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2.  Terms and definitions


2.1  Following a list of the most important valve standards:   �����������������������������001

2.2  Valve technology  ����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������012

2.2.1.  Sectional drawings of Type 3241-7 ����������������������������������������������������������� 013

2.2.2.  Sectional drawings of Type 3277 and Type 3271 with handwheel ������������ 014

2.2.3.  Three-way Valve �������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 017

2.2.3.1  Mixing service ����������������������������������������������������������������������������� 017

2.2.3.2  Flow-diverting service ����������������������������������������������������������������� 018

2.2.4.  Metal bellows seal and insulating section ������������������������������������������������� 019

2.2.5.  Valve bodies and styles ����������������������������������������������������������������������������020

2.2.6.  Valve and component terminology �����������������������������������������������������������025

2.3  Used symbols and units   ���������������������������������������������������������������������������������032

2.4  SI quantities and units of measurement  ��������������������������������������������������������044

2.5  Units derived from the SI system  ��������������������������������������������������������������������045

2.6  Formula symbols  ����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������051

2.7  Conversion Tables (Examples of SI coherent derived units)  �����������������������052

2.7.1.  Length SI derived units ������������������������������������������������������������������������������052

2.7.2.  Area SI derived units ��������������������������������������������������������������������������������055

2.7.3.  Volume SI derived units ����������������������������������������������������������������������������057

2.8  Angle SI derived units  ��������������������������������������������������������������������������������������061

2.8.1.  Solid angle ������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������061

2.8.2.  Weight and Mass SI derived units ������������������������������������������������������������062

2.8.3.  The World Clock - Time Zones �����������������������������������������������������������������064

2.8.4.  Speed or velocity SI derived units ������������������������������������������������������������067

2.8.5.  Acceleration SI derived units ��������������������������������������������������������������������068

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2.8.6.  Moment of Inertia SI derived units ������������������������������������������������������������069

2.8.7.  Density SI derived units ����������������������������������������������������������������������������069

2.8.8.  Gage pressure, atmospheric pressure and absolute pressure ����������������� 071

2.8.9.  Pressure, stress SI derived units �������������������������������������������������������������� 072

2.8.10.  Force SI derived units ����������������������������������������������������������������������������� 075

2.8.11.  Torque SI derived units ��������������������������������������������������������������������������� 076

2.8.12.  Energy SI derived units ���������������������������������������������������������������������������077

2.8.13.  Conversion table for Power units in relation to SI units ��������������������������� 079

2.8.14.  Dynamic viscosity SI derived units ���������������������������������������������������������� 081

2.8.15.  Kinematic viscosity SI derived units �������������������������������������������������������� 081

2.9  Flow SI derived units  ����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������082

2.9.1.  Temperature SI derived units ��������������������������������������������������������������������083

2.10  List the mathematical symbols   ��������������������������������������������������������������������084

2.10.1.  Greek alphabet in roman and italic type ��������������������������������������������������086

2.11  Terminology and Symbols in Control Engineering  �������������������������������������087

2.11.1.  A pre-standard for the uniform representation of requirements of the


process control engineering (PCE) and data exchange between P&ID and
PCE tools. �������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������091
2.12  Prohibitive signs according to European Standards  ����������������������������������094

2.12.1.  Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) �����������������������������������������������������094

2.12.2.  Mandatory signs �������������������������������������������������������������������������������������096

2.12.3.  Escape and rescue signs for escape routes and emergency �����������������097

2.12.4.  Fire protection symbols and additional symbols ��������������������������������������097

2.13 GHS  ������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������098

2.13.1.  Why is GHS needed? ������������������������������������������������������������������������������098

2.13.2.  Hazard Classification ������������������������������������������������������������������������������098

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2.13.3.  GHS implementation by country (67 countries listed) �����������������������������099

2.13.4. ADR ��������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������099

2.13.5. ADN ��������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������099

2.14  Identification of pipelines according to the fluid conveyed.  ����������������������108

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Following a list of the most important valve standards: Page 001 of 112

2.  Terms and definitions


Most of the terms and definitions in this book are identical to those of the standard IEC
60534-1. In order to promote understanding of industrial control valves, many new terms
and additional explanations have been integrated within this chapter.
This part of IEC 60534 applies to all types of industrial-process control valves (hereinafter
referred to as control valves). This part establishes a partial basic terminology list and
provides guidance on the use of all other parts of IEC 60534.
Valves in process, petrochemical and refining installations are subject to numerous
standards and specifications issued by many supporting organizations. Today's valve
standards are dynamic documents that reflect sound engineering practice, changes in
market demands and changes in technology and manufacturing procedures.
2.1  Following a list of the most important valve standards:

ANSI - AMERICAN NATIONAL STANDARDS INSTITUTE


ISA - The Instrument Systems and Automation Society
Definitions and Information Pertaining to Electrical Instruments in
ISA S12.1
Hazardous (Classified) Locations
Standard for Control Valve Leakage Classification
ANSI/FCI 70.2
(Fluid Control Institute)
ISA S51.1 Process Instrumentation Terminology
ANSI/ISA
S75.01.01-2002 Flow Equations for Sizing Control Valves
(IEC 60534-2-1 (formerly ISA S75.01-1985 (R1995))
Mod)
ANSI / ISA S75.02 Control Valve Capacity Test Procedures
Face-to-Face Dimensions for Socket Weld-End and Screwed-
ANSI / ISA 75.03 End Globe-Style Control Valves (Classes 150, 300, 600, 900,
1500, and 2500) (Formerly ANSI/ISA 75.12-1993)
ANSI / ISA S75.04- Face-to-Face Dimensions for Flange less Control Valves
1995 (ANSI Classes 150, 300, and 600)
ANSI / ISA
Control Valve Terminology
75.05.01-2001
Laboratory Measurement of Aerodynamic Noise Generated by
ISA S75.07
Control Valves
ANSI / ISA Installed Face-to-Face Dimensions for Flanged Clamp or Pinch
75.08-1999 Valves
Face-to-Face Dimensions for Socket Weld-End and Screwed-
ANSI / ISA
End Globe-Style Control Valves (Classes 150, 300, 600, 900,
75.08.03-2001
1500, and 2500) (Formerly ANSI/ISA 75.12-1993)

ANSI / ISA Face-to-Face Dimensions for Butt weld-End Globe-Style Control


75.08.04-2001 Valves (Class 4500) (Formerly ANSI/ISA 75.14-1993)

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Page 002 of 112 Chapter 2.  Terms and definitions

Face-to-Face Dimensions for Separable Flanged Globe-Style


ANSI / ISA
Control Valves (ANSI Classes 150, 300, and 600)
75.08.07-2001
(Formerly ISA 75.20-1991)
ISA S75.11 Inherent Flow Characteristic and Rangeability of Control Valves
Method of Evaluating the Performance of Positioners with Analog
ISA S75.13
Input Signals and Pneumatic Output
Face-to-Face Dimensions for Butt weld-End Globe-Style Control
ISA S75.15
Valves (ANSI Classes 150, 300, 600, 900, 1500 and 2500)
ANSI / ISA Face-to-Face Dimensions for Flanged Globe-Style Control Valve
S75.16-1994 Bodies (ANSI Classes 900, 1500 and 2500)
Control Valve Aerodynamic Noise Prediction,
see also IEC 60534-8-4, Industrial-Process Control Valves,
ISA 75.17
Part 8-4: Noise Considerations – Prediction of Noise Generated
by Hydrodynamic Flow.
ANSI / ISA Hydrostatic Testing of Control Valves
75.19.01-2001 (Formerly ANSI/ISA 75.19-1995)
ANSI / ISA Test Procedure for Control Valve Response Measurement from
75.25.01-2000 Step Inputs
Face-to-Center line Dimensions for Flanged Globe-Style Angle
ANSI / ISA
Control Valve Bodies (ANSI Classes 150, 300, and 600)
S75.22-1999
Formerly S75.22-1999
ISA RP75.23-1995 Considerations for Evaluating Control Valve Cavitation
ANSI/AWWA C507 Ball valves, 6" to 48"

API - American Petroleum Institute


Pipeline and Natural Gas Industries – Pipeline Transportation
API SPEC 6D
Systems – Pipeline Valves (Gate, Plug, Ball, and Check Valves)
API SPEC 6FA Specification for Fire Test of Valves
Recommended Practice for the Design and Installation of
API RP 520 Pressure-relieving Systems in Refineries, Part I “Design”, Part II
“Installation”
Sizing, Selection, and Installation of Pressure-Relieving Devices
API RP 520 PT 1
in Refineries; Part I - Sizing and Selection
Sizing, Selection, and Installation of Pressure-Relieving Devices
API RP 520 PT 2
in Refineries Part II – Installation
API RP 521 Guide for Pressure-Relieving Depressurizing Systems
API STD 526 Flanged Steel Pressure Relief Valves
API STD 527 Seat Tightness of Pressure Relief Valves

API STD 598 Valve Inspection and Testing

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Following a list of the most important valve standards: Page 003 of 112

ANSI/API 599 Metal plug valves-Flanged, threaded and welding ends


Bolted Bonnet Steel Gate Valves for Petroleum and Natural Gas
ANSI/API 600
Industries - Modified National Adoption of ISO 10434:1998.
API STD 607 Fire Tests for Soft-seated Quarter Turn Valves
Metal Ball Valves - Flanged and Butt-Welding Ends. The
standard covers Class 150 and Class 300 metal ball valves that
ANSI/API 608
have either butt-welding or flanged ends and are for use in on-off
service.
API STD 609 Butterfly Valves: Double flanged, Lug and Wafer type
Venting Atmospheric and Low-Pressure Storage Tanks Non-re-
API STD 2000
frigerated and Refrigerated

ASME - American Society of Mechanical Engineers

ASME B16.1 Cast Iron Pipe Flanges and Flanged Fittings


ASME B16.4 Gray Iron Threaded Fittings
Pipe Flanges and Flanged Fittings
ASME B16.5
(for steel, nickel-based alloys, and other alloys)
ANSI/ASME Face-to-Face and End-to-End Dimensions of Valves
B16.10 (see ISA standards for dimensions for most control valves)
ASME B16.24 Cast Copper Alloy Pipe Flanges and Flanged Fittings
ASME B16.25 Butt welding Ends
ANSI/ASME
Valves - Flanged, Threaded, and Welding End
B16.34
ASME B16.42 Ductile Iron Pipe Flanges and Flanged Fittings
ASME B16.47 Large Diameter Steel Flanges (NPS 26 through NPS 60)
ASME B31.3 Standards of Pressure Piping
Pipeline Transportation Systems for Liquid Hydrocarbons and
ASME B31.4
Other Liquids
ASME B31.8 Gas Transmission and Distribution Piping Systems
ASME B46.1 Surface Texture, Surface Roughness, Waviness and Lay
ASME Code Boiler and Pressure VESSEL
ASME Sec. V Nondestructive Examination
ASME Sec. VIII Rules for Construction of Pressure Vessels Division 1

ASME Sec IX Welding and Brazing Qualifications

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Page 004 of 112 Chapter 2.  Terms and definitions

ASTM - American Society For Testing and Materials


Standard Specification for Seamless and Welded Austenitic
ASTM A269 - 08
Stainless Steel Tubing for General Service
Standard Specification for Structural Bolts, Steel, Heat Treated,
ASTM A325 - 09
120/105 ksi Minimum Tensile Strength
Standard Specification for Structural Bolts,Alloy Steel, Heat
ASTM A490 - 08b
Treated, 150 ksi Minimum Tensile Strength
ASTM F992 Standard Specification for Valve Label Plates
Standard Specification for Envelope Dimensions for Butterfly
ASTM F1098
Valves-NPS 2 to 24
BS I - British Standard Institute

Face-to-Face, centre-to-face, end-to-end and centre-to-end


BS 2080 dimensions of flanged and butt welding end steel valves for the
petroleum, petrochemical and allied industries = ISO 5751
Cast and forged steel wedge gate, globe, check and plug valve,
BS2995:1966 screwed and socket welding, sizes 2 in and smaller, for the
petroleum industry
Cast and forged steel flanged, screwed and socket welding
BS3808:1964 wedge gate valves (compact design), sizes 2 in and smaller, for
the petroleum industry
Specification for butterfly valves
BS 5155
(DN 40 to DN 2000, up to PN 40, 300 LB)
Screw down diaphragm valves for general purposes
BS 5156
(DN 10 to DN 300, PN 6, PN 10 and PN 16)
Cast iron and carbon steel plug valves for general purposes
BS 5158
(DN 10 DN 600, PN 10 to PN 100)
Cast iron and carbon steel ball valves for general purposes
BS 5159
(DN 10 DN 600, PN 10 to PN 100) ≠ ISO 7121
Specification for flanged steel globe valves for general purposes
BS 5160
(DN 10 to DN 450, PN 16 to PN 40)
Steel ball valves for petroleum, petrochemical and allied
BS 5351
industries (DN 8 to DN 400, 150 LB to 900 LB)
Specification for plug valves
BS 5353
(DN 8 to DN 800, 150 LB to 2500 LB)
BS 5500 Unfired fusion welded pressure vessels

BS 6364 Specification for valves for cryogenic service

BS 6755 Part 2- Specification for Fire Type Testing Requirements

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Following a list of the most important valve standards: Page 005 of 112

Testing of Valves Part 2: Specification for Fire Type-Testing


BS 6755 - Part 2
Requirements
Canadian Standards Association (CSA) Standards

C22.1 Canadian Electrical Code (CEC)


C22.2 No. 94-M91, Special Industrial Enclosures

Chinese standards for steel, cast iron and metal valves

GB12220 General valve - marking

GB12221 Flanged ends metal valve - face-to-face dimensions

GB12224 Steel valve - general requirements

GB12226 General valve - gray casting iron technology requirements

GB12227 General valve - ductile casting iron technology requirements

GB12228 General valve - carbon forging steel technology requirements

GB12229 General valve - carbon casting steel technology requirements

GB12230 General valve - a casting steel technology requirements

GB12237 General valve - flanged and butt-welding ends steel ball valve

GB12238 General valve - flanged and wafer ends butterfly valve

GB12239 General valve - diaphragm valve

GB12240 General valve - iron plug valve

GB/T15188.1 Valve face-to-face dimensions - butt-welding ends valve

GB/T15188.2 Valve face-to-face dimensions - wafer ends valve

GB/T15188.3 Valve face-to-face dimensions - female screw-down valve

GB/T15188.4 Valve face-to-face dimensions - male screw -down valve

JB2311-78 Ball valve technology requirements

JB2765-81 Valve technology terms


CEN / CENELEC - European Committee for Standardization
European Industrial Valve Standards

EN 19 Marking

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Page 006 of 112 Chapter 2.  Terms and definitions

Face-to-Face and Centre-to-Face Dimensions of Metal Valves for


EN 558-1
Use in Flanged Pipe Systems - Part 1: PN-Designated Valves
Face-to-Face and Centre-to-Face Dimensions of Metal Valves for
EN 558-2
Use in Flanged Pipe Systems - Part 2: Class-Designated Valves
EN 593 Butterfly valves
EN 736-1 Terminology - Part 1: Definition of types of valves
EN 736-2 Terminology - Part 2: Definition of components of valves
EN 736-3 Terminology - Part 3: Definition of terms (in preparation)
EN 1349 Industrial Process Control Valves (in preparation)
Testing of valves - Part 1: Tests, test procedures and acceptance
EN 12266-1
criteria (in preparation)
Shell design strength - Part 1: Tabulation method for steel valves
EN 12516-1
(in preparation)
Shell design strength - Part 2: Calculation method for steel valves
EN12516-2
(in preparation)
Shell design strength - Part 3: Experimental method
EN 12516-3
(in preparation)
EN 12627 Butt weld end design (in preparation)
EN 12760 Socket weld end design (in preparation)
End to end dimensions for butt welding end valves
EN 12982
(in preparation)
CENELEC
Metallic Products – Types of Inspection Documents
EN 10204
CENELEC Electrical apparatus for potentially explosive atmospheres -
EN 50014 General requirements
Low-Voltage Switch gear and Control gear Part 5-6: Control
CENELEC
Circuit Devices and Switching Elements – DC Interface for
EN 60947-5-6
Switching Amplifiers
European Material Standards
Technical conditions of delivery of steel castings for pressure
EN 10213-1
purposes - Part 1: General
Technical conditions of delivery of steel castings for pressure
EN 10213-2 purposes - Part 2: Steel grades for use at room temperature and
elevated temperatures
Technical conditions of delivery of steel castings for pressure
EN 10213-3
purposes - Part 3: Steel grades for use at low temperatures

Technical conditions of delivery of steel castings for pressure


EN 10213-4
purposes - Part 4: Austenitic and austenite-ferrite steel grades

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Following a list of the most important valve standards: Page 007 of 112

Technical conditions of delivery of steel forgings for pressure


EN 10222-2 purposes - Part 2: Ferritic and martensitic steels for use at
elevated temperatures
Technical conditions of delivery of steel forgings for pressure
EN 10222-3
purposes - Part 3: Nickel steel for low temperature
Technical conditions of delivery of steel forgings for pressure
EN 10222-4
purposes - Part 4: Fine grain steel
Technical conditions of delivery of steel forgings for pressure
EN 10222-5 purposes - Part 5: Austenitic martensitic and austenite-ferrite
stainless steel

European Flange Standards

EN 1092-1 Part 1: Steel flanges PN designated


EN 1092-2 Part 2: Cast iron flanges PN designated, (September 1997)
EN 1759-1 Part 1: Steel flanges Class designated (in preparation)

DIN - Deutsche Institute für Normung

Flanges and their joints - Circular flanges for pipes, valves,


DIN EN 1092-1
fittings and accessories - Part 1: Steel flanges, PN designated

Circular flanges for pipes, valves, fittings and accessories, PN


DIN EN 1092-2
designated - Part 2: Cast iron flanges

Face-to-face and center-to-face dimensions of valves; Valves


DIN 3202-4
with female thread connection
Face-to-face and center-to-face dimensions of valves; valves for
DIN 3202-5
connection with compression couplings
DIN 3339 Valves; body component materials
DIN 3356-1 Globe valves; General data
DIN 3357-1 Metal ball valves; general requirements and methods of test
DIN 19234 Measurement and Control Electrical Distance Sensors

FCI - Fluid Controls Institute

ANSI/FCI 70.2 -
2006 equivalent to Control Valve Seat Leakage
IEC 60534-4
FCI 91-1-1997
Standard for Qualification of Control Valve Stem Seals
(R2003)

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Page 008 of 112 Chapter 2.  Terms and definitions

IEC - INTERNATIONAL ELECTRO TECHNICAL COMMISSION

IEC 60034-1 Rotating Electrical Machines – Part 1: Rating and Performance


IEC 60079 Electrical Apparatus for Explosive Gas Atmospheres
Electrical Apparatus for Explosive Gas Atmospheres Part 1:
IEC 60079-1
Flameproof Enclosures “d”
Electrical apparatus for explosive gas atmospheres. Part 4:
IEC 60079-4
Method of test for ignition temperature
Electrical Apparatus for Explosive Gas Atmospheres Part 7:
IEC 60079-7
Increased Safety “e”
IEC 60269 Low Voltage Fuses
Identification of Equipment Terminals and of Terminations of
IEC 60445 Certain Designated Conductors, Including General Rules for an
Alphanumeric System
IEC 60529 Degrees of Protection Provided by Enclosures (IP Code)
IEC 60534 Part 1 Control valve terminology and general considerations
Flow capacity – Sizing equations for fluid flow under installed
IEC 60534 Part 2-1
conditions
IEC 60534 Part 2-3 Flow capacity – Test procedures
Flow capacity – Section Four: Inherent flow characteristics and
IEC 60534 Part 2-4
rangeability
Flow capacity – Sizing equations for fluid flow through multistage
IEC 60534 Part 2-5
control valves with inter stage recovery
Dimensions – Face-to-face dimensions for flanged, two-way,
IEC 60534 Part 3-1 globe-type, straight pattern and centre-to-face dimensions for
flanged, two-way, globe-type, angle pattern control valves
Dimensions – Face-to-face dimensions for rotary control valves
IEC 60534 Part 3-2
except butterfly valves
Dimensions – End-to-end dimensions for butt weld, two-way,
IEC 60534 Part 3-3
globe-type, straight pattern control valves
IEC 60534 Part 4 Inspection and routine testing
IEC 60534 Part 5 Marking
Mounting details for attachment of positioners to control valves –
IEC 60534 Part 6-1
Section 1: Positioner mounting on linear actuators
Mounting details for attachment of positioners to control valves –
IEC 60534 Part 6-2
Positioner mounting on rotary actuators
IEC 60534 Part 7 Control valve data sheet

Noise considerations – Section One: Laboratory measurement of


IEC 60534 Part 8-1
noise generated by aerodynamic flow through control valves

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Following a list of the most important valve standards: Page 009 of 112

Noise considerations – Section 2: Laboratory hydrodynamic flow


IEC 60534 Part 8-2
through control valves
Noise considerations – Control valve aerodynamic noise
IEC 60534 Part 8-3
prediction method
Noise considerations – Section 4: Prediction of noise generated
IEC 60534 Part 8-4
by hydrodynamic flow

IEC 60534 Part 9 Test procedure for response measurements from step inputs

ISC - American Institute of Steel Construction

ISC Specification for Structural Joints Using ASTM A325 A490 Bolts

ISO - INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ORGANIZATION

ISO 5208 Industrial Valves – Pressure Testing of Valves


ISO 5210 Industrial Valve-Multi-turn Valve Actuator Attachments
ISO 5211 Industrial Valves - Part-turn Actuator Attachment
Metal valves for use in flanged pipe systems - Face-to-face and
ISO 5752
centre-to-face dimensions
ISO 7005-1 Metallic flanges - Part 1: Steel flanges
ISO 7005-2 Metallic flanges - Part 2: Cast iron flanges
ISO 7005-3 Metallic flanges - Part 3: Copper alloy and composite flanges
Quality Management Systems – Requirements. (Also Super-
ISO 9001
sedes ISO 9002:1994 and ISO 9003:1994
Petroleum and natural gas industries - Offshore production
ISO 10418:2003
installations - Basic surface process safety systems

Petroleum and natural gas industries - Drilling and production


ISO 10423:2003
equipment - Wellhead and christmas tree equipment,

ISO 10474 Materials Inspection for Fire Type Testing Requirements


ISO 10497:2004 Testing of Valves-Fire Type - Testing Requirements

ISO 10631:1994 Metallic butterfly valves for general purposes

Petroleum and Natural Gas Industries - Pipeline Transportation


ISO 14313
Systems – Pipeline Valves

Petroleum and Natural Gas Industries – Materials for use in


ISO 15156-1
H2S-containing environments in oil and gas production.

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Page 010 of 112 Chapter 2.  Terms and definitions

JIS - Japanese industrial valve standards and specifications from JAS - the
Japanese Standards Association
JIS B 0100:1984 Glossary of terms for valves
JIS B 0116:1978 Glossary of terms for packings and gaskets
JIS B 2001:1987 Nominal size and bore of valves
JIS B 2002:1987 Face-to-face and end-to-end dimensions of valves
JIS B 2003:1994 General rules for inspection of valves
JIS B 2004:1994 General rules for marking on valves
JIS B 2005:2004 Test procedures for flow coefficients of valves
JIS B 2007:1993 Industrial-process control valves -- Inspection and routine testing
JIS B 2031:1994 Gray cast iron valves
JIS B 2032:1995 Wafer type rubber-seated butterfly valves
JIS B 2064 Butterfly valves for water works
JIS B 2071:2000 Steel valves

MSS - Manufacturer’s Standardization Society of the Valve and Fittings Industry

Standard finishes for contact faces of pipe flanges of valves and


MSS SP-6
fittings
Standard Marking System for Valves, Fittings, Flanges and
MSS SP-25
Unions
Class 150 corrosion resistant gate, globe, angle and check
MSS SP-42
valves with flanged and butt weld ends
MSS SP-44 Steel Pipe Line Flanges
Quality standard for steel castings - radiographic inspection
MSS SP-54
method for valves , flange, fittings and other piping components
Quality Standard for Steel Castings for Valves, Flanges & Fittings
MSS SP-55 & Other Components – Visual Method for Evaluation of Surface
Irregularities
MSS SP-67 Butterfly valves
MSS SP-68 Steel Pipe Line Flanges
MSS SP-72 Ball valves with flanged or butt - welding ends for general service
MSS SP-78 Cast iron plug valves
MSS SP-82 Valves pressure testing methods

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Following a list of the most important valve standards: Page 011 of 112

MSS SP-84 Steel valves socket welding and threaded ends

NACE - National Association of Corrosion Engineers


NACE MR0175 / Petroleum and Natural Gas Industries − Materials for Use in H2S-
ISO 15156 Containing Environments in Oil and Gas Production
NACE MR0175- Sulfide Stress Corrosion Cracking Resistant Metallic Materials for
2002 Oil Field Equipment
Materials Resistant to Sulfide Stress Cracking in Corrosive
NACE MR0103
Petroleum Refining Environments
National Electrical Manufacturer’s Association (NEMA) Standards

NEMA 250 Enclosures for Electrical Equipment (1000 Volts Maximum)

NFPA - National Fire Protection Association

NFPA 10 National Electrical Code (NEC)


NFPA 58 Storage and Handling of Liquefied Petroleum Gases
National Electric Code (NEC) 497M, Classification of Gases,
NFPA 70 Vapors and Dusts for Electrical Equipment in Hazardous
(Classified) Locations
NORSOK STANDARD
L-001 Piping and Valves
M-001 Materials selection
M-501 Surface preparation and protective coating
M-120 Material data sheets for structural steel
M-121 Aluminium structural materials
M-122 Cast structural steel
M-123 Forged structural steel
N-004 Design of steel structures
UL - Underwriters Laboratories, Inc.
Standard for Safety Rapid Rise Fire Tests of Protection of
UL-1709
Materials for Structural Steel
ANSI/UL 842 Valves for flammable liquids
Table 2.1.-1:  Valve Standards

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Page 012 of 112 Chapter 2.  Terms and definitions

2.2  Valve technology

Figure 2.2.-1:  Control Valve Series 3240

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2.2.1.  Sectional drawings of Type 3241-7

Actuator Actuator Type 3271


Vent

Actuator springs
Signal pressure
connection
Actuator stem

Stem connector Valve bonnet

Travel indicator
Stem connector
scale
nut
Threaded bush-
Lock nut ing
Packing
Nuts
Gasket
Packing spring
Plug stem

Seat

Plug

Valve body Flange

Valve Type 3241


Figure 2.2.1.-1:  Sectional drawings of Type 3241 with actuator Type 3271
Note:
The basic pneumatic actuator can be replaced by an electric actuator or a pneumatic
actuator with additional handwheel.
A pneumatic actuator (with or without handwheel) can be exchanged for another pneumatic
actuator in a different size.
If, in the valve-actuator assembly, the travel range of the actuator is larger than the travel
range of the control valve, the actuator springs are pre loaded by the manufacturer so that
the travels match.

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Page 014 of 112 Chapter 2.  Terms and definitions

2.2.2.  Sectional drawings of Type 3277 and Type 3271 with handwheel

Figure 2.2.2.-1:  Sectional drawings of Type 3277

Figure 2.2.2.-2:  Sectional drawings of Actuator Type 3271 with additional handwheel

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Application
Linear actuators in particular for attachment to Series 3240, 3250 and 3280 Control Valves
and Type 3510 Micro-flow Valves.
Diaphragm area: 60 to 700 cm² Rated travel: 7.5 to 30 mm
Actuators are available with the following fail-safe actions:

Figure 2.2.2.-3:  Type 3271 (right half: with additional springs) and Type 3277 on the right side

Actuator stem extends FA (FA = ATO)


The springs cause the actuator stem to move to the lower end position (sectional drawings,
right) when the diaphragm is relieved of pressure or when the supply air fails.
Actuator stem retracts FE (FE = ATC)
The springs cause the actuator stem to retract (sectional drawings, left) when the
diaphragm is relieved of pressure or when the supply air fails.
Upstream flow of plug

Flow
Flow

FTO = Flow To Open FTC = Flow To Close

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Page 016 of 112 Chapter 2.  Terms and definitions

1. 2. 1. FTC = Flow To Close


The flowing medium wants to
close the control valve.

FTC FTO 2. FTO = Flow To Open


Flow Flow The flowing medium wants to
open the control valve.
The preferential flow direction
for the plug.
AS 1. ATC = Air To Close (FE)
When the supply air is missing,
then the spring opens the
control valve.
AS
2. ATO = Air To Open (FA)
When the supply air is missing,
then the spring closes the
control valve.

AS = Air Supply

Red arrow = Spring force


ATC ATO
Blue arrow = Air pressure
AS AS

AS AS

FTC + ATC FTC + ATO FTO + ATC FTO + ATO


AS AS

AS AS

FTO + ATO FTO + ATC FTC + ATO FTC + ATC

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2.2.3.  Three-way Valve


Depending on the plug arrangement, the three-way valve operates either as mixing or
flow-diverting valve
2.2.3.1  Mixing service
A) Actuator stem retracts (FE)

AS In mixing valves, the media to be mixed enter through ports A


and B. The combined flow leaves at port AB (Q = constant).

Actuator
ATC = Air To Close
Port B closed against the force of the springs when the signal
A
pressure increases.
AB Fail-safe action: Actuator stem retracts (FE)
When the diaphragm of the actuator is relieved of pressure or
the supply air is missing, then the springs open the port B.
B
Control valve
A AB FTO = Flow To Open
The flowing medium wants to open the port A and B.
B The preferential flow direction for the plug.

B) Actuator stem extends (FA)


In mixing valves, the media to be mixed enter through ports A
and B. The combined flow leaves at port AB (Q = constant).

AS Actuator
ATO = Air To Open
A Port B open against the force of the springs when the signal
pressure increases.
AB Fail-safe action: Actuator stem extends (FA)
When the diaphragm of the actuator is relieved of pressure or
the supply air is missing, then the springs close the port B.
B
Control valve
A AB
FTO = Flow To Open
B The flowing medium wants to open the port A and B.
The preferential flow direction for the plug.

Note: Mixing and diverting valves differ in the arrangement of their plugs. Valves in

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Page 018 of 112 Chapter 2.  Terms and definitions

sizes DN 15 to 25 have a one­piec double plug, therefore the plug arrangement is the
same in both the mixing and diverting valve.
2.2.3.2  Flow-diverting service
A) Actuator stem retracts ( FE )
In diverting valves, the medium enters through port AB and
AS
the diverted flows exit at ports A and B.

Actuator
ATC = Air To Close
Port A closed against the force of the springs when the signal
A pressure increases.
Fail-safe action: Actuator stem retracts (FE)
AB When the diaphragm of the actuator is relieved of pressure or
the supply air is missing, then the springs open the port A.

B Control valve
FTO = Flow To Open
A AB
The flowing medium wants to open the port A and B.
The preferential flow direction for the plug.
B

B) Actuator stem extends (FA)


In diverting valves, the medium enters through port AB and
the diverted flows exit at ports A and B.

AS Actuator
ATO = Air To Open
A Port A open against the force of the springs when the signal
pressure increases.
AB
Fail-safe action: Actuator stem extends (FA)
When the diaphragm of the actuator is relieved of pressure or
the supply air is missing, then the springs close the port A.
B
A AB Control valve
FTO = Flow To Open
The flowing medium wants to open the port A and B.
B
The preferential flow direction for the plug.

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2.2.4.  Metal bellows seal and insulating section


Bellows seal
In case, stricter emissions control requirements must
be met, e.g. TA-Luft or in vacuum applications, a metal
bellows is used to seal the plug stem. The plug stem is
additionally sealed with a packing at the top flange. This
packing serves as a backup packing.
The metal bellows can be monitored for leakage or
a sealing medium can be applied by means of a test
connection.

The bellows seal can be used for valves of


„„ Series 240 from –200 to +400 °C, and
„„ Series 250 / 280 from –200 to +450 °C.

Figure 2.2.4.-1:  Metal bellows seal

Insulating section
The application range of a standard packing can be
extended to an operating temperature of less than –10 °C
or over +220 °C by using an insulating section.

The temperature ranges of the various valves series are:


„„ Series 240
–200 to +450 °C Long insulating section
–50 to +450 °C Short insulating section
„„ Series 250
–200 to +500 °C
„„ Series 280
max. +500 °C
The temperature ranges specified above may be restricted
by the materials used as per the pressure-temperature
diagram

Figure 2.2.4.-2:  Insulating section

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2.2.5.  Valve bodies and styles


The valve body, valve bonnet and, in some cases, the bottom flange are subject to internal
stress caused by the process medium flowing through the valve. Consequently, the valves
must be designed to be sufficiently resistant to mechanical and chemical stress.
Under the influence of the operating temperature, the material strength changes. This
behavior can be improved by combining certain alloys. For this reason, heat-resisting
materials are used at high temperatures ( e.g. according to DIN EN 10213-1) and cold-
resisting materials are used for cryogenic service.

Figure 2.2.5.-1:  Valve bodies and styles

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Type 3271 Actuator


1. Valve body
1.1 Nuts
8 1.2 Gasket
2 Seat
3 Plug
4.1 Spring
4.2 Packing
5 Valve bonnet
5.2 Threaded bushing
5
8.2 5.3 Travel indicator scale
5.3 6 Plug stem
8.1 6.1 Stem connector nut
7 6.2 Lock nut
6.3 Yoke
6.1 (DN 200 to DN 300)
7 Stem connector
1.1 6.2 8 Actuator
1.2 6 8.1 Actuator stem
8.2 Nut
1 5.2
4.2

2 4.1

Type 3241 Valve 15


Micro-trim element 16
15 Plug stem 17
16 Valve plug 18
17 Seat body 19
18 Spring
19 Seat nut

Figure 2.2.5.-2:  Sectional drawings Series 3240

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Type 3277 Actuator

8 6.3

8.1 5.3

8.2 6.1
6.2
5.2
7
6
1 Valve body 4.2
1.1 Nuts 4.1
1.2 Gasket 1.1
2 Seat 5
3 Plug 1.2
4.1 Spring
4.2 Packing
5 Valve bonnet
5.2 Threaded bushing
5.3 Travel indicator scale 3
6 Plug stem
6.1 Stem connector nut 2
6.2 Lock nut
6.3 Yoke (DN 200 to DN 300) 1
7 Stem connector
8 Actuator
8.1 Actuator stem
8.2 Nut
Figure 2.2.5.-3:  Sectional drawings of Type 3241-7 and valve body DN 200 to DN 300

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Type 3271 Actuator Type 3277 Actuator


8 8.6
8.4
8.3

8.5
8.2 8.1
8.5
5.5
7
6.1
6.2
4.2
6
5.2
5.4
5.3
5.1
5 1 Valve body 6 Plug stem
1.1 3
1 1.1 Gasket 6.1 Stem connector nut
2
2 Seat 6.2 Lock nut
3 Plug 7 Stem connector
4.2 PTFE V-ring 8 Actuator
packing 8.1 Actuator stem
5 Valve bonnet 8.2 Ring nut for 8
5.1 Nuts 8.3 Diaphragm
5.2 Threaded bushing 8.4 Spring
5.3 Yoke 8.5 Loading pressure
5.4 Nut for 5.3 connection
8.6 Venting plug

Figure 2.2.5.-4:  Sectional drawings of Type 3251

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Page 024 of 112 Chapter 2.  Terms and definitions

8 8.6
8.3

8.4
8.5
8.2
8.1 8.5
5.5
7
6.1
5.6
6.2
5.3
6
4.2
5.1
5
1.1
1

1.2

Figure 2.2.5.-5:  Sectional drawing of Type 3254-1 (Type 3254-7)

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2.2.6.  Valve and component terminology


Actuator „See Chapter 9. Control valve actuators“
A device or mechanism which transforms a signal into a corresponding movement
controlling the position of the internal regulating mechanism (closure member or plug) of
the control valve. The signal or energizing force may be pneumatic, electric, hydraulic, or
any combination thereof.

Actuator power unit


That part of the actuator which converts fluid, electrical, thermal or mechanical energy
into actuator stem motion to develop thrust or torque.

Actuator spring
A component of pneumatic, electric or electrohydraulic actuators which generates a force
in opposite to the power unit, in order to enable a predetermined fail safe position of the
control valve (either OPEN or CLOSED).

Actuator stem
The component which transmits motion from the actuator power unit to the valve stem
(or shaft).

Actuator yoke
Part of the actuator and rigid structure which connects the actuator power unit with the
control valve body or bonnet. It consists either of a single cast yoke or of two or more steel
rods connecting the power unit and valve bonnet.

Armature „See Chapter 6. Control valve styles“


Main component of a control valve with a pressure containing housing and connections
to either a piping system or pressure vessel. It contains also the internal for changing the
cross-sectional flow area and thereby the mass flow rate through the control valve.

Ball valve
A control valve with a closure member that is either a sphere with an internal passage or
a segment of a spherical surface. The axis of the spherical surface is coincident with the
axis of the shaft.

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Butterfly valve
A control valve with a circular body and a rotary motion disk closure member, pivotally
supported by its shaft. The rotary angle comprises usually 60 degrees for control
applications and/or 90 degrees for ON-OFF services.
Control valve
A power actuated device which changes the fluid flow rate in a process control system. It
consists of a valve assembly (armature) and an actuator that is capable of changing the
position of a closure member (plug) in the valve in response to a signal from the controller
or DCS.

Diaphragm valve
A control valve with a flexible closure member that isolates the fluid from the actuating
mechanism and provides a seal to the atmosphere.

End connections „See Chapter 7. Options and modifications of control valves“


Part of the valve body configuration which makes a pressure tight joint with the piping
carrying the fluid to be controlled.

Flange
Part of the valve body configuration which allows a pressure tight joint by mating with
corresponding counter flanges of the piping system.

Gate valve „See Chapter 6.13 Gate valves“


A control valve with a flat or wedge-shaped closure member. This gate is moved linearly
across the seat by a corresponding actuator.

Globe valve with linear stem motion „See Chapter 9.2 Pneumatic actuator with a linear
or rotational movement“
The most common valve style in industry with a globular-shaped body whose closure
member moves in a direction perpendicular to the plane of the seat and changes thereby
the cross-sectional area of the seat ring.

Guide bushing
Part of the control valve which guides the moveable closure member or the stem (shaft).
The movement may be either linear or rotating (max. 90 degrees). The guide bushing is
usually exposed to the fluid and must therefore be resistant against corrosion, erosion,
high temperatures etc.

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Packing „See Chapter 7.3 Packing and gaskets“


Part of the control valve providing a seal between the moveable valve stem (shaft) and
the pressurized valve body.

Rotary plug valve „See Chapter 6.22 Rotary plug valves“


Control valve style with a rotating plug. The shape of the plug may be cylindrical, conical
or a segment of a ball. Particularly the latter (with an eccentric arrangement of the plug
and a movement between 50° and 72°) is quite common in industry.

Seat ring
A replaceable part of the trim assembled in the valve body. In combination with the closure
member it forms a restriction in the flow path.

Stem connection or coupling


Part of a control valve which connects the valve and actuator stem. Usually the stem
connector is adjustable to enable a perfect correlation between the actuator start point
and closed valve position (0% travel = zero position).

Stuffing box „See Chapter 7. Options and modifications of control valves“


Part of the stem sealing which consists of the packing, the thrust piece (or lantern ring)
and the gland. The latter enables (by means of bolts and nuts) an adjustment of the
packing, in order to reach a compromise between tightness of the stuffing box and an
acceptable friction force.

Throttling element
The moveable part or closure member of the valve which is positioned in the flow path to
restrict the flow through the valve. The closure member may be a plug, ball, disk, vane,
gate, diaphragm etc.

Valve „See Chapter 6. Control valve styles“


See armature

Valve body
Part of the control valve which is the main pressure retaining boundary. It provides the
fluid flow passageways and the piping connecting ends.

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Valve bonnet „See Chapter 7.2 Bonnet styles“


That portion of the control valve which contains the stem seals and usually provides a
connection to the valve actuator. The bonnet may be integral with, or separated from, the
valve body.

Valve trim „See Chapter 7.5 Control valve trims“


The internal parts of a control valve which are in flowing contact with the controlled fluid.
Examples are the closure member, seat ring, cage, stem and the parts used to attach
the stem to the closure member. The body, bonnet, bottom flange (when applicable) and
gaskets, are not considered part of the trim.

2.2 Other terms and functional definitions


Acoustical efficiency factor „See Chapter 8. Noise emissions of control valves“
A factor which expresses the ratio of internal sound power to the mechanical power,
mostly converted into heat, during the throttling process. The highest value of the factor
η is approx. 0.01.

Attenuation and insulation


Attenuation means an absorption of acoustical energy by means of rockwool or similar.
Insulation reduces the propagation of sound into the surrounding atmosphere.

A-weighted sound pressure level


Measured sound pressure level, weighted by means of an electrical frequency filter. Most
common is the „A“ weighting or „A“-curve which expresses an aural sensitivity similar to
the human ear.

Choked flow „See Chapter 5.4.4. Influence of vaporization (choked flow)“


A limiting, or maximum flow condition which either incompressible or compressible
fluids can reach in passing through control valves. With either type of fluid and fixed
inlet (upstream) conditions, choked flow results by the failure of increasing pressure
differentials to produce further increases in flow rate.

Critical pressure ratio


The ratio of the maximum (effective) differential pressure to the (absolute) inlet pressure.
A further increase beyond the critical pressure ratio will not yield any increase of flow rate,
if the inlet pressure of the valve is kept at a constant level.

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Flow characteristic „See Chapter 11. Application and selection criteria“


The expression of the relative flow coefficient Φ in a diagram as a function of the relati­ve
travel h.

Flow coefficient
A coefficient which expresses the flow capacity of a control valve at standardized test
conditions (Medium: water, 5 to 40°C, differential pressure: 1.0 bar). Common flow
coefficients are: Kv and Cv. Sometimes the coefficient Av is used. These flow coefficients
can be converted as shown below:
A v ⋅ 106 A ⋅ 106
Kv = Cv = v
24 28

C=
v K v ⋅ 1.16
Hydraulic diameter
The hydraulic diameter dH of a valve trim results from the ratio of the free cross-sectional
area to its wetted perimeter.

Inherent flow characteristic


The relationship between the relative flow coefficient Φ and the corresponding relative
travel h. Either inherent linear or inherent equal-percentage flow are the most common
characteristics.

Inherent linear flow characteristic


A characteristic in which equal increments of relative travel, h, produce equal increments
in the relative flow coefficient Φ.
Mathematically:
Φ=Φ+m∙h

Where:
Φ is the relative flow coefficient corresponding to h = 0
m is the slope of a straight line

Inherent equal-percentage flow characteristic


A characteristic in which equal increments of relative travel h, yield equal-percentage
increments of the relative flow coefficient Φ.
Mathematically:
Φ = Φ0 ∙ en∙h

Φ is the relative flow coefficient corresponding to h = 0


n is the slope of the inherent equal-percentage flow characteristic when loge Φ is
plotted against h. Thus when Φ = 1 then h = 1 and n = loge (1/Φ0)

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Page 030 of 112 Chapter 2.  Terms and definitions

For both the linear and equal-percentage valve characteristics, the initial value Φ0 is
determined by the theoretical rangeability Cvmax /Cvmin.

Inherent rangeability
The ratio of the largest flow coefficient to the smallest flow coefficient under consideration
of maximum allowable deviations from the given inherent valve characteristic. (Deviations
are explained in IEC 60534-2-4).

Mach number
The Mach number Ma expresses the ratio of the fluid velocity to the sonic velocity of the
fluid under consideration. Ma = 2.0 means, for example, a fluid velocity which is twice the
sonic velocity, a condition which can be achieved only in rare cases.

Measuring area
An area which surrounds the noise object (e. g. in a shape of a cylinder with a radius
r = 1.0 m). All noise measuring points are located on the surface of the cylinder, which
is used to calculate a specific noise related value which regards the length of the piping
within a noise measuring chamber.

Nominal or rated flow coefficient (Cv100)


The value of the flow coefficient at rated travel.

Nominal or rated travel


The displacement of the closure member (plug) measured from the closed position
(0 % travel) to the designated full position (100 % travel).

Octave-center frequency
Measured sound pressure level within a frequency range in the middle of an octave band.

Overt ravel
The displacement of the actuator stem, or shaft, beyond the closed position. For some
specific valve designs (for example, pilot balanced cage design), overt ravel may be
necessary to obtain the specified leakage class.

Peak frequency
The peak frequency is the frequency within the sound spectrum with the highest internal
sound power. It is determined by measuring the sound power inside the pipeline.

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Valve technology Page 031 of 112

Rated valve capacity


The rate of flow of a fluid (compressible or incompressible) that will pass through a valve
at the rated travel under stated conditions.

Relative flow coefficient Φ


The ratio of the actual flow coefficient at the relative travel h to the rated flow coefficient
at rated (nominal) travel.

Relative travel h
The ratio of the travel at a given valve opening to the nominal or valve rated travel.

Ring frequency
At the ring frequency the transmission loss of a pipeline reaches a minimum.

Sonic velocity
Propagation velocity of sound waves within solid, liquid or gaseous media. Sonic velocity
depends mainly on medium specific properties and changes with the density of the fluid.

Sound spectrum
Graphical or tabular representation of the measured sound pressure level at different
frequencies. Depending on the kind of filtering, the sound spectrum is presented as an
octave-, terz-, or narrow band spectrum.

Travel or stroke
The displacement of the closure member (plug) measured from the closed position (0%
travel).

Valve style modifier


The valve style modifier Fd is determined by the ratio of the hydraulic diameter dH to the
equivalent diameter d0 of the cross-sectional area.
The factor Fd is always smaller than 1.0.

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Page 032 of 112 Chapter 2.  Terms and definitions

2.3  Used symbols and units

Symbol Meaning Source Unit


60534-8-3
A Cross-sectional area, Area of single flow passage m2
Eq.1) (3-1)
Aä Equivalent absorption area Eq. (8-101) m2
dB(A)
A(f) Frequency dependent A-weighting value 60534-8-4 2)
(ref p0)
a Flow reserve factor = q100/qmax Chapter-11 -
ax Short cut flow reserve factor = q(ax)/qmax Chapter-11 -
c Sonic velocity (general) Eq. (4-9) m/s
cF Sonic velocity of fluid Eq. (8-71) m/s
Ci Auxiliary flow variable at non-turbulent flow Eq. (5-25a) -
cL Speed of sound in liquid 60534-8-4 m/s
c0 Speed of sound in air = 343 60534-8-4 m/s
cP Speed of sound in pipe (for steel = 5000 m/s) 60534-8-4 m/s
cp Specific heat at constant pressure Eq. (4-8) J/kg K
cR Sonic velocity inside pipe material Eq. (8-71) m/s
Speed of sound of the structure (for steel=5000
cS 60534-8-3 m/s
m/s
cv Specific heat at constant volume Eq. (4-8) J/kg K
Speed of sound at the vena contracta at subsonic
cvc 60534-8-3 m/s
flow conditions
60534-2-1 Various
C Flow coefficient (Cv, Kv or Av) 60534-8-3 see IEC
60534-8-4 60534-1
60534-2-1 Various
CR Flow coefficient (Cv, or Kv) at rated travel 60534-8-3 see IEC
60534-8-4 60534-1
US
Cv Flow coefficient ISA 75-17
gal/min
US
CvL Flow coefficient for liquid part Eq.(5-54)
gal/min
US gal/
CvG Flow coefficient for gaseous part Eq.(5-54)
min
US gal/
Cv max Calculated max. flow coefficient 60534-7
min
US gal/
Cv norm Calculated norm. flow coefficient 60534-7
min
US gal/
Cv min Calculated min. flow coefficient 60534-7
min

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Used symbols and units Page 033 of 112

Symbol Meaning Source Unit


d Nominal valve size 60534-2-1 mm
Hydraulic diameter of a single flow passage 60534-8-3
dH m
Multihole trim hole diameter 60534-8-4
Inside pipe diameter behind the valve. Smaller of
di 60534-8-3 m
valve outlet or expander inlet internal diameter
Circle diameter, seat or orifice diameter 60534-8-4 m
Diameter of a circular orifice, the area of which
d0 equals sum of areas of all flows passages at a 60534-8-3 m
given travel
Reference diameter d0 = 1 VDMA 24422 m
Reducer; expander pipe size Eq. (3-35) mm
D Valve outlet diameter 60534-8-3 m
Internal diameter of the piping 60534-2-1 mm
D1 Internal diameter of upstream piping 60534-2-1 mm
D2 Internal diameter of downstream piping 60534-2-1 mm
Do Orifice diameter 60534-2-1 mm
Internal pipe diameter 60534-8-4
Di m
Internal downstream pipe diameter 60534-8-3
60534-8-4
DJ Jet diameter m
60534-8-3
DN Diameter Nominal SVS 3) mm
E Energy potential (e.g. Geodetic Height) Eq. (3-5) m
F Frequency VDMA 24422 Hz
fji Octave band frequency 60534-8-4 Hz
fc Cut-off frequency 60534-8-4 Hz
fm Octave-center frequency VDMA 24422 Hz
fp Peak frequency 60534-8-3 Hz
fp,turb Internal peak sound frequency (turbulent) 60534-8-4 Hz
fp,cav Internal peak sound frequency (cavitating) 60534-8-4 Hz
fr Ring frequency of pipe 60534-8-3 Hz

F1 Level exponent for sound efficiency factor VDMA 24422 -

F2 Slope exponent for sound efficiency factor VDMA 24422 -

Fcav Frequency distribution function (cavitating) 60534-8-4 -

Fd Valve style modifier 60534-2-1 -

FF Liquid critical pressure ratio factor f(pv/pcrit) 60534-2-1 -

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Page 034 of 112 Chapter 2.  Terms and definitions

Symbol Meaning Source Unit

Fl Reaction force Eq. (3-11) N

Fγ Specific heat ratio factor Fγ = γ/1.4 60534-2-1 -


Liquid pressure recovery factor of a valve without
FL 60534-2-1 -
attached fittings
Fm Correction factor for two phase flow Fig. 5.7.-1 -
FTurb Frequency distribution function (turbulent) 60534-8-4 -
Combined liquid pressure recovery factor and
FLP piping geometry factor of a control valve with 60534-2-1 -
attached fittings
FP Piping geometry factor 60534-2-1 -
FR Reynolds number factor 60534-2-1 -
Fy Correction factor Eq. (5-9) -
g Gravity factor = 9.81 Eq. (3-4) m/s2
G1 Level exponent for sound efficiency factor VDMA 24422 -
G2 Slope exponent for sound efficiency factor VDMA 24422 -
hv Dissipation height Eq. (3-22) m
hx Pressure height, geodetic height Eq. (3-4) m
I Impulse Ed. (3-10) kgm/s
Jg Pressure line drop; Hydraulic gradient Eq. (3-22) -
Differential pressure ratio of incipient choked flow
Manufacturer
Kc (approximately in the range of FL3 to FL2) -
literature
Previous factor for damage prediction
Previous ∆p ratio for choked flow replaced with
Km Eq. (5-6) -
FL2
60534-2-1
Kv Flow coefficient of a valve m3/h
VDMA 24422
Kv100 Flow coefficient of a valve at nominal travel VDMA 24422 m3/h
dB
Lg Correction for Mach number 60534 8-3
(ref P0)
Lp Unweighted sound pressure level Eq. (8-1) dB
Lp(A) A-weighted sound pressure level Eq. (8-11) dB(A)
A-weighted external sound pressure level 1 m 60534 8-3 dB(A)
LpAe 1m
from pipe wall 60534 8-4 (ref P0)
dB(A)
LpAe A-weighted external sound pressure level 60534 8-3
(ref P0)
Overall external sound pressure level 1 m from dB
Lpe 1m 60534 8-4
pipe wall (ref P0)

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Used symbols and units Page 035 of 112

Symbol Meaning Source Unit


dB
Lpi Overall Internal sound pressure level at pipe wall 60534 8-4
(ref P0)
Lpa Unweighted sound pressure level (outside) Eq. (8-95) dB
Total sound pressure level (outside, multiple
LpaG Eq. (8-99) dB(A)
sources)
Lpa' Corrected sound pressure level (outside) Eq. (8-97) dB(A)
Lpar Sound pressure level at distance r from source Eq. (8-95) dB(A)
Lw Unweighted sound power Eq. (8-4) W
Lwa(A) A-weighted sound power (outside) Eq. (8-10) dB(A)
Lwa Unweighted sound power (outside) Eq. (8-6) dB
60534 8-3 dB
Lwi Total internal sound power level
VDMA 24422 (ref W0)
l Considered pipe length Eq. (3-22) m
lq Internal dimension of pipe Eq.(3-21) m
lg Decadic Logarithm VDMA 24422 -
Reference length for calculating measuring
l0 m
area = 1
lw Wetted perimeter of flow channel 60534 8-3 m
m Mass Eq. (3-10) kg
ṁ Mass flow rate 60534 8-3 kg/s
M Molecular mass of flowing fluid 60534 8-3 kg/kmol
Ma2 Mach number in valve output cross-section -
Ma Mach number of fluid at vena contracta VDMA 24422 -
Maj Mach number in jet constriction range -
Mj Mach number of jet at regimes II to IV Eq. (8-34) -
Mvc Mach number at vena contracta 60534 8-3
Mo Mach number at Valve outlet 60534 8-3 -
M2 Mach number in downstream pipe 60534 8-3 -
Mvc Mach number at vena contracta 60534 8-3 -
NPS Nominal Pipe Size mm
NSTR Strouhal number of jet 60534 8-4 -
Op1 Operating point Op1 > Op2 Chapter-11 -
Op2 Operating point Op2 < Op1 Chapter-11 -
Pa Reference pressure = 1 ∙ 105 60534 8-4 Pa
60534 8-4
P0 Reference sound pressure = 2 ∙ 10-5 Pa
VDMA 24422

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Page 036 of 112 Chapter 2.  Terms and definitions

Symbol Meaning Source Unit


pa Actual atmospheric pressure outside pipe 60534 8-3 Pa
pc Absolute thermodynamic critical pressure 60534-2-1 bar
pN Pressure at standard condition 1.013 bar 0°C VDMA 24422 bar
ps Standard atmospheric pressure (1013.25 mbar) Pa
Absolute vena contracta pressure at subsonic
60534 8-3 Pa
condition
pvc
Absolute vena contracta pressure at subsonic Eq. (5-5)
bar
condition Chapter (4.9)
Absolute vena contracta pressure at critical flow
pvcc 60534 8-3 Pa
conditions
Absolute vapor pressure of fluid at inlet
VDMA 24422 bar
pv temperature
Vapor pressure of liquid 60534 8-4 Pa
pw Wetted perimeter of flow channel m
px Static pressure Eq.(3-4) N/m2
60534 8-3
Pa
p1 Valve inlet absolute pressure 60534 8-4
VDMA 24422 bar
60534 8-3
Pa
p2 Valve outlet absolute pressure 60534 8-4
VDMA 24422 bar
p1_0 Upstream pressure at zero flow Chapter-11 -
p1_1 Upstream pressure at operating point OP1 Chapter-11 -
p1_2 Upstream pressure at operating point OP2 Chapter-11 -
p1_90 Upstream pressure at 90 % flow Chapter-11 -
p2B Absolute outlet pressure at break point 60534 8-3 Pa
p2C Absolute outlet pressure at critical flow conditions 60534 8-3 Pa
Absolute outlet pressure at region of constant
p2E 60534 8-3 Pa
efficiency
Eq. (3-39)
Pth Throttle power, Total power dissipation Eq. (4-32a) kW
Eq. (4-34)
Pi Internal sound power Eq. (8-4a) W
Eq. (8-4a)
Pjet Jet power W
Eq. (8-60c)
Q Actual volume flow acc. 60534 2-1 Edition 2008 60534 2-1 m3/h
Volume at standard conditions acc. 60534 2-1
Qs Edition 2008 60534 2-1 m3/h
1013.25 mbar and 288.5 K or 1013.25 mbar and 273.15 K

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Used symbols and units Page 037 of 112

Symbol Meaning Source Unit


q1 Flow at OP1 Chapter-11 -
q2 Flow at OP2 Chapter-11 -
q(ax) Max. short cut flow (Plant short circuit performance) Chapter-11 -
qm Mass flow Chapter-11 -
Specific gas constant Eq. (4-4) J/kg K
R
Universal gas constant = 8314 60534 8-3 J/kmol∙K
Re Reynolds number -
ReV Valve Reynolds number 60534 2-1 -
Frequency-dependent pipe transmission loss
RR(f) Eq. (8-7) -
(internal sound to external sound power)
RR Pipe transmission loss VDMA 24422 dB
RSt Actual rangeability = Cvmax/Cvmin -
R∆p R∆p = ∆pqmax/∆pqmin (Pressure differential ratio) Chapter-11 -
RCv RCv = Cvqmax/Cvqmin (Cv ratio at qmax/qmin) Chapter-11 -
rw Acoustic power ratio 60534 8-4 -
s Pipe wall thickness VDMA 24422 m
St Strouhal number -
Stp Strouhal number for peak frequency -
T Absolute fluid temperature VDMA 24422 K
T0 Reference temperature (273.15 K) K
TLcav Overall transmission loss at cavitating conditions 60534 8-4 dB
TLturb Overall transmission loss at turbulent conditions 60534 8-4 dB
TLfr Transmission loss at ring frequency fr 60534 8-4 dB
∆TLfp.turb Transmission loss corrected for frequency fp.turb 60534 8-4 dB
60534 8-3
TL Pipe transmission loss (ISA-S75.17-1989) dB
60534 8-4
60534 8-3
TLR Transmission loss in downstream pipe dB
60534 8-4
TL(f) Pipe transmission loss versus frequencies 60534 8-3 dB
TN Temperature at standard conditions VDMA 24422 K
tN Reverberation time Eq.(8-100) s
Vena contracta absolute temperature at subsonic
Tvc 60534 8-3 K
flow conditions.
Vena contracta absolute temperature at critical
Tvcc 60534 8-3 K
flow conditions.
T1 Inlet absolute temperature 60534 8-3 K
T2 Outlet absolute temperature 60534 8-3 K
u1 Inner energy Eq. (4-15) Ws
u2 Thermal energy Eq. (4-15) Ws

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Page 038 of 112 Chapter 2.  Terms and definitions

Symbol Meaning Source Unit


U Fluid velocity Eq. (4-22) m/s
Up Gas velocity in downstream pipe 60534 8-3 m/s
UR Gas velocity in the inlet diameter of expander 60534 8-3 m/s
Uth Theoretical average flow velocity Eq. (4-17) m/s
60534 8-3
Uvc Vena contracta velocity at subsonic flow condition m/s
60534 8-4
V Volume general Eq. (4-4) m3
V0 Volume at standard conditions (0°C, 1.013 bar) m3
60534-1
v Average fluid velocity m/s
Eq. (3-6)
v Specific volume Eq. (4-12) m3/kg
va Valve authority = ∆p100/∆p0 Chapter-11 -
va0.9 Valve authority = ∆p0.9/∆p0 at flow 90 % Chapter-11 -
vL Specific volume of liquid part Eq. (5-52) m3/kg
vG Specific volume of gas part Eq. (5-53) m3/kg
VK Open loop gain (Equation 11-3) Chapter-11
VR Controller gain (Control equipment) Chapter-11
VS System gain Chapter-11
W Mass flow rate 60534-2-1 kg/h
w Set point (Reference variable) Chapter-11 -
60534-8-3
Wa Sound power W
60534-8-4
60534-8-3
Wm Mechanical stream power of mass flow W
60534-8-4
Wms Stream power of mass flow and sound velocity 60534-8-3 W
W0 Reference sound power = 10-12 60534-8-3 W
x Differential pressure ratio for gases and vapors VDMA 24422 -
Differential pressure ratio for critical flow (gases / VDMA 24422
xcr -
vapors) Eq. (4-31)
xd Control deviation (Equation 11-3) Chapter-11 -
xF Differential pressure ratio of liquids 60534-8-4 -
Manufacturer`s recommended maximum limit, Lean on
xFmr -
where cavitation erosion occurs ISA RP 75-23
Differential pressure ratio of incipient cavitation
xFz 60534-8-4 -
noise with inlet pressure of 6 bar
Differential pressure ratio corrected for inlet
xFzp1 60534-8-4 -
pressure
Pressure differential ratio at choked flow (without
xT 60534-2-1 -
attached fittings)

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Used symbols and units Page 039 of 112

Symbol Meaning Source Unit


Pressure differential ratio at choked flow (with
xTP 60534-2-1 -
attached fittings)
Y Valve load =Cv/Cv100 VDMA 24422 -
y Output variable Chapter-11 -
60534-2-1
Z Compressibility factor -
VDMA 24422
±z Disturbance variable Chapter-11 -
zY Differential pressure ratio at onset of cavitation VDMA 24422 -
z75 z value with Y = 75 % load Ύ VDMA 24422 -
α Recovery correction factor 60534-8-3 -
αA Absorption coefficient Eq. (8-102) -
Contraction coefficient for valve outlet or expander
β 60534-8-3 -
inlet
VDMA 24422
∆LF Correction terms for sound level (Liquids)
industrial -
(∆LG) (∆LG) Gas, Steam
praxis
∆p Pressure differential 60534-8-4 Pa

∆p0 Pressure differential at 0 % flow Chapter-11 -


∆p_90 Pressure differential at 90 % flow Chapter-11 -
∆p100 Pressure differential at 100 % flow Chapter-11 -
∆p1 Pressure differential at Op1 Chapter-11 -
∆p2 Pressure differential at Op2 Chapter-11 -
∆pc Pressure differential for Uvc calculation 60534-8-4 Pa
Specific valve capacity factor
ε -
0.865∙Cv/DN2 = Kv/DN2
Υ Expansion factor for gases and vapors 60534-2-1 -
Velocity head loss coefficient of reducers,
ζ expanders or other fittings attached to a control 60534-2-1 -
valve
ζ1 Upstream velocity head loss coefficient of fitting 60534-2-1 -
Downstream velocity head loss coefficient of fit-
ζ2 60534-2-1 -
ting
ζB1 Inlet Bernoulli coefficient 60534-2-1 -
ζB2 Outlet Bernoulli coefficient 60534-2-1 -
ν Kinematic viscosity 60534-2-1 m2/s
η Dynamic viscosity Pa s
VDMA 24422
η Acoustical efficiency factor -
60534-8-3

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Page 040 of 112 Chapter 2.  Terms and definitions

Symbol Meaning Source Unit


VDMA 24422
ηG Acoustic efficiency factor for gases / vapor -
Eq. (8-3a)
ηF Acoustic efficiency factor for liquids Eq. (8-60d) -
ηp Acoustic efficiency factor of pipe wall 60534-8-4 -
ηturb Acoustic efficiency factor (turbulent) 60534-8-4 -
ηs(f) Frequency dependant structural loss factor 60534-8-3 -
λ Pipe friction coefficient Eq. (3-28) -
ρ Density 60534-8-4 kg/m2
ρ1 Density at valve inlet 60534-8-3 kg/m2
ρ2 Density at valve outlet 60534-8-3 kg/m2
ρe Equivalent density (at two-phase flow conditions) Eq. (5-50) kg/m3
ρL Density of liquid 60534-8-4 kg/m3
ρp Density of piping material 60534-8-4 kg/m3
ρs Density of the structure 60534-8-3 kg/m3
τ Shearing stress Eq. (3-14) N/m2
φ Friction loss correction factor Eq. (4-20) -
Φ Relative flow coefficient 60534-2-4 -
Table 2.3.-1:  Used symbols and units

1) Eq. = Equation
2) 60534 = IEC Norm
3) SVS = SAMSON Valve Sizing

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Used symbols and units Page 041 of 112

Symbols and units for the calculation of Actuators

Symbol Meaning Source Unit


A Required (effective) diaphragm area SVS cm2
c Actuator stem sealing force and other forces SVS -
CS Spring stiffness = A∙(pst100 - pst0) ∙ H/Hnom. SVS
Da Pressure balance cylinder diameter SVS mm
dsd Shaft diameter of rotary valve - mm
f FTC correction factor of fluid force F∆p (open)
f1 Friction coefficient dependent on stem seal SVS N/mm
f2 Coefficient depended on required seat sealing Class SVS N/mm
f3 Friction coefficient for pressure balanced plugs SVS N/mm
Fa Effective actuator force (thrust) SVS N
FB Bellows elastic force SVS N
Ff Ff = pst0 = pre-load spring trust SVS N
Fa/Fo Minimum safety value, Close safety factor SVS -
FS/Fw Open safety factor (SAMSON sizing Ff = FS) SVS -
FM Force due to weight, force due to acceleration) SVS N
Fm Required actuator force (thrust) pressure balanced. SVS N
Actuator trust: Max. allowed trust depends to max.
Fmax.
temperature
Required actuator thrust
Fmreq. SVS N
Fmrequ. = Fp1+FSF+FR+FRB+FM
Foreq. Required actuator trust SVS N
Fo Required actuator force (thrust). SVS N
FP Pressure force (Pst ∙ A) SVS N
Flow (fluid) forces pressure balance f(p1)
Fp1 SVS N
Fp1 = π / 4 ∙ Sd2
Friction force caused by stuffing box (packing)
FR SVS N
FR = π ∙ f1 ∙ Sd
FRa Friction force (negligible in diaphragm actuator) SVS N
Friction force (pressure balance sealing force)
FRB SVS N
FRB = π ∙ f3 ∙ Da
FS Spring pre-load trust FS = pst0 · A SVS N
Spring force (elastic)
FSE Air to open: FSE = FS + CS ∙ H SVS N
Air to close: FSE = FS + CS ∙ (Hnom. – H)
Sealing force (seat loading force) when valve closed;
FSF SVS N
FSF = π ∙ (f2 ∙ Sb)

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Page 042 of 112 Chapter 2.  Terms and definitions

Symbols and units for the calculation of Actuators

Symbol Meaning Source Unit


F∆p Flow (fluid) forces SVS N
Total friction force of valve and actuator system
Fw Fw = FR+c SVS N
Fw = FR+FRB+c ← in case of pressure balance
g Gravity acceleration g = 9.81 m/s2 m/s2
Hnom. Rated (nominal) travel SVS mm
H Actual travel SVS mm
Relative travel = H/Hnom. 60534-1 -
h
Relative travel = H/Hnom.· 100 60534-9 %
M Mass of plug and actuator stem system
MA Actuator torque SVS Nm
Mdyn Dynamic torque SVS Nm
ML Bearing friction torque SVS Nm
MSt Shaft sealing torque SVS Nm
Specified shut down pressure for actuator sizing:
∆pA take care to the required seat leakage rate and valve bar
strength parameter
∆p Pressure differential p1 - p2 bar
∆p0 Pressure differential at 0 % flow or near to min. flow bar
∆p100 Pressure differential at 100 % flow or near to max. flow
Allowed ∆p depends to the chosen actuator and
strength of the stem
with pressure balance
p1max SVS bar
(Fa − FSF − FRB − c )
p1max. =
π
S d2 ⋅
10 ⋅ 4

Allowed ∆p depends to the chosen actuator and


strength of the stem
∆pmax on plug calculation max. force see also ∆pA
∆pmax > ∆pA > ∆p0
∆pmax SVS bar
without pressure balance
(Fa − FSF − FR − c )
∆pmax. =
π
Sb2 ⋅
10 ⋅ 4

∆ps Min. required air supply – pst100 for fail safe ATC SVS bar
pst Signal pressure SVS barg

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Used symbols and units Page 043 of 112

Symbols and units for the calculation of Actuators

Symbol Meaning Source Unit


psu Supply pressure SVS barg
pst0 Lower value: spring range SVS barg
pst100 Upper value: spring range SVS barg
ps0req. Min. required pre-load spring force pst0 for fail safe ATO SVS barg
Sb Seat bore diameter SVS mm
qvmax. Operation condition m3/h
qvmin. Operation condition m3/h
Sd Stem diameter SVS mm
Spring trust / torque characteristic
S0 N / Nm
(assumed linear)
SB Actuator trust Fa = pst ∙ A to travel from 0 to 100 % N
Sz Fluid closing force {f(∆p characteristic)} N
SB 1 Required torque MA = pst ∙ A (to open rotary valve) N
SB 2 Required torque MA = pst ∙ A (to close rotary valve) N
SF Safety factor SVS -
S stat. Break-off and friction torque (±) f(∆p characteristic) N
Dynamic torque with closing tendency (-)
S dyn.
f(∆p characteristic)
Valve-Actuator opening and closing time (See Chapter 20)
acc Index for actuator accessories -
pa Atmospheric pressure SVS bar
pNV Supply network pressure SVS barg
t Stroking time of pneumatic actuator SVS s
to1, to2,
Opening times: for valve opening SVS s
to3
to1, to2,
Closing times: for valve closing SVS s
to3
T1 Inlet temperature K
TA Temperature in actuator internal volumes SVS K
Actuator internal volume, (diaphragm chamber, filled
VA SVS m3
with air)
V AV Actuator internal volume differential quotient SVS m3 d/dt
V0 Dead volume f(A) SVS m3
Table 2.3.-2:  Symbols and units for the calculation of actuators

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Page 044 of 112 Chapter 2.  Terms and definitions

2.4  SI quantities and units of measurement1


The International System of Units, universally abbreviated SI
(from the French Le Système International d’Unités), is the
modern metric system of measurement. Long the dominant
measurement system used in science, the SI is becoming the
dominant measurement system used in international commerce.
The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and the
International Electro technical Commission (IEC) both publish
a series of international consensus standards to promote
international uniformity in the practical use of the SI in various
fields of science and technology, and in particular to standardize
the symbols for various quantities and the units in which the
values of these quantities are expressed.
IEC 60027-1 - IEC 60027-4 constitute a series of international consensus standards
published by the IEC to promote international uniformity in the practical use of the SI in
electrical technology, and in particular to standardize the symbols for various quantities
used in electro technology and the units in which the values of these quantities are
expressed.
Base quantities and dimensions used in the SI
Thermo-
Time, Electric Amount of Luminous
Base Quantity Length Mass dynamic
duration current substance intensity
temperature
Unit Name meter kilogramm second ampere kelvin mole candela

Unit Symbol m kg s A K mol cd

Table 2.4.-1:  The units for measurement are defined in the International System of Units Si.
It based on the seven basic units (SI units), from which other units are derived.

SI 10-2002 “American National Standard for Use of the International System of Units
(SI): The Modern Metric System, is the product of a joint effort by Institute of Electrical
and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) and ASTM International (ASTM) to develop a single
American National Standard Institute (ANSI) standard. It is based on the International
System of Units as interpreted for use in the United States, and has been approved by a
consensus of providers and consumers that includes interests in industrial organizations,
government agencies, and scientific associations.
SI 10 is recommended as a comprehensive source of authoritative information for the
practical use of the SI in the United States. (Similar documents have also been developed
by other North American technical organizations).
Table 2.1.-1 gives the seven base quantities, assumed to be mutually independent, on
which the SI is founded, and the names and symbols of their respective units, called
“SI base units.”

1  NIST Special Publication 811, 2008 Edition


NIST= National Institute of Standards and Technology, U.S. Department of Commerce)

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Units derived from the SI system Page 045 of 112

2.5  Units derived from the SI system

SI coherent derived units

Unit Examples
Quantity Symbol Relationship
of application
Name Symbol
Length, Area, Volume, Angle

= 10 dm = 100 cm
1m
= 1000 mm
1 inch = 25,4
length l meter m
1 mm = 1000 μm mm

1 km = 1000 m

= 10 000 cm2
square Symbol S
m2 1 m2
meter = 1 000 000 mm2 only for cross-
sectional
are a 1a = 100 m2 areas.
area A, S
= 100 a Are and
1 ha
hectare ha = 10 000 m2 hectare only for
land.
100 ha = 1 km2
cubic = 1000 dm3
m3 1 m3
meter = 1 000 000 mm3

volume V = 1 dm3 =10 dl


liter l, L 1l=1L
= 0.001 m3

1 ml = 1 cm3

= 1 m/m
radian rad 1 rad
= 180°/π = 57.29578° 1 rad is
the angle
= 1.74533∙10-2 rad formed by the
degree ° 1°
= π/180 rad = 60’
plane angle α,β,γ intersection of
a circle around
minute ‘ 1’ = 1°/60 = 60’ the center of 1
m length.
second “ 1” = 1’/60 = 1°/3600

A object whose
extension
measures 1
degree in one
direction and
solid angle Ω steradian sr 1 sr = 1 m2/m2
perpendicularly
to this also 1
degree, covers
a solid angle of
1 sr.

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Page 046 of 112 Chapter 2.  Terms and definitions

SI coherent derived units

Unit Examples
Quantity Symbol Relationship
of application
Name Symbol
Mechanics

kilogram kg 1 kg = 1000 g

gram g 1g = 1000 mg
mass m mega
Mg
gram
metric
t 1 metric t = 1000 Kg = 1 Mg
ton
linear mass kilogram
m‘ kg/m 1 kg/m = 1 g/mm
density per meter
kilogram
area mass per
m“ kg/m2 1 kg/m2 = 0.1 g/cm2
density square
meter
1000 kg/m3 = 1 metric t/m3
= 1 kg/dm3 The density
kilogram
density, mass is quantity
ρ per cubic kg/m3 = 1 g/cm3
density independent of
meter
= 1 g/ml location.
= 1 mg/mm3
cubic
specific volume meter per m3/kg
kilogram

dynamic pascal
Pa ∙ s 1 Pa∙s = 1 m-1∙kg∙s-1
viscosity second
kilogram
moment of
J × square kg∙m2
inertia
meter
The force 1
N effects a
change in
force F
velocity of 1
newton N m/s in 1 s in a
kg ⋅ m J
1N 1=
= 1 1 kg mass.
s2 m
weight G 1 MN = 103 kN = 1 000 000 N

1 N∙m is the
moment that
newton × kg ⋅ m2 a force of 1 N
moment of force τ N∙m 1N ⋅ m= 1 = 1m2 ⋅ kg ⋅ s−2
meter s 2 effects with a
lever arm of
1 m.

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Units derived from the SI system Page 047 of 112

SI coherent derived units

Unit Examples
Quantity Symbol Relationship
of application
Name Symbol
Mechanics

newton
surface tension N/m 1 kg ∙s-2
per meter
radian
angular velocity per rad/s 1 rad/s = m∙m-1∙s-1 = s-1
second
radian
angular per
rad/s2 1 rad/s2 = m∙m-1∙s-2 = s-2
acceleration second
squared
1 Pa = 1 N/m2 = 0.01 mbar
pressure p pascal Pa = 100 000 N/m2
1 bar
= 10 N/cm2 = 105 Pa
1 mbar = 1 hPa
newton
mechanical per = 10 bar = 1 MN/m2
σ N/mm2 1 N/mm2
stress square = 1 MPa
millimeter 1 daN/cm2 = 0.1 N/mm2

= 1 N ∙ m = 1 W∙s
energy, work,
E, W joule J 1J
amount of heat
= 1 m2 ∙ kg ∙ s-2

Acoustic

Sound pressure
level of valve
dB(A)
(A-weighted) -
LpAe

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Page 048 of 112 Chapter 2.  Terms and definitions

SI coherent derived units

Unit Examples
Quantity Symbol Relationship
of application
Name Symbol
Time
seconds s
minutes min 1 min = 60 s
time,
time span, t hours h 1h = 60 min = 3600 s
duration day d 1d = 24 h = 86 400 s
year a 1 year = 365 days
1 Hz = 1 cycle
1 Hz = 1/s = s-1
in 1 second
frequency f hertz Hz 1 kHz = 1000 Hz
1 MHz = 1 000 000 Hz
1 GHz = 1 000 000 000 Hz
rotational
1/s = 60/min = 60 min-1
speed, 1 per
n 1/s 1
rotational second = 1 min-1 =
1/min 60 s
frequency
meter per = 60 m/min = 3.6
m/s 1 m/s
second km/h
meter per
speed, velocity v m/min 1 m/min = 1 m/min =1 m/60 s
minute
kilometer
km/h 1 km/h = 1 m/3.6 s
per hour
1 per
1/s ω=2π∙n
second
angular-velocity ω radian
per rad/s 1 rad/s = m∙m-1∙s-2 = s-2
second
Symbol g only
meter per 1m s
= for acceleration
acceleration g second m/s2 1 m/s2
1s due to gravity.
squared
g = 9.81 m/s2

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Units derived from the SI system Page 049 of 112

SI coherent derived units

Unit Examples
Quantity Symbol Relationship
of application
Name Symbol
Electricity and Magnetism

electric current I ampere A

Electric poten-
electric potential
tial difference
difference, = 1 W/A
E volt V 1V is also called
electromotive = 1 m2 ∙ kg s-3 ∙ A-1
“voltage” in the
force
United States
electric field volt per
E V/m 1 V/m = 1 m · kg · s−3 · A−1
strength meter
electric = 1 V/A
R ohm Ω 1Ω
resistance = 1 m2 · kg · s−3 · A−2
specific ohm × = 1 10-6∙Ω∙m
ϱ Ω∙m 1 Ω∙m
resistance meter = 1 Ω∙mm2/m
= 1 C/V
capacitance C farad F 1F
= 1 m−2·kg−1·s4·A2
farad per
permittivity C F/m 1 F/m = 1 m−3·kg−1·s4·A2
meter
electric = 1 A/V
G siemens S 1S
conductance = 1 m−2·kg−1·s3·A2
= 1 V∙s
magnetic flux Φ weber Wb 1 Wb
= 1 m2·kg·s−2·A−1
magnetic flux = 1 Wb/m2
tesla T 1T
density = 1 kg·s−2·A−1
= 1 Wb/A
inductance L henry H 1H
= 1 m2·kg·s−2·A−2
henry per
permeability H/m 1 H/m = 1 m · kg·s−2·A−2
meter
electric charge,
amount of elec- Q coulomb C 1C = s∙A
tricity
coulomb
electric charge
Q per cubic C/m3 1 C/m3 = 1 m−3·s·A
density
meter
surface charge
density coulomb
per
electric flux Q square C/m2 1 C/m2 = 1 m−2∙s·A
density, meter
electric
displacement

power = 1 J/s = 1 N∙m/s


P watt W 1W
radiant flux = 1 V A = 1 m2 kg s-3

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Page 050 of 112 Chapter 2.  Terms and definitions

SI coherent derived units

Unit Examples
Quantity Symbol Relationship
of application
Name Symbol
Electricity and Magnetism
1J = 1 W∙s = 1 N∙m
electrical energy W joule J 1 kW∙h = 3.6 J
1 W∙h = 3.6 kJ

efficiency η
P
phase difference φ cos ϕ =
U ⋅I

Thermodynamics and Heat transfer

thermodynamic
T, Θ kelvin K
temperature

The degree Celsius is the special


celsius degree
t, θ °C name for the kelvin used to express
temperature Celsius
Celsius temperatures.
joule per 1 J/mol = 1 m2·kg·s−2·mol−1
molar energy Em J/mol
mole 1 kJ/mol = 0.239 kcal/mol
molar entropy, joule per
J/(mol
molar heat ca- S mole 1 J/(mol·K) = 1 m2·kg·s−2·K−1·mol−1
·K)
pacity kelvin
heat capacity, joule per
Q J/K 1 J/K = 1 m2·kg·s−2·K−1
entropy kelvin
specific heat joule per
capacity, S kilogram J/(kg · K) 1 J/(kg · K) = 1 m2·s−2·K−1
specific entropy kelvin
joule per
specific energy E J/kg 1 J/kg = 1 m2∙s−2
kilogram
1J = 1 W∙s = 1 N∙m = 1 kg∙m2∙s-2
quantity of heat Q joule J 1 kW∙h = 3 600 000 J = 3.6 MJ
1 kcal  4.1868 kJ
molar volume Vm m3/mol Vm = V/n
molar mass M kg/mol M = m/n
Table 2.5.-1:  SI coherent derived units

The kelvin and its symbol K are also used to express the value of a temperature interval
or a temperature difference.

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Formula symbols Page 051 of 112

2.6  Formula symbols


Formula Formula Formula
Meaning Meaning Meaning
symbols symbols symbols
Length, Area, Volume, Angle
l length r, R radius α, β, γ planar angle
w width d, D diameter Ω solid angle
h height A, S area, cross-section λ wave length
s linear distance V volume
Mechanics
m mass F force G shear modulus
gravitational force,
m’ linear mass density Fw, W μ, f coefficient of friction
weight
m’’ area mass density M torque W section modulus
second moment of an
ρ density T torsional moment l
area
J moment of inertia Mb bending moment W, E work, energy
P pressure σ normal stress Wp, Ep potential energy
Pabs absolute pressure τ shear stress Wk, Ek kinetic energy
Pamb ambient pressure ε normal strain P power
Pg gage pressure E modulus of elasticity η efficiency
Time
t time, duration f, ν frequency a acceleration
gravitational
T cycle duration v, u velocity g
acceleration
revolution frequency,
n ω angular velocity α angular acceleration
speed
Q, V, qv volumetric flow rate
Electricity
electric charge,
Q L inductance X reactance
quantity of electricity
E electromotive force R resistance resistance Z impedance
C capacitance ϱ specific φ phase difference
I electric current γ, χ electrical conductivity N number of turns
Heat
thermodynamic
T, Θ Q heat, quantity of heat Φ, heat flow
temperature
∆T, ∆t, ∆θ temperature difference λ conductivity a thermal diffusivity
heat transition
t, θ celsius temperature α c specific heat
coefficient
coefficient of linear heat transmission
αl k Hnet net calorific value
expansion coefficient
Acoustic

p acoustic pressure Lp acoustic pressure level N loudness

c acoustic velocity Ι sound intensity LN loudness level


Table 2.6.-1:  Formula symbols

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Page 052 of 112 Chapter 2.  Terms and definitions

2.7  Conversion Tables (Examples of SI coherent derived units)


2.7.1.  Length SI derived units
μm
Unit mm cm m (SI unit) km
micrometer
1 μInch = 2.54×10-2 2.54×10-5 2.54×10-6 2.54×10-8 2.54×10-11
1 Inch = 2540 25.4 2.54 2.54×10-2 2.54×10-5
1 foot = 0.3048 304.8 30.48 0.3048 3.048×10-4
1 yard = 914 400 914.4 91.44 0.9144 9.144×10-4
1 mile = 1.609×109 1.609×106 160 934.4 1609.344 1.609 344

Note: 12 inch = 1 foot (ft) 3 feet = 1 yard (yd)

μInch
Unit Inch foot yard mile
micro inch
1 μm 39.370 3.937×10-5 3.280×10-6 1.093×10-6 6.213×10-10
1 mm = 39.370×103 3.937×10-2 3.280×10-3 1.093×10-3 6.213×10-7
1 cm = 39.370×104 3.937×10-1 3.280×10-2 1.093×10-2 6.213×10-6
1m= 39.370×106 39.370 3.28084 1.09361 6.213×10-4
1 km = 39.370×109 39 370.1 3280.84 1093.61 6.213×10-1

Conversion table for Length units in relation to SI units


Name of unit Symbol Definition Relation to SI units

≡ Distance light travels in 1/299


metre (SI base unit) m =1m
792 458 of a second in vacuum

ångström Å ≡ 1 × 10−10 m = 0.1 nm


astronomical unit AU ≈ Distance from Earth to Sun ≈ 149 597 871 464 m
≈ 5.291  772  085  9  ×  10−11 ±
bohr, atomic unit of length a0 ≡ Bohr radius of hydrogen
3.6 × 10−20 m
≡ ⅓ in (see note above about
barleycorn (H) ≈ 0.008 m
rounding)
cable length (Imperial) ≡ 608 ft = 185.318 4 m
cable length (International) ≡ 1/10 nmi = 185.2 m
cable length (U.S.) ≡ 720 ft = 219.456 m
chain (Gunter's;
ch ≡ 66 ft ≡ 4 rods = 20.116 8 m
Surveyor's)
≡ Distance from fingers to elbow
cubit (H) ≈ 0.5 m
≈ 18in
ell (H) ell ≡ 45 in [3] = 1.143 m

fathom fm ≡ 6 ft [3] = 1.8288 m

fermi fm ≡ 1 × 10−15 m = 1 × 10−15 m

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Conversion Tables (Examples of SI coherent derived units) Page 053 of 112

Name of unit Symbol Definition Relation to SI units

finger ≡ 7/8 in = 0.022 225 m


finger (cloth) ≡ 4 ½ in = 0.114 3 m
foot (Benoît)(H) ft (Ben) ≈ 0.304 799 735 m
foot (Clarke's; Cape)(H) ft (Cla) ≈ 0.304 797 265 4 m
foot (Indian)(H) ft Ind ≈ 0.304 799 514 m
foot (International) ft ≡ 1/3 yd = 12 inches = 0.304 8 m
foot (Sear's)(H) ft (Sear) ≈ 0.304 799 47 m
foot (U.S. Survey) ft (US) ≡ 1 200/3 937 m ≈ 0.304 800 610 m
french; charriere F ≡ 1/3 mm = 3.3  × 10−4 m
furlong fur ≡ 10 chains = 660 ft = 220 yd = 201.168 m
geographical mile (H) ≡ 6 082 ft = 1 853.793 6 m
hand ≡ 4 in = 0.1016 m
inch in ≡ 1/36 yd = 1/12 ft = 0.0254 m
league (land) lea ≡ 3 US Statute miles = 4 828.032 m
light-day ≡ 24 light-hours = 2.590 206 837 12 × 1013 m
light-hour ≡ 60 light-minutes = 1.079 252 848 8 × 1012 m
light-minute ≡ 60 light-seconds = 1.798 754 748 × 1010 m
≡ Distance light travels in one
light-second = 2.997 924 58 × 108 m
second in vacuum
≡ Distance light travels in vacuum
light-year l.y. = 9.460 730 473 × 1015 m
in 365.25 days
line ln ≡ 1/12 in = 0.002 116 m
link (Gunter's; Surveyor's) lnk ≡ 1/100 ch = 0.201 168 m
link (Ramsden's;
lnk ≡ 1 ft = 0.304 8 m
Engineer's)
mickey ≡ 1/200 in = 1.27 × 10−4 m
micron µ ≡ 1 × 10−6 m
mil; thou mil ≡ 1 × 10−3 in = 2.54 × 10−5 m
mil (Sweden and Norway) mil ≡ 10 km = 10 000 m
mile mi ≡ 1 760 yd = 5 280 ft = 80 chains = 1 609.344 m
= 5 280 × 1 200/3 937 m
mile (U.S. Survey) mi ≡ 5 280 ft (US Survey feet)
≈ 1 609.347 219 m
nail (cloth) ≡ 2 ¼ in = 0.057 15 m

nautical league NL; nl ≡ 3 nmi = 5 556 m

nautical mile(international) NM; nmi ≡ 1 852 m = 1 852 m

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Page 054 of 112 Chapter 2.  Terms and definitions

Name of unit Symbol Definition Relation to SI units


NM
(Adm);
nautical mile (Admiralty) ≡ 6 080 ft ≡ 1 853.184 m
nmi
(Adm)
pace ≡ 2.5 ft = 0.762 m
palm ≡ 3 in = 0.076 2 m
Distance of star with parallax
≈ 3.085  677  82  ×  1016 ±
parsec pc shift of one arc second from a
6 × 106 m
base of one astronomical unit
point (American, English) pt ≡ 1/72.272 in ≈ 1/12 × 35/83 cm ≈ 0.000 351 450 m
≡ 1/12 × 1/72 of pied du roi; ≈ 0.000 375 97 m;
point (Didot; European) pt After 1878: After 1878:

≡ 5/133 cm ≈ 0.000 375 939 85 m
point (metric) pt ≡ 3/8 mm = 0.000 375 m[citation needed]
point (PostScript) pt ≡ 1/72 in = 0.000 352 7 m
point (TeX) pt ≡ 1/72.27 in = 0.000 351 459 8 m
quarter ≡ 1/4 yd = 0.228 6 m
rod; pole; perch (H) rd ≡ 16 ½ ft = 5.029 2 m
rope (H) rope ≡ 20 ft = 6.096 m
span (H) ≡ 9 in = 0.228 6 m
spat[13] ≡ 1 × 1012 m
stick (H) ≡ 2 in = 0.050 8 m
pm, stigma, or bicron ≡ 1 × 10−12 m
telegraph mile (H) mi ≡ 6 087 ft = 1 855.317 6 m
twip twp ≡ 1/1 440 in = 1.763 8 × 10−5 m
x unit; siegbahn xu ≈ 1.002 1 × 10−13 m
yard (International) yd ≡ 0.914 4 m ≡ 3 ft ≡ 36 in ≡ 0.9144 m
Table 2.7.1.-1:  Length SI derived units

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Conversion Tables (Examples of SI coherent derived units) Page 055 of 112

2.7.2.  Area SI derived units


Unit cm2 m2 (SI unit) a ha km2

1 inch2 = 6.4516 6.4516×10-4 6.4516×10-6 6.4516×10-8 6.4516×10-10


1 foot2 = 929.03 9.2903×10-2 9.2903×10-4 9.2903×10-6 9.2903×10-8
1 yard2 = 8.36127 8.36127×10-1 8.36127×10-3 8.36127×10-5 8.36127×10-7
1 acre2 = 4.046×107 4046.86 40.4686 4.04686×10-1 4.04686×10-3
1 mile2 = 2.589×10-10 2.589×10-6 25 899.9 258.999 2.58999

Unit inch2 foot2 yard2 acre2 mile2

1 cm2 = 1.55×10-1 1.076×10-3 1.196×10-4 2.471×10-8 3.861×10-11


1 m2 = 1550 10.7639 1.19599 2.471×10-4 3.861×10-7
1a= 155 000 1076.39 119 599 2.471×10-2 3.861×10-5
1 ha = 1.55×107 107 639 11 959.9 2.47105 3.861×10-3
1 km2 = 1.55×109 1.076×10-7 1.196×106 247.105 3.861×10-1

Conversion table for Area units in relation to SI units


Name of unit Symbol Definition Relation to SI units

acre (international) ac ≡ 10 sq ch = 4840 sq yd = 4046.856 422 4 m2


acre (U. S. survey) ac ≡ 10 sq ch = 4840 sq yd = 4046.873 m2
are a ≡ 100 m2
barn b ≡ 10−28 m2
barony ≡ 4000 ac = 1.618 742 568 96 × 107 m2
board bd ≡ 1 in × 1 ft = 7.741 92 × 10−3 m2
boiler horsepower
bhp
equivalent direct ≡ (1 ft2) (1 bhp) / (240 BTUIT/h) ≈ 12.958 174 m2
EDR
radiation
circular inch circ in ≡ π/4 sq in ≈ 5.067 075 × 10−4 m2
circular mil; circular thou circ mil ≡ π/4 mil2 ≈ 5.067 075 × 10−10 m2
cord ≡ 192 bd = 1.486 448 64 m2
dunam ≡ 1000 m2 = 1000 m2
hectare ha ≡ 10 000 m2 = 10 000 m2
hide ≡ 100 ac = 4.046 856 422 4 × 105 m2
rood ro ≡ 1/4 ac = 1011.714 105 6 m2
shed ≡ 10−52 m2
square chain sq ch ≡ 1 sq ch ≡ .10 ac = 404.685 642 24 m2

square foot sq ft ≡ 1 ft × 1 ft = 9.290 304 × 10−2 m2

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Page 056 of 112 Chapter 2.  Terms and definitions

Name of unit Symbol Definition Relation to SI units

square inch sq in ≡ 1 in × 1 in = 6.4516 × 10−4 m2


square kilometer km2 ≡ 1 km2 = 106 m2
square link sq lnk ≡ 1 lnk2 = 4.046 856 422 4 × 10−2 m2
square metre (SI unit) m2 ≡1m×1m = 1 m2
square mil; square thou sq mil ≡ 1 mil × 1 mil = 6.4516 × 10−10 m2
square mile; section sq mi ≡ 1 mi × 1 mi = 2.589 988 110 336 × 106 m2
square rod/pole/perch sq rd ≡ 1 sq rd = 25.292 852 64 m2
square U.S. Survey foot sq ft ≡ 1 sq ft (US) ≈ 9.290 341 161 327 49 × 10-2 m2
square U.S. Survey mile sq mi ≡ 1 sq mi (US) ≈ 2.589 998 × 106 m2
square yard sq yd ≡ 1 yd × 1 yd = 0.836 127 36 m2
stremma ≡ 1000 m2 = 1000 m2
township ≡ 36 sq mi (US) ≈ 9.323 994 × 107 m2
yardland ≡ 30 ac = 1.214 056 926 72 × 105 m2
Table 2.7.2.-1:  Area SI derived units

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Conversion Tables (Examples of SI coherent derived units) Page 057 of 112

2.7.3.  Volume SI derived units


dm3
Unit mm3 cm3 m3 (SI unit)
(= litre)
1 inch3 = 16.3870×103 16.3870 1.6387×10-2 1.6387×10-5
1 foot3 = 2.8316×107 2.8316×104 28.3168 2.8316×10-2
1 gallon US = 3 .7854×106 3 .7854×103 3 .7854 3 .7854×10-3
1 gallon UK = 4.5460×106 4546.09 4.546 09 4.5460×10-3

in3 ft3 yd3 US fl oz UK fl oz


Unit
(inch) (foot) (yard) ounce ounce
1 mm3 = 6.1023×10-5 3.5314×10-8 1.3079×10-9 3.3814×10-5 3.519×10-5
1 cm3 = 0.061 3.5314×10-5 1.3079×10-6 3.3814×10-2 3.519×10-2
1 dm3 (= litre) = 61.023 3.5314×10-2 1.3079×10-3 33.814 35.1951
1 m3 = 6.1023×10-4 35.3146 1.307 951 33 814.022 35 195.079

bbl (US Oil) gal (US) gal (UK) bbl (UK)


Unit gill (US)
barrel gallon gallon barrel
1 mm3 = 6.2898×10-9 2.6417×10-7 2.1996×10-7 6.1102×10-9 8.4535×10-6
1 cm3 = 6.2898×10-3 2.6417×10-4 2.1996×10-4 6.1102×10-6 8.4535×10-3
1 dm3 (= litre) = 158.9873 0.264 172 0.219 969 6.1102×10-3 8.453 505
1 m3 = 0,158 987 264.1720 219.969 248 6.110 256 8453.505

Conversion table for Volume units in relation to SI units


Name of unit Symbol Definition Relation to SI units
acre foot ac ft ≡ 1 ac x 1 ft = 43560 ft3 = 1 233.481 837 547 52 m3
cubic metre (SI unit) m3 ≡1m×1m×1m = 1 m3
litre L ≡ 1 dm3 = 0.001 m3
lambda λ ≡ 1 mm3 = 1  × 10−9 m3
drop (metric) ≡ 1/20 mL = 50.0  × 10−9 m3
≡ 1/480 fl oz (Imp) = 1/60 fl
minim (Imperial) min = 59.193 880 2083  × 10−9 m3
dr (Imp)
≡ 1/480 US fl oz = 1/60 US
minim (U.S.) min = 61.611 519 921 875  × 10−9 m3
fl dr
drop (U.S.) (alt) gtt ≡ 1/456 US fl oz ≈ 64.854 231  × 10−9 m3
drop (Imperial) (alt) gtt ≡ 1/1824 gi (Imp) ≈ 77.886 684  × 10−9 m3
drop (U.S.) gtt ≡ 1/360 US fl oz = 82.148 693 229 16  × 10−9 m3
drop (medical) ≡ 1/12 ml = 83.03  × 10−9 m3
drop (Imperial) gtt ≡ 1/288 fl oz (Imp) = 98.656 467 0138  × 10−9 m3

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Page 058 of 112 Chapter 2.  Terms and definitions

Name of unit Symbol Definition Relation to SI units


≡ 1/96 US fl oz = ½ US
dash (U.S.) = 308.057 599 609 375  × 10−9 m3
pinch
≡ 1/384 gi (Imp) = ½ pinch
dash (Imperial) = 369.961 751 302 08 3  × 10−9 m3
(Imp)
pinch (U.S.) ≡ 1/48 US fl oz = ⅛ US tsp = 616.115 199 218 75  × 10−9 m3
≡ 1/192 gi (Imp) = ⅛ tsp
pinch (Imperial) = 739.923 502 604 16  × 10−9 m3
(Imp)
fluid scruple (Imperial) fl s ≡ 1/24 fl oz (Imp) = 1.183 877 604 16  × 10−6 m3
fluid drachm (Imperial) fl dr ≡ ⅛ fl oz (Imp) = 3.551 632 812 5  × 10−6 m3
fluid dram (U.S.); U.S.
fl dr ≡ ⅛ US fl oz = 3.696 691 195 312 5  × 10−6 m3
fluidram
teaspoon (Canadian) tsp ≡ 1/6 fl oz (Imp) = 4.735 510 41 6  × 10−6 m3
teaspoon (U.S.) tsp ≡ 1/6 US fl oz = 4.928 921 595  × 10−6 m3
teaspoon (metric) ≡ 5.0  × 10−6 m3
teaspoon (Imperial) tsp ≡ 1/24 gi (Imp) = 5.919 388 020 83  × 10−6 m3
dessertspoon (Imperial) ≡ 1/12 gi (Imp) = 11.838 776 0416  × 10−6 m3
tablespoon (Canadian) tbsp ≡ ½ fl oz (Imp) = 14.206 531 25  × 10−6 m3
tablespoon (U.S.) tbsp ≡ ½ US fl oz = 14.786 764 782 5  × 10−6 m3
tablespoon (metric) ≡ 15.0  × 10−6 m3
cubic inch cu in ≡ 1 in × 1 in × 1 in = 16.387 064  × 10−6 m3
tablespoon (Imperial) tbsp ≡ 5/8 fl oz (Imp) = 17.758 164 062 5  × 10−6 m3
pony ≡ 3/4 US fl oz = 22.180 147 171 875  × 10−6 m3
fluid ounce (Imperial) fl oz (Imp) ≡ 1/160 gal (Imp) = 28.413 062 5  × 10−6 m3
fluid ounce (U.S.) US fl oz ≡ 1/128 gal (US) = 29.573 529 562 5  × 10−6 m3
shot ≡ 1 US fl oz ≈ 29.57  × 10−6 m3
jigger ≡ 1½ US fl oz ≈ 44.36  × 10−6 m3
gill (U.S.) gi (US) ≡ 4 US fl oz = 118.294 118 25  × 10−6 m3
gi (Imp);
gill (Imperial); Noggin ≡ 5 fl oz (Imp) = 142.065 312 5  × 10−6 m3
nog
cup (Canadian) c (CA) ≡ 8 fl oz (Imp) = 227.304 5  × 10−6 m3
≡ 8 US fl oz
cup (U.S.) c (US) = 236.588 236 5  × 10−6 m3
≡ 1/16 gal (US)
cup (metric) c ≡ 250.0  × 10−6 m3
breakfast cup ≡ 10 fl oz (Imp) = 284.130 625  × 10−6 m3
pint (U.S. fluid) pt (US fl) ≡ ⅛ gal (US) = 473.176 473  × 10−6 m3

≡ 1/64 bu (US lvl)


pint (U.S. dry) pt (US dry) = 550.610 471 357 5  × 10−6 m3
≡ ⅛ gal (US dry)

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Conversion Tables (Examples of SI coherent derived units) Page 059 of 112

Name of unit Symbol Definition Relation to SI units


pint (Imperial) pt (Imp) ≡ 1/8 gal (Imp) = 568.261 25  × 10−6 m3
fifth ≡ 1/5 US gal = 757.082 356 8  × 10−6 m3
quart (U.S. fluid) qt (US) ≡ 1/4 gal (US fl) = 946.352 946 × 10−6 m3
≡ 1/32 bu (US lvl)
quart (U.S. dry) qt (US) = 1.101 220 942 715  × 10−3 m3
= 1/4 gal (US dry)
quart (Imperial) qt (Imp) ≡ 1/4 gal (Imp) = 1.136 522 5  × 10−3 m3
≡ 1/2 gal (Imp)
pottle; quartern = 2.273 045  × 10−3 m3
= 80 fl oz (Imp)
board-foot fbm ≡ 144 cu in = 2.359 737 216 × 10−3 m3
gallon (U.S. fluid; Wine) gal (US) ≡ 231 cu in = 3.785 411 784 × 10−3 m3
gallon (U.S. dry) gal (US) ≡ 1/8 bu (US lvl) = 4.404 883 770 86 × 10−3 m3
gallon (Imperial) gal (Imp) = 4.546 09  × 10−3 m3
beer gallon beer gal ≡ 282 cu in = 4.621 152 048 × 10−3 m3
peck (U.S. dry) pk ≡ ¼ US lvl bu = 8.809 767 541 72 × 10−3 m3
peck (Imperial) pk ≡ 2 gal (Imp) = 9.092 18  × 10−3 m3
bucket (Imperial) bkt ≡ 4 gal (Imp) = 0.018 184 36 m3
timber foot ≡ 1 cu ft = 0.028 316 846 592 m3
cubic foot cu ft ≡ 1 ft × 1 ft × 1 ft = 0.028 316 846 592 m3
firkin ≡ 9 gal (US) = 0.034 068 706 056 m3
bushel (U.S. dry level) bu (US lvl) ≡ 2150.42 cu in = 0.035 239 070 166 88 m3
bushel (Imperial) bu (Imp) ≡ 8 gal (Imp) = 0.036 368 72 m3
bushel
bu (US) ≡ 1 ¼ bu (US lvl) = 0.044 048 837 708 6 m3
(U.S. dry heaped)
strike (U.S.) ≡ 2 bu (US lvl) = 0.070 478 140 333 76 m3
strike (Imperial) ≡ 2 bu (Imp) = 0.072 737 44 m3
kilderkin ≡ 18 gal (Imp) = 0.081 829 62 m3
sack (U.S.) ≡ 3 bu (US lvl) = 0.105 717 210 500 64 m3
sack (Imperial); bag ≡ 3 bu (Imp) = 0.109 106 16 m3
≡ 105 qt (US)
barrel (U.S. dry) bl (US) = 0.115 628 198 985 075 m3
= 105/32 bu (US lvl)
barrel (U.S. fluid) fl bl (US) ≡ 31½ gal (US) = 0.119 240 471 196 m3
coomb ≡ 4 bu (Imp) = 0.145 474 88 m3
barrel (petroleum) bl; bbl ≡ 42 gal (US) = 0.158 987 294 928 m3
barrel (Imperial) bl (Imp) ≡ 36 gal (Imp) = 0.163 659 24 m3

hogshead (U.S.) hhd (US) ≡ 2 fl bl (US) = 0.238 480 942 392 m3

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Page 060 of 112 Chapter 2.  Terms and definitions

Name of unit Symbol Definition Relation to SI units


seam ≡ 8 bu (US lvl) = 0.281 912 561 335 04 m3
quarter; pail ≡ 8 bu (Imp) = 0.290 949 76 m3
hogshead (Imperial) hhd (Imp) ≡ 2 bl (Imp) = 0.327 318 48 m3
cord-foot ≡ 16 cu ft = 0.453 069 545 472 m3
butt, pipe ≡ 126 gal (wine) = 0.476 961 884 784 m3
perch per ≡ 16½ ft × 1½ ft × 1 ft = 0.700 841 953 152 m3
cubic yard cu yd ≡ 27 cu ft = 0.764 554 857 984 m3
tun ≡ 252 gal (wine) = 0.953 923 769 568 m3
displacement ton ≡ 35 cu ft = 0.991 089 630 72 m3
water ton ≡ 28 bu (Imp) = 1.018 324 16 m3
freight ton ≡ 40 cu ft = 1.132 673 863 68 m3
wey (U.S.) ≡ 40 bu (US lvl) = 1.409 562 806 675 2 m3

load ≡ 50 cu ft = 1.415 842 329 6 m3

register ton ≡ 100 cu ft = 2.831 684 659 2 m3


last ≡ 80 bu (Imp) = 2.909 497 6 m3
cord (firewood) ≡ 8 ft × 4 ft × 4 ft = 3.624 556 363 776 m3
cubic fathom cu fm ≡ 1 fm × 1 fm × 1 fm = 6.116 438 863 872 m3
acre-inch ≡ 1 ac × 1 in = 102.790 153 128 96 m3
cubic mile cu mi ≡ 1 mi × 1 mi × 1 mi = 4 168 181 825.440 579 584 m3
Table 2.7.3.-1:  Volume SI derived units

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Angle SI derived units Page 061 of 112

2.8  Angle SI derived units


° ' '' rad
Unit
degree minute second radian
1 grad 0.9 54 3240 1.5707×10-2
1 point 11.25 675 40 500 0.1963
1 mil 5.625×10-2 3.375 202.5 9.817×10-4
1/10 circle 36 2160 129 600 0.6283
1/16 circle 22.5 1350 81 000 0.3927
1/8 circle 45 2700 162 000 0.7854
1/6 circle 60 3600 216 000 1.0471
1/4 circle 90 5400 324 000 1.5707
1/2 circle 180 10 800 648 000 3.1415
full circle 360 21 600 1 296 000 6.2831

Conversion table for Angle units in relation to SI units


Name of unit Symbol Definition Relation to SI units

radian (SI unit) rad ≡ 180°/π ≡ 1 rad


centesimal second of arc " ≡ 1 grad/10000 ≈ 1.570 796 µrad
arcsecond " ≡ 1°/3600 ≈ 4.848 137 µrad
centesimal minute of arc ' ≡ 1 grad/100 ≈ 0.157 080 mrad
minute of arc ' ≡ 1°/60 ≈ 0.290 888 mrad
angular mil µ ≡ 2π/6400 rad ≈ 0.981 748 mrad
grad; gradian; gon grad ≡ 2π/400 rad = 0.9° ≈ 15.707 963 mrad
degree (of arc) ° ≡ π180 rad ≈ 17.453 293 mrad
sign ≡ 30° ≈ 0.523 599 rad
octant ≡ 45° ≈ 0.785 398 rad
sextant ≡ 60° ≈ 1.047 198 rad
quadrant ≡ 90° ≈ 1.570 796 rad
Table 2.8.-1:  Angle SI derived units

2.8.1.  Solid angle


Name of unit Symbol Definition Relation to SI units
steradian sr (SI derived unit)
Figure 2.8.1.-1:  Solid angle

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Page 062 of 112 Chapter 2.  Terms and definitions

2.8.2.  Weight and Mass SI derived units


mg g kg t Mg
Unit
milligram gram kilogram metric ton Megagram
1 dram (dr) = 1 771.8451 1.771 845 1.7718×10-3 1.7718×10-6 1.7718×10-6
1 grain (gr) = 64.7989 64.798×10-3 6.4798×10-5 6.4798×10-8 6.4798×10-8
1 ounce (oz) = 28.3495×103 28.349 523 28.3495×10-3 28.3495×10-6 28.3495×10-6
1 pound (lb) = 453 592.37 453.5923 0.453 592 4.5359×10-4 4.5359×10-4
1 tons =
907 184 740 907 184.74 907.184 74 0.907 184 74 0.907 184 74
short ton (US)
1 tonl =
10.1604×10-8 10.1604×10-5 1 016.0469 1.016 046 1.016 046
long ton (UK)
1 tonne = 1 000 000 000 1 000 000 1000 1 1

Conversion table for Weight and Mass units in relation to SI units


Name of unit Symbol Definition Relation to SI units

kilogram, grave kg; G (SI base unit)

electron rest mass, ≈ 9.109 382 15  ×  10−31 ±


me
atomic unit of mass 45 × 10−39 kg

electronvolt eV ≡ 1 eV (energy unit) / c2 = 1.782 6×10−36 kg

≈ 1.660 538 73  ×  10−27 ±


unified atomic mass unit u; AMU
1.3 × 10−36 kg

≈ 1.660 902 10  ×  10−27 ±


dalton Da
1.3 × 10−36 kg
gamma γ ≡ 1 μg
point ≡ 1/100 ct = 2 mg
mite ≡ 1/20 gr = 3.239 945 5 mg
mite (metric) ≡ 1/20 g = 50 mg
grain gr ≡ 64.798 91 mg
crith ≈ 89.9349 mg
carat (metric) ct ≡ 200 mg
carat kt ≡ 3 1/6 gr ≈ 205.196 548 333 mg
sheet ≡ 1/700 lb av = 647.9891 mg
scruple (apothecary) s ap ≡ 20 gr = 1.295 978 2 g
pennyweight dwt; pwt ≡ 1/20 oz t = 1.555 173 84 g
dram (avoirdupois) dr av ≡ 27 11/32 gr = 1.771 845 195 312 5 g
dram (apothecary; troy) dr t ≡ 60 gr = 3.887 934 6 g
hyl (CGS unit) ≡ 1 gee × 1 g × 1 s2/m = 9.806 65 g

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Angle SI derived units Page 063 of 112

Name of unit Symbol Definition Relation to SI units

ounce (avoirdupois) oz av ≡ 1/16 lb = 28.349 523 125 g


assay ton (short) AT ≡ 1 mg × 1 sh tn ÷ 1 oz t ≈ 29.166 667 g
ounce (apothecary; troy) oz t ≡ 1/12 lb t = 31.103 476 8 g
assay ton (long) AT ≡ 1 mg × 1 long tn ÷ 1 oz t ≈ 32.666 667 g
mark ≡ 8 oz t = 248.827 814 4 g
pound (troy) lb t ≡ 5760 grains = 0.373 241 721 6 kg
pound (avoirdupois) lb av ≡ 7000 grains = 0.453 592 37 kg
pound (metric) ≡ 500 g
clove ≡ 8 lb av = 3.628 738 96 kg
stone st ≡ 14 lb av = 6.350 293 18 kg
hyl (MKS unit) ≡ 1 gee × 1 kg × 1 s2/m = 9.806 65 kg
≡ 1/4 long cwt = 2 st
quarter (Imperial) = 12.700 586 36 kg
= 28 lb av
slug; geepound slug ≡ 1 gee × 1 lb av × 1 s2/ft ≈ 14.593 903 kg
bag (Portland cement) ≡ 94 lb av = 42.637 682 78 kg
short hundredweight;
sh cwt ≡ 100 lb av = 45.359 237 kg
cental
long hundredweight long cwt or cwt ≡ 112 lb av = 50.802 345 44 kg
bag (coffee) ≡ 60 kg = 60 kg
quintal (metric) q ≡ 100 kg
= 114.305 277 24 kg
wey ≡ 252 lb = 18 st
(variants exist)
long quarter (informal) ≡ 1/4 long tn = 254.011 727 2 kg
quarter (informal) ≡ 1/4 short tn = 226.796 185 kg
kip kip ≡ 1000 lb av = 453.592 37 kg
short ton sh tn ≡ 2000 lb = 907.184 74 kg
tonne (mts unit) t ≡ 1000 kg
long ton long tn or ton ≡ 2240 lb = 1016.046 908 8 kg
barge ≡ 22 ½ sh tn = 20,411.656 65 kg
Zentner Ztr.
Table 2.8.2.-1:  Weight and Mass SI derived units
Note:
In physics, the pound of mass is sometimes written lbm to distinguish it from the
pound-force (lbf). It should not be read as the mongrel unit "pound meter".

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Page 064 of 112 Chapter 2.  Terms and definitions

2.8.3.  The World Clock - Time Zones

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Time
24-hour time

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23
a.m. p.m.
12 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11

12-hour time

Notes:
The 24-hour clock is a time keeping convention where the day runs from midnight to
midnight and is split into 24 hours, from hour 0 to hour 23. It is the most common system
in use in the world, and is the international standard notation of time (ISO 8601).
In the U.S. and Canada the 12-hour AM/PM format is still more commonly used. In these
countries the 24-hour format is called "Military time".
Conversion table for Time units in relation to SI units
Name of unit Symbol Definition Relation to SI units
time of 9192631770 periods of the radiation
corresponding to the transition between the
2 hyper fine levels of the ground state of the
second s (SI base unit)
caesium 133 atom at 0 K
(but other seconds are sometimes used in
astronomy)
Planck time ≡ (Gℏ/c5)½ ≈ 1.3512 868 × 10−43 s
atomic unit of time au ≡ a0/(α·c) ≈ 2.4188 254 × 10−17 s
svedberg S ≡ 10−13 s = 100 fs
shake ≡ 10−8 s = 10 ns
sigma ≡ 10−6 s = 1 μs
jiffy ≡ 1/60 s ≈ 0.016667 s
jiffy (alternate) ≡ 1/100 s = 10 ms
helek ≡ 1/1080 h ≈ 3.333333 s
minute min ≡ 60 s
milliday md ≡ 86 400 s / 1000 ≡ 86.4 s
moment ≡ 90 s ≡ 90 s
ke(traditional) ≡ 1/100 d ≡ 864 s
quarter (of an hour) ke ≡ 1/96 d ≡ 900 s
hour h ≡ 60 min = 3600 s
day d ≡ 24 h = 86 400 s

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Page 066 of 112 Chapter 2.  Terms and definitions

Name of unit Symbol Definition Relation to SI units


≡ average time between consecutive
day d ≈ 86400 s
midnights
week wk ≡7d = 604 800 s
fortnight ≡ 2 wk = 1 209 600 s
month (hollow) mo ≡ 29 d = 2 505 600 s
month mo ≡ 30 d = 2 592 000 s
month (full) mo ≡ 31 d = 2 678 400 s
year (Calendar) a, y, or yr ≡ 365 d = 31 536 000 s
year (Gregorian) a, y, or yr ≡ 365.2425 d = 31 556 952 s
year (Julian) a, y, or yr ≡ 365.25 d = 31 557 600 s
≡ time taken for Sun to return to the same
sidereal year a, y, or yr position with respect to the stars of the ≈ 31 558 149.7632 s
celestial sphere ≈ 365.256363 d
Olympiad ≡ 4 a of 365 d = 1.2614 × 108 s
lustre; lustrum ≡ 5 a of 365 d = 1.5768 × 108 s
octaeteris ≡ 8 a of 365 d = 2.522 88 × 108 s
decade ≡ 10 a of 365 d = 3.1536 × 108 s
enneadecaeteris; ≡ 110 mo (hollow) + 125 mo (full)
= 5.996 16 × 108 s
Metonic cycle = 19 a of 365 d
≡ 441 mo (hollow) + 499 mo (full)
Callippic cycle = 2.398 377 6 × 109 s
= 76 a of 365.25 d
century (Calendar) ≡ 100 a of 365 d = 3.1536 × 109 s
century (Julian) ≡ 100 a of 365.25 d = 3.155 76 × 109 s
Hipparchic cycle ≡ 4 Callippic cycles - 1 d = 9.593 424 × 109 s
millennium
≡ 1000 a of 365 d = 365,000 d = 3.1536 × 1010 s
(Calendar)
millennium
≡ 1000 a of 365.2425 d = 356,242.5 d = 3.155 695 2 × 1010 s
(Gregorian)
millennium (Julian) ≡ 1000 a of 365.25 d = 365,250 d = 3.155 76 × 1010 s
Sothic cycle ≡ 1461 a of 365 d = 4.607 409 6 × 1010 s
generation
Table 2.8.3.-1:  Time

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2.8.4.  Speed or velocity SI derived units


Unit mm/s m/s cm/min km/h

1 in/s = 2.54 × 101 2.54 × 10-2 1.5240 × 102 9.1439 × 10-2


1 ft/s = 3.048 × 102 3.048 × 10-1 1.8288 × 102 1.0973
1 in/min = 4.2333 × 101 4.2333 × 10-4 2.5399 1.5239
1 ft/min = 5.08 5.08 × 10-3 3.0479 × 101 1.8287 × 10-2
1 ft/h = 8.4667 × 10-2 8.4667 × 10-5 5.0799 × 10-1 3.0479 × 10-4
1 mile/h = 4.4704 × 102 4.4704 × 10-1 2.6822 × 103 1.6093

Conversion table for Speed or velocity units in relation to SI units


Name of unit Symbol Definition Relation to SI units
metre per second (SI unit) m/s ≡ 1 m/s
foot per hour fph ≡ 1 ft/h ≈ 8.466 667 × 10−5 m/s
furlong per fortnight ≡ furlong/fortnight ≈ 1.663 095 × 10−4 m/s
inch per minute ipm ≡ 1 in/min ≈ 4.23 333 × 10−4 m/s
foot per minute fpm ≡ 1 ft/min = 5.08 × 10−3 m/s
inch per second ips ≡ 1 in/s = 2.54 × 10−2 m/s
kilometre per hour km/h ≡ 1 km/h ≈ 2.777 778 × 10−1 m/s
foot per second fps ≡ 1 ft/s = 3.048 × 10−1 m/s
mile per hour mph ≡ 1 mi/h = 0.447 04 m/s
knot kn ≡ 1 NM/h = 1.852 km/h ≈ 0.514 444 m/s
≡ 1 NM (Adm)/h
knot (Admiralty) kn ≈ 0.514 773 m/s
= 1.853 184 km/h
mile per minute mpm ≡ 1 mi/min = 26.8224 m/s
mile per second mps ≡ 1 mi/s = 1.609 344 km/s = 1609.344 m/s
speed of light in vacuum c ≡ 299 792 458 m/s = 299 792 458 m/s
≈ 344 m/s at 20 °C,
speed of sound in air s
60% relative humidity
mach M ≡ 331 m/s[citation needed] ≈ 331 m/s

Table 2.8.4.-1:  Speed or velocity SI derived units

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2.8.5.  Acceleration SI derived units


Unit ft/s2 inch/s2 mi/s2 cm/s2 m/s2

1 ft/s2 = 1 12 1.89393 × 10−4 30.48 0.3048


1 inch/s2 = 0.083333 1 1.57828 × 10−5 2.54 0.0254
1 mi/s2 = 5280 6.336 × 104 1 160.9344 1.609344
1 cm/s2 = 328.084 3937 6.2137 × 10−2 1 0.01
1 m/s2 = 3.28084 39.37 6.2137 × 10−4 100 1
1g=
32.17405 386.0886 0.006093569 980.665 9.80665
(Earth's gravity)

Conversion table for Acceleration units in relation to SI units


Name of unit Symbol Definition Relation to SI units
metre per second squared (SI unit) m/s2 ≡ 1 m/s2 = 1 m/s2
foot per hour per second fph/s ≡ 1 ft/(h·s) ≈ 8.466 667 × 10−5 m/s2
inch per minute per second ipm/s ≡ 1 in/(min·s) ≈ 4.233 333 × 10−4 m/s2
foot per minute per second fpm/s ≡ 1 ft/(min·s) = 5.08 × 10−3 m/s2
galileo Gal ≡ 1 cm/s2 = 10−2 m/s2
inch per second squared ips2 ≡ 1 in/s2 = 2.54 × 10−2 m/s2
foot per second squared fps2 ≡ 1 ft/s2 = 3.048 × 10−1 m/s2
mile per hour per second mph/s ≡ 1 mi/(h·s) = 4.4704 × 10−1 m/s2
knot per second kn/s ≡ 1 kn/s ≈ 5.144 444 × 10−1 m/s2
standard gravity g ≡ 9.806 65 m/s2
mile per minute per second mpm/s ≡ 1 mi/(min·s) = 26.8224 m/s2
mile per second squared mps2 ≡ 1 mi/s2 = 1.609 344 × 103 m/s2
Table 2.8.5.-1:  Acceleration SI derived units

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2.8.6.  Moment of Inertia SI derived units


Unit kg mm2 kg cm2 kg m2 kp cm s2 kp m s2

1 oz in2 = 18.2899 0.1829 1.829×10-5 1.865×10-4 1.865×10-6


1 oz in s2 = 7061.5518 70.6155 7.201×10-3 7.201×10-2 7.201×10-4
1 lb in2 = 292.6396 2.926 2.9264×10-4 2.984×10-3 2.984×10-5
1 lb in s2 = 1.1298×105 1129.85 1.29 ×10-1 1.15212 1.152 ×10-2
1 lb ft2 = 4.2140×104 421.401 4.214×10-2 4.297×10-1 4.2971×10-3
1 lb ft s2 = 1.3558×106 13 558.2 1.355 13.826 1.382×10-1

J/m N kN
Unit mega newton tera newton
joule/meter newton kilo newton
1p=
9.8066×10-3 9.8066×10-3 9.8066×10-6 9.8066×10-9 9.8066×10-15
pond
1 kp =
9.8066 9.8066 9.8066×10-3 9.8066×10-6 9.8066×10-12
kilopond
1 kgf =
9.8066 9.8066 9.8066×10-3 9.8066×10-6 9.8066×10-12
kilogram-force
1 ozf =
0.2780 0.2780 2.7801×10-4 2.7801×10-7 2.7801×10-13
ounce-force
1 lbf =
4.4482 4.4482 4.4482×10-3 4.4482×10-6 4.4482×10-12
pound-force
1 pdl =
0.1382 0.1382 1.3825×10-4 1.3825×10-7 1.3825×10-13
poundal
1 sn =
1000 1000 1 0.1019 1×10-9
sthene
Table 2.8.6.-1:  Moment of Inertia SI derived units

2.8.7.  Density SI derived units


g/ml kg/l
Unit g/cm3 kg/cm3 kg/m3
gram/milliliter kilogram/liter
1 lb/in3 = 27.6799 27.6799 2.7679×10-2 27.6799 2.7679×104
1 gr/ft3 = 2.2883×10-6 2.2883×10-6 2.2883 2.2883×10-6 2.2883×10-3
1 lb/ft3 = 1.6018×10-2 1.6018×10-2 1.6018×10-5 1.6018×10-2 16.0184
1 Ib/gal (US) = 0.1198 0.1198 1.1982×10-4 0.1198 119.8264
1 Ib/gal (UK) = 9.9776×10-2 9.9776×10-2 9.9776×10-5 9.9776×10-2 99.7763
1 oz/gal (US) =
7.4891×10-3 7.4891×10-3 7.4891×10-6 7.4891×10-3 7.4891
ounce/gallon
1 oz/gal (UK) =
6.2360×10-3 6.2360×10-3 6.2360×10-6 6.2360×10-3 6.2360
ounce/gallon
1 oz/in3 = 1.7299 1.7299 1.7299×10-3 1.7299 1 729.994

1 oz/ft3 = 1.001×10-3 1.001×10-3 1.001×10-6 1.001×10-3 1.0011

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g/ml kg/l
Unit g/cm3 kg/cm3 kg/m3
gram/milliliter kilogram/liter
1 slug/ft3 0.5153 0.5153 5.1537×10-4 0.5153 515.3788
1 tonl/yd3 1.3289 1.3289 1.3289×10-3 1.3289 1 328.9391
1 tons/yd3 1.1865 1.1865 1.1865×10-3 1.1865 1 186.5528
1 mg/l 1×10-6 1×10-6 1×10-9 1×10-6 1×10-3
1 mg/m3 10-10 10-10 1×10-12 1×10-10 1×10-6

Unit mg/L kg/L g/cm3 mg/m3 kg/m3

gr/gal (US) 1.7118 × 101 1.7118 × 10-5 1.7118 × 10-5 1.7118 × 104 1.7118 × 10-2
grain per gallon

gr/ft3 2.2884 2.2884 × 10-6 2.2884 × 10-6 2.2884 × 103 2.2884 × 10-3
lb/ft3 1.6018 × 104 1.6018 × 10-2 1.6018 × 10-2 1.6018 × 107 1.6018 × 101
lb/gal(US) 1.1983 × 105 1.1983 × 10-1 1.1983 × 10-1 1.1983 × 108 119.8264
lb/gal(UK) 9.9776 × 104 9.9776 × 10-2 9.9776 × 10-2 9.9776 × 107 99.7764
lb/yd3 5.9328 × 102 5.9328 × 10-4 5.9328 × 102 5.9328 × 105 5.9328 × 10-1
lb/in3 2.7679 × 107 2.7679 × 101 2.7679 × 101 2.7679 × 1010 2.7679 × 104
oz/gal(US) 7.4892 × 103 7.4892 × 10-3 7.4892 × 10-3 7.4892 × 106 7.4892
oz/gal(UK) 6.2360 × 103 6.2360 × 10-3 6.2360 × 10-3 6.2360 × 106 6.2360
oz/in3 1.7299 × 106 1.7299 1.7299 1.7299 × 109 1.7299 × 103
slug/ft3 5.1538 × 105 5.1538 × 10-1 5.1538 × 10-1 5.1538 × 108 5.1538 × 102
tonl/yd3 1.3289 × 106 1.3289 1.3289 1.3289 × 109 1.3289 × 103
(ton long)

tons/yd3 1.1866 × 106 1.1866 1.1866 1.1866 × 109 1.1866 × 103


(ton short)

sp. gr(60°F) 9.9902 × 105 9.9902 × 10-1 9.9902 × 10-1 9.9902 × 108 999,02
sp. gr(68°F) 9.9821 × 105 9.9821 × 10-1 9.9821 × 10-1 9.9821 × 108 998,21
sp. gr(4°C) 1 × 106 1 1 1 × 109 1000
Table 2.8.7.-1:  Density SI derived units

Note:
The SI unit for density ρ is kg/m3 (kilograms per cubic metre).
These are numerically equivalent to kg/L (1 kg/L = 1 kg/dm3 = 1 g/cm3 = 1 g/mL).

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2.8.8.  Gage pressure, atmospheric pressure and absolute pressure


The standard atmosphere is a unit of pressure and is defined as being equal to
101.325 kPa.
These other units are equivalent: 760 mmHg (torr), 29.92 in Hg, 14.696 psi, 1013.25
millibars. One standard atmosphere is standard pressure used for pneumatic fluid power
(ISO R554), and in the aerospace (ISO 2533) and petroleum (ISO 5024) industries.

Pa / bar

Absolute pressure: Gage pressure:


P = 201 325 Pa (a) = 2 bar (a) P = 100 000 Pa (g) = 1 bar (g)

Gage pressure
Overpressure
Absolute pressure

Ambient, surroundings,
Atmospheric pressure
Standard air pressure: 1 0 0 Pa (g) = 0 bar (g)
P = 101 325 Pa (a) = 1 bar (a)
Gage pressure
negative

Vacuum Gage pressure:


P = 0 Pa (a) = 0 bar (a) 0 P = −101 325 Pa (g) = -1 bar (g)

Figure 2.8.8.-1:  Gage pressure, atmospheric pressure and absolute pressure

„„ Absolute pressure is zero referenced against a perfect vacuum, so it is equal to gauge


pressure plus atmospheric pressure.
„„ Gauge pressure is zero referenced against ambient air pressure, so it is equal to
absolute pressure minus atmospheric pressure. Negative signs are usually omitted.
„„ Differential pressure is the difference in pressure between two points.

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Page 072 of 112 Chapter 2.  Terms and definitions

2.8.9.  Pressure, stress SI derived units


Pa (a) Pa (g) kPa (a) kPa (g) MPa (a)
Unit
pascal pascal kilo pascal kilo pascal mega pascal
1 atm (a) 101 325 0 101.325 0 0.101325

1 at (a) 9.80665×104 -1325 98.0665 -1.325 9.806610-2

1 bar (a) 105 -1325 100 -1.325 0.1

1 mbar (a) 100 -101 225 0.1 -101.225 1×10-4

1 kp/cm2 (a) 98 066.5 -3258.5 98.0665 -3.2585 9.8066×10-2

1 N/m2 (a) 1 -101 324 1×10-3 -101.324 1×10-6

1 N/mm2 (a) 106 898 675 103 898.675 1

1 Torr (a) 133.3224 -101 191.6776 0.1333 0.1333 1.3332 1×10-4

1 mmH2O (a) 9.8066 -101 315.1933 9.8066×10-3 -101.3151 9.8066×10-6

1 mmHg (a) 133.3224 -101 191.6776 0.1333 -101.1916 1.3332 1×10-4

1 psi (a) 6 894.7572 -94 430.2428 6.8947 -94.4302 6.8947×10-3

1 ftH2O (a) 2 989.0669 -98 335.9331 2.9890 -98,3359 2,9890×10-3

1 inHg (a) 3.3863×103 -97 938.6118 3.3863 -97.9386 3.3863×10-3

1 inH2O (a) 249.0889 -101 075.9111 0.2490 -101.0759 2.4908×10-4

1 lbf/ft2 (a) 47.8802 -101 277.12 47.8802×10-2 -101.2771 47.8802×10-6

1 atm (g) 202 650 101 325 202.65 101.325 0.2026

1 at (g) 199 391.5 98 066.5 199.3915 98.0665 0.1993

1 bar (g) 201 325 100 000 201.325 100 0,2013

1mbar (g) 101 425 100 101.425 0.1 0,1014

1 kp/cm2 (g) 199 391.5 98 066.5 199.3915 98.0665 0,1993

1 N/m2 (g) 101 326 1 101.326 1×10-3 0.1013

1 N/mm2 (g) 1.1013×106 1×106 1101.325 1000 1.1013

1 Torr (g) 101 458.3223 133.3223 101.4583 0.1333 0.1014

1 mmH2O (g) 101 334.8066 9.8066 101.3348 9.8066×10-3 0.1013

1 mmHg (g) 101 458.3223 133.3223 101.4583 0.1333 0.1014

1 psi (g) 108 219.7572 6894.7572 108.2197 6.8947 0.1082

1 ftH2O (g) 104 314.0669 2989.0669 104.3140 2.9890 0.1043

1 inHg (g) 104 711.3881 3386.3881 104.7113 3.3863 0.1047

1 inH2O (g) 101 574.0889 249.0889 101.5740 0.2490 0.1015

1 lbf/ft2 (g) 101 372.88 47.88 101.3728 0.04788 0.1013

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Conversion table for pressure or mechanical stress units in relation to SI units1


Name of unit Symbol Definition Relation to SI units

≡ 101 325 Pa
atmosphere (standard) atm ≡ 1.01325 × 105 Pa
≡ 1.01325 × 102 kPa

= 9.80665  × 104 Pa
atmosphere (technical) at ≡ 1 kgf/cm2
= 9.80665  × 101 kPa

bar bar ≡ 105 Pa = 100 kPa

barye (cgs unit) ≡ 1 dyn/cm2 = 0.1 Pa

centimeter of mercury cmHg ≡ 13 595.1 kg/m3 × 1 cm × g ≈ 1.333 22  × 103 Pa

centimeter of water (4 °C) cmH2O ≈ 999.972 kg/m3 × 1 cm × g ≈ 98.0638 Pa

foot of mercury
ftHg ≡ 13 595.1 kg/m3 × 1 ft × g ≈ 4.0636 66  × 104 Pa
(conventional)

foot of water (39.2 °F) ftH2O ≈ 999.972 kg/m3 × 1 ft × g ≈ 2.988 98  × 103 Pa

inch of mercury
inHg ≡ 13 595.1 kg/m3 × 1 in × g ≈ 3.386 389  × 103 Pa
(conventional)

inch of water (39.2 °F) inH2O ≈ 999.972 kg/m3 × 1 in × g ≈ 249.082 Pa

kilogram-force per square


kgf/mm2 ≡ 1 kgf/mm2 = 9.806 65  × 106 Pa
millimeter

kip per square inch ksi ≡ 1 kipf/sq in ≈ 6.894757  × 106 Pa

micron (micrometer) of ≡ 13 595.1 kg/m3 × 1 μm × g ≈ 0.001


μmHg ≈ 0. 133 322 4 Pa
mercury torr

millimeter of mercury mmHg ≡ 13 595.1 kg/m3 × 1 mm × g ≈ 1 torr ≈ 133.322 4 Pa

≈ 999.972 kg/m3 × 1 mm × g
millimeter of water (3.98 °C) mmH2O = 9.806 38 Pa
= 0.999972 kgf/m2

pascal (SI unit) Pa ≡ N/m2 = kg/(m·s2) = 1 Pa

pièze (mts unit) pz ≡ 1000 kg/m·s2 = 1 × 103 Pa = 1 kPa

pound per square foot psf ≡ 1 lbf/ft2 ≈ 47.880 25 Pa

poundal per square foot pdl/sq ft ≡ 1 pdl/sq ft ≈ 1.488 164 Pa

pound per square inch psi ≡ 1 lbf/in2 ≈ 6.894 757  × 103 Pa

short ton per square foot ≡ 1 sh tn × g / 1 sq ft ≈ 95.760 518  × 103 Pa

torr torr ≡ 101 325 / 760 Pa ≈ 133.322 4 Pa

1  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Conversion_of_units

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Page 074 of 112 Chapter 2.  Terms and definitions

Conversion table for pressure units in not SI-Units


Origin Converting into unit Factor

bar psi 14.50377


kilopascal (kPa)
bar 100
(SI unit)
bar atm (phys.) 0.986923
bar atm (technical) 1.019716
bar mH2O (4°C) 10.19716
bar ft H2O (4°C) 33.455256
psi bar 0.06894757
kilopascal (kPa)
bar 0.01
(SI unit)
atm (phys.) bar 1.01325
atm (technical) bar 0.980665
mH2O (4°C) bar 0.0980665
ft H2O (4°C) bar 0.02989
Table 2.8.9.-1:  Pressure, stress SI derived units

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2.8.10.  Force SI derived units


J/m N kN
Unit mega newton tera newton
joule/meter newton kilo newton
1 p = (pond) 9.8066×10-3 9.8066×10-3 9.8066×10-6 9.8066×10-9 9.8066×10-15
1 kp = (kilopond) 9.8066 9.8066 9.8066×10-3 9.8066×10-6 9.8066×10-12
1 kgf =
9.8066 9.8066 9.8066×10-3 9.8066×10-6 9.8066×10-12
(kilogram-force)
1 ozf =
0.2780 0.2780 2.7801×10-4 2.7801×10-7 2.7801×10-13
(ounce-force)
1 lbf =
4.4482 4.4482 4.4482×10-3 4.4482×10-6 4.4482×10-12
(pound-force)
1 pdl = (poundal) 0.1382 0.1382 1.3825×10-4 1.3825×10-7 1.3825×10-13
1 sn = (sthene) 1000 1000 1 0.1019 1×10-9

newton kilogram-force,
Unit dyne pound-force poundal
(SI unit) kilo pond
1N= ≡ 1 kg·m/s2 = 105 dyn ≈ 0.10197 kp ≈ 0.22481 lbf ≈ 7.2330 pdl
1 dyn = = 10−5 N ≡ 1 g·cm/s² ≈ 1.0197×10−6 kp ≈ 2.2481×10−6 lbf ≈ 7.2330×10−5 pdl
1 kp = = 9.80665 N = 980665 dyn ≡ gn·(1 kg) ≈ 2.2046 lbf ≈ 70.932 pdl
1 lbf = ≈ 4.448222 N ≈ 444822 dyn ≈ 0.45359 kp ≡ gn·(1 lb) ≈ 32.174 pdl
1 pdl = ≈ 0.138255 N ≈ 13825 dyn ≈ 0.014098 kp ≈ 0.031081 lbf ≡ 1 lb·ft/s2
The value of gn as used in the official definition of the kilogram-force is used here for all
gravitational units.

Conversion table for Force units in relation to SI units


Name of unit Symbol Definition Relation to SI units
atomic unit of force ≡ me·α2·c2/a0 ≈ 8.238 722 06 × 10−8 N
dyne (cgs unit) dyne ≡ g·cm/s2 = 10−5 N
milligrave-force,
mGf ; gf ≡g×1g = 9.806 65 mN
gravet-force
pound lb ≡ slug·ft/s2 = 4.448230531 N
kilogram-force; = 9.806 65 N
kgf; kp; Gf ≡ g × 1 kg
kilopond; grave-force
kip; kip-force kip; kipf; klbf ≡ g × 1000 lb = 4.448 221 615 260 5 × 103 N
newton (SI unit) N ≡ kg·m/s2 =1N
ounce-force ozf ≡ g × 1 oz = 0.278 013 850 953 781 2 N
pound-force lbf ≡ g × 1 lb = 4.448 221 615 260 5 N
poundal pdl ≡ 1 lb·ft/s2 = 0.138 254 954 376 N
sthene (mts unit) sn ≡1 t·m/s2 = 1 × 103 N
ton-force tnf ≡ g × 1 sh tn = 8.896 443 230 521 × 103 N
Table 2.8.10.-1:  Force SI derived units

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2.8.11.  Torque SI derived units

Unit N cm Nm kp cm kp m p cm
(SI unit)
1Nm= 100 1 1.0197 × 101 1.0197 × 10-1 1.0197 × 104
(SI unit)

1 kp m = 9.8066 × 102 9.8066 1 × 102 1 1 × 105


1 oz in = 7.061 × 10-1 7.061 × 10-3 7.200 × 10-2 7.200 × 10-4 7.200 × 101
1 in lb = 1.1298 × 101 1.1298 × 10-1 1.1521 1.1521 × 10-2 1.1521 × 103
1 ft lb = 1.3558 × 102 1.3558 1.3822 × 101 1.3822 × 10-1 1.3825 × 104

Conversion table for Torque units in relation to SI units


Name of unit Symbol Definition Relation to SI units
Newton metre (SI unit) N·m ≡ N × m = kg·m2/s2 = 1 N·m
foot-poundal ft pdl ≡ 1 lb·ft2/s2 = 4.214 011 009 380 48 × 10−2 N·m
inch-pound force in lbf ≡ g × 1 lb × 1 in = 0.112 984 829 027 616 7 N·m
foot-pound force ft lbf ≡ g × 1 lb × 1 ft = 1.355 817 948 331 400 4 N·m

dyne centimeter dyn cm ≡N m = 1 × 10-7


kilogram-force meter kgf · m ≡N m = 9.8066
ounce (avoirdupois)-
ozf · in ≡N m = 7.0615 × 10-3
force inch
ounce (avoirdupois)- ≡ mN·m
ozf · in = 7.0615
force inch millinewton meter
pound-force foot lbf · ft ≡N m = 1.3558
pound-force inch lbf · in ≡N m = 1.1298
Table 2.8.11.-1:  Torque SI derived units

Torque is the tendency of a force to rotate an object about an axis, fulcrum, or pivot. Just
as a force is a push or a pull, a torque can be thought of as a twist. The symbol for torque
is τ, the Greek letter tau.

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2.8.12.  Energy SI derived units


J kJ MJ
Unit
Joule kilojoule megajoule
1 Mcal = 4 186 800 4 186.8 4.1868
1 kcal = 4 185.8 4.1858 4.1858 × 10-3
1 mkg = 9.806 65 9.8066 × 10-3 9.8066 × 10-6
meter kilogram-force

1 cal = 4.1858 4.1858 × 10-3 4.1858 × 10-6


1 kW∙h = 3 600 000 3 600 3.6
1 W∙h = 3 600 3.6 3.6 × 10-3
1 W∙s = 1 1 × 10-3 1 × 10-6
1 erg = 1 × 10-7 1 × 10-10 1 × 10-13
1 eV = 1.6022 × 10-19 1.6022 × 10-22 1.6022 × 10-25

Conversion table for Energy units in relation to SI units


Name of unit Symbol Definition Relation to SI units
≡ m·N = W·s
joule (SI unit) J = 1 J = kg ∙m2/s2
= V·A·s = kg·m2/s2
electronvolt eV ≡e×1V ≈ 1.602 177 33 × 10−19 J ± 4.9 × 10-26
rydberg Ry ≡ R∞·ℎ·c ≈ 2.179 872 × 10−18 J
hartree,
Eh ≡ me·α2·c2 (= 2 Ry) ≈ 4.359 744 × 10−18 J
atomic unit of energy
erg (cgs unit) erg ≡ 1 g·cm2/s2 = 10−7 J
foot-poundal ft pdl ≡ 1 lb·ft2/s2 = 4.214 011 009 380 48 × 10−2 J
cubic centimeter
cc atm;
of atmosphere; ≡ 1 atm × 1 cm3 = 0.101 325 J
standard cubic centimeter scc
inch-pound force in lbf ≡ g × 1 lb × 1 in = 0.112 984 829 027 616 7 J
foot-pound force ft lbf ≡ g × 1 lb × 1 ft = 1.355 817 948 331 400 4 J
calorie (20 °C) cal20 °C ≈ 4.1819 J
calorie (thermochemical) calth ≡ 4.184 J
calorie (15 °C) cal15 °C ≡ 4.1855 J
calorie
calIT ≡ 4.1868 J
(International Table)
calorie (mean) calmean ≈ 4.190 02 J
calorie (3.98 °C) cal3.98 °C ≈ 4.2045 J
kilocalorie; kcal;
≡ 1000 calIT = 4.1868  × 103 J
large calorie Cal
liter-atmosphere l atm; sl ≡ 1 atm × 1 L = 101.325 J

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Page 078 of 112 Chapter 2.  Terms and definitions

Name of unit Symbol Definition Relation to SI units


US gal
gallon-atmosphere (US) ≡ 1 atm × 1 gal (US) = 383.556 849 013 8 J
atm
gallon-atmosphere imp gal
≡ 1 atm × 1 gal (imp) = 460.632 569 25 J
(imperial) atm
British thermal unit
BTUth ≈ 1.054 350  × 103 J
(thermochemical)
British thermal unit (ISO) BTUISO ≡ 1.0545  × 103 J
British thermal unit (63 °F) BTU63 °F ≈ 1.0546  × 103 J
British thermal unit (60 °F) BTU60 °F ≈ 1.054 68  × 103 J
British thermal unit (59 °F) BTU59 °F ≡ 1.054 804  × 103 J
British thermal unit
BTUIT = 1.055 055 852 62  × 103 J
(International Table)
British thermal unit (mean) BTUmean ≈ 1.055 87  × 103 J
British thermal unit (39 °F) BTU39 °F ≈ 1.059 67  × 103 J
Celsius heat unit
Table) CHUIT ≡ 1 BTUIT × 1 K/°R
(International
cubic foot of atmosphere; cu ft atm;
≡ 1 atm × 1 ft3 = 2.869 204 480 934 4  × 103 J
standard cubic foot scf
cubic yard of atmosphere; cu yd atm;
≡ 1 atm × 1 yd3 = 77.468 520 985 228 8  × 103 J
standard cubic yard scy
cubic foot of natural gas ≡ 1000 BTUIT = 1.055 055 852 62  × 106 J
horsepower-hour p·h ≡ 1 hp × 1 h = 2.684519537696172792  × 106 J
kilowatt-hour; kW·h;
≡ 1 kW × 1 h = 3.6  × 106 J
Board of Trade Unit B.O.T.U.
thermie th ≡ 1 McalIT = 4.1868  × 106 J
therm (U.S.) ≡ 100 000 BTU59 °F = 105.4804  × 106 J
therm (E.C.) ≡ 100 000 BTUIT = 105.505 585 262  × 106 J
ton of TNT tTNT ≡ 1 Gcalth = 4.184  × 109 J
barrel of oil equivalent bboe ≈ 5.8 ×106 BTU59 °F ≈ 6.12 × 109 J
ton of coal equivalent TCE ≡ 7 Gcalth = 29.3076 × 109 J
ton of oil equivalent TOE ≡ 10 Gcalth = 41.868 × 109 J
quad ≡ 1015 BTUIT = 1.055 055 852 62 × 1018 J
Table 2.8.12.-1:  Energy SI derived units

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2.8.13.  Conversion table for Power units in relation to SI units


Name of unit Symbol Definition Relation to SI units

watt (SI unit) W ≡ J/s = N·m/s = kg·m2/s3 = 1 W = kg m2/s3

lusec lusec ≡ 1 L·µmHg/s ≈ 1.333 × 10−4 W

foot-pound-force per hour ft lbf/h ≡ 1 ft lbf/h ≈ 3.766 161 × 10−4 W


atmosphere cubic centimeter
atm ccm ≡ 1 atm × 1 cm3/min = 1.688 75 × 10−3 W
per minute
foot-pound-force per minute ft lbf/min ≡ 1 ft lbf/min = 2.259 696 × 10−2 W
atmosphere–cubic centimeter
atm ccs ≡ 1 atm × 1 cm3/s = 0.101 325 W
per second
BTU (International Table)
BTUIT/h ≡ 1 BTUIT/h ≈ 0.293 071 W
per hour
atmosphere–cubic foot
atm cfh ≡ 1 atm × 1 cu ft/h = 0.797 001 W
per hour
foot-pound-force per second ft lbf/s ≡ 1 ft lbf/s = 1.355 818 W

liter-atmosphere per minute L·atm/min ≡ 1 atm × 1 L/min = 1.688 75 W


calorie (International Table)
calIT/s ≡ 1 calIT/s = 4.1868 W
per second
BTU (International Table) per
BTUIT/min ≡ 1 BTUIT/min ≈ 17.584 264 W
minute
atmosphere-cubic foot
atm·cfm ≡ 1 atm × 1 cu ft/min = 47.820 075 W
per minute
square foot equivalent direct
sq ft EDR ≡ 240 BTUIT/h ≈ 70.337 057 W
radiation
liter-atmosphere per second L·atm/s ≡ 1 atm × 1 L/s = 101.325 W

horsepower (metric) hp ≡ 75 m kgf/s = 735.498 75 W


horsepower
hp ≡ 75 kp·m/s = 736 W
(European electrical)
horsepower
hp ≡ 550 ft lbf/s = 745.699 872 W
(Imperial mechanical)
horsepower
hp ≡ 746 W
(Imperial electrical)
ton of air conditioning ≡ 1 t ice melted / 24 h ≈ 3504. W

poncelet p ≡ 100 m kgf/s = 980.665 W


BTU (International Table)
BTUIT/s ≡ 1 BTUIT/s = 1.055 056 × 103 W
per second
atmosphere-cubic foot
atm cfs ≡ 1 atm × 1 cu ft/s = 2.869 205 × 103 W
per second
ton of refrigeration (IT) ≡ 1 BTUIT × 1 sh tn/lb ÷ 10 min/s ≈ 3.516 853 × 103 W

ton of refrigeration (Imperial) ≡ 1 BTUIT × 1 lng tn/lb ÷ 10 min/s ≈ 3.938 875 × 103 W

boiler horsepower bhp ≈ 34.5 lb/h × 970.3 BTUIT/lb ≈ 9.810 657 × 103 W

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Page 080 of 112 Chapter 2.  Terms and definitions

Conversion table for Power units in relation to SI units


Name of unit Symbol Definition Relation to SI units

SI unit J·s ≡ kg·m2/s = 1 J·s


atomic unit of action au ≡ ℏ = ℎ/2π ≈ 1.054 571 596 × 10−34 J·s
cgs unit erg·s = 10−7 J·s
Table 2.8.13.-1:  Conversion table for Power units in relation to SI units

Note:
ħ = ("h-bar") Planck's constant

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Angle SI derived units Page 081 of 112

2.8.14.  Dynamic viscosity SI derived units


Unit μPa s mPa s Pa s Poise cP

μN s/m2 1 1 × 10-3 1 × 10-6 1 × 10-5 1 × 10-3


mN s/m2 1 × 103 1 1 × 10-3 1 × 10-2 1
N s/m2 1 × 106 1 × 103 1 10 1 × 103
kp s/m2 9.8066 × 106 9.8066 × 103 9.8066 9.8066 × 101 9.8066 × 103
kp h/m2 3.5304 × 108 3.5304 × 105 3.5304 × 104 3.5304 × 105 3.5304 × 107
lb/ft s 1.4881 × 106 1.4881 × 103 1.4881 1.4881 × 101 1.4881 × 103
lb/ft h 4.1338 × 102 4.1338 × 10-1 4.1338 × 10-4 4.1338 × 10-3 4.1338 × 10-1
g/cm s 1 × 105 1 × 102 1 × 10-1 1 1 × 102
kg/(m s) 1 × 106 1 × 103 1 10 1 × 103
mP 1 × 102 1 × 10-1 1 × 10-4 1 × 10-3 1 × 10-1
μPa s 1 1 × 10-3 1 × 10-6 1 × 10-5 1 × 10-3
mPa s 1 × 103 1 1 × 10-3 1 × 10-2 1
Pa s 1 × 106 1 × 103 1 10 1 × 103
Poise 1 × 105 1 × 102 1 × 10-1 1 1 × 102
cP 1 × 103 1 1 × 10-3 1 × 10-2 1

Conversion table for Dynamic viscosity units in relation to SI units


Name of unit Symbol Definition Relation to SI units
pascal second (SI-unit) Pa·s ≡ N·s/m2, kg/(m·s) = 1 Pa·s
poise (cgs unit) P ≡ 10−1 Pa·s
Table 2.8.14.-1:  Dynamic viscosity SI derived units
2.8.15.  Kinematic viscosity SI derived units
Unit cST mm2/s m2/s m2/h ft2/s ft2/h

1 cST = 1 1 1 × 10-6 3.5997 × 10-3 1.0764 × 10-5 3.8750 × 10-2


1 mm2/s = 1 1 1 × 10-6 3.5997 × 10-3 1.0764 × 10-5 3.8750 × 10-2
1 m2/s = 1 × 106 1 × 106 1 3.5997 × 103 1.0764 × 101 3.8750 × 104
1 m2/h 2.778 × 102 2.778 × 102 2.778 × 10-4 1 2.9902 1.0764 × 101
1 ft2/s 9.2903 × 104 9.2903 × 104 9.2903 × 10-2 3.3442 × 102 1 3.6000 × 103
1 ft2/h 2.5806 × 101 2.5806 × 101 2.5806 × 10-5 9.2894 × 10-2 2.7777 × 10-4 1

Conversion table for Kinematic viscosity units in relation to SI units


Name of unit Symbol Definition Relation to SI units
SI unit m2/s ≡ m2/s = 1 m2/s
stokes (cgs unit) St ≡ 10−4 m2/s
Table 2.8.15.-1:  Kinematic viscosity

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Page 082 of 112 Chapter 2.  Terms and definitions

2.9  Flow SI derived units


Unit kg/s kg/h t/h t/d
(SI-Unit)

1 lb/s = 4.535 × 10-1 1.6329 × 103 1.6329 3.9190 × 101


1 lb/h = 1.2599 × 102 4.5359 × 10-1 4.5359 × 10-4 1.0886 × 10-2
1 t/h(US) = 2.5199 × 10-1 9.0718 × 102 9.0718 × 10-1 2.1772 × 101
1 t/h(UK = 2.8224 × 10-1 1.0161 × 103 1.0161 2.4385 × 101
1 t/d(US) = 1.0499 × 10-2 3.7799 × 101 3.7799 × 10-2 9.0718 × 10-1
1 t/d(UK) = 1.176 × 10-2 4.2336 × 101 4.2336 × 10-2 1.0161
1 kg/s = 1 3.6000 × 103 3.6 8.64 × 101
1 kg/h =
2.7777 × 10-4 1 1 × 10-3 2.4 × 10-2
(SI-Unit)

1 t/h = 2.7777 × 10-1 1 × 103 1 2.4 × 101


1 t/d = 1.1574 × 10-2 4.1667 × 101 4.1667 × 10-2 1
Table 2.9.-1:  Flow SI derived units

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2.9.1.  Temperature SI derived units


K ºC
Unit Definition
kelvin degree Celsius
1 ºC =
274.1500 T / K = t / ºC + 273.15 1
degree Celsius
1 °C15 =
degree t / ºC ≈ t / degree centigrade 1
centigrade15
1 ºF =
degree t / ºC = (t / ºF − 32) / 1.8 0.5556
Fahrenheit
1 ºF =
degree 0.5556 T / K = (t / ºF + 459.67) / 1.8
Fahrenheit
1 ºR =
0.5556 T / K = (T / ºR) / 1.8
degree Rankine
1K=
t / ºC = T / K − 273.15
kelvin

Conversion table for Temperature units in relation to SI units


Name of unit Symbol Definition Conversion to Kelvin
0 K ≡ absolute zero
Kelvin K (when an ideal gas would 1K
theoretically occupy no space)
before 1954,
0 °C ≡ triple point of H2O;
degree centesimal °C K ≈ °C + 273.15
after 1954,
0.01 °C ≡ triple point of H2O
0°C ≡ freezing pt. of H2O, 100°C
degree Celsius °C K = °C + 273.15
≡ boiling pt. of H2O at 1 atm
degree Rankine °R; °Ra 0 °R ≡ absolute zero K = °R × 5 ⁄ 9
0 °F ≡ freezing point of
H2O+NaCl,
degree Fahrenheit °F K = (°F + 459.67) × 5 ⁄ 9
180°F between freezing and
boiling point of H2O @ 1atm
degree Delisle °De K = 373.15 − °De × 2 ⁄ 3
degree Newton °N K = °N × 100 ⁄ 33 + 273.15
degree Réaumur °Ré K = °Ré × 5 ⁄ 4 + 273.15
degree Rømer °Rø K = (°Rø − 7.5) × 40 ⁄ 21 + 273.15
Table 2.9.1.-1:  Temperature SI derived units

Note:
Ranking is an thermodynamic (absolute) temperature scale in which zero is defined as
absolute zero -273.15°C (the point where all spontaneous molecular motion ceases). The
scale divisions are the same as those in Fahrenheit, 0°F = approximately 459.67 R.

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Page 084 of 112 Chapter 2.  Terms and definitions

2.10  List the mathematical symbols


Math. Math. Math.
Meaning of the sign Meaning of the sign Meaning of the sign
symbol symbol symbol
is approximately equal is proportionally logarithm (general)
≈ ~ log
to equal to (log x = log2 x)
a to the n-th power, common logarithm
≙ equivalent to an lg
the n-th power of a (lg x = log10 x)
natural logarithm
... and so on, etc. square root of ln
(ln x = loge x
Euler number
∞ infinity n
n-th root of e
(e=2.718281)

= is equal to; equals x absolute value of x sin sine

is not equal to;


≠ ⊥ is perpendicular to cos cosine
does not equal
is defined as;
≡ || is parallel to tan tangent
equal by definition
def is by definition equal parallel in the same
↑↑ cot cotangent
to direction
parentheses,
parallel in the brackets open and
≅ is congruent to ↑↓ ( ), [ ],{ }
opposite direction closed
(grouping symbol)
pi (circle constant =
< is less than ∠ angle π
3.14159 ....)
numeric constant
≤ is less than or equal to  measured angle e
2.71828

> is greater than  spherical angle ° degree

is greater than or theta indefinite integral of


≥ θ ∫
equal to (Angular variable the anti derivative of

+ plus; add ∆ delta AB line segment AB

delta x (difference
− minus; take; subtract ∆x between two arc AB
(

AB
values)
0 a prime,
× times; multiplied by 0 percent of hundred a', a''
a double prime
per mil of a
∙ times; multiplied by 0 a1, a2 a sub 1, a sub 2
00
thousand
from … to
⁄ ← cardinality of; size
divided by; over (material implica- #
÷ → of; order of
tion)
if and only if
identical to
± plus or minus ↔ (material equiva- ≡
(equivalence)
lence)

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List the mathematical symbols Page 085 of 112

Math. Math. Math.


Meaning of the sign Meaning of the sign Meaning of the sign
symbol symbol symbol
sum over … from … product over …
: such that; so that ∑ ∏
to … of from … to … of
to the power of
^
(exponent)
Figure 2.10.-1:  List the mathematical symbols

SI units
Prefix Examples
Name Multiplication factor
Name Character Unit Meaning
1018 quintillion 1 000 000 000 000 000 000 exa E Em 1018 meter

1015 quadrillion 1 000 000 000 000 000 peta P Pm 1015 meter

1012 trillion 1 000 000 000 000 tera T TV 1012 volt

109 billion 1 000 000 000 giga G GW 109 watt

106 million 1 000 000 mega M MW 106 watt

103 thousand 1 000 kilo k kN 103 newton

102 hundred 100 hecto h hl 102 liter

101 ten 10 deca da dam 101 meter

100 one 1 - - m 100 meter

10-1 tenth 0.1 deci d dm 10-1 meter

10-2 hundredth 0.01 centi c cm 10-2 meter

10-3 thousandth 0.001 milli m mV 10-3 volt


am-
10-6 millionth 0.000 001 micro μ μA 10-6
pere
10-9 billionth 0.000 000 001 nano n nm 10-9 meter
10-
10-12 trillionth 0.000 000 000 001 pico p pf 12 farad

quadril- 10-
10-15 0.000 000 000 000 001 femto f fF 15 farad
lionth
10-
10-18 quintillionth 0.000 000 000 000 000 001 atto a am 18 meter
Table 2.10.-2:  Decimal Multiples and Sub-multiples

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Page 086 of 112 Chapter 2.  Terms and definitions

2.10.1.  Greek alphabet in roman and italic type


Greek Letter Name Roman type Italic type
alpha A α A α
beta Β β Β β
gamma Γ γ Γ γ
delta Δ δ Δ δ
epsilon Ε ε Ε ε
zeta Ζ ζ Ζ ζ
eta Η η Η η
theta Θ θ, ϑ Θ θ, ϑ
iota Ι ι Ι ι
kappa Κ κ Κ κ
lambda Λ λ Λ λ
mu Μ μ Μ μ
nu Ν ν Ν ν
xi Ξ ξ Ξ ξ
omicron Ο ο Ο ο
pi Π π Π π
rho Ρ ρ Ρ ρ
sigma Σ σ Σ σ
tau Τ τ Τ τ
upsilon Υ υ Υ υ
phi Φ φ Φ φ
chi Χ χ Χ χ
psi Ψ ψ Ψ ψ
omega Ω ω Ω ω
Table 2.10.1.-1:  Greek alphabet in roman and italic type

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Terminology and Symbols in Control Engineering Page 087 of 112

2.11  Terminology and Symbols in Control Engineering

Figure 2.11.-1:  Instrumentation and control tags designated according to DIN 19227 Part 1

Instrumentation and control tags


Apart from the solution-related representation, process control systems can also be
represented by means of instrumentation and control tags (DIN 19227 Part 1) which
describe the task to be done.
An instrumentation and control tag is represented by a circle. When the circle is divided
by an additional line, editing and operating procedures are not carried out on site, but in a
centralized control station. In the bottom half of the circle, you will find the instrumentation
and control tag number. The identifying letters in the top half specify the measuring or
input variable as well as the type of signal processing, organizational information and the
signal flow path. If additional space is needed, the circle is elongated to form an oval (Fig.
2.8.2.-1).
The typical use of identifying letters in an instrumentation and control tag is shown below:

Example:
PDIC

First letter (pressure)


Supplementary letter (differential)
1 st succeeding letter (indication)
2nd succeeding letter (control)

Figure 2.11.-2:  For Example PDIC

The meaning and the order of the identifying letters are listed in the following table.

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Page 088 of 112 Chapter 2.  Terms and definitions

Instrumentation and control tags designated according to DIN 19227 Part 1


Group 1: Measuring or input variable Group 2: Processing
Supplementary Succeeding letter
First letter
letter (order: I, R, C, ...any)
Fault message, alarm,
A
alarming
Automatic control,
C
Controlling
D Density Differential
E Electric quantities Sensing function
F Flow rate, trough put Fraction
Distance, length, posi-
G
tion
H Hand (manually initiated) High limit
I Indication
K Time
L Level Low limit
M Moisture or humidity
Visual signal,
O
yes/no indication
P Pressure
Q Material properties Integral, sum
R Radiation Record or print
Speed, rotational speed, Circuit arrangement,
S
frequency sequence control, Switching
T Temperature Transmitter function
U Multi variable
V Viscosity Control valve function
W Velocity, mass
Y Calculating function
Emergency interruption,
Z
safety device
+ or H (high)
- or L (low)
Table 2.11.-3:  Instrumentation and control tags designated according to DIN 19227 Part 1

For further details, see DIN 19227-1 and DIN 19227-2.


The two possible methods of graphical representation are compared with each other in
the Figs. 2.8.2.-2 and 2.8.2.-3. The device-related representation according to DIN 19227
Part 2 (Fig. 2.8.2.-3) is in general easily understood. Whereas instrumentation and control
tags according to DIN 19227 Part 1 (Fig. 2.8.2.-2) are more suitable for plotting complex
systems.

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Terminology and Symbols in Control Engineering Page 089 of 112

Flow

SOSA
1
TI KS
2 2

TI
3

TI GOS TIC
4 6 8
TIC
 7
Return flow

Figure 2.11.-4:  Representation of a control loop according to DIN 19227 Part 1

Flow

0 1

T
DCS

T
DCS
T
T
DCS

% PI
DCS
Return flow

Figure 2.11.-5:  Representation of a control loop according to DIN 19227 Part 2

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Page 090 of 112 Chapter 2.  Terms and definitions

ISA-5.1-1984 (R 1992) formerly ANSI / ISA-5.1-1984 (R1992): Identification Letters


First-Letter Succeeding-Letters
Measured
Readout Or Passive Output
Or Initiating Modifier Modifier
Function Function
Variable
A Analysis Alarm
Burner, User's User's
B User's Choice
Combustion Choice Choice
C User's Choice Control
D User's Choice Differential
Sensor (Primary
E Voltage
Element)
Ratio
F Flow Rate
(Fraction)
G User's Choice Glass, Viewing Device
H Hand High
Current
I Indicate
(Electrical)
J Power Scan
Time, Time Rate Control
K
Time Schedule of Change Station
L Level Light Low
Middle,
M User's Choice Momentary
Intermediate
User's User's
N User's Choice User's Choice
Choice Choice
O User's Choice Orifice, Restriction
Pressure, Point (Test)
P
Vacuum Connection
Integrate,
Q Quantity
Totalize
R Radiation Record
Speed,
S Safety Switch
Frequency
T Temperature Transmit
U Multi variable Multifunction Multifunction Multifunction
Vibration, Valve,
V Mechanical Damper,
Analysis Louver
W Weight, Force Well
X Unclassified X Axis Unclassified Unclassified Unclassified

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Terminology and Symbols in Control Engineering Page 091 of 112

ISA-5.1-1984 (R 1992) formerly ANSI / ISA-5.1-1984 (R1992): Identification Letters


First-Letter Succeeding-Letters
Measured
Readout Or Passive Output
Or Initiating Modifier Modifier
Function Function
Variable
Relay,
Event, State or
Y Y Axis Compute,
Presence
Convert
Driver,
Actuator,
Position,
Z Z Axis Unclassified
Dimension
Final Control
Element
Table 2.11.-6:  ISA-5.1-1984 (R 1992) formerly ANSI / ISA-5.1-1984 (R1992): Identification Letters

2.11.1.  A pre-standard for the uniform representation of requirements of the


process control engineering (PCE) and data exchange between P&ID1 and
PCE tools.
Revised version - Just published: IEC/PAS 62424, supporting engineering with CAEX,
based on DIN V 44366.
IEC 62424:2008 specifies how process control engineering requests are represented
in a P & ID for automatic transferring data between P & ID and PCE tool and to avoid
misinterpretation of graphical P & ID symbols for PCE. It also defines the exchange of
process control engineering request relevant data between a process control engineering
tool and a P&ID tool by means of a data transfer language (called CAEX). These provisions
apply to the export/import applications of such tools.
The planning of process plants is accomplished in an interdisciplinary team with different
software tools. An essential document for this planning is the piping and instrumentation
diagram (P & ID). The P & ID is the central platform, in which information from process
engineering, piping design and process control engineering is captured. For many
discussions, e.g. the safety analysis, it builds the basis for the information and coordination
of the different disciplines. At the start of the project, the P&ID will initially represent only a
very rough representation of the final plant. Increasingly, the information will become more
and more concrete, finally depicting all important piping, equipment, and instruments.
For the planning of the automatic control engineering/process instrumentation, the P & ID
is likewise of central importance. With different performance of tasks, as for example the
cost estimates, the space planning or the request for proposal, the P & IDs are used at
given times, in order to determine the number and type of requirements for PCE.
Since the tools for the treatment of P & ID and the PCE tools are in general separate with
no defined interfaces, the necessary data reconciliation is accomplished either manually
or semi-manually. In each case, this process is time-consuming and prone to errors,
1  P & ID = Piping and Instrumentation Diagram

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Page 092 of 112 Chapter 2.  Terms and definitions

particularly since data flow takes place in both directions, from PCE planning to the P &
ID and vice versa.
Today automated interfaces must be redefined and re-programmed for each combination of
different engineering tools. A new version of one of the involved tools can inherently require
extensive changes at the interface. With the new pre-standard DIN V 44366 "Specification
for Representation of Process Control Engineering Requests in P&I Diagrams and for
Data Exchange between P&ID Tools and PCE-CAE Tools" (in English language, with
CD-ROM with CAEX-XML-Scheme) a solution for these tasks is described. DIN V 44366
has been adopted by IEC as IEC/PAS 62424 (without CD-ROM). In this standard a
neutral data model is presented, with which the data interfaces between the tools for the
P & ID development and PCE planning can be realized as a data hub independent of the
supplier. Using the Extensible Markup Language (XML) the data format CAEX (computer
Aided engineering exchange) is defined. In this data format the PCE information can be
stored and be made available to different applications. XML is a generally accepted and
freely available technology for general data exchange.
An important condition for this data model is a uniform and clear understanding of the
representation of requirements of the process control engineering in the P&ID. In the first
part of this standard a systematic representation is therefore described, with which the
functional requirements are represented to PCE planning in the P&ID.
Using the clear representation of the PCE requirements and the data format CAEX, the
planning process can be optimized and the unnecessary errors, caused by manual data
exchange, can be avoided.
The DIN 19227 and ISO 3511 are taken off by the new norm IEC 62424 (DIN EN 62424)

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Terminology and Symbols in Control Engineering Page 093 of 112

Specifications for first letter of process control engineering tasks ("measuring points")

First ISO 3511 ANSI/ISA S5.1 DIN 19227 DIN EN 62424


letter 1977-07-15 1992-07-13 1993-10 (VDE 0810-24)
A Analysis Analysis
B Burner Combustion Burner Combustion
C User's choice User's choice
D Density User's choice Density Density
E All electrical variables Voltage All electrical variables Voltage
F Flow rate Flow Rate Flow Rate Flow
Distance, length,
Gauging, position or Distance, length,
G User's choice position, stretching,
length position,
amplitude
Hand (manually Hand (manually Hand (manually
H Hand
initiated) operated initiated) operated initiated) operated
I Current (Electrical) Current
J Power Power Power Power
Time or time
K Time, Schedule Time Time
programme
L Level Level Level Level
M Moisture or humidity User's choice Moisture or humidity Moisture or humidity
Executive device
N User's Choice User's choice Freely disposable
(engine)
O User's Choice User's choice Freely disposable Freely disposable
Pressure or
P Pressure or vacuum Pressure Pressure
vacuum
Quality, for Substance quality,
example Analysis, quality variables,
Q Quantity Quantity or Counter
Concentration, analysis
Conductivity (without D, M, V)
Radiation
R Nuclear radiation Radiation Radiation
measurement
S Speed or Frequency Speed, Frequency Speed, Frequency Speed or Frequency
T Temperature Temperature Temperature Temperature
U Multi variable Multi variable Multi variable Not using
Vibration,
Vibration, Mechanical
V Viscosity Mechanical Viscosity
Analysis
Analysis
W Weight or force Weight, Force Weight, Force, Mass Weight, Force, Mass
X Unclassified variables Unclassified Unclassified variables Other sizes
Event, State or
Y User's choice User's choicer Executive device, Valve
Presence
Z User's Choice Position, Dimension User's choice
Table 2.11.1.-1:  Specifications for first letter of process control engineering tasks ("measuring points")

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Page 094 of 112 Chapter 2.  Terms and definitions

2.12  Prohibitive signs according to European Standards


2.12.1.  Personal Protective Equipment (PPE)
Normal visitors and contractors must adhere to PPE requirements when entering the site.
Standard work attire
Coverall comprising long sleeve jacket and long pants must be worn by all workers in
operation and designated areas, unless stated otherwise.
„„ Coverall should be kept clean and in good condition.
„„ Clothing must cover and protect the body when in areas where the possibility of
exposure to hot liquids, hot equipment or skin irritants exist.
„„ In addition to the standard PPE, certain other PPE may be required. This is indicated
in the ‘permit to work’, signs in work locations or instructed by the customer.

Contaminated clothing
„„ Do not work in clothing contaminated with chemicals, oils or other hazardous materials.
In the event of contamination remove the clothing immediately and use safety shower
if it is necessary. Report the incident to your supervisor and seek medical attention if
needed.
Personal Protective Equipment (PPE)

Wear
protective „„ Wear protective clothing
clothing

Wear life
„„ Wear life preserver
preserver

„„ Wear anti-static, anti-slip safety shoes/boots with


steel toe cap for general work.
Footwear „„ Wear anti-static chemical resistant boots for work
that may involve contact with chemicals.
„„ Safety footwear must be worn in all work areas.

„„ Wear the appropriate type of gloves for the work


being performed.
Gloves
Note: As a general rule, gloves should not be worn while
working on live rotating equipment. (e.g. drills, grinders)

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Prohibitive signs according to European Standards Page 095 of 112

Personal Protective Equipment (PPE)

„„ Safety glasses must be worn in all working areas.


„„ Chemical goggles and face shield should be worn
when there is a potential danger of chemical splashes
Face and eye or when indicated in the permit to work.
protection „„ Chemical goggles and face shields are compulsory
in some areas of the customers’ plant.
„„ Watch for signages indicating this requirement or
when instructed by operations.

Hard hats/ „„ Approved safety hats must be worn when entering


Helmets the process area.

„„ Wear ear muffs or ear plugs with correct noise


Hearing reduction rating.
protection „„ Look out for signs around the plant that require
hearing protection when entering the area.

„„ Wear protective mask in an area with contaminated


air.
Respirator
„„ Watch for signages indicating this requirement or
when instructed by operations.

Safety harness „„ Use safety harness

Safety belt „„ Use safety belt

„„ Watch for signages indicating this requirement or


Catching belt
when instructed by operations.

Table 2.12.1.-1:  Personal Protective Equipment (PPE)

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Page 096 of 112 Chapter 2.  Terms and definitions

2.12.2.  Mandatory signs

General mandatory sign

Disconnect plug from power before opening

Disconnect before working

For pedestrians

Use crosswalk

Follow instructions

Sound horn

Table 2.12.2.-1:  Mandatory signs

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Prohibitive signs according to European Standards Page 097 of 112

2.12.3.  Escape and rescue signs for escape routes and emergency
Direction arrows for first aid
Medical Emergency Eye rinsing
stations, escape routes and First aid
stretcher shower equipment
emergency.

Emergency Escape route / Meeting


Doctor Defibrillator
telephone Emergency exit point

Table 2.12.3.-1:  Escape and rescue signs for escape routes and emergency

2.12.4.  Fire protection symbols and additional symbols


Wall hydrant Fire Fire alarm
Directional arrows Ladder
and fire hose extinguisher telephone

Fire fighting Manual fire Extra sign which gives more information to supplement
equipment alarm the safety sign

Work area! High Voltage


Location: Date:
Sign may only be
removed by:
Danger to life

Table 2.12.4.-1:  Fire protection symbols and additional symbols

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Page 098 of 112 Chapter 2.  Terms and definitions

2.13  GHS
Globally harmonized system (GHS) of classification and labelling of chemicals1
The Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labeling of Chemicals or GHS is
an internationally agreed upon system set to replace the various different classification
and labeling standards used in different countries. The GHS will use consistent criteria
for classification and labeling on a global level. Its development began at the United
Nations Rio Conference in 1992, when the International Labour Organization (ILO),
the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), and various
governments and stakeholders came together at the United Nations. It supersedes
the relevant European Union and United States standards. The European Union has
implemented the United Nations' GHS into EU law as the CLP Regulation.

2.13.1.  Why is GHS needed?2


Currently many different countries have their own standards for chemical hazard
classification and communication. The GHS is intended to replace these multiple systems
with one uniform system that all parties have adopted. These existing systems may be
similar in content and approach, but their differences are significant enough to require
multiple classifications, labels and MSDS’s for the same product when marketed in
different countries. For example, a chemical may be considered toxic in one country, but
not in another.
These inconsistent systems impact both safety and business interests. Global businesses
must comply with multiple regulations regarding hazard classification and labeling, which
can be costly and time-consuming. Many underdeveloped countries have few, if any,
requirements for communication of hazards. This system provides the infrastructure for
these countries to implement a hazard classification and communication system.
The United Nations Conference on the Environment and Development (UNCED)
recognized that reliable management of chemicals is needed on a global basis to ensure
the protection of all people. Given the extent of international trade in chemicals, and the
potential impact on neighboring countries when controls are not implemented, it was
determined that a worldwide approach was necessary. In the longer term, the GHS is
expected to improve knowledge of the chronic health hazards of chemicals and encourage
a move towards the elimination of hazardous chemicals, especially carcinogens, mutagens
and reproductive toxins, or their replacement with less hazardous ones.
The pictogram hereafter are based on the latest revised edition of the GHS. For further
information on the allocation of GHS label elements, refer to Annex 1 to the GHS.

2.13.2.  Hazard Classification


The GHS classification system is complex. The data used for classification may be obtained
from tests, literature, and practical experience. A full explanation of the classification for all
physical, health, and environmental hazards can be found at the United Nations website
for the GHS at http://www.unece.org/trans/danger/publi/ghs/ghs_welcome_e.html.

1  http://www.unece.org/trans/danger/publi/adr/adr_linguistic_e.htm
2  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Globally_Harmonized_System_of_Classification_and_Labelling_of_Chemicals

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GHS Page 099 of 112

2.13.3.  GHS implementation by country (67 countries listed)


Argentina Czech Republic Japan Nigeria Slovenia
Australia Denmark Lao Norway South Africa
People's Democratic
Republic
Austria Ecuador Latvia Paraguay Spain
Belgium Estonia Liechtenstein Peru Sweden
Bolivia Finland Lithuania Philippines Switzerland
Brazil France Luxembourg Poland Thailand
Brunei Darussalam Gambia Madagascar Portugal United Kingdom
Bulgaria Germany Malaysia South Korea USA
Cambodia Greece Malta Romania Vietnam
Canada Hungary Mauritius Russian Fed. Zambia
Chile Iceland Mexico Senegal European
China Indonesia Myanmar Serbia Union (EU)
Colombia Ireland Netherlands Singapore and European
Economic Area
Cyprus Italy New Zealand Slovakia
(EEA)
Table 2.13.3.-1:  Implementation by country
2.13.4.  ADR
Territorial applicability
European agreement concerning the international carriage of dangerous goods by road
ADR is an Agreement between States, and there is no overall enforcing authority. In
practice, highway checks are carried out by Contracting Parties, and non-compliance
may then result in legal action by national authorities against offenders in accordance
with their domestic legislation. ADR itself does not prescribe any penalties. At the time
of publishing, the Contracting Parties are Albania, Andorra, Austria, Azerbaijan, Belarus,
Belgium, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark,
Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Kazakhstan,
Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Moldova, Montenegro, Morocco,
Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Russian Federation, Serbia, Slovakia,
Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia,
Tunisia, Turkey, Ukraine and United Kingdom.

2.13.5.  ADN
European Agreement concerning the International Carriage of Dangerous Goods by
Inland Waterways.
The European Agreement concerning the International Carriage of Dangerous Goods
by Inland Waterways (ADN) was done at Geneva on 26 May 2000 on the occasion of
a Diplomatic Conference held under the joint auspices of the United Nations Economic
Commission for Europe (UNECE) and the Central Commission for the Navigation of the
Rhine (CCNR). It entered into force on 29 February 2008.

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Page 100 of 112 Chapter 2.  Terms and definitions

Additional guidance to members of the vehicle crew on the hazard characteristics of


dangerous goods by class and on actions subject to prevailing circumstances
Danger labels and placards Hazard characteristics Additional guidance
(1) (2) (3)
May have a range of properties
Explosive substances and
and effects such as mass
articles
detonation; projection of
fragments; intense fire/heat flux; Take cover but stay
formation of bright light, loud noise away from windows.
or smoke.
Sensitive to shocks and/or impacts
1 1.5 1.6
and/or heat.
Explosive substances and
articles

Slight risk of explosion and fire. Take cover.

1.4
Risk of fire.
Flammable gases
Risk of explosion.
May be under pressure. Take cover.
Risk of asphyxiation. Keep out of low
May cause burns and/or frostbite. areas.
Containments may explode when
2.1
heated.
Non-flammable,
non-toxic gases Risk of asphyxiation.
May be under pressure. Take cover.
May cause frostbite. Keep out of low
Containments may explode when areas.
heated.
2.2
Toxic gases
Risk of intoxication. Use emergency
May be under pressure. escape mask.
May cause burns and/or frostbite. Take cover.
Containments may explode when Keep out of low
heated. areas.
2.3
Flammable liquids
Risk of fire.
Take cover.
Risk of explosion.
Keep out of low
Containments may explode when
areas.
heated.
3

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GHS Page 101 of 112

Additional guidance to members of the vehicle crew on the hazard characteristics of


dangerous goods by class and on actions subject to prevailing circumstances
Danger labels and placards Hazard characteristics Additional guidance
(1) (2) (3)
Risk of fire. Flammable or
combustible, may be ignited by
heat, sparks or flames.
May contain self-reactive
Flammable solids, self- substances that are liable to
reactive substances exothermic decomposition in
and solid desensitized the case of heat supply, contact
explosives with other substances (such as
acids, heavy-metal compounds
or amines), friction or shock. This
may result in the evolution of
harmful and flammable gases or
4 vapors or self-ignition.
4.1 Containments may explode when
heated.
Risk of explosion of desensitized
explosives after loss of
desensitizer.
Substances liable to
spontaneous combustion
Risk of fire by spontaneous
combustion if packages are
damaged or contents are spilled.
May react vigorously with water
4
4.2
Substances which, in
contact with water, emit
flammable gases
Spilled substances
Risk of fire and explosion in should be kept dry
contact with water. by covering the
spillages.
4
4.3
Oxidizing substances
Avoid mixing
Risk of vigorous reaction,
with flammable
ignition and explosion in contact
or combustible
with combustible or flammable
substances
substances.
(e.g. sawdust).
5.1

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Additional guidance to members of the vehicle crew on the hazard characteristics of


dangerous goods by class and on actions subject to prevailing circumstances
Danger labels and placards Hazard characteristics Additional guidance
(1) (2) (3)
Risk of exothermic decomposition
Organic peroxides
at elevated temperatures, contact
Avoid mixing
with other substances (such as
with flammable
acids, heavy-metal compounds
or combustible
or amines), friction or shock. This
substances (e.g.
may result in the evolution of
sawdust).
harmful and flammable gases or
5.2
vapors or self-ignition.
Toxic substances
Risk of intoxication by inhalation,
skin contact or ingestion. Use emergency
Risk to the aquatic environment or escape mask.
the sewerage system.
6.1
Infectious substances
Risk of infection.
May cause serious disease in
humans or animals.
Risk to the aquatic environment or
the sewerage system.
6.2
Radioactive material

Risk of intake and external Limit time of


7A 7B
radiation. exposure.

RADIOACTIVE

7C 7D

Fissile material

Risk of nuclear chain reaction.

7E

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Additional guidance to members of the vehicle crew on the hazard characteristics of


dangerous goods by class and on actions subject to prevailing circumstances
Danger labels and placards Hazard characteristics Additional guidance
(1) (2) (3)
Risk of burns by corrosion.
Corrosive substances May react vigorously with each
other, with water and with other
substances.
Spilled substance may evolve
corrosive vapors.
8 Risk to the aquatic environment or
the sewerage system.
Miscellaneous dangerous
substances and articles Risk of burns.
Risk of fire.
Risk of explosion.
Risk to the aquatic environment or
the sewerage system.

Table 2.13.5.-1:  Additional guidance to members of the vehicle crew on the hazard characteristics of
dangerous goods by class and on actions subject to prevailing circumstances
NOTE 1: For dangerous goods with multiple risks and for mixed loads, each applicable entry shall be
observed.
NOTE 2: Additional guidance shown above may be adapted to reflect the classes of dangerous goods to
be carried and their means of transport.

Additional guidance to members of the vehicle crew on the hazard characteristics


of dangerous goods, indicated by marks, and on actions subject to prevailing
circumstances
Danger labels and placards Hazard characteristics Additional guidance
(1) (2) (3)
Environmentally hazardous
substances
Risk to the aquatic environment or
the sewerage system

Elevated temperature
Avoid contact
substances
with hot parts of
Risk of burns by heat. the transport unit
and the spilled
substance.
Table 2.13.5.-2:  Additional guidance to members of the vehicle crew on the hazard characteristics of
dangerous goods, indicated by marks, and on actions subject to prevailing circumstances

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Page 104 of 112 Chapter 2.  Terms and definitions

Overview:
EU symbols of danger, UN/GHS danger pictographs, UN/ADR symbols of danger
EU (67/548/EWG) GHS UN/ADR

Unstable
Danger Danger
explosive
substances,
mixtures and
Explosion Class 1
products with
dangerous
explosive
agents , self
subversive
substances
Class 5.2

Extremely
flammable gas
Danger
Flammable gas
Class 2.1
Highly Flammable
flammable liquid and vapor

Flammable
solid Class 3

Danger Heating may


cause a fire

Class 4.1

Self-heating;
may catch fire
Danger
Self-heating in Class 4.2
large quantities;
may catch fire
Flammable
In contact with
water releases Class 4.3
flammable
gases which
may ignite
spontaneously
Class 5.2

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GHS Page 105 of 112

Overview:
EU symbols of danger, UN/GHS danger pictographs, UN/ADR symbols of danger
EU (67/548/EWG) GHS UN/ADR
Danger Danger
May cause fire
or explosion;
strong oxidizer
Oxidizing
May intensify
fire; oxidizer Class 5.1

Contains gas
under pressure;
Warning
may explode if
heated

no equivalent Contains
refrigerated
gas;
may cause Class 2.2
cryogenic burns
or injury

May be
corrosive to
Warning metals
Danger
Causes severe
skin burns and
Corrosive eye damage

Causes serious
eye damage Class 8

Causes eye
irritation

Danger Danger
Fatal if
swallowed
Very toxic
Toxic if
swallowed
Class 6.1

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Overview:
EU symbols of danger, UN/GHS danger pictographs, UN/ADR symbols of danger
EU (67/548/EWG) GHS UN/ADR
Danger Danger

Fatal if inhaled
Toxic
Toxic if inhaled

Class 2.3

Limited
evidence of
no direct equivalent --
mutagenic
effect

Irritant no direct equivalent --

Danger
Health hazard

no direct equivalent May damage


fertility or the
unborn child

no direct
equivalent
Warning
Harms public
health and the
environment
no equivalent
by destroying
ozone in the
upper

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Overview:
EU symbols of danger, UN/GHS danger pictographs, UN/ADR symbols of danger
EU (67/548/EWG) GHS UN/ADR
Danger/
Danger
Warning
Very toxic to
Dangerous aquatic life
for the
environment Harmful to
aquatic life
Class 9

Class 6.2

no equivalent no direct equivalent

Class 7

Hot
Table 2.13.-6:  Symbols of danger and warning

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Page 108 of 112 Chapter 2.  Terms and definitions

2.14  Identification of pipelines according to the fluid conveyed.


Marking of pipes according to fluid transported
Color name
Color group of fluids Type of fluid
RAL No.
Green
„„ Drinking water
RAL 6018
„„ Raw water
„„ Service water, clean water
„„ Treated water
Water „„ Distilled water, condensate
„„ Pressurized water, impounded water
„„ Circulating water
„„ Heavy water
„„ Sewage

Red
„„ LP steam up to 1.5 bar gauge
RAL 3000
pressure
„„ HP saturated steam
„„ HP superheated steam
„„ Reduced, tapped, back pressure
Steam
steam
„„ Vapor
„„ Vacuum steam (at absolute pressure)
„„ Circulating steam
„„ Waste steam

Grey
„„ Fresh air, outside air
RAL 7001
„„ Compressed air (stating the pressure)
„„ Hot air
Air „„ Clean air (conditioned)
„„ Recirculation air, flushing air
„„ Delivery air
„„ Exhaust air

Yellow
„„ Public gas supply
RAL 1021
„„ Acetylene
„„ Hydrogen and gases containing
hydrogen
„„ Hydrocarbons and their derivatives
Flammable gases „„ Carbon monoxide and gases
containing CO
„„ Mixed gases (technical gases)
„„ Inorganic gases NH3, H2S
„„ Hot fuel gases
„„ Combustible waste gases

SAMSON AG · MESS- UND REGELTECHNIK · Weismüllerstraße 3 · 60314 Frankfurt am Main · Germany


Phone: +49 69 4009-0 · Fax: +49 69 4009-1507 · E-mail: samson@samson.de · Internet: www.samson.de
Identification of pipelines according to the fluid conveyed. Page 109 of 112

2.14  Identification of pipelines according to the fluid conveyed.


Marking of pipes according to fluid transported
Color name
Color group of fluids Type of fluid
RAL No.

„„ Nitrogen and gases containing RAL 9005


nitrogen
„„ Carbon dioxide and gases containing
CO2
„„ Sulfur dioxide and gases containing
SO2
Non-flammable gases „„ Chlorine and gases containing
chlorine
„„ Other inorganic gases
„„ Gas mixtures
„„ Derivatives of hydrocarbons
„„ Non-combustible heating gases
„„ Non-combustible waste gases

„„ Sulfuric acid Orange


„„ Hydrochloric acid RAL 2003
„„ Nitric acid
„„ Inorganic mixed acids
Acids „„ Organic acids
„„ Acid salt solutions
„„ Oxidizing solutions
„„ Etching acid
„„ Acid waste

„„ Sodium hydroxide solution Purple


„„ Aqueous ammonia RAL 4001
„„ Potassium hydroxide solution
Lye „„ Calcium hydroxide solution
„„ Other alkaline inorganic liquids
„„ Alkaline organic liquids
„„ Alkaline waste

Brown
„„ Liquid foods
RAL 9005
„„ Aqueous solutions
„„ Other solutions
„„ Aqueous slurries (mash)
Non-flammable liquids „„ Other slurries
„„ Jelly (glue)
„„ Emulsions and pastes
„„ Other liquids, including liquid metals
„„ Non-combustible waste

SAMSON AG · MESS- UND REGELTECHNIK · Weismüllerstraße 3 · 60314 Frankfurt am Main · Germany


Phone: +49 69 4009-0 · Fax: +49 69 4009-1507 · E-mail: samson@samson.de · Internet: www.samson.de
Page 110 of 112 Chapter 2.  Terms and definitions

2.14  Identification of pipelines according to the fluid conveyed.


Marking of pipes according to fluid transported
Color name
Color group of fluids Type of fluid
RAL No.
„„ Danger class A I Brown
„„ Danger class A II RAL 8001
„„ Danger class A III
„„ Danger class B
Flammable liquids „„ Technical greases and heavy oils
„„ Other organic liquids and pastes
„„ Nitroglycerin
„„ Other liquids, including liquid metals
„„ Combustible waste
Blue
RAL 5015
Oxygen

Table 2.14.6.-1:  Identification of pipelines according to the fluid conveyed. Marking of pipes according to
fluid transported

SAMSON AG · MESS- UND REGELTECHNIK · Weismüllerstraße 3 · 60314 Frankfurt am Main · Germany


Phone: +49 69 4009-0 · Fax: +49 69 4009-1507 · E-mail: samson@samson.de · Internet: www.samson.de
 Page 111 of 112

SAMSON AG · MESS- UND REGELTECHNIK · Weismüllerstraße 3 · 60314 Frankfurt am Main · Germany


Phone: +49 69 4009-0 · Fax: +49 69 4009-1507 · E-mail: samson@samson.de · Internet: www.samson.de
SAMSON AG · MESS- UND REGELTECHNIK · Weismüllerstraße 3 · 60314 Frankfurt am Main · Germany
Phone: +49 69 4009-0 · Fax: +49 69 4009-1507 · E-mail: samson@samson.de · Internet: www.samson.de