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Е.Ю.

Надеждина
Е.А. Шатурная

ДИСКУРС
МЕНЕДЖМЕНТА
ФЕДЕРАЛЬНОЕ АГЕНТСТВО ПО ОБРАЗОВАНИЮ
ТОМСКИЙ ГОСУДАРСТВЕННЫЙ УНИВЕРСИТЕТ
Международный факультет управления

Е.Ю. Надеждина, Е.А. Шатурная

ДИСКУРС МЕНЕДЖМЕНТА
Учебное пособие

Томск
2010
УДК 372.881.111.1
ББК65
Н 17

Надеждина Е.Ю ., Ш атурная Е.А.


Н 17 Дискурс менеджмента: Учебное пособие. - Томск:
Томский государственный университет, 2010. - 194 с.

Учебное пособие представляет собой краткий курс по вопросам менеджмента,


рассчитанный на студентов высших учебных заведений, обучающихся по специаль­
ности 080504 «Государственное и муниципальное управление» в рамках курса «Анг­
лийский язык»; магистрантов и аспирантов, обучающихся по специальности «Ме­
неджмент» курсов повышения квалификации государственных и муниципальных
служащих, в том числе по «Президентской программе», а также на широкий круг
лиц, занимающихся изучением английского языка самостоятельно.

УДК 372.881.111.1
ББК65

Рецензенты:
кандидат филологических наук, профессор, зав. кафедрой
английской филологии ТГУ, декан факультета иностранных языков
ТГУ С. К. Гураль;
кандидат педагогических наук, доцент, зав. кафедрой романских
языков факультета иностранных языков ТГУ Л.В. Михалева

<0 Томский государственный университет, 2010


ПРЕДИСЛОВИЕ
Основной целью данного пособия является ознакомление с раз­
личными аспектами системы государственного и муниципального
управления и с особенностями профессионального языка государст­
венных служащих. Данное учебное пособие должно способствовать:
1) совершенствованию навыков говорения в рамках профессио­
нальной тематики;
2) развитию навыков дискурсивной деятельности;
3) развитию умений оперировать речевыми клише и специаль­
ной терминологией.
Структура пособия отвечает вышеуказанным целям и задачам.
Пособие состоит из модулей, каждый из которых объединён одной
темой и раскрывает один из аспектов управления. Структура каждо­
го модуля построена как самостоятельный комплекс, имеющий
унифицированную структуру и состоящий из следующих частей:
Start-up activity, Reading, Follow-up activity, Phrasal area, Language
functions, Speech practice, Role- play. Final task. Исключение состав­
ляет модуль «Introduction», который содержит ключевые понятия и
затрагивает основные аспекты управления.
Разделы Start-up activity, и Reading знакомят студентов с общей
проблематикой модуля, позволяя определить типичные ситуации,
характерные для данной темы и речевой репертуар, необходимый
для осуществления профессионального общения в рамках темы.
Каждый модуль содержит раздел Phrasal area, включающий в
себя речевые клише, и Language functions - тренировочные комму­
никативные упражнения, направленные на отработку речевого ре­
пертуара.
Раздел Speech practice содержит учебно-речевые ситуации, по­
буждающие студентов употреблять речевые образцы для решения
профессионально-направленных задач. Учебно-речевые ситуации
являются этапом управляемого общения, на котором используются
различные опоры в виде речевых схем, карточек, ключевых слов,
позволяющих в последствии реализовать свободное общение в ро­
левой игре.
В Разделе Role-play студентам предлагается ролевая игра по те­
ме модуля, предстающая в качестве более высокого уровня органи­
зованного иноязычного общения, и имитирующая какой-либо эпи­
зод профессиональной деятельности и способствующая развитию
умения построения неподготовленного дискурса.

3
Единый формат всех модулей пособия облегчает учебный про­
цесс и имеет целью оказать положительный психологический эф­
фект на обучаемых: знакомая структура снимает чувство страха,
создаёт спокойный «настрой» и уверенность в успешном преодоле­
нии трудностей.
Данное пособие предназначено для изучения в качестве непре­
рывного курса. Однако авторы не предлагают строгих методических
рекомендаций по использованию данного пособия, поскольку кроме
специальных вузов оно может быть применено в самых разных ус­
ловиях учебного процесса, и преподаватель сам может определить
конкретные методические приемы в зависимости от уровня подго­
товки студентов, целей обучения и количества часов, отведенных на
работу с тем или иным модулем. Разделы могут изучаться в предла­
гаемой последовательности, выборочно, возможно также селектив­
ное использование отдельных модулей. Это же касается и выполне­
ния заданий и упражнений в рамках модулей, выбор которых опре­
деляется практическими задачами и условиями учебного заведения.
Определенная избыточность речевых клише и тренировочных ком­
муникативных упражнений продиктована желанием обеспечить
большую вариативность в выборе речевого репертуара для решения
профессиональных задач, заданных в учебно-речевых ситуациях и
ролевых играх и мобильность в адаптации к нуждам конкретной
аудитории.

4
Introduction:
What is “management”? Types of management. Func­
tions of management. Management skills. What makes
a good manager?

Read the follow ing quotations and discuss them with your groupmates.
Do you agree with them?

‘Management is the art o f getting otherpeople to do all the wor&


ANON.
"Top management m ust know how good or bad employees' working
conditions are. They m ust eat in the employees' restaurants, see
whether the -food is well cootzed, \4sit the washroom and lavatories; i f
they are not good enough -for those in charge, they are not good enough
■foranyone."
LORIS SIEFF
"Leaders do the right things and managers do things right"

Start -up activity:


1. W hat is “ m anagem ent” ? Give your definition of this word.
2. W hom do we call a “ m anager” ?
3. W hat are the functions of m anagem ent?
4. W hat skills are necessary for being a m anager?

Picture 1
Readins:
Text 1: W hat is “m anagem ent”?

5
A number of different terms are often used instead o f the term
«manager», including «director», «administrator» and «president». So,
whom do we call a manager?
In its broad meaning the term “management” applies to the art or
practice of managing a business, money, products, and all the people employed
by a company. In other words, management is a set of activities directed at an
organization's human, financial, physical, and information resources, with the
aim of achieving organizational goals in an efficient and effective manner. The
term «manager» applies to the people who are responsible for making
and carrying out decisions within a certain system. A personal manager
supervises people in an organization. Financial manager is a person who
is responsible for finance. Sales manager is responsible for selling of
goods.
Almost everything a manager does involve decision-making. When a
problem exists, a manager has to make a decision to solve it. Manage­
ment is a variety o f specific activities. Management is a function o f plan­
ning, organizing, leading (directing) and controlling. Managing is a re­
sponsible and hard job. In all types o f organizations managerial effi­
ciency depends on manager’s direct personal relationships, hard work on
a variety o f activities.
The characteristics of management often vary according to national
culture, which can determine how managers are trained, how they lead
people and how they approach their jobs.
Types o f Management
The top people in a company can be called “senior management”.
O f course, another term for this is “top management” (president, vice
president, chief executive officer (CEO), Managing director) make up the
relatively small group o f executives who control the organization. Not
surprisingly, the opposite o f “senior management” is “junior man­
agement” Between “senior” and “junior” management is “middle
management” (plant manager, operations manager, division head) make
up the largest group o f managers in most organizations. The company
usually requires that a middle manager should implement the policies
and plans developed by top management. “First-line managers” (super­
visor, office manager) typically spend a large portion of their time super­
vising the work of operating employees.
Managers o f different levels may work in various areas within a
company. In any given firm, there may be marketing, operations, admin­
istrative, and other kinds of managers at all three levels.

6
Picture 2
The diagram below indicates how managers within an organization can
be differentiated by level and area.

- Top
| managers
ZJ

1 Middle
S managers
©

5 First-line
'J managers

Figure 1

“Aggressive management” means being determined to do well and


using strong methods to achieve success. “Day-to-day management” is
concerned with the ordinary and regular issues o f a company. “Strategic
management” is concerned with the long-term o f the company.

7
“General management” is concerned with all aspects o f the com­
pany, not a specialist area such as Research or Marketing. If there is “in­
efficient management”, a company will not use its resources as well as
it should. The opposite o f this is “efficient management”.
“Weak management” lacks the determination to carry out difficult
decisions or actions. The opposite o f this is “strong management”. No­
tice that you can be 'strong' without being 'aggressive' - the first is reac­
tive to events and the second is proactive.
Styles of Management
Autocratic - the manager tells the workers exactly what to do. Workers
have little or no participation at any level o f decision making.
Democratic or participative - the manager asks workers for opinions
and ideas to solve problems. The manager often makes final decisions
although at times, the workers may have decision-making power.
Laissez Faire - the manager gives all decision-making power to the
workers. The manager has little control or input.

Vocabulary:
1. Apply to - применять, употреблять, касаться
2. Responsible —ответственный, надёжный
3. Senior management - высшее руководство
4. Top management - высшее руководящее звено
5. Junior management - низшее руководящее звено
6. Middle management - среднее звено управления
7. Supervisor - главный администратор, куратор, управляющий
8. То supervise —заведовать, смотреть (за чем-либо)
9. Operate employees - оказывать влияние (управлять) на сотрудни­
ков
10. Concern with - иметь отношение к (чему-либо)
11. Strategic management - стратегический стиль управления
12. General management - общее управление
13. Inefficient management - неэффективное управление
14. Efficient management - эффективное управление
15. Autocratic - властный, автократический
16. Decision making - принятие решений
17. Democratic or participative - демократичный
18. Laissez Faire - политика невмешательства в дела компании
19. Managerial efficiency - управленческая эффективность
20. According to - согласно чему-то
Text 2: Management Functions.
Management plays a vital role in any business or organized activity.
Management is composed o f a team o f managers who have charge o f the
organization at all levels. Their duties include making sure company ob­
jectives are met and seeing that the business operates efficiently. Regard­
less of the specific job, most managers perform four basic functions.
These management functions are planning, organizing, leading( direct­
ing), and controlling.
Planning involves determining overall company objectives and de­
ciding how these goals can best be achieved. Managers evaluate alterna­
tive plans before choosing a specific course o f action and then check to
see that the chosen plan fits into the objectives established at higher or­
ganizational levels. Planning is listed as the first management function
because the others depend on it. However, even as managers move on to
perform other managerial functions, planning continues as goals and al­
ternatives are further evaluated and revised.
Organizing - the second management function is the process of put­
ting the plan into action. This involves allocating resources, especially
human resources, so that the overall objectives can be attained. In this
phase managers decide on the positions to be created and determine the
associated duties and responsibilities. Staffing, choosing the right person
for the right job, may also be included as part o f the organizing function.
Third is the day-to-day direction and supervision o f employees. In
leading (directing), managers guide, teach and motivate workers so that
they reach their potential abilities and at the same time achieve the com­
pany’s goals that were established in the planning process. Effective di­
rection, or supervision, by managers requires ongoing communication
with employees.
In the last management function, controlling, managers evaluate
how well company objectives are being met. In order to complete this
evaluation, managers must look at the objectives established in the plan­
ning phase and at how well the tasks assigned in the directing phase are
being completed. If major problems exist and goals are not being
achieved, then changes need to be made in the company’s organizational
or managerial structure. In making changes, managers might have to go
back and re-plan, reorganize, and redirect. The chart below shows the four
main functions o f management.
In order to adequately and efficiently perform these management
functions, managers need interpersonal, organizational, and technical
skills. Although all four functions are managerial duties, the importance

9
o f each may vary depending on the situation. Effective managers meet
the objectives o f the company through a successful combination o f plan­
ning, organizing, directing, and controlling.

Figure 2

Vocabulary:
1. Compose - создавать
2. to be in charge o f —нести ответственность за, отвечать
3. Regardless - не заслуживающий внимания
4. Determining overall objectives - определение общих задач
5. Allocating resources - распределение ресурсов
6. Human resources —людские ресурсы
7. Attain - добиться, достигнуть
8. Staffing - набор персонала
9. Day-to-day direction - повседневное управление
10. Ongoing communication - постоянная коммуникация
11. Assigned - распределены

10
Follow-up activity:
1. Work in pairs, use the text and discuss the following problems:
1) Mothers and fathers often have different ways o f managing their fami­
lies. How would you describe the management style o f your parents?
Teachers? Bosses?
2) What concrete activities top managers, senior managers, junior manag­
ers, middle managers, first-line managers are responsible for?
3) What are the four major functions of management?
2. Refer to the text to help you complete the outline.
A. Planning (= determining overall company objectives and how to
achieve them).
1. Managers:
a. evaluate alternative plans before_______________________
b. check____________________________________________
2. Planning is the first because___________________________
3. It continues______________________________________
B. Organizing (= ______________________________ )
1. Involves_________________________________________
2. Managers:
a. decide on
b. choose the right person for the right job (=_
c . (=_____________ :
1. Managers:
a . =>
b . => workers
c . =>
2. Effective direction requires_____________

D -____ __ ___________ ( = __________________________)


1. Managers look at:
a .
b .
3. Group-activity: Discuss the following questions an dfind out:
1. What skills and qualifications do you need to be a manager?
2. Give the characteristics o f successful manager.
3. Give the list o f some essential tasks where manager must excel to be
truly effective.
4. Divide the following styles o f behaviour into pairs o f opposites:
a. being group oriented
b. h. being cautious and careful

11
c. being decisive and able to take rapid individual decisions
d. being individualistic
e. being assertive, authoritative, ruthless and competitive
f. t. being happy to take risks
g. being good at listening and sensitive to other people's feelings
h. being intuitive
i. being logical, rational and analytic
j. liking consensus and conciliation
Which five of the above styles do you think are generally preferable
for managers?
5. Look at the following list o f qualities. Which are the most important
fo r a manager?
k. being competent and efficient in one's job
1. being friendly and sociable
m. being a hard worker
n. being persuasive
0. having good ideas
p. being good at communicating
q. being good at motivating people
r. being good at taking the initiative and leading other people
6. Discuss with your partner:
Make a list of the five most important qualities from a. to r.
Which of these qualities do you think you have? Which do you lack?
Which could you still learn? Which do you have to be bom with?
Do any of these qualities seem to you to be essentially masculine or
feminine?
7. What are the nouns related to the following adjectives?
1. analytic___________________________
2. assertive__________________________
3. cautious __________________________
4. competent_________________________
5. efficient___________________________
6. individualistic_______________________
7. intuitive_______________________
8. logical_____
9. persuasive_____________________
10. rational______________________
11. ruthless______________________
12. sensitive

12
8. Read the following phrases, try to guess about the meaning and
choose one o f phrases and make up a situation.
1. Explain the phrase: “great managers accept blame”.
2. Explain the phrase: “great managers give praise”.
3. Explain the phrase: “great managers make the blue sky”.
4. Explain the phrase: “great managers judge on merit”.
5. Explain the phrase: “great managers make things happen”.
6. Explain the phrase: “great managers exploit strengths not weaknesses
in themselves and in their people”.
7. Explain the phrase: “great managers make themselves redundant”.
8.1s it necessary for managers to have a successful team? Give your
opinion.
9: Dialogue'. Read the dialogue in pairs, summarize the information o f
the whole unit and make up your own dialogue and discuss with your
partner what makes a good manager?
R.: One hears over and over again that what a modern enterprise needs is
a good manager. What do you think o f the problem?
Am.: The importance of a good manager can’t be overestimated.
R.: What do you think makes a good manager?
Am.: First of all high standards of professional knowledge and personal
conduct.
R.: What personal traits must a good manager have?
Am.: A good manager must be flexible, must have confidence in himself
and others, and keep a sense o f proportion. Besides, he must have leading
ability.
R.: I see, and what professional skills should managers have?
Am.: Managers must know how to set goals and how to achieve them,
how to divide work and how to coordinate the activities o f individuals.
They must know how to take corrective action if the organization is not
progressing towards its goals.
R.: Management is often called the art o f getting things done through
people. What’s your point of view on the essence o f management?
Am.: The essence o f management is to create an environment where in­
dividuals, working together, can perform effectively and efficiently.
Nowadays managers must be more skilled in handling people.
R.: Yes, managers must understand that human resources are a very im­
portant part o f any business. The manager’s job is very interesting, isn’t
it?
Am.: Yes, and given the opportunity I would choose the same career
again.

13
Role plav: The ideal boss
Look at the words o f describing and evaluating character and con­
sider their meanings. You should now choose the three character traits
that you feel are the most important for an ideal boss to have. For more
detailed information look at page 194 (Appendix 2 Teacher’s notes)

Hard­
Analytic Assertive Cautious Polite Humorous
working
Imagina­ Experi­
Ambitious Efficient Rational Calm
tive enced
Compe­
Punctual Sensitive Intuitive Persuasive Generous
tent
Individualis­ Consider­
Ruthless Tidy Logical Sociable
tic ate
Authorita­ Group-
Diplomatic Competent Assertive Friendly
tive oriented
Good at
Well-
Critical Supportive Decisive motivating
organized
people

Situations for discussion:


1. If you are working under another person, what kind o f manage­
ment style does your boss have? What management style have you ex­
perienced? Which do you prefer?
2. Do you think the managers should follow a consistent style or
that different styles are appropriate in different circumstances? Explain
your answer.
3. The human being is a continual problem-solver, decision-maker,
and innovator. Analyze you previous week (day, month, and year) and
describe the situations when you had to be “decision-maker”, “problem-
solver”, and “innovator”.
Final task: Summarize the information of the unit to be ready to
speak on management. Choose any question (problem, topic) relat­
ing to management and make a report in class. Refer to different
additional sources to make your report instructive, interesting and
informative.

14
Module 1: Selection of personnel
Recruiting. Interviewing. Employee training
and development Firing.

Read the following quotations and discuss them with your group-
mates. Do you agree with them?

'It us absurd to dixfidt people iv&o good and bad. People are either aharvw.-
w*g or tedious’
OSCAR, w i u s e

'when- white-collar people getjobs they sell kiot only their tuue flkvd
energy but also their personalities as well. They sell by the weete or
кил|л£И their siwXles and their temdly gestures avuA they tuustpractlc-e
that proiupt repression of resewtmeiAt aggression..'
C H A R i.es WRJ^HT MILLS (A f r ic a n sociologist)

Jacte of all trades a^id u lste r of kwve'


MARJA et^ ew eR T H - (e^vgllsh novelist)
Start-up activity:
1. Have you ever looked for a job?
2. Do you have your own strategy for finding a job?
5. Which method do you think is more effective when searching for
a job - through your relatives and friends or through job ads?
4. What are the ways in which an organization can recruit person-
nel?
5. What stages of the recruiting process do you know?
6. What documents are essential for recruiting?
In your opinion, which factors below are important for getting a
job? Choose the seven most important. Is there anything missing
from the list?

Age, sex, appearance, astrological sign, contacts and connec­


tions, experience, family background, handwriting, hobbies,
intelligence, marital status, personality, qualifications, refer­
ences, sickness record, blood group

15
Picture 3

Reading:
Before reading the follow ing texts discuss in pairs the follow ing ques­
tions:
1. How can you define the word “recruitment”? Give synonyms to this
word.
2. Which methods o f recruitment do you think are acceptable / unaccept­
able? Why?
3. You have already got a job. Your employer strongly advised you to go
through new training courses. Give your attitude to this situation. Is it
necessary to pay attention to training and development o f employees?
4. W hat is the process o f firing the employee?
Text 1: Recruitm ent
There are many ways in which an organization can recruit personnel.
Posting a list o f vacancies on the company notice-board or publishing it
in-employee magazines is fairly common and gives current employees
the opportunity o f applying for a position. Similarly, a subordinate may
be referred for a position by his or her superior.
Another means o f recruiting internally is to search in the organiza­
tion’s existing files. Some companies have a database o f their employ­
ees’ skills and special interests. Reviewing these files periodically may
reveal employees who are well-suited to a particular position.
Although recruiting people within the organization can have many
advantages, it does have its limitations. If companies wish to be dynamic,
it is essential to inject new blood from time to time. Similarly existing
employees may not have the necessary skills that the position requires.

16
Consequently, it is often necessary to recruit people from outside the
organization.
Advertising is a commonly used technique for recruiting people
from outside. The advertising medium should be chosen according to the
type of public the organization is aiming at. If a highly specialized person
is required, a speciality publication such as a trade magazine may be
most appropriate. National newspapers and magazines sometimes carry a
Senior Appointments section for specialized personnel. Many national
and local newspapers have a General Appointments section or a Classi­
fied Ads section for less specialized personnel. Radio and television ad­
vertising of vacancies is relatively underdeveloped in most countries.
Employment agencies may be another source of recruitment. State-
backed agencies compete with private agencies in many countries. In gen­
eral private agencies charge a fee whereas public sector agencies offer their
services free o f charge. Another difference is that private agencies tend to
offer more specific services; for example, they may specialize in a particu­
lar area o f recruitment such as temporary secretaries, middle managers or
senior executives. They may also include search services, otherwise known
as headhunting_or provide management consulting.
Current employees are sometimes encouraged to refer friends, family
and ex-colleagues to fill a particular vacancy. This is particularly true in
occupations such as nursing where there is a shortage o f trained people.
Other valuable sources o f recruitment may be university campuses,
trade unions, professional organizations and unsolicited applications.
Vocabulary:
1. Recruit personnel —набирать персонал
2. Notice-board - доска для объявлений
3. Apply for - подавать заявление на...
4. Superior - начальник
5. File —дело, досье, картотека
6. A database - база данных
7. То inject new blood - обновить
8. Advertising medium - средство рекламы
9. Senior Appointments - колонка рекламных объявлений на руко­
водящие должности
10. General Appointments = Classified Ads - колонка рекламных объ­
явлений
11. Employment agencies - агентства по трудоустройству
12. State-backed agencies - государственные агентства по трудоуст­
ройству, центр занятости

17
13. Private agencies - частные агентства по трудоустройству
14. Specialize in - специализироваться в чем-то
15. Headhunting - подбор высококвалифицированных кадров
16. Unsolicited applications - отклоненные (или незапрашиваемые)
заявки (заявления)

Text 2. Purpose of training and development


The quality of employees and their development through training and
education are major factors in determining long-term profitability of an
organization. It is good policy to invest in the development of employees'
skills, so they can increase their productivity.
Training often is considered for new employees only. This is a mistake
because continuous training for current employees helps them adjust to
rapidly changing job requirements.
The reasons for training and development o f personnel include:
• Creating a pool of readily available and adequate replacements for
personnel who may leave or move up in the organization.
• Enhancing the company's ability to adopt and use advances in
technology because of a sufficiently knowledgeable staff.
• Building a more efficient and highly motivated team, which en­
hances the company’s competitive position and improves employee mo­
rale?
• Ensuring adequate human resources for expansion into new pro­
grams.
Employees frequently develop a greater sense of self-respect as they be­
come more valuable to the firm. Generally they v, receive a greater share
o f the material gains that result from their increased productivity. These
factors give them a sense of satisfaction through the achievement o f per­
sonal and company goals.
Types of training
There are two broad types o f training: on-the-job and off-the-job
techniques.
On-the-job training is given to employees while they perform their
regular jobs. In this way, they do not lose time while they are learning. After
a plan is developed for what should be taught, employees should be in­
formed of the details. A timetable should be established with periodic
evaluations to inform employees about their progress. On-the-job tech­
niques include orientations, job training, internships and assistantships,
job rotation and coaching.

18
Off-the-job techniques include lectures, special study, films, television
conferences or discussions, case studies, role-playing, simulation, pro­
grammed instruction and laboratory training.
Orientations are for new employees. The first several days on the job
are critical for the success of new employees. This point is illustrated by the
fact that 60 percent of all employees who quit do so in the first ten days.
Orientation training should emphasize the following topics:
• The company's history and mission.
• The key members in the organization.
• The key members in the department, and how the department
helps fulfill the mission of the company.
Lectures present training material verbally and are used when the goal
is to present a great deal o f material to many people.
Role-playing and simulation are training techniques that attempt to
bring realistic decision making situations to the trainee. Likely problems
and alternative solutions are presented for discussion. Experienced em­
ployees can describe real work experiences, and can help in and learn
from developing the solutions to these simulations. This method is cost-
effective and is used in marketing and management training.
Audiovisual methods such as television, videotapes and films are the
most effective means of providing real conditions and situations in a short
time. One advantage is that the presentation is the same no matter how
many times it's played.
Job rotation involves moving an employee through a series of jobs so
he or she can get a good feel for the tasks that are associated with different
jobs. It is usually used in training for supervisory positions. The employee
learns a little about everything.
Internships and assistantships are usually a combination o f class­
room and on-the-job training. They are often used to train prospective
managers.
Programmed learning, computer-aided instruction and interactive
video all have one thing in common: they allow the trainee to learn at his
or her own speed. After the introductory period, the instructor needs not
be present, and the trainee can leam as his or her time allows.
Laboratory training is conducted for groups by skilled trainers. It is
usually used by upper- and middle management trainees to develop a
spirit of teamwork and increased management ability.

Vocabulary:
1. Development - рост, усовершенствование

19
2. Long-term - долгосрочный
3. Profitability-рентабельность
4. Benefit - выгода, польза
5. Pool —объединенный резерв
6. Readily - быстро, без задержки
7. Available - доступный; имеющийся в наличии
8. Replacement —замена
9. То adopt —принимать
10. Advance - прогресс, достижение
11. Employee turnover - текучесть кадров
12. G ains-доходы
13. Self-respect - чувство собственного достоинства
14. Internal audit - внутренняя ревизия
15. On-the-job training - обучение на работе
16. Orientation - ориентация
17. Job training - обучение профессии
18. Personnel rules and regulations - правила для сотрудников
19. Apprenticeship - ученичество
20. Internship - интернатура (амер.)
21. Assistantship - обучение в качестве помощника
22. Job rotation - чередование работ
23. Coaching - тренировка
24. Case study - исследование на конкретном примере; анализ от­
дельной проблемы
25. Role-playing - ролевые игры
26. Simulation - моделирование
27. Programmed instruction - программированное обучение
28. То quit —увольняться с работы (амер.)
29. Cost-effective - рентабельный
30. Decision making situations —ситуации принятия решений
31. Trainee - проходящий подготовку, обучение
32. Computer-aided instruction — программированное обучение, ма­
шинное обучение

Text 3. Firing employees


1. You should consider firing the employee only if you have made
the following steps:
a) given the employee clear indication o f what you originally ex­
pected from him or her (via a written job description previously provided
to him or her);

20
b) have clearly written personnel policies which specify conditions
and directions about firing employees, and the employee has signed a
copy of the policy handbook to verify that he or she had read the policies;
c) warned the employee in successive and dated memos which
clearly described degrading performance over a specified time despite your
specific and recorded offers o f assistance and any training (the number of
memos depends on the nature of the problem, but should be no more than
three or four); and
d) you clearly observe the employee still having the performance
problem. (Note that if the employee is being fired within a probationary
period specified in your personnel policies, you may not have to meet all
o f the above conditions.)
2. Take a day or so to consider what you are going to do. Consult
with members o f your board (in the case o f corporations).
3. If you still decide to fire the employee, do so promptly both for
your credibility with other employees and so as not to begin procrastinating
about this rather painful event.
4. Write a letter of termination of employment to the employee. As
with the previous letters of warning, be clear about the observed behaviors,
when you saw them, earlier warnings and their consequences, what you
did in response, and the consequences that must now follow according to
your policies.
5. Tell the computer system administrator to change the em­
ployee's password and make sure that this action should be done
promptly and in complete confidence.
6. Meet with the employee. Provide them the letter. Explain
how the termination will occur, including when, what they must do,
what you request from them and when. Ask for any keys. Give them a
half hour or so to remove personal items (you may choose to monitor them
during this removal, depending on the nature o f the grounds for dis­
missal). Consider changing the door locks to the facilities. Change the
passwords on phone systems.

Vocabulary:
1. Firing - увольнение
2. Originally - первоначально
3. Personnel policies - кадровая политика
4. Via - посредством чего-л., с помощью чего-л.
5. Policy handbook - инструкция о правилах распорядка

21
6. Memo сокр. от memorandum - служебная записка, докладная
записка
7. Degrading performance - ухудшение работы
8. Probationary period - испытательный срок
9. Promptly - быстро, сразу
10. Credibility - доверие
11. То procrastinate - откладывать, отсрочивать
12. Termination o f employment - окончание срока службы
13. Consequences - последствия
14. Confidence - секретность, конфиденциальность
15. Grounds for dismissal - причины, основания увольнения

Follow-up activity:
1. Work in pairs. Use the text and discuss the following problems:
1. List all the forms o f internal recruitment mentioned in the passage.
2. Why do companies often recruit from outside the organization?
3. Which kinds o f organizations are most likely to recruit through re­
ferrals by existing employees?
4. What are the steps in firing the employee?
5. What may be the main reason of firing the employee?
6. How is training and education of employees connected with profit­
ability o f a business?
7. What are the reasons for training and development of personnel?
8. What benefits does a business receive from training and developing
its workers?
9. What are the principles o f trainee selection?
10. What can be the goals o f training?

2. W rite a sentence explaining what each o f the following words means


as they are used in the above text:_____________________________
Posting, vacancies, subordinate, files, database, fee, headhunt-
________________ ing, unsolicited application________________

3. Work in small groups. Choose fou r o f the following recruitment


sources and discuss the advantages and disadvantages o f each from the
recruiter’s point o f view. When you have finished your discussion, re­
port back to the rest o f the class:
keeping a database / files
unsolicited application
advertising in speciality publication

22
radio and television advertising
advertising in the national or regional newspaper and magazines
publishing vacancies in the company
employment agencies (public or private)

4: Group activity. Read the advertisements. Define what advertising


sections they are taken from?____________________________________
Technical Consultant •
Sales Representative in Moscow
Requirements:
• technical education (MGTU, MEI, MAI, MATI, MFTI, MADI,
MIFI, MISiS) in one o f the following areas: robototechnics automa­
tion, hydraulics, pneumatics Diploma o f mechanical or electrical engi­
neer, average grade 4, 5 or Red Diploma (Diploma with Honors)
• experience in industrial equipment sales in a foreign company
• fluent English (Technical)
• driver's license
• computer skills (Word, Excel, Access graphics)
• strong communication and negotiation skills
• executive, inner discipline
• ability to plan and control work process independently
• energetic, self motivated, team working person
• knowledge o f industrial automatic systems is a plus
• age under 35

Responsibilities:
• technical sales support.
• day to day interaction with clients in Moscow and Moscow region
• production sales plan execution_________________________________

23
FEM ALE
30 у.о., responsible, well-organized, 6-years experience in a West
German company, computer literate, fluent in German &English.
Seeks an administrative/secretarial ( PA) any suitable job. Please con­
tact: 22 5967. Elena

Office M anager / PA
higher linguistic education, fluent English, excellent computer skills.
Work experience in Western companies, Sales administration, ac­
counting and logistics support, full scope o f secretarial duties, recruit­
ing, responsible, punctual. Tel. 485 6587. Tatiana___________________

5. Read the modal o f resume paying attention to its structure and make
up you own resume:____________________________________________
Louise Jensen
0000 Elm Street
New York, NY 00000
Tel. (000) 000-0000
CAREER O B JEC TIV E Personal Assistant/Secretary position in a
major international company with long-term career potential for ad­
vancement and growth.
W ORK EXPERIENCE
1990-Present Blackstone Shop Holdings Inc., Manhattan (N.Y.), Per­
sonal Assistant to the senior vice president in charge o f sales for 33
stores in the New York metropolitan area, 21 stores in France, 18
stores in Great Britain and 14 stores in Germany.
1986-1990 - Rosado Construction Company, Brooklyn (N.Y.), Secre­
tary to the General Manager o f a construction company, which is well-
known for its innovative office building projects in the New York
Metropolitan Area.
EDUCATION
1984-1988 Volmer Language Training School in Manhattan: Ad­
vanced language instruction in French and German (evening courses).
1983-1984 Richardson Business Institute in Manhattan: Two-year
secretarial, administrative, and “computer literacy” training;
REFERENCES
Available upon request________________________________________

24
6. Below you see a Letter o f interest, which you can send to the com­
pany i f you are interested in a vacancy.
Dear Sir or Madam,
I graduated from Tver state university in 1995. Now I am finishing my
post-graduate studies to defend my candidate thesis this winter. My ma­
jor is called the theory o f literature, which includes the study o f the his­
tory of Russian and foreign literature.
I am interested in working in the Russian department o f your university
as a teacher o f Russian and Russian literature for the academic year
1998-1999. In high school I gained experiences teaching Russian to for­
eign students. In your department I could assist in the teaching o f gram­
mar, conduct a class in Russian conversation or give lectures on Russian
literature.
If you are interested in, please write me to the address below. I am look­
ing forward to hearing from you.

Sincerely,
Yours
Ivanov 1.1.
Encl. Resume.

7. Group activity. Write down your Letter o f interest and enclose your
Resume with i t
Sample of Application Form
NAME......................................................................................................
ADDRESS.....................................................................
PHONE...........................................................
DO YOU HAVE A VALID DRIVER’S LICENCE
Yes No
MARITAL STATUS.............................................
EDUCATION.........................................................................................
Name of School..........................................
Year graduated..................................................................
Course Taken or D egree.............................................................................
LANGUAGES...............................................................................................
Russian: Excellent, Good, Fair. English: Excellent, Good, Fair.
EXPERIENCE (Give present or last position first)..................................
COMPANY.....................................................................................................
ADDRESS......................................................................................................

25
TYPE OF BUSINESS INDUSTRY EMPLOYED.............................
(Month & Year)
POSITION (S) H E L D .......................................
SUPERVISOR’S NAME...........................................
DESCRIBE YOUR DUTIES.....................................................................
WHY DID YOU LEAVE........................................................................
COMPANY ADDRESS..........................................................
TYPE OF BUSINESS INDUSTRY EMPLOYED
..................................... (Month & Year)
F ro m ..................................... To.......................................
POSITION (S) H E L D .........................................
SUPERVISOR’S NAME.........................................
DESCRIBE YOUR DUTIES..................................................................
WHY D m YOU LEA V E...................................................................
PERSONAL REFERENCES
Name...........................................Address...............................................
P ho ne...........................(home)

8: Dialogue: TST Systems was looking fo r candidates fo r an opening


position o f Commercial Director. Three applicants came fo r an inter­
view after they had submitted their Cover Letters and Resumes. The
third and the most successful was Mr. Smith. Here we are presenting
the interview with him.
- Good morning, sir.
- Good morning. Come in, come right in. Mr. Smith, isn’t it? Please take
a seat. You will have to excuse me a moment while I finish signing these
letters. Meanwhile please fill in the application form... There, that’ll do.
Now I can concentrate on you, Mr. Smith. Tell me, how long were you in
your last job with Alpha?
- Five years. I am only leaving because the firm is moving to another
place, but I think a change will do me good.
- What do you know about our company? Have you got any questions to
me?
- 1 know that this is a very promising company, so I’d like you to inform
me what will be the major focus of efforts in the next few years?
- We plan to expand our activity to English-speaking countries, mainly
to England, to buy equipment and technologies from them and run train­
ing programs here. We need a team o f creative persons to make our com­
pany competitive on the world market.

26
- What responsibilities and obligations do you suggest during the first
year?
- Well, first o f all to be responsible for our contacts with English part­
ners, to buy good equipment and generally to be skillful in negotiations.
You will have to travel very much. Besides, we are expecting a new fair
in London soon and maybe you will have a chance to go there.
-Y e s , I see.
- So tell me what are your three main strengths?
- 1 think they are: reliability and energy.
- OK. How do you relieve everyday’s tensions?
- 1 am accustomed to work under pressure.
- Are you a leader, an entrepreneur by nature?
- Yes, I think so, because I make contacts with people very easily.
- All right. Now, Mr. Smith, I am quite prepared to offer you a job with
us. You have excellent references from your previous job. What do you
find a fair salary?
- Equivalent of $500.
- I think we’ll begin you from $450 for experimental period and if you
do well we’ll review it by the end o f three months. Hours are from nine
to five thirty, with an hour for lunch and a fortnight’s holiday. Does that
suit you? Any questions?
- What about travel: length, where?
- Mostly to England for not longer than a month.
- All right. I suppose supportive environment here. When do you want
me to start, sir?
- In a week, if possible.
- 1 am afraid I can begin working only from October 10.
- No problem. W e’ll be seeing you on the 10th then?
- Yes, certainly. Thank you very much. Goodbye.
- Goodbye.

Phrasal area
Phrasal area № 1
1. Start-up questions
• OK, let’s get down to business
• Right, can we start please?
• It’s nice to welcome you here
2. Asking for clarification

27
• Could you possibly expand on that?
• Would you mind going over that again?
• Could I ask you just to explain that again?
• Could I ask you just to explain that a little further?
• What exactly do you mean b y ..... ?
3. Making a point
• I would like to say that ...
• You should know th a t...
• I'd like to make one thing clear from the o utset...
• I think we have to consider th a t...
• Let me fill you in on the details o f...
4. Wrapping up
• It looks like we've run out o f time, so I guess we'll finish here.
• Finally, we can deal with any points you would like to raise.
• If no one has anything else to add, then I think we’ll wrap this up.
• Please, ask about anything you are not sure of.
5. Interrupting
• Could I just say th a t...?
• I’d like to add one point here ...
• Can I just have a word ab o u t...?
6. Agreeing and disagreeing
• I entirely agree.
• I’m inclined to agree with you on that.
• Yes, but have you considered ... ?
7. Eliciting information
• What I'd like to know is ...
• Can you give me some information about...
• I'd like some details about...
• What I really need to know is ...
• I'm afraid I need to know ...
• What is your position on...?

Phrasal area № 2:
1. Start-up questions
• Why are you interested in our company?
• Why did you come to this country?
• What are your objectives in this field?
2. Experience.

28
• What special aspects o f your experience have prepared you for
this job?
• Can you describe one or two of your most important accom­
plishments?
• How much supervision have you typically received in your pre­
vious job?
• Why did you leave your previous job?
• What is important to you in a company?
3. Prosecution.
• What are your strong points for this position?
• How did your supervisor evaluate your job?
• When have you been told or discovered for yourself, a problem
in your job performance, what have you typically done? Can you give me
an example?
• Do you prefer working alone or in groups?
• Can you give me an example o f your ability to manage or su­
pervise others?
• What were some o f the things about your last job that you found
most difficult to do?
4. Education.
• Did you give presentations during your university/college?
• Did you have to use any computer programs frequently at the uni­
versity? Which ones?
• What courses in school have helped the most in doing this job?
5. Self-concept, self-assessment
• What kind of things are you most confident in doing?
• Can you describe for me a difficult obstacle you have had to
overcome? How did you handle it? How do you feel this experience af­
fected your personality or ability?
• How would you describe yourself as a person?
• What things give you the most satisfaction at work?
• What things frustrate you most? How do you usually cope with
them?
6. Creativity.
• In your work experience, what have you done that you consider
truly creative?
• What kind o f problems have people recently called on you to
solve?

29
• O f your creative accomplishments, at work or at home, which
have given you the most satisfaction?
7. Outlook.
• Do you belong to any clubs, associations, or groups?
• What do you like to do in your spare time?
• How do you keep up with what’s going on in your company/
your industry/your profession/your country?
8. Motivation.
• What is your professional goal?
• When judging the performance o f a subordinate or colleague,
what factors or characteristics are the most important for you?
9. Duties and specification.
• What standards o f success do you set yourself in your job?
• In your position, how would you define doing a good job?
10. Management.
• What approach do you take in getting people to accept your
ideas or goals?
• What sort o f leaders do your people feel you are? Are you satis­
fied?
• How do you get people who do not want to work together to es­
tablish a common approach to a problem?
• Do you feel you work more effectively in a one to one situation
or in a group situation?
• How would you describe your basic leadership style? Give spe­
cific examples o f how you practice this
11. Experience of public utterance.
• Have you ever done any public or group speaking? How did it
go?
• Have you made any individual presentations recently? How did
you prepare?
12. Stress-stability.
• Do you feel pressure in your job/life/at school? Tell me about it.
• What has been the highest pressure situation you have been un­
der in recent years? How did you cope with it?
13. Stability and maturity.
• Describe your most significant success & failure in the two last
years.
• What do you like to do best?
• What do you like to do least?

30
• Think about your last review. What did your supervisor suggest
needed improvement?
• What have you done about it?
14. Interest in self-development.
• What has been the most important event or who has been the
most important person in your own self-development?
• How much of your education did you earn?
• What kind o f books or other publications do you read?
• Have you taken a management development course?
• How are you helping your co-workers/ subordinates develop
themselves?
15. Questions which can be asked by an interviewee.
• What will be my responsibilities?
• Who will I report to? Who will be my supervisor?
• What do you expect me to do in my company role?
• Who are your customers/clients?
• Where is the company going? What are its plans for expansion?

Language functions
1) Put the following phrases into the correct logical order:
It looks like we've run out o f time, so I guess we'll finish here.
I’m going to start b y ... and then we’ll talk about...
It’s nice to welcome you here...
Let me fill you in on the details o f...
You should know that...
2) Ask in English:
Я бы хотел сказать, что...
Я с вами полностью согласен
Пожалуйста, задавайте любые вопросы
Не могли бы вы рассказать мне об этом немного больше...
Какие будут мои обязанности?

3) Put the following phrases according to their communicative


purpose:
a) Eliciting information
в) Making a point
c) Summarizing ideas
• I wonder i f you'd mind telling m e ...

31
• Perhaps it would be useful i f we ju st summarized what we've said
so far.
• I think we've covered everything on the list.
• I'm afraid I need to know ...
• What is your position on... ?
• I believe you know th a t...
• I think I should be frank and say th a t...

4) Choose appropriate phrases fo r the following situations:


You have to select the right person fo r a particular post. What questions
can you ask about his/her experience?
a) How would you describe yourself as a person?
b) What do you like to do in your spare time?
c) What aspects o f your job did you like best?
d) Are you used to working shifts?
You have to select the right person fo r a particular post. What ques­
tions can you ask about his/ her stress-stability?
a) Do you work well under pressure?
b) Have you done any public or group speaking?
c) What aspect o f your job do you like best?
d) How do you usually cope with staff problems?
What questions can you ask as interviewee about your future job?
a) Who will I report to?
b) Where is the company going? What are its plans for expansion?
c) Why do you want to leave your present job?
d) What sort o f leaders do your people feel you are?
You are interviewing a person fo r a job. How would you fin d out p o ­
litely the following information:
- his/her age and education
- his/her creativity and outlook
- his/her motivation

Speech practice
Work in pairs. Use the dialogue and phrasal areas (1; 2) above as mod­
els and act out the situations:
Situation 1
An employee has decided to leave the company. Prepare a list o f
questions and ask him/her to clarify his/her position, fin d out the reason

32
for his/her decision and express your opinion about this situation. While
dramatizing take into account the following information:______________
Clarifying Giving an opinion
What exactly ...by...? Let me ... the detail of...
Could you....? I think we need...
Why... our company? Well, I ’m ........ o f...
What aspects o f .... deal with? I suggest we ...
Key words: shift work, to postpone, relationship, staff, contract de­
tails, be promoted, salary, jo b responsibility, to take into account, resig­
nation, to complain about.
Situation 2
You’ve referred several people fo r secretarial position. You feel that
one candidate is clearly the best but personal manager prefers another
person. Work in pairs, make a dialogue and act out the situation. While
dramatizing take into account the following information:______________
Agreeing/disagreeing Interrupting
I ’m not sure... there Can we just...?
Yes, but have you...? I'd... one point here
I ’m inclined to... that I ’m afraid we
Y es,... idea Maybe we should...
I don't think.... position To a ... extent I... but
Making suggestions Summarizing
Actually, there is.... Who I f ... to add... wrap this up
W ell... consider... My proposal is ...
What do...about... ? So, le t’s ju st recap on...
I would... that... We have seen that...
Key words: previous experience, skills and qualities, training, de­
gree, disciplinary, motivation, communicate, leadership, ability to, edu­
cation details.
Situation 3
Communicative task fo r the interviewee: You ’re at the “career ad­
vice center”. You are going to apply fo r the position o f an office man­
ager. Get ready to answer the following questions:
a. Tell me something about yourself. What are your strengths and weak­
nesses?
b.Has your education (experience) prepared you well for the position
you want to get?
c. What is your professional goal? Where would you like to be profes­
sionally five years from now?
You will want to ask questions too. Find out:

33
1. the company’s objectives;
2. the sphere o f your responsibilities;
3. the person who will be your boss.
Communicative task fo r the interviewer: You ’re a personnel manager o f
a company and you have to conduct an interview with an applicant. Get
ready to ask him/her questions about:
• his/her strengths and weaknesses
• previous education and experience
• professional goal and interest in self-development

Phrasal area for the interviewer: Phrasal area for the interviewee:
What are your... for this position? ... the job itself?
Can you describe... ...report to?
Why did you leave...? .. .my company role?
What special aspects... for this Where is the company ...?
job? ... further education and train­
Have you ever taken... course? ing?
Are you going to ... ?__________

Situation 4
You are the personnel manager o f a company which was created
only 5 years ago and is rapidly expanding. A t the moment your company
needs an assistant manager. Conduct an interview with applicant fo r the
post o f assistant manager, ask questions about:
- the applicant’s personal backgrounds,
- his/her personal traits,
- fin d out why the applicants apply fo r the job, what they know about the
company and what salary they expect.

Role play: «Selection of personnel»:


You are going to work with another student using one the of role
cards. For more detailed information look at page 195 (Appendix 2
Teacher’s notes)
Role cards: ____
Role card 1: Interviewer 1
You are the personnel officer responsible for the recruitment section
o f a large human resources department. You are currently looking for
somebody for the position o f the head of the department charged with
international relations and are meeting with three candidates to discuss
the conditions o f employment.__________________________________

34
Note that the job requires someone with fluent English (spoken or
written) but you are ready to pay for English courses. You are inter­
ested in a person with good social skills, able to represent your local
projects in international affairs o f your organization. Use notes below
to conduct the interview:
- educational background;
-a g e ;
- motivation;
- experience
Communicative task: Start and conduct the interview. Take into
consideration all facts and details about applicants, be ready to ask
additional questions and then discuss the situation with the second
interviewer.__________________________________________________
Role card 2: Interviewer 2
You are the senior member of a large HR department. You together
with the personnel officer o f your department who is responsible for
recruitment are conducting the interview with three applicants. As far
as you know, there is no existing staff with the right level o f language
and experience in this department. You want your department to di­
versify into new areas. You are sure that you need an employee with
new creative ideas how to develop international projects. The excep­
tionally creative person, well connected, socially with good English
and experienced is desirable. Here are some things you’d like to men­
tion in the interview:
- managerial competence and skills;
- flexibility;
- creativity.
Communicative task: You should be ready to make a conclusion and
give your opinion and recommendations at the end. You do not have
to make a decision immediately. If it is necessary, you can fix a date
and time for the next meeting.___________________________________
Role card 3: Interviewee 1
You are applying for the position of the head o f the department re­
sponsible for international projects. You are currently meeting with
the personnel officer and senior member of this department to discuss
the conditions of the job. You have been working in administrative
department for two years (including the six month probationary pe­
riod). Although you like your job, lately you have been thinking about
looking for a new position. You think it is a challenging post with lots
of contracts. You know that they are looking for somebody with fluent

35
English and you are worried that your English won’t be good enough.
But you are aware o f the possibility o f training courses and you are
ready to study. Here are some things to mention at the interview:
- flexi time (you need to take your child to school);
- travel allowance;
- pay rise;
Communicative task: You know both interviewers well: you have
been working together in this company for 5 years. This fact is your
strong point. Try to be persuasive you’re sure you are suitable for this
position because you can manage people well._____________________
Role card 4: Interviewee 2
You have just graduated from the international faculty o f management
(as a second higher education). You also have Master’s degree in
Business Administration. You are a young very energetic and ambi­
tious person with fluent English. You have now experience but you
want to make your career in Civil Service. You also have a strong
opinion that women are better managers than men, because they use
their intuition to solve problems. Here are some things you would like
to mention at the interview:
- official salary:
- holidays;
- opportunity to be promoted.
Communicative task: To tell the truth you feel nervous. It’s the first
time when you have to take part in interviewing. You must convince
the interviewers that only new person can bring innovation and change
to the performance o f the department.____________________________
Role card 5: Interviewee 3
You have been working in Civil Service for 20 years as a Deputy
Manager of Welfare Department. You have seniority and respect in
the organization. You know its policy and rules, ethical and moral
obligations of government officials. You are able to answer any ques­
tions about the Civil Service Law and Labour Code. You do not have
special knowledge o f international activity and your English leaves
much to be desired (you studied it at school), but you are sure your
managerial experience is much more important. Besides, you are
ready to take English courses. Here are some things you would like to
mention at the interview:
- sick pay;
- fringe benefits;
________________ - premium pay._______________________________

36
Communicative task: Stand firm on your position. You feel that sen­
ior employees are more reliable and steady than younger ones. Be-
sides, your colleagues often ask for your advice.____________________

Additional situations for discussion:


1. If you had to choose a candidacy to a post from among several
applicants, would you do it on the basis of the applicants’ curriculum
vitae or on the results o f the interview?
2. When choosing candidates for any particular job, the Americans
say: “What can this person do?”; the French say: “What qualification has
he\she got?”; the British say “What kind o f background has this person
got?”. Which question would you ask when you are to choose an appli­
cant? Why?
3. Interview four people on why they work and which o f their
needs are satisfied or frustrated. Summarize and comment on their re­
sponses.

Final task: Summarize the information of the module to be ready to


speak on recruitment process, the process of training and firing.
Choose any question (problem, topic) related to the module and
make a report in class. Refer to different additional sources to make
your report instructive, interesting and informative.

37
Module 2: Effective Meetings
Types of meetings. Conducting the meeting.
Setting an agenda.

Read the following quotations and discuss them with your group-
mates. Do you agree with them ?

‘o u r kneetmgs are Held to d iscu ss problem which would и-ever


arise i f wie Weld fewer kvieetmgs.'
ASH(-g|<^HB.T?jLUANT (eaglish -Ьопл, Avuzrtcan cartoovdst)
'MeetliA-gs... are rather lilee cocletaiL parties, у ou dov^'t want to go, but
you. are cross aot to be asfeed'
CJILL-Y COOPER. (British writer: HOW to S u rA v t frovu.J) 5)
*The tei^gth of n n^eeting rises with the square of the и-ит.Ьег of people
present.'
(BIL-BBN S H A N A H A N A f r i c a n . kv^wspaper wov'vm^)

Start- up activity:
1. W hat are the m ain reasons for holding a meeting?
2. W hat is the role of the chairperson?
3. W hy are so many meetings unsuccessful?
4. Describe a meeting th at you have attended recently.
How effective was it and why?

Picture 4

38
Readme:
Text 1: Meeting
Do you dread meetings more than Monday mornings? Do you find
them boring, unproductive and far too long? Meetings are central to most
organizations: people need to know what their colleagues are doing and
than make decisions based on shared information and opinions.
Meetings are an essential part o f a manager's work. They are held for
three main reasons:
1) to carry out training,
2) to transmit information,
3) to solve a problem.
Types o f meetings
People meet for many reasons. In most business and professional
settings, meetings fall into three categories: information sharing, problem
solving:
1) Information Sharing. In many organizations, people meet regularly to
exchange information. In many office groups, the Monday morning
meeting is an important tool for informing group members about new
developments, emerging trends, and the coming week's tasks.
2) Problem Solving or Decision Making. In other meetings, a group
may decide to take some action or make a change in existing policies or
procedures. "Which supplier should we contract?" "Should we introduce
a new product line?" "Should we delay production so we can work out a
design flaw in our new typewriter?" "How can we best schedule vaca­
tions?" All these are questions that might be discussed in problem­
solving meetings. Because problem-solving and decision-making meet­
ings are the most challenging type o f group activity, the bulk o f this
chapter discusses how to conduct them effectively.
How well you present yourself and your ideas and how well you
work with other people, is crucial to your career. Read the following rec­
ommendations and tiy to follow them in your life.
Before you call the meeting:
There are a number o f ways that you may call or be called to a meet­
ing. Decide if the meeting is the best method of achieving the objective, put
the objective in writing. Some meetings are announced by e-mail, and
others are posted on bulletin boards. If a meeting is announced at the end
of another meeting, it is important to issue a reminder. A reminder can
also come in the form o f an e-mail or notice. Verbal announcements or
reminders should always be backed up by documented ones. The date,
location, time, length, and purpose of the meeting should be included.

39
Select specific items for discussion and anticipate difficulties, awkward
members and prepare documents and courses o f action to overcome the
difficulties expected.
It is also important to indicate exactly who is expected to attend,
and who is not. If you are planning on allocating someone to take on a
certain role, make personal contact with that person to inform them o f his
or her duty. (Enclosure 1)
(Enclosure 1)
Preparing for a Meeting: Calling a Meeting, Sample E-mail:_________
To: jane@paristours.com
c c :k a n a j p a r i s t o u r s . com; t h o m a s @ p a r i s t o u r s . com.
From: pierre@paristours.com
Subject: Meeting
Hi Everyone,
We will be having a meeting next Friday from 2:00 PM-4:00 PM in
Room 3.A11 supervisors are expected to attend. The purpose o f the
meeting is to discuss the upcoming reduction o f our staff. As you
probably have heard, the company isn’t being very generous with its
leaving package compensation.
Please prepare your suggestions concerning the problem.
Thank you,
P ierre_____________________ ________________________________
Sample Notice:

MEETING
LOCATION: Room 3
DATE: Friday, May 5th
TIME: 2:00 PM-4:00 P.M.
FOR: Supervisors only
SUBJECT: reduction of the staff
ATTENDANCE IS MANDATORY

Prepare the agendas with no more than 5 objectives. (Enclosure 2)


The agenda should indicate the order o f items and an estimated amount
o f time for each item. If more than one person is going to speak during
the meeting, the agenda should indicate whose turn it is to "have the
floor". In some cases, it may be useful to forward the agenda to attendees
before the meeting. People will be more likely to participate in a meeting
by asking questions or offering feedback, if they know what is going to
be covered.

40
(Enclosure 2)
Sample Agenda

1 Welcome, Introduction: Pierre and Stella (5 minutes)


2 Minutes from previous meeting: Jane (10 minutes)

3 Administrative department (15 minutes)


4 Other departments (15 minutes)
5 Redundancy payment (15 minutes)
6 Voting: Everyone (15 minutes)
7 Questions/Closing remarks/Reminders: Everyone (5 minutes)

Text 2
During the meeting:
Whether you are holding the meeting or attending the meeting it is
polite to make small talk while you wait for the meeting to start. You
should discuss things unrelated to the meeting, such as weather, family,
or weekend plans.
Once everyone has arrived, the chairperson, or whoever is in charge
o f the meeting should formally welcome everyone to the meeting and
thank the attendees for coming.
State the purpose of the meeting and outline the objectives it is
hoped to achieve. Some people who hold meetings prefer to pass around
copies o f the agenda, and others will post a large copy on a wall, or use
an overhead projector. No matter which format is used, attendees should
be able to follow the agenda as the meeting progresses. Before beginning
the first main item on the agenda, the speaker should provide a brief ver­
bal outline of the objectives.
Make a direct discussion toward the objectives and develop
participation by contrasting different viewpoints. Don’t forget to
watch the clock and note reaction o f members who appear to be los­
ing interest Where opinion is divided a vote is to be taken. Votes can
be open, where people raise their hands in favour or in opposition o f the
issue. In an open vote, the results are evident immediately. Other votes,
such as who should be elected to take on a certain role, are private or
closed. During private votes, attendees fill out ballots and place them in a

41
box to be counted. The results may not be counted until after the meet­
ing.
At the end o f the meeting announce results and make a last-
minute reminder. In the closing remarks, the chairperson, or partici­
pants may want to discuss the date and time for the next meeting,
when the minutes will be available, or when a decision should be made
by. This is also the time to give contact information, such as how to
send a question by e-mail or who to call regarding a certain issue. It is
also the time to thank anyone who has not been thanked at the beginning
o f the meeting, or anyone who deserves a second thank you. Congratula­
tions or Good-luck can also be offered here to someone who has experi­
enced something new, such as receiving a promotion, getting married, or
having a baby.
After the meeting:
The secretary of the meeting prepares "minutes". Minutes must be an
accurate account of the substance of the meeting. A minute-taker should
type out the minutes immediately after the meeting so that nothing is
forgotten. It is necessary to include important points and any votes and
results. No opinions, no discussions, no irrelevant talk. They should be
brief. Minutes should follow the agenda o f the meeting. (Enclosure 3)
(Enclosure 3)
Sample Minutes Outline:
Supervisor's Meeting
Friday, May 5
Room 3
Start:________ Finish:_________
Chair: Pierre
Attendees:
1/________
2 .___________
3.
4.
5.
Late to arrive:_________
Early to depart:________

Tips fo r better meetings


Hold them early in the day and don't allow phone calls to interrupt the
procedings.

42
Pay particular attention to the meeting; chairs should not be plastic-
covered but fabric-covered and firm.
If you know you are going to have a difficult person at the meeting,
sit that person on your right or left. If this person is allowed to sit opposite
you, the meeting will often be split into two.
Get everyone to contribute to the discussion but don't put people on
the spot by asking, "What do you think, Jane?"
Place your watch on the table in front o f you so that people can see
you are going to run to time; start on time; finish when you say you will.
Avoid letting people know what you think before they have made their
views known.
Vocabulary:
1. Take (make) decisions - принимать решение
2. Share information, opinions - обмениваться информацией,
мнениями
3. Call the meeting - созывать собрание
4. Achieve the objective - достигать цели
5. Reminder - напоминание
6. Anticipate difficulties - предупреждать сложности
7. Allocate - выделять (средства)
8. Have the floor - брать слово, выступать
9. Small talk - лёгкий, бессодержательный разговор
10. Outline the objectives - обрисовывать цели (планы)
11. Vote - голосование
12. Minutes - протокол (собрания)
13. Irrelevant - несоответствующий, неуместный

Follow-up activity:
1. You often take part in different meetings. What are their main draw­
backs? A re they held in accordance with the recommendations given in
the text? What points are most often violated?

2. Are the following statements True or False?


1. The person who is in charge of the meeting is the person who
takes the minutes.
2. The best way to call a meeting is to inform each participant in­
dividually by phone.
3. An agenda should outline the order and amount o f time to spend
on each item at the meeting.

43
4. Engaging in small talk throughout the meeting is an effective
way to keep the focus.
5. When someone agrees with a motion it is "seconded".
6. The person who is speaking during a meeting is the person who
"has the floor".
7. A polite way to indicate that you want to make a comment dur­
ing a meeting is to say: "If I could just come in here..."
8. When there is a tie vote, it is customary for the chairperson to
ask one participant to reconsider his/her decision.
9. During the closing remarks, the person holding the meeting
should introduce new staff members or guest speakers.
10. Reminders are typically announced after all of the items on the
agenda have been covered.

3. On the left is a list o f some o f the idioms used at the meeting. Look at
the expressions on the right and try to fin d the expression which is clos-
est in meaning to the idiom._______ ______________________________
a. in future l.dedde
b. it's a matter o f 2. in the way described
с make our minds up 3. always after today
d so far 4. to find the explanation or cause
e. in reality 5. some time soon
£ above all 6. it depends on
g. get to the bottom of 7. earlier than originally planned
h. in the near future 8. one way o f achieving some
i. in that respect objective
j. a means to an end 9. until now
k. in the course of 10. during
l.-*ahead of schedule 11. this is the most important thing
12. this is truth, not imagination

4. Think o f the verbs that are most commonly used with:


Choice, decision, goals, advance, attention, effort, criticism,
objective, step.

5. Think o f the nouns that are most commonly used with:


Keep, impose, allocate, analyze, apply, face, lubricate,
outline, grant, perform.

44
6. What prepositions should be used below? Make up your own sen­
tences.
1. competition... top talent
2. capacity to react... global changes
3. respect... other beliefs
4. ... one degree or another
5. ... the turn o f the century
6. must be responsible ... the environment
7. behavioral sciences can contribute ... management
8. the work deals ... routine
9. real success stems...
10. a person responsible ...
11. a position that is consistent...
12 concern... people
13. insure... the damage
14. is concerned ...
15. engaged...
16. is available...

7: Dialogues: To give the idea o f meetings, several samples will be


given below. Work inpats, use the dialogues above as models and act out
similar situations.
1) Sample Personal Request:
Pierre: Hi Jane, did you get the e-mail about next week's meeting?
Jane: Yes, I'll be there.
Pierre: Great. I'd like to put you in charge o f reviewing the minutes from
last meeting for us.
Jane: Sure, I can do that. I think there is a copy o f the minutes in my file.
Pierre: Thanks, you'll have ten minutes to remind us o f what we dis­
cussed last meeting. This will be good for Stella to hear. Stella will be
our new assistant manager.
2) Sample Welcome:
Pierre: I think we'll begin now. First I'd like to welcome you all and
thank everyone for coming, especially at such short notice. I know you
are all very busy and it's difficult to take time away from your daily tasks
for meetings.
3) Sample Introduction to the Agenda:
Pierre: As you can all see here on the agenda we will be mainly talking
about the upcoming reduction o f our staff. First we'll discuss the current
situation in administrative department. After that we'll discuss the situa­

45
tion in other key departments o f our organization. If time allows, we will
also discuss the question about redundancy payment. Next, I'm going to
request some feedback from all o f you concerning this problem.
4) Sample Voting Session:
Pierre: Okay, now that we've covered most o f the business, it's time to
vote on the number o f employees to become redundant. We came up
with different ideas. I'll give the heads o f the departments the floor now,
and they’ll outline their options. After that we'll vote. I don't think there
is any reason to have a private vote, so I'll just ask to see a show of
hands. Jane, would you do the honours?
Jane: Thanks Pierre. Okay, so, as you all probably assumed, we are go­
ing to wait until most o f staff have passed through personnel certification
before we have the final decision. I hope that it works out for all o f us.
The second option is to make a decision right now. The only problem
with this it if we make a decision now, there isn't enough time to arrange
payment issues.
Pierre: Anyhow, those are the options, so let's put it to a vote. Who is in
favour o f option number one? Raise your hands please... okay, one vote.
Who is in favour o f option number two? Raise your hands please... okay.
That's four. Okay, so we'll meet again on the first o f next month.

Phrasal area
First read through the phrasal area below and check fo r the compre­
hension o f vocabulary and structures.
1. Attracting attention
• Right, then.
• Right, can we start?
• Ladies and gentlemen, are we ready to begin?
• Well then, if we could get things rolling.
• OK then, perhaps we could make a start?
• Well, shall we get things started?
• If everybody's ready, maybe we could make a start?
2. Welcome and why are we here?
• Well, since everyone is here, we should get started.
• Hello, everyone. Thank you for coming today.
• I think we'll begin now. First I'd like to welcome you all.
• Thank you all for coming at such short notice.
• I really appreciate you all for attending today.

46
• We have a lot to cover today, so we really should begin.
• Would you like to start, John.
• As you all know, we're here today to .
• We're meeting today to ...
• The reason we're here is to ...
• The subject of today's meeting is ...
• The purpose of today's meeting is to ...
• Today we shall be looking at ...
• Today we shall be dealing with...
• Let's take the first item on the agenda...
• Has everyone got a copy o f the agenda?
• Can I turn first to Mr. X .
• So, let's go first to ...
3. Introductions
• I'd like to take a moment to introduce our new employee.
• I know most of you, but there are a few unfamiliar faces.
• Stella, would you like to stand up and introduce yourself?
• Hi everyone. I'm Judy Strauss. I'll be acting as Amanda's assis­
tant while Nancy is away on maternity leave.
4. Making a point and getting to the point
• I would like to say here that ...
• You should know that ...
• I'd like to make one thing clear from the outset ...
• I think I should be frank and say th a t...
• I think we have to consider th a t...
• I think I should mention here that ...
• We must bear in mind the fact th a t...
• We should always remember th a t...
• I believe you know that ...
• The point is that ...
• You must realize that ...
• What I'm trying to say is that ...
• What I'm getting at is th a t...
• The point I'm trying to make is that ...
• The crux of the matter is th a t...
• What I'm driving at is that ...
5. Expressing an opinion
• I tend to think th a t...

47
• I rather think ...
• As I see it ...
• In my opinion ...
• As far as I'm concerned...
• If you ask me ...
• Personally, ...
• My point o f view is ...
• I'm sure that ...
• I'm certain that ...
• I really do think that ...
• I definitely think th a t...
• I'm absolutely convinced th a t...
• There's no doubt in my mind th a t...
• What i f ... ? (we did it like this)
6. Roll Call/Apologies
• It looks like everyone is here today.
• If you notice anyone missing, please let Jane know so that she
can make a note o f it.
• Unfortunately, Ken cannot join us today. He has been called
away on business
• Mike will be standing in to take the minutes today, as Lisa is at
home with the flu.
7. Watching the Time
• I think we've spent enough time on this topic.
• We're running short on time, so let's move on.
• We're running behind schedule, so we'll have to skip the next
item.
*• We only have fifteen minutes remaining and there's a lot left to
cover.
• If we don't move on, we'll run right into lunch.
• We've spent too long on this issue, so we'll leave it for now.
• We'll have to come back to this at a later time.
• We could spend all day discussing this, but we have to get to the
next item.
8. Interrupting
• If I could just come in here a moment and say th a t...
• If I could just get a word in ...
• Do you mind if I just interrupt?

48
• Might I interrupt at this point?
• Could I say something on that point?
• Can I just say something here?
• Excuse me, but could I just say something?
• If I could just interrupt a moment?
• I can't let that pass ...
• Could I just pick up on that point?
• Could I just query that last point?
• Sorry to butt in, b u t...
• Could I just correct one small detail?
• May I add something to that?
• If I might just add something to what has just been said.
• May I make a point?
• Could I come in here?
• I'd like to raise the subject o f ...
• Could I say a word about something?
9. Moving on
• Perhaps we could move on to the next point under discussion.
• That brings us to the next item on the schedule.
• Perhaps we could turn our attention to the question o f ...
• If we could just move on to ...
• I think we should now consider ...
• Let's turn to the question o f ..
• Can we now look at ...
• I'd like to move things on a little here ...
• Can we get on, please?
• As we are running short of time, perhaps we could h e a r...
10. Digressing/Agreeing
• If I might digress for a moment here and say that ...
• Let me digress for a moment.
• I know it isn't strictly what we're here to discuss, but I think it
might be worthwhile to spend a little time looking a t ...
• I absolutely agree.
• I completely agree.
• I agree entirely/completely.
• I agree with you most strongly.
• You're right (of course).
• Yes indeed!

49
• I quite agree with you.
• To a large extent you're right, b u t...
• Up to a point I'd agree with you, b u t...
• I really must object to that comment you know.
• No, I think you're mistaken here.
11. Making an offer and asking for offers
• Would you be prepared to consider our offer o f ...
• Are you prepared to accept... ?
• We are in a position to offer you ...
• Could I suggest a figure o f ...
• Would you be happy with a figure o f around ... ?
• Would your company consider ... ?
• Would an offer o f something in the region o f ... interest you?
• We've examined the situation in detail, and are prepared to
make an o ffer...
• What would be your position on ... ?
• What can you offer us with regard to ... ?
• What's your policy on ... ?
• I was wondering what you had in mind as far as ... is concerned?
12. Voting
• All in favour? (Those who agree raise their hands or say "Aye".)
• All opposed?
• Motion to hire more tour guides, moved by Thomas. (Sugges­
tions or ideas that are put to a vote are called motions. When a person
makes a suggestion, the term to use both during the meeting and in the
minutes is moved.)
• Motion to hire more tour guides seconded by Nolan. (When an-
otfier person agrees with the motion, it is seconded.)
13. Wrapping Up
• It looks like we've run out o f time, so I guess we'll finish here.
• I think we've covered everything on the list.
• I guess that will be all for today.
• Well, look at that...we've finished ahead of schedule for once.
• If no one has anything else to add, then I think we'll wrap this
up.
• I'm afraid we're going to have to cut this meeting short. I've just
been informed of a problem that needs my immediate attention.
14. Reminders

50
• Oh, before you leave, please make sure to sign the attendance
sheet.
• I almost forgot to mention that we're planning a staff banquet
next month.
• Don't forget to put your ballot in the box on your way out.
• If I didn't already say this, please remember to introduce your­
self to the new trainees.
• Could I have your attention again? I neglected to mention that
anyone who wants to take home some o f this leftover food is welcome
to.
• If you could all return your chair to Room 7 that would be ap­
preciated.
• Please take all of your papers with you and throw out any gar­
bage on your way out.
15. Follow-Up
• We'll meet again on the first o f next month.
• Next time we meet I'll be sure to have those contacts for you.
• If anyone has any questions about anything we discussed today,
feel free to send me an e-mail.
• The minutes from today's meeting will be posted as o f tomor­
row afternoon.
• I'll send out a group e-mail with the voting results.

Language functions
1) Choose appropriate phrases for the following situations:
How do you as chairperson end a meeting?
a) I think we've covered everything on the list.
b) Could I suggest a figure of...?
c) We're running short on time, so let's move on.

How can you interrupt a speaker politely?


a) I'd like to raise the subject of...
b) If I might just add something to what has just been said.
c) All in favour?

How can you show complete agreement with the last speaker's sugges­
tions?
a) Up to a point I'd agree with you, but...

51
b) Yes indeed!
c) If I might digress for a moment here and say that...

How do you as chairperson move on to the next point?


a) You should know that...
b) Let's turn to the question of...
c) I guess that will be all for today.

You are the chairperson and are opening a meeting. What do you say?
a) Don't forget to put your ballot in the box on your way out.
b) Let's take the first item on the agenda...
c) What I'm driving at is that...

You are the chairperson. The discussion is getting away from the point.
What do you say?
a) No, I think you're mistaken here.
b) I'll send out a group e-mail with the voting results.
c) What I'm trying to say is th a t...

You are the chairperson and think it is time to vote. What do you say?
a) May I make a point?
b) So, let's go first to...
c) All opposed?

You are at a formal meeting and would like to speak. What do you say?
a) Right, then.
b) I tend to think that...
c) It looks like everyone is here today

2) Put expressions below in the logical order according to the rules of


conducting the meetings.
1. Well, shall we get things started?
2. We'll meet again on the first o f next month.
3. Oh, before you leave, please make sure to sign the attendance sheet.
4. If no one has anything else to add, then I think we'll wrap this up.
5. What would be your position on...?
6. I really appreciate you all for attending today.
7. Has everyone got a copy o f the agenda?
8. I'd like to take a moment to introduce our new employee.
3) Match each item on the left with the correct description on the right

52
1. Thank you all for coming at such a) asking for offers
short notice b) interrupting
2. I'll send out a group e-mail with c) disagreeing
the voting results d) welcoming
3. I think we've covered everything e) wrapping up
on the list f) expressing opinion
4. What's your policy on...? g) follow-up
5. I really must object to that com­ h) moving on
ment you know
6. Let's turn to the question of...
7. If I might just add something to
what has just been said
8. I'm absolutely convinced that.

Speech practice
Work in pairs, use the phrasal area above and act out the following
situations:
Situation 1
Imagine yourself in the following situation: You are the CEO who
arranges a meeting to explain — politely but firmly - why the candidate
is unsuitable fo r the position in the Asian subsidiary. The candidate, on
the other hand, is determined to persuade CEO that she/he is the only
suitable variant. Use the information below and make up short dia­
logues._________________________ _________________________ _____
Com municative task for CEO: Communicative task for the
candidate:
- start the meeting and explain its - listen to the position o f CEO,
purpose; interrupt him politely;
- express your opinion; - express disagreement;
- make another offer for the can­ - express your opinion
didate;
- suggest to follow-up the meet­
ing
Key words for CEO: Key words for the candidate:

to appreciate, to start, the subject to object, to make a point, do you


of the meeting, to deal with, to be mind, to consider, to be sure,
concerned, region, to coordinate, equal opportunity, individual

53
key skills, to postpone, leader- development, position on, quali-
ship, representative, experience. fication, personal profile._______

Situation 2
Imagine yourself in the following situation: You are the Head o f the
public relations department and following complaints from a customer,
you need to discuss a dress code fo r all employees and guidelines on
personal appearance with the your deputy. You want to maintain the
dress code o f your company in the eyes o f the public. Your colleague
wants to get rid o f the dress code completely. Fill the dialogue with nec­
essary expressions and dramatize it. You may use key vocabulary below
or invent any information you wish.

H W e ll... things started?


We're meeting today to...
J The point is th a t... What's your policy on ..., John?
H Personally I tend to think that...
How will people react when they ...? What i f ...?
J To a large extent..., but... I tend to think it’s your managerial
role to...
H I ... think that some changes are necessary ... but...
Could I suggest... It can be a compromise.
As we are running short of time, perhaps we ...
O.K. Next time we meet I'll be ready to ...
Key words: outside the office, to be angry, the image o f the company,
restrictions, workplace, personal style, to rebel, discipline, policy, to
arrange a meeting, to introduce, a survey.

Situation 3
You are the Head o f the HR department. Your company has decided
to make five employees o f your department redundant. You are meeting
with senior members to ask their opinion about possible candidates. You
are chairing the meeting. Your task is to keep the meeting relevant and
constructive and ensure that you reach an agreement at the end. Prepare
your arguments carefully and work out the strategy for meeting. Make
your speech according to the following instructions:

54
Role vlav “Meeting
You are going to work with another student using one the of role
cards. For more detailed information look at page 195 (Appendix 2
Teacher’s notes)_______________________________________________
Role card 1.
As members of remuneration committee, you and two colleagues are
meeting to discuss a new benefits package for your company. You
have agreed to chair the meeting, so first you need to use these notes
to prepare the agenda,
most important benefits?
a) flexible working hours essential
b) childcare facilities needed to encourage female employees back to
work
c) some sort o f profit-sharing bonus???
- Conclusions and recommendations (should we look at health and
sport club issues?)
(flexi time/create part time jobs/jobs-sharing in some areas). You
would also like to recommend some sports/health-related benefits;
decide what this could be (club membership, massage...)

Communicative task: Start the meeting by introducing the agenda


and then discuss with your colleagues the various benefits that have
been recommended. Try to agree on the next steps. (You think you
need to go slowly on this - you won’t be able to make a decision to­
day. Perhaps you need firstly to ask the staff what benefits packagers
they would like to have, suggest to meet again, then make a proposal
to the Board.

55
Role card 2.
As members o f remuneration committee, you and two colleagues are
meeting to discuss a new benefits package for your company. You
personally think childcare facilities for both male and female staff are
the most essential benefit to offer. (You have two children aged two
and six years, and your partner is currently on maternity/paternity
leave for one year.) So far only one man has taken paternity leave in
your company and there are a number of female colleagues who are
under extreme stress because they can’t find reliable childcare they
can afford. You don’t think bonuses are a good idea; most people pre­
fer to have a good salary and a better work/life balance.

Communicative task: You feel there has now been enough discus­
sion and you are very busy with other things at the moment, so you
want to make a decision quickly! Prepare some suggestions for child­
care issues to present at the meeting and tiy to agree with your col­
leagues on the next steps._______________________________________
Role card 3.
As members of remuneration committee, you and two colleagues are
meeting to discuss a new benefits package for your company. Child­
care issues are fine but you don’t have children and would prefer to
have some sort o f reward incentives (profit sharing, performance-
related pay, free shares in the company) which would motivate all
employees, not just the ones with children. You agree that some sorts
o f flexible working arrangements are necessary, though; too many of
your colleagues work excessive overtime and there have been one or
two cases o f stress-related illnesses recently. Decide what recommen­
dations you would like to make exactly and be ready to represent your
suggestions at the meeting.

Communicative task: Hopefully, you and your colleagues can agree


on proposal today, so you can make recommendations to management
this week. You should offer to write the e-mail to management and
inform that you are going on a two week holiday in three days.

Role card 4.
As members o f remuneration committee, you and two colleagues are
meeting to discuss a new benefits package for your company. You
have agreed to take the minutes in this meeting. You know about the
ideas your colleagues are going to suggest and you want to find an

56
effective but not too costly way o f remuneration. You want to per­
suade your colleagues to find some unusual ways o f remuneration for
example, organize personalized fitness programmes and work-out fa­
cilities for employees. You are absolutely sure that stress-related ill­
nesses can be overcome with the help o f sport activity. You also sug­
gest organizing sport facilities for children.
Communicative task: You expect this to be a difficult meeting for
you because you’re the youngest member o f the company. First listen
to senior colleagues, analyze the situation then make your offer._______

Final task:
Summarize the information of the unit to be ready to speak on pecu­
liarities of meetings. Choose any question (problem, topic) relating to
meetings and make a report in class. Refer to different additional
sources to make your report instructive, interesting and informative.

57
Module 3: Negotiating
Negotiating skills. Styles and outcomes.

Read the following quotations and discuss them with your group-
mates. Do you agree with them?

'Negotiation In the classic diplomatic sense assumes parties more aил-


lous to agree than to disagree'
РБАЫ A tH E S O N (American, politician)
*The single tuost powerful tool for winning a negotiation Is the ability
to get up and walte away from, the table without a deal.'
ANO N .
'When а т л п tells me he's going to put all his cards on the table, I
alw ays look up his sleeve'
LORls L E S L IE HORE-B E L IS HA (British politician)

Start-up activity:
1. What is a “negotiation”?
1. How would you judge the success of a negotiation?
3. What makes a good negotiator?
4. Have you ever been involved in formal or informal business ne­
gotiations? Describe your opinion.
5. How appropriate are the following tips. Rank the points accord­
ing to their importance in the process of negotiation:
a) To get on well with your opposite number
b) Use emphatic language
cf Show respect for your opposite number
d) Make suggestions to resolve disagreement
e) Have clear objectives
f) Be determined to win
g) Say “I don’t understand” if that is the case
h) Listen carefully
i) Always compromise
j) Discuss areas of conflict

58
Picture 5
Reading: Read the text and summarize the main points o f planning the
negotiating.
Text 1: W hat is a “ negotiation”?
In simplest terms, negotiation is a discussion between two or more
disputants who are trying to work out a solution to their problem. This
interpersonal or inter-group process can occur at a personal level, as well
as at a corporate or international (diplomatic) level. Negotiations typi­
cally take place because the parties wish to create something new that
neither could do on his or her own, or to resolve a problem or dispute
between them. Those who work in negotiations professionally are called
negotiators.
Types, styles and strategies o f negotiations
In business, negotiations can be divided into different types. Negotia­
tions can be deal-oriented or have long-term-orientation; the style can be
either collaborative or confrontational (or competitive with the goal to
win and the other to lose); the approach o f one o f the parties can be win-
win (when both sides win), whereas the other company may prefer a win-
lose (where one side benefits at the other side’s expense) strategy.
Planning fo r Negotiations
Effective planning is crucial to meeting negotiation objectives. If the
parties are to reach a stable agreement, specific events must take place
before the parties ever come to the table.

59
1. Parties must frame the problem, and recognize that they have a
common problem that they share an interest in solving. Frames are the
conceptions that parties have o f the situation and its risks.
2. In the early stages of framing, negotiators must also determine
their goals, anticipate what they want to achieve, and prepare for the ne­
gotiation process. They must define the issues to be discussed and ana­
lyze the conflict situation.
3. Negotiators often exchange and negotiate the list o f issues to be
discussed in advance.
4. After assembling issues on an agenda, the negotiators must pri­
oritize their goals and evaluate the possible tradeoffs among them. Nego­
tiators must be aware o f their goals and positions and must identify the
concerns, desires, and fears that underlie their substantive goals. They
must determine which issues are most important, as well as whether the
various issues are linked or separate.
5. Once they have determined the relative importance o f the issues,
parties need to decide the order in which issues should be discussed.
6. Negotiators that are operating on behalf o f a constituency
should consult with their constituents as well as with the other side to
ensure that the constituents' needs and priorities are included in the nego­
tiations.
7. The next step is for negotiators to define specific targets with
respect to the key issues on the agenda. Parties should try to figure out
the best resolution they can expect, what counts as a fair and reasonable
deal, and what is a minimally acceptable deal.
8. Because negotiations typically involve more than one issue, it is
helpful for negotiators to anticipate different ways o f packaging issues.
9. Planning for negotiation also involves the development o f sup­
porting arguments. Negotiators must be able to present supporting facts,
arguments, anticipate how the other side will respond to these arguments,
and respond to the other party's claims with counter-arguments. This in­
cludes locating facts to support one's point o f view, determining what
sorts o f arguments have been given in similar negotiations in the past,
anticipating the arguments the other side is likely to make, and present­
ing facts in the most convincing way possible.
10. Finally, planning involves assessing the other party's priorities
and interests and trying to get a better idea o f what that party is likely to
want. Negotiators should gather background information about the other
party's current needs, resources, and interests. Third, negotiators should
be aware of the other party's negotiation style, reputation, and the strat­

60
egy and tactics they commonly use. They should investigate that party's
past behaviour in related settings, determine his or her organizational
position, and find out whom he or she admires and whose advice carries
weight. Fourth, negotiators should understand the other party's alterna­
tives. If the other negotiator has strong alternatives, he or she will proba­
bly be willing to set high objectives and be willing to push hard for these
objectives during negotiation.

Text 2: Conducting a negotiation in a foreign language is a complex ac­


tivity that requires a combination o f listening and speaking skills. For
any negotiation to succeed, each side must not only have a clear under­
standing o f what the other side is proposing but be able to present con­
vincing arguments in support o f their own positions. Agreements usually
involve a degree o f compromise, with each side making concessions
which are usually accompanied by conditions. The following guidelines
will help you adopt the right general approach during the negotiation.
The Negotiation Process
It's time to negotiate! Here are a few golden rules to successful nego­
tiations:
1) Always try to negotiate fo r at least 15 minutes. Any less than that and
it is unlikely that either party has had enough time to fairly consider the
other side. Generally, the size or seriousness o f the negotiation deter­
mines the amount of time needed to negotiate it. Setting a time limit is a
good idea. Approximately 90% o f negotiations get settled in the last 10%
of the discussion.
2) Always offer to let the other party speak first This is especially im­
portant if you are the one making a request for something such as a raise.
The other party may have overestimated what you are going to ask for
and may actually offer more than what you were going to request.
3) Always respect and listen to what your opponent has to say. This is
important even if he or she does not extend the same courtesy to you. Do
your best to remain calm and pleasant even if the other party is display­
ing frustration or anger. Remember some people will do anything to in­
timidate you.
4) Acknowledge what the other party says. Everyone likes to know that
what they say is important. If the other party opens first, use it to your
advantage, by paraphrasing what you have heard. Repeat their important
ideas before you introduce your own stronger ones.
5) Pay attention to your own and your counterpartner’s body language.
Review the chart below to learn how to interpret body language during

61
the negotiations. Make sure that you aren't conveying any negative body
language.
6) Pay attention to a number o f signals that indicate that negotiations
are coming to a close. This may not always mean that an agreement has
been reached. In many cases, there are many rounds o f negotiations. The
preliminary round may uncover the major issues, while subsequent
rounds may be needed to discuss and resolve them. Here are some sig­
nals o f talks coming to a close:
• A difference o f opinion has been significantly reduced.
• One party suggests signing an agreement.
• One or both parties indicate that a period of time to pause and
reflect is necessary.
7) Don’t forget about body language.
Body Language Possible meaning

Avoiding Eye Contact • Lying


• Not interested
• Not telling the whole truth

Serious Eye Contact • Trying to intimidate


• Showing anger

Touching the face/fidgeting • Nervousness


• Lack o f confidence
• Submission

Nodding • Agreeing
• Willing to compromise

Shaking the head/turning • Frustrated


away • In disbelief
• Disagreeing with a point
Finally it is very essential to be a good listener and check frequently
that everything has been understood by both parties.

Vocabulary:
1. Disputant - участник диспута
2. Collaborative - совместный, построенный на сотрудничестве
3. Confrontational - конфронтационный, противоборствующий

62
4. Negotiation objectives - цели переговоров
5. To frame - выработать, определить
6. Anticipate - предвидеть, ожидать
7. Constituency - клиентура, директорская группа
8. Investigate - изучать, наводить справки
9. Overestimate - переоценивать
10. Courtesy - учтивость, вежливость
11. Intimidate - запугивать, пугать
12. Subsequent - последующий, являющийся результатом
13. Bargain - вести переговоры, договариваться
14. То comply - соглашаться, исполнять, подчиняться
15. Conflict resolution - разрешение споров, устранение кон­
фликтной ситуации
16. Counterpart - противник в процессе
17. Deadlock —полная остановка процесса переговоров

Follow-up activity:
1. Name some o f the events that precede negotiations. Name the events
that follow negotiations. Name types and styles o f negotiations and
comment them. What necessary tips can you give to a beginning-
negotiator?

2. Are the following statements True or False?


1. During negotiations, one should treat an opponent with respect and
consideration at all times.
2. In "competitive" negotiations, the two parties try to establish a
common goal.
3. Prior to engaging in negotiations it is wise to consider one's own
"bottom-line".
4. One key to effective conflict-resolution is to deal with issues rather
than personalities.
5. It may be possible to detect that a counterpart is lying by observing
body language.
6. One should never admit to agreeing with an opponent during the
course of negotiations.

3. Find the right definition o f the word:


1) Disputant a. try to change a person's
2) Confrontational mind by using various tactics
3) To frame b. agree

63
4) Anticipate c. point where neither
5) Constituency party will give in
6) Courtesy d. to frighten, to make
7) Intimidate timid or fearful
8) To bargain e. to put into a frame; to
9) To comply adjust or to adapt for a given
10) Conflict resolution purpose
11) Counterpart f. competitive
12) Deadlock g. general term for
negotiations
h. courteous behaviour
i. person on the other side
of the negotiations
j. a person who takes part
in the act o f disputing
k. to act in advance; to
look forward
1. customers

4. Make up your own sentences with new vocabulary.

5. Dialogues: To give the idea of negotiating, one sample will be given


below. Clarify the idea of the dialogue:

1) JONSON: My colleague Mr.Weber and I have been discussing the


proposal you made yesterday, concerning training for new employees. As
you know quality is veiy important to us and therefore we tiy to stan­
dardize training throughout the company worldwide. So, on considera­
tion we would prefer to handle the training in-company.
PARSONS: Does that mean that your own trainers would run the pro­
grammes?
W EBER: Yes that’s what we usually do.
PARSONS: I appreciate that some companies prefer to do their own
training but our main concern in that case would be that German trainers
might not take into account the different learning styles in this part o f the
world. Also, we could not fund an in-company training programme
unless there was some input from English training experts. So, would
you be prepared to consider a joined training programme?

64
JONSON: Yes, I see what you mean about learning styles. I think, in
principle, w e’d have no objection to a joint training programme provided
that the details were worked out together. What would the financial im­
plications be?
PARSONS: Well, if you accepted a joint training programme, we would
cover up seventy five percent o f the cost.
WEBER: I don’t mind.

Phrasal area
First read through the phrasal area below and check for the compre­
hension o f vocabulary and structures. You can include this selection o f
words and phrases at different stages o f the negotiation process.

1. Opening a negotiation:
• I'd like to start with ...
• The first thing I would like to discuss is ...
• It seems best to start with ...
• I'd like to begin by saying...
• I'd like to outline our aims and objectives.
• There are two main areas that we'd like to concentrate on / dis­
cuss.
2. Putting forward a proposal:
• What we are proposing is ...
• We are offering ...
• I think we could give you ...
• I guarantee...
• My main objective is to ...
• My proposal is to ...
3. Language to use to show understanding/agreement on a point:
• I agree with you on that point.
• So what you're saying is that you...
• In other words, you feel that...
• You have a strong point there.
• I don't see any problem with/harm in that.
• I would accept...
• That's exactly what we are looking for ...
• This is a fair suggestion.

65
• You have a good point.
• I can't see any problem with that.
4. Language to use for objection on a point or offer:
• I understand where you're coming from; however...
• I'm prepared to compromise, but...
• The way I look at it...
• The way I see things...
• If you look at it from my point o f view...
• I'm afraid I had something different in mind.
• That's not exactly how I look at it.
• I'd have to disagree with you there.
• Is that your best offer?
5. Refusing a proposal:
• I'm afraid that's not exactly what I had in mind. That's not how
we see it. I can't accept that. That's out o f the question.
• I'm afraid that's not acceptable to us.
• I'm afraid we can't agree with you there.
• I understand where you're coming from / your position, but...
• We're prepared to compromise, but...
• If you look at it from our point o f view...
• As we see it...
• That's not exactly as we see it.
6. Imposing conditions:
• We would agree to that but only if...
• We can't accept that unless ...
• That would be on condition that...
• We would be prepared to ...provided...
7. Asking for clarification:
• Could you be more specific? What exactly are you proposing? Can
you be more precise?
• Does anything I have suggested / proposed seem unclear to you?
• I'd like to clarify our position.
• What do you mean exactly when you say....
• Could you clarify your last point for me?
8. Summarizing what has been said:
• So, what you are saying is that...
• If I've got this right, you are suggesting...
• Correct me if I'm wrong but are you saying that...?

66
• Am I right in thinking that...?
• Can we summarise what we've agreed so far?
• Let's look at the points we agree on.
• So the next step is...
9. Ostponing a decision or playing for time:
• I'm afraid we will need more time before we can make a decision.
• I don't think we can commit ourselves just yet.
• I'll have to get back to you on that.
• I’d like to think about it.
• I’m sorry, but I’ll have to consult my colleagues about that.
10. Language to use in closing
• That’s it, then. I think we’ve covered everything.
• I'm willing to leave things there if you are.
• Let's leave it this way for now.
• I'm satisfied with this decision.
• I'd like to stop and think about this for a little while.
• You've given me a lot to think about/consider.
• Would you be willing to sign a contract right now?
• Let's meet again once we've had some time to think.
• It’s a deal.

Language functions
1) Use the phrases below only once to complete the dialogue then act
the dialogue in pairs.
I’ve come to see you about the course I applied for. I couldn’t
believe it when I got your memo. What’s the problem exactly?
I thought I made it clear, we can’t let you go. There’s just no
money for that sort of thing.
.....................?
I'm afraid that's not acceptable to us. Our budget’s been re­
duced, so we can’t do all the things we’d like to do. I know you’re disap­
pointed, but then so are a lot o f other people.
........................ you can’t tell me that a company this size can’t
find the money to pay for the course. It’s only last one week and is not
very expensive.

67
................................ When money’s tight like it is now, middle
managers get priority. If there’s anything left over, it’s the turn o f people
like you.
.................................... It’s totally unfair to my mind. I can’t miss
a chance like this.
........................ to wait a little. Things may be different in a few
months time. There could be more money around for training courses.
O.K................................... next month.

What we are proposing is...


I'd like to clarify our position.
I'll have to get back to you on that question...
Couldyou be more specific?
I understand your position, but...
That's not exactly how I look at it.

2) Translate the following phrases from Russian into English:


- По этому вопросу я с вами согласен.
- Я удовлетворен этим решением.
- Боюсь, нам понадобится больше времени для того, чтобы принять
окончательное решение.
- Давайте пока оставим это так.
- Если я правильно понял, вы предлагаете ....
- Что конкретно вы предлагаете?
- Мы бы согласились, но только если ...
- Это как раз то, что нам нужно.
- Первое что бы я хотел обсудить...
- Вы хотите подписать контракт прямо сейчас?
- Я бы хотел пояснить свою позицию.
- Мы готовы пойти на компромисс, но ...

3) What would you say in the following situations?


1) You would like to put forward a proposal:
a) So the next step is...
b) We are offering...
c) Is that your best offer?

2) You would like to show understanding/agreement on a point:


a) This is a fair suggestion,
b) I'm afraid that doesn't work for me.

68
с) I'd like to outline our aims and objectives.

3) You would like to postpone a decision or playing for time:


a) It’s a deal,
b) I'll have to get back to you on that,
c) If I've got this right, you are suggesting.

4) You would like to impose conditions:


a) We would agree to that but only if...
b) You've given me a lot to think about/consider,
c) Could you clarify your last point for me?

5) You would like to refuse a proposal:


a) I ’m willing to leave things there if you are.
b) Let’s look at the points we agree on.
c) That’s not exactly as we see it.

Speech Practice

Work mpaas. Use the dialogue and phrasal areas above as models and
act out the situations:
Situation 1
One o f you is a company employee. The other is the employee’s boss.
Employee: You think you should have a 10% salary increase.
Boss: You think the company can afford a 2% increase.
Communicative task: Negotiate with each other and try to get a good
outcome. While dramatizing use the following scheme.

Boss: Employee:
1. Start the negotiation. 1. Put forward your proposal.
2. Show understanding the prob­ 2. Ask your boss to clarify his
lem. position.
3. Politely refuse a proposal. 3. Express objection on a point.
4. Impose your conditions. 4. Play for time and try to post­
5. Summarize what has been said pone your decision
and close the negotiating

Phrasal area for boss: Phrasal area for employee:


.. .to begin by saying... I would like to discuss...

69
... you feel that... The way I...
.... we could give you... .... more specific?
... on condition that... I'm afraid I ....... in mind
1 think ... everything ... to think about it.

Situation 2
One o f you is the general manager o f a company. The other is the head
o f the department. Non-smoking staffs complain that staffs who smoke
take frequent "cigarette-breaks ”. Should smokers work extra time to
make up fo r the time lost. You should try to negotiate the system ofpen-
alty with each other._____________________________________________
Communicative task for general manager: Use appropriate negotia­
tions phrases and explain exactly what you are proposing and invite
the other party to respond to your proposals._______________________
Communicative task for the head o f the department: Use appropriate
negotiation phrases, summarize the arguments o f the other person to
confirm your understanding and ask for clarification when statements
are vague or ambiguous.________________________________________
Key words for general manager: disciplinary procedures, inside a
company, keep somebody informed, to warn employees, to break the
rules, 25 % down for six months._________________________________
Key words for the head of the department: to understand their needs,
notice period, fail to do, unpaid hours, to work overtime, to control, to
attach to the contracts.__________________________________________
Note: You can use key words or invent any information you need.

Situation 3
Staff receives sales vouchers as an end-of-year bonus. The vouchers give
discounts on a range o f goods at major department stores. Some man­
agement is proposing to issue no sales vouchers this year. Instead they
are going to invite staff to an end-of-year party. You should try to nego­
tiate special bonuses fo r employees with CEO. Act the situation using
given below words and expressions. Negotiation phrases have to be
translated:
You CEO
- Мы предлагаем (free medical - Мы бы могли согласиться с
care certificate for all members вашим предложением при усло­
o f the company instead o f...) вии, если (the value o f certificate
will be reviewed on a merit basis)

70
- Что вы имеете в виду, говоря - Да, я могу пояснить свою по­
(reviewed on a merit basis) зицию. Я имею в виду (how well
you carry out your job, your busi­
ness results)
- Если я правильно понял, - Именно это я предлагаю.
Вы предлагаете (to estimate the И поэтому следующим шагом
contribution of every member to будет (appraisal or performance
our organization) review of the staff)

- Я не вижу здесь никаких - Договорились. Давайте встре­


проблем (we put this issue on тимся снова и примем оконча­
the agenda next time) тельное решение (about end-of-
year bonuses)_________________

Role play: Negotiating


You are going to work with your student using one the o f role cards. A
chairperson has arranged to meet the leading manager of a company to
negotiate the benefits o f performance-related pay. Review the language
and vocabulary o f negotiation and role-play the situation. For more de­
tailed information look at page 196 (Appendix 2 Teacher’s notes)
Role Cards
Role card 1
The Chairperson
Study the language o f negotiation carefully and be ready to fulfill your
role as the organizer of the negotiation. Prepare a short introduction
about the benefits o f performance-related pay.
You must convince the participants that it is a positive move for your
company, and develop some arguments to this effect, for example:
• Increased competition leads to an increase in efficiency.
• It discourages absenteeism.
• It has a motivating effect.
• It provides an opportunity to reward individual achievement.
Communicative task: You will accept some of the compromise sug­
gestions put forward and delegate the organization of these 'action
points' to the relevant people.
Fix a date and time for the next meeting to discuss progress on agreed
action points._________________________________________________
Role card 2
The Sales Manager___________________________________________

71
You think it is an excellent idea. You've been working successfully
with a "bonus for good performance' scheme with the sales people for
the last five years. The Chairperson knows your opinion, has already
asked for your support and expects you to help him/her convince the
others o f the benefits.
You would be willing to collaborate closely with the Human Re­
sources Manager on the best methods o f putting performance-related
pay into practice at all levels o f the company. You advocate using the
services of a consultant who specializes in the application o f this
method o f payment into companies such as yours.
Communicative task:
You are strongly opposed to the opinion o f people who won't accept
innovation and change, and you will argue firmly for what you see as
a positive move for the company.________________________________
Role card 3
The Human Resources Manager
You have mixed feelings about this proposal and are undecided.
Among other things, it will mean an increased workload for your de­
partment. You feel that very clear specifications need to be drawn up
re-grading performance goals, and you are very concerned about as­
sessment methods.
A series of meetings with the other managers to decide on a systematic
method o f establishing objectives as well as clear criteria for evalua­
tion.
Communicative task:
Open to opinions and suggestions which will help you decide. Suggest
postponing decision.___________________________________________
Role card 4
The Trade Union Representative
You are particularly concerned about an unhealthy emphasis on indi­
vidual achievement. You feel that the senior reliable and steady work­
ers will earn less than their younger and more dynamic counterparts.
You would reluctantly accept an evaluation of teams and teamwork
rather than individual performance and would favour giving 'team su­
pervisor' titles to older members of the factory staff.
Communicative task:
You strongly disagree. You will insist on obtaining the above condi­
tions before negotiating with the workers on behalf o f the manage­
ment.

72
Role card 5
The Production Manager
You feel this proposal will create an over-competitive attitude and
have a counterproductive effect on output.
You would reluctantly accept a trial period of, say, six months with a
guarantee that the idea will definitely be dropped if the trial proves
unsuccessful.
Communicative task:
You are very much against this proposal.
You stand firm on your opinion but you would accept a reasonable
compromise if the Trade Union representative thinks it will be accept­
able to the workers.

Additional situations for discussion:


1. Because staff tends to be young, employee turnover is high. As a result
training costs have increased dramatically. You should try to negotiate
with the representative o f the consulting company to regulate the price
conditions.
2. You’d like to take four of your six week’s holiday together this year.
The rule is maximum o f two weeks at a time. You should try to negotiate
the terms o f your holiday with your boss.

Final task: Summarize the information of the unit to be ready to


speak on negotiation process. Choose any question (problem, topic)
relating to negotiation and make a report in class. Refer to different
additional sources to make your report instructive, interesting and
informative.

73
Module 4: Effective presentation

Read the following quotations and discuss them with your group-
mates. Do you agree with them ?

'Fist Iearn. the of what you say аи-d than- speale'


eviCTBTMS (<^reete philosopher)
"Public speateu^ Is the art of diluting a two-kvuyvute Idea with a two-
hour vocabulary’
JOH-N FITZ-^eRAUs K.eNNeE>Y (A frican ,p resid ed )
'Men. of few words are the best t^eiA.*
WILLIAM SHAK&SPEAR-E
Start-up activity:
1. W hat is a presentation?
2. For w hat purposes are presentations made in business?
3. W hat makes presentations effective?
4. Have you ever heard any presentations?

Picture 6

74
Reading: Presentation is an act o f public speaking. Presenting informa­
tion is an essential skill in the world o f management. Business presenta­
tion is a talk or report by a company executive that introduces something
to an audience o f specialists in the particular sphere. Read the following
texts about different aspects o f making and delivering presentation and
then be ready to discuss them.

Text 1: Structure of presentations


1. A well organized presentation with a clear structure is easier for
the audience to follow. It is therefore more effective. You should organ­
ize the points you wish to make in a logical order. Most presentations are

Beginning Short • welcome your audience


introduction • introduce your subject
• explain the structure o f your
presentation
• explain rules for questions

Middle Body of
• present the subject itself
presentation

End Short • summarise your presentation


conclusion • thank your audience
• invite questions

Questions and Answers


2. Rehearsal
Rehearsal is a vital part o f preparation. You should leave time to
practice your presentation two or three times. This will have the
following benefits:
• you will become more familiar with what you want to say
• you will identify weaknesses in your presentation
• you will be able to practice difficult pronunciations
• you will be able to check the time that your presentation takes
and make any necessary modifications.
So prepare, prepare, prepare! Prepare everything: words, visual aids,
timing, and equipment. Rehearse your presentation several times and
time it. Is it the right length? Are you completely familiar with all your

75
illustrations? Are they in the right order? Do you know who the audience
is? How many people? How will you answer difficult questions? Do you
know the room? Are you confident about the equipment? When you have
answered all these questions, you will be a confident, enthusiastic pre­
senter ready to communicate the subject of your presentation to an eager
audience.
3. Nerves
Most speakers are a little nervous at the beginning o f a presentation.
So it is normal if you are nervous. The answer is to pay special attention
to the beginning o f your presentation. First impressions count. This is the
time when you establish a rapport with your audience. During this time,
try to speak slowly and calmly. You should perhaps learn your introduc­
tion by heart. After a few moments, you will relax and gain confidence.
4. Audience Rapport
You need to build a warm and friendly relationship with your audi­
ence. Enthusiasm is contagious. If you are enthusiastic, your audience
will be enthusiastic too.
5. Body Language
What you do not say is at least as important as what you do say.
Your body is speaking to your audience even before you open your
mouth. Your clothes, your walk, your glasses, your haircut, and your
expression - it is from these that your audience forms its first impression
as you enter the room.
6. Voice quality
It is, o f course, important that your audience be able to hear you
clearly throughout your presentation. Remember that if you turn away
from your audience, for example towards the whiteboard, you need to
speak a little more loudly. In general, you should try to vary your voice.
Your voice will then be more interesting for your audience. You can vary
your voice in at least three ways:
• speed: you can speak at normal speed, you can speak faster, you
can speak more slowly - and you can stop completely! You can pause.
This is a very good technique for gaining your audience's attention.
• intonation: you can change the pitch o f your voice. You can
speak in a high tone. You can speak in a low tone.
• volume: you can speak at normal volume, you can speak loudly
and you can speak quietly. Lowering your voice and speaking quietly can
again attract your audience's interest.

76
The important point is not to speak in the same, flat, monotonous
voice throughout your presentation - this is the voice that hypnotists use
to put their patients into trance!
7. Visual aids
O f all the information that enters our brains, the vast majority o f it
enters through the eyes. 80% o f w hat your audience learn during your
presentation is learned visually (what they see) and only 20% is learned
aurally (what they hear). The significance o f this is obvious:
• visual aids are an extremely effective means o f communication
• non-native English speakers need not worry so much about spo­
ken English - they can rely more heavily on visual aids
It is well worth spending time in the creation o f good visual aids.
But it is equally important not to overload your audience's brains. Keep
the information on each visual aid to a minimum - and give your audi­
ence time to look at and absorb this information. Remember, your audi­
ence have never seen these visual aids before. They need time to study
and to understand them. W ithout understanding there is no communica­
tion.
A part from photographs and drawings, some o f the most useful
visual aids are charts and graphs, like the 3-dimensional ones shown
here:

G raphs can rise and fall.

77
Text 2. Prior Proper Preparation Prevents Poor Performance of the
Person Putting on the Presentation.
Nothing will relax you more than to know you are properly prepared.
Below are 10 steps you can take to reduce your speech anxiety.
Know the room - become familiar with the place in which you will
speak. Arrive early and walk around the room including the speaking
area. Stand at the lectern, speak into the microphone. Walk around where
the audience will be seated. Walk from where you will be seated to the
place where you will be speaking.
Know the Audience - If possible, greet some o f the audience as
they arrive and chat with them. It is easier to speak to a group o f friends
than to a group of strangers.
Know Your Material - If you are not familiar with your material or
are uncomfortable with it, your nervousness will increase. Practice your
speech or presentation and revise it until you can present it with ease.
Learn How to Relax - You can ease tension by doing exercises. Sit
comfortable with your back straight. Breathe in slowly, hold your breath
for 4 to 5 seconds, and then slowly exhale. To relax your facial muscles,
open your mouth and eyes wide, and then close them tightly.
Visualize Yourself Speaking - Imagine yourself walking confi­
dently to the lectern as the audience applauds. Imagine yourself speaking,
your voice loud, clear and assured. When you visualize yourself as suc­
cessful, you will be successful.
Realize People Want You To Succeed - All audiences want speak­
ers to be interesting, stimulating, informative and entertaining. They
want you to succeed - not fail.
Don't apologize For Being Nervous - Most of the time your nerv­
ousness does not show at all. If you don't say anything about it, nobody
will notice. If you mention your nervousness or apologize for any problems
you think you have with your speech, you'll only be calling attention to it.
Had you remained silent, your listeners may not have noticed at all.
Concentrate on Your Message - not the medium - Your nervous
feelings will dissipate if you focus your attention away from your anxie­
ties and concentrate on your message and your audience, not yourself.
Turn Nervousness into Positive Energy - the same nervous energy
that causes stage fright can be an asset to you. Harness it, and transform
it into vitality and enthusiasm.
Gain Experience - Experience builds confidence, which is the key
to effective speaking. Most beginning speakers find their anxieties de­
crease after each speech they give. If the fear o f public speaking causes

78
you to prepare more, then the fear of speaking serves as its own best an­
tidote.
Vocabulary:
1. Rehearsal - репетиция
2. Vital - крайне необходимый
3. Visual aids - наглядные пособия
4. eager - нетерпеливый
5. Contagious - заразительный, заразный
6. Pitch - высота (звука)
7. flat - ровный
8. То overload - загрузить лишней информацией
9. Chart - картограмма
10. Graph -граф и к
11. Pie charts - секторная картограмма
12. Anxiety - тревога
13. Dissipate —рассеиваться
14. Harness - использовать
15. to decrease - уменьшать(-ся)

Follow-up activity:
1. Are the following statements True or False?
1. A document distributed to an audience is called a 'handout1.
2. There are only two ways in which we can modulate our voice.
3. Eighty percent o f the information that we absorb is absorbed visually.
4. A bar chart can be horizontal or vertical.
5. Active verbs are more powerful than passive verbs.
6. Signposting is a technique used only during the introduction o f a pres­
entation.
7. 'To rehearse' means 'to write'.
8. It is important to give as much information on a graphic as possible.

2. Find the right definition o f the following words:


1. Rehearsal a. a graph or a table that gives informa­
2. Visual aids tion in a form that is easy to read in a
3. Charts round form
4. Graphs b. to use in a specific area
5. Pie charts c. the act o f practicing the performance.
6. Anxiety d. a diagram representing the relation­
7. Dissipate ship between sets o f things
8. Harness e. to disperse or drive away;

79
f. special things or equipment relating
to seeing or sight
g. a state o f uncertainty
h. a map a graph or a table that gives
_______________________ information in a form that is easy to read

3. Use the following phrases in the sentences o f your own:


Specialists in the field; to build a warm and friendly relationship
with; to be confident about; become more familiar with; to vary one’s
voice; in the right order; to pay special attention to; to form one’s first
impression; to change the pitch o f one’s voice; to overload one’s brains

4. Give explanation o f the following ideas:


• Know the Room
• Know the Audience
• Know Your Material
• Learn How to Relax
• Visualize Yourself Speaking
• Realize People Want You To Succeed
• Don't apologize For Being Nervous
• Concentrate on Your Message - not the Medium
• Turn Nervousness into Positive Energy
• Gain Experience

5: Dialogues: Here are several samples o f presentations. Read them


and pay attention to special language the presenters used for different
purposes: to welcome the audience, to introduce the subject o f presen­
tation, to make a structure o f their speech, etc.
1). PRESENTER: Good morning. My name is Lucy Hudson and, as
you know, I work as a consultant for the Human Resources Consulting
Group. You've all been aware o f the presence o f myself and two o f my
colleagues over the past couple o f weeks, and I’d like to thank you very
much for your cooperation and understanding.
What I'd like to do this morning is to present the results of our study
into the consolidation o f your activities in this sphere. I'm going to be
developing three main points. First, I'll give you some background in­
formation about the HR project team which, as many of you will know,
was set up three months ago to study levels o f Human Resources activity.
Then, after outlining the objectives o f the team, I'll go on to examine the

80
current situation o f “brain drain” in our organization. Lastly, I'll explain
our recommendations for “brain drain” minimizing.
2) MASTER OF CEREMONIES: Good morning, ladies and gentle­
men. It's my privilege today to introduce Dr Martin Roberts, who is go­
ing to be talking to us about computer-based training for employees.
PRESENTER: As you know, for some years now, we've been using
CBT, computer-based training to train employees to carry out different
office operations. However, the experience has shown us that it is not
enough simply to train employees to carry out a certain set o f operations,
to know which switch to push or which button to press. He or she must
also be aware of the effect o f these actions on the whole process — in
other words our training needs to provide with an understanding o f the
process behind the procedures. So, in my presentations this morning I'll
be proposing two new techniques which we need to incorporate in our
CBT packages to improve our employees training.
3) Before I start I'd just like to thank you all, both for inviting me to
deliver this talk but also, and for me this is the really important thing, for
actually coming along to listen to me. This is actually the first time that I
have addressed a group of students like yourselves but not the first time
that I have made a public presentation. Indeed, being able to present is
one of the really important skills that you need to have if you want to be
successful in personnel management. But it is not the only one, as I hope
I will be able to show you during this short presentation.
I think I will begin by answering the one question that I'm sure is at
the back of all your minds, “What exactly does personnel management
do?” Once I've explained that, I will go on to describe how personnel
management actually does their work, identify a few o f the key terms and
then, to finish, I will give you my views about what I think is the best
preparation for a career in this field. After that, if I do the timing right,
we should be able to fit in a ten minute question and answer session.
I suppose that the answer to that first question 'What does a personnel
management do?' is personnel managers often deal with the following
difficult situations concerning the employees:
1) The employees especially the most qualified ones can get better
jobs with other employers;
2) The cost or hiring and training employees at all levels is increasing,
for instance several thousands dollars for a person. A mistake in hiring or
in slow and inefficient methods of training can be costly;
3) Most employees want better direct compensation, employee bene­
fits and working conditions that the firm can not afford, but other em­

81
ployers can. So all employee policies and operating procedures should be
developed with great care.
Effective personnel management develops the abilities o f job candi­
dates and employees to meet the needs o f the organization.
I'm going to describe functions o f personnel management. One function
is to hire and train the right people. The second function is the develop­
ment o f employees and the third function is raising employee trust and
productivity. These three functions stress the importance o f a good per­
sonnel management climate and provide specific guidelines for creating
such a climate.
If we now move on to look at the different tools that we use, I have
drawn up a short list so that you can see what these are...

Phrasal area
First read through the phrasal area below and check for the compre­
hension o f vocabulary and structures.

1. Greetings
Formal
• I'm pleased to be able to welcome you to our company ...
• I'd like to thank you for coming.
• May I take this opportunity o f thanking you for coming?
• I'm delighted/pleased/glad to have the opportunity to present/of
making this presentation...
• I'm grateful for the opportunity to present ...
• I'd like to thank you for inviting/asking me/giving me the
chance to ...
• Good moming/aftemoon/evening, ladies and gentlemen.
• It's my pleasant duty today to ...
• I've been asked to ...
Informal
• I'm glad you could all get here ...
• I'm glad to see so many people here.
• It's great to be back here.
• Hello again everybody. Thank you for being on time/making the
effort to come today.
• Right, then/ let's make a start shall we?
2. Dealing with questions

82
• I'll be pleased to answer any questions you may have at the end
o f the presentation.
• Please can you save your questions till the end?
• If you have any questions, I'll be pleased to answer them at the
end o f the presentation.
• There'll be time at the end o f the presentation to answer your
questions - so please feel free to ask me anything then.
• Don't hesitate to interrupt if you have a question.
• Please feel free to interrupt me at any time.
• Please stop me if you have any questions.
• If you need clarification on any point, you're welcome to ask
questions at any time.
• I'll be coming to that point in a minute.
• That's a tricky question.
• I'm afraid there's no easy answer to that one ...
• Yes, that's a very good point.
• Perhaps we could leave that point until the questions at the end
o f the presentation.
3. Introducing a subject
• The subject o f my presentation is ...
• I shall be speaking today about...
• My presentation concerns ...
• I'd like to say something about...
• Today's topic is ...
• I shall be offering a brief analysis o f ...
• The main area that I intend to cover in this presentation is ...
• I'd like to start by saying ...
• Perhaps I could begin by ...
4. Time setting
• I shall be speaking for about ten minutes ...
• My presentation will last for about ten minutes ...
• I won't take up more than ten minutes o f your time ...
• I don't intend to speak for longer than ten minutes ...
• I know that time is short, so I intend to keep this b rie f...
• During the next ten minutes, I sh all...
5. To rise the audience curiosity
I'm going to be speaking about something that is vitally important to
all o f us ...

83
• My presentation will help solve a problem that has puzzled peo­
ple for years...
• At the end o f this presentation you will understand why this
company has been so successful for so long ...
• Over the next ten minutes you are going to hear about some­
thing that will change the way your companies operate ...
• By the end o f this presentation you will know all there is to
know about ...
6. Rephrasing
• Put in another way ...
• Let me put that another way ...
• In other w ords...
• Alternatively you could say that ...
• Another way of saying it ...
• To put it more bluntly/more concisely ...
• If I can rephrase th a t...
7. Going into detail
• More specifically.
• To take one specific aspect o f this ...
• Let's focus on one aspect of this ...
• One point bears closer examination ...
• If we can concentrate on one aspect o f this for a m om ent...
• There is one detail that is worth focusing on ...
• I think it's/we felt it was worth looking at this in a little more de­
tail and so ...
• Let's go into this in more detail.
8. S tructuring the presentation
• There are five main aspects to this topic (... the first,... the sec­
ond, ... a th ird ,... another, ...the final).
• I'm going to examine these topics in the following order, (...
first,... n ex t,... after th at/... finally).
• I've divided my talk into five parts ...
• I will deal with these topics in chronological order ...
• I'm going to start with a general overview and then focus on this
particular problem (... in general, more particularly).
• I want to start with this particular topic, and then draw some
more general conclusions from it.
9. R eferring to visuals

84
• If you look at the graph ...
• Could I draw your attention to the chart?
• If you take a look a t ... you’ll see...
• I can demonstrate/show this b y ...
• This can be seen in the following illustration.
10. Summarizing and Closing
• Briefly, th e n ...
• We have seen that ...
• If I can summarize what I have said (so far) ...
• Thus we can see ...
• I've attempted to explain here th a t...
• So, to sum u p :...
• To recap, th en ,...
• In conclusion, I'd like to ...
• I'd like to finish by ...
• F inally...
• I hope I have made myself understood.
• I hope you have found this useful.
• I hope this has given you some idea/clear idea/an outline o f ...
• Thank you for your attention ...
• You have been a very attentive audience - thank you.
• Let's break for a coffee at this point.
• I'm afraid that the clock is against us, so we had better stop here.

Language Functions
1) Put expressions below in the logical order according to the steps o f
presentation:
a) I can demonstrate/show this by...
b) I shall be speaking for about ten minutes...
c) I'd like to thank you for coming.
d) You have been a very attentive audience - thank you.
e) Briefly, then...
f) The subject o f my presentation is...
g) Please stop me if you have any questions.
h) I've divided my talk into five parts...
i) I've attempted to explain here that...

85
2) Complete the following presentation with suitable words from the
box.
Good afternoon, everybody. I’d like to... you all for being here.
M y... today is to ... about our corporate strategy for the next decade.
... I’d like to... briefly our current policy in main branches. ... I’ll illus­
trate some problems we have.........I’ll .... the opportunities we see for
further progress next year.........I’ll quickly... before... with some rec­
ommendations. Please feel free to ... me if you have any questions at
any time. Now I’d like t o ..........to the chart showing the situation in our
local branch and .... some o f the problems we are facing.______________

Draw your attention, purpose, then, pointed out, concluding, thank,


describe, tell you, finally, interrupt, after that, to start with, summariz­
ing, outline.

3) Usually presenters use special language and different techniques to


get their audience’s attention and make their presentation more attrac-
tive and interesting. Match the expressions below with their functions:
a) It's my pleasant duty today 1. Referring to visuals
to... 2. Structuring the presentation
b) Let's break for a coffee at this 3. Time setting
point. 4. Greetings
c) If you look at the graph ... 5. Going into detail
d) I will deal with these topics 6. Dealing with questions
in chronological order... 7. To rise the audience curiosity
e) My presentation will help 8. Closing the presentation
solve a problem that...
f) During the next ten minutes, I
shall...
g) Yes, that's a very good point
h) Let's focus on one aspect of
this

Speech Practice
Work in pairs. Use the phrasal area and dialogues above and act out
the following situations:
Situation 1

86
As a member o f the human resources department you visit universities
(colleges) making presentations to students on your company and the job
opportunities it offers graduates. You may invent any information you
wish. The following items will help vou to present vour company:
1. Location o f a company
2. Foundation o f a company
3. Number o f staff
4. Structural organization
5. Training programs and promotion
6. Working conditions
The following phrasal area will help vou to organize vour speech:

Good morning... Please stop me if...


It's my pleasant duty to... I f you take a look a t ... you ’11...
On behalf of.... may I... Let's focus on...
I'd like to start by... Thus you can see...
I've divided my talk into... I hope you have found this...
Firstly..., secondly..., thirdly..., Thank you for...
lastly...
Situation 2
You have begun a new job as a department head in a company. You are
full o f new ideas and have begun to reorganize the department. Make a
presentation, introduce yourself and explain you ideas about the struc­
ture o f your department. While presenting use the structure and key
words below:
• welcome everyone
• introduce yourself and the subject of presentation
• outline the purpose and the plan o f your presentation
• give your ideas and views about reorganizing the department
• invite questions
• sum up main points
• thank the audience and conclude
Key words: deputy/deputies, to be in charge of, to manage, objec­
tive/target, process, cope with, regular payments, involved in manage­
ment, to employ, staff, remuneration o f personnel, initiative, to encour­
age, teamwork, able to make decisions, to appreciate, to be responsible
for, middle managers, line managers, hierarchy, job descrip­
tion/specification, to carry out the control.

87
Note: You can invent any information you need.

Task 4: Role-play “Dealing with stress”


You are going to work with other students using one the o f role
cards. For more detailed information look at page 196 (Appendix 2
Teacher’s notes)________________________________________________
Role card 1.
You are the Boss. You are pleased with the performance o f your staff,
but have noticed signs o f stress. You have called a meeting o f your top
managers to decide how you can alleviate press among the employees.
You want to find an effective but not too costly way o f preventing
stress-related illnesses. Listen to the suggestions of your co-workers
and decide on the best course o f action.
Communicative task: Open and organize the meeting, analyze and
give the reason for your decision.________________________________
Role card 2.
You are a top manager in a small but high-powered company. You
have been experiencing stress-related illness recently. You have de­
cided to get out of rat-race and are planning to open an artist’s supply
shop in your town. Your boss has called a meeting to hear suggestions
on how to alleviate the staffs stress. You want to persuade the boss to
encourage employees to take up water-colouring and sketching. It’s
inexpensive and relaxing.
Communicative task: Try to persuade your boss that your idea of
alleviating stress is the best by presenting different suggestions. Use
visual aids; body language; be attentive to your language style._______
Role card 3.
You are a top manager in a small but high-powered company. A lot of
the staff have been showing signs o f stress recently. Your boss has
called a meeting to hear suggestions on how to alleviate the staffs
stress. Your brother-in-law runs the only chauffeurs service in town.
You plan to suggest that the boss should arrange chauffeur-driven
transport to and from work and to the airport for senior management.
This would reduce the stress involved in traffic jams, aggressive driv­
ing, etc.
Communicative task: Try to persuade your boss that your idea of
alleviating stress is the best by presenting different suggestions. Use
visual aids; body language; be attentive to your language style._______
Role card 4.
You are a top manager in a small but high-powered company. A lot of

88
your colleagues have been showing signs o f stress recently. Your part­
ner is an aroma therapist and the only one in the area. You want to
persuade the boss to run aroma therapy sessions for the employees.
Also he can provide gentle or vigorous massage treatment wherever
the need arises. Treatments can be relaxing or invigorating and are
always completely natural.
Communicative task: Try to persuade your boss that your idea o f
alleviating stress is the best by presenting different suggestions. Use
visual aids; body language; be attentive to your language style._______
Role card 5.
You are a top manager in a small but high-powered company. The
staff have been showing signs o f stress recently. You have your own
idea how to reduce stress at work. Your brother is a qualified fitness
trainer and you want to suggest providing personalized exercise pro­
grammes and work-out facilities for employees. Working the body,
heart and lungs is good for health and better than a drink at the bar for
relaxing.
Communicative task: Try to persuade your boss that your idea of
alleviating stress is the best by presenting different suggestions. Use
visual aids; body language; be attentive to your language style._______

Final task: Summarize the information of the unit to be ready to


speak on presentations. Choose any question (problem, topic) related
to presentations and make a report in class. Refer to different addi­
tional sources to make your report instructive, interesting and in­
formative.

89
Module 5: Communication at work
Types of communication. Managing conflicts,
giving praise, dealing with criticism

Read the following quotations and discuss them with your groupmates.
Do you agree with them?

'L earn, -from the mistakes of others - you cari/t live IoM) eriough to
kvcntee them nil yourself'
m a r t i n vA N B .e e
'A ll life Ls essentially the cov&ributto\*& that co^vte -from compromise.'
s p i r o т . a c ^n b w (A w n c a u , N/lce-preslctent)
"Be race to people on. your w ay up because you will meet them on. your
w ay down,.'
w i l s o n MiZ-NeR. (Аккег1сй1л- dramatist)

Start-up activity:
1. How do you understand the term “com m unication at w ork” ?
2. W hat is the im portance of communication in the workplace?
3. Is it common to socialize with employees from different levels of
the company?
4. W hat is the role of the boss in the social life of the office?
5. W hat are common ways of com m unicating with business col­
leagues?

Picture 7
Readine:
Text 1: Effective communication
Good teams rely on good communication. For the crew o f a
yacht, good communication can mean the difference between life and
death; for a hockey team it might be the difference between winning and
losing. The same is true in the business world.
Effective communication is essential to business success. With­
out it, a business would not be able to function.
A manager may communicate with:
• staff
• customers and potential customers
• media
• pressure groups
• trade unions
• government
Communication within an organization can take many forms: verbal,
telephone, sms messaging, meetings, e-mails, internet, etc.
Communication is often described as being internal, external, horizontal,
formal, informal or vertical. In most cases, communication will be a
combination of these methods. The different categories of communica­
tion are considered in Figure. ________________________________
Type of
communica­ Explanation Examples Comments
tion
Internal Communica­ Memos, notice Communicat­
tion within an boards, meetings, ing corporate
organization intranet goals, motivat­
ing staff etc
External Communica­ Telephone, e- Often (and ide­
tion between mail, brochures, ally) two-way
organizations internet (between busi­
ness and sup­
pliers)
Formal Recognized, Memorandums, Message con­
approved and notice boards, trolled, but
directed by an meetings, letters often slow
organisation
Informal Communica­ The 'grapevine' High potential
tion through for message
unofficial distortion and

91
channels rumour. Some­
times used by
management to
test ideas
Vertical Communica­ Requests to com­ Traditionally
tion up/down plete a task, feed­ used by man­
the chain of back to manage­ agement to
command ment (telephone, instruct subor­
Top-down memo, letters) dinates. Now
Bottom-up Communication often used as a
from manage­ two-way proc­
ment to subordi­ ess.
nates
Communication
from the 'shop-
floor' to man­
agement
Horizontal Communica­ Discussion of Often commu­
tion between projects, market­ nication slowed
people at the ing, informing by rivalry be­
same level production of tween depart­
within an or­ problems (team ments
ganization (i.e. briefings, re­
supervisor to ports, e-mail)
supervisor)

Communication’s failure
Good communications is essential to business success. A business
must be able to react to changing internal and external pressures. Poor
communications can lead to a number of serious problems:
Lack of strategic direction. Corporate strategy must be clearly
communicated and understood throughout a business. An organization
will be most effective when all departments are working together to­
wards a common goal.
Poorly motivated staff. Recognition o f both staff and individual
sense of worth are essential to motivation - they can’t be achieved with­
out communication.
Missed opportunities. Promotion and job opportunities may be
missed if different departments don’t communicate with each other.

92
Resistance to change. Communication between staff and key deci­
sion-makers is essential when managing changes. People don’t like
change but are much more responsive if there is a two-way discussion
before the change is made.

Text 2: Six Steps Towards Effective Communication at Work


In any line o f business, effective communication is essential. In a
single day, an employee may have to communicate with half a dozen
different people, including clients, co-workers, employers, and suppliers.
It is worthwhile, therefore, to take some time to consider the importance
o f effective communication and the ways to achieve it.
Here are six tips for successful communication.
1. Be clear. In the modem world, language is often veiled in false
complexities, double-speak, and vagaries— all to protect the speaker from
having to defend his or her own words. But this kind o f communication
is no communication at all. Unless we are direct, neither our clients nor
our coworkers will be able to understand us, and it will be difficult for
them to accomplish any of our expectations. So when speaking with a
client or fellow employee, be as clear as possible. As the poet William
Butler Yeats once said, "Think like a wise man but communicate in the
language o f the people."
2. Get to the point. "Many attempts to communicate," wrote Robert
Greenleaf, "are nullified by saying too much." You value your time; it is
only right that you should take pains to value the time o f others. Clients
and fellow workers will be more responsive if you are direct and concise.
They will be more likely to focus on your words if they know you are not
inclined to wander off onto unhelpful tangents. If you say too much, your
listeners may tune out, and as their minds wander, they could miss your
most crucial points.
3. Be personal Getting to the point, however, does not mean you
should communicate in a cold, cursory manner. Let your audience know
you care about them as individuals as well. Let your communication take
their concerns into account. They will know, then, that their input is im­
portant to you.
4. Listen. Communication is not a one way street. You have to be
willing to listen as well as to speak. As James the Apostle once said, "Let
every man be swift to hear, slow to speak".
5. Think Before You Speak. James's quote has another important
implication. It reminds us not to rush into words, but to think about what
we say before we say it. If we do this, we can avoid misunderstandings,

93
and, in moments o f annoyance, we can avoid saying something we might
later regret. For, in addition to being swift to hear and slow to speak, we
should, advises James, "be slow to wrath."
6. Don't Be Overly Negative. It is necessary to expose and tackle
problem situations in order to solve them, but we must also take time to
accentuate the positive. By being overly negative, you can destroy a per­
son's desire to achieve or assist. But by pointing out one or two positives
to balance every negative, you can encourage others to achieve their full
potentials. Communication isn't always easy, but effective communica­
tion makes your everyday life easier. So be clear, get to the point, be per­
sonal, listen, think before you speak, and avoid extreme negativity.
Vocabulary:
1. Trade unions - проф.союзы
2. Internal - внутренний
3. External - внешний
4. Memos (Memorandums) - служебная записки
5. Grapevine - «сарафанное радио» (способ распространения
новостей через слухи)
6. Distortion - нарушение
7. Rumour - молва, слух
8. Feedback - обратная связь
9. Subordinates - подчиненные
10. 'shop-floor' - рядовые члены профсоюза, профсоюзные мас­
сы
11. Rivalry - конкуренция
12. Resistance - противодействие
13. Vagaries - причудливые выражения
14. Coworkers - соратники
15*. Get to the point - добираться до сути
16. Take pains - постараться, прилагать усилия
17. Tangent-у х о д в сторону от темы
18. Cursory manner - манера говорить быстро (бегло)
19. «Swift to hear and slow to speak» - «больше слушай, меньше
говори»
20. То rush into - бросаться необдуманно в ....
21. Annoyance - раздражение
22. "Be slow to wrath" - «быть невозмутимым»
23. Tackle a problem - пытаться решить проблему
24. То accentuate the positive - акцентировать внимание на по­
ложительных моментах

94
Text 3. Countering interpersonal conflicts at workplace
Interpersonal conflicts
Interpersonal conflicts would rate as the most dangerous and almost le­
thal factor. For a man who is not very adaptive in his behavior and low
on maturity, it is a sure-shot killer over a period o f time. The effect con­
flicts have on the long-term productivity and realization o f potential o f an
individual are significant. It has become so habitual to live in a conflict-
full environment that one begins to feel weird on a completely conflict-
free day.
The source
Interpersonal conflicts are triggered when the behavior exhibited by one
person does not match the behavior expected by the other person who he
is dealing with. Heavily dependent on preferences o f one another, and
given the fact that nature has made so many varieties o f us; sources of
this type of a conflict know no limits. Interpersonal conflicts drain people
o f energy and effects productivity - both long-term and short-term.
Stimulus or emotion
Since the source o f all conflicts is in the mind, with some effort it is pos­
sible to work on this killer problem which depletes happiness out of
many IT lives. A quick reflection o f our responses to stressful situations
will lead us to the root o f this problem. Imagine driving a car on a seem­
ingly empty road early morning. You naturally tend to drive fast and
suddenly you notice an old man on a bicycle coming out of the lane from
the left, 10 feet in front o f you. What do you do? O f course hit the brake
and halt to a screech. And then... “Abuse the old man” is a very mild
description of your possible behavior. Look at the chain o f events - you
applied the brake (stimulus) - you threw abuse at the old man (response).
Is that all?
What lies between the stimulus and response is an emotion which is the
key trigger of interpersonal conflicts. In this scenario, what were you
responding to? You thought you responded to the stimulus but you actu­
ally responded to the emotion. What do you want to respond to - stimu­
lus or the emotion?
Chain reaction
The reality is that it is the behaviour o f people, and more importantly
different preferences we have as individuals, which cause interpersonal
conflicts. And behaviours which are not in line with our preferences
cause negative emotions. The stimulus-emotion-response chain follows.
I have a firm belief that almost all people in this world come with good
intentions. However, it is their behaviour which is misunderstood or does

95
not match the preferences of the other person and therefore causes con­
flict. In my organization development consulting work, I have often em­
pirically proved to companies that even a small change in the way we
respond to behaviour induced conflicts at workplace leads to significant
improvement o f productivity.
All it calls for is to work on a paradigm “different is not equal to wrong”.
This actually requires us to listen carefully to understand behaviour pref­
erences o f people and give them the right to be what they are. This is
especially true of the IT environment. Bottom-line, the strategy for hap­
piness in the IT workplace o f today or tomorrow is simple, “understand
preferences and adapt your behaviour to the situation or the person.” Re­
search on successful people the world over has tons o f evidence to back
this.
Whenever I take people through this idea in a training intervention,
there’s always the cynical response, “its much easier said than done.” I
quite agree. Adaptation o f behaviour is quite stressful and calls for skill
and practice. Isn’t that what we call as maturity? And there’s always a
small price to pay. A more pragmatic way o f looking at life would help
us conclude that stress arising out o f adaptation is far less harmful and
easily manageable than the stress resulting from interpersonal conflicts.
Isn’t your happiness and health a matter of your choice?
Vocabulary:
1. Burnout - истощение физических сил
2. Fatigue - утомлять изнурять
3. Lethal - убийственный, смертельный.
4. Maturity - зрелость
5. Weird - странный, сверхъестественный
6. Y ell-кричать
7. Deplete -истощать, исчерпывать
8. T rig g e r-инициировать

Follow-up activity:
1. Answer the questions:
1. What is a potential audience for communication at work?
2. What are the typical forms of communication?
3. .What kind o f barriers can prevent effective communica­
tion?
4. What kind o f problems can be caused by poor communica­
tion?

96
5. What advice can be given to improve communication at
work?

2. Give examples o f internal, external, horizontal, formal, informal


communication. Comment on them.

3. Give six tips for successful communication.

4. Find the right definition o f the following words:


1. Internal a. to endeavour
2. External b. competition
3. Grapevine c. to get at the gist
4. Feedback d. acting from the outside
5. Subordinates e. irritation
6. Rivalry / being a low class or rank
7. Get to the point g- to spread or to engage in gossip
8. Take pains h. the return o f data for corrections
9. Tangent or control
10. Annoyance L a completely different line of
thought
/• o f or pertraing to the inside

5. Group activity: Work with your group mates and investigate the ad­
vantages and disadvantages o f different types o f communication. Take
into account the following:
-speed o f communication
- ease o f communication
- possibility o f getting feedback

6. Work in pairs: With your partner listfour ways in which your uni­
versity teacher/senior management communicates with stu­
dents/employees. Draw and complete a table like the one below:

Barriers to
Internal Formal
Use o f Two- effective Advantages
Method or exter­ or in­
1ST? way? communi­ o f method
nal? formal
cation?

97
Notices not
read. Re­ Easy, cheap.
Notice
Internal Formal No No moved by Reach wide
board
students. audience
Defaced

7: Dialogues: Here are 2 samples o f interpersonal attitude at work.


Read them and pay attention to special language.

1. —Ok, we agree then, we know Luisa has a drink problem, but we don’t
know why. Anyway her drinking is definitely affecting her work and her
relations with staff.
- Yes, so what we are going to do about it? In my opinion there are sev­
eral ways we could deal with this.
- Oh, yes?
- Well, we could have a talk with her and suggest she gets some profes­
sional help or we could do nothing and hope the problem goes away.
Having said this, I think we should give her a verbal warning. I think it’s
a serious matter.
- Mmm, let’s look at the pros and cons of giving her a verbal warning

- I agree with you. May be it’s too soon for a verbal warning. Let’s look
at this from a different angle. We don’t want to make the problem worse,
do we? So, how about this? It might be worth asking a friend to have a
quiet chat with her. It could help a lot, I think ...
- OK, let’s think about the consequences of doing nothing. The drink
problem could get worse or in time we may find she solves her personal
problems. Who knows ...?
- OK then, we have looked at all the options. And we agree, I think. The
best way forward is to advise her to get professional help.
- Right. So it is decided. So the next thing to do is to contact our medical
officer.
- He will give us some suitable names ....

2. - And what are you trying to change, John exactly?


- We are trying to change all the ways we manage people, so that they fit
together. So that there is integration between how you recruit people,
how you manage people, how you train them, how you develop them,
how you reward them. We care about the people that they are an impor­
tant part of the business, and their future depends on the success.

98
- So, how are you going about this?
- The style with which we have gone about it is very much to involve the
employees. So in the first instance we went to the whole workplace
through the line-managers to say we believe we now need to think more
strongly about how we invest in people.
- What do you mean exactly?
- I’m going to ask them some questions, for example: What would you
like to see us do? What are the areas you believe should be priorities?
What are the areas you don’t like about the way you are managed at the
moment?
- So you actually let employees more or less dictate their conditions,
don’t you?
- No, we just manage the performance of people in giving them a clear
idea of what’s expected of them, and feedback about how well they are
doing. And then we reward them and their reward is related to the contri­
bution they make to business.
- Can you see why you choose such approach to manage employees?
What are your preferences?
- Fundamentally because of a belief that it would work better if there is a
discussion between employees and their manager about what they are
trying to do, where they are going, how well they are doing and what
training they need.

Phrasal area
First read through the phrasal area below and check fo r the compre­
hension o f vocabulary and structures. Then work in pairs. Use the dia­
logues above and phrasal area as models and act your own dialogues:
a) express preferences b) express and give reasons c) make a complaint
about the situation d) ask about your colleague’s problem e) give ad­
vice how to cope with this problem.

Phrasal area
1. Expressing preferences
• I tend to prefer /to be rather more interested in ...
• I haven’t got any particular preference ...
• I’d rather/sooner...
• It’s all the same to me.
• I leave it to you to decide

99
• I’ll go along with what you decide/suggest...
• It depends...
• It’s up to you to decide...
• Oh, it’s easy. I’ll do whatever you suggest.
2. Expressing and accepting apologizes
• I must apologize to you for...
• Please, accept my apologies.
• Give my excuses to....
• I had no intention of hurting your feelings.
• I’m sorry, that was entirely my fault.
• These things happen: it can’t be helped.
• Please don’t feel bad about it.
• That’s OK
• It’s no trouble/bother at all.
• Forget it. No harm done.
• It’s nothing to speak of...
3. Expressing and giving reasons
• What’s the reason for?
• I’d like to know the reason for.
• How can you account for the fact?
• Can you explain why?
• I wonder if...
• What’s the point o f ...?
• Tell me why?
• Why is that?
• Let me explain. You see...
• The basic reason is that...
• I think it is right for the following reasons.
• The point i s .....
• If I could explain.....
• Well. Because ....
4. Asking, accepting and refusing help
• I’m sorry to trouble you but....
• Would it be possible for you to ...?
• Please, do me a favour.... and ....
• Give me a hand with....
• No trouble at all, it’s my pleasure.
• Please don’t trouble yourself about...

100
• No, really, I can’t manage.
• What can I do for you?
• Oh yes, sure.
• For sure. With pleasure.
• but only i f ....
5. Expressing, asking and giving permission
• Do you mind if...?
• Is it all right if...?
• I wonder if I could..... ?
• Is it OK? /all right if I ....?
• Is it all right for me to .... ?
• Not at all, please do.
• Please, do as you wish.
• Sure you can/I’m sorry you can’t.
• If you like ...
• Sorry, no chance.
• As you like/ go ahead.
6. Expressing and asking advice
• What do you suggest I should do?
• I would appreciate your advice on ....
• What would you do in my position? (if you were me)
• I’d like your advice on ...
• Can you help me so rt.... out?
• Personally, I would advise you to ...
• The way I see, you should ....
• I would recommend you ...
• If I were in your position, I would ....
• Take my advice and ...
• Why don’t you ...? Why not... ?
7. Expressing complaint
• Excuse me, I’m not at all satisfied with ...
• I’m not the sort of person who normally complains, b u t.
• I’m sorry to say this but....
• I’m afraid it isn’t good enough ...
• The trouble is th a t...
• I’m sick and tired o f ...
• Sorry I didn’t realize you felt so strongly about it.
• I do apologize.
• Sony, is it bothering/disturbing you?
• It’s our fault, sorry.
• It was wrong/careless/foolish of me.
• Sony I didn’t mean to ...
• Pardon, sir
8. Asking about problems
• May I ask if anything is wrong?
• Are you quite sure there is nothing worrying you?
• You look worried/seem a bit upset this morning. What’s the
matter?
• I know it’s really none of my business, but it does occasionally
help to talk about things, you know...
• What’s up?
• Is there a problem?
• I’m extremely nervous o f .... gives some cause for concern.
• I’m afraid o f ...
• I have some problems, you know ....
• I’m worried about...
9. Expressing invitation, good wishes and congratulations
• I wonder whether you’d like to...
• Would you care to...?
• How about... -ing?
• Fancy going ...
• I’d like to wish you every success in...
• Please, accept my best/warmest/sincerest wishes!
• Every success in your new job/position.
• I hope everything goes well in ....
• OK with ...
• I must congratulate you on your success/promotion.....
• Congratulations on winning the contest.
• I’d like to be the first to congratulate you on ....
• I hear you have got promotion. Congratulations!!!
• It was great to hear that you won.
• Well done, Tom.
10. Reassuring/Encouraging someone
• There’s no reason to get upset about...
• I’m sure things will turn out all right.
• Try to look on the bright side.

102
• I’m very optimistic about...
• You wait and see. It’s all going to be O.K.
• Don’t get upset! Don’t let it worry you.
11. Problem-solving
• We have a number of options.
• There are several ways we could deal with this.
• Let’s look at the pros and cons...
• We could try...
• Let’s think about the consequences of...
• What we’ve got to do now is...
• So the next step to do is ....

Language Functions
1) Choose the most appropriate heading for each group from the list
below according to the function o f the expressions:

The trouble is th a t... Do you mind i f ... ?


I do apologize. Please do as you wish.
It was wrong/careless of me. As you like/ go ahead.

Well. Because .... Forget it. No harm done.


Tell me why? It’s nothing to speak of...
The point i s ..... That’s OK.

Fancy going ...


Would you care to ...?
How about... -ing?

2) Which o f these formulas would be appropriate in the following


situations?
You have done something that upset your colleague, you would say:
a) Don’t let it worry you.
b) The trouble is th at...
c) I’m sorry, that was entirely my fault.

103
You share an office with a colleague and he/she has a very irritating
habit, you would say:
a) I’m sorry to say this but....
b) I’m sure things will turn out all right.
c) I’ll go along with what you decide

You never get promoted. Your boss says you’re doing really well but you
see your colleagues getting promoted and you don’t, you would say:
a) I’m not the sort of person who normally complains, b u t...
b) I wonder whether you’d like to...
c) Sorry I didn’t realize you felt so strongly about it.

You can never sleep before you have to give a presentation. You’re so
tired when the time comes that you don’t perform well, you would say:
a) No trouble at all, it’s my pleasure.
b) Let’s look at the pros and cons...
c) I’m not at all satisfied with ...

After a year of hard work your friend got a promotion. You are calling to
congratulate him/her, you would say:
a) Not at all, please do.
b) Well done.
c) As you like/ go ahead.

3) What would you say in the following situations?


a) I only started a month ago, but I’m thinking about leaving. My
boss is always correcting me, never gives me any help. And my team is
also against me....(Express complain)
b) I need help with a problem employee. He is making a lot of mis­
takes. What’s more he’s taken 20 day’s sick leave and other employees
are complaining about it. (Ask for advice)
c) My salary is lower than two other male employees who do the
same work. Besides I have been with the company longer then one of the
two men. (Ask for help)
What would you say to your colleagues in the following situations?
a) for the first situation - reassure him/her
b) for the second situation - express advice and offer help
c) for the third situation - suggest to decide the problem together

104
Speech Practice
Work in pairs. Use the phrasal area above and act out the following
situations:

Situation 1
I t’s Wednesday morning. You and your partner are preparing to
go away on a business trip. Check that your partner has done/is going to
do the following tasks. Offer your help if it is necessary.
Use question tags:
—book cab for airport
-p r in t out e-mail tickets
—don’t forget annual report
—cancel meeting with the members o f the department
You start:
I ’m worried a b o u t...
I wonder if I could ....
Are you quite sure there is nothing....
It's Wednesday morning. You and your partner are preparing to
go away on a business trip. Your partner will ask you about tasks you
have done (or haven’t done). Reassure him/her that you have done or are
going to do what he/she asks.
You start:
There’s no reason to...
I ’m sure things will...
What w e’ve got to do now is...

Situation 2
You were late fo r a very important meeting with your manager!
You tried to get a taxi from your home but all taxi companies were busy.
You couldn ’t call the office because your mobile phone battery was
empty. Apologize, explain what happened and promise not to be late next
time.
You start:
I must apologize to you for...
I had no intention of...
The point i s ....
You are a manager. One o f your members o f staff was very late for
an important meeting. You aren ’t happy because this person is often late.

105
You start:
Can you explain why...?
Why don ’tyou ... ? Why not... ?
The way I see, you should ....

Situation 3
Your boss refused to let you take your holiday at a time conven­
ient fo r you and your family? Discuss the situation with your boss.

Communicative task
Communicative task fo r boss:
for employee:
express complaint about ask about problems
the situation express and give reasons
express your preferences suggest problem-solving
and reasons
ask permission

Key words for employee: Key words for boss:


Long-term sickness, to improve To appreciate, being respected, to
the performance, work/life bal­ set priorities, to treat equally, in
ance (finding time for responsi­ company values, number of op­
bilities at home), flexibility, re­ tions, bonuses.
fuse to do smth, depressed.
Note: While dramatizing you may invent any ideas you want.

Role play : “The office party”


1. Have you ever been to an office party?
2. Do you think its good idea to have parties where you work?
3. In English there is a saying “Never mix business with pleasure”.
Do you agree with this saying? Why or why not?
You all have been invited to an office end of the year party. The Presi­
dent of the company is not in the role play, you must imagine that he or
she will be arriving later. You can gossip about work and complain about
the President.
Communicative task for all players:
1) Introduce yourself and greet the other person.
2) Ask some questions to make small talk (see appendix A below)
3) If you have some gossip, tell it using the expression provided on your
role card.

106
4) Listen to the other person’s gossip and react (see Appendix В below).
ROLE CARD 1.
You are Sheri Grau, the receptionist. You work at the front desk. You
know most people in the company. You know that the President has
parties in his office late at night after people have left work.
Expressions to use:
I shouldn’t really say this but...________________________________
ROLE CARD 2.
You are Andrea Penedes, the secretary to the President. You know
that the President has a serious problem with alcohol and likes to have
parties in his office late at night. You also know that he had an affair
with the last secretary.
Expressions to use:
Please don’t tell anyone I told you...____________________________
ROLE CARD 3.
You are Malcolm Singh, the accountant. You know that the company
is very much in debt and that the President is getting a very large fi­
nancial bonus this year.
Expressions to use:
You may not believe this but...________________________________
ROLE CARD 4.
You are George Griffith, the Human Resources manager. You know
that ten people are going to be laid off in January because of financial
problems with the company.
Expressions to use:
I know this isn’t the time to talk about it, but...___________________
ROLE CARD 5.
You are Patricia Mendez. You are a computer technician. You know
that the President’s last secretary left because she was secretly preg­
nant. You don’t know who the father was.
Expressions to use:
Well, I heard that... ____________________________________
ROLE CARD 6.
You are Bemie Takana. You are a visitor to the company and have
been invited to the party. You know that your company is planning to
buy out this company next year.
Expressions to use:
I’m telling you this in confidence..._____________________________
Appendix A:
Making a small talk at the office party.

107
How long have you been with the company?
What’s your job? / What do you do?
Wow, this year has gone by really quickly.
I can’t stand these office parties.
This is really good; would you like to try some?
Appendix B:
Reacting to surprising news
Really!
No way!
I can’t believe it!
You’re kidding!
That’s terrible!
For more detailed information look at page 197 (Appendix 2
Teacher’s notes)

Task 6: Final task: Summarize the information of the unit to be


ready to speak on communication at work. Choose any question
(problem, topic) related to communication at work and make a re­
port in class. Refer to different additional sources to make your re­
port instructive, interesting and informative.

108
EN GLISH-RU SSIAN DICTIONARY
OF CIVIL SERVICE
A
абсентеизм (уклонение от работы без
уважительной причины; часто это од­
absenteeism n нодневное отсутствие на работе в связи
с болезнью, но без посещения врача);
невыход на работу; прогул(ы)
abuse n злоупотребление
- of authority/power(s) злоупотребление властью, превышение
власти,
~ of official position злоупотребление служебным положением
actinga исполняющий обязанности временный
~ manager исполняющий обязанности управляюще­
го
1) осуществлять управление, руково­
administer v дить, управлять;
2) оказывать, предоставлять
1) ведомство, администрация (круг руко­
водителей, орган управления, админист­
ративно-управленческий персонал);
2) управление (на государственном
уровне); область управления (в отли­
administration n чие от management имеет более узкое
значение);
3) (преим. амер.) правительство, ис­
полнительная власть;
4) управление делами;
5) исполнение (должностных функций)
~ of the municipality администрация муниципалитета
local~ местная администрация
administrator n 1) административное/должностное лицо;
2) руководитель
bom~ прирожденный руководитель
career- профессиональный (карьерный)

109
government- госслужащий, должностное лицо
государственной администрации
advanced (vocational)
повышение квалификации
training
1) повестка дня (заседания);
agenda rt
2) программа, намерения, планы
to approve an ~ утверждать повестку дня
to draw up the ~ вьдэабатывать п овеет^ дня
to place on the ~ внести в повеет^ дня
crowded ~ повестка дня, охватывающая широкий
круг вопросов
hidden ~ скрытые (недобрые^ намерения
an item on/of the- пункт повестки дня
temporary - временная повестка дня
1) содержание (месячное, годовое и
т.п.), вознаграждение;
allowance n
2) прибавка к окладу, дополнительные
выплаты, пособие
надбавка к заработной плате в связи с
cost-of-living - ростом стоимости жизни (предусмот­
ренная в коллективном договоре)
средства на представительские расхо­
entertainment -
ды
prenatal ~ пособие по беременности и родам
1) пенсия или пособие по старости;
retirement
2) выходное пособие
travel - командировочные расходы
amendment n поправка (к законопроекту и т.п.)
to adopt a n - принять поправку
apparatus n аппарат (государственный)
administrative/office административно-управленческий
and managerial - аппарат
government - управленческий аппарат (учреждение)
state - государственный аппарат
applicant n кандидат, претендент
- for the position претендент на должность; желающий
получить должность

110
1) заявление (напр., о приеме на работу);
application n 2) ходатайство, просьба, обращение;
3) применение, использование
to examine an ~ рассматривать заявление
to hand in/fill/submit an ~ подать заявление
to refuse an ~ отказать в ходатайстве, просьбе
~ for thejo b (job ~ ) заявление о приеме на работу
~ for the position заявление о зачислении на должность
~ of rules применение правил (норм)
retirement ~ заявление об отставке
application form бланк заявки, бланк для заявления
apply v 1) подавать заявление, ходатайство­
вать;
2) применять, применить
to ~ economic sanctions применять экономические санкции
to - for a rise .попросить прибавки
to ~ for a vacant office подать заявление о приеме
(for ajob) на вакантную должность (на работу)
to ~ to smb. обращаться к кому-л. за инструкциями
for instructions
appoint v 1) назначать (на пост), утверждать в
должности;
2) условливаться
appointive a (преим. амер.) 1) занимаемый по на­
значению, невыборный; 2) дающий
право назначать (на госслужбе)
-office невыборный пост, должность власть,
занимаемая по назначению
~ powers право назначения
appointment n 1) назначение, определение
(на должность);
2) место, должность;
3) договоренность о встрече^ приёме
to confirm smb.'s ~ утвердить кого-л. в должности
to hold an interim — быть временно назначенным на должность
to hold more than one - совмещать несколько должностей
to make an ~ for 3 o'clock договориться о встрече на 3 часа
- for life пожизненная должность

I ll
public- назначаемая публичная должность
career- карьерное назначение
appraisal n аттестация, деловая оценка работника
managerial activity - оценка деятельности руководителей
организации
Arbitrary rule произвол власти, деспотизм
Arrange v 1) приводить в порядок; систематизи­
ровать
2) договариваться
3) улаживать
4)принимать меры
assessment centre центр оценки личности/персонала
(программа оценки потенциала со­
трудников для выявления тех, кто об­
ладает потенциалом профессионально­
го роста и т.п.)
assistant n 1) помощник, референт;
2) сотрудник, работник;
3)заместитель
~ manager заместитель заведующего
assume v принимать на себя (напр., риск, обя­
занность и т.д.)
to - apposition занимать какую-л. позицию
to - thejx>sition вступить в должность
to - (a) responsibility взять на себя ответственность
authority n 1) власть, полномочия;
2) (pi.) власти, начальство, админист­
* рация;
3) орган, управление, отдел;
4) авторитет, влияние
to abuse one|s~ to______ превышать (свои) полномочия
act on smb.'s ~ действовать на основании полученных
полномочий
to act with the ~ of the law действовать на основании закона
to be under the ~ of smb. находиться в ведении кого-л.
abuse of ~ злоупотребление властью, полномочиями
centralization of state - централизация государственной власти
competent authorities компетентные учреждения

112
delegation of ~ делегирование полномочий
dwindling ~ ослабевающий авторитет
executive ~ исполнительная власть
federal authorities федеральные власти
law-enforcement authorities правоохранительные органы

legislative ~ законодательная власть; правомочие


по закону
local authorities местные власти
municipal 1) муниципальная власть,
2) муниципальный орган
auxiliary n помощник, подчиненный; (pi.) вспомо­
гательный или обслуживающий персо­
нал, работники среднего и низшего
звена

в
back v 1) визировать, ставить подпись на обороте
документа;
2) поддерживать;
3 ) субсидировать
background п 1) подготовка, образование;
2) биографические или анкетные данные
~ check проверка данных
benefit п 1) преимущество, польза, благо;
2) пособие, пенсия; {pi.) льготы
fringe ~s дополнительные льготы
health/medical ~ пособие по болезни
material ~s материальные блага
non-wage ~s дополнительная заработная плата,
выплаты помимо зарплаты
public ~ общественное благо
restriction of ~ С01фащение пособия
retirement ~ 1) выходное пособие;
2) пенсия или пособие по старости
sickness/sick ~ пособие по болезни
social (insurance) ~ пособие по социальному страхованию
social ~s общественные (коллективные) блага
supplementary ~s надбавки к заработной плате

113
welfare ~s социальные пособия, получаемые гражда­
нами от государства (напр, по безработице,
инвалидности, а также пособия тем, кто
имеет очень небольшой доход)
biographical анкетные данные
data/particulars
body n 1) орган, учреждение, общество;
2) группа, коллегия;
3) основная часть чего-л. (напр., документа);
4) юридическое лицо, субъект права
administrative ~ административный/управленческий орган
advisory ~ консультативный орган
executive ~ исполнительная власть (орган)
governing ~ руководящий орган;
административный совет
regulatory ~ орган управления, орган власти
supervisory ~ контрольный орган
bonus n премия; (дополнительное) вознаграждение
incentive ~ надбавка поощрительная премия
long service ~ надбавка за выслугу лет
merit ~ премия за заслуги
bribe и взятка
to take ~s брать взятки
bribe v предлагать, давать взятку
~ an official дать взятку должностному лицу
bribery n подкуп
~ Лcontrol борьба с взяточничеством
~ of public officials подкуп должностных лиц
bribetaker n взяточник
budget n (государственный) бюджет, (финансовая)
смета
annual ~ годовой бюджет
balanced ~ сбалансированный бюджет
~ cut сокращение бюджета
~ statement проект бюджета
deficit-ridden/adverse ~ дефицитный бюджет
federal ~ федеральный бюджет
local ~ местный бюджет

114
municipal ~ муниципальный бюджет
non-deficit ~ бездефицитный бюджет
regional/district ~ региональный бюджет
state social insurance ~ бюджет государственного
социального страхования
bullying n запугивание
bureaucracy n бюрократия: 1) тип организации, для которой
характерно специализированное распределе­
ние труда, четкая управленческая иерархия,
правила и стандарты, показатели оценки ра­
боты, принципы найма, основывающиеся на
компетенции работника; 2) орган государства,
организационно оформленный в виде аппара­
та чиновничества

с
cadre п (pi.) кадры, персонал
~ policy штат, кадровая политика
managerial ~s управленческие кадры
candidate и кандидат
to endorse a ~ поддерживать (чью-л._) кандидатуру
~ for governor кандидат на пост губернатора
heavy-weight ~ сильный претендент
capacity n 1) компетенция, должность,
положение;
2) способность, потенциал;
3) производительность;
4) правоспособность,
дееспособность
to strengthen managerial ~ укреплять руководящие кадры
in (a) civil ~ в гражданской должности
in (out of) my ~ в пределах (вне) моей компетенции
lack of ~ отсутствие (нужных) способностей
professional ~ профессиональные способности
career n 1) карьера;
2) жизненный путь, дело жизни;
3) профессия, занятие

115
to embark upon a ~ начать карьеру
to make oneself a ~ делать карьеру
~ guarantees гарантированное служебное
положение
public ~ карьера государственного деятеля
career development профессиональное развитие;
продвижение по службе
careerman n профессиональный чиновник
appointive ~ назначаемый профессиональный
чиновник
career planning профессиональная ориентация;
планирование карьерного роста
career reserved positions должности, зарезервированные
для карьерных госслужащих;
карьерные должности
career service 1) карьерная служба (государст­
венная служба, открывающая воз­
можность для карьерного роста по
«системе заслуг»);
2) {амер.) государственная служба
care-taker n лицо, временно ответственное за
что-то; исполняющий обязанности
census n перепись (населения)
take the ~ провести перепись населения
certificate n аттестат, свидетельство,
удостоверение
~ of competence квалификационный аттестат
ce/tification n (служебная) аттестация
~ of eligibles подтверждение квалификации
~ procedure порядок аттестации
personnel ~ аттестация персонала
charge n 1) обязанность, ответственность
2) руководство;
3) расход, цена налог;
4 ) обвинение
to be in ~ (of) заведовать, руководить (чем-л.)
to have overall ~ осуществлять общееруководство
to put in ~ поставить во главе
~ of inactivity обвинение в преступном бездействии

116
establishment ~s организационные расходы
overhead ~s накладные расходы
chief n руководитель, начальник, глава,
заведующий
deputy ~ заместитель начальника
civil service государственная/гражданская
служба (объединяет всех прави­
тельственных чиновников и слу­
жащих, не являющихся военно­
служащими)
be in the ~ быть на государствен­
ной/гражданской службе
to file for a ~ job подать заявление о приеме
на госслужбу
competitive ~ конкурсная государственная служба
code 1) кодекс, свод законов, правила
(поведения);
2) код, индекс, шифр
Civil Service ~ закон о государственной службе
Civil Service Management ~ Кодекс управления
государственной службой
~ of behaviour правила поведения
labour ~ кодекс законов о труде
moral ~ моральный кодекс
(поведения служащих)
Code of Conduct кодекс поведения госслужащих
for Civil Servants
collective bargaining переговоры об условиях труда и
оплаты; заключение коллектив­
ного трудового договора
committee n комитет, группа внутри организа­
ции, которой делегированы пол­
номочия какого-либо задания или
комплекса заданий
watch ~ комитет городского самоуправле­
ния, ведающий освещением и ох­
раной порядка

117
compensation и 1) возмещение, компенсация;
2) вознаграждение, жалование,
денежное вознаграждение
competence n 1) компетентность, способность;
2) компетенция;
3) ведение (деловое распоряди­
тельство)
to come/fall within the ~ входить в компетенцию
(of a body) (какого-либо органа)
to develop/increase one's ~ повышать квалификацию
to go beyond the ~ выйти за рамки компетенции
~ to direct способность руководить
state ~ государственное ведение,
компетенция государства
within the exclusive ~ в исключительном ведении
competition n конкурс; конкуренция
to meet/sustain ~ выдерживать конкуренцию
~ in quality конкуренция за качество
lack of ~ отсутствие конкуренции
regulated (managed) ~ управляемая соревновательность
unfair ~ нечестная, недобросовестная
конкуренция
competitioner n соискатель, конкурент, тот, кто
поступает на должность по кон­
курсу
competitive bidding process тендер; конкурс на получение пра­
ва проведения работ или оказания
услуг на контрактной основе
competitive bid for a contract заявка на участие в конкурсе на
заключение контракта
competitive merit system конкурсная кадровая система
(с продвижением по службе в зави­
симости от «заслуг», но с конкур­
сом при назначении на должность
и при повышении по службе)
complaint n жалоба
to lodge a ~ against the actions обжаловать действия должностных
of officials лиц

118
to validate a - обосновать жалобу
confidential - доверительная жалоба
ground for - основание для жалобы (претензии)
conduct n 1) руководство;
2) поведение
adverse - of an officer поведение должностного лица,
противоречащее его должностному
статусу
~ of a business руководство делом, ведение дел
line of ~ линия поведения
rules of ~ правила поведения
conference call совещание по селектору; совеща­
ние, проводимое с помощью мно­
госторонней телефонной связи
confidential a конфиденциальный (для служеб­
ного пользования), секретный
-book «закрытое» издание, издание
для служебного пользования
strictly ~ гриф секретности,
строго конфиденциально
consideration n 1) рассмотрение, обсуждение;
2) соображение
to be subject to ~ подлежать рассмотрению
be under ~ быть на рассмотрении
to exclude from ~ снять с рассмотрения
to place for ~ выносить на рассмотрение
to submit for ~ представлять на рассмотрение
to take into ~ принять во внимание
order of/procedure for ~ порядокрассмотрения
thorough/due ~ внимательное рассмотрение
Continuous Acquisition инструмент организации и инфор­
and Life Cycle Support мационной поддержки всех участ­
ников создания, производства и
использования сложной продук­
ции, срок жизни которой, с учетом
различных модернизаций, состав­
ляет десятки лет
contract n договор, соглашение, контракт

119
to comply with/observe выполнять условия договора
the provions of a ~
to hire by ~ нанимать (на работу) по контракту
~ of employment трудовой договор, контракт о ра­
(employment ~) боте по найму (трудовой контракт)
~ of insurance договор страхования
- of service контракт о сроках и условиях
работы служащего
~ of work (and labour) договор подряда, договор
личного найма
labour ~ (~ of employment) трудовой договор
lucrative ~ выгодный контракт
control n 1) управление, регулирование, ру­
ководство; контроль, надзор; про­
цесс проверки того, как данная
организация осуществляет свои
цели, и корректировки ее дейст­
вий, состоящий из трех этапов:
постановка задач для исполнения;
проверка реального исполнения
задач; решение проблем, если ис­
полнение не соответствует постав­
ленным задачам. Является одной
из функций управления.
2) контрольный орган
to be under ~ быть под контролем
to have/exercise ~ over smth держать что-то под контролем
to,lose ~ of smth. потерять контроль над чем-л.
budgetary ~ бюджетное регулирование
bureaucratic ~ бюрократический контроль
government/public/state ~ государственный контроль,
государственное регулирование
inflation ~ борьба с инфляцией
labour ~ управление рабочей силой
managerial ~ управленческий контроль
selective ~ выборочный контроль
state ~ государственное регулирование
supervisory ~ административно-технический
надзор, оперативное руководство

120
corruption n коррупция, подкуп, продажность
to charge with ~ обвинять в коррупции
official ~ коррупция должностных лиц
co-signatory n лицо, подписывающее документ
вместе с другими лицами; участ­
ник (в договоре)
cost-benefit analysis анализ затрат и результатов (один
из методов, применяемых в госу­
дарственном управлении для при­
нятия правильных решений
Customer Relationship Система, направленная на улучше­
Management ние отношений с клиентами.
Компания накапливает все данные
о каждом клиенте, чтобы предуга­
дать его желания
Customer Synchronized Re­ Система управления предприятием,
source Planning которая охватывает любые виды
взаимодействия с потребителями

D
decision п решение, постановление
to arrive/come to/take а ~ принять, вынести решение
to bring a question to a ~ принять решение по вопросу
decision making (process) принятие решений; процесс
принятия решений
decision tree дерево решений (процесс при­
нятия управленческих решений
по какой-либо проблеме, изо­
бражаемый графически)
deficit n 1) дефицит, нехватка;
2) превышение расходов над
доходами
to make/make up/cover the - покрыть дефицит
to show a ~ иметь дефицит в бюджете
degrading performance ухудшение работы
delegation of power делегирование (передача)
полномочий
demit v отказываться от должности,
уходить в отставку

121
to ~ office отказаться от своего поста
demote v понижать в должности;
смещать с должности
dismissed and -d to a post of... смещен и переведен
с понижением на должность-
demotion n понижение в должности, ранге;
смещение с должности
wave of ~s волна увольнений
denunciation and exposure осуждение и разоблачение
of bureaucratic abuses злоупотреблений чиновников
department n 1) структурное подразделение
(управление, отдел);
2) административный орган (ми­
нистерство, департамент, служ­
ба, ведомство)
accounts ~ бухгалтерия
administrative ~ убавление делами
advertising ~ отдел рекламы
branch~ отраслевое ведомство
core ключевые департаменты
data processing ~ отдел обработки данных
executive ~ министерство, ведомство
methods ~ отдел организации труда
personnel ~ отдел кадров
research and development ~ отдел исследований и разработок
time-keeping ~ отдел учета рабочего времени
training ~ отдел подготовки кадров
wages ~ отдел заработной платы
deputy n 1) заместитель; помощник;
2) депутат, делегат, представитель
~ chairman заместитель председателя
~ minister заместитель министра
general ~ представитель с неограничен­
ными полномочиями
special ~ представитель с ограниченными
полномочиями
designate a назначенный, но еще
не вступивший в должность

122
designate v 1) определять, устанавливать;
2) назначать на должность
to ~ smb. as one's successor назначить кого-л.
своим преемником
to ~ smb. for/to a post назначить кого-л. на должность
development of vocational com­ повышение квалификации
petence of staff персонала
direction n 1) направление;
2) руководство, управление;
3) указание, предписание;
4) (pi) инструкция, директивы
to give ~ s to smb. инструктировать кого-л.
to work under smb.'s ~ работать под чьим-л.
руководством
general ~ общее руководство
disability n нетрудоспособность,
инвалидность
temporary ~ временная нетрудоспособность
partial ~ частичная нетрудоспособность
total ~ полная нетрудоспособность
disablement n инвалидность
dejgree of ~ степень инвалидности
permanent ~ постоянная нетрудоспособ­
ность, инвалидность
discharge n 1) увольнение;
2) исполнение (соблюдение) чего-л.
~ for inaptitude увольнение по несоответствию
занимаемой должности
~ of obligations assumed исполнение взятых на себя обя­
зательств
~ of one's duties/functions исполнение своих служебные
обязанностей
dishonorable ~ увольнение с лишением
прав/привилегий
in ~ of one's official functions при исполнении служебных
обязанностей
discharge v 1) освобождать (от выполняе­
мых обязательств), увольнять
2) выполнять, исполнять

123
to ~ one's duties выполнять свои обязанности
to ~ smb. because of staff reduction увольнять по сокращению штатов
to ~ smb. from his post освободить от должности
dismiss v освободить от должности,
уволить
to - an official уволить чиновника
dismissal n увольнение
~ for redundancy увольнение в связи
с сокращением штатов
~ on grounds of incapability увольнение на основании
(по причине) неспособности
grounds of (unfair, wrongfid) ~ основания для (несправедливо­
го, незаконного) увольнения
displace v 1) перемещать;
2) снимать (с должности и т.п.),
смещать
to ~ an official сместить чиновника
-d person перемещенное лицо
downgrade v понижать в должности
draft n проект (документа), план
to conciliate two ~s согласовать два проекта
(документа)
~ bill\law законопроект
~ resolution проект резолюции
duty n 1) долг;
2) обязанность, функция
to abandon duties пренебрегать обязанностями
to carry out/discharge/exercise выполнять (свои) обязанности
/fulfill one's duties
to dispense from ~ освобождать от обязательств
to entrust smb. with a ~ возлагать обязанность
на кого-либо
to suspend from the exercise of временно отстранить
duties от должности
~ that is incumbent on smb. обязанность, возложенная
на кого-л.
executive duties административные обязанности
incompatibility of duties несовместимость должностей
official duties служебные обязанности

124
Е
efficiency plan поощрительная система заработ­
ной платы; повременно­
прогрессивная система оплаты
труда
election n 1) выборы;
2) выбор, отбор
to stand for (an) ~ баллотироваться на выборах
general ~ всеобщие выборы
local ~(s) выборы в органы местного
самоуправления
employ v предоставлять работу,
нанимать, держать на службе
employee n рабочий, служащий; лицо наем­
ного труда
~ benefits пособия работающих по найму
direct compensation of ~s прямые выплаты служащим
~ development усовершенствование служащих
exempt ~s служащие с ненормированным
рабочим днем
non-staff~ внештатный сотрудник
permanent/regular ~ штатный, постоянный сотрудник
~ policy кадровая политика
public ~ должностное лицо
temporary ~ временный сотрудник
trial ~ служащий, проходящий испыта­
тельный срок
~ trust ответственность сотрудников
~ turnover текучесть кадров
~ performance management руководство исполнения работ,
обязанностей, функций и т.п.
работников
employer n 1) работодатель;
2) агент по найму
employment n 1) работа (по найму), служба;
2 ) занятость
to reduce Federal ~ сократить (центральный) госу­
дарственный аппарат

125
~ agency/bureau бюро по трудоустройству, найму
~ agent агент по найму (рабочей силы)
~ agreement договор личного найма
- contract договор о найме
- in public sector занятость в госсекторе
~ sheet послужной список
full- полная занятость
irregular ~ непостоянная работа
lifelong - пожизненная занятость
temporary public - временная занятость в госсекторе
enroI(l) v вносить в список,
регистрировать, зачислять
to - smb. as a member включить кого-л. в качестве члена
to - with an employment agency стать на учет в бюро найма
entitle v уполномочивать, давать право
to be - d to do smth. иметь полномочия, быть
уполномоченным что-л. сделать
to be - d to a leave иметь право на отпуск
to be ~d to alimony давать право на получение
алиментов
entry-level employees работники начального уровня
environment n окружающая обстановка,
(окружающая) среда, условия
behavioural - поведенческая среда
competitive - конфликтная ситуация
immediate - непосредственное окружение;
ближайшая сдружающая среда
organizational - обстановка в организации, орга­
низационная среда
public service - бюрократическая (чиновничья)
среда
social - социальное окружение,
общественные условия
sociocultural - социальное положение
и культурный уровень
stable - стабильная обстановка, условия
стабильности

126
establish v 1) основьшать, создавать;
2) устанавливать, определять;
3) назначать, устраивать (на
должность и т.п.);
4) издавать (закон), устанавли­
вать (правило)
to ~ certain facts выяснить некоторые данные
to ~ rules утверждать правила
to ~ a state/a federation основывать государство/федерацию
as ~ed by law как установлено законом,
в установленном порядке
facts ~ed by the commission факты, установленные комиссией
establishment rt 1) создание, учреждение;
2) учреждение (государственное и
т.п.), организация;
3) закон, постановление, норма,
кодекс законов;
4) штатное расписание
authorized ~ штат сотрудников штатный состав
ethical and moral obligations этические и моральные обяза­
of government officials тельства госслужащих
ethics n этика, профессиональная
~ of administration этика управления
code of~ моральный кодекс
excess n 1) избыток;
2) превышение (власти, полномо­
чий);
3) эксцесс, беспорядок
to control ~es не допускал, перегибов, крайностей
to denounce ~es осудить перегибы
administrative~ превышение административной
власти
expense n 1) расходы, издержки, затраты;
2) возмещение расходов
to get a salary and ~s получать жалованье и возмеще­
ние расходов (на деловые нужды)
additional ~s дополнительные расходы
administrative ~s административно­
управленческие расходы

127
daily ~s суточныерасходы
current ~s текущиерасходы
~s for accommodation расходы на жилье
~s for services расходы на коммунальныеуслуги
~s for representation представительские расходы
experience (жизненный) опыт;
опытработы, стаж
five-year ~ пятилетний стаж
a man of ~ опытный человек,
квалифицированный работник
expertise» компетентность, специальные
знания
extra-official a 1) не входящий в круг обычных
обязанностей;
2) не полагающийся по должно­
сти (о вознаграждении и т.п.)
extra pay дополнительный оклад

F
flexibility п гибкость, приспособляемость
flexible working hours гибкий (скользящий) график
flex(i)time и свободный режим рабочего дня,
при котором устанавливается оп­
ределенное число рабочих часов в
неделю или месяц и право само­
стоятельного выбора ежедневного
графика работы; гибкий, скользя­
щий график
freelance a внештатный, работающий без кон­
тракта
-job свободная профессия
fringe benefits дополнительный льготы (пенсия,
оплаченные отпуска и т.п.)
functionary n должностное лицо, работник,
чиновник, функционер

128
G
generalist 1) универсал; человек с широким
образованием и кругом интересов;
2) «генералист» (служащий, осу­
ществляющий общее руководство
и отвечающий за решение общих
вопросов)
grant n пособие, грант> субсидия
to make a ~ to smb. дать кому-л. субсидию
tojput in a claim for a ~ ходатайствовать о субсидии
to receive a State ~ получить государственную
субсидию
grant-in-aid n 1) дотация, субсидия, финансовая
помощь; 2) целевая субсидия ор­
ганам местного самоуправления
~ program программа субсидий на оказание
помощи
guidance» 1) руководство, следование указа­
ниям;
2) „Руководители
political ~ политическое руководство
sent for your ~ посланный вам в помощь/для ру­
ководства (об инструкциях, пра­
вилах и т.п.)
guide v 1) направлять, руководить;
2) быть руководителем, управлять
to ~ (the affairs of) the state руководить государством
guideline n 1) директива, руководящее указание;
2) принцип, установка;
3) (pi.) нормы, инструкция (свод
указаний, правил)
to lay down the ~s определить основное
направление, курс

H
half-time п 1) неполная рабочая неделя, не­
полный рабочий день;
2) плата за неполную рабочую
неделю (неполныйрабочий день);

129
полставки; половинная оплата
to go on ~ перейти на неполную рабочую
неделю (неполныйрабочий день)
to work ~ работать неполный рабочий день
(неполную рабочую неделю)
half-timer n работник, занятый неполную
рабочую неделю
hands-on management оперативное руководство
(leadership)
harassment причинение беспокойства,
приставание, преследование,
домогательство
sexual ~ сексуальное домогательство
head n глава, руководитель
.d eE u ty - ......................................... заместитель руководителя
~ of an agency руководитель учреждения
-o f a department начальник (руководитель) отдела
~ of an organization руководитель организации
H. of State (of Government) глава государства (правительства)
head hunting n 1) (разг.) поиски квалифициро­
ванных кадров (для работы) с
целью переманить их; 2) необос­
нованное увольнение с работы
(особенно по личным мотивам);
разгон кадров
hire v нанимать на работу
high potential employees программа раннего выявления
управляющих с высоким потен­
циалом к продвижению

holder of an office (place-holder) должностное лицо, госслужащий


human resources accounting метод учета человеческих ресур­
сов
human resources management управление человеческими ре­
сурсами
human resources planning планирование человеческих ре­
сурсов

130
I
impartiality л беспристрастность (одна из со­
ставляющих профессиональной
этики госслужащих); непредвзя­
тость, справедливость
implementation n выполнение, осуществление, про­
ведение в жизнь, реализация
budget ~ исполнение бюджета
~ to one's salary надбавка к зарплате
improve v улучшать, совершенствовать
to tend to ~ улучшать иметь тенденцию
к улучшению
improvement n улучшение, усовершенствование
efficiency ~ повышение эффективности
professional ~ повышение квалификации
radical ~ 1 коренное/радикальное улучшение
signs of ~ признаки улучшения
inadequate a 1) не соответствующий чему-л.,
не отвечающий требованиям;
2) неспособный, некомпетентный
~ compensation недостаточная компенсация
~ for work непригодный к работе
incapacity n недееспособность, несостоятель­
ность; некомпетентность
~ to work/for work неспособность работать/к работе,
(~ for working) нетрудоспособность
incentive pay plans прогрессивная система заработной
платы
incentive wage scheme поощрительная система оплаты
труда
increment/? надбавки (к зарплате по мере про­
движения по службе или повыше­
ния квалификации)
incumbent n занимающий пост в настоящее
время (в будущем эти обязанности
может выполнять кто-то другой)
~ of the office лицо, занимающее данную долж­
ность

131
Individual Development Plan План индивидуального профес­
сионального развития
in-house a внутриведомственный, внутриуч-
режденческий, не выходящий за
рамки организации
~ document служебный документ
~ education повышение квалификации
по месту работы
interview n 1) беседа, собеседование (с посту­
пающим на работу);
2) (социологический) опрос;
3) интервью
to evaluate through ~ оценивать при помощи
собеседования
exit~ последнее интервью, проводимое
при увольнении (для выяснения
причин ухода сотрудника)
sample ~ выборочный опрос
involvement n вовлечённость, участие,
заинтересованность (чем-л.)
irresponsibility n безответственность
internal environment внутренняя среда организации,
of organization совокупность ситуационных фак­
торов внутри организации: цели,
структура, задачи, технология и
люди
internal regulation внутренние правила и инструкции

J
Jack in office (разг.) чинуша, бюрократ
job и работа, дело, место службы, заня­
тие, профессия; должность
to confirm in a ~ утверждать в должности
to create new ~s создавать новые/дополнительные
рабочие места
by- работа по совместительству
challenging ~ работа, требующая отдачи
всех сил

132
decline in ~s сокращение занятости
extra ~ дополнительная работа
fascinating ~ захватывающая_работа
full-time ~ работа на полный рабочий день
highly paid-~ высокооплачиваемая_рабога
holding more than one ~ совместительство
~ creation создание рабочих мест
~ description служебные обязанности; должно­
стная инструкция
-opportunity вакансия
loss of ~s потеря_рабочих мест
low-paid ~ низкооплачиваемая работа
out of~ без^аботы
overtime- сверхурочная работа
part time ~ работа на неполной ставке,
работа неполный рабочий день
short-run ~ кратковременная работа
time/temporary ~ временная работа
well-paid- хорошо оплачиваемая работа
job V 1) работать сдельно;
2) брать случайную работу
to ~ smb. into a post устроить кого-л. на место
по протекции/по знакомству
job analysis анализ работы (должности); иссле­
дование особенностей и специфики
разных профессий и требований,
предъявляемых к работающим
jobbery 1) использование служебного по­
ложения в корыстных или личных
целях;
2) взяточничество
job description функциональные обязанности
job evaluation 1) оценка сложности работы
(при определении размера зара­
ботка, для присвоения разряда);
2) определение квалификации
jobholdern (амер.) 1) человек, имеющий
постоянную работу;
2) государственный служащий

133
job-hopper тот, кто часто меняет место
работы, летун
job posting объявление о вакансии
job requirements требования к работнику, зани­
мающему определенную должность
job rotation смена рабочего места, работа на
разных должностях (с тем, чтобы
противостоять монотонности,
обеспечить разностороннюю ква­
лификацию и тем самым подгото­
вить более широкое использова­
ние персонала)
job sharing деление рабочего места (должно­
сти) между несколькими людьми
job specification квалификационные требования
job title должность
blocking ~s блокирование замещения должно­
стей

к
Knowledge Management менеджмент знании, процесс выде­
ления, создания/приобретения, сбо­
ра, кодификации, организации, рас­
пространения, повторного исполь­
зования и упорядочения стратеги­
ческих знаний, необходимых для
такого способа функционирования
организации, который создает кон-
курентное преимущество на рынке

L
labour п 1)труд,
2) работа, задание;
3)рабочая силаграбочие
to attract and keep ~ привлекать и закреплять кадры
~ code кодекс законов о труде
~ contract договор личного найма, под­
ряд; коллективный трудовой
договор

134
~ dispute трудовой конфликт
~ market рынок труда, спрос
и предложение труда
~ union профсоюз
labour-management relations трудовые отношения между
администрацией и профсоюза­
ми (при заключении коллек­
тивного трудового договора)
law я закон; право (совокупность за­
конов и постановлений)
to administer the ~ обеспечивать правопорядок
to break the ~ нарушить закон
to enforce the ~ обеспечивать соблюдение
закона
to hold good in ~ иметь законную силу
to keep the ~ соблюдать/не нарушать закон
to stick/keep within the ~ держаться в рамках закона
administrative ~ административное право
anti-trust ~s антимонопольное законода­
тельство
civil ~ гражданское право
Civil Service L. Закон о государственной службе
Constitutional L. конституционное право
constitutionality of ~s конституционность законов
existing ~ действующее право
family- семейное гфаво
flmdamental~ основной закон, конституция
labour- трудовое право
national - внутригосударственное право
private- частное право
public ~ публичное право
safety~ закон об охране труда
state/political/public/constitutional~ государственное право
lead n 1) руководство, управление;
инициатива;
2) указание; директива
to take the- брать на себя руководство,
возглавлять, руководить

135
leave n (leave of absence) отпуск
annual ~ ежегодный отпуск
maternity ~ отпуск по беременности иродам
on ~ в отпуске
paid ~ оплачиваемый отпуск
parental ~ отпуск подходу заребенком
regular ~ очередной отпуск
research ~ (амер.) творческий отпуск
sabbatical ~ учебный отпуск
sick~ отпуск по болезни
legality n законность, приверженность
букве закона; (pi) обязанности,
налагаемые законом
administrative- законность действий
административных структур
legislation n законодательство; закон; зако­
нодательная деятельность
antimonopoly ~ антимонопольное
законодательство
-about officials законодательство о чиновниках
legislative leadership/initiative законодательная инициатива
legislative prerogative законодательная прерогатива
legislator n законодатель, член законода­
тельного органа
liability n 1) обязанность (делать что-л.)
2) ответственность;
3) (plj обязательства, долги
cfvil - гражданская ответственность
financial liabilities финансовые обязательства,
долги
personal - личная ответственность
list n 1) список, перечень; ведомость;
2) опросный лист (бланк)
to make a - составлять список
assessment- список имущества, подлежаще­
го налогообложению
civil- список государственных
служащих
staff ~ (staff - ing) штатное расписание

136
waiting- список очередности
loss of earning capacity потеря трудоспособности
loyalty n лояльность, верность
- check/test {амер.) проверка лояльности
госслужащих

м
magistrate п 1) государственный чиновник,
чиновник гражданской власти;
2) магистрат (должностное лицо,
осуществляющее правосудие)
stipending- должностное лицо, находящееся
на жаловании у правительства
maintenance и 1) сохранение в силе;
2) материальное обеспечение
(чиновника); средство к сущест­
вованию;
3) материально-техническое
обеспечение
-allowance деньги на командировочные
расходы;
пособие на содержание
и техническое обслуживание
- cost(s) эксплуатационные расходы
~ of order поддержание порядка
maladministration n недобросовестное или неэффек­
тивное управление
manage v 1) управлять, руководить, заве­
довать; уметь обращаться;
2) справиться, суметь сделать
что-л.
manageable a управляемый
management n 1) управление: политика и мето­
ды управления хозяйственной
деятельностью; менеджмент;
2) управляющие, руководство
accountable - подотчетное управление
conflict ~ управление конфликтами
crisis — действия в условиях кризиса

137
day-to-day ~ оперативное управление
effective ~ действенное руководство
executive ~ административная власть, адми­
нистративное управление
financial ~ управление финансами
first-line - уровень руководства, находя­
щийся непосредственно над уров­
нем рабочих
human resources ~ управление человеческими ре­
сурсами
line ~ линейное руководство, среднее
звено руководства
the администрация, дирекция
- by objectives управление методом оценки эф­
фективности
~ engineering рационализация методов управ­
ления (производством)
~ experts специалисты по делам управле­
ния, администраторы высшего
класса

~ of state affairs управление государственными


делами
~ quality качество управления (оценка ве­
домства с точки зрения квалифи­
кации управляющих, обоснован­
ности принимаемых решений)
-..overheads расходы на содержание управ­
ленческого аппарата
materials flow ~ управление материальными
потоками
middle ~ среднее административное звено
operational ~ оперативное руководство
regional ~ региональная администрация
sectoral ~ отраслевое у правление
senior/top (executive) ~ высшее (исполнительное)
руководство
service ~ обеспечение обслуживания по­
требителя

138
state~ государственное управление;
администрация (круг руководи­
телей, орган управления)
top ~ высший уровень администра­
тивной иерархии
management information sys­ информационная система управ­
tem for document flows (of a ления документационным обес­
department) печением (ведомства)
management layers уровни управления
to reduce the number of ~ сократить число уровней управ­
ления (в структуре)
manager n руководитель, заведующий,
директор, менеджер
assistant/deputy ~ заместитель заведующего
financial ~ финансовый менеджер
general ~ главный (генеральный) управ­
ляющий
marketing ~ менеджер по маркетингу
middle ~ руководитель среднего звена
office ~ руководитель учреждения
personnel ~ начальник отдела кадров
production ~ руководитель производства
project ~ руководитель проекта
research - руководитель научно-
исследовательских работ
team- руководитель группы
managerial a 1) относящийся к управлению,
управленческий;
2) организаторский, организаци­
онный
~ competence управленческая компетенция
~ experience управленческий опыт
~ qualities организаторские способности
~ skills управленческие навыки
~ personnel управленческий персонал
managerialism n менеджеризм: система ценно­
стей и отношений, связанных с
менеджментом как особой фор-

139
мой управления, противопос­
тавляемой системе ценностей и
иерархических отношений, су­
ществующих в государственном
секторе
mayor я мэр города
meeting и 1) собрание, совещание, заседа­
ние; конференция, митинг,
съезд;
2 ) встреча
to address a ~ выступить на собрании; обра­
титься с речью к собранию
to hold a ~ проводить собрание
ministerial ~ совещание (встреча) на уровне
министров
private ~ закрытое заседание
public ~ 1) общее собрание; собрание
представителей общественности;
2) открытое заседание
совещание в верхах
memo n (memorandum) 1) служебная записка;
2) памятная записка
mentor ментор - назначенный к моло­
дому управляющему руководи­
тель из среднего или высшего
эшелона управления
merit n 1) заслуга;
2) достоинство;
3) (pi.) качества
figure of~s показатель качества

~ iist список представленных


к наградам, званиям и пр.
merit staffing system/procedures процедура укомплектования штата
по конкурсной «системе заслуг»
misconduct in office нарушение служебных обязан­
ностей
misdeed n ненадлежащее поведение, слу­
жебный проступок

140
misdemeanour n судебно-наказуемый проступок
to commit a ~ совершить преступление,
проступок
-in office должностное преступление
mission n миссия - документ, описываю­
щий цель или смысл существова­
ния организации. Отвечает на
вопрос, зачем существует данный
бизнес или вид деятельности
moral a моральный, нравственный, эти­
ческий
employee's ~ character моральный облик служащего
~ standards моральные нормы
municipal corporation 1Муниципальная корпорация,
корпорация-город;
2) муниципалитет
municipality n 1) город или любой населенный
пункт, имеющий самоуправле­
ние;
2) муниципалитет;
3) управление по муниципаль­
ному принципу

N
neglect п халатность, недосмотр, упущение
~ of official duty халатное отношение к служебным
обязанностям
negligence n небрежность, халатность, равно­
душие
to be due to ~ произойти по недосмотру
criminal ~ преступная небрежность
~ in handling smb.'s affairs халатность в ведении чьих-л. дел
nominator n лицо, назначающее на должность
nominee/] лицо, назначенное на должность;
выдвинутый кандидат (на долж­
ность)
note n 1) {pi.) заметка, запись;
2) примечание, ссылка;
3) письменное уведомление:

141
4) расписка
short-hand ~ стенограмма
notice п 1) извещение, уведомление;
2) объявление;
3) предупреждение (работнику) о
предстоящем увольнении
to get a (month's) ~ получить предупреждение о пред­
стоящем (через месяц) увольнении
to give in one's ~ подать (нанимателю) заявление об
уходе с работы
to give ~ уведомлять, извещать
to serve ~ официально извещать, вручать
повестку
advance ~ предварительное уведомление
at short ~ по первому требованию, незамед­
лительно
due~ надлежащее уведомление
formal ~ официальное извеще­
ние/предупреждение
~ of receipt расписка в получении
timely ~ своевременное уведомление
until/till further ~ впредь до дальнейшего уведомления
without further ~ без дополнительного извещения
written ~ (~ in writing) письменное уведомление
nullify v 1) уничтожать;
2) делать недействительным;
3) аннулировать
nullity n недействительность
(соглашение и тд.)
~ suit дело о признании (документа)
недействительным

о
office п 1) офис, министерство (входит в
названия некоторых министерств),
ведомство;
2) должность, пост; место, нахо­
ждение у власти, на посту;
3) контора, кабинет^ канцелярия

142
to abuse one's ~ злоупотреблять служебным по­
ложением
to accept ~ принять предложение
to assume/come into/enter занять должность
upon/fill/
get into/take ~ вступить в должность, присту­
пить к исполнению служебных
обязанностей
to be in ~ (to hold ~) 1) быть у власти (о правительст­
ве); входить в состав правитель­
ства;
2) занимать пост, должность
to hold more than one ~ совмещать несколько должностей
to refuse/resign an ~ отказываться от должности
to reinstate smb. in his former ~ восстановить кого-л. в прежней
должности
to swear into ~ принять служебную присягу
(напр, о члене кабинета)
accountant's ~ финансовый отдел
customs ~ таможенное ведомство
government ~s правительственные учреждения
~,the служащие^чреждений, клерки
~ appliances оргтехника
~ block (building) административное здание
~ hours часыдэаботы; приемные часы
0 . of Administration Административное управление
~ of honour почетная, неоплачиваемая долж­
ность
~ of state государственное ведомство
~ staff конторские служащие
~ under Government место на государственной службе
~ worker сотрудник
patent ~ патентное ведомство
political ~ государственный пост
private ~ личный кабинет
termination of ~ окончание срока службы
term/period/tenure of ~ пребывание в должности
vacancy in ~ вакантная должность
officer я должностное лицо, чиновник

143
assistant ~ помощник должностного лица
career- кадровый сотрудник
Chief Financial O. главный финансовый директор
chief information ~ руководитель информационной
службы
chief~s of the council высшие должностные лица ме­
стного совета (Великобритания)
executive ~ ответственный исполнитель;
управляющий делами
~s of state должностное лицо исполнитель­
ной власти
public ~ государственные служа­
щие/чиновники
государственный служащий
welfare ~ работник по вопросам социаль­
ного обеспечения
official n должностное лицо; чиновник;
работник
administrative ~ служащий (государственной
службы) административное лицо
appointed ~ должностное лицо по назначе­
нию (не выборное)
federal ~ федеральный чиновник
fully trained ~s хорошо подготовленные
чиновники
government/state high ~s государственный чиновник вы­
сокопоставленные должностные
лица
local ~ местный чиновник
municipal ~s муниципальные власти
newly-appointed ~ сотрудник, только что принятый
на работу
~s, the чиновничий аппарат,
канцелярские служащие
senior ~ top —s ответственные работники,
руководящие кадры
official a 1) служебный, должностной;
2) официальный;
3) формальный, казенный

144
for ~ use only только для служебного пользо­
вания
~ circumlocution бюрократическая волокита
~ duties/responsibilities служебные обязанности
~ pos ition/standing служебное положение
~ records служебные документы
~ reply формальный ответ
opinion n 1) мнение, взгляд;
2) оценка;
3) заключение специалиста (час­
то письменное);
4) судебное решение
to act up to one's ~s поступать согласно своим убеж­
дениям
tojgive an ~ of smth. выразить/высказать свое мнение
to have/get another ~ запросить мнение (пригласить)
еще одного специалиста
advisory ~ консультативное заключение
dissenting ~ особое (несовпадающее) мнение
(судьи)
expert— заключение специалиста,
экспертиза
political —s политическиеубеждения
public- общественное мнение
opinion poll опрос общественного мнения
opportunity n 1) (благоприятная) возможность;
2) перспектива
to create greater opportunities создавать более благоприятные
возможности
career- возможность сделать карьеру
employment opportunities имеющиеся в наличии рабочие
места
job~ возможность получения работы
или продвижения по службе;
вакансия
profit- деловая перспектива
organization n 1) организация, учреждение;
2) устройство, структура

145
communal/public ~s общественные организации
govemment/state- бюджетная организация
financed/publicly financed ~ высокоэффективная организа­
high-performance ~ ция
non-governmental ~ неправительственная организа­
ция
organization man (O.M.) функционер; руководитель-
бюрократ
outgoing a 1) уходящий в отставку; уходя­
щий в связи с окончанием срока
полномочий; прежний состав (о
каком-л. органе);
2) исходящий (о документах,
почте и пр.)
outplace v трудоустроить в порядке пере­
вода; (амер.) оказать помощь
при трудоустройстве
outplacement n увольнение по сокращению шта­
тов; {амер.) трудоустройство
сокращаемых сотрудников
overmanning n излишек рабочей силы (на пред­
приятии), раздувание штатов
overrule v 1) отвергать, отклонять предло­
жение;
2) аннулировать, считать недей­
ствительным
to ~ a claim (an objection) отвергать требование (возражение)
to ~ a decision отменять решение

р
paper и 1) документ
2) (pi.) личные или служебные
документы, бумаги
background ~s вспомогательные документы
(материалы)
command- правительственный норматив­
ный документ, директива
official ~s деловые бумаги
staff- справка (меморандум) для слу-

146
жебного пользования
state~s государственные бумаги
working- рабочий документ
paperwork n 1) канцелярская работа;
2) проверка документов
to do the ~ оформлять документы
pay и 1) плата, выплата вознагражде­
ния;
2) зарплата, жалование;
3) пособиег пенсия
base ~ тарифная ставка/заработная плата
call-back ~ гарантированная оплата за вызов
на сверхурочную работу
equal- равная оплата труда
guaranteed - minimum гарантированный минимум зара­
ботной платы
incentive/fee ~ поощрительная оплата, поощри­
тельное вознаграждение
lay-off ~ (амер.) выходное пособие
longevity - вознаграждение за выслугу лет
premium - премиальное вознаграждение
retirement ~ пенсия за выслугу лет
seniority ~ надбавка к зарплате за выслугу лет
severance - выходное пособие
sick- пособие по болезни; выплата
по больничному листу
take-home - реальная заработная плата
(за вычетом налогов)
payment n 1) оплата, платеж; выплата;
2) вознаграждение
advance - авансовый (досрочный платеж)
allowance /benefit - выплата пособия
bonus/incentive - выплата премии; поощрительное
(премиальное) вознаграждение
cash - уплата наличными деньгами,
денежная выплата
illicit —s незаконные выплаты, взятки
lump-sum — единовременная выплата
monthly - ежемесячный взнос

147
~ by results оплата по_результатам
~ for services вознаграждение за_услуги
payroll ~ выплата жалования
pension ~ выплата пенсии
progress ~ промежуточная выплата
terms of ~ условия платежа
pay-pause n временное замораживание
заработной платы
pay-rise n увеличение, повышение
заработной платы
pension n пенсия
to jgrant a ~ to smb. назначить пенсию кому-л.
to retire on a ~ уйти на пенсию
contributory ~ пенсия за счет взносов работника
и предпринимателей
disability/disablement ~ пенсия по инвалидности (нетру­
доспособности)
earnings-related ~ пенсия в зависимости от доходов
inflation-proof- пенсия, защищенная от инфляции
life~ пожизненная пенсия
non-contributory ~ пенсия без предварительных
взносов
old-age/superannuation ~ пенсия по старости
retirement ~ пенсия за выслугу лет (при вы­
ходе в отставку); пенсия по воз­
расту
pension fund пенсионный фонд
pension plan система пенсионного обеспече­
ния
performance n 1) исполнение;
2) степень эффективности функ­
ционирования (напр., организа­
ции), результат деятельности
-award премия за хорошие показатели
в работе
~ issue вопросы повышения производи­
тельности труда
~ management управление производительно­
стью

148
~ quality качество работы
~ report служебная характеристика
~ test критерий оценки эффективности
функционирования
performance-related pay система оплаты труда за выпол­
нение работы, означающая отход
от традиционной системы фик­
сированных ставок (повышение и
снижение заработной платы на­
прямую зависит от эффективно­
сти работы служащего)
performer n исполнитель
ordinary- рядовой исполнитель
period rt период
- o f grace льготный период
reference/reporting ~ отчетный период
shutdown ~ нерабочий период
trial- испытательный период
personal particulars анкетные данные
personnel n персонал, штат; кадры; личный
(кадровый) состав
to fumish/provide ~ обеспечивать кадрами
to reinforce/replenish with skilled- укреплять квалифицированными
кадрами
to select ~ подбирать кадры
to train - готовить кадры
administrative - административно­
управленческий персо­
нал/аппарат (люди)
high/top-level/rank - руководящие работники
managerial/managing - управленческие кадры
office and management - административно­
управленческий аппарат
-audit гдюверка работы кадров
-cutback сокращение персонала
- development/training работа с карами
-director/manager начальник отдела кадров
(flexible) - management (гибкое) руководство персона­
лом, кадрами

149
~ manual кадровая инструкция, руково­
дство для персонала
-policy кадровая политика
~ recruitment набор кадров
~election подбор персонала
personnel administration 1) работа с кадрами, руководство
кадрами
2) отношение между админист­
ративным персоналом и подчи­
ненными
physical requirements физические ограничения
placement определение на должность
position n 1) должность, место
2) (высокое) общественное по­
ложение
3J местонахождение
to assign to a ~ назначать на должность, особен­
но штатную
to be suitable/ fit for a ~ соответствовать должности
to capitalize on one’s~ пользоваться своим положением
to hold concurrent ~s совмещать должности
to occupy/hold leading ~s занимать руководящие посты
to secure a high government- добиться назначения на высокий
государственный пост
general —s общие должности
official - служебное положение
people of - люди, занимающие высокое об­
щественное положение
principal administrative ~s главные административные
должности
post n пост, должность
to hold/fill/occupy a - занимать пост/должность
to leave one’s - оставить свой пост, уйти с долж­
ности
to take up a - занять пост/должность
departmental - ведомственная должность
established - штатная должность
executive — административный пост
major ~ ответственная/высокая должность

150
minor ~ s низшие должности
power n 1) власть
2) правое полномочие
to be in­ быть/находится_у власти
to come/to rise to ~ прийти к власти
ample/large - s широкие полномочия
ancillary - s дополнительные полномочия
delegated - s делегированные полномочия
derogation of the - s аннулирование полномочий
emergency —s чрезвычайные полномочия
- o f municipality муниципальная власть
state- государственная власть
supreme/sovereign ~ верховная власть
power elite властвующая элита
probation n испытание, стажирование
to work on ~ проходить испытательный стаж
probationary period испытательный стаж, период ста­
жировки, испытательный срок
proceeding(s) n 1) дело, работа, судебное
разбирательство
2) протоколы, отчеты
daily - s текущие дела, повседневная
работа, (комиссии)
order o f - s порядок рассмотрения
project n Проект, комплекс, взаимосвя­
занных мероприятий, предназна­
ченных для достижения постав­
ленных задач в течение заданно­
го периода времени и при уста­
новленном бюджете с четко оп­
ределенными целями
- management Управление проектом - исполь­
зование знаний, навыков, мето­
дов, средств и технологий при
выполнении проекта с целью
достижения или превышения
ожиданий участников проекта.

151
~ change management Управление изменениями проек­
та - совокупность процессов,
связанных с обеспечением защи­
ты проекта от возможного нега­
тивного влияния внешних и
внутренних факторов, внесением
необходимых скоординирован­
ных изменений и контроль за их
эффективным осуществлением

~ risk management Управление рисками проекта -


совокупность процессов, связан­
ных с идентификацией и анали­
зом рисков, а также разработкой
мер реагирования на рисковые
события, которые включают мак­
симизацию положительных и
минимизацию отрицательных
последствий наступления риско­
вых событий
promote v 1) продвигать по службе,
повышать в должности;
2) способствовать поддерживать
to be ~d (over the head of other продвинуться по службе
persons) (обойдя других)
to ~ a scheme содействовать продвижению пла­
(a bill in Parliament) на (законопроекта в парламенте)
promotion n 1) содействие (развитию),
поддержка;
2) повышение в должности, чине;
продвижение по службе
to be on one's ~ иметь право на повышение
to obtain/get one's ~ получить повышение по службе
to obtain quick ~ быстро сделать карьеру
to recommend smb. for ~ рекомендовать кого-л.
на повышение
~ by merit внеочередное повышение в долж­
ности (на основании личных заслуг)

152
~ by seniority повышение в должности
по старшинству
~ of a company учреждение компании
public administration искусство и наука управления
государственными делами, осо­
бенно вопросами работы с кад­
рами организации производства
и финансов
public employment agency государственное агентство заня­
тости
public office 1) государственное или муници­
пальное учреждение;
2) государственная или муници­
пальная должность; публичная
должность
the abuse of - злоупотребление
государственной должностью
public-opinion poll опрос общественного мнения
public relations отдел информации, служба ин­
формации; связь (лица, органи­
зации) с общественностью
~ agency агентство по общественным связям
~ measures программа мероприятий по об­
щественным связям
public service 1) деятельность на общественном
поприще; 2) коммунальные услу­
ги, коммунальное обслуживание;
3) государственная служба
public utilities коммунальные услуги/службы; ком­
мунальные сооружения; предпри­
ятия общественною пользования

qualification (s) п квалификация, пригодность


to have necessary ~s for the job иметь необходимые данные
для получения работы
tojpass ~ пройти аттестацию
additional ~s дополнительные должностные
требования

153
special ~s особые требования
voting ~s право на участие в голосовании
question n 1) вопрос, опрос, проблема;
2) предложение (в парламенте)
to answer ~s отвечать на вопросы
to ask/put ~s задавать вопросы
to beg the ~ голословно утверждать что-л.;
уходить от ответа
to bring up/raise/ojpen a ~ поднять вопрос
to clear/clarify/brighten a ~ внести ясность в вопрос
to complicate ^ tangle) a — усложнить (запутать) вопрос
to deviate/depart from a ~ уклониться/уйти от вопроса
to go into the ~ вникнуть в вопрос,
заняться вопросом
to treat a ~ рассматривать вопрос
budgetary ~ бюджетный вопрос
crucial — важный вопрос
disputable ~ спорный вопрос
minor- второстепенный вопрос
moot - спорный вопрос
a - of the hour (of the day) наиболее актуальный,
злободневный вопрос
a - under consideration вопрос, находящийся
на рассмотрении
a topical/urgent - актуальный/насущный,
неотложный вопрос
unsettled ~ неразрешенный вопрос
(проблема)
vexed- спорный, горячо дебатируемый
вопрос
questionnaire n опросный лист, вопросник
to fill in/make out a - заполнять анкету, опросный лист
~ of a standard type анкета установленного образца
—of the workman анкета работника
quit» (амер.) увольнение с работы; (pi.)
служащие, увольняющиеся по
собственному желанию

154
R
rank n служебный ранг; служебное по­
ложение; ЧИН’ должность
high/top ~ высший чин
rank award должностная награда
rates and taxes утверждать, разрешать, скреп­
лять (подписью, печатью), рати­
фицировать
recommend v рекомендовать, советовать
to ~ a candidate for some post рекомендовать кандидата должность
record n 1) официальный отчет, протокол
(заседания); {pi.) архив;
2) учет, регистрация;
3) {pi.) учетная документация;
4) факты, данные (о ком-л.)
employment/service ~ характеристика
(~ of service)
official ~ послужной список, стаж работы
официальный отчет
personnel/staff ~ учет кадров
time- стаж работы, трудовой стаж
record-keeper n делопроизводитель
recruitment n прием на работу; набор (кадров),
наём
direct - by the employer прием на работу непосредствен­
но нанимателем
staff- подбор персонала, набор кадров
red tape (red tapery) бюрократическая волокита,
канцелярский
-/bureaucratic style of work бюрократический стиль работы
reduction n снижение, сокращение
- in expenditure сокращение расходов
- o f demand падение спроса
- ofpersonnel сокращение штата
- ofprices снижение/падение цен
- o f unemployment сокращение безработицы
- of wages снижение заработной платы
- o f working hours сокращение рабочего времени

155
redundancy n 1) излишек рабочей силы, безра­
ботица (особ, частичная);
2) сокращение штатов; увольне-
ние^абочих или служащих
~ among clerks безработица среди канцелярских
работников
-fund фонд для выплаты пособий
по безработице
~ payment выходное пособие (выплачивае­
мое работодателем в случае
увольнения работника
при сокращении персонала)
redundant a 1) излишний, избыточный
(о рабочей силе);
2) сокращенный, ^уволенный
to become ~ быть уволенным
(по сокращению штата)
to declare smb. ~ увольнять по сокращению штатов
referee n лицо, дающее рекомендации для
приема на работу, поручитель
reference n 1) ссылка (на кого-л., что-л.).
2) характеристика (официальный
документ);
3} компетенция круг полномочий
to keep within/to the terms o f ~ не выходить за пределы
полномочий
~book справочник
~ letter рекомендательное письмо
~ number (of a document) номер/шифр (документа); номер
для ссылок, исходящий номер
~ period отчетный период
wide (limited) ~ широкий (ограниченный)
круг полномочий
registration number registry бюро (отдел) записи актов
office (register office) гражданского состояния
regulation n 1) регулирование, упорядочение
2) (pi.) правила, регламент, ус­
тав, инструкция

156
to bring under ~s регламентировать
adoption o f ~s утверждение правил
antimonopoly ~ антимонопольноерегулирование
code of ~s кодекс норм
compulsory ~s правила, обязательные
для выполнения
duty ~ должностная инструкция
government/state ~ государственное регулирование
implementing/clarifying ~s нормативные документы
in accordance with laws and ~s в соответствии с законами
и правилами
rate of return— регулирование нормы прибыли

(rules of) internal ~s (staff ~) правила внутреннего распорядка,


положение о персонале
reimburse v возмещать, оплачивать,
возвращать (сумму)
to ~ smb. for damage компенсировать кому-л. ущерб
to ~ for expenses возместить чьи-л. расходы
report» доклад, отчёт, сообщение
to adopt/approve a ~ принять/одобрить доклад/отчёт
to alter a ~ поправить/исправить
доклад/отчёт
to draw up a ~ составить отчёт
to make a~ сделать доклад
to present/submit a ~ предоставить доклад/отчёт (о
(on the activity of..) деятельности какого-л. органа)
to update the- включить в доклад самые
последние данные
according to latest ~s по последним сообщениям
administrative ~ административный доклад
annual/yearly ~ годовой/ежегодный доклад/отчет
consolidated ~ сводный доклад/отчет
cost reduction ~ отчет о снижении затрат
faked ~ сфабрикованный отчет
follow-up ~ отчет о принятых мерах

157
interim/progress ~ промежуточный доклад о проде­
ланной работе, отчет о ходе ра­
боты за определенный период
(какого-то срока)
~ on the management доклад об управлении
staff ~ докладная записка, справка
для служебного пользования
summary ~ 1фаткий отчет
timekeeping ~ отчёт о трудозатратах
top management ~ доклад высшей администрации
travel expense ~ отчёт о командировочных
расходах
reprimand n выговор, наказание, замечание
administrative ~ административное взыскание
severe ~ строгий выговор
resignation n отставка; отказ от должности;
заявление об отставке
to accept the ~ принять отставку
to file/give/hand in one's ~ подать заявление об отставке
(о переводе на пенсию)
to send in/tender one's ~ подать в отставку
rise v продвигаться вверх (по общест­
венной лестнице)
to ~ in one's profession продвигаться по службе
risk n риск, сочетание вероятности
события и его последствий
~ management менеджмент риска - скоордини­
рованные действия по руково­
дству и управлению организаци­
ей в отношении риска. Обычно
менеджмент риска включает в
себя оценку риска, обработку
риска, принятие риска и комму­
никациюjpncKa
~ management system система менеджмента риска —
набор элементов системы ме­
неджмента организации
в отношении менеджмента риска

158
run V 1) управлять, руководить (учре­
ждением);
2) иметь силу, быть действи­
тельным (в течение определен­
ного срока);
3) гласить (о документе);
4) баллотироваться (на пост)
to- a business вести дело,
управлять предприятием
to ~ for parliament (for office) баллотироваться в парламент
(на какую-л. должность^
to -o ff истекать (о сроке)
running» управление
an efficient - of economy рациональное руководство
экономикой
- of the organization функционирование организации;
руководство организацией

s
sack и увольнять (с работы)
safety и безопасность, сохранность
personnel ~ безопасность персонала
public- общественная безопасность
- arrangements and precautions охрана труда, техника безопас­
ности
standards o f — нормы безопасности
salary n оклад, жалование (служащим);
(pi.) фонд жалования служа­
щих; общая сумма выплачи­
ваемого жалования
to draw a fixed - быть на твердом окладе
to earn a - получать жалование
to raise a - повышать жалование
basic - основной оклад
official - базовая заработная плата
должностной оклад
rate o f- размер жалования

159
regular- регулярное жалование
~adjustment определение размера
должностного оклада
-and other consideration оклад и другие надбавки
~ scale шкала заработной платы, та­
рифная сетка, расценки
selection n отбор, выбор
careful- тщательный отбор
selection ratio число вакансий
self-government n самоуправление
to obtain ~ добиться самоуправления
complete — полное самоуправление
partial ~ частичное самоуправление
seniority n 1) старшинство;
2) выслуга лет, трудовой стаж
-benefits вознаграждение за выслугу лет
-p a y надбавка к зарплате за выслугу
лет
system o f ~ субординация
separation of powers принцип разделения властей
servant n служащий (государственного
учреждения, ]ражданский)
civil ~ государственный служащий
(гражданский), чиновник
civil —s of the public sector служащие публичного сектора
government civil ~ служащий государственной
службы
"industrial" civil ~s промышленные госслужащие
(торговые и промышленные
работники различных предпри­
ятий, находящихся в ведении
министерств и ведомств, Вели­
кобритания)
neutrality of civil ~s нейтральность чиновничества
"non-industrial" civil ~s непромышленные госслужащие

160
public- государственное или муници­
пальное должностное лицо;
лицо, находящееся на государ­
ственной службе
~of the state государственный служащий
service n 1) служба, ведомство;
2) услуга (любая полезная дея­
тельность, результатами кото­
рой может воспользоваться
потребитель, независимо от
того, платит он за них или нет);
3) учреждение
to do/render ~s оказывать услуги
to turn down/decline the ~s отказаться от услуг
administrative ~ служба в административном
учреждении
administrative ~s административные службы
advisory ~s консультативные (экспертные)
услуги
civil/public/state ~ государственная служба
continuity o f ~ непрерывный стаж
free/gratis ~s бесплатные услуги
full-time ~ штатная служба
government ~s услуги, предоставляемые госу­
дарством
inland revenue ~ налоговое ведомство
length/record of ~ стаж работы по специальности;
послужной список
management/managerial ~s управленческие услуги
motivation of civil ~ мотивация государственной
службы
municipal ~ муниципальная служба
professional ~s профессиональные услуги
~s ofjpersonnel услуги персонала
social ~s 1) социальные услуги (образо­
вание, жилищное строительст­
во, здравоохранение);
2) общественные учреждения
tax ~s услуги в сфере налогообложения

161
training ~s услуги по обучению
service rating послужной список
settle v 1) решать, принимать решение
2) договариваться, приходить
соглашению, улаживать, опре­
делять;
3) расплачиваться, погашать
(задолженность);
4 ) заселять
to~ the difference урегулировать разногласие,
спор
to ~ a document составлять документ
to ~ an alimony установить (кому-л.) содержа­
ние
to ~ the terms договориться об условиях
sick list больничный лист, бюллетень
skill n квалификация; практический
опыт; умение; способности
to develop appropriate management развивать необходимые адми­
~s нистративные навыки
communication ~s навыки общения
improvement in (professional) ~ повышение квалификации
~ formation подготовка квалифицирован­
ных калдэов
"special ~s" дополнительные навыки (опыт
и знания, указываемые в анкете
при поступлении на работу)
specialist n 1) специалист;
2) госслужащий' получивший в
отличие от генералиста, специ­
альную профессиональную
подготовку
broad ~ специалист широкого профиля
diplomated ~ дипломированный специалист
experienced ~ опытный специалист
highly-qualified (skilled) ~ специалист высокой квалифи­
кации
leading ~s (leading men) ведущие специалисты
narrow ~ узкий специалист

162
staff n 1) штат (постоянный состав
сотрудников учреждения);
2) личный (кадровый) состав;
3) (амер.) (мн.ч. без изменений)
штатный сотрудник
to be on the ~ состоять в штате
to be short of ~ испытывать нехватку персонала
to provide ~ обеспечивать кадрами
to reduce/cut down the ~ сокращать штат
to reinforce/replenish with skilled ~ укреплять квалифицированны­
ми кадрами
to take (smb.) on the ~ включить кого-л. в штат
advisoiy~ консультативный аппарат
directing/management ~ руководящий персонал
member of the ~ сотрудник
multinational ~ (of population, многонациональный состав
organization etc.) (населения, организации и т.д.)
name of— имя сотрудника (строка в анкете)
professional - профессиональные кадры
regular- штатный персонал
reduction of the - со!фащение штатов
scientific and technical - научно-технические кадры
shortageflack o f - нехватка кадров
service- обслуживающий персонал
temporary - временный персонал
- turnover текучесть кадров
staffing n укомплектование персоналом,
кадровое обеспечение
-planning - планирование кадрового обес­
печения (укомплектование пер­
соналом)
statement n 1) заявление (утверждение);
формулировка; 2) отчет, баланс;
3) ведомость, смета
to make a - on the subject of... сделать заявление по вопросу о
to retract one's - отказаться от своего заявления
formal ~ официальное заявление
inaccurate - неправильное, ошибочное ут­
верждение

163
monthly ~ ежемесячный бюллетень
~ of problem постановка задачи
structure n 1) структура, устройство;
2) соотношение
changing ~ структурные сдвиги
hierarchic(al) ~ иерархическая структура
(напр, организации)
management ~ структура управленческого ап­
парата, структура управления
national-state ~ национально-государственное
устройство (страны)
occupational ~ профессиональный состав
(рабочей силы)
organizational -~ организационная структура
reshaping of the ~ перестройка системы
social ~ общественное устройство,
социальная структура
substitute n 1Заместитель;
2) замена
to be appointed smb.'s ~ быть назначенным чьим-л.
заместителем
as a ~ for smb. в качестве заместителя, вместо
кого-л.
suitability n пригодность
superior a высший (по должности или
званию), вышестоящий
—body высший орган, вышестоящая
организация
supernumerary n внештатный работник, времен­
ный заместитель
supervisor n служащий, умеющий решать
кадровые вопросы; лицо сред­
него руководящего персонала
survey n 1) обзор;
2) инспектирование, опрос, об­
следование;
3) отчет об обследовании
to make a general ~ of a situation в общих чертах описать
положение

164
to present a ~ представлять обзор
system» 1) система, способ;
2) строй, устройство
bonus~ премиальная система оплаты
enterprise resource planning ~ автоматизированная система
управления ресурсами
flexible personnel ~ гибкая система работы
с кадрами
market-sensitive ~ система, чувствительная к ры­
ночным изменениям
management information ~ система управленческой
информации
performance-oriented ~ система, ориентированная
на эффективную работу
~ of government система правления

т
target и задание, плановая или кон­
трольная цифра; цель
to hit/realize the ~ выполнить план
to lower ~s снизить плановые задания
performance ~s целевые показатели
strategic ~ стратегическая цель
task group рабочая, проблемная группа
temporary layoff временные увольнения (с обя­
зательством взять работника
обратно на работу по истече­
ний какого-то времени)
traineeship n стажировка
training n обучение, стажировка, курс
обучения
behavioural ~ обучение поведению
в организации
further ~ o f staff последующая профессио­
нальная подготовка
general ~ переподготовка кадров
общая профессиональная
подготовка

165
initial vocational ~ начальная профессиональная
подготовка
in-service/on the job ~ обучение по месту работы,
подготовка без отрыва от
работы
management ~ обучение руководящих кадров
supervisory ~ тренировка восприимчиво­
сти (руководящих кадров)
~ and development повышение квалификации
transfer to other work перевод на другое место
работы
treason n государственная измена

и
unemployment п безработица
casual ~ временная безработица
involuntary ~ вынужденная безработица
disguised/hidden ~ скрытая безработица
struggle against ~ борьба с безработицей
~ benefit/compensation пособие по безработице
~ insurance страхование по безработице
~ rate уровень безработицы
~ statistics статистика безработицы

V
vacancy п вакансия
to announce ~ объявлять конкурс на замещение
вакантной должности
to fill а ~ заполнить вакансию
~ in office должностная вакансия, вакантная
должность
vacate v освобождать (должность, поме­
щение), уходить в отставку,
уйти в отставку
to ~ office 1) подать в отставку
to ~ one's seat 2) сложить с себя полномочия
депутата, отказаться от депутат­
ского мандата

166
vacation n 1) каникулы, перерыв (между
сессиями парламента);
2) уход с должности, отставка,
отпуск
~ of a position (~ of seat) уход с должности, отставка

w
wage и 1) (преим. pi.) заработная плата.
2) (pi.) фонды заработной платы
arrears o f ~s долги по зарплате
base/basic ~(s) основная, базовая заработная плата
board ~(s) стоимость жилья и питания (как
часть заработной платы)
living ~s прожиточный минимум
minimum ~ минимальная заработная плата
monthly —(s) ежемесячная заработная плата
real- реальная зарплата
subsistence ~s зарплата на уровне прожиточного
минимума
wages and salaries заработная плата рабочих
и служащих
wage ceiling (wage floor) установленный законом максимум
(минимум) заработной платы
white-collar worker "белый воротничок" (любой офисный
работник, не занятый физическим
трудом, включая административных
и управленческих работников)
work n работа
contract ~ (~ on a contract) работа по контракту
contractor ~ подрядная работа
creative ~ творческая работа
skilled ~ высококвалифицированная работа
low-paid ~ низкооплачиваемая работа
main ~ основная работа
managerial ~ управленческая_работа
mental ~ умственная работа
night ~ (night hours) работа в ночное время
non-shift ~ работа в одну смену

167
organizational ~ организационная работа
overtime ~ сверхурочная работа
part-time ~ работа неполный рабочий день
piece ~ сдельная работа
planned/scheduled ~ плановая работа
preparatory ~ подготовительная работа
pressure of ~ загруженность_работой
regular/permanent ~ постоянная работа
rush- срочная работа
science ~ научная работа
second-shift ~ работа во вторую смену
shift ~ сменная работа
short-time ~ работа с сокращенным рабочим
днем
time/temporary ~ временная (повременная) работа
two-shift/double-shift ~ работа в две смены
well-paid ~ хорошо оплачиваемая работа
~ done/performed выполненная работа
~ for hire (wage ~) работа по найму
~ in progress (~ on hand, ~ выполняемая работа
under way)
~ on days off and holidays работа в выходные и праздничные
дни
~ statement отчет о работе
work under smb. работать под чьим-то
руководством
worker n рабочий,работник
administrative ~ административныйработник
efficient ~ знающий и энергичный работник
govemment/state-paid - бюджетник
office ~ сотрудник
~ rank-and-file ~ рядовой работник
Y
Z

168
Dictionary of Business and Management Jargon
A
Accountability-
1 Responsibility for the progress of a project or the progress of the firm
"We are going to build in accountability"
Across the board
1 including everyone or everything
“The computer company decided to give the workers an across-the-board
increase in their salary.”

В
Banker’s hours
1 short work hours
“My sister's husband owns his own company and is able to work banker's
hours with his large staff.”
Big gun/cheese/wheel/wig
1 an important person, a leader
“The new director was a big wheel in his previous company but is not so
important now.”
Boys in the backroom
1 a group of men making decisions behind the scenes
“The boys in the backroom told us that we must close down the factory
as soon as possible.”
Bullish on
1 In favor of
2 To assert a belief that something will increase
"I'm bullish on our sales"
Business case
1 A multiple year estimate of a future projects costs and revenues
"Can we make a business case for your project"
Buy in
1 Agreement
2 Commitment
"We need manufacturing's buy in before we go ahead with this"

С
Calculated risk
1 an action that may fail but has a good chance to succeed

169
“They took a calculated risk when they introduced the new computer
screen onto the market.”
Carry the day
1 win completely
“The president's new idea carried the day and everyone supported him
energetically.”
Carry through
1 put into action
“The steel company carried through their plan to restructure all of their
operations.”
Calm market
1 A steady price
"We are experiencing a calm market"
Clamp down
1 To reduce
2 To slow to near zero
3 To spend very little
"We must clamp down our expenses"
Company man
1 a person who always works hard and agrees with his employees
“My father was a true company man and was always putting in an extra
effort for his company.”
Company policy
1 A written or verbal statement of a firm's stance on a topic
"Ours is a very good company policy on that"
Competitive analysis
1 An investigation to find out if others are already doing the same thing
"We need a competitive analysis before we begin"
Confidence in the future
1 Assurance that a plan of action will work out
2 To imply prior knowledge of future events
"We have confidence in the future"
Consolidation
1 The firing of employees and/or the reduction of plant and equipment
"Our consolidation will close one store"
Cut off
1 interrupt or stop
“The speech of the president was cut off when the electricity went off in
the building.”

170
D
Deal with
1 Handle and/or dispose of something in such a way that it may not solve
and/or answer anything directly
2 A postponement and/or avoidance
"We will deal with that when the time comes"
Decisive action
1 A change by the firm which will effect its future performance 2 A de­
terministic stance
"This requires decisive action"
Dehire
1 The firing of employees
"We had to dehire your friend"
Downsize
1 To fire some employees and/or reduce plant and equipment
"The firm will soon downsize their production"

E
Empowerment
1 To give responsibility and some authority to one or more employees.
The amount of authority may not be sufficient to fulfill the responsibility
"His empowerment is over this product"
Expense management
1 To limit wasteful spending
2 To keep a record of what is spent
"We must exercise more expense management to make a profit"

F
Feel good about
1 Optimistic
2 Can accept
"Your must feel good about our future"
Focused on
1 Give a great deal of attention to
2 The attention given by some to one of many things
"He is focused on the problem"
Follow up on
1 To check on progress at a later date
2 To not promise to take any corrective action in the future
"I will follow up on that"

171
Free seminar
1 sales presentation
"Come to our free seminar to learn how to buy our product"
Fully paid moving expenses
1 Pay for some part of each major expense incurred for employee reloca­
tion
2 Pay only the minimum fees for services such as moving insurance
"We offer fully paid moving expenses"

G
Get a handle on
1 Investigate and learn about something when very little is known be­
forehand
"We will respond when we get a handle on that"
Get off the ground
1 make a successful beginning, go ahead
“We were unable to get the new product off the ground and will have to
wait until next year.”
Give someone the green light
1 give permission to go ahead with a project
“Our boss gave us the green light to begin work on the new sales promo­
tion.”
Give a comment
1 To provide words on a topic that may have little or no meaning
"They need to give a comment on that"
Give a talk
1 To provide words on a topic that may have little or no meaning
"Will you give a talk about your area"
Given a mandate
1 Told to do something with few employees or resources assigned to the
task
"I was given a mandate to do this"
Go a long way toward
1 Get a good start on
"That will go a long way toward solving this"
Good meeting
1 A discussion with nothing unexpected happening
2 A uneventful meeting
"That was a good meeting"
Going forward

172
1 In the future
"Going forward sales will be up"
Granularity
1 Detail
"We need to see these reports with more granularity"

H
Heads will roll
1 someone will be punished
“Heads will roll when our boss learns about the money that we have lost
recently.”
Has far too much time
1 Not busy
"He has far too much time"
Hired gun
1 A consultant with an expertise who may or may not have better knowl­
edge than almost any employee
"Do we need a hired gun?"

I
In Depth
1 To some degree of detail
"It is an in depth report"
In some sense
1 Partially
2 Related in some way
"We are in some sense better ofF'
Is hot
1 Current and up to date
2 Topical in the media
3 A growing field
"Email is hot"
Issues
1 Questions
2 Problems
3 Points of disagreement and/or other assorted topics that can be brought
up but are rarely disposed of satisfactorily
"These issues need to be handled"

173
J
Jettison employees
1 The firing of one or more employees who will not be hired back
"We must jettison employees to reduce costs"
Job ready
1 A prospective employee with all the required skills
2 Older and more experienced workers
3 Retrained workers
"The applicant is job ready"

К
L
Layoff
1 A permanent firing of one or more employees
2 A temporary firing where the employees may be hired again
"We lost some good people in the last layoff
Leaner
1 A firm with fewer employees and/or less plant or equipment
2 To produce the same amount with fewer people
"We are a leaner company with fewer employees"

M
Major player
1 A firm, union, or other participant which is involved or has some influ­
ence
"The firm is a major player in their field"
Makes sense
1 A logically correct assessment
2 Within the realm of possibilities
"This decision makes sense"
Make a go of
1 produce good results, succeed
Although he works very hard in his small business he has been unable to
make a go of it and may soon go out of business.
Matrix management
1 Many employees report to more than one manager allowing each man­
ager to have more employees reporting to him
"He reports to three managers thanks to our matrix management"
Mean business
1 be serious

174
“Our boss means business when he tells everyone to try and work
harder.”
Measured
1 Small
2 Steady
3 Predictable
"We must be patient because of our measured growth"
Move on
1 Take action
2 Put something behind
3 Go on to the next thing
"We need to move on these new contracts"
Mushroomed
1 Grew large quickly
2 Grew out of control
"We lost control when sales mushroomed"
Multi billion dollar firm
1 A business with sales of at least two billion dollars
2 A firm with sales or assets of over a billion dollars
3 Any large firm
"More large multi billion dollar firms are moving here"

N
Negative comments
1 Derogatory statements which are not used or appreciated by manage-
ment\
"Keep your negative comments to yourself'

0
Office politics
1 The day to day maneuvering to enhance one's position which can lead
to favoritism
"He got his promotion due to office politics"
Overview
1 A general description of the topic whose goal is not clarity
"The president will provide us with an overview"
Over time
1 During the next period of time
2 In the future
"Our sales will grow over time"

175
р
Раге down
1 The firing of employees and/or the use of less plant and equipment
"We must pare down because of the tight market"
Payroll orphans
1 Employees that were fired
"We created several payroll orphans in the last layoff'
Position
1 The firms point of view which usually changes over time
"It has always been our position to train our employees"
Provide an employee benefit
1 Give employees something of value. Some are paid for by the firm, the
employee, or both. Some are paid by the firm and taxable to the em­
ployee. Some are chosen by the employee
"We can provide an employee benefit by allowing our people to buy
group life insurance"
Push for
1 Recommend
2 Suggest to management
"I will push for your promotion"
Put a spin on
1 Modify a story to make it more favorable
"How can we put a spin on that to make us look good?"
Put forward
1 Assert something as factual
"We can put forward these new statistics"
Put off of work
1 The firing of employees who may be hired back again
"He was put off of work"

Q
Quite some time
1 An extended period of time
2 A period of time long enough to allow a good bit of uncertainty
3 A year or more
"It has been quite some time since last years product introduction"

R
Ramping down an operation

176
1 The firing of employees and/or the use of less plant and equipment in a
particular part of a firm
"We are ramping down an operation to save some money"
Reductions
1 The firing of employees and/or the use of less plant and equipment
"Our office is experiencing some reductions"
Right sized
1 The firing of employees and/or the reduction of plant and equipment
"We must right sized our operations"
Right questions
1 Current unanswered questions which may impact a decision
2 Questions that will not be answered at the present time
"Your are asking all the right questions"
Rising tide raises all boats
1 If the overall picture improves then everyone will benefit, yet some of
those on the lowest levels have difficulty identifying their benefit
"Everyone will benefit because a rising tide raises all boats"
Reluctant
1 Not willing to do something but still open to ideas
"We are reluctant to make any changes"
Restructuring
1 The firing of employees and the reorganization of those remaining
2 Some reductions in plant and equipment
"Restructuring will lead to some cost savings"
Rethink
1 To review a position or policy
2 A possible change in the firm's position or policy
3 A new position or policy
"We will rethink our stance"

S
Sacrifice
1 The firing of employees and/or the reduction of plant and equipment
"Some sacrifice is needed to increase profits"
Share with you
1 Tell you something
2 Give information that is for you only
"I will share with you my secret"
Shelved
1 Put away

177
2 Not used
3 Not under active consideration 4 may never be used
"We have shelved your project"
Short term
1 A short period of time
2 A period of time short enough to give reasonable assurance of stability
"We will use that in the short term"
Sit down across a table
1 Have a possibly confrontational meeting
2 A meeting where some work is planned
"It can be worked out when we sit down across a table"
Situation
1 A development that is hard to explain away
"We have a situation here"
Speak on a topic
1 To provide words with little or no meaning on a topic with some mini­
mum amount of time set for this activity
"He will speak on a topic for ten minutes at the meeting"
Stay abreast
1 Keep up to date
"Please stay abreast of developments"
Stay on task
1 Continue on a path toward an objective and not get distracted
"Your can finish if you just stay on task"
Stick to your knitting
1 Staying with your main lines of business while other lines of business
may suffer cutbacks in employees and/or plant and equipment
"We can become profitable if we just stick to your knitting"
Strategic decision
1 A major choice, usually about what market to be in
"We made a strategic decision to enter that market"
Surplused
1 The firing of employees and/or the reduction of plant and equipment
"The firm surplused several people"
Switching gears
1 Changing the pace
2 Changing the topic
"Next week we will be switching gears"

178
т
Take care of your concerns
1 To overcome objections and/or questions
2 Explanations suffice in place of answers
"Let me take care of your concerns"
Take charge of
1 To take responsibility for an activity
2 To guide the activity
"Please take charge of this project"
Take on
1 to give a job to or hire someone
“The company took on many new workers during the busy holiday sea­
son.”
Take a position
1 Have an opinion
2 Have a point of view
"We will take a position on that issue"
Take questions
1 Listen to questions from one or more people
2 Some response may be offered to each question but none is promised
"I will now take questions"
Task force
1 A group of employees given the responsibility to research some aspect
of a firm's business
"The task force recommended this change"
Team player
1 Someone who goes along with policies and gets along with others
"He is a good team player"
Termination
1 The firing of an employee who will not be hired back
"He was given his termination"

U
Use it in conjunction with
1 Compatible to some degree
2 Not a seamless integration
"You can use it in conjunction with our product"

179
V
Value add
1 Benefit 2 Help «
"Where is the value add in having purchasing's opinion?"

Vesting period
1 The number of years before an employee owns his employer paid bene­
fit
2 The percent owned by the employee that grows over the entire period.
This increase is rarely steady and can be from 0 to 10 years or more
"The 401k has a 7 year vesting period"
Viable
1 Able to last for a least a while
"It is still viable "

W
Want you to feel
1 Ask you to believe
2 A desire to be believed with little evidence offered
"I want you to feel this”

Work out
1 plan, develop
I spent the weekend trying to work out the budget estimates for next
year.
Work to make it happen
1 Do all that is necessary to obtain the desired result
2 Do what little may be needed to be done
3 t)o nothing to prevent the desired result
"Let's all work to make it happen"

Y
Your take
1 Opinion
2 Point of view
"Give me your take"

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Appendix 1: Additional situations for role plays
1. Job hunting
You work for a recruitment agency that specializes in jobs overseas.
Recently you have had a number of problems with employees breaking
their contracts early because they were homesick. You have decided to
ask all new interviewees about how they will cope with living and work­
ing in a foreign country, away from their family and friends.
In your group, make a list of six questions that you could ask to as­
sess whether they will be able to handle working abroad. Who do you
think the agency should hire and explain your choice?

Picture 8

2. If he has a right to have a holiday?


1. Information for marketing department member
You work in the Marketing Department. In your department there
are 6 product managers and 2 managers who are responsible for national
advertisement, fairs and presentations. Now everything is almost ready
for the following largest presentation which takes place at the end of Au­
gust. Last months were too strained, though personally successful for
you. You wish to take 2 weeks holiday to have a rest with your family.
You have verified under the schedule that your holiday has not coincided
with any other holidays, and last week you have agreed your holiday
with the chief. You are waiting for the holiday and you wish to have a
rest. The chief has called you.
2. Information for the chief of marketing department
You are the chief of the Marketing Department of the company.
There are 6 product managers and 3 product marketing managers. They
have been working hard for the last months. You have just received in­

181
structions to submit the company on the Tokyo’s trade fair in the middle
of July.
Participation in the trade fair has not been planned before and ex­
penses haven’t been entered. Our company has supplemental budget but
has no time for preparation.
All managers are very busy; some of them are entitled to a leave.
You have to assure one of the managers to postpone the leave and to pre­
pare for a trade fair in Tokyo. This fair is very important for your future
development.

Picture 9

3. Hurt ambitions
1. Information for the marketing department member
You have regular meetings with your employees. Recently you have
brought up a question about the promotion of one young employee. He
has been working in your company for 6 months and approves him-
self/herself as hard-working and assiduous.
You have already reflected on his/her promotion, besides your com­
pany will have a plan to expand in future and you need a person for As­
sistant Director for Administration. You didn’t promise him\her this post,
but let him/her see that he/she can rely on it in future.
The vacancy has appeared but you decided to take for this post a
more experienced employee.
Today your young employee asked your secretary to make an ap­
pointment with you. He is very upset that he has lost his opportunity.
You should help him up and let him/her see that his/her career hasn’t
broken
2. Information for the employee
You have been working in the company for 6 months. Recently your
employer told that he reflected on your promotion. He is very contented
with your job.

182
Yesterday one o f the secretaries told you that the post has already
been occupied by the employee from another department. You were
shocked. You felt that you were mistreated. You think that you are the
best candidate. You are going to meet with your chief and to clarify the
situation.

Picture 10

4. Late-comers
1. Information for the manager
You are the sales manager. Recently you have appointed a young
employee as an operation leader. He impressed you with his enthusiasm,
industry and as assiduous. He seemed to be the best candidate for this
post.
Today he invited his colleagues to celebrate his promotion. Alcohol
drinks are strictly forbidden in your company. Dinner time lasts from 13
to 14 p. m. At 14.15 you came to talk with the new operation manager
but he was absent. In 20 minutes you came back again and you heard
noise from his office and a strong smell o f alcohol. You called him to
explain the disorder and the reason o f lateness. You could hardly imagine
that the candidate damaged his name from the first day o f his appoint­
ment.
2. Information for the operation leader
You have been recently promoted for the position o f operation
leader. Today you invited your colleagues to celebrate your promotion

183
during the dinner time. Dinner time lasts from 13 to 14 p. m., but because
of the traffic jam you were 30 minutes late. You are aware of the alcohol
forbiddance in the company. That is why nobody drank alcohol except
mineral water.
When you came back you found out that 3 of your employees were
drunk because one of them became a father. They made a mess and broke
a glass of whisky on your table.
Suddenly your boss came in and called you to explain the disorder
and the reason of your lateness. You are sure that you can easily explain
everything.

Picture 11

5. Transfer to other work


1.* Information for the employee
You have been working in this company for three years. Your personal
certification was successful. You never give reasons to your employer to
be dissatisfied with your performance. You are absolutely sure that you
are in good repute. You are an expert in computers and you even have
friendly relations with some important clients. Recently you have learnt
about the vacancy for the position of Assistant Director and you want to
get this promotion. In your department you don’t see promotion pros­
pects. You are familiar with the activity of the neighboring department
because in rush work periods you were invited to help. You applied to
your boss to support your application for the position.
2. Information for the manager

184
You are the head of the department. In 10 minutes you have an ap­
pointment with your employee. You know him well. You appreciate his
contribution to the company performance; you know he is the best expert
in computer systems. And nobody in the department can perform his
functions.
Besides, one o f your regular and important customers agrees only to
deal with him. In principle you don’t object to give him the promotion,
he is well-qualified and ambitious to get the new position. But you know
that there will be no vacancies in the nearest future.
You have no ideas about the subject o f his visit.

Picture 12

6. Consultation
1. Information for the senior manager
You are in charge o f a big department which has several subdivi­
sions. The manager o f one subdivision applied for the position in the
other. After the interview you are almost ready to give her this post. She
seems to be an intelligent, ambitious and hard-working employee. You
think she will be able to cope with new duties successfully. But before
taking final decision you are interested in the opinion o f her line manager
about the results o f her current activity.
2. Information for the manager of subdivision
One o f your employees applied for the position o f the senior man­
ager in another subdivision. If she gets this post you will be the same
rank with her. You watched carefully how this lady goes through the
corporate ladder. You don’t like her and you think she is difficult to rely
on. Although the quality o f her activity is good enough and subordinates
respect her but you simply don’t like to deal with her. Besides, she ingra­
tiates before top managers. She got a great success for a short period o f
time and you don’t want her to be your boss.
Your boss wants to know your opinion about this lady.

185
Picture 13
7. Personal care
1. Information for the manager
You work in a big department and you have 25 subordinates. One of
them always discomforts you and all others. He usually has a bad smell,
sometimes especially in hot weather the smell of his sweat is hard to tol­
erate. Besides he has dirty nails, neck and greasy hair. Employees of your
department gave him vague hints several times but he didn’t understand.
They complained you and asked to speak with him.
3. Information for the employee
You work in a big department with 25 employees. You stand aside
because your colleagues are unfriendly and rude. They remarked that
your smell is hard to tolerate several times and it hurts you.
Last 4 months were really difficult for you because of the divorce.
Now you have to live alone in a place without any conveniences and you
have financial problems. There are no prospects in the nearest future.
Your boss called you for a talk you don’t know why.

© O r i g i n a l A rtist

"I'm p repared to ofTcr you m ore m oney


i f you get rid o f the earring."

Picture 14

186
Appendix 2: Teacher’s notes for role plays
Module: Introduction
Role plav. The ideal boss
Setting up
Students can work alone, in pairs, or in threes. Photocopy one copy of
Game Sheet 4 for each student, pair or group. Cut out the adjectives and
give each group a set. If your class is lower level, you might want to give
them fewer words. A minimum of about twelve words is suggested.
Playing the game
Step 1
Ask the students to look at the words and consider their meanings. By
pooling their knowledge and/or using their dictionary, they should write
a translation in their own language on the back of the card.
Step 2 (practice phase)
Ask students to arrange the cards English-side-up in a circle. Give each
group (or student working alone) a dice. Decide which card to begin
with. Now one student in the group rolls the dice. If a six is rolled, for
example, he or she counts from this card moving clockwise and puts the
dice on word number six. He or she must give the translation of this word
and turn it over to see if it was right. The translation of the English word
should now be left face up. The next student (or the same student if play­
ing alone), starting at word number six, rolls the dice, moves clockwise,
lands on a new word, and gives the translation as before. Students pro­
ceed, moving around the circle several times. If they land on the transla­
tion of an English word, they must say the English equivalent and turn
the card over, leaving the English face up. Thus the students are moving
back and forth between recognizing the meaning of English words when
they see them and actually producing the new word from memory. You
can suggest, as the game progresses, that students remove words when
they feel they have mastered them, so that the circle of words gets
smaller and smaller and students have a feeling of accomplishment.
Step three
Students should now choose the three character traits that they feel are
most important for an ideal boss to have. Collect the words the groups
have chosen on the board and let them vote on the single most important
quality.
Note: This game depends on translating into the student's first language
and back again into English. It is therefore most suitable for monolingual
classes or groups or pairs in multilingual classes that share the same first

187
language. For advanced multilingual classes you could use synonyms or
opposites instead of translations.

Module 1: Selection of personnel


Role plav: «Selection of personnel»
Setting up
This activity allows students to apply what they have learned about con­
ducting the interview and the appropriate language for interviewing in
English. Make enough photocopies of role cards so that each student has
one. If you have more students in your group ask them to be observers
with the task of listening and making notes in order to be ready than to
evaluate the participants of the game.
Playing the game
Ask your students to read the role cards carefully and to prepare to con­
duct the interview. They should follow the instructions given in their
communicative tasks. The object of the game is for the job applicants to
try to find a job and for employers’ to find appropriate employee. This
game leads naturally into a discussion of appropriate preparation for job
interviews and strategies for impressing the interviewer. Afterwards dis­
cuss the results with the whole class.

Module 2: Effective Meetings


Role plav. “M eetine”
Setting up
This activity allows students to apply what they have learned about con­
ducting the meeting in English. Make enough photocopies of role cards
so that each student has one. If you have more students in your group ask
them to be observers with the task of listening and making notes in order
to be ready than to evaluate the participants of the game.
Playing the game
The object of this game is to discuss new benefits package for the com­
pany. Review the language of meetings if necessary. Ask your students
to read the role cards carefully and to prepare for the meeting. One stu­
dent should be ready to chair the meeting (to start, to set an agenda, to
conduct and to finish it).
Tell students to follow their communicative tasks using appropriate lan­
guage and strategy of conducting the meeting. The role play ends when
all sides have been heard and the decision has been made. Then discuss
the results of meeting in the class.
Module 3 Negotiating

188
Role vlav: “The benefits of performance-related pay”
Setting up
Make enough photocopies of role cards so that each student has one. If
you have more students in your group ask them to be observers with the
task of listening and making notes in order to be ready than to evaluate
the participants of the game.
This activity allows students to apply what they have learned about nego­
tiating and the appropriate language for negotiating in English.
Playing the game
This game is intended to practice typical phrases of negotiation that have
been already introduced to the students. The preparation phase is particu­
larly important and both sides should have a clear idea of what their ob­
jectives are for the negotiation and what information they need to obtain
before making a decision. This will involve preparing appropriate ques­
tions and anticipating potential problems. Tell your students that, during
the negotiation, they are particularly responsible for bringing up the
points mentioned in their role cards and for fighting for given ideas. The
object of the game is for each side to try to negotiate different ways of
performance-related pay that is advantageous to them, while using ap­
propriate language and strategy. Then discuss the results of negotiation in
the class.

Module 4 Presentations
Role vlav: “Dealing with stress”
Setting up
Make enough photocopies of role cards so that each student has one. If
you have more students in your group ask them to be observers with the
task of listening and making notes in order to be ready then to evaluate
the participants of the game. This activity allows students to apply what
they have learned about making presentations in English.
Playing the game
First review the language of presentation. Then give the students time to
read their role cards, make some notes to help them to formulate and
present their ideas. When everyone is ready and ask the “Boss” to begin
the role play by opening the meeting. The “Boss” should listen to each
individual’s opinion as well as expressing his/her own. The aim of the
game is to try to convince the others that the way you’ve chosen is the
best by presenting your ideas according to the rules of making presenta­
tions. The role play ends when all sides have been heard and the “Boss”
has made and given the reasons for his or her decision. Then compare the

189
outcomes of the role play in the class. You might want to follow up by
hearing other suggestions for dealing with stress from your students.

Module 5 Communication at work


Role play: “Office party”
Setting up
Ask the learners if any of them work in an office. Have they ever been to
an office party? What was it like? Do learners think it’s a good idea to
have parties where they work? Does anybody in the class NOT like go­
ing to parties or social events with the people they work with?
Playing the game
Stage One
Tell the class that they have all been invited to an office end of the year
party. Each person will have a different role. Explain that the President of
the company is not in the role play, the students must imagine that he or
she will be arriving later. This means that everybody can gossip about
work and complain about the President! The objective of the role play is
to find out as much gossip about the company as possible. Make sure you
explain GOSSIP (uncountable noun) and TO GOSSIP (intransitive verb).
Stage Two
Tell them that some of them will have gossip to share, and others not.
Before students begin the role play, tell them that you want them to fol­
low these guidelines each time they talk to someone new.
1) Introduce yourself and greet the other person.
2) Ask some questions to make small talk (see appendix A below)
3) If you have some gossip, tell it using the expression provided on your
role card.
4) Listen to the other person’s gossip and react (see Appendix В below).
When students are ready, give out the role cards, tell them to stand up
and begin mingling.
Stage Three
While students are doing the role play, have some background music
playing (some baroque classical music or “cocktail party” music is good
for this). Circulate and take notes of language errors, good use of the
target language, but don’t correct at this point.
Stage Four
Ask students to sit down again. What did they find out? Elicit things
from the groups. Do a quick feedback on the errors or language you took
notes on. Then ask students to call out their pieces of gossip again, using
the sentence stems on their role cards. Write these on the board. You can

190
also use this time to review any work vocabulary that came up during the
role play (e.g. jobs, to be laid off, buy out...)
Stage Five
Explain that in English, people usually slow down when they are giving
some important information or a surprise. That’s because the important
information (verbs or nouns) often will come at the end of the sentence.
Ask them to turn to a partner and tell their gossip again, using one of the
sentence stems on the board (from stage four), but this time to slow
down, or even pause, just before they give the information. When they
have done this, write the following sentence stem on the board:
Listen to what I have to sav. because I am not яотя to sav it aeain...
Tell the students that you want them to try to say something surprising to
their partner, but beginning with these words and pausing. Give them an
example (think of something surprising!). Then have them do it in pairs,
working at a measured tempo. Were they surprised?

191
List of sources
1. Агабекян И.П. Английский для менеджеров: Учеб. пособие. - М.:
Наука, 2006. - 352 с.
2. Базовская О.М., Беляева И Л . Государственная служба. Государ­
ственное управление: англо-русский и русско-английский сло­
варь-справочник: Учеб. пособие. - М.: Наука, 2005. - 278 с.
3. Бедрицкая JI.B. Английский для экономистов: Учеб. пособие. -
Мн.: Книжный дом, 2004. - 235 с.
4. Мердок-Стерн С. Деловые приемы и встречи на английском: ви­
зиты, сотрудничество и профессиональные контакты: Учеб. по­
собие. - М.: 2005. - 126 с.
5. Турнер Д. Ролевые игры. Практическое руководство. —СПб.: Пи­
тер, 2002. - 352 с.
6. Business Communication Games. - Oxford: Oxford University Press,
1996.- P . 130.
7. Laura M. English, Sarah Lynn. Business across cultures: effective
communication strategies. - L.: Longman, 2006. - P. 182.

192
CONTENTS
Introduction................................................................................................... 5
Module 1: Selection of personnel................................................................. 15
Module 2: Effective Meetings...................................................................... 38
Module 3: Negotiating................................................................................. 58
Module 4: Effective presentation................................................................. 74
Module 5: Communication at w ork............................................................. 90
English-Russian Dictionary of Civil Service.............................................. 109
Dictionary of Business and Management Jargon........................................ 169
Appendix 1: Additional situations for role plays........................................ 181
Appendix 2: Teacher’s notes for role plays................................................. 187
List of sources............................................................................................... 192
Учебное издание

Елена Юрьевна Надеждина


Елена Алексеевна Шатурная

ДИСКУРС МЕНЕДЖМЕНТА

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