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Mechanical Engineering (Third year)

Heat & Mass Transfer (NME-504)
Pre-University Test
Note:- Draw figure where required with labelled. Max. Marks-100
Note:-Attempt all parts. (2*7=14)
Q1. (i) Define convection
(ii) Define Grashoff number.
(iii) What does transient conduction mean
(iv) Graetz number is the ratio of ............to ..............
(v) Why are baffles provided in heat exchanger?
(vi) Define lambert’s cosine law
(vii) Differentiate between configuration factor and interchange factor.
Section - B
Note- Attempt any 3 questions from this section. (7*3=21)
Q1 A 150 mm steam pipe has inside diameter of 120 mm and outside diameter of 160 mm.
It is insulated at the outside with asbestos. The steam temperature is 150 C and the air
temperature is 20 C. h (steam inside) = 100 W/m 2C, h (air side) = 30 W/m2C, k (asbestos)
=0.8 W/m C and k (steel) =42 W/mC. How thick the asbestos be provided in order to limit
the heat loses to 2.1 kW/m2?
Q2. A wall of a furnace is made up of inside layer of silica brick 120 mm thick covered with a
layer of magnesite brick 240 mm thick. The temperature at the inside surface of silica brick
wall and outside surface of magnesite brick wall are 725 C and 110 C resp. The contact
thermal resistance between the two walls at the interface is 0.0035 C/W per unit wall area.
If thermal conductivities of silica and magnesite brick are 1.7 W/mC and 5.8 W/mC,
(i) The rate of heat loss per unit area of walls, and (ii) The temperature drop at the interface.
Q3. A long cylindrical bar ( k= 17.4 W/m C, α = 0.019 m 2/h) of radius 80 mm comes out of
oven at 830 C throughout and is cooled by quenching it in a large bath of 40 C coolant. The
surface coefficient of heat transfer between the bar surface and the coolant is 180 W/m 2 C.
Determine: (i) The time taken by the shaft centre to reach 120 C (ii) The surface
temperature of the shaft when its centre is 120 C. Also calculate the temperature gradient
at the outside surface at the same instant of time.
Q4.An oil is cooled to 375 K in concurrent heat exchanger by transferring its heat to the
cooling water that leaves the cooler at 300K. However, it is required that oil is must be
cooled down to 350 K by lengthening the cooler while the oil and water flow rates, their
inlet temperatures and other dimensions of the cooler remaining unchanged. The inlet
temperatures of the cooling water and oil being 288 K and 425 K resp. If the lehgth of the
original cooler was 1 m calculate the following: (i) The outlet temperatures of the cooling
water of the new cooler, (ii) The length of the new cooler.
Q5. Saturated steam at a temperature of 65 oC condenses on a vertical plate surface at 55 oC.
Determine the thickness of the condensate film at locations 0.2 m and 1 m from the top.
Also calculate the condensate flow rate, and local average heat transfer coefficients at these
locations. Assume vapour density is much less as compared to that of the condensate.
Properties of water at the mean temperature are: ρl=983.3kg/m3; kl=0.654W/mK; µl
=4.67x10-4 kg/ms; cpl=4.85 J/kg oC; hfg=2346x103 J/kg, tsat=65 oC; ts=55 oC; g=9.81m/s2; b=1m
(width assumed)
Note:- Attempt any 5 questions from this section. (7*5=35)
Q1 Derive an expression for maximum temperature within a sphere subjected to one
dimensional conduction with uniform heat generation, in terms of surface temperature.
Q2 The cylindrical head of an engine is 1.2 m long and has an outside diameter of 60 mm.
Under typical operation conditions, the outer surface of the head is at a temperature of 160
C and is exposed to ambient air at 35 oC with a convective coefficient of 85 kJ/m 2h oC. The
head has been provided with 10 longitudinal straight fins which are 0.9 mm thick and
protrude 30 mm from the cylindrical surface. Assuming that the fins have insulated tips and
that the thermal conductivity of the cylinder head and fin material is 265 kJ/m-h- oC.
Determine : (a) The increase in heat dissipation due to addition of fins. (b) The temperature
at the centre of the fin.
Q3 Discuss various modes of pool boiling with the help of pool boiling with the help of pool
boiling curve. List various regimes of forced boiling insides a tube.
Q4 Air at 30 oC and at atmospheric pressure flows at a velocity od 2.2 m/s over a plate
maintained at 90 oC. The length and the width of the plate are 900 mm and 450 mm resp.
Using exact solution, calculate the heat transfer rate from, (i) First half of the plate (ii) Full
plate, and (iii) next half of the plate.
The properties of air at mean bilk temperature =60 oC are: ρ=1.06 kg/m3 ,µ=7.211kg/hm,
v=18.97 x10-6 m2/s, Pr=.696, k=0.02894 W/m oC
Q5 A boiler furnace is laid from fire clay brick outside lagging from plate steel; the distance
between the two is quite small compared with the size of the furnace. The brick setting is at
an average temperature of 380K while the steel lagging is at 300K. The emissivity values
are: εbrick=0.84 and εsteel=0.64. Determine: (i) The radiant flux (ii) The reduction in heat loss if
a steel screen having an emissivityvalue of 0.62 on both sides is placed between the brick
and steel setting. Also calculate the desired emissivity of screen if the radiation loss is to be
limited to 90W/m2.
Q6 Consider radiative heat transfer between two large parallel planes of surface emissivities
0.8. How many thin radiation shields of emissivity 0.05 be placed between the surfaces to
reduce the radiation heat transfer by a factor of 75?
Q7 A copper bar 80 mm x 6mm in cross-section (k= 370 W/m C) is lying in an insulation
trough so that the heat transfer from one face and both the edges is negligible. It is
observed that when a current of 5000A flows through the conductor, the bare face has a
constant temperature of 45 C. If the resistivity of copper is 2 x 10 -8 Ωm, determine: (a) The
maximum temperature which prevails in the bar and its location (b) The temperature at the
centre of the bar.
Q8 Derive an expression for temperature distribution and heat dissipation in a straight fin of
rectangular profile for infinite long.