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Life Sciences Fundamentals and Practice, Vol 1, Seventh edition

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Life Sciences
Fundamentals and Practice I

Pranav Kumar | Usha Mina

Life Sciences
Fundamentals and Practice I

Seventh edition

Pranav Kumar
Former faculty,
Department of Biotechnology,
Jamia Millia Islamia (JMI),
New Delhi, India

Usha Mina
Associate Professor,
School of Environmental Sciences,
Jawaharlal Nehru University (JNU),
New Delhi, India

Pathfinder Publication
New Delhi, India
Pranav Kumar
Former faculty,
Department of Biotechnology,
Jamia Millia Islamia (JMI),
New Delhi, India

Usha Mina
Associate Professor,
School of Environmental Sciences,
Jawaharlal Nehru University (JNU),
New Delhi, India

Life Sciences : Fundamentals and Practice

Seventh edition

ISBN: 978-81-906427-0-5 (paperback)

Copyright © 2019 by Pathfinder Publication, all rights reserved.

This book contains information obtained from authentic and highly

regarded sources. Reasonable efforts have been made to publish reliable data
and information, but the author and the publisher cannot assume responsibility
for the validity of all materials or for the consequences of their use.
No part of this book may be reproduced by any mechanical, photographic, or
electronic process, or in the form of a phonographic recording, nor it may be
stored in a retrieval system, transmitted, or otherwise copied for public or
private use, without written permission from the publisher.

Publisher : Pathfinder Publication

Production editor : Ajay Kumar
Copy editor : Jomesh Joseph
Illustration and layout : Pradeep Verma
Cover design : Rajnish Kumar Gupta
Marketing director : Arun Kumar
Production coordinator : Murari Kumar Singh

Pathfinder Publication
A unit of Pathfinder Academy Private Limited, New Delhi, India.

Chapter 1
Biomolecules and Catalysis
1.1 Amino acids and Proteins 1 1.6.5 Stability of the dsDNA helix 67

1.1.1 Optical properties 3 1.6.6 DNA denaturation 67

1.1.2 Absolute configuration 4 1.6.7 Quantification of nucleic acids 69

1.1.3 Standard and non-standard amino acids 5 1.6.8 Supercoiled forms of DNA 69

1.1.4 Titration of amino acids 10 1.6.9 DNA: A genetic material 72

1.1.5 Peptide and polypeptide 16 1.7 RNA 74

1.1.6 Peptide bond 17 1.7.1 Alkali-catalyzed cleavage of RNA 74
1.1.7 Protein structure 20 1.7.2 RNA World hypothesis 75
1.1.8 Denaturation of proteins 29 1.7.3 RNA as genetic material 75
1.1.9 Solubilities of proteins 30
1.8 Carbohydrates 77
1.1.10 Simple and conjugated proteins 31
1.8.1 Monosaccharide 77
1.2 Fibrous and globular proteins 31 1.8.2 Epimers 78
1.2.1 Collagen 32 1.8.3 Cyclic forms 80
1.2.2 Elastin 34 1.8.4 Derivatives of monosaccharide 82
1.2.3 Keratins 35 1.8.5 Disaccharides and glycosidic bond 84
1.2.4 Myoglobin 35 1.8.6 Polysaccharides 86
1.2.5 Hemoglobin 37 1.8.7 Glycoproteins 88
1.2.6 Behavior of allosteric proteins 42 1.8.8 Reducing and non-reducing sugar 88

1.3 Protein folding 43 1.9 Lipids 89

1.3.1 Molecular chaperones 44 1.9.1 Fatty acids 89
1.3.2 Amyloid 45 1.9.2 Triacylglycerol and Wax 91
1.3.3 Ubiquitin mediated protein degradation 46 1.9.3 Phospholipids 92
1.3.4 N-end rule 48 1.9.4 Glycolipids 94

1.4 Protein sequencing and assays 49 1.9.5 Steroid 94

1.9.6 Eicosanoid 95
1.5 Nucleic acids 57
1.9.7 Plasma lipoproteins 97
1.5.1 Nucleotides 57
1.5.2 Chargaff’s rules 61 1.10 Vitamins 98
1.10.1 Water-soluble vitamins 98
1.6 Structure of dsDNA 63
1.10.2 Fat-soluble vitamins 102
1.6.1 B-DNA 63
1.6.2 Z-DNA 65 1.11 Reactive oxygen species and antioxidants 105

1.6.3 Triplex DNA 65 1.12 Enzymes 106

1.6.4 G-quadruplex 66 1.12.1 Naming and classification of enzyme 107

1.12.2 How enzymes operate? 109 2.7.2 Absorption and action spectra 182
1.12.3 Catalytic strategies 111 2.7.3 Fate of light energy absorbed by photosyn-
1.12.4 Enzyme kinetics 112 thetic pigments 183

1.12.5 Enzyme inhibition 119 2.7.4 Concept of photosynthetic unit 185

1.12.6 Regulatory enzymes 123 2.7.5 Hill reaction 185

1.12.7 Isozymes 125 2.7.6 Oxygenic and anoxygenic

photosynthesis 185
1.12.8 Zymogen 126
2.7.7 Concept of pigment system 186
1.12.9 Nucleic acids as catalysts 127
2.7.8 Photosynthesis in green plants 188
1.12.10 Abzyme 128
2.7.9 Light reactions 189
1.12.11 Examples of enzymatic reactions 128
2.7.10 Carbon-fixation cycle 199
2.7.11 Starch and sucrose synthesis 203

Chapter 2 2.8 Photorespiration 204

2.8.1 C4 cycle 206
Bioenergetics and Metabolism 2.8.2 CAM pathway 208

2.1 Bioenergetics 137 2.9 Carbohydrate metabolism 211

2.9.1 Gluconeogenesis 211
2.2 Metabolism 142
2.9.2 Glycogen metabolism 215
2.3 Respiration 143
2.10 Lipid metabolism 220
2.3.1 Aerobic respiration 143
2.10.1 Synthesis and storage of
2.3.2 Glycolysis 144
triacylglycerols 220
2.3.3 Pyruvate oxidation 149
2.10.2 Biosynthesis of fatty acid 222
2.3.4 Citric acid cycle 151
2.10.3 Fatty acid oxidation 226
2.3.5 Anaplerotic reaction 154
2.10.4 Biosynthesis of cholesterol 233
2.3.6 Oxidative phosphorylation 155
2.10.5 Steroid hormones and Bile acids 234
2.3.7 Inhibitors of electron transport 159
2.3.8 Electrochemical proton gradient 160 2.11 Amino acid metabolism 236

2.3.9 Chemiosmotic theory 162 2.11.1 Amino acid synthesis 236

2.3.10 ATP synthase 163 2.11.2 Amino acid catabolism 239

2.3.11 Uncoupling agents and ionophores 166 2.11.3 Molecules derived from amino acids 244

2.3.12 ATP-ADP exchange across the inner 2.12 Nucleotide metabolism 245
mitochondrial membrane 166 2.12.1 Nucleotide synthesis 245
2.3.13 Shuttle systems 167 2.12.2 Nucleotide degradation 252
2.3.14 P/O ratio 168
2.3.15 Fermentation 169
2.3.16 Pasteur effect 171 Chapter 3
2.3.17 Warburg effect 172
2.3.18 Respiratory quotient 172 Cell Structure and Functions
2.4 Glyoxylate cycle 173 3.1 What is a Cell? 258

2.5 Pentose phosphate pathway 174 3.2 Plasma membrane 259

2.6 Entner-Doudoroff pathway 176 3.2.1 ABO blood group 268

3.2.2 Transport across plasma membrane 270
2.7 Photosynthesis 177
2.7.1 Photosynthetic pigment 178 3.3 Membrane potential 277

3.4 Transport of macromolecules across plasma 3.20.5 Enzyme-linked receptors 363

membrane 287 3.20.6 Nitric oxide 370
3.4.1 Endocytosis 288 3.20.7 Two-component signaling systems 371
3.4.2 Fate of receptor 292 3.20.8 Chemotaxis in bacteria 372
3.4.3 Exocytosis 293 3.20.9 Quorum sensing 373

3.5 Ribosome 294 3.20.10 Scatchard plot 374

3.5.1 Protein targeting and translocation 295 3.21 Cell Cycle 376

3.6 Endoplasmic reticulum 296 3.21.1 Role of Rb protein in cell cycle

3.6.2 Transport of protein from cytosol to regulation 386

ER 302 3.21.2 Role of p53 protein in cell cycle

3.6.3 Transport of proteins from ER to regulation 387

cis–Golgi 307 3.21.3 Replicative senescence 389

3.7 Golgi complex 309 3.22 Mechanics of cell division 389

3.7.1 Transport of proteins through 3.22.1 Mitosis 390

cisternae 311 3.22.2 Meiosis 396
3.7.2 Transport of proteins from the TGN to 3.22.3 Nondisjunction and aneuploidy 401
lysosomes 312
3.23 Apoptosis 404
3.8 Vesicle fusion 313
3.24 Cancer 407
3.9 Lysosome 314

3.10 Vacuoles 316

3.11 Mitochondria 317 Chapter 4

3.12 Plastids 321

3.13 Peroxisome 321

Prokaryotes and Viruses
3.14 Nucleus 323 4.1 General features of Prokaryotes 421
3.15 Cytoskeleton 327 4.2 Phylogenetic overview 421
3.15.1 Microtubules 327 4.3 Structure of bacterial cell 423
3.15.2 Kinesins and Dyneins 330 4.4 Bacterial genome: Bacterial chromosome and
3.15.3 Cilia and Flagella 331 plasmid 434
3.15.4 Centriole 333 4.5 Bacterial nutrition 438
3.15.5 Actin filament 334 4.5.1 Culture media 439
3.15.6 Myosin 336 4.5.2 Bacterial growth 440
3.15.7 Muscle contraction 338
4.6 Horizontal gene transfer and genetic
3.15.8 Intermediate filaments 342
recombination 444
3.16 Cell junctions 343 4.6.1 Transformation 445
3.17 Cell adhesion molecules 346 4.6.2 Transduction 447

3.18 Extracellular matrix of animals 348 4.6.3 Conjugation 451

3.19 Plant cell wall 350 4.7 Bacterial taxonomy 456

3.20 Cell signaling 351 4.8 General features of important bacterial

3.20.1 Signal molecules 352 groups 458

3.20.2 Receptors 352 4.9 Archaebacteria 460

3.20.3 GPCR and G-proteins 354 4.10 Bacterial toxins 461
3.20.4 Ion channel-linked receptors 363 4.11 Control of microbial growth 463

4.12 Virus 467 5.12 Generation of antibody diversity 538

4.12.1 Bacteriophage (Bacterial virus) 469 5.13 T-cells and CMI 540
4.12.2 Life cycle of bacteriophage 470 5.13.1 Superantigens 550

4.12.3 Plaque assay 473 5.14 Cytokines 551

4.12.4 Genetic analysis of phage 476
5.15 The complement system 554
4.12.5 Animal viruses 479
5.16 Hypersensitivity 558
4.12.6 Plant viruses 489
5.17 Autoimmunity 560
4.13 Prions and Viroid 490
5.18 Transplantation 561
4.13.1 Bacterial and viral disease 491
5.19 Immunodeficiency diseases 563

5.20 Failures of host defense mechanisms 563

Chapter 5 5.21 Vaccines 565

5.1 Innate immunity 495
Chapter 6
5.2 Adaptive immunity 498 Diversity of Life
5.3 Cells of the immune system 500
6.1 Taxonomy 572
5.3.1 Lymphoid progenitor 501
6.1.1 Nomenclature 572
5.3.2 Myeloid progenitor 503
6.1.2 Classification 573
5.4 Organs involved in the adaptive immune
6.1.3 Biological species concept 574
response 504
6.1.4 Phenetics and cladistics approaches of
5.4.1 Primary lymphoid organs 504
classification 574
5.4.2 Secondary lymphoid organs/tissues 504
6.2 The five-kingdom system 581
5.5 Antigens 505
6.3 Protists 582
5.6 Major-histocompatibility complex 509
6.3.1 Protozoan protists 583
5.6.1 MHC molecules and antigen
6.3.2 Photosynthetic protists 584
presentation 512
6.3.3 Slime mold 585
5.6.2 Antigen processing and presentation 513
6.3.4 Oomycetes 585
5.6.3 Laboratory mice 515
6.4 Fungi 586
5.7 Immunoglobulins: Structure and function 516
6.4.1 Mycorrhiza 588
5.7.1 Basic structure of antibody molecule 516
6.4.2 Lichens 588
5.7.2 Different classes of immunoglobulin 518
5.7.3 Action of antibody 521 6.5 Plantae 588

5.7.4 Antigenic determinants on 6.5.1 Plant life cycle 588

immunoglobulins 521 6.5.2 Algae 590

5.8 B-cell maturation and activation 523 6.5.3 Life cycle of land plants 592

5.9 Kinetics of the antibody response 528 6.5.4 Bryophytes 593

5.10 Monoclonal antibodies and Hybridoma 6.5.5 Pteridophytes 595

technology 530 6.5.6 Gymnosperm 596
5.10.1 Engineered monoclonal antibodies 531 6.5.7 Angiosperms 597

5.11 Organization and expression of Ig genes 532 6.6 Animalia 601


6.7 Animal’s classification 609

6.7.1 Phylum Porifera (Pore bearing animals) 609
6.7.2 Phylum Cnidaria (Coelenterata) 609
6.7.3 Phylum Platyhelminthes (Flatworms) 610
6.7.4 Phylum Aschelminthes (Roundworms) 610
6.7.5 Phylum Annelida 612
6.7.6 Phylum Mollusca 612
6.7.7 Phylum Arthropoda 613
6.7.8 Phylum Echinodermata 613
6.7.9 Phylum Hemichordata 614
6.7.10 Phylum Chordata 614

Answers of self test 622

Index 623
Chapter 1
Biomolecules and Catalysis

1.1 Amino acids and Proteins A biomolecule is a carbon-based organic compound that is produced by a living
Box 1.1 Acids, Bases and pH organism. More than 25 naturally occurring chemical elements are found in
Box 1.2 Motif and domain biomolecules, but these biomolecules consist primarily of carbon, hydrogen,
Box 1.3 Biological interaction nitrogen, oxygen, phosphorus and sulfur. In terms of the percentage of the
1.2 Fibrous and globular proteins total number of atoms, four elements such as hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen and
1.3 Protein folding carbon together make up over 99% of the mass of most cells.

1.4 Protein sequencing and assays Biomolecules include both small as well as large molecules. The small biomolecules
Box 1.4 Water are low molecular weight (less than 1000) compounds which include sugars,
1.5 Nucleic acids fatty acids, amino acids, nucleotides, vitamins, hormones, neurotransmitters,

1.6 Structure of dsDNA primary and secondary metabolites. Sugars, fatty acids, amino acids and

Box 1.5 Hoogsteen base pairing

nucleotides constitute the four major families of small biomolecules in cells.
Large biomolecules which have high molecular weight are called macromolecules
1.7 RNA
and mostly are polymers of small biomolecules. These macromolecules are
1.8 Carbohydrates
proteins, carbohydrates and nucleic acids.
1.9 Lipids

1.10 Vitamins Small biomolecules Macromolecules

1.11 Reactive oxygen species and Sugars Polysaccharides
Amino acids Polypeptides (proteins)
1.12 Enzymes
Nucleotides Nucleic acids
Fatty acids

Nucleic acids and proteins are informational macromolecules. Proteins are

polymers of amino acids and constitute the largest fraction (besides water) of
cells. The nucleic acids, DNA and RNA, are polymers of nucleotides. They store,
transmit, and translate genetic information. The polysaccharides, polymers of
simple sugars, have two major functions. They serve as energy-yielding fuel
stores and as extracellular structural elements.

a-carboxyl group

1.1 Amino acids and Proteins
Amino acids are compounds containing carbon, hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen
a-amino group H3N Ca H and serve as monomers (building blocks) of proteins. As the name implies,
these compounds contain both an amino group and a carboxylic acid group. In
R an α-amino acid, the amino and carboxylate groups are attached to the same
Side chain
carbon atom, which is called the α-carbon. The various -amino acids differ
Figure 1.1 General structure of an with respect to the side chain (R group) attached to their -carbon.
amino acid.
Chapter 2
Bioenergetics and Metabolism

2.1 Bioenergetics
2.1 Bioenergetics Bioenergetics is the quantitative study of the energy transductions (changes
2.2 Metabolism of one form of energy into another) that occur in living cells and of the nature
2.3 Respiration and functions of the chemical processes underlying these transductions.
Box 2.1 Iron–Sulfur clusters

Box 2.2 Cytochromes Thermodynamic principles

Box 2.3 Aerobic and The First law of thermodynamics states that the energy is neither created nor
anaerobic respiration destroyed, although it can be transformed from one form to another i.e. the
2.4 Glyoxylate cycle total energy of a system, including surroundings, remains constant.
2.5 Pentose phosphate pathway
Mathematically, it can be expressed as:
2.6 Entner-Doudoroff pathway
U = q – w
2.7 Photosynthesis
U is the change in internal energy,
Box 2.4 Non-chlorophyll
based photosynthesis q is the heat exchanged from the surroundings,
Box 2.5 Prokaryotic w is the work done by the system.

2.8 Photorespiration
If q is positive, heat has been transferred to the system, giving an increase
in internal energy. When q is negative, heat has been transferred to the
2.9 Carbohydrate metabolism
surroundings, giving a decrease in internal energy. When w is positive, work
2.10 Lipid metabolism
has been done by the system, giving a decrease in internal energy. When w
2.11 Amino acid metabolism
is negative, work has been done by the surroundings, giving an increase in
2.12 Nucleotide metabolism
internal energy.

The Second law of thermodynamics states that the total entropy of a system
must increase if a process is to occur spontaneously. Mathematically, it can
be expressed as:

DS ³ where, S is the change in entropy of the system

Entropy is unavailable form of energy and it is very difficult to determine it,

so a new thermodynamic term called free energy is defined.

Free energy
Free energy or Gibb’s free energy indicates the portion of the total energy
of a system that is available for useful work. The change in free energy is
denoted as G.
Chapter 3
Cell Structure and Functions

3.1 What is a Cell?

3.1 What is a Cell? The basic structural and functional unit of cellular organisms is the cell. It is an
3.2 Plasma membrane aqueous compartment bound by cell membrane, which is capable of independent
3.3 Membrane potential existence and performing the essential functions of life. All organisms, more
3.4 Transport of macromolecules complex than viruses, consist of cells. Viruses are noncellular organisms
across plasma membrane
because they lack cell or cell-like structure. In the year 1665, Robert Hooke
3.5 Ribosome
first discovered cells in a piece of cork and also coined the word cell. The word
3.6 Endoplasmic reticulum
cell is derived from the Latin word cellula, which means small compartment.
Box 3.1 Endomembrane
Hooke published his findings in his famous work, Micrographia. Actually, Hooke
only observed cell walls because cork cells are dead and without cytoplasmic
3.7 Golgi complex
contents. Anton van Leeuwenhoek was the first person who observed living
3.8 Vesicle fusion
cells under a microscope and named them animalcules, meaning little animals.
3.9 Lysosome
3.10 Vacuoles On the basis of the internal architecture, all cells can be subdivided into
3.11 Mitochondria two major classes, prokaryotic cells and eukaryotic cells. Cells that have
3.12 Plastids unit membrane bound nuclei are called eukaryotic, whereas cells that lack a
3.13 Peroxisome membrane bound nucleus are prokaryotic. Eukaryotic cells have a much more
3.14 Nucleus complex intracellular organization with internal membranes as compared to
3.15 Cytoskeleton prokaryotic cells. Besides the nucleus, the eukaryotic cells have other membrane
3.16 Cell junctions bound organelles (little organs) like the endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi complex,
3.17 Cell adhesion molecules lysosomes, mitochondria, microbodies and vacuoles. The region of the cell lying
3.18 Extracellular matrix of animals between the plasma membrane and the nucleus is the cytoplasm, comprising
3.19 Plant cell wall the cytosol (or cytoplasmic matrix) and the organelles. The prokaryotic cells
3.20 Cell signaling lack such unit membrane bound organelles.
3.21 Cell Cycle
Box 3.2 Estimating duration Cell theory
of cell-cycle phases
In 1839, Schleiden, a German botanist, and Schwann, a British zoologist, led to
Box 3.3 Discovery of matura-
tion promoting factor the development of the cell theory or cell doctrine. According to this theory all
3.22 Mechanics of cell division living things are made up of cells and cell is the basic structural and functional
Box 3.4 Kinetochore unit of life. In 1855, Rudolf Virchow proposed an important extension of cell
Box 3.5 Types of meiosis theory that all living cells arise from pre-existing cells (omnis cellula e cellula).
Box 3.6 Stem cells The cell theory holds true for all cellular organisms. Non-cellular organisms
3.23 Apoptosis such as virus do not obey cell theory. Over the time, the theory has continued
Box 3.7 Retinoblastoma to evolve. The modern cell theory includes the following components:
3.24 Cancer
Chapter 4
Prokaryotes and Viruses

4.1 General features of Prokaryotes

4.1 General features of Prokaryotes (pro means before and karyon means kernel or nucleus) consist
Prokaryotes of eubacteria and archaea (also termed as archaebacteria or archaeobacteria).
4.2 Phylogenetic overview The term ‘eubacteria’ refer specifically to bacteria. The informal name ‘bacteria’
4.3 Structure of bacterial cell is occasionally used loosely in the literature to refer to all the prokaryotes,
4.4 Bacterial genome: Bacterial and care should be taken to interpret its meaning in any particular context.
chromosome and plasmid
Prokaryotes can be distinguished from eukaryotes in terms of their cell structure
4.5 Bacterial nutrition
and molecular make-up. Prokaryotic cells have a simpler internal structure
4.6 Horizontal gene transfer and than eukaryotic cells. Although many structures are common to both cell
genetic recombination
types, some are unique to prokaryotes. Most prokaryotic cells lack extensive,
4.7 Bacterial taxonomy
complex, internal membrane systems. The major distinguishing characteristics
4.8 General features of important
of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells are as follows:
bacterial groups

4.9 Archaebacteria
Features Prokaryotic cells Eukaryotic cells
4.10 Bacterial toxins
Membrane bound nucleus Absent Present
4.11 Control of microbial growth
DNA complexed with histone Absent Present
4.12 Virus

4.13 Prions and Viroid Number of chromosomes One (mostly) More than one

Mitosis and meiosis Absent Present

Sterol in plasma membrane Absent (Except Mycoplasma) Present

Ribosome 70S 80S (cytosol) and

70S (organelles)

Unit-membrane bound Absent Present


Cell wall Present in most of prokaryotic Made up of cellulose

cells. In eubacteria, it is made in plant and chitin
up of peptidoglycan. in fungi. Absent in
animal cells.

4.2 Phylogenetic overview

Historically, prokaryotes were classified on the basis of their phenotypic
characteristics. Prokaryotic taxonomy therefore involved measuring a large
number of morphological and biochemical characteristics (e.g. ability to grow on
different substrates, cell wall structure, antibiotic sensitivities, and many others).
Chapter 5

5.1 Innate immunity Immunology is the science that is concerned with immune response to foreign
5.2 Adaptive immunity challenges. Immunity (derived from Latin term immunis, meaning exempt), is
5.3 Cells of the immune system the ability of an organism to resist infections by pathogens or state of protection
5.4 Organs involved in the adaptive against foreign organisms or substances. The array of cells, tissues and organs
immune response which carry out this activity constitute the immune system. Immunity is typically
5.5 Antigens divided into two categories—innate and adaptive immunity.
5.6 Major-histocompatibility complex

Box 5.1 Laboratory mice

5.1 Innate immunity
5.7 Immunoglobulins: Structure
and function Innate (native/natural) immunity is present since birth and consists of many
5.8 B-cell maturation and activation factors that are relatively nonspecific—that is, it operates against almost any

5.9 Kinetics of the antibody foreign molecules and pathogens. It provides the first line of defense against
response pathogens. It is not specific to any one pathogen but rather acts against all
5.10 Monoclonal antibodies and foreign molecules and pathogens. It also does not rely on previous exposure
Hybridoma technology to a pathogen and response is functional since birth and has no memory.
5.11 Organization and expression of
Ig genes
Elements of innate immunity
5.12 Generation of antibody diversity

5.13 T-cells and CMI Physical barriers

5.14 Cytokines Physical barriers are the first line of defense against microorganisms. It includes
5.15 The complement system skin and mucous membrane. Most organisms and foreign substances cannot
5.16 Hypersensitivity penetrate intact skin but can enter the body if the skin is damaged. Secondly,
5.17 Autoimmunity the acidic pH of sweat and sebaceous secretions and the presence of various
5.18 Transplantation fatty acids and hydrolytic enzymes like lysozyme inhibit the growth of most
5.19 Immunodeficiency diseases microorganisms. Similarly, respiratory and gastrointestinal tracts are lined by
5.20 Failures of host defense mucous membranes. Mucus membranes entrap foreign microorganisms. The
mechanisms respiratory tract is also covered by cilia, which are hair like projections of the
5.21 Vaccines epithelial-cell membranes. The synchronous movement of the cilia propels
mucus-entrapped microorganisms out of these tracts. Similarly, the conjunctiva
is a specialized, mucus-secreting epithelial membrane that lines the interior
surface of each eyelid. It is kept moist by the continuous flushing action of tears
(lacrimal fluid) from the lacrimal glands. Tears contain lysozyme, lactoferrin,
IgA and thus provide chemical as well as physical protection.
Microorganisms do occasionally breach the epithelial barricades. It is then up to
the innate and adaptive immune systems to recognize and destroy them, without
harming the host. In case of innate immune response several antimicrobial
chemicals and phagocytic cells provide protection against pathogens.
Chapter 6
Diversity of Life

6.1 Taxonomy
6.1 Taxonomy Taxonomy (arrangement by the rules) is the branch of biology that deals
Box 6.2 Measurement of with identification (placement of a new organism into a previously described
similarity for binary characters
group), nomenclature (the naming of organisms) and classification (ordering
Box 6.2 Plesiomorphy and
of organisms into groups- can be phenetic or phylogenetic) of organisms.
Systematics is the process of organizing taxonomic information about organisms
6.2 The five-kingdom system
into a logical classification that provides the framework for all comparative
6.3 Protists
studies. It is the scientific study of biological diversity and its evolutionary
6.4 Fungi
history. Systematics and taxonomy are collectively referred to as the systematic
6.5 Plantae
6.6 Animalia

6.7 Animal’s classification Levels of taxonomy

There are three levels of taxonomy:
Alpha taxonomy : It is concerned with finding, describing and naming
of organisms. This is the first and most basic step in
Beta taxonomy : It includes identification of natural groups and biological
Gamma taxonomy : It includes study of evolutionary processes and patterns.

Organisms were first classified more than 2,000 years ago by Greek philosopher
Aristotle. He classified organisms as either plant or animal. Modern biological
classification began with the eighteenth-century Swedish naturalist C. Linnaeus.
He established a simple system for classifying and naming organisms. He
developed a hierarchy (a ranking system) for classifying organisms that is the
basis for modern taxonomy.

6.1.1 Nomenclature
Nomenclature is the formal naming of a particular organism according to some
standardized system. The fundamental principle of nomenclature is that each
organism must have only one scientific name. In contrast to scientific names,
many organisms also bear common names (also called vernacular names), which
are generally used by people within a limited geographic region. Presently, the
criteria for scientific naming of plants, algae and fungi are based on the rules
Life Sciences
Life Sciences
Fundamentals and Practice I
Fundamentals and Practice I
Seventh edition
Life Sciences–Fundamentals and practice,
cover essential fundamentals and techniques
that will improve one’s comprehension and help
them perform better in the examination. As the
title of the book implies, the text lays the basis
for an understanding of the fundamentals of
Life Sciences. This book provides a balanced
introduction to all major areas of the subject.

This easy-to-follow study guide

Pranav Kumar | Usha Mina • Focuses on fundamentals and principles with expanded
coverage of critical topics.
• Enables the reader to grasp the subject quickly and easily.
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