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ELECTRICITY & MAGNETISM James Clerk Maxwell – electromagnetic theory of light, 1862

Coulomb’s Law – law that describes the force of attraction or Andre Ampere – current carrying conductor can attract & repel
repulsion between two charges is directly proportional to their like magnet
strengths and inversely proportional to the square of the distance Kamerlingh Onnes – Superconductivity, 1911
between them. The basic law for interaction of charged bodies at Self induced emf –due to the change of its own flux linked with it
rest. Mutually induced emf – to the changing current of another
Coulomb’s first law of electrostatics – law that describes the neighboring coil
force of attraction or repulsion between two magnetic poles is Statically induced emf – conductor is stationary, magnetic field
directly proportional to their strengths. is moving
Coulomb’s second law of electrostatics – law that describes Unit pole – pole which when placed in air from a similar and equal
the force of attraction or repulsion between poles is inversely pole repels it with force of 1/4piu newtons
proportional to the square of the distance between them. Magnetic pole – the intensity of magnetic lines of force is
Gauss’s Law – The summation of the normal component of the maximum.
electric field displacement E over any closed surface is directly North pole – pole where magnetic lines of force are originating
proportional to the electric charge within the surface. Diamagnetic – permeability slightly less than that of free space
Faraday’s Law – States that the magnitude of the emf induced in Paramagnetic – permeability slightly greater than that of free
a circuit is proportional to the rate of change of the magnetic flux space
that cuts across it. Ferromagnetic – have very high permeabilities
Faraday’s first Law – Electromotiveforce (emf) is induced Conductor – valence electron less than 4
whenever a conductor cuts magnetic flux. Semiconductor – valence electron equal to 4
Faraday’s second Law – The magnitude of electromotiveforce Insulator – valence electron greater than 4
(emf) s induced when a conductor cuts magnetic flux is directly Metallic bond – bonding of atoms that is due to the force of
proportional to its rate. attraction between positive ions and a group of negative ions.
Faraday’s Law – In Electromagnetism, the law that determines Ionic bond – formed when one or more electrons in the outermost
the amount of induced voltage. energy orbit of an atom are transferred to another.
Lenz’ Law – In Electromagnetism, the law that determines the Covalent bond – formed when electrons in the outermost energy
polarity of an induced voltage orbits of the atoms are shared between two or more electrons
Lenz’ Law – In all cases of electromagnetic induction, the current Van der Waals bond – formed when there exist distant
setup by an induced voltage tends to create flux whose direction electronic interactions between charges present in the neighboring
opposes any change in the existing flux. atoms
Lenz’s Law – In electronics, an induced current will be in such a Permalloy – iron 22%, nickel 78%
direction that its own magnetic field will oppose the magnetic fields Hipernik – iron 40%, nickel 60%
that produce the same. Alnico – aluminum, nickel, iron, cobalt, copper, titanium at 12
Curie’s Law – States that the magnetic susceptibilities of most grades
paramagnetic substance are inversely proportional to their Manganin – 84% copper, 12% manganese and 4% nickel
absolute temperature. Vector quantity – Magnetic field intensity, field, magnetic
Curie-Weiss Law – relating between the magnetic and electric intensity, electric flux density, electric field intensity
susceptibilities and the absolute temperatures which is followed by Scalar quantity – Electric potential, electric flux
ferromagnets, antiferromagnets, non-polar ferroelectrics, Insulator – widest gap between valence band and the conduction
paramagnts. band
Child’s Law – States that the current in a thermionic diode varies Conductor – smallest gap between valence band and the
directly with the three-halves power of anode voltage and inversely conduction band
with the square of the distance between the electrodes. Band gap – difference in energy between the valence and
Wiedemann-Franz Law - States that the ratio of the thermal conduction band
conductivity to the electric conductivity is proportional to the Crystalline – solids in which the position of atoms are
absolute temperature for metal predetermined
Ampere’s circuital Law – A law establishing the fact that the Amorphous/Non-crystalline – has no defined crystal structure
algebraic sum of rises and drops of the mmf around a closed loop Mica – used as the insulating material or dielectric in an electric
of a magnetic circuit is 0. ion
Law of conservation of energy – “The net electric charge in an Glass – has the highest dielectric strength
isolated system remains constant” Porcelain – used as the dielectric material in high voltage
Wiegand effect – The effect that describes the ability of a transformers
mechanically stressed ferromagnetic wire to recognize rapid Quantum – definite discrete amount of energy required to move
switching of magnetization when subjected to a DC magnetic field. an electron from a lower shell to a higher shell.
Hall effect –small voltage is generated by a conductor with Amber – means elektron in Greek
current in an external magnetic field. Used in the gaussmeter to Valence band – series of energy levels containing the valence
measure flux density. electron
Edison effect – The emission of electrons from hot bodies Plasma – gases with charged particle
Wall effect – ionization by electrons liberated from the walls Electric dipole – a combination of two charges, with equal charge
Bridgman effect – phenomenon that when an electric current magnitude but opposite signs
passes through an arisotropic crystal, there is an absorption or Keeper – used to maintain strength of magnetic field
liberation of heat. Toroid – an electromagnet with its core in the form of a close
Weber’s Theory of Magnetism – Assumes that all magnetic magnetic ring
substance is composed of tiny molecular magnets. domain - A group of magnetically aligned atoms
Domain Theory – theory based on the electron spin theory; If an thermonic emission - Evaporation of electron from a heated
atom has an equal number of electrons spinning in opposite surface
directions, the magnetic field surrounding the electron cancel one Back emf - refers to the voltage opposing the applied emf
another, the atom is unmagnetized. Madelung constant – factor used to correct for the electrostatic
Ewing’s Theory of ferromagnetism – assumes each atom is a forces
permanent magnet which can turn freely about its center under the Magnetic material loss its ferromagnetic properties at a point called
influence of applied fields and other magnets Curie temperature
Exclusion Principle – States that each electron in an atom must The dielectric constant of most materials lies between 1 and 10
have a different set of quantum numbers. 1.15 to 1.25 is the usual value of leakage coefficient for electrical
Pauli exclusion principle – states that only two electrons with machines
different spins are allowed to exist in a given orbit Current carriers in conductors are valence electrons
Hans Christian Oersted – relationship between magnetism and Dielectric is another name for insulator
electricity RF current flow along the surface.
Michael Faraday – theory of electromagnetic induction, 1891
Because of skin effect resistance is different for RF current then
DC
Steel is hard to magnetize because of its low permeability
One of the common application of an air-cored choked is at Radio
frequency
Ohm’s law can be used only to a linear circuit or component
Magnetic field around the conductor is determined by the amount
of current
In electro-mechanical conversion device, the reason why a small air
gap is left between the rotor and stator is to permit mechanical
clearance.
Permanent magnets can be found in earphones
Temporary magnets are commonly employed in motors
Hardened steel is used by permanent magnets as the magnetic
material
Soft iron is used by temporary magnets as the magnetic
material
Silicon steel materials has the least hysteresis loop area

Magnetomotive Ampere- Gilbert 1 AT =


force (mmf) Turn Gb 1.257 Gb
AT
Magnetic Field Ampere per Oersted 1 A/m =
Strength meter A/m Oe (Gb/cm) 0.01257 Oe
Magnetic Flux Weber Wb Maxwell Mx 1 Wb =
10^8 Mx
Magnetic Flux Tesla Gauss 1T = 10^4
density T (Wb/m^2) G G
(Mx/cm^2)

V Volt Emf Mmf Amp-


turn
I Amp Current Magnetic flux Weber
R Ohm Resistance Reluctance 1/H
V/m Field strength Magnetizatio Amp/m H
n
J A/m Current Flux density Tesla B
density
Ohm-m Resistivity Reluctivity m/H V
G Siemen Conductance Permeance Henry P
s
S/m Conductivity Permeability H/m
ELECTRICAL CIRCUITS Air dielectric is generally employed by a variable capacitor.
Kirchhoff’s first law – The sum of all currents entering a junction Barium-strontium titanite dielectric material is also called
is equal to the sum of currents leaving away from that junction. ceramic
Kirchhoff’s second law – In a mesh, the algebraic sum of all Paper has the lowest dielectric strength
voltages and voltages drops is equal to zero. Barium-strontium titanite dielectric makes the highest-
CR Law – a law which states that when a constant electromotive capacitance capacitor.
force is applied to a circuit consisting of a resistor and capacitor Electrolytic capacitors are used only in dc circuits.
connected in series, the time taken for the potential on the plates Electrolytic capacitor has the highest cost per microfarad.
of the capacitor to rise to any given fraction of its final value Electrolytic capacitor is suitable for dc filter circuits.
depends only on the product of capacitance and resistance. A capacitor consists of conductors separated by a dielectric
Thevenin’s theorem – Used to simplify complex circuits wherein, The capacitance of a capacitor is directly proportional to relative
the simplified circuit contains an equivalent open circuit resistance permittivity.
and open circuit voltage. In a multiplate capacitor, the plate area is increased.
Norton’s theorem – reverse of Thevenin’s theorem For mutli-plate capacitor, capacitance is proportional to number of
In Norton’s theorem, the short circuit current is obtained by plates less one (n-1).
shortening the load terminals A capacitor is used to block dc current
Superposition theorem – Used in solving electrical circuits with The charging of a capacitor through a resistance obeys
several voltage sources. exponential law.
Superposition theorem – Used in simplifying circuit analysis by It is impossible to change the voltage across a capacitor instantly,
considering the effect of supply voltages one at a time. as this would produce infinite current.
The superposition theorem is used when the circuit contains a Leakage resistance in a capacitor results into internal heating
number of voltage sources. A capacitor opposes change in voltage.
Compensation theorem – “Any resistance R in a branch of a Capacitance increases with larger plate area and less
network in which a current I is flowing can be replaced by a voltage distance between plates
equal to IR”. Increasing capacitance is considered the effect of a dielectric
Reciprocity theorem – If an emf in circuit A produces a current in material.
circuit B, then the same emf in circuit B produces the same current A gang capacitor is a variable capacitor in which capacitance is
in circuit A. varied by changing the plate area
Edge effect – refers to the outward-curving distortion of the lines A trimmer is a variable capacitor in which capacitance is varied by
of force near the edges of two parallel metal plates that form a changing the distance between plates
capacitor. Stray capacitance exist not through design but simply because
Mesh – A chosen closed path of current flow in a network. two conducting surface are relatively close to each other.
Loop – A set of circuit elements that forms a closed path in a The ratio between the active power and the apparent power of
network over which signal can circulate the load in an ac circuit is called power factor.
Node – a reference point chosen such that more branches in a An inductive load always has a lagging power factor.
circuit met The power factor of a series LC circuit is 0.
Junction – A common connection between circuit elements or The rms value of a triangular or sawtooth waveform is 0.577
conductors from different branches. times its peak value.
Ground – return point in a circuit, where all voltage measured are The average value of triangular or sawtooth wave is 0.500 times
referred. its peak value.
KVL – Mesh analysis 1.73 is the peak factor of a triangular wave
KCL – Nodal analysis Peak factor for alternating current or voltage varying sinusoidally,
True power – the power dissipated across the resistance in an AC 1.4142
circuit. The factor 0.707 for converting peak to rms applies only to sine
A series circuit at resonance would mean, the circuit is resistive waves.
A parallel circuit at resonance would mean, the circuit is resistive For a linear, rms voltage or current is used to calculate average
In ac-circuit, if the voltage and current are in phase, the circuit is power.
resistive. The current is 0.707 times the maximum current at half-power
If the current and voltage has a phase difference, the circuit is points of a resonance curve.
reactive. Zero reading on an ohmmeter for a shorted capacitor
If the current in ac-circuit leads the voltage by 90°, the circuit is An open resistor when checked with an ohmmeter reads infinite.
capacitive. Surge voltage is the maximum voltage that can be applied across
If the current in ac-circuit lags the voltage by 90°, the circuit is the capacitor for very short period of time.
inductive. Breakdown voltage refers to the lowest voltage across any
In a series ac-circuit, if the line frequency is more than the insulator that can cause current flow.
resonant frequency, the circuit behaves as inductive. The ratio of the flux density to the electric field intensity in the
If the line frequency of a parallel ac-circuit is less than the resonant dielectric is called permittivity.
frequency, the circuit behaves as reactive. The ratio of maximum value to the effective value of an alternating
If an ac-series circuit is supplied with a source whose frequency is quantity is called peak factor.
less than that of fr, the circuit becomes capacitive. The graph between an alternating quantity and time is called
Smaller resistors usually have high resistance value. waveform.
When the temperature of a copper wire is increased, its Reactance chart can be used to estimate resonant frequency and
resistance is increased. to find reactance at any frequency for any value of capacitor or
The resistance of an insulator decreases when its inductor.
temperature is increased. Temperature coefficient of resistance – A factor that states
Skin effect increases the resistance of wire at high frequencies how much the resistance changes for a change in temperature.
The result of rust in electrical wire connection is resistance The ohmic value of a resistor with negative temperature
Wattage rating of a resistor determines its ability to absorb coefficient increases with decreasing temperature.
heat. Carbon has a negative temperature coefficient.
Resistors with high value usually have lower wattage rating Manganin has a positive temperature coefficient
because of lower current Tungsten filament of bulbs has a hot resistance higher than its
High resistance values are a consequence of the thinness of cold resistance due to its temperature coefficient which is
the film. positive.
A disadvantage of a wire-wound resistor is that it has The temperature coefficient of resistance of electrolytes is
reactance in radio-frequency circuits. negative.
Bifilar resistor – a resistor wound with a wire doubled back on In a pure capacitance, current lead voltage by 90°
itself to reduce the inductance. In an RL series circuit, current lags voltage by less than 90°
A rheostat is a form of variable resistor. In a rectangular wave, form factor is 1.0
In a triangular wave, form factor is 1.16 The phase of an alternating quantity is defined as the fractional
For a series AC circuit, voltage is not used as a reference part of a period or cycle through which the quantity has advanced
phasor. from selected origin.
For a parallel AC circuit, voltage is used as a reference phasor. The admittance of a parallel RLC circuit is found to be the phasor
The Q-factor of a series resonant circuit is also known as voltage sum of conductance and susceptance.
magnification factor. In an inductive coil, the rate of rise of current is maximum near
The Q-factor of a parallel resonant circuit is also known as current the final maximum value of current.
magnification factor. For a series circuit, the higher the quantity factor the narrower
Parallel resonant circuit is sometimes called rejector circuit. the passband.
Series resonant circuit is sometimes known as acceptor circuit. The impedance in the study of electronics is represented by
In dividing or multiplying phasor quantities, polar form is resistance and reactance.
used. An ideal current source has an internal conductance of zero
In adding or subtracting phasor quantities, rectangular form siemen/s.
is used. Norton’s theorem is the converse of Thevenin’s theorem
Conventional flow assumes charges flow from positive to ELECTRONIC DEVICES
negative. Intrinsic – the name of the semiconductor material that has an
Electron flow assumes charges flow from negative to positive. equal number of electrons and holes
The symbol Q refers to quality factor. Element that has four valence electrons are classified as
The reciprocal of quality factor is dissipation factor. elemental semiconductor
Norton’s theorem – usually used in the analysis of transistor Germanium (Ge) – example of elemental semiconductor
circuit Gallium Arsenide (GaAs), Gallium Phosphide (GaP),
Thevenin’s theorem – generally used in the analysis of vacuum Aluminum Arsenide (AlAs) – example of a compound
tubes semiconductor
Norton’s theorem is a form of current equivalent circuit Covelent bond – the chemical bond that is present in a crystal
Thevenin’s theorem is a form of voltage equivalent circuit lattice of silicon atoms
Parallel resonant circuit is also known as anti-resonant circuit Forbidden gap – the area that separates the valence band and
The curve between current and frequency is termed as resonance the conduction band.
curve. At absolute zero temperature, semiconductor acts as an insulator
At parallel resonance, the current flowing through L and C are The electron flow in a semiconductor material is opposite in
equal. direction of hole flow
Voltage resonance means series resonance 10 - 10^4 ohm-cm – typical range of the resistivity of a
The resonance curve is a plot of frequency versus current for a semiconductor
series RLC circuit. Metallic bonding – chemical bond that is significant in metals
Series resonant circuit is inductive if it operates at a frequency Intrinsic semiconductor – a semiconductor that is free from
higher than the resonant frequency. impurities
When two complex conjugates are subtracted, the result is a Doping – the process of adding impurities in a semiconductor
quadrature component only. Pentavalent – impurities with five valence electrons
If two complex conjugates are added, in-phase component Trivalent impurities – Example of acceptor impurities
results If the substance used in doping has less than four valence
Alloy is a fusion of elements, without chemical action between electrons, it is known as acceptor
them. Antimony(Sb), Arsenic(As), Phosphorus(P) – commonly used
Anticapacitance switch – a switch designed to have low as donor impurities
capacitance between its terminal when open. Boron(B), Gallium(Ga), Indium(In) – Example of trivalent
Phasor is a rotating vector whose projection can represent either impurities
current or voltage in an ac circuit Donor-doped semiconductor becomes an N-type semiconductor
Cryogenic conductor – another term for superconductor Compensated semiconductor – a semiconductor that is doped
Faradic current – An intermittent and non-symmetrical with both donor and acceptor impurities
alternating current like that obtained from the secondary winding The resistance of a semiconductor is known as bulk resistance
of an induction coil. Silicon – the most extensively used semiconductor
Joules – the term used to express the amount of electrical energy Intrinsic semiconductor – semiconductor whose electron and
stored in electrostatic field. hole concentrations are equal
Phasor quantity – refers specifically to steady state values of Silicon is widely used over germanium due to its low leakage
quantities in ac circuits which are complex numbers. current
Non-linear circuit – a circuit whose parameters change with Drift current – current flow in a semiconductor that is due to the
voltage or current applied electric field
Liquids that are good conductors because of ionization are called Diffusion current – the movement of charge carriers in a
electrolytes. semiconductor even without the application of electric potential
Manganin is a common material used in wire-wound resistors. Typically, 0.05 eV energy is required for a valence electron to
Elastance is the reciprocal of capacitance. move to the conduction band for a doped semiconductor
Permeability is otherwise known as magnetic conductivity. Conduction of electrons in a doped semiconductor happens at
Effective value is considered as the most important value of a conduction band
sine wave. Valence band – where the conduction of holes occur in a doped
Tank circuit is a parallel LC circuit. semiconductor
When current and voltage are in phase in an ac circuit, the In energy band diagram of a doped semiconductor, the donor level
reactance is equal to zero. is near the conduction band
The voltage cannot be exactly in phase with the current in a circuit The acceptor level in a doped semiconductor is near the valence
that contains only capacitance. band level
An open inductor has infinite resistance and zero inductance. In a semiconductor material, the number of free electrons
The reciprocal of a complex number is a complex number increases when the temperature rises
Metal tin becomes superconductor at approximately 3.7 K. The electrical resistance of a semiconductor material will
A real current source has a large internal resistance. decrease as the temperature increases
The reason why alternating current can induce voltage is it has a Ionization potential – the potential required to remove a valence
varying magnetic field. electron
In an ac-circuit, the power dissipated as heat depends on Silicon – nonmetal
resistance. Germanium – a semiconductor that is classified as a metalloid or
The maximum power transfer theorem is used in electronic circuits semimetal
According to Gauss theorem, flux can be equated to charge. Germanium – semiconductor that is very rare, it only occurs in
minute quantities in many metal sulfides
Compound semiconductors are also known as inter-metallic The breakdown voltage of a junction diode will decrease as
semiconductors operating temperature rises.
Compound semiconductor – semiconductor that is mostly used In every increase of 10 °C in the operating temperature of a diode
in devices requiring the emission or absorption of lights will cause its reverse saturation current to double
For high-speed integrated circuit, Gallium arsenide Dc resistance – the resistance of the diode when operating at a
semiconductor material is best to be used steady state voltage
One part per million impurity concentration is needed for a Dynamic resistance – the resistance of the diode that is
sample of silicon to change its electrical property from a poor significant when operating with a small ac signal
conductor to a good conductor When a diode is used in large ac voltages, the resistance that is to
The restriction of certain discrete energy levels in a semiconductor be considered is average resistance
material can be predicted generally by using Bohr model The diode resistance will decrease when the applied voltage is
Electron Volt (eV) – is defined as the energy acquired by an increased
electron moving through a potential of one volt. The primary use of Zener diode in electronic circuits is a voltage
EHP optical generation is the basis in operation of regulator
semiconductor photoconductors In electronics, an avalanche breakdown primarily depends on
Selenium – the semiconductor that is used in xerography ionization
Recombination - when an electron at the conduction band falls When a diode is reverse biased the depletion region widens, since
back to the valence band it will recombine with the hole. it is in between positively charge holes and negatively charge
Germanium semiconductor is mostly used to detect near infrared. electrons, it will have an effect of a capacitor, this capacitance is
Silicon carbide (SiC) semiconductor is good for high-temperature called transition capacitance
applications In a semiconductor diode, the total capacitance, that is the
Indium antimonide semiconductor has the highest mobility capacitance between terminals and electrodes, and the internal
A semiconducting glass is known as amorphous semiconductor voltage variable capacitance of the junction is called diode
For an electroluminescent of green and red lights, gallium capacitance
phosphide semiconductor is best Diffusion capacitance or storage capacitance is significant
Less than 1 watt – typical range of power dissipation for a when the diode is forward biased
semiconductor to be considered as “low power” or small signal” Varactor and varistor – a diode that is especially designed to
Zinc Sulfide (ZnS) semiconductor material has the highest operate as a voltage-variable capacitor. It utilizes the junction
energy gap capacitance of a semiconductor diode
InSb semiconductor has the smallest energy gap The capacitance of a varactor will increase when the forward bias
voltage is increased.
Mobility – defined as the average drift velocity of electrons and Reverse recovery time – the time taken by the diode to operate
holes per unit electrostatic field. The ease with which a charge in the reverse condition from forward conduction
carrier moves in a semiconductor material In operating a diode at high-speed switching circuits, one of the
most important parameters to be considered is reverse recovery
InSb semiconductor material has the highest value of electron- time.
mobility Forward recovery time – the time required for forward voltage or
AIP semiconductor material has the slowest electron-mobility current to reach a specified valued after switching the diode from
Pn junction is formed when n-type and p-type semiconductors are its reverse-to-forward-biased state.
brought together Maximum dissipation power – the maximum power the diode
PN junction acts as a one way valve for electrons because when can handle
electrons are pump from P to N, free electrons and holes Current capacity is the most important specification for
are force apart leaving no way for electrons to cross the semiconductor diode.
junction The power handling capability of a diode will decrease if it is to
Junction diode – the device that is formed when an n-type and p- operated at a higher temperature
type semiconductors are brought together Power derating factor – diode parameter that will inform the
Forward bias – an external voltage applied to a junction reduces user as to what factor does the power handling capability of the
its barrier and aid current to flow through the junction diode is reduced as the operating temperature is increased
Diode – a device containing an anode and a cathode or a pn Zener diode – a semiconductor device especially fabricated to
junction of a semiconductor as the principal elements and provides utilize the avalanche or zener breakdown region. This is normally
unidirectional conduction operated in the reverse-region and its application is mostly for
Unidirectional conduction in two-electrodes in any device other voltage reference or regulation
than a diode, such that rectification between the grid and cathode Tunnel diode – Refers to a special type of diode which is capable
of a triode, or asymmetrical conduction between the collector and of both amplification and oscillation
base of a transistor is called diode action Avalanche – the effect when the electric field across a
The p-type material in a semiconductor junction diode is technically semiconductor is strong enough which causes the free electrons to
termed as anode collide with valence electrons, thereby releasing more electrons
Cathode in a semiconductor junction diode is referred to the n- and a cumulative multiplication of charge carriers occur.
type terminal Tunnel diode – a negative resistance diode commonly used in
Depletion region – the area in the semiconductor diode where microwave oscillators and detectors, it is sometimes used as
there are no charge carriers amplifiers. This device is also known as Esaki diode
A junction diode is said to be forward-biased if a voltage greater Gunn diode – diode whose negative resistance depends on a
than threshold is applied, with cathode less positive than specific form of quantum-mechanical bond structure of the material
anode One of the electronic semiconductor devices known as diac,
Reverse saturation current is a very small amount of current function as two terminal bi-directional switch
that will flow in the diode when it is reverse biased Diac – another name of a three-layer diode. This is also considered
Threshold voltage – the minimum voltage required before a as an ac diode.
diode can totally conduct in a forward direction Point-contact diode – semiconductor diode that have a fine wire
The threshold voltage of the diode will decrease when it operates whose point is in permanent contact with the surface of a water of
at higher temperatures semiconductor material such as silicon, germanium or gallium-
The forward current in a conducting diode will increase as the arsenide
operating temperature increases. When the p-n junction of a semiconductor diode is inserted with an
As the operating temperature of a reverse-biased diode is intrinsic material, the diode becomes a PiN diode
increased, its leakage or reverse saturation current will increase Shockley diode – a four layer semiconductor diode whose
exponentially characteristic at the first quadrant is similar to that of a silicon
Reverse current – the small value of direct current that flows controlled rectifier (SCR)
when a semiconductor device has reverse bias
Backward diode – a diode that is especially processed so that its Bipolar transistor – a two-junction transistor whose construction
high-current flow takes place when the junction is reverse biased. It takes the form of a pnp or a npn. Such device uses both electron
is a variation of a tunnel diode. and hole conduction and is current-driven
Thyrector – a silicon diode that exhibits a very high resistance in Point-contact transistor – the predecessor of the junction
both direction up to certain voltage, beyond which the unit transistor, and is characterized by a current amplification factor,
switches to a low-resistance conducting state. It can be viewed as alpha of greater than one.
two zener diodes connected back-to-back in series. For a transistor, the outer layers are heavily doped
IMPATT diode – a type of Read diode that uses a heavily doped n- semiconductors
type material as its drift region The ratio of the total width of the outer layer to that of the center
Diode pack – a device containing more than one diode. An layer is 150:1
example is the full-wave bridge-rectifier integrated circuit The ratio of the doping level of the outer layers to that of the
Diode impedance – is the combination of the inductance of the sandwiched material is 10:1 or less
leads and electrodes, capacitance of the junction, and the Limiting the number of “free” carriers will decrease the
resistance of the junction of a semiconductor diode conductivity but increases the resistance
Zener effect – In a reverse-biased pn junction, the sudden large The term bipolar reflects the fact that holes and electrons
increase in current that occurs when a particular value of reversed participate in the injection process into the oppositely polarized
voltage is reached, and which is due to ionization by the high material.
intensity electric field in the depletion region Unipolar device employs only electrons or hole
Gunn effect – the appearance of RF current oscillations in a dc- At forward-biased junction of pnp transistor, majority carriers flow
biased slab of n-type gallium arsenide in a 3.3 kV electric field heavily from p- to the n-type material
Zener impedance – the impedance presented by a junction The minority-current component of a transistor is called leakage
operating in its zener breakdown region. current
Characteristic curve – a curve showing the relationship between Ico – is temperature sensitive, and can severely affect the stability
the voltage and the current of the diode at any given temperature of the system, when not carefully examined during design
Load line – the line that is plotted in the diode characteristic curve For the transistor, the arrow in the graphic symbol defines the
which represent the load direction of emitter conventional current flow through the
The magnitude of the load-line slope will increase when the load device
resistance is decreased. In the dc mode, the levels of Ic and Ie due to the majority carriers
Clipper – diode circuit that is used to cut a portion of the input are related by the quantity alpha (α)
signal In the ac mode, alpha is formally called common-base, short-
Series clipper – a clipper circuit wherein the diode is connected in circuit, amplification factor
series with the load. Phrases “not pointing in” and “pointing in” simply mean npn and
Parallel clipper – a clipper circuit wherein the diode is shunted pnp
with the load In the dc mode, the levels of Ic and Ib are related by a quantity
Clamper – a network with a diode an a capacitor that is used to called β
shift the dc-level of the input signal For practical transistor devices, the level of β typically ranges
Half-wave rectifier is a good example of a series clipper mostly in midrange of 50 to 400
Clamper must have a capacitor The formal name of beta is common-emitter forward-current
2 resistors are used in a diode-capacitor half-wave voltage doubler amplification factor
Diode array – a combination of several diodes in a single housing β – it is a particularly important parameter that provides a direct
Diode chopper – a chopper, employing an alternately biased link between current levels of the input and output circuits for a
diode as the switching element. common-emitter configuration
Zener voltage regulator – a simple voltage-regulator whose The cutoff region is defined as the area below Ic = Iceo
output is the constant voltage drop developed across a zener diode With an ohmmeter, a large or small resistance in either junction of
conducting in the reverse breakdown region. The regular circuit an npn or pnp transistor indicates faulty device
consists of a zener diode in parallel with the load and an At base-emitter junction, using an ohmmeter, if the positive lead is
appropriate limiting resistor connected to the base and the negative lead to the emitter, a low
DTL – logic circuitry in which diode is the logic element and a resistance reading would indicate npn transistor
transistor acts as an inverting amplifier At base-emitter junction, if the positive lead is connected to the
Half-bridge – bridge rectifier having diodes in two arms and base and the negative lead to the emitter, a high resistance
resistors in the other two. reading would indicate pnp transistor
Crowbar – an over-voltage protection circuit employing a zener High-power devices – transistors of heavy duty construction
diode and a SCR whose function is to produce high overload by- Saturation point – on a voltage-current condition curve, the point
pass current on a circuit. belong to which a further increase in voltage produces no further
The flow of electron in a NPN transistor when used in electronic increase in current.
circuit is from emitter to collector Saturation – it is applied to any system where levels have reached
Transistor – a three terminal, three layer semiconductor device their maximum values
that has the ability to multiply charge carriers. This device was first For an “on” transistor, the voltage Vbe should be in the
introduced at Bell Laboratories, by Brattain and Bardeen in 1947 neighborhood of 0.7 V
and which opens a completely new direction of interest and Active region in a transistor amplifier is normally employed for
development in the field of electronics linear amplifiers
Transistor – an active semiconductor device, capable of In the active region, the collector-base junction is reverse, while
amplification, oscillation, and switching action. It is an acronym for the base-emitter junction is forward-biased
transfer reisistor and had replaced the tube in most applications. Dc biasing is necessary, in order to establish the proper region of
The base in the region/area in a transistor is the smallest in operation for ac amplification
construction At cutoff region, the collector-base and base-emitter junctions of a
Emitter – the region or area in a transistor that is heavily doped transistor are both reverse-biased
Alloy-diffused transistor – a transistor in which the base is In saturation region, the collector-base and base-emitter junctions
diffused and the emitter is alloyed. The collector is provided by the of a transistor are both forward-biased
semiconductor substrate into which alloying and diffusion are If the base-emitter junction is reverse biased and the base-collector
affected. junction is forward biased, the transistor will be at cut-off region
Alloy transistor – a transistor whose junction are created by Transistor operate at cut-off region if both the base-emitter and
alloying base-collector junctions are reverse-biased
Alloy junction – In a semiconductor device, a p-n junction formed The transistor should be operating at active region to have
by alloying a suitable material such as indium with the minimum distortion at the output signal
semiconductor. Quiescent – In dc biasing, it means quiet, still, inactive
Diffused transistor – a transistor in which one or both electrodes Emitter – the transistor terminal that handles most current
are created by diffusion
Stability factor indicates the degree of change in operating-point In order to increase further the input resistance of a FET, its gate is
due to temperature variation in the dc biasing insulated. An example of this type is the MOS-FET
Cut-off current flows between the collector and emitter terminals SiO2 is the insulator used in most MOS-FET
when the base is open Substrate – In MOSFET, it is the foundation upon which the device
When the transistor is saturated, Vce is approximately 0 V will be constructed and is formed from a silicon base
Collector-emitter resistance of ideal transistor at cut-off is Infinite Enhancement type – a type of MOSFET wherein originally there is
Icbo – the leakage current that flows at the collector-base junction no channel between the drain and the source
when the emitter is open Depletion type of MOSFET whose channel is originally thick but
Reverse saturation current – the most correct technical term of narrows as the proper gate bias is applied
the reverse leakage current that flows between the collector and Threshold voltage – the amount of voltage needed at the gate-
base junctions when the emitter is open circuit source terminal for an enhancement type MOSFET so that a
Icbo of an ideal transistor is zero mA channel can be formed for the current to flow
The maximum voltage that can be applied across the collector- To switch off the depletion type MOSFET, the channel should be
emitter terminal for a given transistor is specified as Vceo depleted. Depletion of the channel is done by applying enough
When base is common to both the input and output sides of the voltage across the gate-source terminal. This voltage is called pin-
configuration and is usually the terminal closest to, or at ground off voltage
potential, it is called common-base terminology The substrate of a MOSFET is usually connected internally to
Common collector transistor configuration has the highest input source
resistance In an n-channel enhancement type MOSFET, the gate voltage
Lower input resistance characteristic refers to that of a should be positive with respect to the source in order to produce
common-base (C-B) as compared to common-emitter (C-E) and or enhance a channel
common-collector (C-C) amplifiers To deplete a channel from a p-channel IGFET depletion type, the
A transistor is said to be configured as common emitter if the gate voltage should be positive with respect to the source.
emitter terminal is not used as an input nor output N –type material - The substrate used in a p-channel IGFET
Most frequently used transistor configuration for pnp and npn is enhancement type
common-emitter Substrate (SS) – the base material of a MOSFET which extends as
Common-emitter configuration hybrid parameters is usually an additional terminal
specified by the manufacturers MOSFET enhancement type operates as close as BJT in terms of
Hr and ho – hybrid parameter that is usually neglected in circuit switching
analysis Generally, MOSFET has low power handling capability than BJT. To
In most transistor input equivalent circuit it comprises of a resistor increase MOSFET power, the channel should be made wide and
and a voltage source short
Common-collector configuration has the highest input resistance V-MOSFET has a wide and short effective channel
Common-base configuration has a high voltage gain and a current V-MOSFET – a type of FET wherein the channel is formed in the
gain of approximately equal to one vertical direction rather than horizontal
Common-emitter configuration has the highest power gain In general, FETs is particularly more useful in integrated-circuit (IC)
Common-collector configuration has the highest power gain chips
Output characteristic curve is most useful FET – a monolithic semiconductor-amplifying device in which a
Maximum power curve – the graph of the product of collector- high-impedance GATE electrode controls the flow of current
emitter voltage Vce and collector current Ic in the transistor output carriers through a thin bar of semiconductor called the CHANNEL.
characteristic curve Ohmic connections made to the ends of the channel constitute
The base of a transistor serves as a gate element of the FET SOURCE and DRAIN electrodes
BJT is current-controlled device; FET is voltage-controlled Solid State Devices / Circuits
device Varactor diodes are commonly used as a voltage controlled
Another difference between a BJT and a FET with regards to its capacitance
normal biasing, is that the input circuit is forward-biased for The electrons in the largest orbit travel more slowly than the
BJT while reverse for FET electrons in the smaller orbits
Due to the reverse-biased input circuit of FETs, FET offer high Common base – a transistor configuration with the lowest current
input impedance then BJT gain
The operation of BJT involves both the flow of electrons and holes A semiconductor in its purest form is called intrinsic
and is therefore, considered as a bipolar device. Unlike BJT, FET’s semiconductor
operation involves only either electrons of holes and is considered Valence orbit is the other term for outer orbit
as a unipolar device For either germanium or silicon diodes, the barrier potential
Considered as the basic FET or the simplest form of FET is the JFET decreases 2 mV for each Celsius degree rise
S-G-D JFET : E-B-C BJT Piecewise linear model – a diode modeling circuit which
One obvious advantage of a JFET over BJT is its high input considers, the threshold voltage, average resistance and switch as
resistance the diode’s equivalent circuit
A BJT is a current-controlled current-source device while JFET is a Diffusion and drift – two mechanisms by which holes and
voltage-controlled current source device electrons move through a silicon crystal
Channel – the area in a JFET where current passes as if flows from A semiconductor is an element with a valence of four
source to drain Valence orbit controls the electrical properties of the atom
The channel of a JFET will skews as current flows to it. Conductor is a substance that contains atom with several bands
For a normal operation of an n-channel JFET, you bias the gate- of electrons but with only one valence electron
source junction by negative-positive respectively Pure silicon contains 8 valence electrons as a result of covalent
Pinch-off voltage – the voltage across the gate-source terminal of bonding
a FET that causes drain current Id equal to zero The peak inverse voltage of a full wave center tapped rectifier
Drain-source saturation current – the current that flows into the circuit is equal to twice the peak of the input signal
channel of a JFET when the gate-source voltage is zero Diffusion or storage capacitance is the term used to refer to the
Current-voltage characteristic curve – the graph of the drain forward bias capacitance of a diode
current Id versus drain-source voltage Vds with Vgs as the The number of electrons in the valence orbit is considered as
parameter the key to electrical conductivity
Fieldistor – an early version of the field effect transistor in which Each atom in a silicon crystal has 8 electrons in its valence orbit
limited control of current carriers near the surface of a Lifetime is the amount of time between the creation and
semiconductor bar or film was obtained by an external electric field disappearance of a/an free electron
applied transversely A silicon crystal is intrinsic semiconductor if every atom in the
JFET – A FET in which the gate electrode consists of a pn junction crystal is a silicon atom
JFET has the lowest input resistance At room temperature, a silicon crystal acts approximately like an
insulator
An extrinsic semiconductor is a doped semiconductor Varistor are used for line filtering to eliminate spikes and dips and
Diffusion is associated with random motion due to thermal is also called transient suppressor
agitation in the movement of holes and electrons in a silicon crystal Diffusion – Defined as the random motion of holes and free
The peak inverse voltage of a half wave rectifier circuit is electrons due to thermal agitation
approximately equal to the peak amplitude of the input signal The temperature coefficient of resistance of a semiconductor is
Silicon that has been doped with a trivalent impurity is called a p- negative
type semiconductor Class A – a large signal amplifier which is biased so that collector
Silicon that has been doped with a pentavalent impurity is called a current flow continuously during the complete electrical cycle of
n-type semiconductor the signal as well as when no signal is present
Junction diode is another name for a pn crystal Class C – a large signal amplifier which is biased so that current is
An acceptor atom is also called trivalent atom non-zero for less than one-half cycle
Pentavalent atom – donor atom A class AB amplifier stage operates with a small forward bias on
In an n-type semiconductor, free electrons are called majority the transistor so that some collector current flow at all times
carriers Derating factor – A factor shown on a data sheet that tells how
In an n-type semiconductor, holes are called minority carriers much you have to reduce the power rating of a device
Each pair of positive and negative ions at the junction is called a The time it takes to turn off a forward-biased diode is called the
dipole reverse recovery time
When temperature increases, barrier potential decreases A heavily doped semiconductor has low resistance
Avalanche effects occurs at higher reverse voltages Gallium arsenide, aluminum arsenide and gallium phosphide are
The creation of free electrons through zener effect is also known as classified as compound semiconductor
high-field emission A lightly doped semiconductor has high resistance
Zener effect depends only on the intensity of the electric field Conductance – the property or ability of a material to support
Junction temperature is the temperature inside the diode, right charge flow or electron flow
at the junction of the p and n-type materials Dember effect – also known as photodiffusion effect
Gate voltage is the input parameter of a FET Bulk effect – an effect that occurs within the entire bulk of a
Forward current – one of the important diode parameter which semiconductor material rather than in a localized region or junction
gives the magnitude of current the diode can handle without Dember effect – the creation of a voltage in a conductor or
burning semiconductor by illumination of one surface.
The maximum reverse voltage that can be applied before current Point-contact diode uses a metal catwhisker as its anode and is
surges is called reverse breakdown voltage classified as a hot-carrier diode
Tunnel diode – another name for Esaki diode 10 mA is the typical operating current of an LED
The most important application of Schottky diode is in digital At absolute zero temperature, a semiconductor behaves as a/an
computers insulator
A diode is a nonlinear device because its current is not directly Avalance breakdown in a semiconductor take place when reverse
proportional to its voltage bias exceeds a certain value
The sum of the resistances of the p-region and the n-region is Anotron – a cold-cathode glow-discharge diode having a copper
called bulk resistance anode and a large cathode of sodium or other material
The typical bulk resistance of rectifier diode is less than 1 ohm BARITT diode – A microwave diode in which the carriers that
The reverse bias diode capacitance is termed as transition transverse the drift region are generated by minority carrier
region capacitance injection from a forward-biased junction instead of being extracted
Reverse recovery time – the time taken by the diode to operate from the plasma of an avalanche region
in the reverse condition from forward conduction A voltage multiplier is an electric circuit that converts AC to DC
Approximately, the atomic weight of germanium is 72.6 but where the DC output peak value can be greater than the AC
Atomic weight of silicon at 300K is 28.09 input peak value
An LED and a phototransistor is equivalent to an Optocoupler The charge of a hole is equal to that of a proton
Optocoupler is otherwise known as Optoisolator β – it is the current gain for the common-emitter configuration
When the emitter junction is forward biased while the collector An emitter resistor is used for biasing a bipolar junction
junction is reverse biased, the transistor is at active region transistor in most amplifier circuits
When both the emitter and collector junction are forward biased, Load line is a line drawn between the open-circuit voltage and the
the transistor is said to be at saturation region short-circuit current on a JFET characteristic curve
Second approximation – An equivalent circuit of a diode in which Another name for a photoconductive cell is photoresistive
it is represented as a switch in series with a barrier potential device
Third approximation – an equivalent circuit of a diode in which it When both the emitter and collector junctions are reverse biased,
is represented as a switch with a battery in series with a resistance the transistor is said to be at cut-off region
A silicon crystal is an intrinsic of semiconductor if every atom in Varactor diode – a type of diode used for tuning receivers and is
the crystal is a silicon atom normally operated with reverse bias and derived its name from
With npn voltage divider bias, you must use negative power voltage variable capacitor
supply Binistor – A silicon npn tetrode that serves as a bistable negative-
A half-wave signal has a period of 16.7 ms resistance device
A full-wave signal has a period of 8.3 ms Spacistor – a multiple-terminal solid-state device similar to a
When doping increases, bulk resistance of a semiconductor transistor that generates frequencies up to about 10,000 MHz by
decreases injecting electrons or holes into a space-charge layer which rapidly
FET has the least noise level forces these carriers to a collecting electrode.
MOSFET has the highest input impedance Silicon is not a good conductor
The frequency of a half-wave signal is equal to the line 1.5 V is the approximate voltage drop of LED
frequency Under standard condition, pure germanium has a resistitivity of 60
For a full-wave rectifier, the output frequency equals two times ohm-cm
the input frequency The holding of one extreme amplitude of the input waveform to a
The average dc voltage of a half wave rectifier circuit is 31.8% of certain amount of potential is called clamping
the value of the peak input voltage Clamper is also known as DC restorer
The average dc voltage of a full wave rectifier circuit is 63.6% of Percentage ripple can be calculated by getting the ratio of the ac
the value of the peak input voltage voltage to dc voltage and multiplying the result by 100%
Typical leakage current in a pn junction is in the order of μA Silicon has the smallest leakage current
The resistance of a forward biased pn junction is in the order of Recombination refers to annihilation of a hole and electron
ohm Zener and avalanche effects are the two possible breakdown
The removal by electronic means of one extremity of an input mechanism in pn junction diodes
waveform is called clipping
Shockley diode – a type of diode with no depletion layer
Zener breakdown occurs in pn diodes when the electric field in Varactor diode – a device whose internal capacitance varies with
the depletion layer increases to the point where it can break the applied voltage
covalent bonds and generate electron hole pairs The common collector transistor configuration has the highest
The amount of additional energy required to emit an electron from value of input resistance
the surface of a metal is called work function Coupling – the method of connecting amplifier in cascade
When the temperature of a pure semiconductor is increased, its Collector is the largest region of a bipolar transistor
resistances decrease. Tunnel diode – A diode that has a negative resistance region and
As a general rule, holes are found only in semiconductors widely used in the design of oscillators, switching networks and
Hole in a semiconductor is defined as the incomplete part of an pulse generators.
electron pair bond Diac – refers to a three layer diode
When the number of free electrons is increased in doped Zener diode – diode that operates in the reverse breakdown
semiconductor, it becomes a n type semiconductor voltage and is used as a voltage regulator
Reducing the number of free electrons in a doped semiconductor IGFET – Another name for a metal-oxide semiconductor field effect
forms a p type semiconductor transistor
Pure semiconductor atoms contain 4 valence electrons In enhancement-type MOSFET, the saturation region is used if
An acceptor atom contains 3 valence electrons the FET is to operate as an amplifier
The resistivity of an extrinsic semiconductor is 2 ohm-cm In enhancement-type MOSFET, the triode and saturation regions
The forward resistance of a crystal diode is in the order of ohm are used for operation as a switch
1 is the ideal value of stability factor Unijunction transistor has three terminals, namely base 1, base 2
1.6726 x 10^-27 kg is the approximate mass of an atom at rest and emitter
Approximate mass at rest of a proton is equal to that of a neutron Silicon and germanium semiconductor devices exhibit both
Charge of an electron is approximately equal to -1.6022 x 10^-19 metallic and nonmetallic characteristics
C The voltage drop across the diode remains relatively constant
Electrolytic capacitors are used in transistor amplifiers when current flow increases rapidly in a forward-biased diode
The reason why a common collector is used for impedance Free electrons are the majority current carriers in the N-type
matching is because its input impedance is very high silicon
In power supplies, circuits that are employed in separating the ac A LED is a diode that gives off light when energized
and dc components and bypass the ac components around the IR emitters – are solid state gallium arsenide devices that emit a
load, or prevent their generation are called series capacitors beam of radiant flux when forward biased
Isotopes – nuclei with common number of protons, but with Input characteristic curve – a graphical representation in
different number of neutrons transistor wherein the emitter current is plotted against the
FET has a high input impedance because its input is reverse variable emitter base voltage Veb for constant value of collector-
biased base voltage Vcb
A MOSFET is sometimes called insulated gate FET When the collector current Ic is plotted against the collector base
An advantage of a MOSFET over a BJT in an RF amplifier circuit is voltage at constant emitter current Ie, the curve obtained is called
low noise output characteristic curve
The voltage gain of an emitter follower circuit is low Eg for silicon is 1.12 eV and for germanium is .072 eV. It can be
A transistor is considered a current controlled device concluded that less number of electron hole pairs will be
A FET is considered a voltage controlled device generated in silicon than in germanium at room
The value of coupling capacitor, Cc n RC coupling is about 10 μF temperature
FET has a pinch-off voltage of about 5 V Junction diodes are commonly rated by its maximum forward
Luminous efficacy – a measure of the ability of an LED to current and PIV
produce the desired number of lumens generated per applied watt A special type of diode which is often used in RF switches,
of electrical energy attenuators, and various types of phase shifting device is called
Photoconductive effect means the increased conductivity of an PIN diode
illuminated semiconductor junction Output characteristic – A volt-ampere characteristics curve that
When light strikes on a photoconductive material the describes the relationship of the output voltage of a transistor to its
conductivity of the material increases output current at a set input current
Varactor diode – a type of diode used for tuning receivers; The use of RC coupling is particularly desirable in low level, low
operate with reverse bias and derived its name from voltage- noise audio amplifier stages to minimize hum pick up from stray
variable capacitor magnetic fields
Gallium arsenide semiconductor material is used in the The way in which the gain of an amplifier varies with the frequency
construction of LED is called frequency response
Atomic mass is approximately the sum of the number of protons The maximum rectification efficiency of a half wave rectifier is
and neutrons of an atom 40.6 %
Atomic number is the number of protons in the nucleus or the The maximum rectification efficiency of a full-wave rectifier is 81.2
number of electrons in an atom %
The charge of a proton has the same value to that of an electron Transformer coupling – a coupled amplifier which has the major
but opposite in sign advantage of permitting power to be transformed from the
Mass of proton or neutron is 1,836 times that of an electron relatively high output impedance of the first stage to the relatively
LAD – a photodiode which conducts current only when forward low input impedance of the second stage
biased and is exposed to light Electron mobility property of silicon at 300 K is approximately
Red is the most commonly used color for an LED equal to 0.135 m^2/v-s
If the temperature of a semiconductor material increases, the In a push-pull power amplifier, an input transformer can be used as
number of free electrons increases a phase-splitter providing equal amplitude input signals opposite
Varactor diode’s transition capacitance is directly proportional to in polarity
the product of the permittivity of the semiconductor material and If the line frequency is 60Hz, the output frequency of a bridge
the PN junction area but inversely proportional to its depletion rectifier is 120 Hz
width FET is considered a unipolar device
A photodiode is a light-sensitive device whose number of free Harold Black – invented the feedback amplifier in 1928
electrons generated is proportional to the intensity of the incident The arrow in semiconductor symbols always point toward the N
light. region and away from the P region
Scale current – another name for saturation current in a diode, If the input power of a half wave rectifier has a frequency of 400
which arises from the fact that it is directly proportional to the Hz, then the ripple frequency will be equal to 400 Hz
cross-sectional area of the diode If the input frequency of a full-wave rectifier is 400 Hz, the ripple
In an amplifier, the emitter junction is forward biased frequency will be twice as great as the input frequency
The principal characteristic of a zener diode is the constant Common emitter circuit – also called as the conventional
voltage under conditions of varying current amplifier
Another name for a light activated diode (LAD) is photodiode Free electrons – are the electrons at the outermost shell which
The semiconductor device that radiate light or utilize light are are usually weakly attracted by the core such that an outside force
called optoelectronic devices can easily dislodge these electrons from the atom
Structural category of a semiconductor diodes can be either The reason why electrons are not pulled in the positive charged
junction and point contact nucleus is because of the centrifugal force which usually became
Zener diodes can be primarily classified as voltage regulation exactly equals the inward attraction of the nucleus
and voltage reference Valence band – the highest energy band of an atom which can be
The principal characteristic of a tunnel diode is a negative filled with electrons
resistance region Conduction band – an energy band in which electrons can move
Varactor diode – a special type of semiconductor diode which freely
varies its internal capacitance as the voltage applied to its terminal Gold is considered as the best conductor
varies Crystal – it is an arrangement of silicon atom combine to form a
The maximum forward current in a junction diode is limited by its solid such that there are now 8 electrons in the valence shell
junction temperature Covalent bond – the sharing of valence electrons to produce a
When a transistor is fully saturated the collector current is at chemically stable atom
its maximum value Bound electrons – the eight electrons which are tightly held by
A FET without a channel and no current occurs with zero gate the atom
voltage is enhancement-mode FET When an atom has bound electrons, it is described as filled or
FET and CMOS devices are susceptible to damage from static saturated since valence orbit can hold not more than 8
charges electrons
JFETs are often called square law devices Ambient temperature – refers to the temperature of the
Equivalent of transistor at saturation in JFET’s is constant-current surrounding air
When a JFET is cut-off, the depletion layers are touching Free electrons – the term used to describe the released electrons
The voltage that turns on an enhancement-mode device is the dislodged form its original shell due to increase in temperature
threshold voltage which joins into a larger orbit
Depletion-mode MOSFET acts mostly as a JFET Hole – the term used to refer to the vacancy left by the free
JFET’s input impedance approaches infinity electron when it departs from its original shell
The current gain of an emitter follower circuit is high Recombination – the merging of a free electron and a hole inside
The drift transistor has a high frequency cut off due to its low the silicon crystal
inherent internal capacitance and low electron transit time Lifetime – the amount of time between the creation and
through the base disappearance of a free electron
The maximum operating frequency of a transistor should be 50 The purpose of adding an impurity atom to an intrinsic crystal is to
percent of the frequency cut-off of the transistor to ensure best increase its electric conductivity
performance An extrinsic semiconductor produced n-type when a pentavalent
When transistor applications call for a temperature operating atom are added to the molten silicon
condition which exceeds 185 F, Silicon element is most suitable Phosphorus, antimony and arsenic are pentavalent atom
Heat dissipation is the most important factor of a power P-type – an extrinsic semiconductor which is produced when a
transistor trivalent atom are added to the molten silicon
When the electron transmit time through the base region is very Linear power derating factor – the reduction of power handling
short, this provides higher cut-off frequency capability of the diode due to the increase of ambient temperature
When the transistors are used in video amplifiers, its main form room temperature
limitation is poor frequency response Maximum junction temperature – the maximum temperature
Impedance matching in circuit is important for maximum transfer the diode can operate before burning
of energy Reverse recovery time of the diode is computed as the sum of the
A unijunction transistor is a three-terminal device consisting of two storage time and transition interval from the forward to reverse
semiconductor layers bias
Ionization – the process by which atoms are constantly losing and Thermal energy causes intrinsic semiconductor to have some
regaining free electrons holes
Parasitic oscillations – termed as unwanted oscillation that may When a diode is forward biased, the recombination of free
occur in almost any type of circuits, oscillator, amplifier, power electrons and hole may produce heat, light & radiation
supply, receiver and transmitters. Phosphorous doping element has a valence of 5
Linear amplifier – an RF amplifier which will amplify a weak signal Silicon doping element has a valence of 4
voltage in relatively the same proportion as it will amplify a Boron doping element has a valence of 3
stronger signal voltage Proton – it is a stable positive charge in the nucleus that is not
Peak inverse voltage – it is the maximum amount of reverse free to move.
voltage which can be applied on a diode before the breakdown Hole – a positive charge outside the nucleus which is present only
point is reached in semiconductor due to unfilled covalent bonds
Element – it refers to any of the over 100 different substances When charges are forced to move by the electric field of a potential
which have never been separated into simpler substances by difference, drift current is said to flow
chemical means and which alone or in combination constitute all When a PN junction is connected to a battery in such a way that P-
matter side is connected to positive terminal of the battery and negative
LED – it is also known as a solid state lamp which utilizes the fall of terminal to N-side, this connection is known as forward bias
electron from the conduction level to the valence level to develop When a PN junction is connected to a battery in such a way that P-
an energy release in the form of heat or light side is connected to negative terminal of the battery and positive
Present atomic theories place the mass and positive charge of an terminal to N-side, this connection is known as reverse bias
atom in a central nucleus composed of protons and neutrons An electron in the conduction band has higher energy then the
The photons as fundamental particle is considered as a bundle of electron in the valence band
radiant energy or light, the amount of energy being related to the An ideal diode should have zero resistance in the forward
frequency bias and an infinitely large resistance in reverse bias
Electron emitted by the mechanical impact of an iron striking a Thermal voltage is approximately equal to 25 mV at room
surface is called secondary electrons temperature
The break up of nuclei into nuclear fragments that are themselves Boltzmann’s constant is equivalent to 8.62 x 10^-5 eV/K
nuclei is called fission The preferred form of biasing a JFET amplifier is through the self
Neutrinos - Particles of zero charge and zero mass bias
9.1096 x 10^-31 kg – approximate mass of an electron at rest The gate-to-source on voltage of an n-channel enhancement mode
Valence shell – term used to describe the outermost shell of an MOSFET is greater then Vgs
atom
Carrier drift – a mechanism for carrier motion in semiconductors
which occurs when an electric field is applied across a piece of
silicon
Avalanche breakdown occurs in pn diodes when the minority
carriers that cross the depletion region under the influence of the
electric field, gain sufficient kinetic energy to be able to break
covalent bonds in atoms with which they collide
ELECTRONIC CIRCUITS Quasi-complementary push-pull amplifier – a push pull
amplifier that uses either npn or pnp as its final stage. The circuit
Class A amplifier has an output current flowing during the whole configuration looks like the complementary-symmetry
input current cycle.
Class A amplifier has the least distortion
If a transistor amplifier provides a 360° output signal, it is classified
as class A Nonlinear distortion – a type of distortion wherein the output
signal does not have the desired linear relation to the input
Class B – an amplifier that delivers an output signal of 180 only
Amplitude distortion – Distortion that is due to the inability of an
Class AB – a class of amplifiers wherein the output signal swings amplifier to amplify equally well all the frequencies present at the
more than 180° but less than 360° input signal

The distinguishing feature of class C amplifier is that the output is Harmonic distortion – a nonlinear distortion in which the output
present for less than 180 degrees of the input signal cycle consists of undesired harmonic frequencies of the input signal

Class C – a full 360° sine-wave signal is applied as an input to an The overall gain of an amplifier in cascade is the product
unknown class of amplifier, if the output delivers only a pulse of
less than 180° Cascaded amplifier – a multistage transistor amplifier arranged
in a conventional series manner, the output of one stage is
Class D amplifiers are intended for pulse operation forward-coupled to the next stage

Class S amplifier are used to amplify either amplitude modulated Darlington configuration – a direct-coupled two-stage transistor
(AM) or frequency modulated (PM) signal configuration wherein the output of the first transistor is directly
coupled and amplified by the second transistor. This configuration
Class D amplifier has the highest efficiency gives a very high current gain

25% is the efficiency of a series-fed class A amplifier Cascode configuration – a two-stage transistor amplifier in which
the output collector of the first stage provides input to the emitter
A class A amplifier has an efficiency of only 25%, but this can be of the second stage. The final output is then taken from the
increased if the output is coupled with a transformer. Up to 50% collector of the second stage
efficiency will be reached due to coupling
Cascode amplifier – famous transistor amplifier configuration
Class B amplifiers deliver an output signal of 180 and have a designed to eliminate the so called Miller effect
maximum efficiency of 78.5%
Common-emitter and common-base transistor configuration is
Transistorized class C power amplifier will usually have an used in a cascode amplifier
efficiency of 33%
Darlington – transistor configuration known to have a super-beta
For pulse-amplification, class D amplifier is mostly used. Class D
amplifier efficiency reaches over 90% 1.6 V is the approximate threshold voltage between the base-
emitter junction of a silicon darlington transistor
Efficiency of class AB is in between the efficiency of class A and B,
that is from 25% - 78.5% Feedback pair – transistor arrangement that operates like a
darlington but uses a combination of pnp and npn transistors
Class A (transformer-coupled) is the most effient instead of both npn

In order to have the best efficiency and stability, the loadline of a Differential amplifier – an amplifier basically constructed from
solid state power amplifier be operated just below the two transistor and whose output is proportional to the difference
saturation point between the voltages applied to its two inputs

In most transistor class A amplifier, the quiescent point is set at the Operational amplifier (op-amp) – an amplifier having high
center direct-current stability and high immunity to oscillation, this is
For a class B amplifier, the operating point or Q-point is set at initially used to perform analog-computer functions such as
cutoff summing and integrating.

The Q-point for class A amplifier is at the active region, for class B Op-amp – one of the most versatile and widely used electronic
it is at cutoff region, while for class AB is slightly above cutoff device in linear applications

The Q-point of a class C amplifier is positioned below cutoff Op-amp – it is a very high-gain differential amplifier with very high
region input impedance and very low output impedance

Class C amplifiers are considered as non-linear An operational amplifier must have at least 5 usable terminals

Class A or B amplifiers can be used for linear amplification Differential amplifier – the circuit at the input stage of
operational amplifiers
Class BC amplifier is biased to class C but modulates over the
same portion of the curve as if it ware biased to class B Differential amplifier – an amplifier whose output is proportional
to the difference between the voltages applied to its two inputs
Transformer-coupled push-pull amplifier – two class B
amplifiers connected such that one amplifies the positive cycle and In op-amps functional block diagram, high gain amplifier follows
the other amplifies the remaining negative cycle. Both output the differential amplifier
signals are then coupled by a transformer to the load
A good op-amp has a very high input resistance
Complementary-symmetry amplifier – a push-pull amplifier
that uses npn and pnp transistors to amplify the positive and Ideally, op-amps have infinite input resistance and zero output
negative cycles respectively resistance
The input of an op-amp is made high by using super beta The approximate value of the bias-current compensating resistor in
transistor at the input differential stage or by using FETs at op-amp circuit is equal to the parallel combination of the
the input differential stage input and feedback resistors

Complementary amplifier is commonly used at the output stage In op-amp analysis, the input offset voltage is represented by a
of op-amps battery

Common collector – the transistor configuration used at the The battery representing the input offset voltage in op-amp circuit
output complementary stage of most op-amps analysis is connected between the non-inverting and ground
terminal
Most op-amps use a common collector at the output stage to have
a very low output resistance The effect of the input offset voltage to the output voltage if the
Level shifter – the stage followed by the output complementary in op-amp has no feedback element is it causes the output to
op amps functional block diagram saturate either towards positive or negative

The purpose of level shifter in op-amps is to set and/or adjust By making the feedback resistance small we can minimize the
the output voltage to zero when the input signal is zero effect of the input offset current and input offset voltage at the
output offset voltage
Primarily, op-amps are operated with bipolar power supply,
however, we can also use single polarity power supply by The most effective way of minimizing the output offset voltage of
generating a reference voltage above ground an op-mp is by properly using and adjusting the offset-null
terminals
When the same signal is applied to both inverting and non-
inverting input terminals of an ideal op-amp, the output voltage Slew rate – op-amp parameter(s) that is important in large signal
would be zero V dc amplification
In large signal dc-amplifiers using op-amp, drift parameter has the
Common mode – the operating mode of an op-amp, when both least effect on its performance
inputs are tied together or when the input signal is common to both
inputs For ac-amplifiers using op-amps, slew rate and frequency
response parameters can affect its performance
Common gain – the gain of an op-amp if operated in common
mode input If an op-amp is used to amplify small ac-signals, frequency
When one input of the op-amp is connected to ground and the response parameter should greatly consider to ensure better
other is to the signal source, its operation is called single-ended performance
input
Internally compensated op-amps – op-amps with internal
If op-amps are operated in differential mode, its gain is technically frequency compensation capacitor to prevent oscillation
termed as differential gain
Break frequency – the frequency at which the open-loop gain of
Open-loop gain is the highest an op-amp is 0.707 times its value at very low frequency

Common-mode rejection ratio – the ratio of the differential gain The voltage gain of op-amp will decrease when its operating
and common gain of an op-amp frequency is increased

+VSAT to –VSAT is the maximum output voltage swing of an op- Roll-off – the reduction of op-amps gain due to increase operating
amp frequency

Input bias current - the current needed at the input of an op-amp 20dB/decade roll-off – a gain reduction by a factor of 10 per
to operate it normally decade

Ideal op-amp requires no input current, but real op-amp needs a 6 dB/octave – a reduction of op-amp’s voltage gain by a factor of
very small input current called input bias current. At both inputs, two each time the frequency doubles
the bias currents have a slight difference. Its difference is called
input offset current Unity-gain bandwidth product – frequency at which the voltage
gain of op-amp reduces to unity.
Input offset current drift – the change in input offset current
due to temperature change Rise time is defined as the time required for the output voltage to
rise from 10% to 90% of its final value
The reason why a slight difference between the input bias current
occurs in op-amp is due to the unsymmetrical circuit component Slew rate – the maximum output voltage rate of change of an op-
parameters. This unsymmetrical condition also produces a amp
difference in input voltage called input offset voltage
Factors or parameters that determine the op-amps maximum
In op-amps, input offset voltage drift is the change in input operating temperature: slew rate and unity-gain bandwidth
offset voltage due to the change in temperature product

Ideally, the output voltage of an op-amp is zero when there is no When an op-amp is used as a comparator, the output voltage
input signal, however, in practical circuit, a small output voltage would be +VSAT if V+ > V-
appears, this voltage is known as output offset voltage
Window comparator – two comparators using op-amps,
The output offset voltage of an op-amp are due to input offset configured such that it can detect voltage levels within a certain
current and input offset voltage range of values rather than simply comparing whether a voltage is
above or below a certain reference
You minimize the output offset voltage due to the input offset
current of an op-amp by installing a bias-current- Open-loop gain is significant when an op-amp is used as a
compensating resistor voltage comparator
An op-amp zero-crossing detector without hysteresis, has no feed Hartley oscillator – A self-excited oscillator in which the tank is
back divided into input and feedback portions by an inductive voltage
divider or a tapped coil
The feed back element of a differentiator constructed from op-amp
is a resistor Multivibrator – a circuit usually containing two transistors or
tubes in an RC-coulped amplifier, the two active devices switch
An active integrator uses an op-amp, capacitor is its feedback each other alternately on and off
element
Monostable – a multivibrator that generates one output pulse for
Unity – the voltage gain of an op-amp voltage follower each input trigger pulse

The noise gain of op-amps is 1 + Rf/Ri Monostable mutlivibrator is also known as one shot or single
shot
Making both the feedback and input resistances as small as
possible resistor combination provides lesser noise in op-amp Resistor and capacitor combinations determines the pulse
circuits time in a monostable multivibrator

In most ac-amplifiers using op-amps, the feedback resistor is Bistable – a multivibrator having two stable state
shunted with a very small capacitance to minimize high
frequency noise Bistable multivibrator is also known as Eccles/Jordan circuit

Externally compensated op-amps are op-amps with frequency- Flip-flop is actually a bistable multivibrator
compensation terminals or op-amps with provision to
externally compensate for frequency stability Astable – considered as a free-running multivibrator

In the external frequency-compensation capacitor, the lower its


value, the wider is its bandwidth

Typical value of the external frequency-compensating capacitor of


op-amps is about 3.0 – 30 μF

General purpose op-amps are op-amps with limited unity-gain


bandwidth up to approximately 1 MHz or op-amps with slew
rate about 0.5V/μsec
High-frequency, high-slew rate op-amps – Op-amps designed
to operate at high slew rate, about 2000 V/micosec and at high
frequencies, more than 50 MHz

Generally, hybrid op-amps found its application for high-output


voltage and for high-output current

0.2 mV – the magnitude of the op-amps input offset voltage before


it can be classified as a low-input offset voltage op-amp

Op-amps whose internal transistor biasing can be controlled


externally are categorize as programmable op-amps

Metal can correspond to TO-99

Dual-in-line or DIL package is designed as TO-116

SMT – for high density ICs involving many op-amps

PLCCs, SOICs, LCCCs are examples of surface-mounted


technology (SMT) device

For a circuit to oscillate, it must have a positive feedback


sufficient to overcome losses.

Oscillator – Circuits that produces alternating or pulsating current


or voltage

Hartley oscillator circuit uses a tapped coil in the tuned circuit

The size and thickness of the crystal material determines the


resonant frequency of a crystal

Relaxation oscillator – type of oscillator whose frequency is


dependent on the charge and discharge of RC network

Klystron oscillator – a microwave oscillator

Colpitts oscillator – a self-excited oscillator in which the tank is


divided into input and feedback portions by a capacitive voltage
divider
Electronic (Audio/RF) Circuit / Analysis/ Design
The bandwidth of a single stage amplifier is more than that of
Class A and B are considered linear amplifier multistage amplifier

The voltage gain of a common collector configuration is unity Transit time is the time taken by the electrons or holes to pass
from the emitter to the collector
A two-transistor class B power amplifier is commonly called push-
pull amplifier To obtain good gain stability in a negative feedback amplifier, Aβ
is very much greater than 1
If a transistor is operated in such a way that output current flows
for 160° of the input signal, then it is Class C operation The basic concept of the electric wave filter was originated by
Campbell and Wagner
Direct coupling has the best frequency response
Common-base configuration has the lowest current gain
A transistor amplifier has high output impedance because
collector has reverse bias Common-base and Common-collector transistor configuration
offers no phase reversal at the output
Gain-bandwidth product is considered an amplifier figure of
merit The number of stages that can be directly coupled is limited
because change in temperature can cause thermal
Logic probe – a piece of equipment in an oscilloscope use to instability
indicate pulse condition in a digital logic circuit
The input capacitor in an amplifier is called coupling capacitor
Comparator – a linear circuit that compares two input signals and
provides a digital level output depending on the relationship of the AC load line has a/an bigger slope compared to that of dc load line
input signals
A multistage amplifier uses at least two transistors
Transformer coupling is generally used in power amplifiers
RC coupling is used for voltage amplification
Class A amplifier’s output current flows for the entire cycle
An ammeter’s ideal resistance should be zero
The coupling capacitor must be large enough to prevent
attenuation of low frequency in an RC coupling scheme Amplifier is the circuit that can increase the peak-to-peak voltage,
current or power of a signal
Operating point is the point of intersection of dc and ac load lines
When the non-linear distortion in an amplifier is D without
An oscillator produces undamped oscillations feedback, with negative voltage feedback it will be D/(1+Aβ )

Quiescent point is the operating point in the characteristic curve A tuned amplifier uses LC tank load

Oscillators operate on the principle of positive feedback The voltage gain over mid-frequency range in an RC coupled
amplifier is constant
In a class A amplifier, the output signal is the same as the input
The input impedance of an amplifier increases when negative
Biasing condition will change if the input capacitor of a voltage feedback is applied
transistor amplifier is short-circuited
The input impedance of an amplifier decreases when negative
Biasing is used to establish a fixed level of current or voltage in a current feedback is applied
transistor
To obtain the frequency response curve of an amplifier generator
Class C power amplifier has the highest collector efficiency output level is kept constant

Class C is a non-linear type of amplifier Relaxation oscillator – a type of oscillator wherein the frequency
is determined by the charge and discharge of resistor-capacitor
An AF transformer is shielded to prevent induction due to stray networks used in conjunction with amplifiers or similar devices
magnetic fields
The driver transformer has center-tapped secondary to provide
Amplitude distortion is otherwise known as harmonic distortion two signals 180° out of phase to transistors of push-pull
circuit
Hie represents common-emitter small signal input resistance
The advantage of RC coupling scheme is economy
The ear is not sensitive to frequency distortion
A type of filter which have a single continuous transmission band
Class C is an amplifier whose output current flow for less than with neither the upper nor the lower cut-off frequencies being zero
one-half the entire input cycle or infinite is called band pass filter

If gain without feedback and feedback factor are A and Beta GPS – an instrument use to measure ones location in terms of
respectively, then gain with negative feedback is given by A/ coordinates
(1+Aβ )
Transformer coupling is used for power amplification
The collector current in a common base configuration is equal to
alpha times emitter current plus leakage current The typical value of coupling capacitor in RC coupling is about 10
μF
The value of collector load resistance in a transistor amplifier is
less than the output impedance of the transistor An electronic transfer from one stage to the next is termed as
coupling
The purpose of RC or transformer coupling is to separate bias of
one stage from another
An amplifier configuration where the input signal is fed to the The largest theoretical voltage gain obtained with a common
emitter terminal and the output from the collector terminal is collector amplifier is unity
called common base
Increasing the overall Beta is an advantage of darlington pair
If the noise factor of an ideal amplifier expressed in dB, then it is 0
The frequency of oscillation is inversely proportional to square
A feedback circuit is independent of frequency root of L and C in an LC oscillator

The basic purpose of applying negative feedback to an amplifier is An oscillator employs positive feedback
to reduce distortion
The reason why RC coupling is not used to amplify extremely low
The capacitors are considered open in the dc equivalent circuit of frequencies is that electrical size of coupling capacitor
a transistor amplifier becomes very large

10 kHz frequency produces the highest noise factor A pair of filter common on high fidelity system which separate
audio frequency band signals into two separate groups, where one
Power amplifier handle large signals is fed to the tweeter and the other to the woofer is called cross
over network
The operating point is generally located at the middle of dc load
line in class A operation The frequency response of transformer coupling is poor

Low voltage gain describes a common collector amplifier The simplest variable-frequency sinusoidal oscillator is the
Armstrong circuit
The general characteristics of a common base amplifier are high
voltage gain, low current gain, high power gain and very Current gain is provided by a CB transistor amplifier
low input resistance
In the initial stages of a multistage amplifier, RC coupling is used
To amplify dc signal, multistage amplifier uses Direct coupling
The gain of an amplifier with feedback is known as closed loop
Klystron oscillator is used in order to produce frequencies in the gain
microwave region
Negative feedback is employed in amplifiers
Practically, the voltage gain of an amplifier is expressed in dB unit
The gain of an amplifier is expressed in db unit because human
Transformer coupling provides maximum voltage gain ear response is logarithmic

The gain of an amplifier reduces when negative feedback is added About 50 μF is the typical value of the emitter bypass capacitor in
a multistage amplifier
Feedback factor is always less than 1
In a multistage amplifier, if the stages have R and C component
Class A operation is used for general amplification where no only, class A operation is apparent
distortion can be tolerated
Capacitance is normally varied in order to change frequency of
Class B operation is used either where the signal needs to be cut oscillation
in half, such as in pulse detector or noise detectors or where push-
pull operation of two stages is required Power gain is the main consideration in the output stage of an
amplifier
Class AB operation is used where a portion of a signal only is
required, such as the synchronizing pulse separator of a television Transformer coupling provides high gain because of impedance
receiver matching can be achieved

Class C operation has little use in general purpose amplifier, but is When negative voltage feedback is applied to an amplifier, its
used in high frequency oscillators output impedance decreases

Transformer coupling provides high frequency because its DC An LC oscillator cannot be used to produce very low frequencies
resistance is low
A transistor converts dc power into ac power
Class C operation can have 100% efficiency
Hartley oscillator is commonly used in Radio receivers
The efficiency of class AB operation has a maximum of between
50% to 78.5% An oscillator oscillates due to positive feedback

Transformer coupling is generally employed when load resistance Generally, tuned amplifiers are operated in class C
is small
A tuned amplifier is used in Radio frequency
The smaller the voltage regulation, the better the operation of the
voltage supply circuit The ratio of output to input impedance of a CE amplifier is
moderate
In transistor amplifiers, Step down transformer is used for
impedance matching For a constant output frequency, the simplest sinusoidal oscillator
circuit to construct is the crystal circuit
If an amplifier has a power gain of 100, then its dB gain is 20
The frequency stability of the oscillator output is maximum in
In order to have more voltage gain from a transistor amplifier the Wein bridge oscillator
transistor used should have thin base
Transformer coupling introduces frequency distortion
The final stage of an amplifier uses transformer coupling
A pulsating dc applied to power amplifiers causes hum in the When CE configuration is used for an oscillator, the voltage fed
circuit back must be inverted by 180°

The disadvantage of impedance matching is that it gives Class B operation has a maximum possible efficiency of 78.5 %
distorted output
Crystal oscillator – the most stable sine-wave oscillator which
In a phase-shift oscillator, three RC sections are generally used uses piezo-electric quartz crystal

In phase-shift oscillator, R and C are the frequency determining To sustain oscillations, the power gain of the amplifier may be
element equal to or greater than 1

The input impedance of CC amplifier depends strongly on load In a phase-shift oscillator, 180° phase-shift is obtained by three RC
resistance sections

Electrolytic capacitors are used in transistor amplifiers Feedback circuit usually employs resistive network

An important limitation of crystal oscillator is its low output Emitter follower is used for impedance matching

Both positive and negative type of feedback is used in Wien Increased over gain is a characteristic of cascaded amplifiers
bridge oscillator
Logic analyzer is used to sample and display system signal
Transformer coupling is the most costly coupling
Quartz crystal is most commonly used in crystal oscillators because
Piezoelectric effect in a crystal – voltage is developed because it has superior electrical properties
of mechanical stress
The input resistance of a common emitter amplifier is affected by The operating frequency of a Wien-bridge oscillator is given by 1/
Re, re and β (2πRC)

More than 10,000 is the typical Q of a crystal Class C gives the maximum distortion

X is the axis that connects the corners of a crystal Low efficiency of a power amplifier results in more battery
consumption
Push-pull amplifier is usually employed at the output stage of an In an LC oscillator, the frequency of oscillations is given by 1/
amplifier (2πsqr(LC))

The size of a power transistor is made considerably large to Class A operation has a maximum possible efficiency of 50%
dissipate more heat
Common emitter amplifier is a choice when higher power gain is
When crystal frequency increases with temperature, it has a requirement
positive temperature co-efficient
The signal generator generally used in laboratories is Wien-bridge
The purpose of the bypass capacitor in a common-emitter amplifier oscillator
is it increases voltage gain
A buffer amplifier is used for minimum loading and minimum
An emitter follower is equivalent to common collector amplifier mismatch

The crystal oscillator frequency is very stable due to high Q of the Parasitic oscillations are caused by transistor interelectrode
crystal capacitance

The bandwidth of an amplifier increases when negative feedback Crystal oscillator is a fixed-frequency oscillator
is applied
The approximate operating frequency of a phase-shift oscillator is
The term 1+Aβ in the expression for gain with negative feedback given by 1/(2πRC sqr(6))
is known as sacrifice factor
The frequency of the ripple voltage at the output of a full-wave
Emitter follower employs 100 % negative feedback rectifier at 60 cycles is 120 cyles

Radio transmitter application would most likely find a crystal Cascaded amplifiers total decibel gain is equal to the product of
oscillator the individual gains

Collector efficiency is the most important consideration in power In an LC oscillator, if the value of L is increased for times, then
amplifiers frequency of oscillation is decreased 2 times

When the gain versus frequency curve of a transistor amplifier is A class A power amplifier is otherwise known as single ended
not flat, frequency distortion is present amplifier

In a Colpitt’s oscillator, feedback is obtained from the center of The power input to a power amplifier is dc quantity
split capacitors
When shock-excited, a crystal will produce alternating emf longer
When the collector resistor in a common emitter amplifier is than an LC circuit because crystal has fewer losses
increased in value the voltage gain increases
The stability of a regulated power supply is equivalent to change
Output signal of a CE amplifier is always out of phase with the of output voltage over the change in supply voltage
input signal
Oscillator circuit that uses a tapped coil in the tuned circuit is
The purpose of capacitors in a transistor amplifier is to couple or called Hartley
bypass ac component
If you move towards an oscillating circuit, its frequency changes The output power of a transistor amplifier is more than the input
because of hand capacitance power due to additional power supplied by collector supply

The number of transistor in a single stage amplifier is one When a transistor amplifier feeds a load of low resistance, its
voltage gain will be low
Series current negative feedback occurs when the feedback
voltage is proportional to the output current The capacitance are considered short in the ac equivalent circuit
of a transistor amplifier
An amplifier with efficiency 85% is likely to be Class C
For highest power gain, CE configuration is used
180° is the phase difference between the output and input voltage
of a CE amplifier The most important characteristic of a common collector amplifier
is that it has high input resistance
Class C operation is preferred in oscillators because it is more
efficient CC configuration is used for impedance matching because its
input impedance is very high
Sinewave oscillator – a type of oscillator which are composed of
one or more amplifying devices with some frequency-determining Power stage is the other name of the output stage in an amplifier
networks introducing positive feedback at a particular frequency so
that oscillation is sustained at the frequency When amplifiers are cascaded the overall gain is increased

High input impedance of a transistor is desired In a common emitter amplifier, the capacitor from emitter to
ground is called bypass capacitor
78.5% is the maximum collector efficiency of class B
A class A power amplifier uses one transistor/s
when a transistor is cut off maximum voltage appears across
transistor 25% is the maximum collector efficiency of a resistance loaded
class A power amplifier
In an LC circuit, when the capacitor energy is maximum, the
inductor energy is minimum 50% is the maximum collector efficiency of a transformer coupled
class A power amplifier
The reciprocal of feedback factor is the approximate gain of an
amplifier with negative feedback Class C amplifier are used as RF amplifiers

The operating point in a transistor amplifier moves along ac load If the capacitor from emitter to ground in a common emitter
line when an ac signal is applied amplifier is removed, the voltage gain decreases

An oscillator converts dc power into ac power Comparatively, power amplifier has small beta

Transistor is the active device in a transistor oscillator The driver stage usually employs class A power amplifier
When the collector supply is 5 V, then collector cut off voltage
under dc conditions is 5 V The push-pull circuit must use class B operation

The common base amplifier has a lower input resistance A complementary-symmetry amplifier has one PNP and one NPN
compared to CE and CC amplifier transistor
Power amplifiers generally use transformer coupling because
The voltage gain decreases when a FET with a lower transformer coupling provides impedance matching
transconductance is substituted into a FET amplifier circuit The output transformer used in a power amplifier is a/an step-
down transformer
In the zero signal conditions, a transistor sees dc load Transformer coupling can be used in either power or voltage
amplifiers
The current gain of an emitter follower is less than 1 When negative current feedback is applied to an amplifier, its
output impedance increases
The current in any branch of a transistor amplifier that is operating The quiescent current of a FET amplifier is Id
is the sum of ac and dc The frequency response of the combined amplifier can be
compared with an AND gate
An ideal differential amplifiers common mode rejection ratio is Minimum interference with frequency response can be given by
infinite direct coupling
The impedance of a load must match the impedance of the
An open fuse circuit has a resistance equal to infinity amplifier so that maximum power is transferred to the load
The ratio of output rms power in watts to the input dc power in
The purpose of dc conditions in a transistor is to set up watts in the different amplifier class is called efficiency
operating point The voltage gain of a common collector configuration is unity.
Transmit time is the time taken by the electrons on holes to pass
The ac variation at the output side of power supply circuits are form emitter to collector
called ripples

The purpose of emitter capacitor is to avoid voltage drop in


gain

A common emitter circuit is also called grounded emitter circuit

The output signal of a common-collector amplifier is always in


phase with the input signal

Unity is the ideal maximum voltage gain of a common collector


amplifier
ENERGY CONVERSION
In electrical machines, armature winding is the set of conductors
Cell – a device that transforms chemical energy into electrical wound on laminated cores of good magnetic permeability
energy
In dc generator, commutator converts the alternating emf to DC
Cell – a device that is capable of converting chemical energy into
electrical energy Generally, in dc generators, the armature winding is rotated
with respect to a stationary magnetic field produced by
Edison cell – a secondary cell whose active positive plate consists electromagnets or permanent magnets
of nickel hydroxide, and active negative-plate material is powdered
iron oxide mixed with cadmium. Its typical output when fully In electrical machines, ac voltage is generated at the armature
charged is Vo = 1.2V winding

If a cell can be charged after it is depleted, it is considered as a Generally in ac generators, the electromagnets or permanent
secondary cell, a storage cell, and an accumulator magnets are rotated with respect to the stationary
armature winding
Primary cell – cell that cannot be recharged which cannot restore
chemical reaction Self-excited shunt generator – a dc generator whose excitation
is produced by a winding connected to its own positive and
Primary cell – a cell whose chemical reaction is not reversible negative terminals

Battery – a voltage source in a single container made from one or Field poles in electric machines are always an even number of
more cells combines in series, parallel, or series-parallel them

A battery is used to supply a steady dc voltage In a compound generator, series field winding usually has a
lower resistance
In a dry cell, the internal resistance increases as it aged
In dc-compound generator shunt field winding is relatively made
Flash current – the maximum current a cell can deliver through a of fine wires
0.01 ohm load during testing
Voltage vs. load characteristic is important that you should
In batteries, the material used to insulate the positive plates from consider in choosing a dc-generator
negative plates are technically called separator
The purpose of laminating the field poles and armature of a dc
Leclanche cell – a primary cell with carbon and zinc as its positive machine is to reduce eddy current
and negative electrodes respectively, and an electrolyte of either a
gel or paste. This is commonly known as dry cell An alternator with a lagging power factor of 0.8 will have a
greater than voltage regulation at unity power factor
Silver-cadmium cell has a nominal open-circuit voltage of 1.05 V
With alternators connected in parallel, the frequency of the system
Photovoltaic material – substance, which generates a voltage can be changed by changing the rpm of the prime movers
when exposed to light
With alternators connected in parallel, the voltage of the system
Photovoltaic cell – a cell whose voltage is generated as a can be changed by changing the field excitation
function of light
If an ac generator is to be driven from prime mover having variable
Silicon, Selenium, Germanium – substance used in photovoltaic speed, such as aircraft engine, a constant speed drive (CSD)
cells must be used.

Thermoelectric junction – a junction between two conductors 0% is the voltage regulation when the full load voltage is the same
that exhibits electrical characteristic under condition of changing as no-load voltage assuming a perfect voltage source
temperature
Hydraulic turbines are usually used to drive low-speed
Thermoelectricity – Electricity that is generated due to heat, as in alternators
thermocouple
Steam turbines are usually used to drive high-speed alternators
Prime mover – the source of mechanical power to turn the rotors
of alternators, large and small, A.C and D.C High-speed alternators are smaller then low-speed

Generators – electrical machines that convert mechanical energy Carbon brushes are widely used in dc machines because it
to electrical energy lubricates and polishes the contacts

Rotary converter – electrical machine that converts ac voltage to Alternators have less chance to hunt if driven by steam turbines
dc voltage, or vice versa
In alternators, the purpose of damper windings is it prevents
Frequency converter – electrical machine that changes ac hunting
voltage at one frequency to another ac voltage at another
frequency Parallel operation is the term that applies to the use of two or
more generators to supply a common load
Elementary generator – it consist of a single coil rotated in a
magnetic field and produces an A.C. voltage In paralleling ac generators, phase angle is very important

Generation of voltage in a generator can only happen when there Jogging – description used for generators trying to self-adjust its
is a relative motion between conducting wires and parameters before paralleling with on line generators
magnetic line of force
In changing power from one generator to another, No Break
Electro/permanent magnets and armature winding – two Power Transfer (NBPT) is called when the operational sequence
essential parts in rotating generators
wherein the incoming generator is connected first before removing
the existing generator Differentially compounded – a motor whose speed increases as
the load is increased
Break power transfer – the present on-line generator will be
disconnected first before connecting the incoming Flux and speed are the factors that affect iron losses in a dc
generator motor

Alternators are rated in kVA One advantage of a cumulatively compounded motor is that it does
not run widely at light loads, this feature is due to shunt winding
In electrical power distribution, main transmission lines is the
first distribution line from the main generating station In applications where an almost constant speed is required, a dc
shunt motor is a good choice
The lines which carry the energy from the transformer to a
customer’s service are called secondary distribution lines In applications where a high torque is needed during starting dc
series motor is preferred
In electrical power generating/distribution company, distribution
of power to the customers is their highest expenses In applications where sudden heavy loads happen for short
In electrical power distributions, porcelain insulator is generally duration, a cumulatively compounded motor is the best choice
used
In motors of the same rating, dc shunt has the least starting
Motors – electrical machines that convert electrical energy to torque
mechanical energy
Speed is a factor that affect friction and winding loses in dc motors
Synchronous type of ac-motor, uses a dc-generator to supply In dc motors, power loss is contributed greatly by copper loss
dc-excitation to the rotating field
Dirt on the commutator may produce excessive sparking
Generally in dc motors, the armature winding is supplied with
current; or the armature is placed inside a set of radially Motor vibrations are usually caused by worn bearings
supported magnetic poles
When a motor is overloaded, it will usually overheat
In ac motors, generally current is sent into the armature
winding; or the armature winding is usually placed in a Dc series motor produces the highest increase in torque
stationary laminated iron core and the rotating element considering the same increase in current
may or may not be a set of magnetic poles, it depends on
the type of motor When an armature opens in dc motor, it may cause intermittent
sparking
Among the dc motors, series produces the highest torque
Motors take large current during starting because there’s still a
Shunt – dc motor that has the most stable speed low back emf

In dc motor, during starting severe arcing happens In dc motors, the speed will decrease with an increase in field
strength
The primary reason why carbon brushes are preferred over copper
brushes in dc motors is because they produce less arcing When armature current is increased in a dc motor, its armature
reaction will also increase
Counter emf or back emf – in dc motors, the emf developed
which opposes to the supplied voltage To reduce sparking in dc motor, brushes are positioned such that
they will be with the direction of the rotation
To minimize arcing during starting of dc motors, a resistance
should be added to limit the current in the armature winding Polyphase motors are best suited for heavy-load application

Series dc motors’ speed is greatly affected by a change in load. It Dc shunt motor speed can be controlled electronically by using a
will even run-away if the load is removed thyristor in series with the armature winding

Dc motors – motors whose speed can be easily controlled SCR thyristor is commonly used in motor speed control

When a dc motor has no load, the back emf becomes maximum In controlling motor speed, the SCR control the firing angle

We get a maximum mechanical power from a dc motor Eb = 1/2V In motor speed control, trigger circuit is responsible for SCR firing

The torque of a dc motor is directly proportional to the field Rectifier – a circuit that converts ac-voltage to dc-voltage
strength and armature current
Dc-converter – conversion from dc-voltage to another dc-voltage
Friction loss – one cause why the shaft torque is less than the
developed armature torque of a dc motor Ac-converter – a converter that changes ac-voltage to another ac-
voltage level
Series – considered as a variable speed motor
Inverter must be used if one wished to change dc voltage into ac
The most common method used in varying the speed of a dc motor voltage
is by varying the field strength
cycloconverter – a converter that changes ac-voltage frequency
The running speed of a dc series motor is greatly affected by the from one to another.
load
In electronic converters, square-wave signal is mostly used to
In choosing a motor for a particular application, you should trigger the active device
consider the speed-torque characteristic
A transformer consist of two coils wound on a common core
The dc series motor will overspeed when its load is removed
Transformer is considered by many as an efficient device due to
the fact that it is a static device The purpose of laminating the core of a transformer is to
decrease eddy current loss
With transformer, copper loss is measured when performing
open-circuit test Large transformers have approximately an efficiency of 95%

Open-circuit test with transformers is always done on low-voltage The loss in a transformer due to the changing field is called
winding hysteresis loss

Short-circuit test with transformers is always done on low-voltage Coefficient of coupling – the ratio of the amount of magnetic flux
winding linking a secondary coil compared to the flux generated by the
primary coil
When the transformer secondary winding is short-circuited, its
primary inductance will increase Mutual inductance between two coils can be decreased by moving
the coils apart
Natural air cooling – cooling system for transformers with ratings
less than 5kVA An advantage of full-wave rectifier over half-wave rectifier: the
tube will conduct during both halves of the input cycle
For transformers, zero efficiency happens when it has no-load
The circuit that converts ac-voltage to a dc-voltage is called a
For transformers, maximum efficiency happens when copper loss rectifier
is equal to constant loss
Half-wave – a rectifier that uses either the positive or negative
In constructing transformers, the primary and secondary winding portion only of the main supply
should have tight magnetic coupling
For a half-wave rectifier, the average output voltage is 31.8% of
Voltage per turn and ampere-turns are the two parameters in the maximum ac-voltage
transformer that are the same in both primary and secondary
In transformer, the amount of copper used in the primary is 121% - percent ripple of a half-wave rectifier
almost equal as that of secondary
To double the capacity of the half-wave rectifier, a full-wave
At very low frequencies, transformers work poorly because its rectifier, dual supply must be used
magnetizing current will be very high
0.90 Vmax – the dc-voltage of a full-wave bridge rectifier
If a power transformer is to be operated at very high frequency, it Vdc = 0.90 Vrms
will have a very high core loss
0.48 – ripple factor of a full-wave rectifier
Primary and secondary are coupled electrically and
magnetically in autotransfomers To improve the dc output voltage of a power supply, a filter
capacitor may be installed
In a single-phase transformer, the core flux is alternating
Making the filter capacitor large in a power supply results to an
The transformer might burn out when its primary is connected to increase of the dc-voltage
at DC supply
In capacitor-filtered power supply, the ripple voltage drops to
Generally, you consider the use of core-type transformer at high zero if the load is disconnected
voltage and low current applications
Multi-section LC-filter power supply filter gives the smallest
In current transformers, when its primary is energized the ripple voltage
secondary should never be open-circuited
Regulation is a better alternative to reduce further the ripples
An ideal transformer is the one with no losses and leakage
reactance Shunt regulator – a voltage regulator connected in parallel with
the load
The effect of air gaps at the transformer core is it increases
magnetizing current Shunt regulator is the most inefficient

Eddy currents are wasteful current which flow in cores of Zener diode – voltage reference element in most voltage
transformers and produces heat regulators

Nothing will happen to the eddy current loss in transformers In voltage regulators, the control element controls the amount of
when the load is increased current, voltage and power

Leakage flux in transformers will cause voltage drop in the Op-amp – the element/device used as a comparator in most
windings voltage regulators

The increase in temperature in a transformer is mainly due to Voltage divider network – sampling circuit used in most voltage
apparent power regulators

In transformers, the voltage per turn at the primary is the same Most voltage regulators use BJT as their control element
as the secondary
Switching regulators – the most efficient voltage regulator and is
In transformer windings, the more number of turns the higher is therefore used in high-current high-voltage applications
the voltage
78XX – three-terminal fixed positive voltage regulators commonly
Core-type transformers has a shorter magnetic path used in industry

Practically 85% is copper loss to the total loss in transformers The regulated output voltage of a 7924 regulator is -24 V
317 – a three-terminal variable positive voltage regulator

337 three-terminal IC regulator has a variable negative voltage


output

In a three-terminal adjustable positive voltage regulator (317),


1.25 V is the band-gap voltage between the output terminal and
adjustment terminal

Typical ripple rejection of most three-terminal voltage regulators is


0.1%

The simplest way of protecting power supplies from reverse-


polarity / reverse-current flow is by a reverse-biased diode

A crowbar circuit is used as an over-voltage protection in


power supplies

Switching regulators dissipate less power and therefore generate


less heat

Active device used in switching regulators may experience large


over-currents during conduction (turn-on-state) and large over-
voltages during turn-off. These excessive currents and voltages
may cause distraction or damage of the active devices. We protect
them by installing a snubber circuit

Power conditioners clean-up or shape-up the utility-supply


voltage form disturbances such as, overvolt, undervolt, voltage
spikes, and harmonic distortions

Uninterruptible power supply – a power supply that


continuously provides protection against undervoltage, overvoltage
and even power outages
Power Generator / Sources / Principles / Applications Series is a variable speed motor

A battery is a group of cells that generate electric energy form The most commonly used method of speed control of a dc motor is
their internal chemical reaction by varying field strength

The main function of a batter is to provide a source of steady Electrochemical series and electromotive series give the
dc voltage of fixed polarity relative activity in forming ion charges for some of the chemical
elements
The volt is a unit of electromotive force
The ac armature winding of an alternator is always star-
A transformer will work on ac only connected

In a chemical cell, current is the movement of positive and The air-gap in an alternator is much longer than in an induction
negative ions machine

The speed of a dc motor is inversely proportional to flux per Nickel-iron cell is a secondary cell with a nominal open-circuit
pole voltage output of 1.2 and is otherwise known as Edison cell

Low-speed alternators are driven by hydraulic turbines A dc series motor is most suitable for cranes

High-speed alternators are driven by steam turbines Commulatively compounded motors are suitable for elevators

The common 9-V flat battery for transistor radio has six cells The voltage output of a cell depends on its elements
connected in series
The alternators driven by steam turbines do not have a tendency
For the same rating, the size of low-speed alternator is more than to hunt
that of high speed alternator
Damper windings are used in alternators to prevent hunting
Silver-zinc, nickel-iron, lead-acid are examples of secondary
cell Leclanche’ cell is the other name of carbon-zinc cell

Carbon-zinc, zinc chloride, mercuric oxide are examples of The primary leakage flux link primary winding only
primary cell
Overheating of a dc motor is often due to overloads
12 V is the nominal output of an automotive battery having six
lead-acid cells in series A small 9-V battery might be used to provide power to and
electronic calculator
The brush voltage drop in a dc machine is about 2 V
The frequency of the system with which several alternators are
Carbon brushes are used in a dc machine because carbon parallel can be increased by simultaneously increasing the
lubricates and polishes the commutator speed of prime movers of all generators

Carbon-zinc dry cell and lead-sulfuric wet cell are considered A transformer is an efficient device because it is a static device
as the main type of battery
The amount of back emf of a shunt motor will increase when the
The main function of a dc motor is to change electrical energy field is strengthened
to mechanical energy
Three cells connected in series form a battery
Shunt motor has the best speed regulation
Turns ratio can be found in a transformer with open-circuit test
Voltaic cell – a method of converting chemical energy into electric
energy by dissolving two different conducting materials in an Transformers having ratings less then 5kVA are generally natural
electrolyte air cooled

A commulatively compounded motor does not run at dangerous An example of a rechargeable dc source is a lead-acid battery
speed at light loads because of the presence of shunt winding
The voltage of the bus-bar to which several alternators are
DC shunt motors are used in those applications where practically paralleled may be raised by simultaneously increasing field
constant speed is required excitation of all alternators

Galvanic cell is the other name of voltaic cell The rating of an alternator is expressed in kVA

For the same rating series motor has the highest starting torque Commulatively compounded motors are used in applications where
sudden heavy loads for short duration is required
The voltage regulation of an alternator with a power factor of 0.8
lagging is greater than at unity power factor Series motor never uses belt-connected load

Commulatively compounded motor is the most suitable for A stand-alone solar power system uses solar panels and
punch presses batteries

In a vacuum cleaner, series motor is generally used. A transformer will have zero efficiency at no-load

Sealed rechargeable cell – a type of secondary cell that can be The efficiency of a transformer will be maximum when copper
recharged but with an electrolyte that cannot be refilled loss is equal to constant loss

Silver-cadmium is a secondary cell with a nominal open-circuit The armature winding of a dc machine is a closed-circuit winding
voltage of 1.1 V
The speed at which a 6-pole alternator should be driven to To produce an output of 7.5V, 5 carbon-zinc cells are connected in
generate 50 cycles per second is 1000 rpm series

Connecting batteries of equal voltage in parallel multiplies the The demand for a large increase in torque of a dc series motor is
current available met by a large decrease in speed

Lead-acid battery – a storage battery in which the electrodes are As the load increases, a differentially compounded motor will
grids of lead containing lead oxide that change in composition speed up
during charging and discharging and the electrolyte is dilute
sulfuric acid The flux in the core of a single-phase transformer is purely
alternating one
Leclanche cell – the common dry cell, which is a primary cell
having a carbon positive electrode and a zinc negative electrode in The primary of a transformer may burn out when connected to
an electrolyte of sal ammoniac and a depolarizer a dc supply
The maximum flux produced in the core of transformer is
inversely proportional to supply frequency A constant-voltage source has low internal resistance

A transformer is so designed that primary and secondary windings If the excitation of an alternator operating in parallel with other
have tight magnetic coupling alternators is increased above the normal value of excitation, its
power factor becomes more lagging
For carbon-zinc cells in series will provide about 6 Vdc The synchronous reactance of an alternator is generally 10 to 100
times greater than armature resistance
Float charging refers to a method in which the charger and the
battery are always connected to each other for supplying current to DC series motors are used in those applications where high
the load starting torque is required

Universal motor – a series motor designed to operate on dc or ac A dc motor is still used in industrial applications because it
provides fine speed control
Ward-Leonard system – combination of ac motor, dc generator,
and exciter to provide adjustable voltage dc power to a dc motor The stator of an alternator is wound for the same number of
poles as on the rotor
A motor takes a large current at starting because back emf is low
Carbon brushes are preferred compared to copper brushes they
A series motor will overspeed when load is removed reduce sparking

When the load on an armature is increased, the terminal voltage The synchronous reactance of an alternator decreases as the iron
increases if the load power factor is leading is saturated

The efficiency of the turbo-alternator increases with increase in A 4-pole dc machine has 4 magnetic circuits
speed.
The current in armature conductors of a dc machine is ac
2.1 V is the output of a lead-acid cell
The ac armature winding of an alternator operates at much
In an alternator, the effect of armature reaction is minimum at higher voltage than the field winding
power factor of unity
The field poles and armature of a dc machine are laminated to
For given number of poles (>2) and armature conductors, a lap reduce eddy current
winding will carry more current than a wave winding
The back emf or counter emf in dc motor opposes the applied
An 8-pole duplex lap winding will have 16 parallel paths voltage

To increase voltage output, cells are connected in series The synchronous reactance of an alternator is due to armature
reaction
To increase current capacity, cells are connected in parallel Back emf in a dc motor is maximum at no load

Two things which are same for primary and secondary of a The mechanical power developed in a dc motor is maximum when
transformer are ampere-turns and voltage per turn back emf is equal to one-half the applied voltage

A transformer operates poorly at very low frequencies because The core-type transformer is generally suitable for high voltage
magnetizing current is abnormally high and small output

In an auto transformer, the primary and secondary are The transformer that should never have the secondary open-
magnetically as well as electrically coupled circuited when primary is energized is current transformer

Faure storage battery – a storage battery in which the plates The field winding of an alternator is dc excited
consist of lead-antimony supporting grids covered with a lead oxide
paste, immersed in weak sulfuric acid The salient-pole construction for field structure of an alternator is
generally used for 8-pole machine
Nickel-cadmium cell is a dry storage cell
When the speed of a dc motor increases, its armature current
The field structure of a dc machine uses salient-pole decreases
arrangement
The frequency of emf generated in an 8-pole alternator running at
Small dc machines generally have 2 poles 900 rpm is 60 Hz

The armature of a dc machine is laminated in order to reduce In case of a 4-pole machine, 1 mechanical degree corresponds to 2
eddy current loss electrical degrees
The torque developed by a dc motor is directly proportional to flux
per pole times armature current The rotor of a turbo-alternator is made cylindrical in order to
reduce windage losses
Induction motor – ac machine in which the torque is produced by
the interaction of currents in the stator and currents induced in the The disadvantage of a short-pitched coil is that voltage round
motor by transformer action the coil is reduced

Synchronous motor – machine in which torque is produced by The demand for a large increase in torque of a dc shunt motor is
the interaction of ac currents in the stator and dc currents in the met by a large increase in current
rotor turning in synchronism
For 20% increase in current, the motor that will give the greatest
The main drawback of a dc shunt generator is that terminal increase in torque is series motor
voltage drops considerably with load
Lead sulfide cell – a cell used to detect infrared radiation; either
DC machines which are subjected to abrupt changes of load are its generated voltage or its change of resistance may be used as a
provided with compensating windings measure of the intensity of the radiation

The shaft torque in a dc motor is less than total armature torque Local cell – a galvanic cell resulting from difference in potential
because of iron and friction losses in the motor between adjacent areas on the surface of a metal immersed in an
electrolyte
Armature reaction in a dc motor is increased when the armature
current increases Series motor is used to start heavy loads

An ideal transformer is one which has no losses and leakage When load is removed, the motor that will run at the highest speed
reactance is the series motor
If a power transformer is operated at very high frequencies, then
core losses will be excessive The friction and windage losses in a dc motor depends upon speed

With respect to the direction of rotation, interpoles on a dc motor If a transformer core has air gaps, then magnetizing current is
must have the same polarity as the main poles behind them greatly increased

The open-circuit test on a transformer is always made on low- The effect of leakage flux in a transformer is to cause voltage
voltage winding drop in the windings

In the short circuit test in a transformer, low-voltage winding is The iron losses in a dc motor depend upon both flux and speed
generally short-circuited
The greatest percentage of power loss in dc motor is due to
In a dc motor, the brushes are shifted from the mechanical neutral copper loss
plane in a direction opposite to the rotation to reduce sparking
Excessive sparking at the brushes may be caused due to dirt on
The number of cycles generated in a 6-pole alternator in one the commutator
revolution is 3
The temperature rise of a transformer is directly proportional to
If the lagging load power factor of an alternator is decreased, the apparent power
demagnetizing effect of a armature reaction is increased
Magnetization curve – a graphical relation between the
In very large dc motors with severe heavy duty, armature reaction generated emf and field current of a machine
effects are corrected by using compensatory windings in
addition to interpoles Majority of alternators in use have revolving field type
construction
The amount of copper in the primary is about the same as that of
secondary The stator of an alternator is identical to that of a 3-phase
induction motor
The open-circuit test on a transformer gives iron losses
Excessive motor vibration is caused by worn bearings
The speed of a shunt motor is practically constant
Hot bearings of a dc motor may be caused by lack of or dirty
The running speed of a dc series motor is basically determined by lubricant
load
Intermittent sparking at the brushes of dc motor may be caused
If the excitation of an alternator operating in parallel with other due to an open armature coil
alternators is decreased, its power factor becomes more
leading When load on a transformer is increased, the eddy current loss
remains the same
The distribution of load between two alternators operating in
parallel can be changed by changing driving torques of prime The yoke of a dc machine is made of cast steel
movers
The armature of a dc machine is made of silicon steel
After a shunt motor is up to speed, the speed may be increased
considerably by decreasing field circuit resistance The voltage per turn of the primary of a transformer is the same
as the voltage per turn of the secondary
When the secondary of a transformer is short-circuited, the primary
inductance is decreased The winding of the transformer with greater number of turns will be
high-voltage winding
For the same rating, shunt motor has the least starting torque
The coupling field between electrical and mechanical systems of a
The deciding factor in the selection of a dc motor for a particular dc machine is magnetic field
application is its speed-torque characteristic
The real working part of a dc machine is the armature winding The greatest percentage of heat loss in a dc machine is due to
copper loss
4-pole dc machines are most common
The size of a dc generator can be reduced by using magnetic
The core-type transformer provides shorter magnetic path material of high permeability

Compound machine – a machine with field excitation by both


shunt and series windings

The armature winding of a dc machine is placed on the rotor to


facilitate commutation

The yoke of a dc machine carries one-half of pole flux

The greatest eddy current loss occurs in the armature of a dc


machine

The commentator pitch for a simplex lap winding is equal to 1

In a simplex wave winding, the number of parallel path is equal to


2

In a practical transformer, copper losses account to 85% of the


total losses

By laminating the core of a transformer, eddy current loss


decreases

The number of parallel paths in a simplex lap winding is equal to


number of poles

In a dc machine, the number of commutator segments is equal to


number of coils

A dc compound generator having full-load terminal voltage equal to


the no-load voltage is called flat-compounded generator

The terminal voltage of a series generator varies widely with


changes in load current
The nature of armature winding of a dc machine is decided by
commutator pitch

The voltage regulation of an alternator is larger than that of a dc


generator because of complex effects of armature reaction

High-voltage dc machine use wave winding

In a lap winding, the number of the brushes required is equal to


number of poles

The approximate efficiency of a large transformer is 95%

In a wave winding, the commutator pitch is approximately equal to


twice the pole pitch

A triplex wave winding will have 6 parallel paths

For a given dc generator, the generated voltage depends upon


both speed and flux

For the same rating, a dc machine has more weight than an ac


machine

Slip – difference between the speeds of rotating magnetic field and


the associated rotor

The field winding of a dc shunt motor usually carries 2% to 5% of


ht rated current of the machine

A separately excited dc generator is not used because a separate


dc source is required for field circuit

The effect of armature reaction is to decrease the total flux

In a dc generator, armature reaction weakens the flux at the


leading pole tip
ELECTRONICS INSTRUMENTATIONS
Electrostatic – measuring instrument that can be used only to
Accuracy – the degree of exactness of measurement when measure voltages
compared to the expected value of the variable being measured
Pyrometer – this instrument measures temperatures by electric
Measurement – the art, or process of determining the existence means, especially temperatures beyond the range of mercury
of knowing the magnitude of something, directly or indirectly in thermometers
terms of a recognized standard
Pyranometer – this instrument refers to that one, which measures
Test – a procedure, or sequence of operations for determining the intensity of the radiation, received from any portion of the sky
whether a component or equipment is functioning or working
normally Infinity is the normal indication on a megger (megaohmmeter)
when checking insulation
In measurement, accuracy is the degree of exactness compared
to the expected value of the variable being measured Megaohmmeter, megger – Resistance measuring instrument
particularly used in determining the insulation resistance
A measure of consistency or repeatability of measurements is
called precision Wattmeter – an electrodynamic meter used to measure power

Precision is also known as reproducibility Dynamometer – a device used to mechanically measure the
output power of a motor
In measurements, the sum of a set of numbers divided by the total
number of pieces of data in the given set is called arithmetic Electrodynamometer – an indicating instrument whose movable
mean coils rotate between two stationary coils, usually used as
wattmeter
Error – the deviation of a reading form the expected value
Dynamometers are mostly used as wattmeter
Instrument errors – errors due to frictions of the meter
movement, incorrect spring tension, improper calibration or faulty Air friction damping method is generally used in dynamometers
instruments
Wattmeter dynamometer instrument has a uniform scale
When an instrument is subjected to harsh environments such as
high temperature, strong magnetic, electrostatic, or For a dynamometer to be able to measure high current, a current
electromagnetic field, it may have a detrimental effects and cause transformer should be used
errors known as environmental errors
Error in voltmeter reading is due to loading
Observation errors – errors introduced by the observer or user
Error in ammeter reading is due to insertion
Parallax error – errors in analog meter reading due to your
physical position with respect to the meter scale An ohmmeter type of meter requires its own power source

Deviation – the difference between any number within the set of Error in ohmmeter reading is due to battery aging
numbers and the arithmetic mean of that set of numbers
Decreasing the value of the shunt resistor of an ammeter, its
Standard instrument/device – an instrument or device having current measuring capability increases
recognized permanent or stable value that is used as a reference
Increasing the value of the series resistor of a voltmeter, its voltage
Resolution – the smallest change in a measured variable to which measuring capability increases
an instrument will respond
Clamp probe – a device that is used to measure current without
Instrument – a device or mechanism used to determine the value opening the circuit
of a quantity under observation
Clamp-meter ammeter has no insertion error
Amepe is the basic unit for measuring current flow
To prevent damage of the multirange ammeter during selection, an
An instrument used to detect and measure the presence of Ayrton shunt should be used
electrical current is generally called galvanometer
For the greatest accuracy, the input impedance of a VOM should be
D’ Arsonoval is the common type of meter moving as large as possible

D’ Arsonoval meter movement – a permanent-magnet moving- Voltage measurement in a high impedance circuit requires a
coil instrument voltmeter with high input impedance

Moving-iron instrument – an instrument which depends on In order to make an accurate measurement as possible, the
current in one or more fixed-coils acting on one of more pieces of internal resistance of a voltmeter must be as high as possible
soft iron, at least one of which is movable
The purpose of the rheostat in ohmmeter is to compensate the
Moving-magnet instrument – depends on the action of a aging battery of the meter
movable permanent magnet, in aligning itself in the resultant field,
produced either by a fixed permanent magnet and an adjacent coil The zero-adjust control in an analog type ohmmeter is used to
or coils carrying current, or by two or more current-carrying coils compensate for the differing internal battery voltage
whose axes are displaced by a fixed angle
The scale of a hot wire instrument is a squared function
Thermocouple ammeter is mostly used in measuring high-
frequency currents Moving iron instruments have a scale function that is squared

Measurement of high dc-voltages is usually done by using To increase the measuring capability of a moving-iron ac ammeter,
electrostatic a different number of turns of operating coil should be used
Varley loop – this is a method of using a Wheatstone bridge to
PMMC electrical instrument is the most sensitive determine the distance from the test point to a fault in a telephone
or telegraph line or cable
Basically, a PMMC instrument can be used only in dc
measurement Maxwell bridge – this refers to a four-arm ac bridge used for
measuring inductance against a standard capacitance
Spring action – controlling torque in PMMC
Hay bridge – refers to an ac bridge for measuring the inductance
Eddy current damping method is used in induction type and Q of an inductor in terms of resistance, frequency and a
ammeter standard capacitance

Induction type instruments are mostly used as watt-hour meter Kelvin double bridge – this is a special bridge for measuring very
low resistance (0.1 or less). The arrangement of the bridge reduces
In indicating instruments, the controlling torque increases if the the effects of contact resistance, which causes significant error
deflection becomes greater when such low resistance are connected to conventional resistance
bridges
Controlling torque and deflecting torque are forces that are
acting on the pointer of an indicating instrument as it rest on its Schering bridge – a type of four-arm capacitance bridge in which
final deflected position the unknown capacitance is compared with a standard
capacitance. This bridge is frequently employed in testing
Controlling, damping, and deflecting torques are the forces electrolytic capacitors, to which a dc polarizing voltage is applied
acting on the pointer of an indicating instrument when it is in during the measurement
motion
Wein bridge – a frequency-sensitive bridge in which two adjacent
Aluminum – material that is mostly used as a pointer in indicating arms are resistances and the other two arm are RC combinations
instrument
When the capacitors of a Wien bridge are replaced by inductors,
A Kelvin electrostatic voltmeter uses fluid friction method of the bridge becomes Wein inductance bridge
damping
Slide-wire bridge – a simplified version of the Wheatstone bridge
Shunts in meters should have a very small temperature wherein, two of the ratio arms are replaced by a 100 cm long
coefficient of resistance Manganin of uniform cross-sections and provided with a slider

In a moving coil ammeter, a swamping resistor is connected in Radio-frequency bridge – bridge used to measure both inductive
series with the coil to compensate for temperature variations and capacitive impedances at higher frequencies

We use the dynamometer in dc and ac Balance bridge – a bridge wherein all legs are electrically
identical
Electrostatic instrument – meter that depends for its operation
on the forces of attraction and repulsion between electrically Spectrum analyzer is an electronic instrument capable of
charged bodies showing on screen and maybe on print, relative spacing of
transmitter carriers, their sidebands and harmonics
Induction instrument – instrument that depends for its operation
on the reaction between magnetic flux set up by currents in fixed Spectrum analyzer – an instrument capable of displaying
windings and other currents set up by electromagnetic induction in simultaneously the amplitude of signals having different
movable conduction parts frequencies

Permanent-magnet moving-coil instrument – a meter that for A spectrum analyzer is a real-time analyzer
its operation, it depends on a movable iron vane which aligns itself
in the resultant field of a permanent magnet and an adjacent Indications of spectrum analyzer is presented by means of a CRT
current carrying coil
Oscilloscope – an electronic measuring device that provide
Vane-type instrument uses the force of repulsion between fixed instantaneous visual indication of voltage excursions
and movable magnetized iron vanes, or the force between a coil
and a pivoted vane-shaped piece of soft iron to move the indicating Oscilloscope – an instrument that is capable of displaying
pointer waveforms by means of a fluorescence in a CRT

Kelvin voltmeter – its an electrostatic voltmeter in which an Storage oscilloscope – types of oscilloscopes that are able to
assembly of figure 8 shaped metal plates rotates between the retain the display for a longer period for analysis. The display is
plates of a stationary assembly when a voltage is applied between retained by the use of flood gun
the assemblies. The length of the arc of rotation is proportional to
the electrostatic attraction and thus, to the applied voltage Sampling oscilloscope uses sampling technique in processing
signals having frequencies beyond its normal capabilities
Magnetometer is an instrument used for measuring the strength
and direction of magnetic field Generally, oscilloscope uses electrostatic deflection

Varmeter and reactive volt-ampere meter are the instrument Signal generators – a device or instrument, which delivers
used for measuring reactive power in vars signals of precise frequency and amplitude, usually over a wide
range
Bridge is a circuit that has four or more arms, by means of which
one or more of the electrical constants of an unknown component The two most common audio oscillators are Wein bridge and
may be measured phase-shift

Resistance bridge, wheatstone bridge – a four-arm bridge. All The two most popular RF oscillators are Colpitts and Hartley
arms of which are predominantly resistive; used for measuring
resistance Noise generator – a device or instrument able to generate noise
with accurate voltage for test purposes
You need a noise generator when evaluating noise
characteristics of an amplifier

In RF or microwave system, reflectometer is used to measure the


incidental and reflected signals

Reflectometer – a type of photometer used to measure reflection

Dip meter – a tunable RF instrument, which, by means of a sharp


dip of an indicating meter, indicates resonance with an external
circuit under test

Grid-dip meter – a type of dip meter employing a vacuum tube


oscillator, whose indicating dc microammeter is in the grid circuit

In meter movement, you prevent the meter from oscillation and


overswing by damping

When the meter is insufficiently damped, it is considered as


underdamped

A meter when overdamped will become insensitive to small


signals
Test and Measurement Control grid CRT element provides for control of the number of
electrons passing farther into the tube
An ammeter is an indicating instrument
Orthogonal nulling refers to garaging the two adjustments of an
As the deflection of the moving system increases, the controlling AC bridge together in such a way that changing one adjustment
torque in an indicating instrument increases changes the other in a special way, but changing the second
adjustment does not change the first
D’Arsonval is the best type of meter movement
When the vertical input is 0V, the electron beam may be positioned
Wattmeter dynamometer type has uniform scale at the vertical center of the screen
The reason why the scale of a permanent-magnet moving coli
When both deflecting and controlling torque act, the pointer of an instrument is uniform is because it is spring controlled
indicating instrument comes to rest
Thermal converters – a sensing element that provides a dc
The output voltage of a thermocouple increases with voltage less than 10mV with typical power range of 0.1 to 100 mW
temperature
Tank circuit frequency can be measured by Grid-dip meter
Analog instrument – an instrument in which the magnitude of the
measured quantity is indicated by means of a pointer Shunts are generally made of Manganin material

If the pointer of an indicating instrument is in motion, damping 1 μA meter is the most sensitive
and controlling torques oppose the deflecting torque
A dynamometer instrument is mainly used as a wattmeter
Electrical currents can be induced with a coil and a magnet by
moving either the magnet or the coil Dynamometer movement is the most expensive

The fuse should never be replaced with a higher rated unit Attraction and repulsion instrument are considered as moving-
iron instruments
The pointer of an indicating instrument is generally made of
aluminum In wheatstone bridge, bridge balance is a condition where there is
no current that flows through the load
The time interval that a waveform is high (or low) is the pulse
width of the signal The temperature coefficient of resistance of the shunt material is
negligible
A Wheatstone bridge is balanced if the ratio of resistors on one
side of the bridge equals the ratio of resistors on the other In VTVMS, zero adjust is used to balance both halves of the
side difference amplifier or cathode-coupled amplifier

The pointer of an indicating instrument is in the final deflected In an oscilloscope, intensity control adjusts the brightness of the
position, the damping torque is zero spot by changing the voltage on the control grid

Deflecting force – a moving system force in analog instruments Damping force – a force in analog instrument which quickly
which causes the moving system to deflect from its zero position brings the moving system to rest in its final position

Controlling force – a moving system force in analog instruments A small swamping resistance is connected in series with operating
which ensures that the deflection of the pointer for a given value of coil of a moving coil ammeter in order to compensate for the
measured quantity always has the same value effects of temperature variation

All voltmeters except electrostatic is operated by the passage of The typical power range of diode sensor is 0.1 nW to 10 mW
current
A milliameter operates on the magnetic attraction-repulsion
Disc is made of conductor and non-magnetic material in eddy principles
current damping
Wheatstone bridge – a dc bridge widely used for the accurate
The time interval between pulses is called pulse delay measurement of resistance

An oscilloscope provides easy measurement of peak to peak Potentiometer bridge is a dc bridge that is very useful for
values making extremely accurate voltage measurements

Fuse is an element in electronics which serves as a protection Majority of the analog measuring instrument utilizes magnetic
against overlead effect

Diode sensor provides a dc voltage approximately 1V to 10 mW Multimeter typically provides measurement of rms values (for a
sinusoidal waveform)
Hot-wire instrument has a squared scale
Dynamometer type instrument can be used for both dc and ac
For time measurements, horizontal scale of the scope is used works

Fluid friction damping is employed in Kelvin electrostatic Permanent-magnet moving coil is an instrument in which
voltmeter springs provide the controlling torque as well as serve to lead
current into and out of the operating coil
Current range extension in moving coil instruments can be
achieved by placing a low resistance resistor in shunt with the In VTVMS, sensitivity refers to the smallest signal that can be
instrument reliably measured

Permanent-magnet moving coil instrument can be used in dc work The frequency of rotation in some rotating machinery can be
only measured by a Spectral meter
An instrument used for observing voltage and current waveforms is Cathode ray oscilloscope (CRO) provides a visual presentation
the oscilloscope of any waveform applied to the input terminals

An electrostatic force does not act on the moving systems of The interval of a pulse from start to end is the period of the pulse
analog instrument
Cathode ray tube (CRT) is considered as the “heart” of the
When current through the operating coil of a moving-iron cathode ray oscilloscope
instrument is tripled the operating force becomes nine times
Phosphor – a material that glows when struck by the energetic
50 mA is the typical full-scale deflection current of a moving coil electrons in a CRT
instrument
Thermiston sensor provides a change of resistance with typical
Ammeter – an instrument used for measuring the amount of power range of 1 μW to 10 mW and with maximum frequency
current flowing in a circuit greater than 100 GHz

DMM – a type of meter that gives a precise reading of voltage, Most AC voltmeters have an rms scale which is valid only if the
current or resistance where there is the generation of samples at input signal being measured is a sinusoidal signal
the input and then feeds it to a digital read-out
Wheatstone bridge measures dc resistance
50 mV is the typical full-scale voltage across a moving coil
voltmeter Hay bridge is used to measure high-Q inductors (Q>10)

The period of a repetitive signal is one cycle of the waveform Maxwell bridge measures an unknown inductance in terms of
known capacitance
Cathode – an element of a CRT that releases electrons when
heated indirectly by a filament Maxwell bridge is used for measuring medium Q coils (1<Q<10)

Moving-iron instrument has a squared scale Wien bridge has a series RC combination in one arm and a
parallel RC combination in the adjoining arm and used as a notch
A pattern displayed by oscilloscope which has a steady filter in harmonic distortion analyzer
characteristic is called Lissajous
Sensitivity of a voltmeter is express in ohm/volt
Changing the number of turns of operating coil extends the
range of a moving-iron ac ammter The smallest change in applied stimulus that will indicate a
detectable change in deflection in an indicating instrument is called
Sawtooth generator is not a basic part of a CRT resolution

For amplitude measurements, vertical scale is calibrated in either Insulation material is measured by Megger
volts per centimeter (V/cm), or millivolts per centimeter (mV/cm)

Thermocouple ammter is used to measure high-frequency


currents

Electrostatic is used for measuring high direct voltage

A common technique for measuring power at high frequency is to


employ a sensing element that converts the RF power to a
measurable dc or low-frequency signal

The CRT provides the visual displaying showing the form of the
signal applied as a waveform on the front screen of a cathode ray
oscilloscope.

Electrostatic instruments are exclusively used as voltmeters

0.1 μW to100 μW is the typical power range of thermocouple


sensors

An electric pyrometer is an instrument used to measure high


temperature

Permanent-magnet moving coil is the most sensitive

Induction watt-hour meter is the most commonly used induction


type instrument

An integrating type of instrument is the watt-hour meter

Indicating instrument is assumed to be most accurate at half of


full part of the scale

On a simple ohmmeter, the 0 ohm mark is located at far right of


the scale

One of the basic functions of electronic circuit is the generation


and manipulation of electronic waveshapes
INDUSTRIAL ELECTRONICS
To increase the forward-voltage blocking capability of SCRs we
Breaker – one type of circuit control device which may be manual, connect them in series
automatic or multi-contact
In connecting two SCRs in series, during “OFF” state, the voltage
Switching a tapped inductor and using a saturable reactor source must be properly shared between them, but due to devices’
are the common methods of controlling electrical power with difference, there might be unequal voltages across each SCR, we
reactance equalize these voltages by using a blocking-equalizing
resistor
Saturable reactor – a reactive device used in controlling
electrical power by using two windings on a common iron core. The Snubber circuit – a circuit used for voltage equalization during
control winding is supplied with small dc-current which causes the ON-OFF switching action of SCRs in series
reactance of a large ac-winding to change accordingly
In controlling electrical power using phase control method with
Magnetic amplifier – a saturable reactor with regenerative SCR/triac being the active device, firing delay angle is the period
feedback of the cycle before the device switches to conduction

Thyratrons in industrial electronics refers to gas-filled triode SBS – a three terminal device that behaves roughly like SCR,
except that it can conduct current in either direction when at ON.
Ignitrons – an electronic switch that has the highest single-device
current capacity and can withstand overloads better Gate, anode 1 and anode 2 are the three terminals of a TRIAC

SCR – a semiconductor, electronic switch that has the highest SUS – a thyristor that is very similar to an SCR except that it has
single-device current rating low voltage and current ratings. It is very temperature stable, and
is therefore suitable to be used as a triggering device
The purpose of installing thyrectors across the incoming power
lines to the speed control system is to protect drive circuits Silicon unilateral switches (SUSs) generally have a breakover
from high voltage transient surges voltage of 8 V, however, this value can be altered by normally
connecting a zener diode. The diode is installed by diode’s
Semiconductor devices equivalent to thyratrons are generally cathode to SUS’s gate and diode’s anode to SUS’s cathode
called thyristor
Shockley diode – thyristor whose characteristic curve closely
Phase control power control switching method greatly generates resembles that of SCR’s and SUS’s, except that its forward
RFI or EMI and is therefore limited to low-frequency applications breakover voltage (+VBO) is not alterable, for the device has no
gate terminal
One of the electronic semiconductor devices known as diac,
function as two terminal bi-directional switch The forward breakdown or breakover voltage of SCRs and triacs
will decrease if the gate current is increased
Bidirectional-trigger diac trigger diode has the highest holding
voltage For a unijunction transistor (UJT) to switch ON, the voltage
between the emitter and base 1 should be greater than the
Break-over devices – general term of electronic devices used to peak voltage with emitter being more positive
control or trigger large-power switching devices
In selecting thyristors for a particular application, thyristors with
Trigger diode – a break-over device that is basically a diode high breakdback-voltage is generally desirable

SCR – a four-element solid state device that combines the Portion in the welding process interval during which the welding
characteristics of both diodes and transistors current is flowing is called heat sub-interval

SCR - the most popular thyristor used in electrical power In automatic welding system, basically there are 5 intervals
controllers
In automatic welding, squeeze interval is the first interval
Conducting and non-conducting are the two stable operating wherein the material to be welded are held together
conditions of an SCR
After the squeeze interval, weld interval comes next in the
To stop conduction during which SCR is also conducting, interrupt automatic welding system
anode current
During welding or weld interval, when a welding current is flowing
To turn “ON” or trigger an SCR is by making the gate positive the system is said to be at heat subinterval
with respect to its cathode
Cool subinterval – the portion of the weld interval during which
The anode to cathode continues to conduct even if the gate the current is absent
triggering voltage is removed
After the welding interval, it goes to hold interval wherein the
Holding voltage – the voltage across the anode and cathode electrode pressure is maintained on the metal surfaces
terminals of an SCR when conducting
Next to hold interval is release interval in automatic welding
Holding current – the minimum amount of current needed for an system
SCR to conduct continuously
After the release interval in automatic welding, the system will go
Breakback voltage – the voltage decreased across the anode and to standby interval
cathode of an SCR from non-conducting state to conducting state
Open-loop system – refers to the system that has no feedback
Minimum-gate trigger voltage is the needed voltage at the gate and is not self correcting
of an SCR before it conducts
The system is overdamped if a position servo system does not
Water cooling is the only recommended to be used for the largest respond to small changes in the input
power dissipating device
The purpose of using a differential synchro instead of a Hydraulic fluid actuators has the greatest force capability
regular synchro is that differential synchros can handle
more signals and also performs addition and subtraction Hydraulic actuator requires the highest initial cost
function
Hydraulic robot actuator has the highest operating cost
Open-loop – industrial circuit or system that is not self-correcting
Hydtraulic - the most messy robot actuator
Closed-loop is a circuit or system that is self-correcting
Open-loop in control system means: it has no feedback, it is not Hard interrupt – a robot software or program that produces only
self-correcting, it is not self-regulating two-position motion for a given robot axis

In control system, closed-loop means: it has feedback, it is self- Point-to-point program – a robot program that has the ability to
correcting, it is self-regulating move a robot to any position within the range but without specific
path
When a closed-loop system is used to maintain physical position it
is referred as servo system Continuous path program – a robot program that has the ability
to move a robot to any position within the range with specific path
In closed-loop control system, error is the difference in the
measured value and the set value or desired value When a robot moves on several axis at the same time, it is to have
compound motion
Error signal in closed-loop systems is also known as difference
signal, deviation, system deviation In robotics, SCARA means Selective Compliant Articulated
Robot Arm or Selective Compliant Assembly Robot Arm
In a closed-loop control system, when the error signal is zero the
system is at null SCARA Robots has 4 axis of motion

Offset – the small error signal or system deviation where the SCARA Robots are designed for assembling
system cannot correct anymore
SCARA Robots are attractive in industry because it is relatively
A good closed-loop control system has the following characteristics: cheaper
with very small offset signal or voltage, quick response,
highly stable

In control system, the manner in which the controller reaats to an


error is termed as mode of control

On-off – mode of control wherein the controller has only tow


operating states. This mode is also known as ban-bang control

Proportional is a mode of control wherein the controller has a


continuous range of possible position, not just two as in bang-bang
control

Proportional plus integral – proportional mode of control


wherein the controller is not only considering the magnitude of the
error signal but as well as the time that it has persisted

Proportional plus derivative – proportional mode of control


wherein the controller is not only considering the magnitude of the
error signal but as well as its rate of change

Error signal magnitude, error signal period of occurrence,


and error signal rate of change are being considered in
Proportional plus Integral plus Derivative mode of control

If on-off mode of control is the simplest, proportional plus


integral plus derivative is its opposite or the most complex

The articulated arm and cylindrical are two of the most


common mechanical configuration of industrial robots

One advantage of hydraulic actuator in industrial robots include


great force capability handling heavy loads

Hydraulic and Pneumatic includes two of the actuator type used


in industrial robots

Servo – a system in which the precise movement of a large load is


controlled by a relatively weak signal

Industrial robot – a programmable, multifunction manipulator


designed to move materials, parts, tools or specific devices

Robotics – the technology for automations

The number of axis a robot is free to move is called degrees of


freedom
Industrial Electronics / Principles / Applications
A diac is an AC switch
Radiation sensing – is nucleonic sensing method employing
usually one or more radioisotope sources and radiation detectors An SCR is made of silicon and not germanium because silicon has
low leakage current
EEG – concerned with the measurement of electric signals on the Gate is the control element in an SCR
scalp which arise from the underlying neutral activity in the brain
(including synaptic sources) Rate effect – an effect that reduces the possibility of accidental
triggering of the SCS
In therapeutic radiology and in nuclear medicine, the energies of
interest range from about 100 to 10000 keV Sawtooth generator is a common application of UJT

SCS is a four-layer diode with an anode gate and a cathode gate Diac does not have a gate terminal

Diac is basically a two-terminal parallel-inverse combination of An SCR is a current triggered device


semiconductor layers that permits triggering in either direction
When a UJT is turned on the resistance between emitter terminal
The typical value of the interbase resistance of a UJT is between 4 and lower base terminal decreases
to 10 kohm
A UJT has one pn junction
PUT stands for Programmable Unijunction Transistor
The UJT may be used as a sawtooth generator
Diac thyristor conducts current in both direction when turned on
The normal way to turn on a diac is by breakover voltage
SCR is a three terminal device used to control large current to a
load Essentially power electronics deals with the control of ac power at
60 Hz frequency
Seebeck effect – another term for thermoelectric effect
When the emitter terminal of a UJT is open, the resistance between
Forward blocking region and Reverse blocking region are the base terminals is generally high
the regions corresponding to open-circuit condition for the
controlled rectifier which block the flow of charge from anode to AC power in a load can be controlled by connecting two SCRs in
cathode parallel opposition

The V-I characteristics for a triac in the first and third quadrants are To turn off an SCR, reduce anode voltage to zero is done
essentially identical to those of SCR in the first quotation
Regulator – control system that maintains a speed voltage, or
When the temperature increases, the inter-base resistance of a UJT other variable within specified limits of a preset level
increases
To turn on a UJT, the forward bias on emitter diode should be more
The three terminals of a triac are two main terminals and a than the peak point voltage
gate terminal
When the temperature increases, the intrinsic stand off ratio is
A triac is equivalent to two SCRs in inverse-parallel essentially constant

In diagnostic radiology and for superficial therapy purpose, the Damping ratio – dimensionless parameter of the second-order
energy spectrum of radiation varies from about 10 to 100 keV characteristic equation

The x-ray region of the electromagnetic spectrum has a Transfer function is the ratio of two exponential functions of time
corresponding range of wavelengths from 0.1 to 0.0001 nm
A diac is turned on by breakover voltage
The three terminals of an SCR are the cathode, anode, gate
LASCR – an SCR whose state is controlled by the light falling upon
An SCR have four semiconductor layers a silicon semiconductor layer of the device

A triac is a bidirectional switch A diac is simply a triac without gate terminal

The normal way to turn on an SCR is by appropriate anode Negative-resistance region lies between the peak point and
current valley point of UJT emitter characteristics

A triac can pass a portion of both positive and negative half- Biomedical electronics – refers to the application of electronic
cycle through the load theory, technology, instrumentation, and computing system to
biological research and medical problems
A diac has two terminals
UJT exhibits negative resistance region
An SCR combines the features of a rectifier and transistor
The UJT operates in negative-resistance region after peak point
Gate is the control element in an SCR
SCR is a rectifier constructed of silicon material. Silicon is chosen
A triac have four semiconductor layer because of its high temperature and power capabilities

A diac has three semiconductor layer Photovoltaic transduction – a transduction principle used
primarily in optical sensors
The p-type emitter of a UJT is heavily doped
SCR – is a solid state equivalent of gas-filled triode
A diac has two pn junction
The supply voltage is generally less than that of breakover
A UJT is sometimes called double-based diode voltage in an SCR
When an SCR is compared to a switch, it is considered as a
The triac is fundamentally a diac with a gate terminal for unidirectional switch
controlling the turn-on conditions of the bilateral device in either
direction When the firing angle of an SCR is increased, its output decreases

When the supply voltage exceeds the breakover voltage of an SCR, When an SCR is OFF, the current in the circuit has small leakage
it starts conducting current
Servomechanism – a feedback control system in which the
controlled variable is mechanical position An SCR can exercise control over positive or negative half-
cycle of ac supply
Forward breakover voltage is the voltage above which the SCR
enters the conduction region Gyro is the most widely used attitude and attitude-rate
transducers
Root locus – a locus or path of the roots traced out on the s-plane Bellow – a sensing element which is typically made from a thin-
as a parameter is changed walled tube formed into deep convolutions and sealed at one end,
whose displacement can then be made to act on a transduction
Open-loop control system – a control system in which the output element
is related to the input by device parameters only The voltage across an SCR when it is turned on is about 1 V

Holding current is that value of current below which the SCR


switches from the conduction state to the forward blocking region
under stated conditions

Reverse breakdown voltage is equivalent to the zener or


avalanche region of the fundamental two-layer semiconductor
diode

The required gate triggering current of GTO is 20 mA

Flywheel governor – an automatic speed control device using the


centrifugal force on rotating flyweights as the feedback element

Seismic mass is the sensing element of acceleration transducer

GTO is applicable to some areas of counters, pulse generators,


multivibrators

Thy – a greek word which means “switch”

1 μs is the typical turn-on time of an SCR

An SCR is a solid state equivalent to Gas-filled triode

The gate of an SCR is positive with respect to its cathode

A normally operated SCR has an anode which is positive with


respect to cathode

Hygrometer – a device which can measure humidity directly, with


a single sensing element. It is usually calibrated in terms of relative
humidity

Bourdon tube – one of the most widely used sensing elements,


particularly for pressure ranges higher than 2 MPa

Changing gate voltage can change the angle of conduction in an


SCR

An SCR is a member of the thyristor family

An SCR have three pn junction

Sonic, Radiation & Vibrating element are methods used for


density sensing

When SCR starts conducting, then gate loses all control

An SCR when turned on has a typical voltage across of 1V

The typical turn-off time of an SCR is about 5 to 30 μs

An SCR is made of Silicon

ECG stands for electrocardiography while EEG stands for


electroencephalography

Acceleration transducers are also called accelerometers


Microelectronics
Common-mode signal – a signal that is applied with equal
The integrated circuit was invented at Texas instrument in 1958 by strength to both inputs of a differential amplifier or an op-amp
Jack Kilby
Prototype – a basic circuit that a designer can modify to get more
Inductor component cannot be fabricated into ICs advanced circuits

The purpose of a comparator in op-amps is to produce a change Operational amplifier is the most commonly used type of linear
in output when an input voltage equals a reference voltage IC

The op-amp comparator circuit uses no feedback 741 op amp has been considered as the industry standard of
linear ICs
Integrated circuit is a complete electronic circuit, containing
transistors, diodes, resistor, and capacitors processed on and Flat from dc to the critical frequency type of response that
contained entirely within a single chip of silicon characterizes the single pole, low pass filter

Planar diffusion – a process used to produce IC semiconductor An advantage of a shunt regulator over a series type it has an
elements inherent current limiting

Very large-scale integration (VLSI) integrated circuit is having The most popular IC used in timing circuits is the 555 timer
more than 1,000 gates
The total power dissipated by the operational amplifier is typically
A low power characteristic that does not apply to an op-amp 50 mW

An integrator op-amp uses capacitor as an element in the In the standard letter-number identification code of operational
feedback path amplifiers, the letter prefix which normally consists of two or three
letters identifies the manufacturer
Large-scale integration (LSI) integrated circuit is having more
than 100 gates An op amp circuit that has its output tied directly to the inverting
input terminal is called a voltage follower
The difference in Vbe values is a source of output offset voltage
Most op amp circuits use negative feedback
The voltage gain of differential amplifier equals the AC collector
resistance divided by two time the AC resistance of the D is the package suffix code for a plastic dual-in-line for surface
emitter diode mounting on a pc board
Medium-scale integration (MSI) integrated circuit is having 10
to 100 gates 25 mA is the approximate short circuit current output of 741 op
amp
Integrated circuit having up to 9 gates is called small-scale
integration (SSI) Discrete unit – a circuit whose components are soldered or
otherwise connected mechanically
VCO – exhibits a frequency that can be varied with a dc
control voltage MPP value in an op-amp is synonymous with output voltage
swing, equal to the difference of the two supply voltages,
The reason why integrated circuits are divided into digital and the maximum unclipped peak-to-peak output of an
linear categories is because they are simply circuits that amplifier
happen to be constructed integrally and like all circuits, are
either switching type of amplifying type Power bandwidth is the highest undistorted frequency out of an
op amp for a given slew rate and peak voltage
The output of a differentiator is proportional to the rate of change
of the input The summing point in op-amps is a terminal of the op-amp
where the input resistors are commonly connected
ICs have advantage over discrete device circuits which is lower
cost, high reliability, smaller size In terms of circuit component, the term pole refer to a single RC
circuit
2 Mohm is the typical input resistance of the op-amplifier when
measured under open loop 0.5 V/μs is the slew rate of a 741 operational amplifier

After assembly, the ICs are tested and classified as either military Slew rate specification of an amplifier tells how fast the output
of industrial voltage can change

Relaxation oscillator operate in the principle of the charging and 80 nA is the typical input bias current of a 741 operational
discharging of a capacitor amplifier

ICs for military and space applications are tested in the The open-loop of an op amp is its voltage gain when there is no
temperature range of -55°C to + 125°C negative feedback

For most commercial and industrial applications, ICs are tested in The term “monolithic” is derived from a combination of the Greek
the temperature range of 0°C to +70°C words “monos” and “lithos” which means single-stone

BIFET – an IC op-amp that combines FET’s and bipolar transistor RC synthesis – a technique used to eliminate the need for
inductive elements in monolithic integrated circuits
Heat sink – a mass of metal attached to the case of a transistor to
allow the heat to escape more easily Most linear ICs are low-power devices with power dissipation
ratings of less than 1 W
Digital IC processes digital signals
555 timer – an integrated circuit for both astable and monostable
Linear IC processes analog signals applications
Astable mulivibrator is a square wave clock Compensating capacitor – a capacitor inside an op-amp that
prevents oscillations
In a 5 V level detector circuit the inverting input is connected
to +5V Integrated circuit – a device that contains its own transistors,
resistors and diodes
To convert a summing amplifier to an averaging amplifier the ratio
of Rf/R must be equal to the reciprocal of the number of Slew rate provides a parameter specifying the maximum rate of
inputs change of the output when driven by a large step-input signal

An oscillator is described by unity gain and zero phase shift The absolute maximum rating for op-amps interval power
around the feedback loop dissipation is 500 mW

To use a comparator for zero-level detection, the inverting input is +-30V is the absolute maximum rating for an op-amps differential
connected to ground input voltage

In most modern IC op-amps, the 741 requires 2 power supplies The maximum CMRR of μA741 op-amp is 70 dB

In an op-amp integrator, the feedback path consist of a capacitor The letter prefix LM identifies National Semiconductor
Corporation manufacturer
Microwave ICs cover the frequency range from 0.5 to 15 GHz
μA is the letter prefix used by Fairchild semiconductor on their op-
Monolithic – considered as the fundamental form of IC amp product

Plastic dual-in-line for insertion into sockets has a package suffix Letter suffix identifies the package style that houses the op amp
code of N and P chip

The specific application of μA741C op-amp is for commercial The package suffix code for ceramic dual-in-line is J

Czochralsky pulling technique is the most common method The summing amplifier has two or more inputs, and its output
used for the growth of single crystals for IC fabrication voltage is proportional to the negative of the algebraic sum of its
input voltages
The charge-coupled device (CCD) is a unique and versatile
semiconductor structure invented in 1969 by W.S. Boyle and When higher power IC’s are needed we can use thin & thick film
G.E. Smith IC’s

Trip point – the value of the input voltage that switches the output In IC op-amps, one of the most important input characteristics is
of a comparator or Schmitt trigger the input offset current which is defined as the difference
between the base currents.
Virtual ground - a type of ground that appears at the inverting
input of an op-amp that uses negative feedback Monolithic IC’s are forms of discrete circuits

The intel i486 32-bit microprocessor incorporates 1 million


transistors on a single chip

In IC op-amps, the input bias current is defined as the average of


the two base currents

CMRR means common-mode rejection ratio, the ratio of


differential voltage gain to common-mode voltage gain

The typical dimension of a MOSFET in a single IC chip is 1.5 mils x


3 mils

Slew rate – the maximum rate that an output voltage of an op-


amp can change

Stray wiring capacitance – the unwanted capacitance between


connecting wires and ground

The typical dimension of a BJT in a single IC chip is 4 mils x 6.5


mils

The typical dimension of a diode in a single IC chip is 3 mils x 4.5


mils

Astable multivibrator is equivalent to a relaxation oscillator

If the base 10 is called decimal number system, then base 12 is


called duodecimal number system

Planar technology is the principal method used in the fabrication


of semiconductor devices for hybrid and monolithic ICs

The gain reduction in operational amplifier is known as roll-off

20 dB per decade (-20 dB/decade) – the rate of gain reduction


in operational amplifiers
COMPUTER PRINCIPLES High level is used to represent logic 0 in a negative logic circuit

William Oughtred – an English mathematician who invented the OR is a gate which has two or more low inputs signals to get a low
slide rule in 1622 output

John Van Neumann – built a computer in 1946 at the Institute of OR gate is the logic circuit having two or more inputs but only one
Advance Study (IAS), Princeton, USA, that uses binary numbers and output, with high output if any or all inputs are high, with low
stores information output only if all inputs are low
OR gate – a logic gate whose output is HIGH when a single HIGH at
Computer – an electronic device design to accept data performs its input is present
prescribed computational and logical operations at high speed and
output the result of this operation An output of logic zero can be generated by OR gate if all inputs
are zero
UNIVAC – first commercial computer introduced in 1953 that uses
valves OR gate – logic gate that generates an output of logic zero if and
only if all inputs are zero
ENIAC – the first electronic computer and was completed in 1946
A solid state device which only gives a “1” output if all inputs are
ENIAC was developed at University of Pennsylvania also “1” is called an AND gate

Presper Eckert and John W. Mauchly constructed ENIAC and AND gate – only when all inputs are logic one that this gate can
UNIVAC deliver an output of logic one

ENIAC consist of 18,000 vacuum tubes A solid state logical device which only gives a “1” output if all
inputs are “O” is called NOR gate
ENIAC could perform 5,000 additions or up to 500 multiplications
per second. To cause a three-state buffer to output 0-1 levels, the signal OE
must be at logic 1
Whirlwind I, developed at Massachusetts Institute of Technology is
capable of 20,000 operations per second The rapidly flashing logic probe tip tell you that the logic node
being probe has rapidly changing logic activity
Computers – refers to the increased use of data conversion
circuits as a result of increased application Exclusive NOR is a single bit comparator

Control unit is a group of circuits that provides timing and signals Sequential refers to the class of logic circuit containing flip-flops
to all operation in the computer
Binary counter is the counter that follows the binary sequence
ALU – refers to the part of computer that performs mathematical
operations Multiplexer logic circuit is analogous to a single pole mechanical
selector switch
ALU which carries arithmetic and logic operations process binary
numbers An encoder is an MSI(medium-scale-integrated) circuit that
provides an output code that corresponds to which of a set
Bit is the smallest part of a computer language of input line is true

A digital word consisting of only four bits is called nibble Multiplexing is called the time sharing of one line with multiplex
signals
Digital electronics – electronics methodology in solving Data selector is also called multiplexer
application problems using circuits, in which there are only two
possible voltage levels Producing one output pulse for every 10 inputs pulses refers
to a function of a decade counter digital IC
In digital electronics, there are mainly two possible voltage levels
and these make binary number system to be useful in its analysis Decade counter refers to BCD counter

8 symbols are used in octal digital number system In a system with MOS devices, the main bus loading factor is likely
to be capacitive
Hexadecimal digital number system use 16 symbols
When a logic circuit rejects an unwanted signal, this is termed as
Conversion from binary to octal number system needs a grouping noise margin
of bits by three
Speed of a logic circuit is normally expressed as propagation
The most practical way of converting hexadecimal numbers to delay
binary is to give each number its four equivalent bits
Bus is a multi-wire connection between digital circuits
Boolean algebra – mathematics used in expressing, analyzing,
and designing of digital electronic circuits Digitize is the process used to describe analog-to-digital
conversion
Karnuagh map is the most commonly used method in simplifying
Boolean expression or logical functions. In this method only 1’s and Time division multiplexing is the process of converting multiple
0’s are entered into the table, while map-entered variable analog input signals sequentially to digital output
technique includes variables into the table
A circuit that changes pure binary code into ASCII is called a code
Quine-McCluskey tabular method – a suitable method in converter
simplying Boolean expression when the system deals with more
than six variables The output pulses of the logic pulser can be used to overdrive
logic nodes high or low
Low level is used to represent logic 1 in a negative logic circuit
Circuit used to implement Boolean expression or equations: logic
gates/circuits, ditigal circuits, an binary circuits PMOS are generally supplied with a voltage up to 24 V

NAND gate – logic gate whose output is HIGH when one or all its CMOS are normally supplied with a voltage up to 15 V
inputs is LOW
By providing a pull-down resistor at the interconnection
NAND gate generates an output of logic zero(LOW) only when all (PMOS output to CMOS input) you interface PMOS to CMOS
its inputs are logic one(HIGH)
NMOS can be interfaced to CMOS by providing a pull-up resistor
NOR gate – only when all inputs are low thus, this logic gate
produces an output of HIGH Open-collector configuration – a digital IC whose output
transistor has no internal pull-up resistor
NOR gate – a logic gate whose output is logic zero every time one
of its inputs goes to logic one In digital ICs, such as buffers and registers, tri-state output
NAND gate – gates with HIGH output level every time one of its configuration is used if they are intended for “busing”
inputs goes LOW
Complementary – the output configuration of most CMOS ICs
XOR logic gate gives an output of logic one if there is and odd
number of 1’s at the input In TTL ICs, substrate pnp input configurations gives a high-input
impedance at both logic states (HIGH and LOW state)
XNOR – logic gate that gives a HIGH output when the input has an
even number of 1’s The purpose of the internal clamping diodes at the input of a logic
circuit is to minimize negative ringing effects
If the fan out of a logic gate is not enough, a buffer should be used
In TTL ICs with more than one gate available, sometimes not all
A buffer multiplies the number of gates a certain output can drive, gates are used. To handle this unused gates force the output to
and this can also be used as a voltage follower, a current go HIGH
amplifier or an isolator
To handle unused inputs in a logic gate/logic IC pull them down
XOR – is considered as a controlled inverter or up, depending on circuit function

Universal gate – a logic gate that can be wired to function like Flip-flop is the memory element used in clocked sequential logic
any other gate circuit

NOR and NAND – known as universal gates A static memory will store information even when power is not
applied to the memory
2 NAND-gates are needed to have an AND function
The reason why more cells can be stored in a given area with
3 – the number of NAND-gates needed to form an OR-gate dynamic cells is because they are smaller

OR function can be achieved by using 2 NOR gates A magnetic bubble is a solid state memory device, which
depends on the magnetic polarization of domains, usually in a
Binary 0 is the probable output if all inputs of a TTL gate are garnet type material
binary 1
Magnetic cores are non-semiconductor devices still used in digital
Noise immunity – refers to the ability of a logic circuit to memories
withstand noise superimposed on its input signal
The density of data recorded on magnetic tape is measured in bits
Fan-in – the number of logic gates of the same family that can be per inch
connected to the input of a particular gate without degrading the
circuit performance A memory circuit that has 9 address inputs have 512 storage
locations
Fan-out – refers to the number of logic gate of the same family
that can be driven by a single output of a particular logic gate Clock periods are measured from similar points on the clock
waveform
RTL – a bipolar logic family that uses resistors at its circuit
Card readers are not a storage device
DTL – logic family that uses diodes and transistors as its circuit
elements. This logic family is more resistant to noise than RTL The function of flip-flop as logic element is it stores binary data

HLDTL – a logic circuit family with a supply voltage of 25 V, and Register is not a type of flip-flop
are generally used in industry where machinery causes electrical
noise and large power line transients to occur The higher voltage level in digital gates and flip-flop circuits is Yes
or One
STTL – a variation of transistor-transistor-logic (TTL), wherein
transistor’s base and collector junctions are clamped with a Memory word is a byte data stored in a memory location
Schottky diode
Accessing is called retrieving data from memory
In a transistor-transistor-logic (TTL), if the base collector junction of
a transistor is clamped with a Schottky diode it becomes Schottky Applying ultraviolet rays can erase EPROMS
TTL. The significance of having this diode is it increases the
switching speed Stack is a segment register which normally access variables in the
program
ECL bipolar logic circuit is the fastest
Buffer is a storage device used to accommodate a difference in
CML, CSL and NSL are other name of emitter-coupled logic (ECL) rate of flow of data or time of occurrence of events when
transmitting from one device to another
Of the MOS logic family, CMOS is the fastest
Latch is a device that stays on once triggered and store one or two
conditions as a digital circuit EPROM & RPROM can be programmed, and reprogrammed after
the old programs are erased usually be an ultraviolet light
The typical number of bits per dynamic memory location is 1
EEPROM – a variation of PROM, wherein its stored data can be
Address is an output applied to Read Only Memory (ROM) erased by electrical signal instead of ultraviolet light

ROM is a kind of memory where only manufacturer can store The time interval to undertake a refresh operation in a typical
program and has a group of memory locations each permanently dynamic RAM is 2 ms
storing a word
RAM – semiconductor-based, volatile data storage device that can
In shift registers made up of several flip-flops, the clock signal be written and read randomly
indicates when to shift a bit of data from input of the flip-
flop to the output DRAM – Random access memory that needs recharging of
capacitors
The duration within it takes to read the content of a memory
location after it has been addressed is called access time Dynamic RAM (DRAM) uses capacitor as its data storage element,
while static RAM (SRAM) uses flip-flip
A static memory generally contains row and column decoders
Bubble memory – type of memory that is formed by a series of
ROM is called a memory device which holds fixed set of data in a magnetic bubbles at the substrate
circuit
Magnetic core – non-semiconductor digital memory device
Access time – an interval required to address and read out
memory word PROM programmer – a hardware used to program a PROM

Counter refers to a circuit that stores pulses and produces an Shift register – computer hardware device constructed to perform
output pulse when specified number of pulses is stored shifting of its contained data

A dynamic memory will store information as long as power is Serial to parallel register – register wherein data can be serially
applied and the memory is refreshed periodically inputted, while the output can be retrieved in parallel manner
Flip-flop – several gates combined to form the basic memory
element PLA and PAL – digital device similar to that of a ROM and whose
internal connections of logic arrays can be programmed by passing
An RS flip-flop constructed from NOR-gates would have an high current through fusible links
undefined output when the inputs R/S combinations are
HIGH/HIGH The difference between a programmable logic array (PLA) and a
programmable array logic (PAL) is that with PLA, both OR and
When a flip-flop is constructed from two NAND-gates, its output will AND- gates are programmable, while in PAL, only AND- gate
be undefined is the R/S inputs are LOW/LOW is programmable

D flip-flop – a flip-flop whose output is always the same as its Universal logic module (ULM) – a circuit used for selecting a
input. This is sometimes used as a delay element single output from multiple inputs

T flip-flop – flip-flop that changes state every time the input is Multiplexer – another name for universal logic module (ULM)
triggered
Demultiplexer – a device/circuit used to separate two or more
Master/slave flip-flop – flip-flop arrangement, such that the first signals from one line
receives its input on the positive edge of a clock pulse, and the
other receives its input form the output of the first during the Ring counter – an electronic counter in which bistable units are
negative edge of the same pulse cascaded to form a loop

Clocked flip-flop – combination of flip-flop, arranged so that they Twisted ring counter is formed when the complemented output
can be triggered at the same time of the last stage of a shift register is fed back to the input of the
first stage
JK flip-flop, T flip-flop, D flip-flop - A flip-flop without an
undefined output state condition whatever the input combination is Decade scaler – a digital circuit that produces logic 1 output pulse
for every 10 input pulses
Register – group of flip-flops used to store more bits
Binary code are converted into ASCII by code converter
Sequential access digital memory uses shift register storage
circuit Digitize – the technical term used when signals are converted
from analog-to-digital
Volatile – memory whose contents are lost when, electrical power
is removed Program is a sequence of instructions that tells the computer
machine on how available data shall be processed
Blowing fuse – can program PROMs
Diagram showing procedures that are followed, and actions taken
ROM – type of memory wherein the data are permanently stored. is called flow chart
Usually the storing of data is done during manufacturing of the
component Machine language is a medium of communication with a
computer where programs are written in mnemonics
PROM – a type of ROM that allows data to be written into the
device by a programmer. After it has been programmed it cannot An assembler, a program which converts instruction written in a
be reprogrammed again source language into machine code, which can be read and acted
upon by the computer
PROM, EPROM and EEPROM are semiconductor memory device
in which data can be stored after fabrications
Computer program – a detailed step by step of direction telling a
computer exactly how to proceed to solve a specific problem or Source program – a program in a programming language, as
process a specific task written by the programmer

Compiler is a program that translates English-like words of high A source program can run in computers only after translation into a
level language into the machine language of a computer machine code by a compiler. This machine code is referred as the
object program
Compiler is a software that converts a high level language
program into machine or assembly language program Interpreter – a program that can read a source program in high-
level language, translates, and executes the statement in one
The purpose of the fetch cycle in a computer is to obtain operation
instruction
Program – a sequence of instruction of statements designed to tell
Interpreter refers to a program that translates and then the computer how to carry out a particular processing task
immediately executes statements in a high level language
The instructions and data in a computer system is referred to as
A macro-instruction is an instruction in a source language that is Software
to be replaced by a defined sequence of instructions in the same
source language Asynchronous – refers to digital interface in which data
characteristics are individually synchronized and may be sent at a
Microprocessor – a very high-dense and probably the most time
versatile integrated circuit used in digital electronics. It is known to
function as the central processing unit of most computer A network facility used to connect individual similar network
applications segments forming a larger extended network is called repeaters

Microcomputer – the smallest computer in terms of physical size Parity detector is the circuit that detects bit error in binary
characters
Encoder – a logic/digital circuit that generates an output code for
every input signal Modem – a device that enables users to transmit computer data
and fax messages along telephone lines
Binary coded decimal gives each digit of a decimal number with
a corresponding binary equivalent Modems are device that allow computer to communicate with
other computers through telephone lines or radio frequency
Gray code is considered as minimum change code
Bridges is a network facility used to interconnect distinct network
ASCII is a 7-bit alphanumeric code that is widely used physically

Mnemonic – the op-code of a computer instruction Files in E-mail communication are sent thru attachment

JUMP – an instruction that causes the program to go to another Host – the first recipient in E-mail communication
task
Network – the interconnections of computers, terminals, and other
LOAD – an instruction that can move data from memory to the equipment
accumulator
Private data network – a network classification that is usually
STORE – an instruction that moves data from accumulator to the built and owned by a single company or government organization
memory
FETCH – part of the instruction cycle where the instruction is Public data network – a network that is built and owned by a
moved from memory to the instruction register common carrier

CLI – an instruction, which means “clear the interrupt mask” Peer-to-peer – network configuration that let computers share
their resources
Underflow – refers to a condition wherein the result of an
arithmetic operation is more negative than the capacity of the Hierarchical network – a computer network configuration that
output register makes the host computer manages a network of dependent
terminals
Overflow – refers to a condition wherein the result of an arithmetic
operation is more than the capacity of the output register Circuit switching – a network switching that creates a dedicated
temporary connection between computers in a network
Machine instructions represented by mnemonics is considered as Host – the component that provides control of supporting services
assembly language for other computers, terminals, or devices in a network

Machine language – the first generation language of instruction, Local area network – it is a type of computer networking
and is considered as the most primitive instruction that can be technology that is used to connect computers that are located
given to a computer within the same room, building, or complex

COBOL, FORTRAN, and ALGOL are examples of high-level File server – it is a fast computer with a large amount of
language secondary storage, to which all of the other computers in a network
have access for data storage & retrieval
4GL or 4th generation language – an advanced programming
language, more advance than high-level language Client/server computing – it is also known as cooperative
processing that involve using two or more networked computers to
Compiler – translator from high-level program to machine perform an application task
instructions
Printer server – a type of server that allows multiple users to take
Compiler – translates source program to object program advantage of a single printing device

Assembler – assembly language to machine language translator


Star – this topology is the most efficient centralized network for a
small company

Hub – it is the other term that is used to refer to a central device


into which each node of a star network is directly connected

Terminal – it is simply the term that is used to refer to an I/O


device that relies entirely on the host computer for processing

Diskless – workstations in a star network that can operate without


storage devices

A ring network requires that message travel around the ring to the
desired destination

Networks that transmit data across town using electromagnetic


signals are called MANs

The process of choosing a terminal on a network to receive data is


called selection

A microcomputer attached to a network requires a network


interface card

To upload is to send a file to a remote computer

To download is to receive a file from a remote computer

Network protocol – it is the term that is used to describe the


conventions of how network components communicate with each
other

Network topology – it is the term that is used to describe the


form or the shape of a network

Polling is the process of asking each remote terminal, one at a


time, if it has data to send

Hierarchical network topology has more than one level of host


computer

System Network Architecture – it describes its System Service


Control Point (SSCP), Logical Units (LU), and Physical Units (PU) as
network addressable units

Networks that include telecommunications are called WANs

A multi-network IBM token ring network is also a star network

Token ring – network topology, where stations are connected to a


concentric ring through a ring interface unit (RIU).

A router will decide which route the message or messages should


follow through the network

Bridge – used in connecting networks at different sites

Gateway – similar to a bridge, which connects networks at


different sites, it connects networks with different protocols

Repeater – used to extend the length of a network or to expand


the network
Computer Fundamentals Shorted signal lines – this type of fault has the same effect as an
internal short between IC pins
The decimal system is composes of 10 numerals or symbols
ROM does not describe a flip-flop circuit
Change in state is toggle
SET = CLEAR = 1 is the normal resting state of the SET and
A digital circuit is also referred to as a logic circuit CLEAR inputs in a NAND gate latch

CMOS means Complementary Metal-Oxide Semiconductor All arithmetic operations take place in the ALU of a computer

Microcomputer is the smallest type of computer in terms of their A full adder has 3 inputs
physical size
A full adder has 2 outputs
If each digit of a decimal number is represented by its binary
equivalent, the result is a code called binary-coded decimal A half adder has 2 inputs

BCD code has always 4 bits per number The three basic parts of a BCD adder circuit are two 4-bit adders
and connection logic
Logical subtraction is not one of the three basic operations in
Boolean algebra Accumulator is the principal register of an arithmetic logic circuit

32 bits are required to represent an eight digit decimal number in Machine language – a computer programming language in which
BCD groups of 1s and 0s are used to represent instructions. It is also the
only language a computer actually understood
The Gray code belongs to a class of codes called the minimum-
change codes, in which only one bit in the code group changes Encoder – a digital circuit that produces an output code depending
when going from one step to the next on which of its inputs is activated

The most widely used 7-bit alphanumeric code is the ASCII PLD – an IC that contains a large number of interconnected logic
functions wherein the user can program the IC for a specific
A straight binary code takes the complete decimal number and function by selectively breaking the appropriate interconnections
represents it in binary
PAL – class of programmable logic device wherein its AND array is
The number of input combinations will equal 2^N for an N-input programmable while its OR array is hard-wired
truth table
Field Programmable Logic Array – class of programmable logic
The OR operation result will be 1 if any one or more variables is a 1 device wherein both its AND and its OR arrays are programmable

AND – a circuit that operates in such a way that its output is high 2’s complement form – a result which is obtained when a one is
when all its inputs are high added to the least significant bit position of a binary number in the
1’s complement
The only input combination that will produce a high at the output of
a five-input AND gate is that all inputs should be high Astable multivibrator – a digital circuit that oscillates between
two unstable output states
AND gate is equivalent to a NAND gate followed by an inverter
Backplane – an electrical connection common to all segments of
CLC – a circuit with no memory characteristic, and so its output an LCD
depends only on the current value of its input
BDC counter – a binary counter that counts from 0000 to 1001
Karnaugh map – a graphical device used to convert a truth table before it recycles
to its corresponding logic circuit in a simple, orderly process
Ring counter – a shift register in which the output of the last flip-
The output of an EX-NOR gate when a logic signal and its exact flop is connected to the input of the first flip-flop
inverse are connected to its input is 1
Reset – a term synonymous with CLEAR in computer systems
ULSI – one of the standard levels of complexity of integrated
circuits which contains 100,000 and more number of gates Op code – that part of a computer instruction that defines what
type of operation the computer is to execute on specified data
DIP is the most common type of digital IC package
Mnemonic – an abbreviation that represents the op code of a
0 to 0.8 V is an acceptable voltage range of a logic 0 for TTL computer instruction

2 to 5 V is an acceptable voltage range of a logic 1 for TTL Monotonoicity – a property whereby the output of a digital-to-
analog converter either increases or stays the same as the input is
0 to 1.5 V is an acceptable voltage range of a logic 0 for CMOS increases
operating at Vdd = 5 V
Optical disk memory – class of mass memory devices that use a
3.5 to 5 V is an acceptable voltage range of a logic 1 for CMOS laser beam to write and read onto a specified coated disk
operating at Vdd = 5 V
Wired-AND – a term used to describe the logic function created
When the input to a digital IC is left unconnected for TTI ICs it acts when open-collector outputs are tied together
like a logic 1
Strobing – a technique often used to eliminate decoding spikes
An unconnected input is termed as floating
Glitch – a momentary, narrow, spurious and sharply defined
CMOS integrated circuit response unpredictable, may overheat change in volume
and be destroyed to a floating input
A single bit comparator is usually implemented using Exclusive Clock skew – the time difference which results when a clock may
NOR not arrive at all flip-flops at precisely the same time

An equivalent Boolean equation for an exclusive NOR is xy+x’y’ A race condition that exists if a circuit output depends on which of
two nearly simultaneous inputs arrive at a point in the circuit first
Data storage in a memory is termed as Writing
A one-input JK flip-flop is the T flip-flop
Data retrieval from a memory is called Reading
A JK flip-flop can be made to function like a T flip-flop by simply
A decoder with four inputs can have a maximum of 16 outputs connecting the J and K inputs together as one-input

Another name for a digital multiplexer is data selector The one-input RS flip-flop is the D flip-flop

An astable multivibrator has no stable state In clock circuits, SWG means Square wave generators
Strobe – an input signal that can activate or disable a gate
A bistable multivibrator has two stable states
Johnson counter – a ring counter where the output is inverted
A monostable multivibrator has one stable state and tied back to the input

A type of multivibrator circuit which generates a square wave of its Pseudo-random sequence generator – a circuit that goes
own is the astable through 2^(n-1) states in a random fashion

Don’t care – a situation when a circuit’s output level for a given Strobe – an input that disables multiplexer or demultiplexers when
set of input conditions can be assigned as either a 1 or a 0. it is HIGH

Combinational logic circuit – circuits made up of combinations Blowing – application of excessive current to a fuse in order to
of logic gates, with no feedback from outputs to inputs open it

BCD-to-7-segment driver – a digital circuit that takes a 4-bit BCD An outstanding advantage of LCDs from LEDs is that LCDs
input and activates the required outputs to display the equivalent essentially acts as a capacitor and consume almost no
decimal digit on a 7-segment display power

DC clear – asynchronous flip-flop input used to clear Q PALASM – a computer language that enables Programmable Array
immediately to 0 Logic (PAL) users to generate a file that can be used to blow a PAL

Down counter – a counter that counts from a maximum count Data bus – a type of computer bus which is bidirectional
downward to zero
Simulation table – a table used by a PLD language, such as
Bubble – small circle on the input or output lines of logic circuit PALASM, to calculate the expected outputs for a set of inputs
symbols which represent inversion of a particular signal
Configurable logic block – a programmable block of logic within
A multiplexer is described by its size through 2^N x 1, where n = a gate array, that contains a flip-flop for storage and also allows
number of bits the user to specify logic functions on its inputs

Hang-up state – a situation in a system where it can never leave Address bus – this type of bus carries the memory address from
or progress to another state the computer to the memory

Bubble diagram – a diagram consisting of a set of circles, where Control bus – this bus carries lines that control the operation of
each circle contains a number of state within it the memory from the microprocessor to the memory

Truncated counter – a counter that counts sequentially but does Memory address register – a register which holds the address of
not step through all possible states, it returns to zero after a the word currently being accessed
particular state
Memory data register – a register which holds the data being
Monostable circuit – a circuit that produces an output pulse for a written into or read out of the addressed memory location
fixed period of time in response to a trigger and then returns to its
quiescent state Prototype – a preproduction model of a system built for testing
and debugging
Tweaking – a small change made in resistance or capacitance to
time a circuit precisely Debugging – correcting the faults in a circuit or system

Astable circuit – a square wave oscillator or clock generator Asynchronous SLC – a sequential logic circuit where the storage
elements commonly used are time delay devices (usually gates)
Debouncing circuit – a circuit designed to produce a clean output
in response to a switch closure A block added to the combinational logic circuit to form a
sequential logic circuit is the memory
Duty cycle for repetitive waveform is defined as the ratio of the
ON time to the total time The state of the flip-flop before the occurrence of a clock pulse is
called as its present state
Reset – the state of a flip-flop when Q = 0 and Q’ = 1
The state of the flip-flop after the occurrence of a clock pulse is
Set - the state of a flip-flop when Q = 1 and Q’ = 0 called as its next state

Toggle – a state causing the flip-flop to change or reverse its state NAND – it is said to be a universal gate because any digital system
can be implemented with it
5 flip-flops should be used to realize 32-count capacity
D flip-flop – a flip-flop which follows its input in the next state
An n-bit binary parallel adder requires n full adders in its least
design Noise margin, which is one indication of how likely it is that
information communicated between digital building block will be
A magnitude comparator has 2^(2n) entries in the truth table incorrect due to noise, depends on the “safety margin” between
where n = number of comparator bits the output voltage produced by the transmitting block and input
voltage required by the receiving block for each of the two logic
An included input terminal in a magnitude comparator IC which is state
significant when both inputs compared are equal is called as its
cascading inputs Typical propagation delay range for modern digital integrated
circuit is 1 to 100 nanoseconds
In designing a 16 x 1 multiplexer, 4 selection lines are needed
The most commonly used IC package for digital integrated circuits
If F = xy + x’y’ Boolean expression is to be implemented using is the DIP plastic
decoders and OR gates, the connection involves 2 to 4 line
decoder with 1 OR gate A multiwire connection between digital circuit is usually called a
bus
Handshaking – a system of coordinating I/O between the
transmitting and receiving devices (A + B)’ = A’B’ is a form of De Morgan’s theorem

Screen image – an area of memory that holds the ASCII “Limbo” state of a flip-flop occurs when both outputs are the
characters that are being displayed on a monitor same

UART – an IC that transforms parallel data to serial in the A logic circuit that is triggered by a clock signal is synchronous
asynchronous format and vice versa
BCD counter - another name for a decade counter
Jump – an instruction that alters the normal course of a program
by causing it to jump to another instruction Shift register can perform parallel-to-serial data conversion

LOAD – an instruction that causes data to be brought from 0 and 1 are used in the binary number system
memory into an accumulator register
8 bits are in a byte
FETCH – the portion of an instruction cycle where the instruction is
sent from memory to the instruction register In the 7400 Family of TTC Device, Quad 2-input NAND gates has a
device number equivalent to 7400
STORE – an instruction that causes data in the accumulator to be
moved to the memory or a peripheral register Quad 2-input XOR gates in the 7400 Family of TTL device has a
device number equivalent to 7486
Underflow – this occurs when the result of an arithmetic operation
is a more negative number than the output register can A JK Flip-flop will operate in the toggle mode when J = 1, K = 1
accommodate
A digital circuit test equipment which is a troubleshooting tool that
Overflow – this occurs when the result of an arithmetic operation generates a short-duration pulse when activated manually, usually
is a larger number than the output register can accommodate by pressing a button is the Logic pulser

2’s complement – a representation of numbers when negative An RS flip-flop will not change in state when R = 0, S = 0
numbers are obtained by complementing their positive equivalent
and adding 1 A T flip-flop can be derived by connecting the two inputs of the JK
flip-flop together
Hypertext mark-up language is the language used in making an
internet web page Radix – the number of digits used by a number system

Benchmark – a program which can be executed on several There are less than 12 gates in an SSI chip
different computers to compare their speed and performance
The logic gates in a MSI chip is between 12 to 99 gates
Register – a single word memory location used to temporarily hold
data during program execution There are 10,000 or more logic gates in a VLSI chip

Trace – refer to the debugging method in which the program is Assembler is not a part of the hardware organization in an
executed one instruction at a time and the register contents can be computer
examined after each step
Software – it consists of the instructions and data that the
Console – in a computer system, it is a unit of hardware where the computer hardware manipulates to perform useful work
control keys are located
The most primitive instructions that can be given to a computer are
TTL, DTL and ECL, which are frequently used to refer to certain those interpreted directly by the hardware in machine language
“families” of digital integrated circuits, are actually names of form
general varieties of electronic circuits used as logic gates, form
which, in essence, the building blocks in each series are Assembly language – it represents machine instructions by
constructed mnemonic names and allows memory addresses and other
constants to be represented by symbols rather than bit strings
In the data sheet of a digital building block, operating speed is
typically expressed in terms of propagation delay times for Compiler – it is needed to translate a high-level program into a
both possible output transitions sequence of machine instructions that performs the desired task

The fan out capability of a digital building block depends on the Text editors and formatters belong to the area of computing known
current capability of its output and the current requirement of each as word processing
input driven by that output, and maybe defined as the number of
inputs that one output can transmit to
The processor or central processing unit is the heart of the The function of the comparator in the ADC is to tell control
computer logic when the DAC output exceeds the analog input

Processors with more than two registers for arithmetic and logical Checksum in ROM’s is a code placed in the last one or two ROM
operations are classified as general register processors locations that represents the sum of the expected ROM data form
all other locations
ROM is a non-volatile device
Interfacing (computer system) – synchronization of digital
With a RWM a processor can store data at any address and read information transmission between the computer and external I/O
back the stored information at any time devices

The system program use to translate directly an assembly An operand address is the address of the data to be operated as
language to machine language is called assembler the CPU executes the instruction called for by the opcode

SOC – a command to an ADC to start conversion CPU device puts data on the data bus during a write operation

Speeds of modems are generally classified by the number of bits Instruction mnemonic means a short abbreviation for the
per second they can transmit operation

High speed modems transmit between 2400 and 9600 bps Clock skew – arrival of a clock signal at the clock inputs of
different flip-flops at different times as a result of propagation
Low speed modems method of modulation is usually frequency delays
shift keying
Combinational logic circuit – a circuit made up of combinations
Low speed modems generally handle data rates between 300 and of logic gates, with no feedback from outputs to input
2400 bps
DMUX – a logic circuit that depending on the status of its selected
The most important memory element which is made of an inputs will channel its data input to one of several data outputs
assembly of logic gates is called flip-flop
An analog memory circuit used to eliminate aperture error is called
Low, high is the normal resting state of the SET and CLEAR a track/store amplifier
inputs in a flip-flop
Logic monitor is not a dynamic test instrument
When a flip-flop is set, Q = 1, Q’ = 0, clear Q = 0, Q’ = 1
A translated program in machine language is called an object
Synchronous control inputs and clock input are the two types program
of inputs that a clocked flip-flop have

The flip-flop can change only when the appropriate clock transition
occurs. It is a condition called edge triggered

Set up time – it is the required interval immediately following the


active edge of the clock signal during which the control inputs must
be held stable

Hold time – it is the required interval immediately following the


active edge held of clocks during which the control inputs must be
held

The triangle inside the rectangle which is part of the IEEE/ANSI


symbology at clock input indicate edge-triggered operation

D type of flip-flop is best suited for synchronous transfer because


it requires the fewest interconnections from one flip-flop to the
other

The fastest method for transferring data from one register to


another is the parallel transfer

The major advantage of serial transfer over parallel transfer is


fewer interconnections between registers

Transducer – it converts a non-electrical physical quantity to an


electrical quantity

An actuator in the DAC controls a physical variable according to


an electrical input signal

Full scale error – the maximum deviation of DAC output from its
ideal value, expressed as percentage of full scale

Setting time – the time it takes for the DAC output to settle to
within ½ step size of its full scale value when the digital input
changes from zero to full scale

Voltage DAC’s are generally slower than current DAC’s because of


the response time of the op-amp current-to-voltage converter