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Chapter 6(III)

Convection Transfer Equations

¾The Reynolds Analogy


¾Dimensionless parameters

Chapter 6 1
Reynolds Analogy

The Reynolds Analogy


• Equivalence of dimensionless momentum and energy equations for negligible
pressure gradient (dp*/dx*~0) and Pr~1:

∂u *
∂u *
1 ∂ 2 *
u
u *
+v *
=
∂x *
∂y *
Re ∂y*2
Advection terms Diffusion

∂T *
∂T *
1 ∂ 2 *
T
u *
+v *
=
∂x *
∂y *
Re ∂y*2
• Hence, for equivalent boundary conditions, the solutions are of the same form:
u* = T *
Re
∂u *
∂T
* Cf = Nu
= * 2
∂y* y* = 0
∂y y* = 0
Reynolds Analogy (cont.)

h Nu
Stanton number St ≡ =
ρVc p Re Pr

With Pr = 1, the Reynolds analogy, which relates important parameters of the velocity
and thermal boundary layers, is
Cf
= St
2
• Modified Reynolds (Chilton-Colburn) Analogy:
– An empirical result that extends applicability of the Reynolds analogy:
Cf 2
= St Pr 3
≡ jH 0.6 < Pr < 60
2
Colburn j factor for heat transfer

– Applicable to laminar flow if dp*/dx* ~ 0.

– Generally applicable to turbulent flow without restriction on dp*/dx*.


Important Non-dimensional Parameters
(2) Reynolds number may be interpreted as the ratio of inertia to
viscous forces in a region of characteristic dimension L.
ρVL VL
Re L ≡ =
μ v

ReL small viscous effects dominant


Ælaminar flow

ReL big inertia effects dominant


Æ turbulent flow
Important Non-dimensional Parameters
(2) Prandtl number (ν/α) is the main parameter which relates the
relative thickness of the HBL and TBL.
- The kinematic viscosity is about the momentum rate may diffuse
through the molecular motion.
- The thermal diffusivity tells us about the diffusion of heat
- The ratio dictates the magnitude of the hydrodynamic properties &
thermal properties in the fluid.

ν μ/ρ μc p - The Prandtl number is


Pr = = = dimensionless properties
α k / ρc p k

Where, μ - kg/ms; cp - kJ/kg C; k - kW/m C;


Liquids & Gases: Pr = 0.7; Liquid metal Pr = 0.01
Chapter 6 5
Important Non-dimensional Parameters
(2) Nusselt Number: Nu = hL h – HT coeff .(W/m2 C); L - length of the plate(m); k -W/m
k

(3) Stanton Number: Nu h


St = =
Re.Pr ρc p u α

This is useful in getting the relation between fluid friction and heat-transfer.
C fx
St x Pr 2/3 =
2
¾ The above eqn. expresses the relation between fluid friction & HT for laminar
flow on a flat-plate.
¾ The HT coefficient could thus be determined by making measurements of the
frictional drag on a plate under conditions in which no HT is involved.
¾ This relation between fluid friction & HT is called “Reynolds Analogy”.
Chapter 6 6