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Arrester Application

bringing it all together!


◼ Selection (see EM
Section 14 SI 1.00 and
IEEE C62.11-1999
1. Overvoltage
2. Energy
3. Margins
4. Coordinating across the
transformer

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Arrester Selection – Step 1
a. Select an MCOV rating that is just greater than
the maximum continuous operating voltage of
the system
b. Check the system maximum temporary 60hz
over-voltage (magnitude and duration) with the
arrester temporary over-voltage capability from
the manufacturer’s curve
c. Choose the higher rating from a or b above

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Arrester Selection – Step 2
a. Select the arrester class based on the available
fault duty. The available fault duty should be
less than the arrester pressure relief rating
b. Check the energy dissipation capability of the
arrester. This is given in kilo-joules per kv of
rating (either MCOV or duty cycle rating).
Usually this is determined from switching
studies of the transmission system and is not a
concern on the distribution system.

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Arrester Selection – Step 3
a. Calculate the protective margins and
check they are adequate:
a. PM1> 20% Front-of-Wave
b. PM2> 15% Lightning
c. PM3> 15% Switching

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Arrester Selection – example:
Let’s pick arresters for the 230kv system. Step one is to select the MCOV rating.

1a. Maximum voltage for the 230kv system is 242kv from


ANSI C84.1 – 1995 so the MCOV must be at least = 242kv 3 = 139.7kv
Standard ratings available above 139.7kv are:

IEEE C62.11-1999

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Arrester Selection – example cont:

1b. The next step is to check the maximum possible system 60hz over-voltage

– First let’s check the maximum voltage rise on the un-faulted phase for
a phase to ground fault. System analysis shows a worst case maximum
voltage rise of 197kv for a phase to ground fault on the system (COG of
81.4%). Assume a clearing time of 5 cycles.
– Next check for the possibility of back-feed during clearing of a 230kv fault.
Consider a 230-34.5kv delta-wye transformer. A high side fault is also back-fed
from the 34.5kv system:

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The 230kv breakers clear
Neutral shift in 3-5 cycles

And Back-feed:
Phase to ground
fault

The 230kv line fault is


back-fed from the 34.5kv
230-34.5kv system until the reverse
power relaying clears
(up to 1 sec).

Neutral shifts during


clearing of a phase to
The xfmr high side arresters must withstand the increased
ground fault phase to ground voltage on the unfaulted phases until the
fault clears 7
Arrester Selection – example cont:

1c. The highest stress for the back-feed condition could be a maximum of
242kv for 1 second. The minimum MCOV = 242/1.46 = 165.7kv

1.46

Pick a 228kv
duty cycle:

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Arrester Selection – example cont:

2a. Next select the arrester class:


The worst case phase to ground fault duty on the 230kv system is at
Doubs and is around 50ka.

Need to select a station class arrester since the fault duty is > 16ka.

2b. Check transmission line discharge duty. Transmission studies show the
maximum switching duty on the 230kv system is within the 7KJ/kv rating for
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standard station class metal oxide arresters.
Arrester Selection – example
cont:
3a. Calculate the protective margins and check they are adequate:
a. PM1> 20% Front-of-Wave
b. PM2> 20% Lightning
c. PM3> 15% Switching

Normally margins are calculated for the transformers since they


usually have reduced insulation (less than full BIL)

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Protective Ratios for Liquid
Filled Transformers

CWW

CWW BIL
PR1 = FOW
BIL
PR2 = LPL BSL
Voltage

20KA
FOW BSL
10KA PR3 = SPL
5KA SPL
Discharge voltage at
Appropriate system
Impulse current

.1 1.0 11
10 100 1000 10000
Time in u-seconds 60 HZ
Oil Filled Equipment characteristics

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Transformer BILs:

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Arrester characteristics

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Arrester characteristics
from the manufacturer:

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Protective Margins
◼ PR1 = CWW/FOW ◼ PM1= (PR1-1) x 100% > 20%

◼ PR2 = BIL/LPL ◼ PM2= (PR2-1) x 100% > 20%

◼ PR3 = BSL/SPL ◼ PM3= (PR3-1) x 100% > 15%

Example: 230-34.5kv transformer high side:

PR1 = CWW/FOW=(825x1.1)/(559) = 1.62


PM1= (PR1-1) x 100%=(1.62-1)x100%= 62%
PR2= BIL/LPL= 825/(525) =1.57
PM2= (PR2-1) x 100% =(1.57-1)x100%=
57%
PR3 = BSL/SPL=(825x.83)/(451)= 1.52
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PM3= (PR3-1) x 100%=(1.52-1)= 52%
Protective Margins
Example: 230-34.5kv transformer low side:

PR1 = CWW/FOW=(200x1.1)/(95.8) = 2.30


PM1= (PR1-1) x 100%=(2.30-1)x100%= 130%
PR2= BIL/LPL= 200/(84) =2.38
PM2= (PR2-1) x 100% =(2.38-1)x100%= 238%
PR3 = BSL/SPL=(200x.83)/(66)= 2.52
PM3= (PR3-1) x 100%=(2.52-1)= 252%

Why are the low side margins so high?

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Coordination across the transformer:

Should you worry about Consider a temporary 60hz


Mixing Silicon Carbide and over-voltage on the 230kv side
of 200kv ph-gnd:
metal oxide arresters? SiC Duty cycle high side = 228kv
Will the high side arrester
conduct??
V low side = 200 x (34.5/230)
V low side = 30.0kv
V low side = 30.0 kv

Arrester Duty cycle = 228 kv

MOV low side arresters would


be stressed since MCOV= 24.4 kv
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Use MOVs on BOTH sides of the transformer
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OMU:

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The OMU
(optical metering unit)
◼ What is the BIL? BSL? 60 hertz withstand?
◼ How do you know? What impulse testing has been done?
Is there a design test report?
◼ Should it be protected by an arrester? Is the insulation self-
restoring? Will it flashover on the outside or the inside?
◼ What happens when it loses SF6? What is the withstand at
reduced gas pressure? Can we add gas if its energized?
◼ Should we trip it for low gas? What is the minimum
pressure that is acceptable?
◼ When its switched out could the switching surge cause a
flashover? (could the porcelain explode?)

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