Astmin<= Ast Steel area is accepted
Minimum spacing allowed (Smin) = 40 + db = 50 mm
Selected spacing (S) = 125.79 mm
Smin <= S <= 450 mm and selected bar size < selected maximum bar size. The
reinforcement is accepted.

26
Along Width

Critical Load Case : 3

As Per IS 456 2000 Clause 26.5.2.1


Minimum Area of Steel (Astmin) = 1558.500 mm2
As Per IS 456 2000 ANNEX G,G-1.1 b
Area of steel required (Asq) = 1558.500 mm2
Area of steel provided (Ast) = = 1558.500 mm2
Astmin<= Ast Steel area is accepted.
Minimum spacing allowed (Smin) = 40 + db = 50.00 mm
Selected spacing (S) = 125.79 mm
Smin <= S <= 450 mm and selected bar size < selected maximum bar size. The
reinforcement is accepted.

PILE ARRANGEMENT

Column Dimensions
Column Shape : Rectangular
Column Length - X (Pl) : 0.450 m
Column Width - Z (Pw) : 0.350 m
Pedestal
Include Pedestal? No
Pedestal Shape : N/A
Pedestal Height (Ph) : N/A
Pedestal Length - X (Pl) : N/A
Pedestal Width - Z (Pw) : N/A

Pile Cap Geometrical Data

Pile Cap Length PCL = 2.500 m


Pile Cap Width PCW = 2.500 m
Initial Pile Cap Thickness tI = 0.300 m

Pile Geometrical Data

Pile spacing Ps = 1.500 m


Pile Edge distance e = 0.500 m
Pile Diameter dp = 0.500 m
27
Pile Capacities

Axial Capacity PP = 500.000 kN


Lateral Capacity PL = 100.000 kN
Uplift Capacity PU = 300.000 Kn

Material Properties

Concrete f'c = 25000.004 kN/m2


Reinforcement fy = 415000.070 kN/m2

Concrete Cover

Bottom Clear Cover CCB = 0.050 m


Side Clear Cover CCS = 0.050 m
Pile in Pile Cap PCP = 0.100 m

Loading applied at top of cap

Critical load case for thickness is reported only when required thickness is more
than the given minimum thickness.
Pile Cap size (in investigated direction) H = 2.500 m
Pile Cap size (in investigated direction) perpendicular B = 2.500 m

28
PILE CAP DESIGN CALCULATION

Pile Reactions

Total pile number N = 4

Reinforcement Calculation

Maximum bar size allowed along length # 20


Maximum bar size allowed along width # 25
Bending Moment At Critical Section = -155.135 kNm (Along Length)
Bending Moment At Critical Section = -169.970 kNm (Along Width)
Pile Cap Thickness t = 0.518 m
Selected bar size along length # 10
Selected bar size along width # 10
Selected bar spacing along length = 125.79 mm
Selected bar spacing along width = 125.79 mm

Pile Cap Thickness Check

Calculated Thickness (t) = 0.518 m

29
Check for Moment (Along Length)
Critical Load Case : 3

Effective Depth(def) = = 0.364 m


Depth of neutral axis for balanced section(xu) = 0.174 m
As Per IS 456 2000 ANNEX G,G-1.1 C
Ultimate moment of resistance(Mulim) = 1140.464 kNm
We observed Mu <= Mulim. Hence singly reinforced and under reinforced section
can be used
Critical load case for thickness is reported only when required thickness is more
than the given minimum thickness

Check for Moment (Along Width)

Critical Load Case : 3

Governing moment (Mu) = -169.970 kNm


We assume singly reinforced and under reinforcement section
Effective Depth(def) = 0.364 m
Depth of neutral axis for balanced section(xu) = 0.174 m
As Per IS 456 2000 ANNEX G,G-1.1 C
Ultimate moment of resistance(Mulim) = 1140.464 kNm
We observed Mu <= Mulim hence singly reinforced and under reinforced section
can be used 30
Check for One Way Shear (Along Length)

Design Shear Force for One-Way Action Vu = -243.198 kN


As Per IS 456 2000 ANNEX B,34.2.4.2 B-5.1 and Clause No
Design Shear Stress (Tv) = - 267.618 kN/m^2
Allowable Shear Stress (Tc) = 308.677 kN/m^2
Where Beta =16.958
and percentage of steel required (pt) = 0.171
Here , Tv <= Tc. Hence safe.

Check for One Way Shear (Along Width)

Design Shear force (Vu) = -272.844 kN


As Per IS 456 2000 ANNEX B,B-5.1 and Clause No 34.2.4.2
Design Shear Stress (Tv) = -300.241 kN/m^2

31
Allowable Shear Stress (Tc) = 308.677 kN/m^2
Where , Beta = 16.958

and percentage of steel required (pt) = 0.171


Here, Tv <= Tc. Hence safe.

Check for Two Way Shear (Along Length)

Design Two-Way Shear force = -590.737 kN


As Per IS 456 2000 Clause 31.6.2.1
Two Way Shear Stress(Tv) = -532.134 kN/m2
Where,perimeter of critical section(b0) = 3.054 m
As Per IS 456 2000 Clause 31.6.3.1
Allowable shear stress = 1250.000 kN/m2
Where, ks = 1.000
Ratio of shorter to longer dimension (Bc) = 0.778
and,Tc = = 1250.000 kN/m2
Tv < KsTc. Hence Safe.

Calculation of Maximum Bar Size

Along Length

Selected maximum bar size = 20 mm


Bar diameter corresponding to max bar size(db) =20.000 mm
As Per IS 456 2000 Clause No 26.2.1
Development Length(ld) = 0.806 m
Allowable Length(ldb) = 0.975 m
ldb >ld. Hence, safe 32
Along Width

Selected maximum bar size = 25 mm


Bar diameter corresponding to max bar size (db) =25.000 mm
As Per IS 456 2000 Clause No 26.2.1
Development Length(ld) = 1.007 m
Allowable Length(ldb) = 1.025 m
ldb >ld. Hence, safe.

Selection of Bottom and Top Reinforcement

Top reinforcement is provided same as bottom reinforcement

Along Length

Critical Load Case : 3

As Per IS 456 2000 Clause 26.5.2.1


Minimum Area of Steel (Astmin) = = 1533.000 mm2
As Per IS 456 2000 ANNEX G,G-1.1 b
Area of steel required (Asq) = 1533.000 mm2
Area of steel provided (Ast) = 1533.000 mm2
Astmin<= Ast Steel area is accepted.
Minimum spacing allowed (Smin) = 40 + db = 50 mm
Selected spacing (S) = 125.79 mm
Smin <= S <= 450 mm and selected bar size < selected maximum bar size. The
reinforcement is accepted.

Along Width

Critical Load Case : 3

As Per IS 456 2000 Clause 26.5.2.1


Minimum Area of Steel (Astmin) = 1540.500 mm2
As Per IS 456 2000 ANNEX G,G-1.1 b
Area of steel required (Asq)= = 1540.500 mm2
Area of steel provided (Ast) = = 1540.500 mm2

33
Astmin<= Ast Steel area is accepted
Minimum spacing allowed (Smin) = 40 + db = 50.00 mm

Selected spacing (S) = 125.79 mm


Smin <= S <= 450 mm and selected bar size < selected maximum bar size... The
reinforcement is accepted.

PILE ARRANGEMENT

Column Dimensions

Column Shape : Rectangular


Column Length - X (Pl) : 0.450 m
Column Width - Z (Pw) : 0.350 m

Pedestal

Include Pedestal? No
Pedestal Shape : N/A
Pedestal Height (Ph) : N/A
Pedestal Length - X (Pl) : N/A
Pedestal Width - Z (Pw) : N/A

Pile Cap Geometrical Data

Pile Cap Length PCL = 2.500 m


Pile Cap Width PCW = 2.500 m
Initial Pile Cap Thickness tI = 0.300 m

Pile Geometrical Data

Pile spacing Ps = 1.500 m


Pile Edge distance e = 0.500 m
Pile Diameter dp = 0.500 m

34
Pile Capacities

Axial Capacity PP = 500.000 kN


Lateral Capacity PL = 100.000 kN
Uplift Capacity PU = 300.000 kN

Material Properties

Concrete f'c = 25000.004 kN/m2


Reinforcement fy = 415000.070 kN/m2

Concrete Cover

Bottom Clear Cover CCB = 0.050 m


Side Clear Cover CCS = 0.050 m
Pile in Pile Cap PCP = 0.100 m

Loading applied at top of cap

Pile Cap size (in investigated direction) H = 2.500 m


Pdiilree cCtaiopn )s ize (in investigated perpendicular B = 2.500 m
Critical load case for thickness is reported only when required thickness is more
than the given minimum thickness
Critical load case for thickness is reported only when required thickness is more
than the given minimum thickness.

35
PILE CAP DESIGN CALCULATION

Pile Reactions
Total pile number N = 4

Reinforcement Calculation

Maximum bar size allowed along length # 20


Maximum bar size allowed along width # 25
Bending Moment At Critical Section = -155.285 kNm (Along Length)
Bending Moment At Critical Section = -170.173 kNm (Along Width)
Pile Cap Thickness t = 0.518 m
Selected bar size along length # 10
Selected bar size along width # 10
Selected bar spacing along length = 125.79 mm
Selected bar spacing along width = 125.79 mm

Pile Cap Thickness Check

Calculated Thickness (t) = 0.518 m

36
Check for Moment (Along Length)

Critical Load Case : 3

Effective Depth(def) = 0.364 m


Depth of neutral axis for balanced section(xu) = 0.174 m
As Per IS 456 2000 ANNEX G,G-1.1 C
Ultimate moment of resistance(Mulim) = 1140.464 kNm
We observed, Mu <= Mulim. Hence singly reinforced and under reinforced
section can be used.

Check for Moment (Along Width)

Critical Load Case : 3

Governing moment (Mu) = -170.173 kNm


We assume singly reinforced and under reinforcement section
Effective Depth(def) = 0.364 m
37
Depth of neutral axis for balanced section(xu) = 0.174 m
As Per IS 456 2000 ANNEX G,G-1.1 C
Ultimate moment of resistance(Mulim) = 1140.464 kNm
We observed. Mu <= Mulim . Hence singly reinforced and under reinforced
section can be used.

Check for One Way Shear (Along Length)

Design Shear Force for One-Way Action Vu = -243.432 kN


As Per IS 456 2000 ANNEX B,34.2.4.2 B-5.1 and Clause No
Design Shear Stress (Tv) = -267.876 kN/m^2
Allowable Shear Stress (Tc) = 308.677 kN/m^2
Where Beta = 16.958
and percentage of steel required (pt) = 0.171
Here, Tv <= Tc. Hence safe.

Check for One Way Shear (Along Width)

Design Shear force (Vu) = -273.170 kN


38
As Per IS 456 2000 ANNEX B,B-5.1 and Clause No 34.2.4.2
Design Shear Stress (Tv) = -300.600 kN/m^2
Allowable Shear Stress (Tc) = 308.677 kN/m^2
Where Beta = 16.958
and percentage of steel required (pt) = 0.171
Here, Tv <= Tc. Hence safe

Check for Two Way Shear (Along Length)

Design Two-Way Shear force = -591.443 kN


As Per IS 456 2000 Clause 31.6.2.1
Two Way Shear Stress(Tv) = -532.770 kN/m^2
Where,perimeter of critical section(b0) = = 3.054 m
As Per IS 456 2000 Clause 31.6.3.1
Allowable shear stress = 1250.000 kN/m^2
Where,ks = 1.000
Ratio of shorter to longer dimension (Bc) = 0.778
and,Tc = 1250.000 kN/m^2
Tv < KsTc, Hence Safe.

39
Calculation of Maximum Bar Size

Along Length

Selected maximum bar size = 20 mm


Bar diameter corresponding to max bar size (db) =20.000 mm
As Per IS 456 2000 Clause No 26.2.1
Development Length (ld) = 0.806 m
Allowable Length (ldb) = = 0.975 m
ldb >ld. Hence, Safe.
Along Width

Selected maximum bar size = 25 mm


Bar diameter corresponding to max bar size (db) =25.000 mm
As Per IS 456 2000 Clause No 26.2.1
Development Length (ld) = 1.007 m
Allowable Length (ldb) = 1.025 m
ldb >ld. Hence, safe.

Selection of Bottom and Top Reinforcement

Top reinforcement is provided same as bottom reinforcement

Along Length

Critical Load Case : 3


As Per IS 456 2000 Clause 26.5.2.1
Minimum Area of Steel (Astmin) = 1533.000 mm2
As Per IS 456 2000 ANNEX G,G-1.1 b
Area of steel required (Asq) = 1533.000 mm2
Area of steel provided (Ast) = 1533.000 mm2
Astmin<= Ast Steel area is accepted
Minimum spacing allowed (Smin) = 40 + db = 50 mm
Selected spacing (S) = 125.79 mm
Smin <= S <= 450 mm and selected bar size < selected maximum bar size. The
reinforcement is accepted.

40
Along Width
Critical Load Case : 3
As Per IS 456 2000 Clause 26.5.2.1
Minimum Area of Steel (Astmin) = 1540.500 mm2
As Per IS 456 2000 ANNEX G,G-1.1 b
Area of steel required (Asq) = 1540.500 mm2
Area of steel provided (Ast) = 1540.500 mm2
Astmin<= Ast Steel area is accepted
Minimum spacing allowed (Smin) = 40 + db = 50.00 mm
Selected spacing (S) = 125.79 mm
Smin <= S <= 450 mm and selected bar size < selected maximum bar size. The
reinforcement is accepted.
PILE ARRANGEMENT
Column Dimensions

Column Shape : Rectangular


Column Length - X (Pl) : 0.450 m
Column Width - Z (Pw) : 0.350 m

Pedestal

Include Pedestal? No
Pedestal Shape : N/A
Pedestal Height (Ph) : N/A
Pedestal Length - X (Pl) : N/A
Pedestal Width - Z (Pw) : N/A

Pile Cap Geometrical Data

Pile Cap Length PCL = 2.500 m


Pile Cap Width PCW = 2.500 m
Initial Pile Cap Thickness tI = 0.300 m

Pile Geometrical Data

Pile spacing Ps = 1.500 m


Pile Edge distance e = 0.500 m
Pile Diameter dp = 0.500 m

41
Pile Capacities

Axial Capacity PP = 500.000 kN


Lateral Capacity PL = 100.000 kN
Uplift Capacity PU = 300.000 Kn

Material Properties

Concrete f'c = 25000.004 kN/m2


Reinforcement fy = 415000.070 kN/m2

Concrete Cover

Bottom Clear Cover CCB = 0.050 m


Side Clear Cover CCS = 0.050 m
Pile in Pile Cap PCP = 0.100 m

Loading applied at top of cap

Pile Cap size (in investigated direction) H = 2.500 m


Pdiilree cCtaiopn )s ize (in investigated perpendicular B = 2.500 m

42
PILE CAP DESIGN CALCULATION

Pile Reactions

Total pile number N = 4


Critical load case for thickness is reported only when required thickness is more
than the given minimum thickness
Critical load case for thickness is reported only when required thickness is more
than the given minimum thickness

Reinforcement Calculation

Maximum bar size allowed along length # 20


Maximum bar size allowed along width # 25
Bending Moment At Critical Section = -114.640 kNm (Along Length)
Bending Moment At Critical Section = -126.260 kNm (Along Width)
Pile Cap Thickness t = 0.426 m
Selected bar size along length # 10
Selected bar size along width # 10
Selected bar spacing along length = 149.38 mm
Selected bar spacing along width = 140.59 mm

Pile Cap Thickness Check

Calculated Thickness (t) = 0.426 m

43
Check for Moment (Along Length)

Critical Load Case : 3

Effective Depth(def) = = 0.272 m


Depth of neutral axis for balanced section (xu) = 0.130 m
As Per IS 456 2000 ANNEX G,G-1.1 C
Ultimate moment of resistance (Mulim) = 636.228 kNm
We observed, Mu <= Mulim. Hence singly reinforced and under reinforced
section can be used.

Check for Moment (Along Width)

Critical Load Case : 3

Governing moment (Mu) = -126.260 kNm


We assume singly reinforced and under reinforcement section
Effective Depth(def) = 0.272 m
Depth of neutral axis for balanced section (xu) = 0.130 m
As Per IS 456 2000 ANNEX G,G-1.1 C
Ultimate moment of resistance (Mulim) = 636.228 kNm
We observed, Mu <= Mulim . Hence singly reinforced and under reinforced
section can be used.
44
Check for One Way Shear (Along Length)

Design Shear Force for One-Way Action Vu = -218.366 kN


As Per IS 456 2000 ANNEX B,34.2.4.2 B-5.1 and Clause No
Design Shear Stress (Tv) = -321.718 kN/m^2
Allowable Shear Stress (Tc) = 322.210 kN/m^2
Where Beta = 15.399
and percentage of steel required (pt) = 0.189
Here, Tv <= Tc. Hence safe
Check for One Way Shear (Along Width)

Design Shear force (Vu) = -219.586 kN


As Per IS 456 2000 ANNEX B,B-5.1 and Clause No 34.2.4.2
Design Shear Stress (Tv) = -323.515 kN/m^2
Allowable Shear Stress (Tc) = 327.935 kN/m^2

45
Where, Beta = 14.798
and percentage of steel required (pt) = = 0.196
Here, Tv <= Tc. Hence safe

Check for Two Way Shear (Along Length)

Design Two-Way Shear force = -436.196 kN


As Per IS 456 2000 Clause 31.6.2.1
Two Way Shear Stress (Tv) = -598.145 kN/m^2
Where , perimeter of critical section (b0) = 2.686 m
As Per IS 456 2000 Clause 31.6.3.1
Allowable shear stress = 1250.000 kN/m^2
Where, ks = 1.000
Ratio of shorter to longer dimension (Bc) = 0.778
and, Tc = 1250.000 kN/m^2
Tv < KsTc, Hence Safe.

Calculation of Maximum Bar Size

Along Length

Selected maximum bar size = 20 mm


Bar diameter corresponding to max bar size (db) =20.000 mm
As Per IS 456 2000 Clause No 26.2.1
Development Length (ld) = 0.806 m

46
Allowable Length (ldb) = 0.975 m
ldb >ld. Hence, safe

Along Width

Selected maximum bar size = 25 mm


Bar diameter corresponding to max bar size (db) =25.000 mm
As Per IS 456 2000 Clause No 26.2.1
Development Length (ld) = 1.007 m
Allowable Length (ldb) = 1.025 m
ldb >ld. Hence, safe

Selection of Bottom and Top Reinforcement

Top reinforcement is provided same as bottom reinforcement

Along Length

Critical Load Case : 3

As Per IS 456 2000 Clause 26.5.2.1


Minimum Area of Steel (Astmin) = 1257.000 mm2
As Per IS 456 2000 ANNEX G,G-1.1 b
Area of steel required (Asq) = 1267.128 mm2
Area of steel provided (Ast) = 1267.128 mm2
Astmin<= Ast Steel area is accepted.
Minimum spacing allowed (Smin) = 40 + db = 50 mm
Selected spacing (S) = 149.38 mm
Smin <= S <= 450 mm and selected bar size < selected maximum bar size... The
reinforcement is accepted.

Along Width

Critical Load Case : 3


As Per IS 456 2000 Clause 26.5.2.1
Minimum Area of Steel (Astmin) = 1264.500 mm2
As Per IS 456 2000 ANNEX G,G-1.1 b
Area of steel required (Asq) = 1400.508 mm2
47
Area of steel provided (Ast) = 1400.508 mm2
Astmin<= Ast Steel area is accepted.
Minimum spacing allowed (Smin) = 40 + db = 50.00 mm
Selected spacing (S) = 140.59 mm
Smin <= S <= 450 mm and selected bar size < selected maximum bar size. The
reinforcement is accepted.

PILE ARRANGEMENT

Column Dimensions

Column Shape : Rectangular


Column Length - X (Pl) : 0.450 m
Column Width - Z (Pw) : 0.350 m

Pedestal

Include Pedestal? No
Pedestal Shape : N/A
Pedestal Height (Ph) : N/A
Pedestal Length - X (Pl) : N/A
Pedestal Width - Z (Pw) : N/A

Pile Cap Geometrical Data

Pile Cap Length PCL = 2.500 m


Pile Cap Width PCW = 2.500 m
Initial Pile Cap Thickness tI = 0.300 m

Pile Geometrical Data

Pile spacing Ps = 1.500 m


Pile Edge distance e = 0.500 m
Pile Diameter dp = 0.500 m

48
Pile Capacities

Axial Capacity PP = 500.000 kN


Lateral Capacity PL = 100.000 kN
Uplift Capacity PU = 300.000 kN

Material Properties

Concrete f'c = 25000.004 kN/m2


Reinforcement fy = 415000.070 kN/m2

Concrete Cover

Bottom Clear Cover CCB = 0.050 m


Side Clear Cover CCS = 0.050 m
Pile in Pile Cap PCP = 0.100 m

Loading applied at top of cap

Pile Cap size (in investigated direction) H = 2.500 m


Pdiilree cCtaiopn )s ize (in investigated perpendicular B = 2.500 m

49
PILE CAP DESIGN CALCULATION
Pile Reactions
Total pile number N = 4

Critical load case for thickness is reported only when required thickness is more
than the given minimum thickness
Critical load case for thickness is reported only when required thickness is more
than the given minimum thickness

Reinforcement Calculation

Maximum bar size allowed along length # 20


Maximum bar size allowed along width # 25
Bending Moment At Critical Section = -118.051 kNm (Along Length)
Bending Moment At Critical Section = -130.112 kNm (Along Width)
Pile Cap Thickness t = 0.441 m
Selected bar size along length # 10
Selected bar size along width # 10
Selected bar spacing along length = 149.38 mm
Selected bar spacing along width = 140.59 mm

Pile Cap Thickness Check

Calculated Thickness (t) = 0.441 m

50
Check for Moment (Along Length)

Critical Load Case : 3

Effective Depth(def) = 0.286 m


Depth of neutral axis for balanced section (xu) = 0.137 m
As Per IS 456 2000 ANNEX G,G-1.1 C
Ultimate moment of resistance (Mulim) = = 703.534 kNm
We observed Mu <= Mulim hence singly reinforced and under reinforced section
can be used.

Check for Moment (Along Width)

Critical Load Case : 3

Governing moment (Mu) = -130.112 kNm


We assume singly reinforced and under reinforcement section
Effective Depth(def) = 0.286 m
Depth of neutral axis for balanced section (xu) = 0.137 m

51
As Per IS 456 2000 ANNEX G,G-1.1 C
Ultimate moment of resistance (Mulim) = 703.534 kNm
We observed , Mu <= Mulim . Hence singly reinforced and under reinforced
section can be used.
Check for One Way Shear (Along Length)

Design Shear Force for One-Way Action Vu = -220.141 kN


As Per IS 456 2000 ANNEX B,34.2.4.2 B-5.1 and Clause No
Design Shear Stress (Tv) = -308.428 kN/m^2
Allowable Shear Stress (Tc) = 319.650 kN/m^2
Where , Beta = 15.678
and percentage of steel required (pt) = = 0.185
Here , Tv <= Tc. Hence safe

Check for One Way Shear (Along Width)

Design Shear force (Vu) = -226.286 kN


As Per IS 456 2000 ANNEX B,B-5.1 and Clause No 34.2.4.2
Design Shear Stress (Tv) = -317.038 kN/m^2
Allowable Shear Stress (Tc) = 319.650 kN/m^2
Where, Beta = 15.678
and percentage of steel required (pt) = 0.185
Here Tv <= Tc Hence safe.
52
Check for Two Way Shear (Along Length)

Design Two-Way Shear force = -449.522 kN


As Per IS 456 2000 Clause 31.6.2.1
Two Way Shear Stress(Tv) = -574.219 kN/m^2
Where, perimeter of critical section (b0) = 2.742 m
As Per IS 456 2000 Clause 31.6.3.1
Allowable shear stress = 1250.000 kN/m^2
Where, ks = 1.000
Ratio of shorter to longer dimension (Bc) = 0.778
and, Tc = 1250.000 kN/m2
Tv < KsTc. Hence Safe.

Calculation of Maximum Bar Size

Along Length

Selected maximum bar size = 20 mm


Bar diameter corresponding to max bar size(db) =20.000 mm
As Per IS 456 2000 Clause No 26.2.1
Development Length (ld) = 0.806 m
Allowable Length (ldb) = 0.975 m
ldb >ld. Hence, safe.

53
Along Width

Selected maximum bar size = 25 mm


Bar diameter corresponding to max bar size (db) =25.000 mm
As Per IS 456 2000 Clause No 26.2.1
Development Length (ld) = 1.007 m
Allowable Length (ldb) = 1.025 m
ldb >ld. Hence, safe.

Selection of Bottom and Top Reinforcement

Top reinforcement is provided same as bottom reinforcement

Along Length

Critical Load Case : 3


As Per IS 456 2000 Clause 26.5.2.1
Minimum Area of Steel (Astmin) = 1299.000 mm2
As Per IS 456 2000 ANNEX G,G-1.1 b
Area of steel required (Asq) = 1299.000 mm2
Area of steel provided (Ast) = 1299.000 mm2
Astmin<= Ast Steel area is accepted.
Minimum spacing allowed (Smin) = 40 + db = 50 mm
Selected spacing (S) = 149.38 mm
Smin <= S <= 450 mm and selected bar size < selected maximum bar size. The
reinforcement is accepted.

Along Width

Critical Load Case : 3

As Per IS 456 2000 Clause 26.5.2.1


Minimum Area of Steel (Astmin) = 1306.500 mm2
As Per IS 456 2000 ANNEX G,G-1.1 b
Area of steel required (Asq) = 1365.412 mm2
Area of steel provided (Ast) = 1365.412 mm2
Astmin<= Ast Steel area is accepted.
Minimum spacing allowed (Smin) = 40 + db = 50.00 mm
54
Selected spacing (S) = 140.59 mm
Smin <= S <= 450 mm and selected bar size < selected maximum bar size. The
reinforcement is accepted.

6.3 PILE CAP REINFORCEMENT

FIG 5 (PILE CAP REINFORCEMENT)

55
CHAPTER – 7

COMPARITION OF RESULTS

TABLE 3

S.NO DESCRIPTION MANUAL STAAD % OF


RESULT FOUNDATION DIFFERENT
1 Load 492.88KN 500KN 1.42%
2 Moment 609.5KNM 1178.42KNM 48%
3 Thickness of pile
cap 300mm 574mm 19.8%

4 Depth of neutral
axis 250mm 177mm 29%
5 Max size of bars 20mm 20mm -

CONCLUTION:

On comparing the manual and staad foundation results, it is observed that the
load carrying capacity of pile by staad foundation is 1.42% higher than that of
manual calculation.

Errors and inaccuracies manual calculations is surmounted by the use of


computer applications, such as staad foundation. This could save the time as well
as cost involved in analysis.

56
REFERENCES

1. Bengt H. Fellenius M. SEAGS and Mauricio Ochoa, “Testing and design of


pile foundation” journal of the southeast asian geotechnicall society 40(3)
129- 137, 2009.
2. IS 456-2000. “Plain and reinforced concrete” Guide line for the load
calculation and spacing of piles.
3. IS 6403-1981, “Determination of bearing capacity of deep foundation”
Guide line for finding the safe bearing capacity of deep foundation.
4. IS 2911- PART 1 -2010 “Design of construction of pile foundation” for
design of concrete pile, Bureau of Indian standards, New Delhi 110002.
5. B.C Punmia, “Soil mechanics and Foundations”, Lakmi publications (P)
ltd., New Delhi, 2005.