You are on page 1of 7

MAHATMA GANDHI INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY

(Affiliated to Jawaharlal Nehru Technological University, Hyderabad, A.P.)

Chaitanya Bharathi P.O., Gandipet, Hyderabad-500 075

Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering

CERTIFICATE
Date: 7th May 2010

This is to certify that the project work entitled “COLOR HISTOGRAM FEATURES BASED
IMAGE RETRIEVAL IN CBIR SYSTEMS” is a bonafide work carried out by

K. VAISHNAVI (06261A0423)

NAGA SRAVANTHI. M (06261A0434)

M. SONY (06261A0450)

in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of BACHELOR OF TECHNOLOGY


in ELECTRONICS & COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING by the Jawaharlal
Nehru Technological University, Hyderabad during the academic year 2009-10.

The results embodied in this report have not been submitted to any other University or
Institution for the award of any degree or diploma.

-------------------------- --------------------------
Mrs. P. Nalini , Assistant professor Dr.E. Nagbhooshanam
Faculty Advisor Professor & Head

i
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

We express our deep sense of gratitude to our Guide Mrs. P. Nalini, for her invaluable
guidance and encouragement in carrying out our Project.

We are highly indebted to our Faculty Liaison Mr. S.P Singh, Professor, Electronics and
Communication Engineering Department, who has given us all the necessary technical guidance
in carrying out this Project.

We wish to express our sincere thanks to Dr. E. Nagabhooshanam, Head of the


Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering, M.G.I.T., for permitting us to
pursue our Project in MGIT and encouraging us throughout the Project.

Finally, we thank all the people who have directly or indirectly help us through the
course of our Project.

K. VAISHNAVI

NAGA SRAVANTHI . M

M. SONY

Kiran Kumar

ii
ABSTRACT

Content-based image retrieval (CBIR), also known as query by image content


(QBIC) and content-based visual information retrieval (CBVIR) is the application of
computer vision to the image retrieval problem, that is, the problem of searching for digital
images in large databases.

"Content-based" means that the search will analyze the actual contents of the image. The
term 'content' in this context might refer to colors, shapes, textures, or any other information that
can be derived from the image itself. Without the ability to examine image content, searches
must rely on metadata such as captions or keywords, which may be laborious or expensive to
produce.

In content-based image retrieval systems (CBIR) the most efficient and simple searches
are the color based searches. The searching methods can be improved if some preprocessing
steps are used. In this project one of the preprocessing algorithms, image classification is
analyzed. In CBIR, image classification has to be computationally fast and efficient. For this
purpose the images are classified on the score of particular aspects. For example in a great
database the images can be divided into different classes such as landscapes, buildings, animals,
faces, artificial images...etc.

Many color image classification methods use color histograms. The main aim of this
project is to develop a color histogram based classification approach, which is efficient, quick
and enough robust. In the interest of this we used some features of color histograms and
classified the images using similarity measures like quadratic distance and similarity matrices.

iii
Table of contents

CERTIFICATE FROM ECE DEPARTMENT (i)

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT (ii)

ABSTRACT (iii)

LIST OF FIGURES (vii)

CHAPTER 1. OVERVIEW

1.1 Introduction 2

1.1.1 Color image fundamentals 2

1.1.2 CBIR 5

1.2 Aim of the project 6

1.3 Methodology 6

1.4 Significance of the work 9

1.5 Organization of the report 10

CHAPTER 2. CBIR SYSTEMS

2.1 History 12

2.2 Technical progress 12

2.3 System architecture of CBIR 13

2.3.1 Digitizer 14

2.3.2 Image database 14

iv
2.3.3 Feature extractor 15

2.3.4 Image matching and multidimensional indexing 15

2.4 Image retrieval techniques used in CBIR systems 15

2.4.1 Query techniques 15

2.4.2 Query by example 15

2.4.3 Semantic retrieval 16

2.4.4 Other query methods 16

2.4.5 Content comparison techniques 17

CHAPTER 3. THEORY

3.1 Introduction 26

3.2 Theoretical background 26

3.2.1 Histogram features 26

3.2.2 Feature vectors and feature spaces 28

3.2.3 Distance and similarity measures 29

3.2.4 Classification algorithms and methods 31

3.3 Experiments 32

3.4 Algorithm 33

CHAPTER 4. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS

4.1 Results 35

4.2 Conclusions 40

REFERENCES 41

v
APPENDIX A 42

APPENDIX B 74

vi
List of figures
1.1 RGB coordinate system 4

1.2 RGB color model 5

2.1 General scheme of content-based image retrieval 14

3.1 Sample images of two classes 32

vii