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Group 2

Abarintos Jr., Ronald Allan

Calangi, Tristan Philip

Hernandez, Marlon Roy

Anonuevo, Hazel

Closa, Jessa

Dimayacyac, Ziara Jane

Ortega, Vanessa

Sebolino, Veronica

Submitted to:

Ms. Marisol Laguardia


I. Objectives
1. To examine the properties of elements in various groups.
2. To observe the reaction of compounds made up of elements derived from
the same group.

II. Introduction
The periodic table is the arrangement of elements based on the
characteristics they possess like their chemical and physical properties. This
ordering shows different periodic trends, such as elements with similar
behaviour in the same column or in the same row. It also shows four
rectangular blocks with some approximately similar chemical properties.
There were some predictions made by Mendeleev based on the
characteristics set by the chemists and were accurate after discovering those
elements. This things are just some facts about the periodic table but there
are still more to explore why they are on their designated places on the
tabular arrangement.

III. Data and Observation

A. Carbonates of I-A and II-A Elements

Lithium Carbonate
Solid; White fine powder

Solubility in water:
Slightly soluble

Sodium Carbonate
Solid; White granular powder

Solubility in water:
Very soluble
Potassium Carbonate
Solid; White wax

Solubility in water:
Very soluble

Magnesium Carbonate
Solid; White pulverized powder

Solubility in water:
Slightly soluble

Calcium Carbonate
Solid; White flour powder like

Solubility in water:

Barium Carbonate
Solid; Like small white Styrofoam balls

Solubility in water:
B. Group IV-A Elements

Solid; Black fine

Solid; Clear beads

Solid; Grayish-black
like candy stones
Solid; Silver metallic

C. Group II-A Metal Oxides

Litmus paper test: BASE

blue --- blue ; red --- blue

Chemical Equation:
MgO+ H 2 O→ Mg(OH )2

Litmus paper test: BASE

blue --- blue ; red --- blue

Chemical Equation:
CaO+ H 2 O →Ca(OH )2
Litmus paper test: BASE
blue --- blue ; red --- blue

Chemical Equation:
BaO+ H 2 O→ Ba( OH )2

D. Group V-A Non-metal Oxides

Litmus paper test: ACID

blue --- red ; red --- red

Chemical Equation:
P2 O 5 +3 H 2 O(n) →2 H 3 PO 4 (aq)
Litmus paper test: NEUTRAL
blue --- blue ; red --- red

Chemical Equation:
Sb2 O3 + H 2 O→ yields no chemical reaction

Litmus paper test: ACID

blue --- red

Chemical Equation:
2 NO2 + H 2 O → HNO 2+ HNO3

IV. Discussion of Results

1. Carbonates of groups I-A and II-A elements
After having a pinch of every elements on separated test tubes we
tested the solubility of each with 5mL water then almost all of the elements
are soluble but calcium carbonate and barium carbonate which is both in
the Group IIA where in both are insoluble. At first the two carbonates may
look that they dissolved but after observing the water and the two
carbonates separates.

2. Group IV-A elements

We have observed that all elements are solid but the elements differ
in their color and appearance. The carbon is fine black powder, the silicon
is clear beads, tin looks like a stone that is grayish-black in color, while the
lead is in the form of metallic beads.

3. Group II-A metal oxides

We prepared different test tubes and added a pinch of the metal

oxides of Group IIA and added 5ml of water in each test tubes that has
different compounds. Then we tested if the compounds we prepared are
bases or acids with the litmus paper. We found out that magnesium oxide,
calcium oxide and barium oxide are all bases that the blue litmus paper
stays blue and the red litmus paper turns into blue.

4. Group V-A non-metal oxides

A. The first non-metal oxide we tested is the phosphorus pentoxide, we

added 5mL water to the phosphorus pentoxide where in the compound
releases moisture and heat and after having a test of it with blue litmus
paper the paper turn into red while the red litmus paper stays red
therefor the compound is an acid, the combination of the substances is
a phosphoric acid. Second was the antimony trioxide, we repeated the
procedure we have done on the first non-metal oxide to it where we
added water to the substance then we have observed that the
antimony oxide is insoluble but still we tested if it is base or an acid,
after testing both red and blue litmus paper nothing changes, blue
stays blue and red stays red, therefor there is no reaction formed and it
is neutral.

B. The last was we must add a copper in a nitric acid where in there is a
bubbles formed that makes a presence of gas which is the nitrogen
dioxide after that reaction we tested it with moistened blue litmus paper
so that the gas have a contact with water, then blue turns to red that
means that it is an acid.
V. Conclusion
There are different ways to classify elements within a group in the
periodic table. Some properties needs to be considered and it was used in the
experiment. First, is solubility in water which can be identified when you
combined an element and water. It may or may not fully dissolves in a fluid
without leaving any particles. You should observe this for some time before
determining its solubility. In this experiment, different kinds of elements were
also classified by their physical characteristics. Identifying a given compound
and combining it with water and test it using litmus paper to know if it is either
a base, an acid or neutral. This things can be of great help to understand why
the elements are on their designated place.

VI. Answers to Post-laboratory questions:

1. Compare the solubility in water of
a. Groups IA and IIA carbonates
 The elements under the group IA are mostly soluble while one
out of three of the carbonates that belongs to the group IIA is
slightly soluble and the other two are insoluble.
b. The members of each group IA and group IIA (from top to bottom)
 The solubility of the each element under group IA is increasing,
from slightly soluble to very soluble while the elements under
group IIA is decreasing from top to bottom as the trend goes
from slightly soluble to insoluble.
2. Based on the litmus paper test, what class of substances form when
a. Metal oxides dissolve in water?
 When metal oxides dissolves in water they form a basic
substance also known as hydroxides.
b. Non-metal oxides dissolve in water?
 Non-metal oxides which dissolves in water produces an acid
3. Why did the solution of antimony trioxide and water NOT exhibit a color
change in litmus paper?
 Because it is possible for an oxide to be neither acidic nor basic,
but is a neutral oxide and hence do not form salts when reacted
with acids or bases.
4. Why should the blue litmus paper be moistened before holding it over the
test tube with nitric acid and copper turning?
 The litmus paper should be moistened so that water can have a
contact with the gas produced by the chemical reaction of nitric
acid and copper. This is a process in other to determine if the
gas is an acid or base.
5. Why do elements within a group have similar chemical properties?
 It is because their atoms have the same number of electrons in
the highest occupied energy level also known as the number of
valence electrons. The trend in the periodic table of the no. of
valence electrons from top to bottom stays just the same.
VII. References
1. http://chem.libretexts.org/Core/Inorganic_Chemistry/Descriptive_Chemistr
2. http://www.bbc.co.uk/bitesize/standard/chemistry/acids/acids/revision/1/
3. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Periodic_table