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Curriculum Integration Reading Program



1 The History of Sugar


A Choose the correct words for the definitions.

necessity humid method production labor

industry boom slave encounter plantation

demand consumption cultivate run poverty

Word Definition

1. encounter v. to meet or find by chance

2. labor n. a group of workers

3. plantation n. a large farm for growing a certain crop

4. method n. a specific way of doing something

5. necessity n. something that is needed

6. run v. to own and operate a business

7. demand n. desire or want for something

8. slave n. a worker who has no freedom and is not paid

9. humid adj. having a large amount of water in the air

10. poverty n. the state of being poor

11. boom v. to grow quickly as a business and make a lot of money

12. cultivate v. to grow a crop

13. production n. the process of making an item

14. industry n. all of the companies related to a certain product

15. consumption n. the act of using something

Lesson 1 • Suger 3

B Circle the correct words in the boxes. 2 Candy Ma ing


Sugarcane is a plant that is native to South and Southeast Asia. For a long time, it was not a very
important crop. People simply chewed it (A) enjoying / to enjoy its sweetness. That changed, A Choose the correct words for the definitions.
however, when a method was developed in India for turning sugarcane juice into sugar crystals. In
this form, sugar could be stored, carried, and sold around the world. In the 11th century, sugar concentration thermometer property relate crack

(B) introduced / was introduced to Western Europe by Crusaders (C) who / whom encountered liquid flavoring remove dissolve temperature

it in Asia. thread hardness mold desired mixture

Word Definition
C Choose the grammatical error in the passage.
1. dissolve v. to mix a solid into a liquid
Before the 18 century, sugar was too expensive for most people (A) to buy. In fact, it was sometimes

2. relate v. to be connected to or to cause

(B) called “white gold.” But by the 18th century, it became possible to mass-produce sugar. As a
result, the price dropped. And by the 19th century, people started to think of sugar as a necessity. As 3. desired adj. wished for
more and more people developed a taste for sugar, demand for the product continued to increase.
4. flavoring n. something that is added to food or drink to give it a certain taste
(C) To meet this growing demand, Europeans developed a large sugar industry in (D) its American
colonies. Sugarcane grew very well in the hot, humid environment of the Caribbean islands, so the 5. concentration n. the amount of something in a mixture
colonists built many sugarcane plantations there. (E) As this sugar economy boomed, major social
6. mold n. a container that gives something its shape
changes were taking place.

7. temperature n. how hot or cold something is

D Choose the correct words for the blanks. 8. property n. a characteristic or quality of something

Running a sugarcane plantation required a lot of workers. And because plantation owners wanted thermometer n. a tool that measures temperature
the cheapest possible source of labor, many slaves were brought to work on the plantations. Sadly, as
10. remove v. to take out of something or somewhere
sugar became more popular over time, the slave trade grew bigger and bigger. (A) , during the
18th century, almost a million people were taken from Africa to sugarcane plantations. People from 11. liquid n. something able to flow like water
East India and other parts of Asia also came to the Americas to work on the plantations. Global
12. mixture n. something that contains many different ingredients
consumption of sugar continues to increase today. (B) the sugar industry no longer uses slave
labor, many workers receive very little pay and live in poverty. For something so sweet, sugar has a 13. thread n. a long, thin piece of something
bitter history.
14. crack n. a break in a surface
(A) (B) (A) (B)
a. As a result Although b. Therefore Since hardness
15. n. the state of being hard
c. However While d. Meanwhile Because
e. Moreover As

4 Lesson 2 • Suger 5
cial Studies

B Circle the correct words in the boxes. 3 Sugar Addiction


What do lollipops, marshmallows, and caramels have in common? All of these delicious treats
(A) made / are made using the same process! First, sugar is dissolved in water. Then the mixture A Choose the correct words for the definitions.
is heated to a boil. As it cooks, some of the water boils away, and the candy mixture gets closer
to pure sugar. In other words, the mixture has a higher concentration of sugar. And as the sugar remain craving substance chemical depression

concentration increases, so (B) do / does the mixture’s cooking temperature. The type of advice challenging behavior avoid addiction

candy that results depends on this temperature. The higher the cooking temperature, the sensitive symptom lack satisfy in spite of

(C) harder / hardest the final candy will be!

Word Definition

1. avoid v. to stay away from

C Choose the grammatical error in the passage.
2. chemical n. something that causes a scientific effect
Today, candy makers use thermometers (A) to pay attention to the exact cooking temperature of
3. symptom n. something wrong with a person’s body or mind which is a sign of illness
a sugar mixture. But it wasn’t always that easy. Before the invention of the thermometer, they had
to guess the mixture’s temperature by (B) look at the candy’s properties as it is cooked. When the 4. remain v. to stay around
proper temperature and hardness (C) is reached, f lavoring can be added. Next, the mixture (D) is
5. behavior n. a certain action
poured into molds. As the candy cools, it takes the shape of the mold. So circular molds are used
for lollipops, and square molds are often used for caramels. Once the candy cools, it can f inally be 6. craving n. a very strong want, especially for a specific food
removed from the mold and (E) eaten!
7. sensitive adj. easily affected or influenced by something

8. satisfy v. to give someone what they need or want

D Choose the correct place for the following sentence. depression

9. n. sadness that lasts for a long time

The way the mixture behaves in the water indicates what “stage” it has reached. 10. substance n. a type of solid, liquid, or gas

As the sugar concentration in a mixture increases, the mixture’s properties change. (A) You can 11. in spite of prep. without being prevented by something
observe these changes by pouring some of the mixture into cold water at different times in the
12. challenging adj. difficult but worthwhile
cooking process. (B) For example, if a thin thread forms, the candy is at the “thread” stage. (C) This
shows that the proper temperature (110 – 112 °C) for making syrup has been reached. (D) If a ball 13. addiction n. a powerful and dangerous need for something
forms in the water but loses its shape when you take it out, the candy is at the “soft ball” stage. This
14. lack n. the state of something being needed
stage is perfect for making fudge. (E) Thus, the names of the stages match how the sugar mixture
reacts in cold water. 15. advice n. an opinion given to someone about what he or she should do

6 Lesson 3 • Suger 7

B Circle the correct words in the boxes. 4 Why Cats Can’t Taste Sweetness

Are you the kind of person who always (A) keep / keeps a bar of chocolate nearby? Perhaps you
feel weak or sleepy without your sweets. If so, you may have a problem that millions of others have: A Choose the correct words for the definitions.
sugar addiction. Addiction means using a substance or doing an activity over and over, in spite of its
negative effects. There are many different kinds of addiction, but they all prevent one from trait provide species molecule gene

(B) live / living a normal lifestyle. Something can begin as a simple habit, but when a person can’t evolution resist presence receptor ancestor

control it, it becomes an addiction. Playing computer games, drinking, and eating are examples of nutrient modern consist of run into as a result

activities (C) what / that can develop into addictions.

Word Definition

C Choose the grammatical error in the passage. 1. receptor n. a part of the body that responds to sense information

There are four stages of sugar addiction. Stage one begins when a person has a consistent, strong 2. modern adj. belonging to the present
desire for (A) sweet something. This happens because sugar causes the body (B) to produce
3. run into v. to meet or hit
dopamine, a chemical that creates feelings of happiness. In stage two, even after sugar (C) has been
eaten, the desire remains and grows. This is because, over time, the body becomes less sensitive to 4. species n. a specific type of living thing
the effect of sugar. So, it is necessary to consume more sugar to produce the positive feelings. In
5. ancestor n. a human or animal in the past from which others came
stage three, when a sugar craving is not satisf ied, the person feels (D) bad. Sugar addicts experience
negative symptoms that are (E) both emotional and physical. These physical symptoms include 6. trait n. a characteristic that distinguishes one person or thing from another

headaches, sleepiness, and a lack of energy. resist

7. v. to stop yourself from having something you want

8. as a result conj. because of something

D Choose the best phrase for the blank.
9. gene n. matter in cells that determines characteristics and is passed from
Like all addictions, a sugar addiction is not easy to break. However, controlling the amount of parent to child
sweets that you consume is very important to your health. If you think that you might have a sugar
10. molecule n. the smallest possible amount of a substance
addiction, there are a few things to keep in mind. They are simple bits of advice that you must have
heard many times before. Eat three meals a day, get enough sleep, and exercise often. If you are 11. presence n. the condition of being in a place
craving sugar, have something healthy and sweet, like a piece of fruit. Also, you should avoid salty
12. consist of v. to be formed or made from
snacks. These . And don’t push yourself too hard. Remember that lifestyle
changes happen slowly. So keep a positive attitude, and you can start to live a healthier lifestyle. 13. nutrient n. something the body needs in order to live and grow

a. will make you sleepy b. are a good substitute for sugar 14. evolution n. the scientific idea that living things change and develop over a long
c. contain many essential vitamins d. can help you break your sugar addiction period of time

e. usually cause people to want to eat sweets

15. provide v. to give or make something available

8 Lesson 4 • Suger 9
ial Studies

B Circle the correct words in the boxes. Be

5 Benjamin Fran lin’s Life
n jam
in Frank

Dogs, like many humans, can’t resist cake. If they f ind a piece of cake (A) lie / lying on the
floor, they’ll eat it. Cats are different. If they see some cake, they might take a few bites of it. A Choose the correct words for the definitions.
(B) However / In addition , it’s not because the cake is sweet and delicious. Instead, it may be the
smell or other nutrients in the food that they are drawn to. Or, they may simply be curious about individual suspect decade founder influence

it. That’s because cats actually can’t taste sweetness, (C) that / which means that your cat simply persuade prediction electricity independent publish

cannot enjoy cake as much as you can! almanac experiment legacy cause lightning rod

Word Definition
C Choose the grammatical error in the passage.
1. almanac n. a book published each year that gives various information,
When you eat something sweet, it breaks down into tiny molecules, (A) including sugar molecules. including general advice
Some of these molecules can fit into special receptors in the tongue, and this is (B) what causes
2. individual n. a single person
taste. Sugar molecules are one example. When they f it into sugar receptors in the tongue, a signal
3. lightning rod n. an object that prevents damage from lightning
(C) is sent to your brain. This signal reports the presence of sugar and, as a result, you taste
sweetness. This ability to taste sweetness helped us (D) survive during our evolution, as sweet-tasting 4. publish v. to print a book, newspaper, magazine, etc.

plants are usually safe to eat and (E) provides a lot of energy. 5. suspect v. to think that something is true

6. influence v. to affect or change how a person or thing behaves, thinks, or

D Choose the correct words to complete the summary.
7. prediction n. a guess about something that will happen in the future
Studies have shown that the genes that are responsible for cats’ sugar receptors are broken. This
8. legacy n. something that happened in the past or comes from a person in
might have been caused by their diet. Because the ancestors of modern cats were meat eaters, they the past
did not need to taste sweetness to know if a plant was safe to eat. On the other hand, their diet may
9. founder n. someone who starts something, like a town or a company
have changed after they stopped being able to taste sweetness. Scientists are not sure. But all cat
species alive today, like tigers, cheetahs, and house cats, share this trait. These animals survived to 10. experiment n. a scientific test to find out information about an idea
pass on the unique genes that our pet cats have today.
11. electricity n. energy that can be used for machines and lights and can be
carried through wires
At some point in the past, cats’ sugar receptors stopped (A) , and this trait has
been (B) to today’s house cats. 12. decade n. a period of ten years

13. independent adj. being able to do things on your own without help from other people
(A) (B) (A) (B)
14. persuade v. to convince someone to do something by giving reasons
a. functioning given back b. functioning passed down
c. breaking down passed down d. breaking down given back 15. cause n. an idea that a person or a group of people believe in and support
e. breaking down carried on

10 Lesson 5 • Benjamin Frankin 11


B Circle the correct words in the boxes. Be

6 The Declaration of Independence
n jam
in Frank

Benjamin Franklin is one of the most famous individuals in American history. As a writer, an
inventor, and a founder of the United States of America, he greatly influenced the world he lived in. A Choose the correct words for the definitions.
Franklin (A) born / was born in 1706 in Boston, Massachusetts. He was one of 17 children,
(B) which / that meant that his life was not very easy. Most of the time, he had to take care of deny declaration government separate draft

himself. However, this taught him the importance of being independent and clever. At 12 years celebrate tax argument statement defeat

old, he began working for his brother James, who owned a newspaper. Franklin wrote under a fake strength figure spirit right instead

name so people wouldn’t know (C) why / how young he was. His pen name was Silence Dogood.
Readers loved Silence Dogood and never suspected that “she” was a teenager named Benjamin
Word Definition
1. government n. the group of people who make laws and manage a country

2. defeat v. to beat in a war or a competition

C Choose the grammatical error in the passage. 3. tax n. money a government collects from people

When Benjamin Franklin grew (A) older, he left his brother’s newspaper and started his own
4. draft n. a version of a document
printing business. His paper, The Pennsylvania Gazette, became a leading newspaper at the time. In
1732, he began (B) publishing Poor Richard’s Almanack. Like other almanacs, Poor Richard’s Almanack 5. argument n. a reason given to support a person’s opinion

(C) was filled with general information like planting dates and weather predictions, but it also separate
6. v. to stop being together or linked
contained advice and many proverbs that (D) have become famous. Poor Richard’s Almanack was so
7. declaration n. a document containing an official statement
popular (E) as Franklin continued printing new editions each year for 25 years. Some years as many
as 10,000 copies were printed. celebrate
8. v. to enjoy a special event by doing something fun

9. strength n. the quality of having power

10. right n. something that a person may do according to the law

D Choose the correct place for the following sentence.
11. figure n. a person who is well known
The Franklin stove, which warmed people’s houses, is one such example.
12. spirit n. a sense of pride in being part of a group
Benjamin Franklin also spent a lot of time working on inventions to help society. (A) In the 1750s,
13. instead adv. in place of something else
he became famous worldwide for his experiments with electricity and the invention of the lightning
rod. (B) He also used his popularity to work for causes he believed in, like American independence. 14. statement n. something you say or write to let people know your opinion
(C) In 1778, he persuaded the French to support the Americans during their war for freedom from
15. deny v. to not allow someone to have or do something
Britain. (D) Franklin’s writings, inventions, and leadership will never be forgotten. (E) Although he
died centuries ago, the bright flame of his legacy still warms the world.

12 Lesson 6 • Benjamin Frankin 13


B Circle the correct words in the boxes. Be

7 The Lightning Rod
n jam
in Frank

Every year on July 4, Americans gather together to set off f ireworks and celebrate their national
pride. Why is this date so special? (A) Answering / To answer this question, we have to go back A Choose the correct words for the definitions.
in time to 1775. In that year, the colonists in North America were tired of paying taxes to the King
of England. They wanted to separate from England and start (B) its / their own country. Leaders notice place approach connect path

in the colonies got together and wrote down all of the reasons (C) why / which they wanted howl frightened bury string protect

independence from Britain. Their statement became famous in American history. It was called the strike wire brilliant design figure out

Declaration of Independence.

Word Definition

1. place v. to put in a particular spot or position

C Choose the grammatical error in the passage.
2. bury v. to put something underground
A small team of men, including John Adams, Thomas Jefferson, and Benjamin Franklin, worked
together to write the Declaration of Independence. (A) What made this document so special was 3. frightened adj. feeling scared
that the writers didn’t simply demand independence. Instead, they made a careful and detailed
4. design v. to plan and make something for a particular purpose
argument (B) explaining why independence should be given. First, they explained (C) that all people
have certain rights. These include the right to live, to have freedom, and to f ind happiness. Then 5. path n. a way made for going somewhere
they showed how the King of England denied (D) they those rights. According to their argument,
6. protect v. to keep something safe
(E) any government that restricted those rights was an unfair government. And it had to be
removed. 7. strike v. to hit someone or something forcefully

8. string n. a long, thin rope made of thread

D Choose the correct words for the blanks. 9. connect v. to attach or join together

When the final draft of the Declaration was ready, important f igures from all over the colonies 10. howl v. to make a long, loud sound like an animal
signed their names to it to show support. The day the document was signed, July 4, 1776, became
11. figure out v. to find the answer to a question
known as Independence Day. (A) the Declaration was signed, it gave the American colonists
the strength they needed to win the war against Britain. They fought for seven more years. (B) , 12. brilliant adj. very smart
in 1783, they defeated the British and earned their independence. Every year since 1776, Americans
13. notice v. to see or become aware of something
have celebrated the feeling of national spirit on July 4.
(A) (B) (A) (B) 14. approach v. to come close
a. When Finally b. When Moreover
15. wire n. a long, thin piece of metal
c. Although Moreover d. Although Therefore
e. Although Finally

14 Lesson 7 • Benjamin Frankin 15

cial Studies

B Circle the correct words in the boxes. Be

8 Fran lin’s Virtues
n jam
in Frank

You are playing outside, and there are dark clouds in the sky. It looks like a storm is coming.
Suddenly, bright, white fire shoots down from the sky. A loud roar shakes the ground. Isn’t it A Choose the correct words for the definitions.
(A) frightened / frightening ? Just like us, people in the 18 century were scared of lightning.

Sometimes it caused fires that (B) damage / damaged buildings. Unlike us, though, they didn’t restraint principle excess promote emphasize

understand what caused lightning. They just knew that it was dangerous and destructive, so they contributing moral virtue regard admire

believed it was a sign of evil. That all changed, though when Benjamin Franklin decided determination self-discipline order attempt set out

(C) f iguring / to figure out what lightning really was.

Word Definition

C Choose the grammatical error in the passage. 1. self- discipline n. the ability to control yourself

Benjamin Franklin noticed that lightning acted like electricity, so he designed an experiment to test 2. regard v. to have a particular idea about something or someone
the idea. It was actually quite dangerous. He tied a metal key to the string of a kite. The key (A) would
3. principle n. an idea about the correct way to behave
show the presence of electricity by making sparks. When a storm (B) was approaching, Franklin went
outside (C) to fly his kite. Lightning hit the kite, traveled down the string to the key, and made sparks. 4. determination n. the quality of not giving up when something is difficult

This experiment helped (D) prove that lightning is a form of electricity. But Franklin didn’t stop there.
5. set out v. to begin
Next, he made an invention that would protect people’s houses (E) to lightning.
6. excess n. too much

D Choose the correct order for the passage. 7. contributing adj. helping cause something

8. emphasize v. to give special importance to something

Benjamin Franklin’s invention became known as the lightning rod.

9. admire v. to have respect for

(A) To make it, Franklin placed a metal rod on the roof of a building. One end pointed toward the
sky and the other was connected to a wire. The wire ran down the building to a piece of metal 10. moral adj. related to a person’s idea of right and wrong
buried underground, away from the house.
11. order n. the condition of everything being in the correct place
(B) This method of guiding lightning away from buildings has probably prevented thousands of
fires. Franklin wanted his inventions to be useful to others. So he would be happy to know that 12. restraint n. a quality of controlling oneself to not have too much of something
lightning rods are still used today. In Franklin’s case, lightning provided a spark of inspiration.
13. attempt n. an effort to do something
(C) Since lightning always looks for the fastest way to get to the ground, the metal rod and the wire
would give lightning a fast but safe path to the ground. If lightning struck near the house, it would 14. promote v. to encourage people to do something

travel through the rod and wire instead of hitting the building directly and setting it on fire. virtue
15. n. a quality that people think of as good

a. (A)-(B)-(C) b. (A)-(C)-(B) c. (B)-(A)-(C) d. (B)-(C)-(A) e. (C)-(A)-(B)

16 Lesson 8 • Benjamin Frankin 17


B Circle the correct words in the boxes. Ph

9 Camera Obscura

There are many reasons why Benjamin Franklin (A) regards / is regarded as an important
historical figure. From his involvement in helping to f ight for American independence to his A Choose the correct words for the definitions.
scientific experiments, his life was full of (B) amazing / amazed accomplishments. His hard work
and character certainly played a major role in his success. But his moral values may have also been a blurry astronomer reproduce replace transfer

contributing factor. Fortunately for us, Franklin wrote about these moral virtues in his autobiography. reference upside-down term eclipse practical

These were principles that he believed (C) was / were important to live by, and they guided him improvement inspire available dim lifelike

throughout his lifetime.

Word Definition

1. term n. a word or phrase with a certain meaning

C Choose the grammatical error in the passage.
2. improvement n. a change that makes something better
At the very top of Benjamin Franklin’s list of virtues (A) was that of showing restraint with food
and drink, (B) which he felt affected the senses when taken in excess. Second, Franklin valued the 3. reproduce v. to create a copy of something

virtue of silence. He wanted to avoid unimportant conversation and only (C) speak when he had eclipse
4. n. an event when the moon appears to cover the sun
something useful to say. Order was the third virtue on the list, as Franklin thought everything should
have (D) their own time and place. Fourth, Franklin listed the virtue of determination. When he set 5. blurry adj. unable to be seen clearly

out (E) to do something, he thought he should always complete it. There were 13 virtues in all. For inspire
6. v. to encourage someone to do something
the most part, they promote personal development and emphasize self-discipline in all matters.
7. transfer v. to move something from one place to another

8. upside-down adj. with the bottom at the top and the top at the bottom

D Choose the correct words for the blanks. 9. reference n. the act of mentioning something when speaking or writing

Benjamin Franklin knew that in order to live by these virtues, he would have to work very hard. astronomer n. a person who studies the planets and stars
(A) , he made himself a schedule and practiced one virtue a week. He graded himself at the
end of the week, and after 13 weeks he started over again. At f irst, he did not earn very high grades, 11. lifelike adj. looking like a real person or thing

but with practice, he got better. (B) he was not always able to meet the high standards he set available
12. adj. possible to get
for himself, we can admire his attempts, and we can follow his example. Everyone has room for
13. replace v. to exchange one thing for another thing
betterment. Consider making your own list of virtues that you want to live by.

(A) (B) (A) (B) 14. dim adj. not bright

a. So Because b. So Even though
c. So Since d. However Even though 15. practical adj. good for actual use
e. However Since

18 Lesson 9 • Photography 19

B Circle the correct words in the boxes. 10 Red-eye Effect


Nowadays, a camera can fit in the palm of your hand and take high-quality photographs. Even cell
phones come with built-in cameras, (A) allowing / allowed us to take pictures and share them A Choose the correct words for the definitions.
instantly. With such advanced technology, a f ilm camera seems like a thing of the past. Yet, camera
technology has been developing and improving over a long period of time. contract appear reflect layer reduce

(B) Comparing / Compared to the first, ancient cameras, even an old-fashioned f ilm camera normal pupil glow react likely

would seem like an amazing invention. That’s (C) why / because in ancient times, a camera was detect shrink subject susceptible blood vessel

the size of a whole room! The word “camera” is a reference to that fact. It comes from the Latin term
“camera obscura,” meaning “dark chamber.”
Word Definition

1. detect v. to notice that something is there

2. appear v. to seem to be a certain way

C Choose the grammatical error in the passage.
3. pupil n. the black circle at the center of the eye
The camera obscura was a dark room with a tiny hole in one wall for (A) letting in light. The light
4. layer n. a surface formed by a certain substance
shined on a piece of paper, (B) in which someone inside the room could see an image of the outside.
But it wasn’t a very good image. If the hole was large, the image was bright but blurry. If the hole 5. glow v. to give off light
was small, the image was sharp but dim. The image was also upside-down. (C) In spite of all this,
6. subject n. someone or something that is being photographed
early astronomers found a good use for the camera obscura. It allowed them (D) to watch the sun
during a solar eclipse. Since they didn’t have to look directly at the sun, it was (E) much better for 7. susceptible adj. able to be affected by something
their eyes.
8. blood vessel n. a very small tube that carries blood through the body

9. react v. to act or change in a particular way because of something that happened

10. reduce v. to decrease in size or amount

D Choose the correct place for the following sentence.
11. normal adj. not strange
They laid paper beneath the image and drew over the scene.
12. likely adj. probable
In the 16th century, some improvements made the camera obscura more practical. (A) The hole
13. reflect v. to bounce off
was replaced by a glass lens, which made images sharper and brighter, and a mirror was used to
flip the images right-side up. (B) Artists found the improved camera obscura to be a good tool. 14. contract v. to get smaller (two possible answers)
(C) Then, they could paint on top of the lines they had drawn. (D) This technique helped artists
make extremely lifelike paintings. (E) Growing interest in reproducing realistic images inspired the
idea behind modern photography.

20 Lesson 10 • Photography 21

B Circle the correct words in the boxes. 11

Ansel Adams’ Photography

Sometimes you think that you’ve (A) take / taken a perfect picture, but then you notice that
everyone’s eyes are glowing red. Have you ever wondered why this happens? It is an effect that A Choose the correct words for the definitions.
is caused by a camera’s flash. The eye’s iris usually contracts in bright light. This makes the pupil
small, so that too much light doesn’t go into the eye. But when a f lash goes off, the iris does not landscape preservation policy critic destroy

have enough time (B) to react / reacting . Thus, the pupil stays wide open for the photo. The f lash cliff roar remind mist wilderness

is so bright (C) which / that some of its light ref lects off the retina, a layer of cells at the back of realize suffering generation eventually thunder

the eye. Because of all the blood vessels in the retina, the light that it ref lects is red. This is why the
pupil appears red in the photo.
Word Definition

1. critic n. a person who says they disagree with something or someone

2. generation n. a group of people born around the same time

C Choose the grammatical error in the passage.
3. remind v. to cause someone to think about something again
The red-eye effect (A) appears stronger with different people and in different situations. For
example, people who are not standing directly in front of the f lash are not (B) as susceptible. In 4. mist n. tiny drops of water floating in the air
addition, there is a natural variety in (C) how the pupil reacts to changing light conditions. Some
5. landscape n. an area of land that has a particular appearance
people have pupils (D) that become very wide. These people are more likely to experience the
red-eye effect. (E) They who have smaller pupils are less likely to experience it. 6. suffering n. experiencing pain for a long time

7. destroy v. to completely ruin something or cause it to not exist

8. preservation n. the act of keeping something as it is

D Choose the correct words for the blanks.
9. cliff n. a high, steep place
There are a few things you should keep in mind if you want to reduce the red-eye effect. Ask the
subject of the photograph to back away from the camera. The (A) the camera is from the retina, 10. realize v. to think something for the first time
the less reflected light it will detect. Also, new cameras come with a special “red-eye reduction”
11. eventually adv. after a long time
setting, which causes the camera to flash twice instead of once. The f irst flash causes your pupil to
shrink, and the photo is taken when the second flash goes off. The (B) your pupil, the less red 12. policy n. a set of rules or actions about what should be done
light it will reflect back to the camera. Keep these things in mind, and you can avoid having your
13. thunder v. to make a loud noise like the sound that comes after a flash of
picture ruined by the red-eye effect!
(A) (B) (A) (B) n. the loud noise you hear in the sky during a storm
a. further larger b. further deeper
c. further smaller d. closer smaller 14. roar v. to make a loud sound
e. closer thinner
15. wilderness n. a place that is untouched by people

22 Lesson 11 • Photography 23

B Circle the correct words in the boxes. 12 Photo Manipulation


Water thunders over the edge of a cliff. It drops (A) more / most than 700 meters into a cloud
of white mist. You can almost hear the water roaring like thunder as it falls. But there’s no sound. A Choose the correct words for the definitions.
It’s not a real waterfall but a photograph of Yosemite Falls, (B) take / taken by one of the world’s
most famous nature photographers: Ansel Adams. Adams likely first saw the waterfall on a trip manipulation public assassinate portrait identify

to Yosemite National Park in 1916, when he was 14 years old. The beauty of the national park otherwise enemy essentially represent opposite

(C) should have inspired / must have inspired him greatly, because he spent much of his career achievement intent critically late politically

photographing it.

Word Definition

1. manipulation n. the act of changing information, numbers, photos, etc. for a

particular purpose
C Choose the grammatical error in the passage.
2. opposite n. something that is completely unlike another thing
The beautiful images (A) that Adams made were more than art. They showed the power and
importance of nature. This was something the country needed (B) to be reminded of. During Adams’ 3. essentially adv. basically; used to highlight the most basic facts of something
lifetime, natural landscapes (C) were being destroyed to make room for roads, farms, and growing
4. late adj. respectfully refers to someone who has died
cities. Adams believed strongly (D) that the preservation of America’s wild space, and used his
influence to affect policy. For example, he traveled to Washington in 1936 (E) to win support for a 5. intent n. the purpose of a person’s action
wilderness area in California. It eventually became Kings Canyon National Park.
6. portrait n. a picture of a person

7. otherwise conj. if something does not happen

8. critically adv. in a way that involves careful thought

D Choose the correct place for the following sentence.
9. identify v. to notice something
Like all artist, though, Adams had critics.
10. politically adv. having to do with politics
The artwork of Ansel Adams had a signif icant effect on people. (A) “Not everybody trusts paintings
but people believe photographs,” he once said. (B) His pictures, like The Tetons and the Snake River, 11. enemy n. someone who attacks you, tries to harm you, or opposes you

changed how Americans saw nature. (C) Looking at his photographs, people realized that nature 12. public n. all people in general
was a form of art. It was something to care for and protect. (D) They said it was wrong to photograph
13. represent v. to show something in a certain way
and fight for nature when there was so much human suffering in the world. But Adams believed
that understanding the world of nature would help heal people. (E) At the very least, his nature 14. assassinate v. to kill someone important or famous
photography saved the American wilderness for future generations to enjoy.
15. achievement n. something a person has done successfully

24 Lesson 12 • Photography 25

B Circle the correct words in the boxes. 13 Different Kinds of Stars


Everyone knows that photographs cannot lie. Or can they? Actually, people throughout history
(A) has / have used photographs to tell lies. When a person changes a photograph to show A Choose the correct words for the definitions.
something other than the truth, it (B) calls / is called photo manipulation. Through darkroom
tricks or software like Photoshop, a photo editor can make an image tell a lie. Today, technology sphere gravity constant release explosion

makes photo manipulation easier than ever before. So, people should be careful not to trust compress core extreme maintain massive

photographs too (C) easy / easily . People should think critically, otherwise their beliefs may be surround expand dense fusion to begin with

manipulated by these false photographs.

Word Definition

1. massive adj. very large in size or degree

C Choose the grammatical error in the passage.
2. compress v. to make smaller
Joseph Stalin, the leader of the Soviet Union from 1922 to 1953, was known (A) to manipulate
photos in order to keep the public from (B) see certain images. In many cases, the images he 3. dense adj. made up of parts that are packed close together
wanted to hide were images of people. At that time, people (C) who did not agree with the Soviet
4. release v. to let go of; to send out
government (D) were seen as enemies. When Stalin considered someone an enemy, he (E) had
that person killed and removed from all records and photographs. Essentially, he erased them from 5. core n. the center of something
6. constant adj. not changing

7. sphere n. a round shape looking like a ball

D Choose the best phrase for the blank. 8. maintain v. to cause something to stay the same

The Soviets, however, were not the first to manipulate photos to influence the public. In 1865, when 9. to begin with adv. originally; from the start
President Lincoln was assassinated, newspaper publishers wanted to represent the late president as
10. gravity n. the force that pulls things towards each other
a hero to the nation. They looked for a photo that showed Lincoln’s leadership and strength but
couldn’t find anything that worked. What they found, however, was a very heroic photo of an old 11. fusion n. a joining together of things
vice president, John Calhoun. So they took Calhoun’s body and pasted Lincoln’s head onto it. The
12. expand v. to become larger or move outward
image was presented as a real portrait of the president. The irony is that, politically, Calhoun and
Lincoln were opposites. Calhoun , while Lincoln’s greatest achievement 13. extreme adj. very great in effect
was ending slavery.
14. explosion n. a sudden burst of energy
a. stood much taller than Lincoln b. was a famous supporter of slavery
15. surround v. to be around the outside of something
c. only became a vice president d. was not very heroic
e. strongly believed that slavery should end

26 Lesson 13 • Star 27

B Circle the correct words in the boxes. 14 Van Gogh and Stars

All stars are hot, bright spheres made (A) most / mostly of hydrogen and helium gas. However,
stars are not all exactly the same. In fact, there are three main types of stars. The smallest stars are A Choose the correct words for the definitions.
called dwarf stars. But even though they are small, their force of gravity is extreme. This extreme
pressure compresses the hydrogen gas that (B) make / makes up the center of the star. The backdrop imagination observation swirling glitter

compressed hydrogen in the core gets so hot that it turns into helium. This process, distant access signature horizon unsteady

(C) calls / called fusion, releases enough outward force to balance the inward force of gravity. perceive delight breakdown feature indeed

When everything is in balance, the star maintains a constant size.

Word Definition

1. imagination n. the ability to see something in one’s mind

C Choose the grammatical error in the passage. 2. distant adj. being or happening far away

The second type of star (A) is the giant star. As their name hints, giants are very large. Just like in 3. breakdown n. a situation in which a person becomes mentally ill and unable to
dwarf stars, the hydrogen in the cores of giants (B) go through fusion. But when all the hydrogen gas live normally

in the core becomes helium, fusion stops, and gravity takes over again. The core gets so hot (C) that access
4. v. to reach or use something
the gas shell (D) surrounding it starts to burn. The energy that is put out by the burning gas causes
5. delight v. to make someone feel happy
the outer layers of the star (E) to expand. In other words, the star grows into a “giant.”

6. indeed adv. in fact

7. horizon n. the line where the sky meets the ground

8. observation n. the action of looking at something or someone

D Choose the correct place for the following sentence.

9. feature v. to include or emphasize

A large star, on the other hand, dies in a massive explosion called a supernova.
10. perceive v. to notice something with the senses
The third type of star is the neutron star. Neutron stars are actually dead stars, and they only form
from stars that were very large to begin with. (A) When a small star dies, it simply becomes small 11. backdrop n. a scene or image in the background

and dense. (B) Huge amounts of energy are released in such an explosion. (C) The core that is left signature
12. n. something a person is known for
over afterwards, though, becomes a neutron star. (D) Such stars are extremely dense. (E)
13. glitter v. to shine brightly with many small points of light

14. unsteady adj. shaky or uneven

15. swirling adj. moving in a circular way

28 Lesson 14 • Star 29

B Circle the correct words in the boxes. 15 Pentagram


Read this list of paintings by Vincent van Gogh: Café Terrace at Night, Starry Night Over the Rhone,
and The Starry Night. (A) What / Which do they all have in common? They all feature stars. Night A Choose the correct words for the definitions.
scenes with bold, starry backdrops are one of van Gogh’s (B) signature / signatures as an artist.
For van Gogh, nighttime was a special, almost magical time. Working outdoors at night helped him indicate element relationship orientation associate

(C) access / accessed the world of spirits and dreams that inspired his imagination. He painted his handful correspond planet civilization significance

first starry scene, Café Terrace at Night, on a street in Arles, France. arrangement folklore subculture stand for mark down

Word Definition

1. indicate v. to show
C Choose the grammatical error in the passage.
2. orientation n. the direction that something is facing
Soon after Café Terrace at Night, van Gogh made another scene with stars, (A) titled Starry Night
Over the Rhone. In this picture, the sky is full of stars, and, at the horizon, gas lamps from Arles 3. handful n. a small amount or number
(B) reflect off the Rhone River. (C) Show the color and sparkle of the nighttime world was
4. stand for v. to represent a word or concept
(D) deeply important to van Gogh. He worked outside by the light of the stars and the distant city,
where he was able to study the scene carefully (E) to catch its glitter. 5. folklore n. the traditional beliefs of a society

6. element n. a basic part of something

7. associate v. to relate one thing with another

D Choose the best phrase for the blank. 8. arrangement n. the way something is put in order

Several months later, van Gogh painted The Starry Night. This painting was based on memory rather 9. correspond v. to have a link to something
than observation. It has a dreamy, swirling quality. Some consider the unsteady lines and forceful
10. subculture n. a group of people with different interests from the main groups in
color in The Starry Night a reflection of van Gogh’s mental state at that time. He had suffered a
a society
mental breakdown and went to live in a hospital. Through his work, van Gogh attempted to express
the mystery and strangeness he perceived around him. Indeed, the world of The Starry Night does 11. relationship n. interaction among two or more things
seem . Although van Gogh died more than a century ago, his starry
12. planet n. a large, round shape in space, like Earth, which travels around a star
paintings live on, like stars, and delight everyone who sees them.
13. mark down v. to write something
a. more like a dream than reality b. to have been painted in a hurry
c. almost like a photograph d. to be based on detailed observation 14. significance n. the meaning of something
e. especially similar to our own world
15. civilization n. a particular developed society

30 Lesson 15 • Star 31
Liter ure

B Circle the correct words in the boxes. 16 Constellation Legends : Capricorn


The five-pointed star with five lines is known today as the pentagram. It is an ancient symbol that
has held different meanings. Today, it is often used in jewelry and clothing designs. The Sumerians A Choose the correct words for the definitions.
were the first (A) using / to use the pentagram. They wrote about the symbol in records that date
back to 3000 B.C. In the context of that civilization, the pentagram was a character in a writing mythology battle warn injure root

system. It stood for a word (B) that / in which had a handful of meanings, including “corner” and ruling revenge creature unlikely fellow

“room.” The Babylonians, who had close historical links to Sumer, used the pentagram in reference heal honor recognize spirit be familiar with

to the planets. The pentagram’s five points (C) indicated / were indicated f ive planets -Mercury,
Venus, Mars, Jupiter, and Saturn.
Word Definition

1. fellow adj. belonging to the same group

2. mythology n. an ancient culture’s fictional stories and folklore

C Choose the grammatical error in the passage.
3. ruling adj. being in control of others
In ancient China, the pentagram corresponded to Wu Xing, the f ive elements (A) that make up
the world: metal, wood, fire, earth, and water. In ancient Chinese thought, these elements (B) are recognize
4. v. to know something about
always changing. They have different relationships and effects (C) to one another. Fire, for example,
5. creature n. any living or imaginary animal or person that can move
can melt metal; water can put out fire. When the elements (D) are drawn in their traditional
arrangement, and the relationships between each are marked down, the shape that (E) results is a 6. warn v. to tell people about something dangerous
7. heal v. to cause someone who is hurt to get better

8. spirit n. a magical being like a ghost

D Choose the correct words for the blanks. 9. revenge n. the action of harming someone who hurt you

In European folklore, the pentagram had magical properties. But the orientation of the star affected 10. battle n. a big fight
its significance. With one point facing upward, the pentagram represented “white” magic (good).
11. be familiar with v. to know what something is or who someone is because you’ve
(A) , with two points facing upward, the same symbol stood for “black” magic (evil). Today, the
seen them before
pentagram is more closely associated with music subcultures than with any of its ancient meanings.
Some rock fans seem to like the pentagram’s European link to evil. It is f ine to wear a pentagram as 12. honor v. to publicly give someone praise

a fashion statement, (B) you should know about the history of the symbol if you do! injure
13. v. to hurt
(A) (B) (A) (B)
a. Likewise but b. Likewise while 14. root n. origin of something
c. In reverse but d. In reverse in which
15. unlikely adj. surprising and not probable
e. In reverse while

32 Lesson 16 • Star 33
B Circle the correct words in the boxes.
What would you call a creature that has the head of a goat and the tail of a f ish? You could call it a
goat-fish. Or, if you are familiar with Greek mythology, you could call it Capricorn. Greek stories
tell about a war in heaven that started (A) where / when a group of younger gods challenged the
ruling group of gods. The younger gods, (B) known / knowing as the Olympians, defeated the
ruling Titans. As revenge, the Titans created Typhon, a dragon-like monster with 100 heads,
(C) that / which they sent to attack the Olympians.

C Choose the grammatical error in the passage.

The attack of the ruling Titans might have been successful without the quick thinking of one of the
younger gods (A) named Pan. Pan was an unlikely hero, (B) since he was best known for chasing
women, not for strength or bravery. One day, Pan was in a river, (C) trying to get a date with a
beautiful water spirit. But then he saw Typhon (D) to arrive. He was the f irst of the gods to see
Typhon, so he quickly warned the others. He told them to turn into animals so the monster could
not recognize them. Pan started to turn himself into a goat, but he was in the river. So instead of
becoming fully goat, he made his lower half a f ish. And (E) that is how Pan became Capricorn.

D Choose the correct place for the following sentence.

It is an image we now know as the constellation Capricorn.

Zeus, the Olympians’ leader, fought Typhon. (A) When Zeus was seriously injured, Pan helped
heal him so that he could finish the battle. (B) When it was over, Zeus honored Pan by moving the
stars to create a portrait of him as a goat-f ish. (C) This constellation is the second-dimmest Zodiac
constellation, so it is not easy to see. (D) However, you can f ind it if the sky is clear. (E) The best
time to look for it is in the early in the evening in September and October.