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Apr 08, 2020

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Strength of materials

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TWO MARKS QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS

Subject code: CE6302

UNIT I STRESS AND STRAIN

1. Define – Stress

When an external force acts on a body, it undergoes deformation. At the same time the body

resists deformation. The magnitude of the resisting force is numerically equal to the applied

force. This internal resisting force per unit area is called stress.

force

stress = area

σ = P/A

Unit is N/mm2

2. Define – Strain

When a body is subjected to an external force, there is some change of dimension in the body.

Numerically the strain is equal to the ratio of change in length to the original length of the

body.

Strain = Change in length/Original length

e = ∂L/L

3. A material has Modulus of rigidity = 0.65 × 105 N/mm2 and Poisson’s ratio = 0.28. Find

the Young’s Modulus (E) and the Bulk Modulus (K) of the material.

Given Data:

C = 0.65 × 105 and µ = 0.28

Solution:

E = 2C (1 + µ)

= 2 × 0.65 × 105 (1 + 0.28)

E = 1.67 × 105 N/mm2

K = E/ (1 – 2µ)

= 1.67 × 105/3(1 – 2(0.28))

= 1.67 × 105/1.32

K = 1.27 × 105 N/mm2

200 GN/m2, determine Poisson’s ratio.

Solution:

E = 2C (1+µ)

200 × 109 = 2 × 80 × 109 (1 + µ)

(1+µ) = 200 × 109/ (2 × 80 × 109)

(1+µ) = 1.25

µ = 1.25 – 1 = 0.25

It states that when a material is loaded, within its elastic limit, the stress is directly

proportional to the strain.

Stress α Strain

σαe

σ = Ee

E = σ /e N/mm2

where E is young’s modulus

σ is stress

and e is strain

When two equal and opposite forces act tangentially on any cross sectional plane of the body

tending to slide one part of the body over the other part. The stress induced is called shear

stress and the corresponding strain is known as shear strain.

When a body is stressed, within its elastic limit, the ratio of lateral strain to the longitudinal

strain is constant for a given material, which is known as Poisson’s ratio.

Poisson’ ratio (μ or 1/m) = Lateral strain / Longitudinal strain

The shear stress is directly proportional to shear strain.

N = Shear stress / Shear strain

E = 2G (1 + 1/m)

where E is Young’s modulus

G is modulus of rigidity

and 1/m is Poisson’s ratio

E = 3K (1-2/m)

where E is Young’s modulus

K is bulk modulus

and 1/m is Poisson’s ratio

Hooke’s law states that when a material is loaded, within its elastic limit, the stress is directly

proportional to the strain. This is called as Limit of Proportionality.

Stress α Strain

σαe

where σ is stress

and e is strain

When a body is subjected to axial load P, the length of the body is increased. The ratio of

axial deformation to the original length of the body is known as longitudinal strain.

The strain, at right angle to the direction of the applied load, is called lateral strain.

If the thickness of the wall of a cylindrical vessel is less than 1/15 to 1/20 of its internal

diameter, it is known as thin cylinder.

13. What are types of stresses in a thin cylindrical vessel subjected to internal pressure?

These stresses are tensile and are known as:

a) Circumferential stress (or hoop stress )

b) Longitudinal stress.

14. A spherical shell of diameter 750 mm and metal thickness 12 mm is completely filled

with a fluid at atmospheric pressure. Find the maximum pressure that can be permitted

if efficiency of the joint is 80% and the permissible stress is 90 N/mm2.

Circumferential stress (σ) = (p × d)/ (2t × ηl)

where σ is circumferential stress

p is maximum pressure

d is diameter of the cylinder

t is thickness of the wall of the cylinder

and ηl is efficiency of the joint

σ = (p × 750)/ (2×12×0.80)

p = 90/39.06

p = 2.3 N/mm2

Whenever a body is strained, some amount of energy is absorbed in the body. The energy

which is absorbed in the body due to straining effect is known as strain energy.

1. Define – Beam

Beam is a horizontal structural member, which is supported along its length and subjected to

external loads acting transversely or perpendicular to the center line of the member.

If a load, which is spread over a beam in such a manner that the rate of loading w is uniform

throughout the length then it is called uniformly distributed load.

The point at which the bending moment changes from hogging to sagging or vice versa is

known as the point of contraflexure.The bending moment is zero at that point.

Bending moment is said to be positive if the moment on left side of the beam is clockwise or

the moment on the right side of the beam is counter clockwise.

Bending moment is said to be negative if the moment on left side of the beam is counter

clockwise or the moment on the right side of the beam is clockwise.

Shear force at any cross section is defined as the algebraic sum of all the forces acting on any

one side of the section.

Bending moment at any cross section is defined as the algebraic sum of the moments of all the

forces, which are placed on any one side of that section.

7. What is the maximum bending moment in a simply supported beam of span L subjected

to UDL of w over entire span?

The maximum bending moment in a simply supported beam of span L subjected to UDL of w

over entire span is wL2/8

The algebraic sum of the vertical forces at any section of the beam to the left or right of the

section is called shear force.

The types of beams are:

a) Cantilever beam

b) Simply supported beam

c) Fixed beam

d) Continuous beam

e) Over hanging beam

Types of loads are:

a) Concentrated load or point load

b) Uniformly distributed load

c) Uniformly varying load

The assumptions in the theory of simple bending are:

a) The material of the beam is homogeneous and isotropic

b) The beam material is stressed within the elastic limit and thus obey Hooke’s law

c) The transverse section remains plane after bending also

d) Each layer of the beam is free to expand or contract independently above or below the layer

e) The value of E is the same in both compression and tension

The theory of simple bending equation is:

M/I=F/Y=E/R

where M is maximum bending moment

I is moment of inertia

F is maximum stress induced

Y is distance from the neutral axis

E is Young’s modulus

and R is constant

13. Write a short note on location of point of maximum bending moment in a simply

supported beam.

The bending moment is maximum, when shear force is zero. Equating the shear force at that

point to zero, one can find out the distance x from one end. Then find the maximum bending

moment at that point by taking moments of all the forces on right or left hand side.

If a load is acting on the beam, which is perpendicular to the central line of it, then it is called

transverse loading.

a) A beam with one end free and the other end fixed is called cantilever beam.

b) A beam which is simply supported at its both ends is termed as simply supported beam.

1. What are the methods for finding out the slope and deflection at a section?

The important methods used for finding out the slope and deflection at a section in a loaded

beam are:

a) Double integration method

b) Moment area method

c) Macaulay’s method

The first two methods are suitable for a single load, whereas the last one is suitable for several

loads.

2. Why is moment area method more useful when compared with double integration?

Moment area method is more useful when compared with double integration method because

many problems which do not have a simple mathematical solution can be simplified by the

ending moment area method.

Theorem I: The slope at any section of a loaded beam, relative to the original axis of the beam

is equal to the shear in the conjugate beam at the corresponding section.

Theorem II: The deflection at any given section of a loaded beam, relative to the original

position is equal to the Bending moment at the corresponding section of the conjugate beam.

In Macaulay’s method, a single equation is formed for all loading on a beam. The equation is

constructed in such a way that the constant of integration applies to all portions of the beam.

This method is also called method of singularity functions.

The points to be worth for conjugate beam method are:

a) This method can be directly used for simply supported beam

b) In this method for cantilevers and fixed beams, artificial constraints need to be supplied to

the conjugate beam so that it is supported in a manner consistent with the constraints of the

real beam

The relation between curvature, slope and deflection at a section is:

Deflection = y

Slope = dy/ dx

BM = d2y/ dx2

SF = d3y/ dx3

Load, w = d4y/ dx4

Macaulay’s method is used in finding slope and deflection at any point of a beam. The points

used in this method are:

a) Brackets are to be integrated as a whole

b) Constants are written after the first term

c) The section, for which BM is to be found, should be taken in the last part of the beam

8. Write an expression for deflection by moment area method.

The shear stress at a fiber in a section of a beam is given by:

y = Ax / EI

where A is area of BM diagram between A and B

and x is distance of CG of area from B

9. Write an expression for the deflection at the centre of a simply supported beam carrying

a point load at the centre.

The deflection at the centre of a simply supported beam carrying a point load at the centre is

given by: yc = – (WL3/ 48EI)

10. A cantilever of length 3 m is carrying a point load of 25 kN at the free end. If the

moment of inertia of the beam is 108 mm4 and the value of E is 2.1 x 105 N/mm2, find the

deflection at the free end.

The deflection at the free end is given by:

yB = WL3/ 3EI

yB = (25000 x 30003) / (3 x 2.1 x 105 x 108)

yB = 10.71 mm

A cantilever which has an additional support at the free end is termed as propped cantilever.

12. A cantilever of length 4 m carries a uniformly varying load of zero at the free end and

50 kN at the fixed end. If I = 108 mm4 and E = 2.1 x 105 N/mm2, find the deflection at the

free end.

The deflection at the free end is given by:

yB = WL4/ 30EI

yB = (50 x 40004) / (30 x 2 x 105 x 103)

yB = 21.33 mm

13. A cantilever of length 6 m carries a point load of 48 kN at its centre. The cantilever is

propped rigidly at the free end. Determine the reaction at its rigid prop.

The reaction at the prop (P):

P = 5W/16

= (5 x 48) / 16

P = 15 kN

14. Draw conjugate beam for a simply supported beam with a point load at its centre.

W

L

RA = W/2 RB = W/2

skjfdfnskjndfh

Conjugate Beam

15. What is a conjugate beam?

Conjugate beam is an imaginary beam of length equal to that of original beam but for which

load diagram is M/EI diagram.

When a pair of forces of equal magnitude but opposite directions act on a body, it tends to

twist the body. It is known as twisting moment or torsion moment or simply as torsion.

Torque is equal to the product of the force applied and the distance between the point of

application of the force and the axis of the shaft.

The assumptions made in torsion equation are:

a) The material of the shaft is homogeneous, perfectly elastic and obeys Hooke’s law

b) Twist is uniform along the length of the shaft

c) The stress does not exceed the limit of proportionality

d) The shaft circular in section remains circular after loading

e) Strain and deformations are small

Polar modulus is the ratio between polar moment of inertia and radius of the shaft.

Polar Modulus = Polar moment of inertia (J) / Radius (R)

4. Why are hollow circular shafts preferred over solid circular shafts?

The torque transmitted by the hollow shaft is greater than the solid shaft. For the same

material, length and given torque, the weight of the hollow shaft will be less compared to that

of solid shaft.

The torsion equation is given as:

T/J = Cθ/L = q/R

where T is torque

J is polar moment of inertia

C is modulus of rigidity

L is length

θ is angle of twist

q is shear stress

and R is radius

The expression for power transmitted by a shaft is:

P = 2πNT/60

where N is speed in rpm

and T is torque

7. Write the expression for torque transmitted by hollow shaft.

The expression for torque transmitted by hollow shaft is:

T = (π/16) × Fs × (D4 – d4)/d4

where T is torque

Fs is shear stress

D is outer diameter

and d is inner diameter

8. Write the equation for maximum shear stress of a solid circular section in diameter D

when subjected to torque T in a solid shaft.

The equation for maximum shear stress of a solid circular section in diameter D when

subjected to torque T in a solid shaft is:

T = (π/16) × Fs × D3

where T is torque

Fs is shear stress

and D is diameter

Sometimes a shaft is made up of composite section i.e. one type of shaft is sleeved over other

types of shaft. At the time of sleeving, the two shafts are joined together in a way that the

composite shaft behaves like a single shaft.

A spring is an elastic member, which deflects or distorts under the action of load and regains

its original shape after the load is removed.

Various types of springs are:

a) Helical springs

b) Spiral springs

c) Leaf springs

d) Disc spring or Belleville springs

The helical springs are classified as:

a) Close – coiled or tension helical spring

b) Open – coiled or compression helical spring

The length of a spring under the maximum compression is called its solid length. It is the

product of total number of coils and the diameter of wire.

Ls = nt × d

where nt is total number of coils

The spring stiffness or spring constant is defined as the load required per unit deflection of the

spring.

K = W/y

where W is load

and y is deflection

Pitch of a spring is defined as the axial distance between the adjacent coils in uncompressed

state.

Mathematically,

Pitch = free length / (n -1)

A frame composed of such members just sufficient to keep it in equilibrium, when an external

load is applied, is termed as perfect frame.

The force per unit length of a member is known as tension coefficient.

T = F/ L

where T is tension coefficient

F is force

and L is length of the member

A frame, in which number of members and number of joints are not as given by n = 2j – 3, is

known as imperfect frame. This means that number of members in an imperfect frame will be

either more or less than (2j – 3).

If the number of members are more than (2j – 3), then the frame is known as redundant frame.

5. What are the assumptions made in finding out the forces in a frame?

The assumptions made in finding out the forces in a frame are:

a) The frame is perfect

b) The frame carries load at the joints

c) All the members are pin-jointed

Frames are generally supported as:

a) On a roller support

b) On a hinged support

Analysis of a frame consists of:

a) Determination of the reactions at the supports

b) Determination of the forces in the members

The following are the methods available for the analysis of a frame:

a) Methods of joints

b) Methods of sections

c) Graphical method

9. Define – Principal Planes and Principal Stresses

The planes, which have no shear stress, are known as principal planes. These planes carry

only normal stresses.

The normal stresses acting on a principal plane are known as principal stresses.

The radius of Mohr’s circle is equal to the maximum shear stress.

If a truss carries inclined loads hinged at one end supported on roller at the other end, the

support reaction at the roller support end will be normal, whereas the support reaction at the

hinged end will consist of a) horizontal reaction, and b) vertical reaction.

The forces in the member will be compressive if the member pushes the joint to which it is

connected whereas the force in the member will be tensile if the member pulls the joint to

which it is connected.

While determining the force in a member by methods of joints, the joint should be selected in

such a way that at any time there are only two members in which the forces are unknown.

14. List out the methods to find the stresses in oblique plane.

The methods to find the stresses in oblique plane are:

a) Analytical method

b) Graphical method

Mohr’s circle is used to find normal, tangential and resultant stresses on an oblique plane.