Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 5

Scripta Materialia,Vol. 34, No. 12, pp.

191%1923,1996
Elscvier Science Ltd
Pergamon Copyright Q 19% Acta MetallurgicaInc.
Printed in the USA. AU rights rcscrvcd
1359-646m s12.00 + 00
PII Sl359-6462(9f@OO68-1

HIGH-STRAIN-RATE SUPERPLASTICITY IN
ULTRAHIGH-CARBON STEEL CONTAINING
10 wt.% Al (UHCS-1OAl)
Eric M. ‘Talefl?, Mamoru Nagao**, Kenji Higashi*** and Oleg D. Sherby* ***
‘Department of Aerospace Engineering and Engineering Mechanics,
The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712, U.S.A.
**Kobe Steel, Ltd., Materials Design Section, Materials Research Laboratory,
l-5-5 Takatukadai, Nishi-ku, Hyogo, Japan.
***Department of Mechanical Systems Engineering, College of Engineering,
University of Osaka Prefecture, Sakai, Osaka 593, Japan.
***“Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Stanford University,
Stanford, CA 94305, U.S.A.

(Received December 7,199s)


(Revised January 26,1996)

Introduction
The phenomenon of superplasticityhas been historicallyobserved at low strain rates of 10m3s-l and less in
most superplastic materials (1). Recent studies, however, have shown superplastic behavior to occur at strain
rates significantly greater than 10s3 s-l in some materials (2-20). Such high-strain-rate superplasticity
has been observed principally in metal-matrix composites of Al (2-13) and mechanically-alloyed Al-
base materials (14-18), along with powder-metallurgy Al alloys (19) and mechanically-alloyed N&base
materials (20). The present study represents a new processing route by which high-strain-rate superplasticity
can be obtained in a two-phase, Fe-base alloy. For this study, an ultrahigh-carbon steel containing 10 wt.%
Al (UHCS-lOAl) was processed by a powder-metallurgy technique. Mechanical attrition was used to
introduce a large degree of cold work into pre-alloyed powders, creating the very fine microstructural
features necessary for high-strain-rate superplasticity. Because this material contains two phases, cr-Fe and
K-carbide (Fe&l& where x = 0.5 to l), in the range of processing temperatures, a fine grain size was
produced upon consolidation and retained during deformation. It is this fine grain size which is responsible
for the high-strain-rate superplastic behavior observed.

Experimental Procedure
The two UI-ICS-1OAl materials of this study were produced from powders gas-atomized from an alloyed
melt. One material was produced by consolidating powders in a can using hot-isopressure extrusion. This
material is designiated as the unattrited material. A second material was produced by mechanically attriting
powders for 80 hours in a rotating-arm ball mill before consolidation by hot-isopressure extrusion. This
material is designated as the attrited material. The unattrited material contained, by weight: 10.16% Al,
1.26% C, 1.61% Cr, 0.58% Mn, and a balance of Fe. The attrited material contained, by weight: 9.60% Al,

1919
1920 HIGH-STRAIN-RATE SUF’ERPLASTICITY Vol. 34, No. 12

160

40

0
0 2 4 6 8
Strain

Figure 1. Stress-strain data from elongation-to-failure tests on the unattrited material at 92O’C.

1.22% C, 2.46% Cr, 0.55% Mn, 0.27% Ni, and a balance of Fe. Extruded rods of both materials were hot-
rolled into plates and the canning material was removed. Tensile coupons were machined from the plates
into samples with a 5 mm gage length and a 4 mm gage width. Samples were tested by elongation-to-failure
tests conducted at constant-true-strain rates. The unattrited material was tested at strain rates from low4 to
loo s-l. The attrited material was tested at strain rates from 10m4 to lo1 s-l.

Results and Discussion

Scanning-electron microscopy revealed the unattrited material to have a linear-intercept grain size of
L = 1.9 pm. The attrited material showed grains of varying size, with the majority having a linear
intercept size of L = 0.5pm while a few areas showed L = 1.4 pm. The results of elongation-to-failure
tests conducted at 92O’C on the unattrited material are shown in Fig. 1 as a plot of nominal stress versus
strain. The true-strain rate of each test is indicated above each data curve in Fig. 1. The results of elongation-
to-failure tests conducted at 92O’C on the attrited material are shown in Fig. 2 as a plot of nominal stress
versus strain. The true-strain rate of each test is indicated above each data curve in Fig. 2. The data of
both Fig. 1 and Fig. 2 indicate strain-hardening behavior during testing at high strain rates of 10-l s-l
and faster. Both materials show little or no strain hardening in tests at lower strain rates than this. Dynamic
grain growth was observed after testing at a strain rate of 10B4 s-l, with resulting average grain sizes of
L = 7.9pmand L = 1.1 pm for the unattrited and attrited materials, respectively.
The relationship between the flow stress and the true-strain rate of testing is revealed for both materials
in Fig. 3. This figure is a plot of true-strain rate versus flow stress at a true strain of E = 0.2 on double-
logarithmic scales. The slope of the data on this plot is equal to the stress exponent value, R. The unattrited
material shows a minimum stress exponent near R = 2 at the slowest strain rates of testing, 10e3 s-l
and less. This behavior has been historically observed in superplastic materials [l]. The attrited material,
however, exhibits a minimum stress exponent of rz = 4 occurring at fast strain rates of 10-l s-* and greater.
The attrited material also exhibits threshold-stress behavior, where the stress exponent increases rapidly
as strain rate decreases below 10s2 s-l.
Vol. 34, No. 12 HIGH-STRAIN-RATE SUPERPLASTICI-IY 1921

I\ ,
I
I
I
I
I

,-
I
t

I-
I
IO0s-*
/.-- -.

10-l s-1
,_-- ----------.
\
\
\
\
\
\
\

Figure 2. Stress-strain data from elongation-to-failure tests on the attrited material at 92O’C.

Unattritcd UI-KS-IOAI
Attritcd UHCS-1OAI

,I I
10-6 t ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ ’”
IO0 10’ 102
Flow Stress (MPa)

Figure 3. ‘he-strain rats versus flow stress at 6 = 0.2 for the attritedandunattritedUHCS-1OAl
materialsat 920%.
1922 HIGH-STRAIN-RATESUPERPLASTICITY Vol. 34, No. 12

True Slrrrin Ralc (~“1

Figure 4. Tensile elongation versus true-strain rate for the attrited and unattrited UHCS-1OAl materials at 92O’C.

Shown in Fig. 4 is a plot of elongation to failure versus true-strain rate of testing. The unattrited
material shows a maximum tensile ductility of 750% at the lowest strain rate of testing, 10m4 s-l, where
the minimum stress exponent is also observed. The tensile ductility of the unattrited material rapidly drops
with increasing strain rate to values of less than 200% above strain rates of 10-l s-r, The attrited material,
however, exhibits low ductility at the lowest strain rates. This low ductility corresponds the region in Fig. 3
which shows a strong threshold stress. The attrited material exhibits a peak in ductility at a strain rate of
10-l s-l, where 350% elongation is achieved. A very high elongation of 300% is still attained at a strain
rate of 10’ s-r, which drops to less than 200% at a strain rate of 10’ s-l. The strain rates where high
ductility is exhibited correspond well with the strain rates at which the stress exponent is lowest in the
attrited material. A peak in tensile ductility at strain rates from 10-l s-l to 10’ s-l is typical of materials
which exhibit high-stain-rate superplasticity (l-4,8,10-14,18,19,21).

Conclusions

By introducing a large degree of cold work into powders of a two-phase material a highly refined microstruc-
ture was created. The two phases helped to retain the tine microstructure after consolidation, resulting in
a grain size small enough to support high-strain-rate superplasticity. This result should be applicable to
other multi-phase systems. While one UHCS-1OAl material produced from consolidated powders exhibited
standard superplastic behavior, the material consolidated from attrited material exhibited behavior typical
of high-strain-rate superplasticity, with a peak ductility of 350% occuring at a strain rate of 10-r s-l.

Acknowledgements

This work was performed under the auspices of the U. S. Office of Naval Research under contract N-
00014-91-J-1197. The authors wish to extend their appreciation to Kobe Steel, Ltd. for their support of
this project.

References

1. 0. D. Sherby and J. Wadsworth, Prog. Marex Sci. 33,169 (1989).


2. T. G. Nieh, C. A. Henshall, and J. Wadsworth, Scripta Metall. Mater l&1405 (1984).
Vol. 34, No. 12 HIGH-STRAIN-RATE SUPERPLASTICITY 1923

3. T. Imai, M. Mabuchi, Y. Tozawa, and M. Yamada,J. Mater. Sci. Lett. 9,255 (1990).
4. M. Mabuchi and T. Imai. J. Mater. Sci Lett. 9,761(1990).
5. M. Mabuchi, K Higashi. Y. Okada, S. timura, T. Imai, and K. Kubo, Scripta Metall. Mater 25,2517 (1991).
6. K. Higashi, T. Okada, T. Mukai, S. Tanimura, T. G. Nieh, and J. Wadsworth, Scripta Metall. Muter. 26,185 (1992).
7. M. Mabuchi, IC Higashi, K. Inoue, and S. Tanimura, Scripta Metall. Mater: 26,1839 (1992).
8. M. Mabuchi, IL Higashi, K. Inoue, S. Tanimura, T. Imai, and K Kubo, Mater. Sci Engng. A156, L9 (1992).
9. M. Mabuchi, IS. Higashi, S. Wada, and S. ‘Ibnimura, Scripta Metall. MateE 26,1269 (1992).
10. T. Hikosaka, T. Imai, T. G. Nieh, and J. Wadsworth, Scriptu Metall. MuteE 31,118l (1994).
11. T. Imai, G. L’Esperance, and B. D. Hong, Scripta Metall. Mater. 31,321(1994).
12. M. Mabuchi, IL Higashi, and T. G. Langdon, Acta Mefall. Mater 42,1739 (1994).
13. T. G. Nieh, T. Imai, J. Wadsworth, and S. Kojima, Scripta Met& Mater. 31,168s (1994).
14. T. G. Nieh, P. S. GiIman, and J. Wadsworth, Scripta Met&! Muter 19,137s (1985).
15. K. Higashi, T. Okada, T. Mukai, and S. Tanimura, Scriptu Metall. Mater. 25,2053 (1991).
16. K. Higashi, T. Mukai, A. Inoue, T. Masumoto, K. Kita, K. Ohtera, and J. Nagahora, Scripta Metall. Mater. 26,191(1992).
17. K. Higashi, T. Okada, T. Mukai, and S. Tanimura, Scripta Metall. Muter: 26,761 (1992).
18. K Higashi, T. Okada, T. Mukai, and S. Tanimura, Mater. Sci Engng. A159, Ll(l992).
19. T. G. Nieh and J. Wadsworth, Scripta Metall. Mater. 28, 1119 (1993).
20. J. K. Gregory, J. C. Gibeling, and W. D. Nix, Metall. Trans. 16A, 777 (1985).
21. T. R. Bieler, T. G. Nieh, J. Wadsworth, and A. K Mukherjee, Scriptu Metall. Muter. 22,81(1988).