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How To Become
a Laptop Technician
From Zero to Hero

Kang solihin

Copyright © 2018 tre media

All rights reserved.
ISBN: 9781980416357


This book is dedicated to technicians who are learning to repair laptops



Acknowledgments i
1 Recognition and Scope of Reparation Theory 1
2 Basic Components of SMD on Motherboard Laptop 9
3 Datasheet 10
4 Motherboard Structure 11
5 Schematic Learning 14
6 Understanding Basic Code Of Schematic Path 17
7 Technique To Find Signal Relationship 20
8 Power Motherboard 21
9. Measurement With Schematic 22
10. Function And Application 23


This book is made for laptop technicians, either beginners or who are
learning to repair laptops and want to learn more about everything related to
laptop repair.

Equipped with a component recognition guide contained in the laptop, how to

measure each component and how to repair the laptop based on schematic

Recognition and Scope of Reparation Theory

1. User Manual
User manual is a guide book for customer or user. Usually, there is in one
package when you buy a new laptop.
2. Service Manual
As a technician, the service manual serves as a standard laptop unloading
procedure. Especially if there is the latest series that we never do
maintenance on the laptop, then the service manual may be in need. The fact
that there are many wrong procedures in conducting the process of
dismantling and assembling, it can cause the case cracked or broken. There
are also some other descriptions that can be our guide on the field, on the
official website of each laptop brand provides a service manual for each of
their products. Example: up screen short from DOC (Service Manual).

3. Power Flowchart

Damage Case:
1. LCD display is too dark, the checking stage starts from the inverter
and check sections “AC_BATT_SYS”. If there is a problem in this
section either the voltage or the socket in damaged, then just fix it. The
execution process is finished. If there is no problem in this section, then
check and continue to the next section.
2. Signal control, note the direction of the arrow and so it goes. This
is the technique of checking with FLOWCHART media, some
brands provide this media like ASUS. From here we know what parts
to check. So the flowchart acts as a SOP for breakdowns
and checking.

4. Schematic
In general, the function of schematic
diagram are:

1. Knowing the interface/

path connection between
components (component

2. Knowing the point of

measurement and its value.

3. Knowing the input and

output points (stage & etc).

4. Knowing how circuit works to

analyze the circuit.

5. Knowing the code, type and value

of a component.

In general, the function of datasheet
are :

1. Knowing the details of component

functions and how they work.

2. Knowing the term signals on the

component pins as well as the
function and how it works.

3. Knowing the reference input and

output voltage of a component as
material comparison or equation

4. Knowing the value of the voltage on

each pin component

Basic Components of SMD on Motherboard Laptop


The component form is divided into two, they are standard and SMD or mini
component, and of its characteristic are also divided into two, active and
passive components. The active component is a type of electronics
component that requires an electric current to work, in an electronic circuit
that can amplify and direct electrical signals, and can convert energy from
one form to another (transistors and IC diodes). Passive component is a type
of electronic component that works without the need for electric current, so it
cannot strengthen and rectify electrical signals and cannot convert energy to
another form (resistor, capacitor etc).

1. Fuse

Name Symbol Code Shape

Fuse F

Serves as a Security, if there is a shorting circuit, this component will be

broken. On older laptops, the cause of the totally dead laptop is this
component on the DC IN circuit. The shape of the component can be seen in
the picture on the left side. The green ones are mostly found in circuit LED

panels, circuit LVDS & CRT.

1.1. Fuse Character in the Circuit

The fuse character in the circuit are

almost the same as the inductor and full-up
resistor, if the is
problematic it will cut off theitivepos
voltage of either input or output. The
measuring technique is very simple:

Scale the multimeter on the buzzer.
probes (red & black) are each ched
atta to
both poles of the PIN.

Component, free probe position.the If

multimeter makes a sound then fuse the is
fine, even though its value is below 0.10
e no
because its attributes also hav negative
poles (which do not req negativeuire poles
for the working condit of components
fuse and indu components). And ctor vice
versa if multimeter does not soundthethe
fus broken (the key is between the esound
not the sound of a multimeter). and

Overview of measurement techniq


(This measurement is specific

determine if the component is dam
aged or
not, not to measure the value of a

component's resistance). Trick:aled sc

position in buzzer mode or diodelue.v a
Multimeter in use is a digital eter.multim
Applies to all components their

2. Resistor

Name Symbol Code Shape

PR : Power Resistor

SMD or mini component resistor in the laptop motherboard serves as a

resistance and if its value is 0 - 000, the resistor serves as a jumper (fuse).

The color and shape of this resistor on laptop motherboards are generally
black and green as in the example image. Often found in power jack / dc jack
and charging circuit.

In particular, the resistor functions as a resistance. However, its use in circuit

electronics. In general this component has a complex function depending on
the placement on a circuit. Resistor in circuit laptop motherboards generally
serve as a resistance, voltage divider, comparator, full up, safety, jumper and
current limiter.

The resistor also has a resistance value and its resistance to the circuit. I hope
you do not stop here, please learn more specific, either via browsing or
sharing. Learn more about SMD RESISTOR with the links below:

Name Symbol Code Shape

Lice PR : Power
Resistor Resistor

One type of resistor is a lice resistor, in the laptop motherboard circuit it

functions very complex depending on the layout of the circuit. Also the
amount is very much. Lice resistor is almost found in all motherboard circuit
systems. To note here, is not the form but the code. Because there are other
components with a shape that is both small and same color but not R
(resistor), but L (inductor).
Resistors are also often referred to as resistance. I will discuss it briefly, for
more advanced level please understand more deeply and more specifically
about resistor, OHM law and calculation of resistance to current and load.

Characteristics of this component will break the current and voltage or

change the value of the voltage itself if damaged, especially in the input
circuit, and other problems if the resistors breaks then the input will not flow
to the system/IC. The damage caused by this lice resistor is almost all of the
characteristics of laptop damage (no charging, totally died, no display, etc)

Name Symbol Code Shape

Network PR: Power Resistor

SMD Network means, one component can contain multiple resistors that
have the same resistance value in one package or component form. This type
of resistor we often encounter in the keyboard path. This component is rarely
damaged except on the 2000s motherboard output with error keyboard

2.1. Characteristic of Resistors in the Circuit


The resistor that acts as a resistance or cu rrent

limiter is
a lice resistor.

Resistor in the laptop motherboard as much70%

as is
used as a resistance on the pos input Vinitivepath.
this will
The characteristic of component if it broken
tage. or
break the vol If the resistance value changes
does match the recommendation on the not ci

schematic, then the resulting output evaluis not

appropriate and have an impact on error thecircuit
or circuit problem (res stretched). istor

More smaller the value of a resistor m greater

the value of the current. Likewise bigger the ore value
of a resistor then smalle value of the current the(learn
how to measur e current/ampere). If the r thecurrent
value is gre than the value of a resistor then the the
res will break. ater
Leakage of the resistor due to the decrea the value
of the resistor that affects the cu consumption and
the voltage is waste ground. This is anseevent in
called DROP voltage and current do not matchrrent the
d to
load the resistor value becomes 0 then it will r in
leakage of voltage which is directly wa to ground
and short circuit will occur.



In principle, the voltage divideristor res

consists of two resistors arranged in paralleland
will produce an output voltage ½ of the input
voltage, provided that two resistors h theave
resistance value but if the valu different,
es is it
will affect the cu r consumption
depending on the value resistance. of a

This system is also often used in compa

circuits. Variable resistor circuit on charrator

and RTC circuit. Resistor in use is kind of lice



This resistor is almost never damaged. Used

circuit grounding and full down resisto r or
parallel resistor that one of its s leg is
connected to Ground / system grounding.

2.2. Resistor Measurement

In addition to knowing the form of symbols and functions as a material

damage analysis as well as an absolute requirement to read schematic,
technicians are also required to be able to identify whether the component is
still good or damaged, then you have to master the measurement material.
Although you do not understand the characteristic of the components of the
circuit, you can directly fix the laptop. Because of my own reset, proof that
80% of laptop technicians do not have basic electronics/technical education
background, and some of them use “street techniques” (Ask to other what is
the damaged, what part that have to replaced then without thinking so long
they immediately practice). So, you can do it! In this book you are provided
with basic provisions electronics, also at the core of this book you will learn
schematic diagram.

There are 3 stages of correct component identification process


1. Check the condition of the component (bad or good).

This identification is the easiest execution technique, such as improving
the mechanical system (readable and visible) with the characteristics of
cracked or burned components. In this case the thoroughness and
quietness is the key. There are many cases, technicians have checked

many components, and it turns out only the power cable is detached.
2. Check with chip detection technique
Touch/hold on component body, If the component feels hot, 70% there is
a problem with the component.
3. Measurement (advanced method)
An execution technique that is invisible to the eye, not heard by the ear,
and cannot be touched, because it must use other media, such as
measuring instruments and we mastered first one gauge called digital

Measurements are divided into 2 stages:

1. The measurement without voltage
By removing the component or tensing one component of the
circuit/motherboard or the component legs on the lift next.

Measurements without voltage with special

tool SMD TESTER, measurement of this method to measure the
suitability of the resistance value of component and schematic.
The use of SMD TESTER tools will be accurate. This technique is to
measure the value of a resistor where the result is to match the
component resistance value in the schematic (if there is no resistance in
the component body). Because of over time or due to the weakness of a
circuit/damage circuit Component values may change.
2. Measurement with voltage
This technique is used to measure the value of input and output voltage).
This method of measurement provided that the input has a voltage (use a
PSU 30V - 5A only, because the current consumption can be seen on the
display for ease in further engineering methods). And measurement
techniques like this, to identify the magnitude of the voltage before passing
through the resistor and after passing through the resistor. Large input and
output values before or after the resistor pass must be the same except the

ampere value.
If the output value after passing the resistor differs more than 3 digits, then
it can be sure the resistor is damaged/problematic, the problem is resistor
on most motherboards and almost used in all circuit systems. Do not worry;
the damage of the resistors is in the characteristic of complicated damage,
and from 10 laptops only 4 where the resistors cause damage.

Technique of measuring:
Black probe standby on ground. Scale the multimeter at DC 20V (which is
important that the value of the voltage we will measure must exceed the
scale of the multimeter). Notice the arrows of numbers one and two, is the
first measurement on the input before passing the resistor and the second
after passing through the resistor or output. Whereas 1 and 1 written steps
may be measurements on the IC pins directly because of one output line
after the resistor, the important thing is that no other component passes the
output path after the resistor. Resistors in the VIN line is one of causes of
damage with the characteristics of voltage loss, protect switch and light up
briefly then die. (IC does not work because it does not get power supply
disconnected because of resistor)

3. Capacitor
Name Symbol Code Shape
Elco C
Capacitor (Polar) PC : POWER

Capacitors are a component that has many types and also forms. One of them,

which are in use in laptop motherboard. Such as in the picture (type SMD
elco), in addition to its function as a charge storage in the laptop
motherboard, also serves as a filter in the series of switching and decoupling.
Elcoalso has a resistance value with the symbol μF (microfarad) and the
voltage on the component body. More higher the value of μF on the
capacitor in the filter circuit will be better, and the voltage value on the
capacitor must exceed the number of voltage values to be passed.
The weakness of elco is the leakage of components that causes the value of
the output voltage to change drop, even short circuit is often found on the
problem of 3V and 5V circuits as well VCC core.
Name Symbol Code Shape
Tantalum Capacitor C
(Polar) PC : Power Capacitor

Capacitors have different shapes and series, just like a resistor. One of them
is like the picture beside (type SMD Tantalum). In addition to its function as a
temporary load storage. In the laptop motherboard also it functions as a filter
in switching and decoupling circuits. If we look at the symbols and shapes,
the components of elco and tantalum have positive and negative poles, so the
installation on the circuit should not be inverted. (Elco may be replaced with
tantalum vice versa). This type of component is widely used for alternate
NEC/TOKIN replacement on the VCC core in case of no display, with the
characteristic of no display total voltage VCC core drop 0v - 0.9V. It should
be noted that NEC/TOKIN is also included in component capacitor families.

Name Symbol Code Shape

Ceramic Capacitor/ PC : Power Capacitor

Capacitors have different shapes and series. One of them is like the picture on
the side (SMD Ceramic type). Works as a filter noose, if we are Pay attention

to symbols & shapes. Ceramic type components have no poles, so the

installation may be reversed. Often we find on the 19V input bypass path in
all circuit systems and one of the causes of the most dominant motherboard
short circuit (this type of component often suffered damage, especially in the
case of short circuit).

3.1. Characteristic of
Capacitors in the Circuit

Shorting = A meeting between positive and negative poles, and the

characteristic of this component if it breaks it does not break the current/
voltage like FUSE or RESISTOR, but connects/matches the two poles that
should be separated (positive and

negative). This event is often called short circuit.

Note the picture on the side, the bipolar
capacitor component is arranged in
parallel and connected directly to the
VIN (source voltage of the circuit
system) and on the foot after it is
connected to ground. And what happens
if this component is damaged/short?
Then all VIN lines in all systems will be affected by short. Although the
damaged it only one component.
The more mounted capacitors in this circuit, it will be better.
But unfortunately in the laptop motherboard series only installed 3 - 2 pieces
only. And this component is the top score of total dead laptop damage from
past to the present, almost in all electronic devices without exception, laptop
motherboard as well. If we find the short circuit and it has been narrowed in
just one circuit by removing the jumper/disconnecting the jumper path or the
inductor component.
The techniques to find a shorting capacitor arranged parallel as in the picture
beside, remove the capacitor whose value is the largest in the schematic
diagram because it is usually the most damaged first. Parallel arranged
capacitors serve to flatten currents and voltages (currents and voltages are
always directly proportional). The basic principle of capacitor is the charge
storage and then releases it. While the capacitors are arranged in series then
the characteristic will be different, if the input voltage goes up he fills the
charge and if the voltage drops he will dispose of the charge. The capacitor
will conduct electricity when the input is off or in AC mode and charge if ON
or when in the DC mode. There are 2 functions: the first function to block the
DC voltage and the second function to smooth the AC voltage.

The characteristic of the components in

the polar capacitor switching circuit regulator act as AC signal filters
generated by the coil/inductor in the switching process. These components
are BOXES & ROUNDES (tantalum & elco). Unlike tantalum, elco as time
goes by its value will decrease faster, and the use of elco that I know on the
motherboard circuit is not nice, but cannot deny the price is cheap.
It's almost the same as the type of ceramic capacitor but it does exist
additional cases, if these components are damaged especially those using elco
then the output value will change. For example if the image beside 5V then in
fact can be 0V or 1V + often occurs in 3V and 5V circuits.

3.2. Capacitor Measurement

Capacitor measurement using

Note: This measurement is only for
measuring the safe voltage point,
because the shape and scope of the
capacitor is wider. For the tip of the
multimeter probe, we can also modify

the multimeter tip with the needle.

The black probe does not always have
to be on the ground pin of the
capacitor. Can be in the screw hole or
any part as long as it is safe and is a
ground path.

Measurement and identification of

Because of the capacitor has a positive and negative pole, if this component
is damaged, it will result in short circuit (the negative and positive poles
occur due to the leakage in the capacitor). Although only 1 component of the
capacitor is damaged in one circuit, but it affects the other circuit.
The measurement it is almost the same as the voltage measurement, the
difference is only the position of the scale on the buzzer and the position of
the motherboard is not fed by voltage. If the component is damaged: check
the probe, the diode mode value is below 0.10 (the measurement requirement
is to lift the leg of the component).

4. Inductor
Name Symbol Code Shape
Inductor PL : Power

The inductor function in the laptop's motherboard is used to switching

circuits. The inductor in the switching circuit system serves to store the
charge. And utilized for saving measurement point as well as capacitors, but

the measurement results more accurate to the capacitor than the inductor.
Basically in circuit, switching inductor and capacitor function is same, to
save current when switch is connected and release its charge when the switch
is released, but there are advantages of each component. Inductors are widely
used as circuit breakers one and another, when the execution process narrows
the characteristic shorting of the motherboard. And in other techniques,
inductors are used as short-chip detectors and short circuit.

4.1. Characteristic of Inductor

In a switching circuit system, the

inductor serves to store the charge. When the switch is connected and
discharges its charge, when the switch is released, in this way the current
constantly enters the load. This component is in fact never damaged, unless
the type of small inductor is shaped like a lice resistor in the LVDS & GPU
system. As well as capacitors, inductors are utilized for safe measurement
points. In addition, inductors are also used for syringes point and integral
circuit breakers between one series and another (narrowing the search for
short tracking on standard execution methods).
Note: There are many repetitions of the same word to be easier to remember
and faster to understand until you are bored with the repetition means you can
already remember it.

4.2. Inductor Measurement


Identification of inductor measurement for determines good or bad is very

The term is do not use voltage and scale position on buzzer/diode value
mode. If the multimeter rang, it means the component is still good although
its value is below 0.10

5. Diode
Name Symbol Code Shape
Diode Rectifier PD: Power Diode

Diode has different form and series, one of them is like the image beside. In
motherboard laptop, general function of diode is for rectifier and alternating
current protection. Diode is an active component of semiconductor which
consists of junction P-N / A / K. The characteristic of the diode is that it can
conduct current at forward voltage and inhibit current at reverse voltage.
There is another name for the circuit diode also known as rectifier. You can
develop more specific later. But on component delivery materials for
motherboard focuses on memorization codes and symbols for applications on
the material, because initial requirement of reading schematic is memorize

the form and the next symbol function and circuit analysis.

Name Symbol Code Shape

Diode Zener PD : Power Diode

Diode Zener is an electric component which made of semi-conductor and a

diode type for operating in Reverse Bias Circuit. When paired to Circuit
forward bias, Zener Diodes will be has the characteristics and functions as
normal diodes in general, but on laptop motherboard diode zener lot on use
for voltage stabilizer.
Name Symbol Code Shape

Schottky Diode D
(SCR) PD: Power Diode

Three Leg Diode

As a switch control in circuit, the form and function it’s like a transistor, but
it’s different. This Three leg diode function in motherboard laptop is for
circuit protection and helping the transistor.
Name Symbol Code Shape
LED Diode PD: Power Diode

The function of LED Diode in motherboard laptop is almost 95% for light
indicator. Because power consumption is very low, lot of product
motherboard using SMD DIODE LED type. Damage on diode in
motherboard is very rare, it is like just 1 in 10 laptop. Because if diode
broken or damage it will be break the charge/voltage/current. To measuring
diode, equate measuring diode with inductor measurement techniques. And if
the three leg diode, watch the direction at diode symbol A to K.

6. Transistor
Name Symbol Code Shape
3 Legs Transistor PQ : Power Transistor

Transistor function as an amplifier, breakers and connectors (switch), voltage

stabilization, signal modulation. But generally in the laptop motherboard 3
legs transistors in use as switch.
Name Symbol Code Shape
6 Legs Transistor PQ : Power Transistor

In many laptop motherboards it use in switching circuits detector/protection

circuit. (Charging area/DC Jack area & LVDS). For extra, be careful when
you want to remove the LCD or the other part, you have to take off the
battery and the adapter should not be plugin.
Name Symbol Code Shape

8 Legs Transistor Q
Mosfet or P- PQ : Power Transistor
Channel Mosfet

P - Chanel Mosfet in laptop motherboard used in charging and DC circuits

Jack, which functions as protection circuit to close or passed the voltage of
19V / S5 circuit. While outside the bypass line DC jack and charging, this
component is not in use. In the Input Voltage circuit and any output, the
value is the same except the gate which is ½ value of input and output values
(generally) although not all of them like that. Because the characteristic of
this component decided payload and only move on the positive track which
works as ordered from the gate between pass the voltage or not (switch). So,
if this component is broken, the input will find the voltage and at the output

do not find. With the condition on the gate there is voltage. In reality the
damage characteristics of this component are: Cannot use batteries, cannot
wear adapter, batteries cannot charging. Must Plugin the adapter even
though the battery has full.
In addition, the protection system will be active if there is a short in the
output path after the charging circuit, result the voltage is only at the mosfet
input only (but the mosfet is good condition). So, do not directly fix the
mosfet, mainly on total dead short damage. First make sure the output path of
the mosfet is not the short way by measuring the diode value mode (buzzer)
the position of the motherboard does not use Voltage.
The red probe on the output leg of the mosfet and black probe on ground, and
if it beeps sound, can be sure there are short in the lane output after mosfet,
especially on VIN path. So all you have to do is checking on VIN line.

Name Symbol Code Shape

Transistor Q
Mosfet N - PQ : Power Transistor

The shape of mosfet N-Channel is same with mosfet P-channel, but has a
different function. N-channel in laptop motherboard is many used as lowering
voltage and Current amplifier in the process of switching (step down) inside
switching/SMPS circuit. This component often found and in use for VRAM
circuit, VCC CORE, GPU CORE, 3V &5V. After memorizing shapes,
symbols and codes develop more specific in theory about this mosfet because
of this component very important both from the pin and the system it works
with datasheet. Because in the latest motherboard there is a double name of
mosfet and designed mosfet in BGA chip system. If you are basically having
missed much, we can catch up on this and there's no word too late to learn.

6.1. N-Channel and P-Channel Mosfet Characteristic

Mospet P - chanel is often found in DC

jack and Charging circuits. Character and the function of this component
serve as a protection circuit. Example, If there is short after output (pin 5678)
then automatically gate on pin 4 will open the gate as ordered from
SYSTEM, consequently the voltage is only present on pin 123 only.
And if not found short circuit on the output then 90% certainly this mosfet is
problematic. And other problems are also sourced from mosfet underneath
(we call it a small transistor 6 legs).

N-Chanel Mosfet in parallel arrangement

(HIGH & LOW), on a continuous basis simple, works for the switching
process that its function is for decrease voltage according to gate command
voltage from DC or IC 3V & 5V. This is the conclusion of the difference of
N-channel and p-channel mosfet. If N-channel is identical to parallel circuit
while P-Channel identical to the series.
Consider one of the legs of the MOSFET that connected to the ground. If this

component is damaged, consequently SHORT CIRCUIT, even the damaged

underneath or above the mosfet. Gate on the N-channel mosfet is rarely
problematic, because in this path there is no component to pass (toll roads).
Except, the absence of gate or command voltage of the controller itself in this
case IC 3V & 5V problem.
The characteristics of toll roads can be to narrow down the identification of
measurements on the circuit. The characteristics of this component if
damaged will be short circuit. And its effects to all circuits is almost equal to
capacitor, although only one component is damaged the others components
will be affected of short notice.
The solution may remove one by one of the affected components subject to
shorting indications or more quickly by injection technique. May take off the
adjacent inductor to bypass the connection between the circuits. We develop
later in material system 3V and 5V. (If you still are confused with the
material of functions and applications to the circuit, we as technicians simply
hold on to how to test/check the components either good or not, that is

6.2. Good and Damaged Component Testing


K1 is a scale on multimeter, and remember that technique is simple no need to make

complicated and dizzy because technique is an art. Jump to the measurement, we
divided it into 2. They are the measurement of voltage and component
measurement. The measurement of voltage is the measurement using voltage,
while component measurement does not use voltage. And that we will discuss from
sample image above is the component measurement. Do not read this material first,
if the previous material about the components of the form, symbols and functions
have not memorized yet.

And if already memorized, we go again slowly. The point is if the component is

damaged note the picture G3, the measurement is enough to reverse the probe with
K2 scale and we are pegged on one theory only (if we have reverse the probes, and
there is a sounds then component is damaged).

The rest of the results, that the component is still good or worthy use, the
measurement may be inside or outside circuit. And only applies to DIODE,
MOSFET, CAPACITOR, while the special one for F (fuse) if we have reverse the
probes, and there is a sound, its means the components are in good condition. How
to measure for resistor and IC? specifically for resistor measurement wear a special
tool called SMD tester because its accuracy. As for measuring IC later we will
explain through the method of measuring the voltage. Accurate measurement by
removing the leg component next/side lift.
6.3 Testing of Legs Components

Measurement of 3 Legs Components

1. Red probe on single leg and black probe on the right leg (must have value on
display multimeter).

2. Then we reverse the probe position, the red one on the right PIN and the one
on single PIN (there should be no value on the multimeter display).

3. If the measurement results are not as described, then the component is damaged
else failure).

4. Testing should be without voltage and remove the components.

7. Crystal
Name Symbol Code Form

Crystal X-TAL

This serves as a clock pulse producer. Crystals are an important component in

Oscillator circuit and RTC circuit. In use within the scope of the component
high speed. For example, PCH and EC as a series of generators/working
conditions of the chipset component is the point. Crystal in oscillator circuit
can only be measured with oscilloscope/counter at least 100 mHz. But do not
worry, this component is rarely damaged except on the system itself or where
the component is in place it on a circuit like input circuit before entering it,
like resistor / comparator capacitor.
Name Symbol Code Form


It functions to save BIOS settings and time/date in the motherboard. Before

the mandatory voltage, there is actually a voltage on the motherboard called
CMOS. There are 2 terms of the same name but different functions like RTC
and RTC circuit crystal oscillator. Later we will encounter in schematic what
is RTC circuit.
If the CMOS is corrupted, then the time setting will be always changing. On
windows will be an error especially when browsing. In other cases, if the
CMOS battery is damaged or discharged when in the adapter plug, the laptop
immediately flames itself. I often forget to reinstall CMOS after the execution
process, it is a mandatory law, when the CMOS execution process must be
first off to avoid fatal error (in CMOS there is a voltage 3V, there is a
description in the component body).
Testing the CMOS in a good condition or not is easy. You measure it, if the
CMOS voltage is 3V then CMOS is ok. If the voltage drops till 1V or even 0
then CMOS is not worth wearing. So how do you measure it? We continue
this slowly.

9. Connector
No Name Symbol Code Form General FunctionOn
Motherboard Laptop
Sockets that are in technical
language are connector/
connection/co In the nductor.
electricity it terminal. called

Many connectors ins scope

of Laptop moth like idejackthe
power, Keyboard sockets,
Processor, Hdd, Dvd, etc battery,
So each CN . code
connector. This compo
never damaged except
is the
defects or bad solder, nentcause is
no communica disconnected.
The s repeat the solder.it will
tion or
The terminal join, olution:
schematic called jumper
works for connect one and
others). Also used f points.or in
2 Jumper PJ/TJ For its shape ple the sample(
of Motherbo pay attentionsystem
there is solder pile likeorareset
hill release the solderase take
terminal join wi ard and
disconnected. a small
, if we
ll be

No need explanation forthis,

3 On/Off
Switch SW already know becau found in
se often
all electronic and electrical
system needs to be s. Thata
benchmark SW code which there is
means s witch.

10. IC
Name Symbol Code Form


IC (Integrated Circuit) is Component active electronics consisting of

composite hundreds or even millions of transistors, resistors and other
components being integrated into an Electronics Circuit in a small packaging.
Forms of IC also vary, ranging from 3 Legged to hundreds of legs (terminal).
IC functions are also diverse, ranging from amplifier, switching, and
controller to media storage. Generally, IC is electronic components are used
as brain in an Electronics Equipment. IC is a semiconductor component that
is very sensitive to ESD (Electro Static Discharge). For example, IC that
function as brain on a computer called as Microprocessor, consists of 16
million transistors and that number has not yet been included other electronic

All components with PU code are IC, but the code function is different. A lot
of PU on the motherboard. So, for beginners, you should creative to take one
sample motherboard and see how much PU in the motherboard, then take a
look datasheet to know the function and how it works.
As time passes you will know the function of each PU with its code, because
it is only a few IC manufacturers use in laptop motherboards like Realtek,
Broadcom, Atheros, TPS, Maxim etc.
IC is the brain of each circuit (controller). Let us simplify easily, only if IC
for voice then we call IC sound. If IC for 3V and 5V then its name also i3 3V
and 5V. And the location of IC is not far from hardware that will be enabled.
Identification of a good or bad IC should be with schematic to know the input
pin and outputs. Measurement techniques must also use voltage not like other
components in general. We continue on series later. The IC shape is a box
like the picture on the side, there is also a square and always identical to the
number of pins it’s a lot. And there are also shapes such as a mosfet. So we
are in demand from symbol codes or their respective forms component. We
describe some common IC for advanced knowledge on some IC component
materials below

For basic measurement techniques please on

the input and its output first.

Name Symbol Code

Amplifier OP -AMP

11. Amplifier and Digital Logic Gates

The form of PU in symbol schematic shaped like digital gate, it is
components are almost similar to 6 or the word amp is identical to the
amplifier on old home-based electronic devices, such as radio.
But in a laptop motherboard, amp is functions as a regulator of
power/Regulation of power, which in general already specially designed in
IC system although there are some who do not. We will find OP-AMP on the
diagram IC work system in component datasheet. Knowledge for digital
system little important & for beginners this material you can skip it first. The
symbol resembles a logic gate digital, even there is a resemblance to gate
notes and Schmitt trigger ones. Its function is to clean up and amplifies the
signal before it is sent to output and advanced circuit. There are characteristic
also in the gate system logic like Schmitt trigger gate, there are inverting
(almost the same With NOT gate) and some NON Inverting. 8 legs mosfet.
But just calm down, this type of component is rare in damage.

Datasheet is a complete description of a component about it function,
Characteristic, How to Work, work system, pin description, etc.
So with Datasheet we will easily know the functions of each component in
the motherboard more specific and complete. How to read datasheet? The key
is Learn - learn and learn, read, read and read and you will understand the

In technicians worlds, especially in IC usage datasheet enough to know the

source of incoming voltage and function, to make sure the component is good
or damaged, that's it. We will see the description below and the points: There
are terms of input voltage and the most common in use is VIN and VCCP.

How to Read Datasheet

Lots of websites that provide document datasheet or component data, for
example: https://www.ti.com/ or http://www.alldatasheet.com/

The code used for searching is the top Or can use schematic because the
most code on the component body. If code and brand IC is more clear
not found go to the code in the

Or by directly to google. When we

Write IC code to datasheet website want to find the terms on the
schematic any searching media now
already support for example we
want to know what is LPC, DMI

This is an description of the first

image, Write the iC code on the web Directly view or download it
dataseheet It will come out the
arrangement of pdf and skew it code.

Table of contents of the datasheet on how ic works. Description of the pin

and its description. Keep reading.

Description and component function


Detail description of work system


Detail description of work system

circuit & detail description of PIN

Detail description of input and output


Diagram description of IC work


A detailed description of the terms of

the IC work

Description of signal and voltage



Schematic Simulation – Design - layout Schematic Simulation – Design - Layout




Image 1.1 Motherboard Structure

Motherboard functions as a place for components and the path that connects
it. You can see at image 1.1.
Image information: note the first picture
Image 1 (Schematic)
Is a layout, path and information about components in motherboard
(schematic is a motherboard map)
Image 2 (Design)
In the world of electronics engineering, motherboard design is included
into the scope of the material engineering drawings. If we look at
simulation schematic - design - layout on image no 2, there is a
difference of path form (art technique). However, on the basis of its
function is the same as conductor

Image 3 (Layout)
Form a perfect circuit that has been installed components and ready to
enable. Please simulate, and then look at the next 3 sample images in
the table. And i hope you already understand for this theory.

Image 1 Image 2 Image 3

Image 2.2 Motherboard Structure

Image information:
Note different image 2.2 and see the difference image 1 to 3.
Image 1: Is the basic structure of the motherboard after the print
design process.

Note (No 1 - 2 - 3 - 4) is a type of path that has been modified

with the art of drawing. So also in image 2 where the motherboard
has been given color. In addition to functioning to beautify
motherboard is also to prevent short circuits/shorting
materials/hardware that have conductive properties when direct
contact with paths on the motherboard.
Notice in the image 1 and 2 in the description of image no 3
where the end of the path in connection with circles, and circles
are directly related to the motherboard part board path rear as an
example in image 3 simulated the front lane and the rear lane of
the board motherboard. There is even a manufacture that designs
3 layer motherboards (front lane - middle -Back).

And note the example motherboard image in bottom table and see the

The component codes are contained on the laptop's motherboard. If we
apply with a map of a country the component code is the names of a
city/province as a layout hint. While the path is a name street connect it.
Name Components Code table


Zooming Picture

Image Information:
No. 1: The position of the IC legs always arranged reversed
No. 2: Enlarge the image and note the order of the 1st to last leg position
following the reverse direction clockwise. But we must be careful,
when looking at the pin position on the schematic. It because on
schematic pin position in random or not sequentially unlike on the
No. 3: Special position for large or regular shaped IC we often find in
IC SIO/CHIPSET. The position of 1 leg is in the straight line of the
initial capital letters of the code on the component (inside the scope PIN
1 motherboard is usually marked with arrow code, Lines, and dots).
No. 4: The position of PIN 1 above is in the straight line of the initial
capital letters of the code on the component.
Note: There is a difference between the images and position of PIN 1,
between picture no. 3 & No. 4. This is possible confusing. The solution,

we note the PIN 1 on the components and PIN code 1 on the

motherboard before discharging the components so that the installation
process is not reversed, because it will fatal result. Or often pay
attention to Position PIN 1 on all brands of motherboards as material
comparison for advanced understanding.


Zooming Picture

Picture information:
Enlarge image & note the position of PIN1 on component and
motherboard. PIN code 1 on motherboard symbolized with the code:
triangle arrows, lines, and dots. On other motherboards as well we often
find the PIN code 1 in the form of two triangular curve lines. Take one
sample motherboard then apply this material.

Note component code on motherboard below



The function of code board in

motherboard are :
Looking for hardware drivers.
Looking for motherboard bios files
Looking for a motherboard schematic
Code board on the motherboard
include with code board contained in
the schematic diagram (must be the
Code) this serves to match the data in
all the scope of motherboard and


This technique can be apply to :

The component burns, so that when
it comes to replacing the component
code and the type of component that
is in use is not visible or burned.
Then the schematic role here will be
in need.
Find component layout for

Example :
We want to find component (C387
then that we need is schematic & after
open schematic press keyboard ctrl - F
(then well show the navigation box then
write C387 then the layout of the
components and the circuit in schematic
will open. This technique applies to all
components. And can to overcome
Lane burning. Fast watering can also is
using the software board view facility.


There are many types of software to display the layout

components directly on the motherboard. Broadview
at its development now functions more complex not
just looking for the layout of components but already
equipped with type of voltage. And we use sample
common and often in use it as a picture of what is

board view.
Download its software (PCB Repair tool). Example:
as in figure on the side.

The board view extension is not like schematic, but in

the form of a file with which in general is (FZ.BV ASC
DLL) example file like the picture on the side.

If PCB Repair Tool software is already downloaded.

Double file the exe, then the software can be used and
running on windows 64 and 32 bits. Then input file
Fz.bv or asc according to brand and type of laptop that
you get then input copy file fz it In doc folder PCB
Repair Tool software. How to do:
Click setup then click preferences as shown.

Click doc file storage FZ and collect as many files

Example fz file saved at doc program PCB Repair


After that to open the file you copied earlier, press

Keyboard fn - F10 and click file you want to display.

The file is ready to operate as shown in the picture.

Example when you want to look for voltage layout.

In board view is complete with detail components


If not understand yet, you can click help

Board view may be combined with schematic to be more accurate.

Because in general, board view function is to find the location of
components on the motherboard faster. Especially, the blank code

Basic Terms General Definitions
AC Alternate Current
DC Direct current
AMPHERE Current flowing
VOLTAGE Power Supply
POWER/WATT The amount of voltage required
RESISTOR Resistance

Voltage Definition Signal

INPUT Input In
OUTPUT Output Out
NEGATIVE Voltage have a value below 0 -
RESET Input confirmation Reset
DATA Communicate PCI & etc

Term Information Term Information

AC Alternating Current VTT Memory Termination
ACDRV AC Adapter to System - VTERM Memory Termination voltage
Switch Driver Output
ACEDET Adaptor Current Detector VUSB Power
ACGOOD Valid Adapter Active-Low VGA Power VGA
Detect Logic Open- (VGPX/VGPU/VCVOD)
Drain Output

ACIN Adaptor Current Sensor VGFX Power Graphic Chip

ACN Adaptor Current Sense VREF Voltage References
ACOP Input Over-Power LCDV Lcd Power
ACOV Input Over Voltage ODD Output Disc Driver
ACP Adapter Current Sense PCI Peripheral Component
Resistor,Positive Input Interconnect
ADP+ Adapter Positive Supply PGOOD Power Good Open Drain
ADP_ID Adapter Indentity PIR Product Improved Record
AGND Anallog Ground PSI# Current Indicator Input
ALWP Always Power PVCC Ic Power Positive Supply
B+ Ac or Bat Power Rail for RSMRST Resume Reset
Power Circuit
BATT Battery RTC Real Tme Clock
BAT+ Bat Power Rail for Power SB South Bridge
BAT_DRV Bat Fet Gate Driver SHDN Shut Down
BAT_V Baterry Voltage SYS_SDN System Shutdown
BT_EN Bluetooth Enable SPI Serial Peripheral Interfaace
BUZER Connected TD Death Time
BYP Baypass THRM Themal Sensor
BOM Bill of Material TMDS Transition Minimized
Management Difflerential signaling
BT Button TP Tes Point
F FUSE TD Death Time
FSEL Frequency Select Input THRM Thermal Sensor
CHGEN Charge Enable Active-Low TP Tes Point
Logic Input

CIN Input Capasitor TPAD Thermal Pad

CRT Cathode Ray Tube V Rail (POWER)
CSIN Current Sensor Input V+ Positive Vortage
CSIP Current Sensor Input VADJ Output Regulation Vortage
DC Direct Current VALW Always on Power
DRAM Dynamic RAM: Random- VAWLP Valw Pad
Access Memory that uses a
continuous clock
DOCK Docking Socket VBAT Battery Power
EC Embedded Controler VCCP Power Chip (Ic Graphic
EC_ON Embedded Controle VCORE Power Processor
EN Enable VDD Control Power Suplly
ENTRIP Enable Terminal VDDR Power ddr
LCDV Lcd Power VDS Voltage Drain Source
LDO Linear Oiver output VFB Freedback Inputs Power
LGATE Lower-Side Mosfet Gate VGS Voltage Gate Source
LPC Low Pin Court VIN Input Vortage Range
LVDS Low-Voltage Diflerential VIN Adapter Power Supply
Signaling (SYSTEM (vol_in)
MBAT Main Batteray VL Power Lock
ODD Output Disc Driver VL Vortage
PCI Peripheral Component VLDOIN Power Supply of the VTT and
Interconnect VTTREF Output Stage
(to powerMOS)
PGOOD Power Good Open-Drain VOT Volt _Out
PIR Product Improved Record VRAM Power Memory

PSI# Current Indicator Input VREF Power References Schema

Reference Permintaan
PVCC Ic Power Positive Supply VS Suitch Power
RSMRST Resume Reset VS+ Support Voltage Positive
SYS_SDN System Shutdown VSB Power Switch Botton
VIN Input Vortage Range VSS Signal Grount
VIN Adapter Power Supply VSW Power Witch
VL Power Lock VTT Memory Termination
VL Vortage VTERM Memory Termination
VLDOIN Power Supply of the Vtt VUSB Power usb
and Vttref Output Stage
(to powerMOS)
VOT Volt _Out VGA Power vga
VRAM Power Memory VGFX Power Graphic Chip
VREF Power References Schema VREF Voltage References
References Permintan
VS Suitch Power HDMI High-definition Multimedia
VS+ Support Voltage Positive ID Continuous Drain Current
VSB Power Switch Botton IDM Pulsed Drain Current
VSS Signal Grount IIN Operating Supply Current
VSW Power Switch SPI Serial Peripheral Interface
VRM Circuit konfirmasi IIN Shutdown Supply Current
GATE Trigger Gate IIN Standby Supply Current
GND Ground IS Continuous Source Current
(diode conduction)

GP Ground Pin IPIN Battery Supply Current at

VIN pin
GPI General Power Input JP JUMPER POINT
GPIO General Power Input KBC Keyboard Controler
EMII Elektromagnetik Interference
Term of Circuit Definition
Voltage divider Divider voltage
Rectifier Rectifier circuit
Rectifier AC To DC
DC Converter DC to Dc
Converter DC to DC
Detector Detector load
Filter Filter
Step Down Lowering voltage
Step Up Riser voltage
OP-Amp Amplifier

Term Circuit Definition

DC IN & Circuit for battery charging and power jack circuit in the
BATTERY initial gate power

SYSTEM 3V/ 5V Step-down circuit for lowering 19V to 3V or 5V

GPU CORE Circuit and voltage power supply for chip ( ICH/GMCH)
GPX CORE Circuit for processor power supply
VCC CORE Circuit for processor power supply
TERMAL Circuit heat detector supply
DISCHARGE/+1,8 Circuit Suspend LDO
DDR1,5 V & 0.9 Circuit power supply for RAM
CLOCK Circuit for produce clock signal
LVDS Circuit for display on screen LCD
POWER BUTTON Circuit switch on/off
CONN Connector
RTC/CKT Circuit CMOS & frequency generator CHIF
DIS Circuit VGA External generator
UMA Circuit VGA Internal generator
PWM Circuit Pulse Widget Modulation controller
COMPARATOR Circuit comparator
DMI Digital Media Interference
LPC BUS Circuit Communication
CRT Circuit for external monitor and projector



Power Power pin Controller Device

AC_IN B+ AD + AC Dock Input, (19V~24V)
+19V VIN Input Power all Regulator Motherboard
+1.8V SUSB# Calistoga, DDR2 SODIMM
+1.8VS SUSB# G72M
+1.5VS SUSB# Calistoga, ICH7-M, MINI Card Socket, New
Card Socket
+2.5VS SUSB# Calistoga, G72M
+3V SUSB# Thermal Sensor, Calitoga, System Clock
Generator, DDR2 SODIMM SPD, G72M,
LVDS connector, TPM, blue tooth socket,
ICH7-M, PCI interface, super-IO control ler,
IrDA, keyboard controller, audio controller,
GIGA LAN, MINI Card socket , Media card
controller, New card socket, 1394 EEPROM
+5V SUSC# USB, G913C, New card socket
+5VS SUSB# G72M, ICH7-M, HDD, CD-ROM, flash OM,R
keyboard controller, internal touchpad, udioA
+5VALWAYS (AC IN) PST9013NR (protect over voltage)
+5VLCM (AC/BAT IN) Micro P (PIC16F57)
+5VCHG (AC/BAT IN) MAX8724ETI, power – ON/OFF logic
+12V SUSC# PCMCIA Slot 12V
+3V SUSCH# PCMCIA controller, PCMCIA Slot 3.3V,
keyboard controller, LAN
+3VS SUSB# ICH4-M, Clock Generator,PCI intyerface,
Super I/O,AC97 CODEC, FWH, Thermal
+5VS SUSB# HDD, CD-ROM, Internal Touch Pad, Audio

+5VALWAYS AC_BAT_SYS ICH4_M (Resume Well) LAN (WOL in S4/S5)
+V1.25S SUSB# DDR Termination


Schematic diagrams are always synonymous with code and symbols.
Memorize some of the symbols below:
Path Schematic diagram Information

A path that only passes

and does not have a
relationship. And in
principle the lane is a
path connecting one
components and others
that connect one pin and

Every time there is a dot


in the intermediate
meeting both lines
indicate the existence a
relationship or a triangle
path or branch line or
path junction or cross

Code of incoming signal

or input signal code It’s
like a bow whole arrow
or bow arrow the lines of
command line. The
characteristic is no
resistor in series or
Parallel, because the
current is small

Line of analog or digital

information Code Signal
out or output signal. His
code such as an intact
bow or bow arrow the
lines. Which means the
path from outside the
circuit goes inside circuit
that is mutually
sustainable /

Place for Input point or

output voltage. This point
is a continuous path or
connected to other


Relationship feedback
configuration of complex
function. it can send
information and receive

If we apply a path that is

dyed in blue it is a
separate path but in
schematic deliberately
wrapped with a thick blue
color code so not too

No image

Jumper (other than

No image
inductor jumper point
cans be use for the point
of measurement and
separation of system
circuit one and others).

No image

Test point / PAD. Yellow

No image PCB point Additional
facilities to facilitate the
technicians measure the
path because the path on
the motherboard store
layer to layer.

No image
Don’t have a relationship

Note the pin sequence in

the IC description which
is not as regular as the
No image order of pins on IC form.
Why not sequence?
Because if made in
sequence will many
crossed line projects and
too complicated.
Therefore, sometimes the
order the location of
components on different
schematic with the
component layout on
motherboard. If in
schematic like adjacent it
could be in the
motherboard very far.



In the picture beside, is the input

signal with signal ACIN (27) meansthat
ACIN signal source can come from on
page 27. Our technique can ctly dire
open page 27 or with quick techniques
in the picture on the side: P CTRLress -
F on the keyboard keys will appear
column find. In that col we are umntype
ACIN signal name enter. Then
automatically will directed to be the
page where i description of signal
s a
ACIN as on picture. next

The output signal code in the imagethe on
side changed to the input signal in the
image previously so Signal A sourced C in
from pin ACOX on chargin and its g IC
voltage value Of +3VPCU a the picture s in
at side.

Note: ACIN is the input signal EC for

where source signal comesromf
CHARGING IC. (Open atic
ACER ZG7) and please go straigh t on
Practice and apply.



The power system is used in the basic circuit structure of the laptop
motherboard circuit Is both analog and digital automation systems and power
supply circuit systems are in use 90% type of switching power supply system
(SMPS) and LDO where output result from circuit regulator serves as an
input source for a chip microcontroller and microprocessor. While the other
circuits are the sensors circuit and logic. I hope here you start dizzy.


The difference between analog and digital circuits lies in the function of the
circuit itself. We apply Simple analog electronics system is an electronic
system built in Manual, While the digital circuit is an automatic circuit. An
example of a long time ago before i was born to climb a building I had to
walk up the stairs a lot, and the technology to facilitate humans in the activity
and so forth.
Like the ladder now we have found in buildings has been transformed into an
escalator (running staircase). The manual ladder is electronic analog and
running ladder is digital (automatic) electronics. Technological developments
increasingly rapidly along with the progress of the growing era and escalator
transformed now into LIFT, so also in the system of electronic devices as
well such as mobile phones and others. Then what is the difference between
analog and digital in a circuit Electronic? We learn step by step with table


Analog Circuit
Principle of conductor, in this case is cable, workstheas
component one and another also Pin one and pin thero
(intermit). The quantity of a carrier depends on the need
the circuit.

A pole in electrical electronics called pole positive and
pole Negative. The charge will run through the carrier
coming from resources (electricity). The charge flows
from a positive to a negative point anything and in this
case (voltage and current).

The load contained in the conductor (negative and
positive is two poles that copy contradictory (if meet
directly can clash). Example without being attached a
load if These two poles meet directly there will be a
short circuit, just try the electrical cable we put together
then plugs into the power supply / power outlet) I expect
you to do not be desperate try it if not strong faith. But if
cable we attach a lamp (automatic will happen energy
transfer from electrical energy to light).

Note the illustration at side picture:

A cable/conductor that is in basic electrical engineering.

Circuit at symbolize the 2 lines (positive and negative
And no circuit will work if one of them does not work or

But in digital electronic circuits do not get us w
because there are 3 additional basic terms itive(pos
negative and ground)

Positive is a pole that has a voltage and current cha

Negative is a pole that has a value but below 0 example
-0.5V. The third is ground/disposal w value is 0.

Still in the basic principle of cable/path in the cir Besides

there is a red dot symbol at the branched meeting.t. That
meaning the voltage runs in additio the side also down.line In
the previous picture there a input paths meet but to no
point mark on the sec meeting of the path. Conclusion 2 if
there is a sign point is a connect path and if there is no point
though path meet indicates the path does not connect/ the
passing by. the
To know the basic circuit of electronics, it's basicall
electronics circuit is made of these two circuits are ca series
and parallel with the addition of sev components y an
depending on its function. (Now components led in the
circuit are much different from circuit previous basis).
Circuit series is a circuit where the composition the of
arrangement is only in place on the positive track. W the
circuit is in a stacking parallel is a circuit where component
arrangement is wrong one leg is connecte ground. Andthethis is
where the law of engineering be applying (electronics le
calculations). In this theory we just at focus onthebasic
introduction, so calculate electronics ignore itto first
(because it’s dizzying). later you should learn nsit on
another time on ano occasion. are
Power Resource – Conductor – Charge and Loa But
Remember the previous posts if the two cables we unher in the
absence a burden will then occur shorting. An


an attached load (in this circuit load is in use is a l ight

electronic principle will work positive pole flow towill
negative pole and energy transfer from ele energy ctric into low.
But the resources or energy wil consumed by the load l be for
example battery will run o in use to run a circuit system.
ut if
Then in circuit electro needs resources must be adjusted nics to
the needs consumption Load mainly for electronics of a
compon "let me not Wasteful "or overloaded resultingents in dam
More and more examples of lights in the home We age. the
bigger the electricity bill every month. From th where usethe
development of electronic world begins. is is

Learn basic techniques you can use special softw

electronics (Protel dxp or proteus) because this softw
are can
simulate circuit without you direct practice with tools
are and
materials needed. the

There are electric plugs, one positive & negative c and one
lamp. Circuit is built depending on function consumption
needs a load and an energy source to r lamp It is the
of the voltage where the sourc here the voltage comes
un a from
the voltage of the " grid. e is

Analog & Digital Circuit Basic

Circuit digital / circuit automatic. If we look at the im age
of the
circuit /Circuit lamp before there is no socket. on theAndpicture
In addition we have paired the plug (
If we plug the power outlet then the socket will func tionas
Breaker and connecting a conductor (switch), sw canitch be on
put on a positive track or on a ground p Digital Circuit ath. on
build up with the basic principl switch (on or off). e of
Later we will discuss m ore


Schematic – Path Design And Layout Compone The t

path on a PCB board/motherboard works the s way such e
as a cable as a conductor if only 1 components- of3
use PCB is not required but if more 10 components thanand
circuit not using a PCB will be of convoluted cable a lot
and will confusing of cou Technique is art so it's up
to the designer want in w kind of image and how.
This is the basis schem application to the motherboard.
Knowing current, voltage and resistor Basically
electrical energy in analog electronic divided into 2
elements that flow simultaneously th "Voltage and is
current "voltage is the amount consumption in the is
need a load, the greater the vol difference/total load of
Then the greater the current th in need and here is tage
important in Need a Barriers. Bar function to hold back is
the magnitude strong cu flowing to the load. Then ers
how to measure Vol current and resistance? Later up
here first. tage

Here I hope you will start dizzy again. So read and le this
material thoroughly.

Understanding Principle of Voltage Properties

Working voltage is voltage source energ in

need of a load/system.
More and more voltage is consumed fo A
load then ampere is in need even gre er.
Working stress In term With the most
common engineering terms (vcc vin).

In digital circuit it is need voltage command

or a
voltage ordered a system to w Although ork.
there is already a working volt if Voltageage,
command had a problem then system the does
not work/move (wait command). Inforthe
most common terms reset Enable are: and

Control voltage, We called it in a simple

confirmation voltage (which flows from one
place to another or traffic information Such
information in the form of work r and also
notices, which in technical term called s is

Clock is a voltage that carries data prim for
communication needs at high sp Clock eed.
in a clock coordination t whenever imera
component is working.

Is digital communication that is inrmste

technique called DMI (DIGITAL DIA ME

Do all digital circuits require all Input this
type of voltage. Measurement is div intoided 2,
manual and digital measurem For voltage ents.
work can be measured wi multimeter tool th a
so also with a comm voltage. While The and
logic, clock and voltages are moredata
accurate If measurement using a special the
tool is g ood

The consequence of counter or oscillosc can be

Looks the value and type of wa Okay ves.let us
Learn this later.


Power supply is a device that is supplying electrical energy to one or more
electrical loads. It is most often used for devices that convert one form of
electrical energy to another energy. The function of power supply is to
control the output voltage at a certain value and make it constant.

Power supply can be implemented as a discrete, stand-alone or as integral

device designed to load. Laptop motherboard use low voltage DC. Most
laptop motherboard has a power supply that is packed in the integration
circuit called (PU). This chip that regulates the distribution of the supply
voltage to all the components needed. Beside the integrated chip, power
supply also has a discrete component such as a diode rectifier, a capacitor as
a voltage stabilizer and an inductor as supporting integrated circuits and some
other power support. Power supply knowledge covers basic fundamentals of
electronics, integrated circuit workings and components, functions and how
to measure it, and how to understand the data sheet.


Below the description which are very easy to understand.
Basically, the conventional power supply is
a power supply that working linearly (continue),
it means that the output voltage continuously
into the load. I will not discuss lowering circuit
voltage (step-down), rectifier or filter and so
on, because here we are talking about the
principle or the workings of power supply in

In the image, we can see the loads (eg lights)

are connected to voltage source (eg batteries),
certainly will stay light on during the
battery power is still there and the circuit
cable is not disconnected. The current
magnitude that flows on the wire depending
on how large the load resistance, smaller the
load resistance, greater the current flows. If
the current overly large flows and occurs
continuously can resulting in hot and
burning wires. Therefore required cable sizes
that correspond to the value load. So
conventional power supply is like a variable
resistor in which the resistance value can
vary according to the weights. The profits
using the conventional power supply is
simplicity in the design, and the
disadvantage is inefficient, because the flow
continuously flowing to the load.

The Power supply switching is actually a

conventional power supply that was given
switch, see picture:

In the picture looks a "switch” between source

voltage and load. What happens if the switch
on press? Of course, the current will flow to
the load, if the load is a lamp then surely the
light goes on. And what happens if the switch
is off?Of course, the lights will goes off. Well,
what happens if you press and release the
switch in fast- eg 10 times within 1 second?
Then the lights will blink 10 times per second
according to

the the amount of pressure on the

switch. For example, If you hit 1000
times in 1 second then the light will
blink 1000 times per second, but this
time the lights flicker no longer visible
to our eyes. So that the lights "as if"
life continues.
This is the basis of the technique of
switching power supply. In practice,
"switch" will be disconnected and
connected a number of 50.000 times
per second (50kHz) or more
(depending on model) and of course
who does breaker or connecting it is
not you, but an electronic circuit that is
specifically designed.

So what the benefits of the system

like this?
By creating a system like this, current
flowing to the load is no longer
constant, but has a pause although a bit
(in the order of milliseconds) but
extremely helpful to reduce the heat on
the wire line and a voltage source. So
that the wire size and Another
components can be reduced and
automatically this makes the system
becomes cheaper overall.
When the switch disconnected even
briefly, is there an impact on the load?
It’s okay if the load of a lamp, what if
the load is an electronic circuit that
absolutely should not be disconnected
from the power supply?
Good question, if the load is a series
electronics then it cannot be tolerated,

for it requires additional components,

see the following picture bellow side

In the picture look a coil (inductor) and

the capacitor which are added in the
circuit. The function of the inductor
and This capacitor is to store the
current when the switch Connected and
release it is load when the switch
detached, in this way a current
constantly flow into the load so the
problem is resolved.

As I know, if a coil or inductor is

traversed by a DC voltage that is
intermittently will cause of AC
voltage arise which can cause
damage to the circuit, how to solve

You are absolutely right, therefore, the

circuit should be perfected by adding a
diode, see image left side :

Diode serves to remove the AC voltage

arising from the inductor when the
switch is "open", in practice this diode
is plugged in the circuit and embedded
directly in the switching MOSFET.
For switch, the switch that used in
switching power supply it's not the
switch "manual" as above, but in the
form of an ordinary transistor or mosfet
that is designed specifically and
connects the control circuit

(controller). The series of controller

can be a series of usual oscillator and
also be a specially-designed IC for the
purpose of switching.

Controller circuit serves to control

switching is based on feedback
received from the load. It means a
heavy load controller will spur the
switch for longer working and vice
What are the negative effects of this
switching power supply system?
There is a plus of course there is minus,
one of them is the high noise that
making it less suitable for use in the
circuit audio system - HIFI (if you want
to use it, you must use a filter which is
really good) and its design is
complicated. Fortunately now there are
IC manufacturers that make IC
switching so hassle the circuit can be

In this section, the principle is the same

as the previous SMPS circuit basis that
has been written by the founder. A
circuit that is built with switching
power supply system, but the
difference can be seen in the use of
mosfet N-CHANNEL that used for
automatic switch and generating
resources for the mosfet itself (needs

Because, if we look at mosfet symbol

in which there is a diode that serves as

a rectifier (components in form of IC

and in it there are circuit). This thing
aims to narrow the scope of the circuit.
So globally the mosfet serves as a
switch automatic and lowering the
1. Coupling (an energy transfer
technique to another energy. On
circuit switching is the transfer of the
power supply to the load).
2. FB (feedback received from the
load). This means that if a heavy load
controller will spur a switch for
longer work and vice versa. FB taken
from the resistor track voltage
3. Decoupling is a technique for
eliminating or maximize and filter
the effect of coupling before entering
the semiconductor components (IC
and chipset)

Illustration a signals and the series of

We need to know there are many types
of signal waves in the electronic world.
AC waveform has the properties of
alternating current, so that the graph up
and down.
While the surge voltage DC with this
kind (direct current), the type of waves
straight or flat. And a square wave
digital wave type I and 0 (Living

The effect of switching on output

MOSFETs will cause the AC signal,

then the AC signals will be blocked by

the inductor coupling.
Inductor coil is made of structures that
are susceptible to interference
electromagnetic so occasionally still
generate a pulse signal ac, so it needs
an additional filter, in this case is a
capacitor for rectifying a DC signal or
eliminate the coupling effects.
Develop these materials on :



It’s not too complicated to understand

this circuit, because there are only
input and output in the circuit, whereas
we need to understand is the ways of
working of IC itself. So we must open
the data sheet of the IC. Basically LDO
same as any regulator switching, you
can set the output voltage as needed.
LDO circuit load much in use in the
latest system motherboard.


A rickshaw could move if someone were to pedaling the pedal. Input in this
regard are the engine /power/the person that propelling pedal. While the
system is electronic circuit, in this case is a rickshaw that serves to deliver
passengers to a destination in accordance with the functions and how it
works, and the passenger is the load, and the output is the payment.
If there is no stimulus, the system will not work. If there were only
passengers and the rickshaw certainly not running because there is no driver.
If there is a driver but a rickshaw and the system is broken, definitely will not
work and certainly will not anyone want hitchhike. And that is the purpose of
the system - input – output.
Each system (IC) requires power so that it can work well. However, input in
this system is the power supply and each system has its own power supply.
Then who control, manage and steer it? In the world of engineering called
microcontroller and microprocessor.

Illustration diagram 1

It takes an adapter to turn on the laptop

Illustration diagram 2

It’s the same thing

as a laptop that requires an adapter. It takes the power supply to turn on the
processor (in the schematic diagram of part of the power supply to the
processor, called the VCC core). Not just in the processor, other hardware
components also have its power supply, such as RAM and chipset. Even a
controller IC also requires a power supply so that it could be work.
90% power supply used in laptop motherboard is the system SMPS (power
supply system switching) & LD0, while the rest are digital circuits such as
sensors. Components in used laptops only slightly, but still using the system
circuit electronics that very complicated and we will discuss the importance
parts only.


Ilustration Diagram 3

The voltage on the motherboard we divide into two parts, there are the ALW
voltage and the VS voltage. ALW voltage is a standby voltage or voltages
that must exist before the on/off button on tap. And the VS voltage is the
voltage that will come out after switch on/off in the press
Chart Simulation

My experience in the field, a lot of

people who fail to learn the
execution of the motherboard. When
they are teaching only explain on
mode stage in the motherboard, this
will lead over material. So we
simplify the stage power on the
motherboard is a term part of power
according to its function. There is a
process of timing here.

S5 is a type of voltage In standby
mode, which we already know is
"required voltage". While S3 is a
dual mode depending on a command
signal (standby restart and
shutdown). To make it easier to
understand we simplify it, S3 is the
voltage that belongs to the type of
VS voltage or the voltage which
came out after the switch on
including the stage S5. S3 will be
troubled by the case of power drop,
generally occurs due to power spike
or short component in the VS path.
This problem known when the power
has been switched, when VS is
active and prepared to contribute
each VS voltage.
Feedback/reverse flow of the short
component in an either or in the path
of VS make the system fail and
return to VALW mode, this
symptom is called a power drop.


The voltage in a motherboard

divided into 2 voltage, standby
voltage and VS voltage. The voltage
is in the range of motherboards that
integrated and managed.


S5 STANDBY MODE / AC IN Always on voltage (
ONLY STANDBY Charging, VIN, & main
before the button is PCU / AUX / S5 )
pressed ( primary
S3 STANDBY & DUAL SLP_S3# Sus & main voltage
SECONDARI (2.5V,1.5V, 1,8)
( secondary voltage ) VOLTAGE
(normal mode ) ON VOLTAGE )
Supply (ICH, PCH,
Reset supply (ALL
VRM supply (POWER
All signal supply


SLP_S3# ( SUSB#) Transmission system stage S3-S4-S5
SLP_S4# ( SUSC#) Transmission system stage 4 – S5


The picture is the simulation stage S5.

Among them are the components and
the types of voltages to be active in
STAGE mode.


serves to protect if there is a short in
the circuit charging / VCC core / 3V
& 5V and other lines that entered 19V
then this circuit will work. Which
means it will not pass 19V, although
without orders he had been working.

CHARGING: the circuit for charging

the battery. In this circuit there are
several commands in the form of the
output voltage. but we do not discuss
it now

SELECTOR: Circuit comparator

selecting the voltage just wearing 19V
or just the battery, or both.


The image is a measurement
technique input and output
voltages. The way it works is free
red probe affixed anywhere on
the ground. And the red probe in
the sequence of NO one then to
NO two till to components on the
input lines if the component is
contained much in input circuit
prior to the IC. If in the No.1
there is voltage and the No. 2
lane after diode no voltage can be
sure it was broken and so on.
Later on output lines, if IC serves
as the lowering of the voltage,
then input 19V will be turned 5V
on the output and the value on the
multimeter certainly changed 5V
and if not appropriate with the
recommendation schematic, it
means the IC in damaged.



Measurement of tracking short (without required voltage) only measure on

all inductor


Short tracking measurements

also may on the body of the


Track measurement sample is

broken or not


Amperage measurement, the

difference is the red probe on
the positive input and the
negative probe on a point
which we will measure the
tracking +.



If the material above already you mastered maybe now you'll write a
simulation of material on this column.

Analytics will we get if we know the function of components, component
properties, and we are more proficient is to understand the characteristics of
the circuit in which at this point is usually someone will be able to add or
remove components even modify the system. At this point in addition to the
characteristic and function of components of electro engineering calculations
already mastered.
The function of schematic diagram in a simple way
1. To see the type and code components on the motherboard if there is a
burnt components or missing.
2. To see the relationship or lines on a motherboard if there is a path

breaking causing the communication component.

3. To view the input and output voltage.
4. To modify the system circuit if there is difficulty in finding replacement
5. To see schematic revisions.

We learn a simple analysis of the image above and the conclusion is:
1. There is a power jack, two wires and the lamp.
Lamp will not light up if one of the cables broke. The lamp will not turn on if
the lamp itself in damaged lamp will not light up if there is no electricity on.
Case study:
Check the voltage, check its cable, and check the lights. In the image above,
I will take your brain 10x faster please apply to laptop circuit and the
damaged laptop. Use your imagination and creativity of your brain, then learn
all of these books.
Power Supply
Remember the lighting circuits? How
the voltage move from the input to
the output. And the image is a simple
circuit system step down circuit
(voltage lowering), from 12V to + 5V
2A where that regulate this system is
IC 78505. You already know
component function? Okay we will
12V voltage entered into a diode that
serves as a safety/Backflow preventer
and the voltage before getting into IC
filtered by C1 220u and if added 1
resistors here will be great as a safety
before the incoming voltage to a step-

down IC IN.
After the voltage come to the IN, the
voltage will be processed and out
from the OUT pin wherein before the
voltage entering IC, this value is still
12V but after passing this IC because
its function as step down regulator
will turn into + 5V 2A. IC and the
circuit will work if it is connected to
ground. I hope you already know if
the voltage of 5V at the output is not
found then which components you
must measure and execution (this is
called as a circuit analysis
generally diode should we apply for
voltage direction but beware on the
diode principle, there are forward and
reverse voltage (More specifically
understood diode component) or to
determine the input and output, we
have relied on Vin IC input / IN,
which means input and V out, out
which means output.

1. Cover

Image 1.1 Shematic Cover

The cover of the schematic diagram of the laptop as same as the cover of a
book (textbooks and other). Larger image and note the red mark in the boxes
and arrows in image 1.1 Schematic cover. The cover design is different for
each brand as well as a book. But there is always a message behind each
design cover that is made as we see in the picture.

1. Code Board (code contained in the schematic and the laptop

2. Data revisions schematic, there will always be a revision of each
product as well as the schematic, and revision done if:
ü There is additional hardware / components.
ü There is a release component and system repair circuit and this
depends on the results of survey revision teams in the field.
ü Upgraded product, like acer 4750 to 4750G.
3. Type of chip in use, Name Factory, and other additional particulars.
However, in some brands are also not often we find the cover of the
schematic structure they have created.
4. The cover design is also synonymous with the terms of engineering, we
have to understand and should we memorize. (Go back to the material
terms schematic diagram).

The diagram is a design layout and interface or communication between
components globally.
Pic 2.2 Schematic laptop Chart

If we apply this chart is almost similar to the chart of organizational

structure that works according to the function tasks and positions
respectively. And the laptop is the same schematic. So please go back to
the material of components and its functions. Remember to apply such
an organizational structure, for example like charts at school.
Schematic is always identical to the code, diagrams and charts. but no
detailed explanation about the purpose of the code, diagrams and charts
in attach. So our job seeking information from the technical terms of
other sources or to learn more about electronics. We learned it slowly
with common languages and applications to any that we see, hear and

Caption :
Note number colored:
No. 1 : Schematic structure chart is the layout of the motherboard. So
consider the chart is intact laptop motherboard form. The difference
motherboard in an intact form, if the chart in the form of codes, the
Symbol, Name of components and engineering terms. Memorize the
names of the components in the motherboard (go back to material
components). In a chart sheet will explain the global contents of a laptop
schematic is described in a page.

No. 2 : Page is like image No. 3 as an example we want to see detail page on
your hard drive. For example: if on the field we find the case of the hard
drive is not readable / jack off / lane burning in the socket hard disk / there
are components are burned in the area near the socket hard drive (to see the
path, voltage input - output and components are in use), then write down the

page on AdobeReader / foxitreder according to information page on the box

on the hard drive. Then the page will be open.

No. 3 : Interface relationships, and types of terms of I/O used.

No. 4 : In every project engineering drawings, there will be a small box about
1. Name of industry / manufacturer.
2. The board code and the year of revision.
This is where the function of board code (if the board code is different
then the component symbol in the motherboard and the schematic can
be different)
3. Description of the page.

No. 5: Power system (as well as the contents in the middle of schematic
diagram there is a description and chart the layout of the motherboard power
/ power sequences). This is why the chart of the power section is always
separate to the chart function and communication. it's because, if we united it
would be difficult to understand. Besides there (cover - chart interface -
power charts - charts the clock - the description page. In schematic, there are
also a schematic structure of No. 5: power system (as well as the contents
schematic diagram in the middle there is a description and chart the layout of
the motherboard power / power sequences). This is why the chart of the
power section is always separate to the chart function and communication.
It’s because, if united would be difficult to understand.

Besides there (cover - chart interface - power charts - charts the clock - the
description page. There is also a schematic structure of reference and
revision). Power system on the intended image of the schematic is an
example, in the field we find a problem with the battery (can not charge / can
not be detected). And we want to see the input and output voltage lines and
components are in use. Then stay open page about (charging). We extend this
session later on the material description page.

If you already know about the cover and charts, please read some of the chart
below, there is a little difference in design of these images. But, in principle

the same. remember that schematic is always synonymous with the term,
symbols, tables, and a description of the technique so keep memorize and
keep reading.
ACER V5- 431 ACER 4750



Power square is a trip (timing) of a power system, started from jack adapter to
laptop in normal conditions. Power sequence is the same as the hardware
diagram on the first page of schematic. Power square is a global map of
power in a motherboard laptop.



Voltage Operation Process Time System input & Output Signal Process Universal block diagram / POWER
Step by Step RAIL

1. Voltage Operation Process Time Step By Step

Page sequence Voltage power

operation time process step by
step. (Use schematic ZE7 laptop,
Acer one D270 and the
motherboard). In order for the
delivery of content can be
directly practiced.

How the flow of voltage from

jack power to the laptop till it
can be turn on?

Note the picture beside, which is

in the red box is a
communication system circuit.
Meanwhile, in the given yellow
sign is kinds of signal that was
active before and after.

From AC-BATT means the

voltage that sourced from the
jack adapter and battery,
resulting a voltage called Vin.

After Vin - + + 3VPCU and

vccrtc 5VPCU active (the step
is: Vin will enable + 5VPCU +
3VPCU and + 5VPCU +
3VPCU will enable VCCRTC
and so on). If this third system is
active and has no problem then
the next step is from the PWM
TO EC, which means from
PWM will send commands to
the EC to enable RTCRST #. So
far the motherboard standby
mode is active, or that we are
familiar with the term required
voltage / Always.

Then from button to EC which

means that, if we switch the
power button it will send a
command to EC called signal
NBSWON #, and so on. The
types of these signals become
the benchmark of technicians in
identification process circuit
high-level method.

2. The System of Input and Output Signals Process

System input and output signal process is a diagram that is most easy to
understand and often become a reference mid-level laptop repair process,
because it can seen kind of signal inputs and outputs for the measurement

The system of input and output signals process

PPower Sequence Description Sequence Diagram
INPUT from DC battery (circuit
name that the explanation is on
page 43) emit signals output called
B+, where the value of the B+
voltage is 19V. 18.5V / 20v (rated
voltage depending on the brand of
laptop). B+ output from DC
battery turns into an input when it
entered into a series of switches
(protection circuit) and circuit
switching issued output called

INPUT from AC Adapter in (name

of the series circuit) the
description on the page 44 issued a
signal output called + DC_IN.
DC_IN output of AC Adapter in
turn be input when entering the
switching circuit (switching is the
form of the system can be SMPS -

LDO and the others. However, in

this case is the protection circuit)
and circuit switch issued the output
signal called AD +. Then, becomes
the input charger IC and it issue a
signal output called DCBATOUT
and ACOK.

The input and output may be a

reference measurement of us in the
field to determine whether a
component is broken or not, if
there is an input and there is no
output can be sure 70% of the
components problematic.


One set into the other circuit depending on its function, the name of output
signal will change its name when it became an incoming signal to other
circuits in a single integral. Voltage walk from input to output and will
change its value depending on the function of the circuit itself. Description
direction of the arrow is a description of a voltage trip. Basically the circuit
on the motherboard separately with different functions. For example
(charging circuits - circuit 3V and 5V - circuit core VCC). Then put together
and communicate with each other in the form of a motherboard.
Electronics engineering is different with mechanical technique that can see,
touch, read, and hear. The voltage cannot be seen with the naked eye, but do
testing with tools (gauges).

If we are still confused, other

examples: human limbs/robot (hands,
feets and eyes). If the hand is sick, a
doctor will examine the parts of the hand. Hands can move because of the
orders from the brain, the brain sends a command or signal through the
nerves to the hands. What happens if the nerve is broken or not functioning?
As in the structure of the system in the electronic circuit, chip in such a
complicated program to be set up, manage and run according to its function.
In the electronic world is called microcontroller and microprocessor.

DCBATOUT output signal from

the switch and charger (Selector)
will be input when entered into
the IC TPS51125. And it
generates three output signals are
3d3V_S5 and 5V_s5. And

3D3V_AUX_s5 be input to the

switch and output the last
3D3V_AUX_KBC than be input
to IC KBC NPCE985. It issued
several output signals and one of
them is S5_ENABLE that sending
signal command EN1 and EN2.
The TPS51125 function EN1 and
EN2 is a command signal that IC
TPS 51 125 issued 3d3V_S5 and
5V_s5 signal.

Signals marked with a red circle


is usually a technician measuring

point in the analysis process. Note
the direction of the arrows into
and out also note the rounded

3. Universal Block Diagram Process

Universal block diagram is a step-

down system step by step and
control pin:

Here we can see clearly that 19V

entry to all system string as input
system and each system will release
output and becomes the input to the
next system.
The difference from the three block
diagram of power, universal diagram
seen the value of the input voltage
and output.

4. Chart Clock / Clock Distribution

Terms of digital circuit work in addition to the voltage also need for

Diagram clock

Page clock ( detail clock )

Name Symbol Code Shape General
function in
GEN) components are
rarely damaged
but the circuit
function is very
important. The
work of a digital
circuit such is
the need for an
input consisting

of (
supply, reset,
clock, Data and

But do not be
mistaken, not all
circuit require
digital clock
although the
condition is so.
Because clock
only used by the
components that
communicate in
high-speed data
(SIO, chip,
processor, etc.
See diagram
clock). Detail
function of the
component (
If this
component is
damaged, the
included in the
of the display no


IC layout is always between chipset and

processors, if the component is
problematic then all core components
such as the processor chip will torpor.

Almost similar to the characteristics of the

damage, if the bios problematic in the case
of no display problem. More clearly see
the output and name of components that
need a clock.

Identification of the measurement clock,

especially in the crystals using a special
tool (frequency counter/oscilloscope).

The image beside is identification points

of the measurement process.


5. Page description


The laptop motherboard circuit consists of several separate systems,
depending on the functions and each duties, then united in order to
communicate between systems with each other within the scope of the
system motherboard.
The position of the power supply, within
the scope of a separate PC from the
motherboard. The difference with the
laptop motherboard, power supply
united in a single scope. However, the
system and how to work in a PC or
laptop remains the same.

If the PC power supply is damaged what

could be improved?
This is what we will explained. First,
there are circuit and core components, if
the circuit or component was
problematic will cause the laptop the
total dead. Second, there are systems
and circuits if loose or damaged will not
lead to anything, do not die in total.
For example: if we take DVD, the
laptop still be alive, if the detachable
keyboard laptop will still be alive.
This time we will discuss the important

parts, if the part is problematic laptop

will die.

If the hands and feet amputated people

could still be alive, if still be alive if the
brain or heart that amputees? Then if the
hand broken should the foot be
checked? That is false. You also do not
talk to a user who damaged hand but
said the damage is the heart. It's called a



At figure you can see the complexity of the schematic diagram. So if you
want to search motherboard in a laptop, then your brain will focus to shape of
processor. It also if you see a circuit, you will focusing on an input and output
a circuit or focusing at the problem you want solve. So, if you want to solve a
broken circuit at PIN 21 IC, you will focus on that circuit.

In this page charger IC, there is an information about POWER JACK and
BATTERY. Circuit charger is a main gate power regulation sourced of
battery and adaptor. Even both of that, in the charging process a battery will
cooperate with SIO – BIOS AND SYSTEM OPERATION (in Windows).
Description function of IC there is datasheet document for each IC (please
read: how to read datasheet). Sometimes people confused how to find about
“where is the Power IC in a laptop?”, because IC charging 3V and 5V, VCC
core is an IC too. With the different function and ways is working, so where
is a correct IC power? In this page, I will explained with a simple description
about basic of that circuit.

DC Jack & Protection Circuit

Voltage from DC Jack with the

symbol code P11 that sourced from
adaptor entered into PC 85 and PC 84
are arranged in parallel which serves
as noose filter with the term voltage
VA then enter to PL6 and after
through PL6 it changed name to VA1.
PL6 function is temporary saving a
charge. If we add a fuse in this circuit
before the voltage entered to PL6
maybe will be good, but we see
another component diode after PL6 tat
protect and block reverse flow so a
problem adding fuse will be solved.
And other that, diode function for
eliminate AC voltage from inductor.
We try to make it simple, because the
basic about component can
determined for the analysis of the
circuit. Because lot of technician can
read schematic but lazy to know code
symbol or function component.
Conclusion of the figure is voltage

name 19V (it depend on laptop

adaptor 19V-20v-18,5V, etc) will be
changed when entered a component or
circuit one and the other. Note V is
unit from Volt, W is watt and A is
D/C# is command sign from EC from
page 27 about ZE7 schematic and you
can see there is a motherboard too.
Signal From EC will command P-
channel gate to open gate if there a
problem at circuit. This is called a
upper level will cooperate with
selector circuit.

Initial measure 19V

There is measure called backward

measurement. It simple, measurement
19V enough to PR only at part closed
to jack power. At other hand, it must
not jack power first then to PR,
because if PR have 19V then jack
power have a 19V too. It will saving
time because at VIN schematic will be
source input 19V to all system. If PR
don’t have voltage so VIN don’t have
voltage too. Then we can back war
measurement to jack power. You can
measurement too from PR to jack
power, or VCC to PR, or jack power
to VCC core too. It’s up to you.

Note: VIN is name voltage 19V at

ZE7 schematic. At other schematic
maybe different name.

Selector Circuit

Circuit works as a control or signaling

technique as the detector whether the
voltage comes from an adapter or a
battery or even both of them for the
charging system. In another schematic
we will find a comparison system as
in schematic dell mini 10, wherein the
detector circuit uses IC LM and the
like. This circuit is very appropriate to
be used, because it efficiently aka
cheap. CSIP1 and CSOP1 is the signal
that important in contributing this
circuit. To streamline our discussion,
directly on the case study :
In the field, we often find cases cannot
use batteries or vice versa. We are
fairly based on the scope of this
circuit, between PQ38 and PQ41 and
a circuit that passes through and
passed or replace all the components
on the circuit charger IC. First I was
doing that way. Between the theory
and the field was a little different, plus
also do not know and understand the
schematic, just understand the section
circuit charger, I immediately did it.
The result, the laptop is dead, the
motherboard is leak because it is often
exposed to the blower, but with
frequent practice we learn cause and
effect. You should check to the
detector system then analyzes and
read the datasheet. the more often you
read the datasheet and schematic, later

if you find the same brand with the

same problem or different brands with
the use of the same IC you already


System charging: there are two

important components in the charging
system, namely EC and IC charging
itself. EC will cooperate with the IC
charging for detection and battery
charging systems which are crucial, in
this case also step-down N-channel
MOSFET in the charging circuit, the
N-channel is often problematic.
See at the picture upward. In addition
to EC and IC, charging inputs sourced
from always voltage 3V (3V and 5V
systems) play an active role as EC
mover (AC in). This is the signal that
will be a condition of employment EC
command voltage driving GPIO port,
and then after the EC active always
systems 3V and 5V result a voltage.
And this process of mutual integrating
throughout each other up to the VS
system (power switch).

System regulator power switching

(open material system switching

This system is often used in all circuit

generator/ drive (CHARGING – 3V

and 5V - VCC CORE - CORE GFX -


Case study charging circuit:

1. Battery consider
A problem only in the battery just
replace the batteries.
2. Battery not detect
Replace the batteries first. Check the
charging, frequent problems are
charging IC in itself "but not
necessarily". First, you should check
the pin and others like that already
in write.
3. Plug-in not charging
Replace the batteries first. Check the
charging, frequent problems are
charging IC in itself "but not
necessarily". First, you should check
the pin and others like that already
in write.
3V & 5VSystem
If we want to find the layout of 3V and
5V systems in the schematic diagram on
the first page there is a schematic
diagram of the system description
5V/3V PCU, then open the pages. In
this case there is on page 30. As an

example of the picture which was given

the yellow sign.
3V and 5V circuit system is included
into the system standby and dual mode.
System standby is the system input and
output circuits will be active although
the SW button not yet in press. There
are two system standby circuit in the
motherboard, they are charging circuit
and circuit 3V and 5V. On page 3V / 5V
PCU like the picture on the side, clearly
visible information in a page of the type
of IC being used and the circuit
contained in the page and project
description / name circuit. In this page
noticed the smaller box mark, it is the
system 3V and 5V dual mode whereby
this circuit will work after on-off button
on the press after receiving the
command signal from the EC (S5 0N
output of this circuit for the power needs
usb - hdd – dvd and Etc. See power
sequence below:

We simplify it. Basically, the

motherboard voltage system is divided

into two, namely the required voltage

and the voltage VS in the sense that
there are circuit and voltage before and
after SW. in technical terms this is
called the S5 - S3 - S0. To the side is a
power sequence.

3V and 5V circuit is a circuit that serves

to lower the voltage (step-down) of 19V
becomes 3V and 5V, and if we look, the
regulator system switching participate
actively towards 3V and 5V circuit.

IC work requirements

Brain of a digital circuit is IC itself.

Digital circuit working condition is the
presence of a digital input and in this
case the voltage command. Likewise,
the output will be sent a confirmation
signal (communications).
There are three working voltage in the
circuit 3V and 5V sourced from
charging circuit (VIN) that the value of
the voltage is 19V. For checking IC that
we need to measure is the working
voltage at IC input section for passing
through a resistor. If the voltage does
not pass through the resistor then we
measure the recoil measurement
technique that is to the point before
passing through the resistor. Then we
find the voltage command and the image
on the right is (EN0), how can we know

the voltage of the order?

Look at the picture, there is no other
input into the IC besides EN0. EN0
means Enable which means a command
to turn on. EN0 connected to PR with
reference schematic short, it means that
the resistor serves as a fuse, we can
measure the forward or reverse such a
technique that has been described
previously. If the input voltage
condition exists, this circuit can generate
the appropriate output function.
Ground also play an important role, with
no ground circuit will not work. So the
conclusion is there must be input digital
circuit working voltage, voltage and
ground commands. Then see a
confirmation signal that is marked with
a green box (because all systems
integrating throughout the circuit with
the other circuits, then the signal
confirmation needed for information to
the central controller / EC).

The picture beside is an example of the

5V only but you can also apply to 3V.
19V go to two bipolar capacitor attached
series, then go into MOSFET N-chanel
attached parallel. The function of the
parallel mosfet is to increase power of
the mosfet itself. 5V will move towards
the circuit that requires the voltage eg
HDD. Then need a huge ampere that the
function of addition mosfet as a switch
and step-down, IC also plays an

important role in this regard.

Reopen the motherboard power material



Reopen the motherboard structure material to reinforce learning.

Electronic circuit is designed to produce something according to its

function, and in each circuit must have requires inputs to enable the circuit
to be able to work. Circuit system will produce an output or outcome of
the job. And in each circuit definitely has a weakness, and this weakness
which will become a reference analytical study technician to resolve any

3V and 5V circuit constructed by a switching regulator system. Note the

diagram below:

The case studies 3V and 5V

standby system.
1. Output problem (3V and
5V) not out.
2. Output Voltage only 5V
or 3V
3. The output voltage drop
example of which should be
1,7v be 3V
3V and 5V systems. VS
(power switch)
1. Output problem (3V and
5V) not out.
2. The output voltage drop
example of which should be
1,7v be 3V.
Circuit 3V & 5V circuit is divided into two parts namely standby circuit or
primary circuit, and circuit VS or circuit in which the output will produce
a voltage after switch on / off in the press. But we will focus on the main
circuit or circuit standby because this circuit which is always a lot of
problems in the field.

There are several system circuit in this circuit, including parallel – step
up - switching regulator and controller output - a confirmation signal -
trigger gate and etc. The material directly to the weakness of the system
on the characteristics of the previous case studies that have not been
described handling techniques. This technique you may later apply to all
system circuit switching:
The case studies 3V and 5V standby system.
1. Output problem (3V and 5V) not out.
2. Output Voltage only 5V or 3V
3. The output voltage drop example of which should be 1,7v be 3V
All the above problems can be solved by short circuit detector output
Technique with mutimeter digital on the buzzer scale, if there is not a
sound then can be sure no short circuit occurs either another circuit that
requires 3V and 5V or even a short circuit on the circuit of stepdown


Then the circuit to be active
after it is RTCRST # signal a
command signal from
sourced from SIO to enable
ICH in terms of netbooks are
RTCRTS # signal value is
3.3V sourced from EC. Chip
if divided and segregated
there are some circuit with
the system and how it works
respectively. However, for
each system only need
voltage command, clok
course even data only, here
foresight we read circuit is
needed. EC command signal
from the oscillator circuit
serves to instruct the work.
See pictures next oscillator
circuit consists of cristal and
some components. Value
c348 and c349 comparator
must be the same this is one
of the requirements oscillator
circuit works well. What we
need to check on this part
enough in the clock
frequency voltage alone. If
the voltage is not found then
check input (this technique is
called measurement

Name Symbol Code Shape General function in
the laptop
IC BIOS PU BIOS is a chip
( SPI microcontroller,
FLASH) meaning that a
program whose
contents can be
changed, deleted,
edited and repeated
revisions. The image
beside is the trick to
see the amount of
capacity BIOS.
There are 1, 2 and 3
BIOS motherboard
(main bios - eg bios
and id bios
bios is the main bios
on the motherboard
and EC bios is a bios
supporter Chip sheet
while ID bios is bios
specifically for
storing data SN / PN
motherboard. For his
own form, IC bios
slightly bigger than
mosfet as shown.
A microcontroller is a
device digital

electronics that have

inputs and outputs, as
well as the control of
the programs can be
written and erased in
a special way. How
the microcontroller
work is actually only
read and write data.
With using the
system chip
microcontroller, a
circuit will be smaller
so it does not require
a lot of components
in the circuit.
Running texts,
robotic and other
automated devices
derived from this
technique. Please
develop more


Bios in the schematic diagram is always
paired with the EC, either in page FDF or on
the motherboard, though it is not necessarily
so, because there is a new type of IC bios on
precisely juxtaposed with PCH chip before
the communication is delivered to the EC.
However, the principle is the same because
the EC and the actual BIOS is an integral

BIOS in the schematic diagram referred to

SPI FLASH, the capacity of BIOS is
depending on demand schematic (
2MB, 4MB and 8MB). And the image beside
a value capacity IC bios 2MB

3. SCK = CLOCK INPUT ( 3,3V )
4. SI and SO = POS SIGNAL ( 1. 4V -/+ )

The value in a schematic voltage is specified on the
circuit schematic itself. Example :
As input to VDD PIN - HOLD - WP AND CE are
3.3V, so we just matched the value voltage contained
in the schematic and multimeter.

Bios work requirements are:

1. has a power supply input of 3.3V
2. Clock of 3.3V (for clock itself not only measure
the voltage absolute, but must be measured also the
value of the clock and the waves)
3. Signal SO voltage of approximately 1,4V.
Similarly are like clock Signal SO / POST is not only
measured the voltage value but also need solo scope
level measurement to look further with the signal
In the field we are testing, if in the pin SO there is
voltage 1,4V can be ascertained BIOS is normal no
need to do flashing. Characteristics the bios in

damage are like total dead, protect switch / cannot

switch / voltage required to be present but could not
get in switch laptop, no display, stay in the brand

Name Symbol Code Shape General function of
laptop motherboard
IC PU ( EC SIO function as a
LABA – ) command voltage
LABA distribution to all
IC SIO parts of the power.

EC (embedded controller) in another term is also often called SIO, SUPER

I / O, IC SPIDER. There are 3 types of EC which is often used laptop
motherboard manufacturer for more details please look at the picture


EC / SIO / IC SPIDER in the schematic diagram chart just symbolized by

the box and the brand IC in use.



Note : use the schematic sample D270 / ZE7
No. Schematic diagram Explanation
1. EC serves as a controller device to identi
device either circuit system or com
hardware itself (bootstrapping
working with bios as boot / that control,
control and regulate the working system

Figure beside shows Broadly speakin
serves as a control (keyboard - touchpad
flash / bios - charger / charger system -
FAN / controller cooling pad). Note the p
below (image schematic diagram section
datasheet for more detailed components. S
IC also called spider / EC.

EC serves as a power regulator motherbo
the description of GPIO (General Power
And Output) EC also has an important r
motherboard power system as a regulator
distribution of power (voltage comma

3. EC serves as the power switch o

motherboard that works with switch on/
chipset (PCH)
diagram EC brand and signal switch

4. EC work together with SPI flash (IC B
Broadly speaking Bios and EC have
function, the difference is the componen
how it works.

Work System of EC
There are 4 Terms of automated systems or drive, the voltage - reset -
clock – ground
EC has double job, when stage
always and VS
In the image beside is the
voltage measurement points on
EC. EC work requirements:
1. There is a supply voltage /
voltage work: + 3VPCU
2. There is a reset voltage /
command VCCPOR: + 3VPCU
3. Confirmation PWROK
Voltage: 3.3V
4. Ground
Look at the picture on the side,
there are parts in the scope.
Where if we dismantle, it
consists of several system
circuit. Among other things, the
LPC (circuit information data)
KB (keyboard). AD (digital to
analog) DA (analog to digital)
GPIO (input and output power)
Timer (timing system) FIU
(communication / interface with
the BIOS).
We take the samples of GPIO

CIRCUIT it is an absolute
requirement in order GPIO can
work is a series of GPIO
resources for itself in terms of
the signal AC IN.

Name Symbol Code Shape General functio
in laptop’s
ICH function already shown
the schema
diagram, the
serves as a da

Generally IC
function to t
data controll
inversely to t
EC, it domina
to the syste
voltage while t
chipset domina
into the da
system (BU
EC - Chip
BIOS is o

component of
motherboard, t
family to contr
regulate and
control devi
Chip shee
family has
variety of typ
and kind
Because I lo
Intel chip, so th
will be describ
is Intel chi
only, this ch
type is oft
referred to
GRAPHIC INTEL Graphics chip
GMCH Simple wa
FUNCTION Chipshet serv
as a graph
display to LC
panels. We c
see videos etc
lcd because th
There are ma
types of VGA li

intel, and Nvid

This chip is oft
called chip NB
latest chip mod
is often found
the lat
laptops. And is
popular chip th
can cause
laptop damag
associated w
the data a
serves as IC
and GMC
united in th
latest model ch
especially for
- I5 and I7 n
DISCRATE Discrete / VG
is often found
laptop gamers.
Many variet
PROSESOR and types
PROSESOR processors a
its functions

Function Generally,
processor is t
brain of

(Random To avo
akses memory) prolonged
material. Ma
sources on t
Internet abo
the function
RAM, ju
themselves eith
via sharing




NOTE: Until schematic D270 ZE7 In

the sequence diagram of power, VCC
core is the term for the output signal
for processors working voltage
produced by the regulator PU 8

The reference value or the output

voltage value of VCC CORE AND
GPU CORE on universal power
sequence is clearly seen as on the

PU 8
If we open the page on the VCC core
& GPU core will be clearly visible
the type of IC in use is:

VCC cores will be active after having

signal HWPG 1.O5V

SMPS is also contained in the VCC

core circuit.
Up here you may already know, if
you do not understand the material,
reopen the motherboard power.


If we notice there are several

circuit system in the page
module of LED / LCD. We
shall explain in the next row.

Differences between LCD and

LED is:
LED: do not use inverter
LCD: use inferter (DC to AC)

Checking on this part

specifically for light display

cases. for severe cases, which

means already checked the
replacement LED module,
check the data cable, check the
socket, and all of them are
good, but there are still
problems such as dim display
and white display.

Checks only on the marked

box. There are two voltage
here, there are always voltage
VS voltage (LCD VDD &

When a positive voltage

passing through the
components, there is the
possibility of such components
problematic because it missed
the voltage or voltage
dissipates with the function of
the component itself.

For example in the picture on

the side, the input voltage to the
output which previously passed
through a fuse that serves as a
safety (BATOUT DC voltage)
is the voltage that comes from
always power, means included
into standby voltage. So if you
want to replace and remove led,
first had to remove the battery
or adapter (without power),

because it could surge. Fuse

measurement back to the
material components. in this
case there are two possibilities
that could from the fuse to
blow or from the capacitor
which is short as in the picture
on the side.

Circuit on the side belonging to

the LDO circuit switches.
Where IC U4901 will work
when it gets a command
voltage from LCDVDD_EN
and the working voltage of
3D3V_SO. If you come across
a case of LED dim / white
blank, check also part of this
circuit which output the


Measurement and
identification Voltage on
the part ram

Measurements on the ram

just on the 3 parts, part of
+1.5, transmission + 0,75V
and the last at the reset
measurements in this
section only to the case of
no display.

Circuit SMPS power

supply to RAM (SMPS
circuit identification back
to the material power

HDD Not Detected

Note the position of the

diagram and the page about
the hard drive on structure
schematic diagram

After you open the hard

drive, you will look
communication lines and
voltage references. 5V is
input or supply power to the
hard drive that comes from vs
circuit on the motherboard.
Hard drive not detected of the
characteristics of circuit that
only has supply power,

communication lines and

ground, the three elements
this is what we checking in
execution damage process.
Check 5V voltage and the
components in its path, in this
thing, inductor and hard disk
socket (open measuring
If the voltage was find, then
next checking to ground
check. Then to
communication line data, in
here you will see
communication line input and
output data related directly to
chip (PCH/ICH)

USB Not Detected

Driver check


Like checking on hard disk, check

the voltage, communication line and


System checking from no.1 to 8


You can see on this picture to

explained it

You can see on this picture to

explained it

You can see on this picture to

explained it

You can see on this picture to

explained it

Keyboard Problem

You can see on this picture to

explained it

You can see on this picture to

explained it



On an old laptop, there is a smal

button like a needle when closed, th
LCD screen will be off / standby. An
in the latest laptop uses newly sensor

If we open led, we can see magne

closed to hinged, and that’s movin
the system. If there is a magnet an
the system will be work.


Revision of component contained in

the last schematic page.

Reference signal measurement

Reference damage and system