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Министерство образования и науки Российской Федерации

Севастопольский государственный университет

Bill of Lading = Коносамент

МЕТОДИЧЕСКИЕ УКАЗАНИЯ
к практическим занятиям по дисциплине «Английский язык»
для студентов 5 курса специальности
6.100301 «Судовождение»
дневной формы обучения

Севастополь
2015
УДК 629.123+656.61.052

Коносамент = Bill of Lading. Методические указания к практическим занятиям


по дисциплине «Английский язык» для студентов 5 курса специальности
6.100301 «Судовождение» дневной формы обучения / Сост. Е.С. Солодова. –
Севастополь: Изд-во СГУ, 2015.- 35с.

Цель методических указаний заключается в обучении студентов навыкам


перевода судовой документации на примере коносамента. Пособие охватывает
обширный слой деловой лексики, используемой при составлении морских
соглашений, освоение которой поможет выработать у студентов умение
грамотно переводить профессиональные тексты.

Методические указания рассмотрены и утверждены на заседании кафедры


Практики романских и германских языков (протокол № от 2015 г.).

Допущено учебно-методическим центром и научно-методическим Советом


СГУ в качестве методических указаний.

Рецензент: С.Е. Пастухова, кандидат филологических наук, доцент кафедры


Практики романских и германских языков Севастопольского государственного
университета.
СОДЕРЖАНИЕ

Введение………………………………………………………………………………4
1. Introductory Notes………………………………………………………………….5
2. Bill of Lading. Part I……………………………………………………………….6
3. Bill of Lading. Part II …………………………………………………………....10
4. Bill of Lading. Part III …………………………………………………………….14
5. Bill of Lading. Part IV…………………………………………………………….19
6. Bill of Lading. Part V……………………………………………………………..23
7. Bill of Lading. Part VI…………………………………………………………….27
8. Bill of Lading. Part VII……………………………………………………………30
Библиографический список………………………………………………………..35
ВВЕДЕНИЕ

Методические указания предназначены для студентов старших курсов


специальности «Судовождение» в рамках дисциплины «Судовая документация
на английском языке».
Основной целью настоящих методических указаний является обучение
студентов навыкам перевода судовой документации на примере коносамента.
Для облегчения работы с текстом коносамента, последний разделен на семь
частей, для каждой из которых приводится свой вокабуляр и блок упражнений на
закрепление материала.
Методические указания охватывают ключевые штампы и клише,
используемые в современных профессиональных текстах.
Introductory Notes

Read the common information concerning the Bill of Lading, paying attention
to the following words:

shipping line судоходная линия


merchandise товары
alongside рядом, наряду с чем-либо
to derive происходить
endorsement подтверждение; передаточная надпись
to embark грузить(ся)
to acknowledge подтверждать
document of title товарораспорядительный документ

A bill of lading is a document generated by a shipping line* or its agent, giving


details of a shiApment of merchandise. Alongside this principal purpose, the bill of
lading also certifies that the goods have been shipped aboard a vessel (and in some
cases certifies the condition of the goods at the point of loading), assigns title to the
goods, and requires the carrier to release the merchandise to the holder of the title or a
named party at the destination port.
The word "lading" means "loading", both words being derived from the Old
English word hladan. "Lading" specifically refers to the loading of cargo aboard a
ship. (However, "Bills of Lading" should never be called "Bills of Loading").
A bill of lading is a standard-form document. It is transferable by endorsement (or
by lawful transfer of possession) and is a receipt from shipping company regarding the
number of packages with a particular weight and markings and a contract for the
transportation of same to a port of destination mentioned therein.* Lord Justice
Blackburn** defined a Bill of Lading as "A writing signed on behalf of the owner of
ship in which goods are embarked, acknowledging the receipt of the Goods, and
undertaking to deliver them at the end of the voyage, subject to such conditions as may
be mentioned in the bill of lading." A bill of lading is a key document used in the
transport of goods. As a document of title, it is also an important financial instrument.

*A shipping line is a business that transports cargo aboard ships.


** Слова типа hereunder, therefrom, thereby являются архаизмами и в основном
употребляются в юридических документах. Это сочетания указательных и
вопросительных местоимений с предлогами.
Такие слова соответствуют следующим сочетаниям:
herein = in this
hereafter = after this
herefrom = from this, etc.
therein = in that
thereof = of that, etc.
whereby = by which
wherein = in which, etc.
При переводе этих слов на русский язык можно пользоваться словами оный,
таковой, что соответствует канцелярскому стилю юридических документов.
***Lord Justice Blackburn (1813 – 8 January 1896) was a Scottish judge who sat
in the English courts, became a Law Lord and is remembered as one of the greatest
exponents of the common law.

BILL OF LADING
Part I

Ex. I Read and translate the text using the words and expressions given below.

Received for shipment from “Exportles” and shipped in apparent good order and
condition on board the motor vessel called the “Seagull” whereof master is … and
trading under the Russian flag, owners Russia, carrier the Far Eastern Shipping
Company and now lying in Vladivostok, Russia, the following goods:
Description of goods: Sawn Logs produced from Whitewood, Larchwood, Red Pine &
Cedar.
Number of packages or pieces: 18230 pcs
Gross weight: 6573.94 t
Measurement: 7150.65 cbms
Rate of freight:
Received on account of freight:
To be paid by consignee:
Being marked and numbered as above but not guaranteed hereby for the adequacy
of marks and to be carried and delivered subject to all conditions, terms and clauses
inserted into this bill of lading in the like apparent good order and condition from the
ship’s deck (either into lighters or on the quay at master’s option) where the
responsibility of the carrier for the carriage of the aforesaid goods shall cease.
The goods to be delivered at the port of …… or as near there as the ship may
safely get, always afloat, to the consignee “Japan Sea Trading Co. Ltd.”, Tokyo, Japan
or to their assigns, on payment of freight as per margin of this bill of lading and all
other charges due under this contract of carriage.
Nothing in this bill of lading, whether printed, or written, or stamped, shall limit or
affect the above-mentioned conditions. If the freight and all charges in connection with
the contract of carriage payable on or before delivery of goods have not been paid, the
carrier, on delivery of the goods to warehouse (warehouseman), or into lighters
(lighterman), or other custodian entrusted to hold the goods for their owner, shall be
entitled to stipulate that the said custodian shall not part with the possession thereof
until payment has been made of the full freight and any other charges due under this
contract of carriage.
Neither the weight nor the measure of goods carried in bulk as well as the
conformity of all kinds of goods with their description in this bill of lading are checked
by the carrier on loading.
The shipper, the receiver of goods and the holder of the bill of lading as well as
any other person interested hereby expressly accept and agree to all printed, written or
stamped provisions, terms and reserves of this bill of lading, including those on the
back hereof.
In witness whereof the master, carrier or his agent has affirmed to three bills of
lading, all of this tenor and date, one of which being accomplished the others to stand
void.
One bill of lading, duly endorsed, is to be given up in exchange for the goods, or
for a delivery order for same.
Dated in Vladivostok, Russia, this 20 th day of October, 2005.

Master________________

Notes

apparent очевидный
in apparent good order в надлежащем виду состоянии
shipper отправитель
description описание, наименование
sawn– p.p. from saw пилить
whitewood белая древесина
larchwood лиственница
cedar кедр
rate ставка
on account of в счет
consignee получатель
conformity соответствие
not guaranteed без гарантии
adequate соответствующий
reserve правильность
subject to с соблюдением
term условие
clause пункт, статья
to cease прекращать
afloat на плаву
assign правопреемник
on payment по уплате
margin поле (текста)
charge оплата
due причитающийся
to affect воздействовать, влиять
custody хранение
custodian хранитель
to entrust вверять
to be entitled иметь право
to stipulate обусловить
to part расстаться, отдавать
expressly безоговорочно
in witness whereof в удостоверении вышеизложенного
to affirm подтверждать
tenor содержание
to stand void терять юридическую силу
duly должным образом
to endorse индоссировать (совершать передаточную
надпись)

Ex. II Translate the verbs


Receive, ship, call, trade, carry, follow, saw, measure, pay, mark, number, deliver,
insert, cease, get, print, write, stamp, limit, affect, mention, connect, entrust, hold,
entitle, stipulate, part, possess, describe, check, insert, accept, agree, include, affirm,
accomplish, endorse

Ex. III Give Russian equivalents to the following


In apparent good order and condition; received for shipment; on board the steam-ship;
trading under the Russian flag; the said Steamship Line; rate of freight; re-ceived on
account of freight; to be paid by consignee; adequacy of marks; subject to all
conditions; in the like good order and condition; either into lighters or on the quay; at
Master’s option; the responsibility shall cease; on payment of freight; charges due
under the contract of carriage; above-mentioned conditions; in connection with; on or
before the delivery of goods; shall be entitled to stipulate; goods carried in bulk; the
conformity of the goods with their description; to agree to all provisions; in witness
whereof; in exchange for

Ex. IV Translate the sentences into Russian


1. In witness whereof the master has affirmed to 3 bills of lading.
2. The carrier is not responsible for loss of goods resulting therefrom.
3. The master is to make note thereof in the bill of lading.
4. The shipper must inform master thereof.
5. You must apply therefore to the carrier’s agency.
6. The Master is to notify his agent whereof.

1. The consignee will receive the goods on payment of freight.


2. On delivery her cargo the ship went to berth № 7.
3. On entering the port the ship unloaded her cargo into lighters.
4. On checking the goods the agent received them for shipment

1. Neither the master nor the chief mate checked the cargo.
2. Neither the warehouseman nor the lighterman received the cargo.
3. You must unload paper neither into lighters nor on the quay.
4. The consignee paid neither freight nor any other charges.
Ex. V Answer the questions.
1. The ship is now in Vladivostok, isn’t she?
2. The weight isn’t checked by the carrier, is it?
3. Are the goods to be carried to Vladivostok?
4. Is the ship trading under the Japanese or Russian flag?
5. What cargo was received for shipment?
6. Where shall the responsibility of the carrier for the goods cease?
7. How many bills of lading have been affirmed to?

Ex. VI Insert prepositions.


1. The goods are shipped … good order … board the motor vessel “Seagull”.
2. The ship is trading ... the Russian flag.
3. The ship is now lying … Vladivostok.
4. The goods must be delivered subject ... all conditions inserted … the bill of
lading.
5. The cargo may be unloaded either … lighters or … the quay … Master’s option.
6. The goods are to be delivered ... payment … freight.
7. All charges … connection … the contract … carriage shall be paid.
8. The shipper and the receiver agree … all conditions … the bill of lading.
9. The master has affirmed … three bills … lading.
10. One bill of lading is to be given … … exchange … goods.

Ex. VII Insert missing words.


1. The goods are … in good order and condition.
2. The cargo must be delivered subject to all … of the bill of lading.
3. The cargo may be unloaded either into lighters or on the quay at Master’s ...
4. The goods to be delivered to the …
5. All … in connection with the contract of carriage are to be paid.
6. The measure of goods carried … is not checked by the carrier.
7. Any holder of the bill of lading … accepts all provisions.

(option, conditions, expressly, charges, shipped, consignee, in bulk)

Ex. VIII Give English equivalents to the following.


Плавающий под российским флагом; получено в счёт фрахта; с соблюдением
всех условий; приняты к перевозке; по выбору капитана; по уплате фрахта;
причитающиеся по договору перевозки платежи; вправе обусловить; в
удостоверение изложенного; в обмен на; соответствие грузов их наименованию;
в надлежащем по внешнему виду состоянии; на теплоходе; вышеупомянутое
пароходство; ставка фрахта; правильность маркировки; в таком же надлежащем
по внешнему виду состоянии; как на лихтеры, так и на набережную; обязанности
считаются прекращёнными; всегда оставаясь на плаву; вышеизложенные
условия; в связи с договором перевозки; до сдачи или при сдаче груза; грузы,
перевозимые внавалку; принимать все правила; в удостоверение изложенного
Ex. IX Translate into English.
1. Этот груз отправлен в надлежащем по виду состоянии и условии.
2. Груз принят к перевозке на борт судна “Сигалл”.
3. Бумага может быть выгружена либо на лихтера, либо на причал.
4. Груз должен быть доставлен в порт Находка.
5. Груз сдаётся в порту по уплате фрахта.
6. Ничто в этом коносаменте не изменит вышеупомянутые условия.
7. Ваша компания должна оплатить все расходы, причитающиеся по кон-
тракту перевозки.
8. Вес груза не проверяется перевозчиком при погрузке.
9. Грузоотправитель и грузополучатель соглашаются со всеми условиями
этого коносамента.
10. В удостоверение изложенного капитан подписал три экземпляра
коносамента.
11. Остальные теряют юридическую силу.
12. Один экземпляр коносамента должен быть отдан в обмен на груз.

BILL OF LADING
Part II

Ex. I Read and translate the text using the words and expressions given below.

1. Each package or piece must be well packed before loading and provided with
distinct signs, marks and numbers with the name of the place of destination, in letters
not less than five cm. long.
Packages unfit for the placing of such marks and numbers must be provided with
securely fastened labels. In default of these conditions the carrier is not liable for loss
or damage or delay in delivery of the goods resulting therefrom.
2. The shipper is responsible for the proper packing of the goods. The sufficiency
of the packing as well as the condition of the goods uncovered shall be determined by
the master, the carrier or his agent, who, should he find the covering unsatisfactory, is
to make note thereof in the bill of lading. The owner of the goods shall be responsible
for any loss arising from shipper’s failing to indicate or concealing the defects of
packing or unsatisfactory state of the goods unpacked.
3. With shipper’s consent in writing, the goods may be carried on deck at the risk
of the owner of goods.
4. The owner of the goods is responsible to the carrier for the accuracy and
exactitude of the shipper’ declaration regarding the inner and outer condition of the
goods, their packing and distinctive signs, and the owner of the goods shall indemnify
the carrier against all loss, damages and expenses, arising or resulting from inaccuracy,
inexactitude and insufficiency in such particulars, as furnished by the shipper.
5. The carrier shall be at liberty at the place of loading or discharging as well as
during the voyage to ascertain whether the contents of the goods correspond with their
description. If the description of the goods, whether packed or unpacked, as shown on
this bill of lading proves to be incorrectly stated, the owner of the goods is bound to
pay the carrier double difference between the full freight on the correct description of
the goods for the whole voyage with additional charges, and the amount calculated
under the incorrect statements of the shipper.
If the number of animals loaded on board by shipper’s means proves to be
incorrectly stated, the owner of the goods shall pay the carrier triple freight on the
quantity exceeding as well as all additional charges and fees.
The carrier shall be entitled to check in the port of destination the weight as
declared by the shipper and if a surplus is found, double freight shall be paid for it.
The shipper is liable to the carrier for any loss or damage to the ship or cargo and
for all other expenses, caused by the wrong description or denomination of goods, and
all costs and expenses of weighing and checking the goods shall be payable by the
owner of goods, if the weight and/or description on the bill of lading be wrongly
stated.

Notes

pack – упаковывать indicate – указывать


package – пакет, тюк conceal – скрывать
piece – грузовое место state – излагать. указывать
provide – снабжать consent – согласие
distinct – ясный, отчётливый in writing – в письменной форме
sign – знак, отметка exactitude – точность
mark – маркировка regarding – относительно
cm. = centimeter – сантиметр distinctive – отличительный
unfit – непригодный indemnify against – застраховать от
securely – прочно, надёжно particulars – сведения
fasten – прикреплять furnish – представлять
label – ярлык, бирка be at liberty – быть вправе
in default – при нарушении voyage – рейс
be liable – быть ответственным ascertain – убедиться
correspond – соответствовать
prove – оказываться
loss – утрата, убыток be bound – быть обязанным
damage – ущерб correct – правильный
delay – задержка additional – дополнительный
arise – возникать calculate – начислять, считать
result – происходить triple – тройной
proper – надлежащий amount – сумма
sufficient – достаточный quantity – количество
sufficiency – достаточность exceed – превышать
determine – определять fees – сборы, гонорар
unsatisfactory – неудовлетворитель- surplus – излишек, избыток
ный cause – вызывать, причинять
accuracy – точность, правильность wrong - неправильный
at the risk of – на риск

Ex. II Translate the verbs.


Pack, find, arise, provide, indicate, conceal, carry, fasten, show, pay, prove, cause,
state, cover, fail, sign, result from, determine, declare, indemnify, furnish, ascertain,
correspond, calculate, denominate, weigh

Ex. III Give Russian equivalents to the following.


Must be well packed; must be provided with distinct signs; the place of destina-tion; in
letters not less than five cm. long; unfit for such marks; securely fastened labels; in
default of these conditions; the carrier is not liable; delay in delivery; resulting
therefrom; proper packing; the sufficiency of packing; as well as; shall be determined
by the master; to make note thereof; the shipper failed to indicate; at the risk of the
owner of the goods; declaration regarding condition of the goods; distinctive signs; to
indemnify against damages; particulars furnished by the shipper; to be at liberty; to
correspond with the description; proves to be incorrectly stated; double difference;
loaded by shipper’s means; the quantity exceeding; the shipper is liable to the carrier
for; wrong denomination

Ex. IV Translate the sentences into Russian.


1. He failed to furnish all the documents.
2. He failed in mathematics.
3. Don’t fail to ring me up.
4. She failed to see the difference between these words.

1. I don’t know whether the goods will be packed well.


2. He wants to know whether they work here.
3. I don’t remember if she has taken the book or if she has left it at home.
4. I wonder if she knows French.
5. You must ascertain whether the goods correspond with their description.

1. He proved to be a good student.


2. The weight of the cargo proved to be wrongly stated.
3. The experiment proved to be a success.
4. The book proved to be very important.
5. He proves to speak English well.

1. The man translating the article is our teacher.


2. Give the book to the boy sitting at the table.
3. I don’t know the student asking questions.
4. You must speak to the man checking the goods.
5. The shipper is responsible for any loss arising from insufficiency of marks.

Ex. V Answer the questions.


1. Is the carrier responsible for the proper packing?
2. May the goods be carried on deck?
3. Shall the carrier be at liberty to check the goods?
4. Is the shipper responsible for proper packing or is the carrier?
5. Shall the owner pay triple or double freight if a surplus is found?
6. What must packages be provided with before loading?
7. In what cases are packages provided with labels?
8. Who is responsible for the proper packing of goods?
9. Who determines the sufficiency of packing?
10. At whose risk are the goods carried on deck?
11. When does the owner of the goods pay triple freight?
12. What expenses must the owner of the goods pay if the weight of the goods is
wrongly stated?

Ex. VI Insert prepositions.


1. Each package must be provided … distinct signs … letters 5 cm. long.
2. … default … these conditions the carrier is not liable … delay … delivery …
the goods.
3. The sufficiency … packing shall be determined …the master.
4. … shipper’s consent … writing the goods may be carried … deck.
5. These goods are carried … the risk … the owner … the goods.
6. The owner … the goods shall indemnify the carrier … all damages resulting …
insufficiency … packing.
7. The carrier shall be … liberty to check the goods.
8. The owner must pay the amount calculated … the correct statement … the
shipper.
9. The owner shall pay triple freight … the quantity exceeding.
10. The shipper is liable … the carrier … any loss or damage … the ship or cargo
and … all other expenses, caused … the wrong description … goods.

Ex. VII Insert missing words.


1. Each package must be … with distinct marks and numbers.
2. In default of these … the carrier is not liable for damage to the goods.
3. The sufficiency of packing is determined by the …
4. The carrier is to make note thereof in the …
5. With … consent in writing , goods may be carried on …
6. The … is responsible for the shipper’s declaration regarding their packing.
7. The carrier shall be … to check the weight of the cargo.
8. The shipper must pay all … charges.
9. Double freight shall be … for it.
10. The expenses are caused by … description of goods.
(Bill of lading, owner of the goods, at liberty, wrong, provided, master, conditions,
shipper’s, paid, additional, on deck)

Ex. VIII Give English equivalents to the following.


Место назначения; непригодный для таких маркировок; при нарушении этих
условий; определяется капитаном; сделать пометку об этом; на риск владель-ца
груза; заявление относительно условий груза; застраховать от потерь;
соответствовать описанию; по превышающему количеству; грузоотправитель
несёт ответственность перед перевозчиком за…; должны быть хорошо
упакованы; должны быть снабжены чёткими отметками; буквами 5 см. высотой;
прочно прикреплённые бирки; перевозчик не несёт ответственность; задержка в
достав- ке; надлежащая упаковка; достаточность упаковки; так же, как;
грузоотправитель не указал; сведения, представленные грузоотправителем;
оказывается неправильно указанным; двойная стоимость разницы; погруженный
средствами грузоотправителя;

Ex. IX Translate into English.


1. Все грузовые места должны быть снабжены чёткой маркировкой перед
погрузкой.
2. Некоторые пакеты должны иметь прочно прикреплённые бирки.
3. Грузоотправитель несёт ответственность за надлежащую упаковку.
4. Груз может перевозиться на палубе на риск грузоотправителя с его
письменного согласия.
5. Грузовладелец несёт ответственность перед перевозчиком за точность
заявления грузоотправителя относительно состояния грузов.
6. Грузовладелец платит тройной фрахт за количество животных, превы-
шающее указанное число.
7. Перевозчик вправе проверить вес груза в порту назначения.
8. Если вес указан неправильно, то грузовладелец оплачивает все расходы по
проверке груза.

BILL OF LADING
Part III

Ex. I Read and translate the text using the words and expressions given below.

6. Not later than 24 hours before the beginning of loading of the goods as
denominated in the bill of lading the shipper must hand over to the carrier at the place
of shipment all documents required by the harbour, customs, sanitary, excise and any
other rules. The carrier is not under duty to verify the accuracy and the sufficiency of
these documents and shall be discharged from all liability for any loss of, or damage to
such goods, resulting from inaccuracy or insufficiency or delay in delivery of these
documents.
7. Freight and other charges due under the contract of carriage shall be payable to
the carrier at the place of shipment. Freight and all additional charges fully or partly
unpaid at the time of shipment to be collected from the receivers of goods. Freight and
other charges in connection with carriage of goods must be fully paid up to the carrier
ship or goods lost or not lost. If possible damage to carrier’s interests at the place of
destination be apprehended, freight and any other charges to be altogether fully paid at
the place of shipment, particularly:
a) if the goods delivered for shipment are subject to rapid deterioration;
b) if, owing to the small value of goods, they cannot cover the freight and all
charges in connection with carriage of same;
c) if, owing to the insufficiency of packing ascertained in accordance with
paragraph 2 of these rules, there may occur loss, evaporation, scattering, breakage or
leakage of goods or part thereof, or depreciation of same;
d) for carriage of animals;
e) for goods carried on deck;
f) for goods consigned to ports where there are no agencies of the carrier.
8. Carrier’s liability for the goods carried cash on delivery (c.o.d.) without
previously collecting the amount forwarded cannot exceed the same.
9. On the issue by the carrier, his agent or master of the ship of the bill of lading
the right of disposing of goods (readdressing) belongs to the shipper or to the receiver
of goods or to any holder in due course of the bill of lading provided he produces all
issued copies of the bill of lading or sufficient bail.
The person entitled to dispose of the goods may demand the redelivery of same at
the place of shipment before ship’s departure, or the delivery of goods at some
intermediate port or the delivery of goods to a person other than the one stated in the
bill of lading. The said demand shall be expressed in writing to the carrier’s agency at
the port of loading. If however such orders cannot be executed, the carrier is exempt
from responsibility but reserves the right to collect the full amount of freight as
originally agreed. The owner of the goods must also pay the difference of freight if the
same exceeds the freight stipulated for shipment to original port of destination and
reimburse to the carrier all expenses, resulting from readdressing of goods.

Notes

denominate – обозначать, называть, c.o.d.– наложенным платежом


давать наименование previously – предварительно, ранее
hand over – вручать, передавать forward – направлять, препровож-
require – требовать дать, отправлять
customs – таможня issue – издавать
excise – акцизный on the issue – при выдаче
rule – правило, положение dispose of – распоряжаться
under duty – обязан holder – держатель
verify – сверять in due course – должным образом,
discharge from liability – освобо- официально
ждать от ответственности provided – при условии
due – причитающийся, должный produce – представлять
collect – собирать, взыскивать bail – залог
apprehend – опасаться entitled – уполномоченный, право-
rapid – быстрый мочный
deterioration – порча demand – требовать
owing to – вследствие, по причине departure – отход, отъезд
thanks to – благодаря, из-за intermediate – промежуточный
value – ценность state – излагать, указывать
occur – происходить execute – исполнять, выполнять
evaporation – испарение exempt – освобождать
scattering – россыпь, утруска reserve – сохранять, резервиро-вать
breakage – поломка original – первоначальный
leakage – утечка stipulate – оговаривать, обусловли-
depreciation – обесценение вать
consigned –отправлять, адресовать reimburse – возмещать
cash – наличные деньги

Ex. II Translate the verbs.


Begin, denominate, hand over, require, verify, result from, delay, deliver, pay, add,
collect, lose, apprehend, deliver, deteriorate, cover, connect, ascertain, occur, scatter,
break, consign, forward, issue, dispose, readdress, belong, hold, produce, demand,
depart, state, express, execute, exempt, reserve, exceed, stipulate, reim-burse, depart,
state, express, execute, exempt, reserve, exceed, stipulate, reimburse

Ex. III Give Russian equivalents to the following.


Not later than 24 hours before the beginning of loading, the goods as denominated in
the bill of lading, place of shipment, fully or partly unpaid, to be discharged from
liability, due under the contract of carriage, additional charges, ship or goods lost or
not lost, the place of destination, to be subject to rapid deterioration, to cover the
freight, in accordance with paragraph, goods consigned to ports, cash on delivery, on
the issue of the bill of lading, the right of disposing of goods, provided he produces all
copies of the bill of lading, to demand the redelivery of goods, before ship’s departure,
must be expressed in writing, exempt from responsibility, the freight stipulated for
shipment, reimburse all expenses

Ex. IV Say in one word.


A person shipping goods; a person receiving goods; transportation of cargo; the head
of the ship; goods loaded without any packing; to stow the cargo aboard the ship; the
agreement on carriage of goods; something mentioned before; the money paid for
carriage of goods; the building in which the goods are stored; the boat into which the
cargo is unloaded; not to show something; something taken twice; papers required by
harbour, customs, sanitary and other rules; the delivery of the same goods to another
place; the money spent on something
Ex. V Translate the sentences into Russian.
1. This lesson is more important than that one.
2. This exercise is more difficult than the one we did yesterday.
3. The book is not very interesting. Please give me another one.
4. This cargo is better than the one we unloaded yesterday.
5. You must not give the cargo to a person other than the one stated in the bill of
lading.

Ex. VI Answer the questions.


1. The carrier isn’t under duty to verify the documents, is he?
2. The right of disposing of goods belongs to the carrier, doesn’t it?
3. Shall the freight be payable at the place of shipment or at the place of
destination?
4. Are vegetables subject to rapid deterioration?
5. Is the carrier under duty to verify the documents?
6. When must the shipper hand over to the carrier all documents?
7. Who pays freight and all additional charges fully or partly unpaid at the time of
shipment?
8. In what cases must the freight be fully paid at the place of shipment?
9. When may the shipper demand the redelivery of goods?
10. In what way must that demand be expressed?

Ex. VII Insert prepositions.


1. All documents must be handed over … carrier … the place of shipment.
2. The carrier shall be discharged … liability ... any loss … goods resulting …
insufficiency … these documents.
3. All charges due … the contract … carriage shall be payable … the carrier.
4. These goods are subject … rapid deterioration.
5. The value …some goods cannot cover all charges … connection … carriage …
same.
6. The cargo must be carried … accordance … all terms … this bill … lading.
7. These goods are carried cash … delivery.
8. The right … disposing … goods belongs … the shipper.
9. This demand shall be expressed … writing.
10. The carrier is exempt … responsibility … these goods.
11. The owner … goods must reimburse … the carrier all expenses resulting …
readdressing … goods.

Ex. VIII Insert the proper words.


1. All documents must be given to the carrier (before, after) the beginning of
loading.
2. The carrier (must, is not under duty to) verify the accuracy of documents.
3. The carrier is (responsible, discharged from liability) for loss of goods resulting
from insufficiency of documents.
4. Freight must be paid at the place of (shipment, destination).
5. For carriage of animals freight must be (partly, fully) paid at the place of
shipment.
6. The right of disposing of goods belongs to the (shipper, carrier).
7. The shipper may demand the redelivery of goods (after, before) ship’s departure.
8. The said demand (can, must) be expressed in writing to the agency.
9. The (owner of the goods, shipper) pays the difference between the first con-tract
and the new one.

Ex. IX Give English equivalents to the following.


До отправления судна; быть освобождённым от ответственности; возместить все
расходы; при условии, что он представит все экземпляры коносамента; право
распоряжаться грузами; потребовать переадресовку грузов; должен быть подан в
письменной форме; фрахт, обусловленный за перевозку; не позже, чем за 24 часа
до начала погрузки; место отправки; дополнительные расходы; причитающийся
по контракту перевозки; задержка в доставке; полностью или частично
неоплаченный; грузы, поименованные в коносаменте; независимо от того,
утрачены судно или груз или нет; покрывать фрахт; грузы, адресованные в наши
порты; наложенным платежом; при выдаче коносамента; при условии, что он
представит; распоряжения не могут быть выполнены; сохраняет за собой право;
по первоначальному соглашению; в результате переадресовки; место
назначения; в соответствии с параграфом; подвергаться быстрой порче

Ex. X Translate into English.


1. Фрахт должен быть полностью оплачен в месте отправки.
2. Все документы должны быть представлены перевозчику за 24 часа до
начала погрузки.
3. Перевозчик не обязан проверять правильность документов.
4. Перевозчик не несёт ответственности за утрату грузов из-за задержки в
доставке документов.
5. Частично неоплаченный фрахт должен быть взыскан с грузополучателя.
6. Если груз подвержен быстрой порче, то фрахт должен полностью опла-
чиваться в месте отправки груза.
7. Эти грузы перевозятся наложенным платежом.
8. Право распоряжаться грузом принадлежит грузоотправителю или
грузополучателю.
9. Грузоотправитель может заявить переадресовку груза до отправления
судна.
10. Вышеуказанная просьба подаётся в письменной форме.
11. Грузоотправитель оплачивает разницу между первоначальным контрактом
и новым.
BILL OF LADING
Part IV

Ex. I Read and translate the text using the words and expressions given below.

10. If, in the event of blockade, restraint of authorities, acts of war, ice and any
other causes beyond carrier’s control, the goods cannot be discharged at the port of
destination without risk to ship and cargo, the carrier is entitled to land the goods at
one of the nearest ports of call where possible at shipper’s risk and expense, and to
inform the shipper thereof.
If the shipper desires to land the carried goods at original port of destination he has
to apply therefore in writing to the carrier’s agency at the port of loading. Should the
carrier be able to comply with this request the goods shall be forwarded to original port
of destination under a new bill of lading on a ship belonging either to the carrier or to
another owner. All payments and freight unpaid under the old bill of lading, as well as
all expenses incurred by the carrier, to be inserted in the new bill of lading beyond the
freight and charges due on account of such new carriage.
If in a port of forced discharging there are no carrier’s warehouses, or if these
warehouses cannot be used for the said purpose, the goods shall be delivered by the
carrier for storage to local warehouses or to any other places in accordance with the
customs of the port and at the current rates.
11. Any deviation of the ship from the contract voyage for the purpose of saving
or attempting to save life or property at sea, or any other reasonable deviation, as well
as calling at ports in any order shall not be deemed to be an infringement or breach of
the contract of carriage, and the carrier shall not be liable for any loss or damage
resulting therefrom.
12. The goods shall be loaded and discharged as fast as the ship can deliver or take
them, on or from the ship’s tackles or any auxiliary craft, without interruption by day
and night, Sundays and Holidays not excepted, and the owner of goods shall be liable
to the carrier for all loss or damage incurred in default thereof. Should the goods not be
received by their owner in accordance with this clause or if he fails to appear to take
delivery of the goods immediately on the ship’s arrival, the master or carrier’s agent
shall be at liberty to put the goods into craft and/or land the same on the quay at the
expense and risk of the owner of goods, as the master or carrier’s agent may think fit.

Notes
event – случай customs – обычаи, принятая прак-
restraint – запрет тика
beyond – вне, сверх current – текущий
acts of war – военные действия deviation – отклонение
cause – причина save – спасать
port of call – порт захода attempt – пытаться
desire – желать property – имущество
apply – обращаться reasonable – обоснованный
should – если deem – считать, рассматривать
comply – соглашаться infringement – нарушение, искаже-
request – просьба ние
land – выгрузить breach – нарушение
belong – принадлежать tackles – оборудование, тали
incur – нести (расходы) auxiliary – вспомогательный
insert – включать craft – флот
account – счёт interruption – перерыв, остановка
forced – вынужденный except – исключать
storage – хранение quay – причал, набережная
include – включать take delivery – принимать
local – местный fit – подходящий, целесообразный

Ex. II Translate the verbs.


Entitle, land, call (at a port), desire, apply, comply, forward, belong, incur, insert,
store, collect, include, use, deliver, deviate, save, attempt, deem, infringe, interrupt,
except, appear, arrive, fit

Ex. III Give Russian equivalents to the following.


In the event of blockade, acts of war, beyond carrier’s control, without risk to ship and
cargo, to land the goods, at shipper’s risk and expense, original port of destination, to
apply to carrier’s agency, to comply with the request, to forward the goods to, under a
new bill of lading, ship belonging to the carrier, to be inserted in the new bill of lading,
due on account of cargo, port of forced discharging, no charge is to be made, three
storage days, the said purpose, local warehouse, in accordance with, customs of the
port, deviation from the contract voyage, saving life at sea, reasonable deviation, to
call at ports in any order, shall not be deemed to be an infringement, as fast as the ship
can take them, on or from the ship’s tackles, auxiliary craft, without interruption by
day and night, Sundays and Holidays not excepted, if he fails to appear to take delivery
of the goods, on ship’s arrival, to put the goods into craft, as the master may think fit

Ex. IV Translate the expressions into Russian; find the situations in which they
are used in the bill of lading.
1. to be responsible for; to be liable for
2. to be at liberty; to be entitled
3. to be bound; to be under duty
4. to be discharged from liability; to be exempt from responsibility

Ex. V Translate the sentences into Russian.


1. No exercises are to be done.
2. No books are to be given to him.
3. No charge is to be made for this cargo.
4. No goods are to be discharged into lighters.
5. No deviation from the contract voyage is to be made.
1. The sufficiency of packing shall be determined by the master.
2. The owner of the goods shall be responsible for shipper’s concealing the defects
of packing.
3. The carrier shall not be responsible for any loss of the cargo.
4. The owner shall pay triple freight for it.
5. Unpaid freight shall be inserted in the new bill of lading.
6. The said demand shall be expressed in writing.
7. The goods shall be loaded as fast as the ship can take them.

1. I’ll come as soon as I can.


2. This cargo must be delivered as soon as possible.
3. You must learn as much as you can.
4. The owner of the goods must appear to take delivery of the goods as soon as
possible.
5. The students must learn as many words as possible.

Ex. VI Answer the questions.


1. Are the goods stored free of charge during 3 or 5 days in the port of forced
discharging?
2. Is the deviation of the ship for saving life an infringement of the contract?
3. Must the goods be loaded and unloaded on Sundays and Holidays?
4. Where must the goods be discharged if they cannot be discharged at the port of
destination?
5. At whose risk are the goods discharged there?
6. Where are the goods stored in a port of forced discharging?
7. How many storage days are free of charge in a port of forced discharging?
8. Where must the goods be stored if there are no carrier’s warehouses?
9. What deviation from the contract voyage is called reasonable?
10. What must the carrier do if the owner of goods fails to appear to take delivery of
the goods?
11. At whose risk are the goods unloaded in that case?

Ex. VII Insert prepositions.


1. The goods cannot be discharged there … risk … the ship and cargo.
2. The goods are landed there … shipper’s risk and expense.
3. The carrier is able to comply … this request.
4. The goods shall be forwarded … original port … destination … a new bill of
lading.
5. The goods are stored … the carrier’s warehouses.
6. No charge is to be made … three storage days.
7. The storage … five days is to be included … the new bill of lading.
8. The goods shall be delivered … the carrier … storage …local warehouses …
accordance … the customs … the port.
9. Reasonable deviation … the contract voyage is not an infringement … the
contract.
10. The carrier shall not be liable … any loss resulting therefrom.
11. The goods shall be loaded … or … the ship’s tackles … interruption … day and
night.
12. The goods are not received … their owner …accordance …this clause.
13. The owner didn’t take delivery … the goods immediately … ship’s arrival.
14. The carrier must land the goods … the quay … the expense and risk … the
owner of goods.

Ex. VIII Insert the proper words.


1. Restraint of authorities, acts of war, ice are (beyond, under) carrier’s control.
2. If the goods cannot be discharged at the port of destination they must be
discharged at (any, nearest) port.
3. The goods are landed at (shipper’s, carrier’s) risk in that case.
4. The goods shall be forwarded to original port of destination under (old, new) bill
of lading.
5. In a port of forced discharging no charge is to be made for (five, three) stor-age
days.
6. The goods are landed on the quay at the expense and risk of the (carrier, owner
of goods)

Ex. IX Give English equivalents to the following.


Согласиться с просьбой; на риск и расходы отправителя; без риска для судна или
груза; вне контроля перевозчика; обратиться в агентство перевозчика;
первоначальный порт назначения; выгрузить грузы; военные действия; в случае
блокады; местные склады; никакой платы не взимается за первые три дня
хранения; на судне, принадлежащем либо перевозчику, либо другому владельцу;
переправить грузы; по новому коносаменту; быть включенным в новый
коносамент; причитающийся по счёту перевозки; порт вынужденной разгрузки;
вышеуказанная цель; так быстро, как только судно может взять их; заходить в
порты в любом порядке; не будет рассматриваться как нарушение; обоснованное
отклонение; спасение жизни на море; в соответствии с обычаями порта;
отклонение от контракта перевозки; непрерывно днём и ночью; если он не
явится получить груз по прибытии судна; выгрузить на вспомогательный флот;
как посчитает удобным капитан; не исключая воскресные и праздничные дни

Ex. X Translate into English.


1. Если груз не может быть выгружен в порту назначения, то он выгружается
в одном из ближайших портов.
2. В этом случае груз выгружается на риск и расходы отправителя.
3. Грузоотправитель желает выгрузить груз в первоначальном порту
назначения.
4. Все платежи должны быть включены в новый коносамент.
5. В порту вынужденной разгрузки грузы хранятся в складах перевозчика.
6. Плата не взимается за первые 5 дней хранения.
7. Грузы доставляются в местные склады или другие места в соответствии с
принятой практикой порта.
8. Любое обоснованное отклонение от рейса не является нарушением кон-
тракта.
9. Отклонение от рейса с целью спасения жизни или имущества на море есть
обоснованное отклонение.
10. Грузы должны быть погружены и выгружены так быстро, как судно может
сделать это.
11. Погрузка должна производиться непрерывно днём и ночью, не исключая
воскресные и праздничные дни.
12. Если грузовладелец не явится за получением груза сразу же по приходу
судна, перевозчик вправе выгрузить груз на причал.

BILL OF LADING
Part V

Ex. I Read and translate the text using the words and expressions given below.

13. The carrier shall have a lien upon the goods for and until payment of freight
and all charge and expenses due under the contract of carriage and in rela-tion to the
handling of the goods during the voyage, as well as, if the case may be, customs duties
and taxes of any kind whatsoever.
14. If within two months after the ship’s arrival at the port of destination the
goods have not been claimed and/or their owner has not covered all amounts as
aforesaid in paragraph 13, the carrier shall be at liberty to sell the goods by public
auction whereof the shipper shall be notified in writing. Unclaimed goods subject to
deterioration may be sold before the expiration of two months. The proceeds shall be
used for covering the total charges, costs and expenses due to the carrier on custody,
storage and sale of unclaimed goods, and if the proceeds fail to cover all sums due to
the carrier in respect of said goods, the carrier shall be entitled to cover the difference
from the owner of goods.
15. Unless notice of loss or damage or delay in delivery of goods be given the
carrier before or at the time of the removal of the goods, such removal shall be prima
facie evidence of the delivery by the carrier of the goods in accordance with all terms
and conditions of the bill of lading.
If partial loss or damage be not apparent by customary delivery of goods the notice
may be given to the carrier by the receiver of goods within three days after their
receipt.
In the aforesaid cases the notice must be given in writing.
16. If wrong tariffs or rates of freight are applied or in the event of errors in
calculating freight or other charges, the arrears must be paid to the carrier and
overcharges must be returned by the carrier. The carrier is entitled to recover the
arrears from overcharges and any other amount due by him to the owner of goods.
17. The carrier shall be bound before and at the beginning of the voyage, to make
the ship seaworthy, properly man, equip, and supply the ship and make the holds,
refrigerating and cool chambers fit and safe for reception, preservation and carriage of
cargo.
Subjects to the provisions of this paragraph the carrier shall be discharged from
liability for latent defects not discoverable by due diligence.

Notes

lien – залоговое право, право за- evidence – доказательство, свиде-


держания груза тельство
until = till – до тех пор, пока partial – частичный
relation – отношение be not apparent – не может быть об-
handling – обработка наружен
if the case may be – если имеет ме- customary – обычный
сто такой случай receipt – получение. расписка
customs duties – таможенные по- notice – извещение
шлины tariff – тариф, ставка
tax – налог, сбор error – ошибка
whatsoever – какой бы ни arrears –недоимка, задолженность
within – в пределах overcharges – переплата
claim – востребовать seaworthy – пригодный к плава-нию,
public auction – аукцион в мореходном состоя-нии
notify – извещать, уведомлять to man – укомплектовать личным
expiration – истечение составом
proceeds – вырученные от продажи to equip – оборудовать
деньги chamber – помещение
costs – издержки cool chamber – холодильник
sale – продажа reception – приём
sum – сумма preservation – сохранение
in respect – в отношении provisions – условия, оговорки
unclaimed – невостребованный latent – скрытый, внутренний
recover – возместить discoverable – обнаруживаемый
unless – если не subject to – с соблюдением
removal – снятие by due diligence – при должном
prima facie – очевидное, первейшее внимании

Ex. II Translate the verbs.


Handle, arrive, claim, cover, sell, notify, expire, fail, recover, remove, apply, calculate,
return, man, equip, supply, discover
Ex. III Give Russian equivalents to the following.
Have a lien upon the goods; until the payment of freight; charges and expenses; due
under the contract of carriage; in relation to the handling of goods; taxes of any kind
whatsoever; within two months; arrival at the port of destination; goods have not been
claimed; to cover all amounts; by public auction; notify in writing; unclaimed goods;
before the expiration; expenses due on custody; in respect of said goods; to recover the
difference from the owner; notice of loss; delay on delivery; prima facie evidence; in
accordance with; terms of the bill of lading; partial loss; customary delivery; after the
receipt of goods; wrong tariffs are applied; in the event of errors in calculating freight;
arrears must be paid; overcharges must be returned; to make the ship seaworthy; to
man the ship; to make the holds fit; subject to provisions of this paragraph; latent
defects; not discoverable by due diligence

Ex. IV Translate the sentences into Russian.


1. He will come unless he finishes his work.
2. She will come tomorrow unless she leaves for London.
3. We will not deliver the cargo unless you pay freight.
4. The carrier shall unload the goods on the quay unless the receiver comes to get
them.
5. The goods shall be sold by public auction unless they are not claimed within two
months.
6. Unless notice of loss be given at the time of removal, such removal shall be
prima facie evidence of delivery of goods in accordance with all terms of the bill of
lading.

1. These goods are subject to rapid deterioration.


2. This carriage is subject to B/L No. 3782.
3. This case is subject to paragraph 18 of the bill of lading.
4. The unclaimed goods are subject to sale by public auction.
5. Subject to the provisions of this paragraph the carrier is discharged from liability
for latent defects.

Ex. V Answer the questions.


1. If the goods are not claimed, the carrier is at liberty to sell them, isn’t he?
2. Must the goods be claimed within two or three months?
3. Is the carrier bound to make the ship seaworthy or is the shipper?
4. When shall the carrier have a lien upon the goods?
5. What expenses must be paid to the carrier?
6. When may the goods be sold by public auction?
7. What goods may be sold before the expiration of two months?
8. What shall the proceeds be used for?
9. Shall the difference be recovered from the shipper or from the owner of goods?
10. What shall be prima facie evidence of delivery of goods?
11. Who must make the ship seaworthy?
12. What must be fit for preservation and carriage of cargo?.
Ex. VI Insert prepositions and adverbs.
1. The carrier shall have a lien … the goods … the payment … freight.
2. All expenses due … the contract … carriage must be paid … the carrier.
3. If … two months the goods are not claimed, the carrier is … liberty to sell the
goods … public auction.
4. Goods subject … deterioration may be sold … the expiration … two months.
5. The proceeds shall be used … covering the total charges.
6. Such removal shall be prima facie evidence … the delivery … the carrier … the
goods.
7. The goods are delivered … accordance … all terms … the bill of lading.
8. The notice ... loss may be given … the receiver … three days … their re-ceipt.
9. … the event … errors … calculating freight, the arrears must be paid … the
carrier.
10. The carrier must make the holds fit … carriage … the cargo.
11. Subject … provisions … this term the carrier is discharged … liability … latent
defects.

Ex. VII Insert the proper words.


1. The goods must be claimed (within, after) two months.
2. Goods subject to rapid deterioration are sold (after, before) expiration of two
months.
3. The carrier recovers the difference from (the shipper, the owner of goods).
4. The (transportation, removal) of goods shall be prima facie evidence of the
delivery of goods.
5. The (arrears, overcharges) must be returned by the carrier.
6. The (carrier, shipper) must properly man the ship.
7. The carrier (is responsible, is discharged from liability) for latent defects of
cargo.

Ex. VIII Give English equivalents to the following.


Прибытие в порт назначения; перевозчик будет иметь право задержания гру-за;
расходы и платежи; всевозможные налоги; до уплаты фрахта; причитаю-щийся
по контракту перевозки; в отношении переработки грузов; в течение двух
месяцев после прибытия судна; покрыть все расходы; невостребованные грузы;
покрыть общие расходы; платежи, причитающиеся за хранение, складирование и
продажу грузов; покрыть все суммы; грузы не были востребованы; продать
грузы с аукциона; известить в письменной форме; до истечения двух месяцев; в
отношении вышеуказанных грузов; востребовать разницу с владельца;
извещение о потере груза; задержка в доставке; в соответствии со всеми
условиями коносамента; обычная доставка груза; очевидное доказательство;
частичная утрата или ущерб; после получения грузов; применяются
неправильные тарифы; в случае ошибок в начислении фрахта; недоимки должны
быть уплачены перевозчику; излишки должны быть возвращены; сделать судно
мореходным; укомплектовать экипажем; сделать трюмы пригодными; при
соблюдении условий; скрытые дефекты, не обнаруживаемые при должном
внимании

Ex. IX Translate into English.


1. Перевозчик имеет залоговое право на груз до уплаты фрахта.
2. Перевозчик может продать грузы с аукциона.
3. Скоропортящиеся грузы могут быть проданы до истечения двух месяцев.
4. Вырученные деньги идут на покрытие общих расходов перевозчика.
5. Снятие груза с судна является очевидным доказательством доставки оного.
6. Извещение о частичной утрате груза даётся в течение трёх дней после его
получения.
7. В случае неправильных тарифов излишки должны быть возвращены
перевозчиком.
8. Перевозчик обязан перед началом рейса должным образом оборудовать
судно.
9. Перевозчик освобождается от ответственности за скрытые дефекты, не
обнаруживаемые при должном внимании.

BILL OF LADING
Part VI

Ex. I Read and translate the text using the words and expressions given below.

18. The carrier shall be responsible for loss of, or damage to, the goods as well as
for delay in delivery of the same unless loss or damage or delay has arisen or resulted
from causes which could not have been avoided by carrier’s due diligence, particularly
from:
a) force majeur;
b) perils, dangers and accidents of the sea or other navigable waters;
c) fire, effect of temperature, air, humidity;
d) acts and orders of authorities (arrest or restraint, quarantine, etc.)
e) acts of war and people’s commotions;
f) act or omission of the shipper or receiver of the goods, in particular when the
goods have been loaded by shipper’s means and/or discharged by receiver’s means;
g) nature of goods (inherent vice or normal wastage) and latent defects of same;
h) defects of packing not discoverable from outside or when the goods have been
delivered for shipment without any packing or in packing insufficient al-though under
the nature of goods proper packing was necessary and in so far as the damage has
actually resulted from absence or insufficiency of packing, or if, in the case of sound
packages, a shortage and/or non-correspondence of contents with their description as
in the bill of lading has been found;
i) insufficiency or indistinctness of marks;
j) disease or death of carried animals;
k) act or omission of the master, crew and pilot in the navigation or in the
management of the ship except, however, act or omission in relation to the reception,
loading, stowage, custody, care, discharge and delivery of goods;
l) saving or attempting to save life, ship or goods.
Any clause or agreement in regard to the liability for the time from the mo-ment of
loading of goods and until the goods are discharged, contradictory to the rules of this
article, shall be null and void and of no effect.
19. The remuneration of the owner of goods per each lost or damaged package or
unit shall be estimated in accordance with their value at the port of ship’s destination
on the day when the latter has arrived or must have arrived, but cannot exceed 1000
rubles, unless the value of such goods has been declared by the shipper and inserted in
the bill of lading

Notes
avoid – избегать in so far – поскольку
particularly – в частности, особенно actually – действительно, фактиче-
force majeure – форс мажор (непре- ски
одолимая сила) sound – крепкий, прочный, ненару-
peril – опасность. риск шенный, целый
accident – несчастный случай, ава- shortage – недостача, нехватка
рия, происшествие disease – болезнь
fire – пожар management – управление
humidity – влажность, сырость stowage – укладка, штивка
authorities – власти agreement – соглашение, догово-
quarantine – карантин рённость
commotion – волнение, смятение contradictory – противоречащий
omission – упущение, недосмотр null – аннулированный
means – средства void – недействительный
inherent – присущий, свойственный of no effect – не имеющий силы
vice – порок remuneration – возмещение, ком-
wastage – изнашивание, усушка пенсация
from outside – снаружи, по наруж- estimate – определять, оценивать
ному виду latter – последний (из двух указан-
under the nature – по природе ных)

Ex. II Translate the verbs.


Delay, deliver, arise, result, avoid, omit, discover, ship, result, find, stow, care, save,
void, estimate, arrive, exceed declare, insert

Ex. III Give Russian equivalents to the following.


The carrier shall be responsible for; damage has arisen from; causes which could not
have been avoided; carrier’s due diligence; force majeure; navigable waters; affects of
temperature; acts and orders of authorities; acts of war; goods loaded by shipper’s
means; nature of goods; normal wastage; goods delivered for shipment; under the
nature of goods; damage has actually resulted from absence of packing; sound
packages; non-corresponding of contents with their description; act or omission of the
master; in relation to; in regard to the liability; contradictory to the rules; in accordance
with the value of goods

Ex. IV Translate the sentences into Russian.


1. The work will be over as soon as you have done your part
2. We will begin unloading as soon as the agent has brought the documents.
3. The ship will leave the port when the cargo has been stowed.
4. The carrier shall be responsible for loss unless the loss has arisen from
unavoidable reasons.
1. The goods which could not have been loaded.
2. The defects of packing which could not have been noticed.
3. The cargo which could not have been carried.
4. Causes which could not have been avoided.

Ex. V Answer the questions.


1. The carrier is responsible for loss of goods, isn’t he?
2. Sometimes he is not responsible for loss of goods, is he?
3. Are there any causes which cannot be avoided by carrier’s due diligence?
4. Are defects of packing always discoverable from outside?
5. Do damages result from insufficiency of packing?
6. What is the carrier responsible for?
7. What causes cannot be avoided by carrier’s due diligence?
8. How is the remuneration per lost goods estimated?
9. When can the remuneration exceed 1000 roubles?

Ex. VI Insert prepositions and adverbs.


1. The carrier is responsible … loss or damage … the goods.
2. The damage has arisen … causes which could not have been avoided … due
diligence.
3. Accidents … the sea are unavoidable causes.
4. The goods have been loaded … shipper’s means.
5. These goods were delivered … shipment … any packing.
6. The defects … packing are not always discoverable … …
7. It was the master’s omission … relation … the reception … goods.
8. The agent must be aboard the ship … the moment … the beginning … loading
… goods … the goods have been loaded.
9. All clauses contradictory … the rules … this article shall be null and … no
effect.
10. The remuneration … goods shall be estimated … accordance … their value.

Ex. VII Insert the proper words.


1. The carrier is responsible for (loss, damage) to the goods.
2. The loss resulted from unavoidable (acts, causes).
3. These causes could not have been avoided by carrier’s due (responsibility,
diligence).
4. The cargo has been loaded by shipper’s (means, acts).
5. The defects of packing are sometimes not discoverable from (inside, out-side).
6. Normal (damage, wastage) is an unavoidable cause.
7. Damage can result from (insufficiency, indistinctness) of packing.
8. It was the omission of the master in the (navigation, navigable) of the ship.
9. The value of goods must be (said, declared) by the shipper.

Ex. VIII Give English equivalents to the following.


Перевозчик должен нести ответственность за; непреодолимая сила; погруженные
средствами грузоотправителя; естественная усушка; по природе грузов; целые
пакеты; задержка в доставке; повреждение возникло от причины, которых нельзя
было избежать; должное внимание перевозчика; навигационные воды; действия
температуры; действия и распоряжения властей; военные действия; дефекты
упаковки; грузы, доставленные для перевозки без упаковки; повреждения,
возникающее из-за отсутствия упаковки; действие или упущение капитана; в
отношении ответственности; объявить стоимость грузов; несоответствие
содержания грузов их описанию; недостаточность маркировки; в отношении
чего-либо; попытка спаси жизнь; противоречащий правилам этой статьи; в
соответствии со стоимостью грузов

Ex. IX Translate into English.


1. Перевозчик несёт ответственность за утрату или повреждение груза.
2. Повреждение появилось в результате неизбежных причин.
3. Иногда повреждений нельзя избежать при должном внимании перевозчи-
ка.
4. Влияния температуры и влажности нельзя избежать.
5. Груз был погружен средствами грузоотправителя.
6. Иногда дефекты упаковки невозможно обнаружить по внешнему виду.
7. Повреждение часто происходит из-за недостаточности упаковки.
8. Любой пункт, противоречащий этим правилам, должен быть аннулирован.
9. Компенсация за утраченные грузы начисляется в соответствии с их
стоимо-стью в порту назначения.
10. Компенсация не должна превышать 1000 рублей, если стоимость груза не
включена в коносамент.

BILL OF LADING
Part VII

Ex. I Read and translate the text using the words and expressions given below.

20. Goods shipped without the master’s knowledge shall be discharged in any port
at the option of the master, and double freight due from the place of shipment up to the
place of destination as well as all damages arising out of or resulting from such
shipment must be paid to the carrier.
21. If goods inflammable, explosive or dangerous by their nature shall become a
danger to the ship or other cargo, they may during the voyage be landed at any time
and at any place or destroyed or rendered innocuous by the carrier without any
compensation to the owner of such goods, the latter being obliged to pay the carrier the
agreed freight in full.
22. The shipper is obliged to declare the exact weight of any single package over
one and a half tons. These packages are to be loaded and discharged at risk and
expense of their owner and by heir means.
23. The carrier is at liberty, if necessary, to transship the goods from one ship to
another directly or by means of preliminary discharging of said goods on quay or into
lighters and/or convey the goods while loading and discharging on auxiliary craft.
The carrier has also liberty to transfer the goods to ships belonging to other owners
or to forward them by other means of transport, the provisions and clauses of this bill
of lading remaining valid for the whole voyage.
24. Refrigerated goods are not received for shipment and carriage unless the ship
holds the classification of the Register of Russia. The existence of such class at the
time of shipment shall be deemed to be final and complete evidence as against the
shipper and receiver of goods and any holder of the bill of lading that the ship, her
engines and machinery, refrigerating machinery, spare gear and equipment, insulation
fittings and stores both at the time of loading and during every stage of the voyage
were in every respect in a fit and seaworthy condition. The existence of such class
shall also be deemed to satisfy and discharge any obligation or warranty expressed or
implied under this bill of lading as to provision of a seaworthy and fit ship for the
whole voyage.
25. General average shall be adjusted according to York-Antwerp Rules, and the
average adjustment shall be prepared in Russia.
26. All claims and disputes arising under and in connection with this bill of lading
shall be judged in Russia.
27. All questions and disputes not mentioned in this bill of lading shall be
determined according to the Merchant Shipping Code of Russia.

Notes

knowledge – знание, ведение equipment – оборудование


at the option – по усмотрению insulation – изоляция
inflammable – воспламеняющийся fitting – оборудование
explosive – взрывчатый stage – стадия, этап
innocuous – безвредный warranty – гарантия
render innocuous – обезвредить express – выражать
transship – перегрузить imply – подразумевать
preliminary – предварительный general – общий
convey – доставить average – авария
transfer – передать, переслать average adjustment – расчёт по об-
valid – действительный щей аварии
existence – существование judge – разрешать в судебном по-
final – окончательный рядке
complete – полный mention – упоминать
evidence – cвидетельство determine – определять, устанавли-
engine – двигатель вать
spare – запасной Merchant Shipping Code – Кодекс
gear – механизм Торгового Мореплавания

Ex. II Translate the verbs.


Know, arise, pay, become, land, destroy, agree, declare, convey, belong, hold, satisfy,
express, adjust, prepare, mention, determine

Ex. III Give Russian equivalents to the following.


Shipped without master’s knowledge; at the option of the master; due from the place of
shipment; damage arising out of such shipment; goods inflammable, ex-plosive or
dangerous by their nature; destroy or render innocuous; the latter being obliged to pay;
declare the exact weight; by their means; transship the goods from one ship to another;
directly or by means of preliminary discharging on the quay; forward the goods by
other means of transport; clauses of the bill of lading remaining valid; unless the ship
holds classification; the existence of such class; final and complete evidence; in a fit
and seaworthy condition; obligation or warranty; general average shall be adjusted;
average adjustment shall be prepared; claims and disputes; shall be judged in Russia

Ex. IV Find all possible word combinations in the bill of lading.


For example: freight – to pay freight, collect freight, on payment of freight, un-paid
freight, freight due under the contract of carriage, full amount of freight, etc.

To pay, owner, goods, carriage, loss, expenses, correct, amount, bill of lading, loading,
to be responsible, collect, contract, risk, in accordance with, without

Ex. V Translate the sentences into Russian.


1. The engines have already been delivered, all of them being in good order.
2. The teacher spoke on the problems of the merchant fleet, the lecture being
illustrated by documents.
3. The cargo was discharged very quickly, the work being done by portal cranes.

1. Both packed and unpacked goods are in good order and condition.
2. Both roads and quays of this port should be reconstructed.
3. I both wanted and feared to make a voyage for the first time.

Ex. VI Answer the questions.


1. When may the goods be discharged in any port?
2. May the goods become a danger to the ship?
3. What may the carrier do if dangerous goods become a danger to the ship or other
cargo?
4. What freight must be paid for such goods?
5. What inflammable goods do you know?
6. What ships are they carried by?
7. Who loads extra-weights?
8. What ships may carry refrigerated goods?
9. What rules adjust general average?
10. Where are claims and disputes judged?
11. What questions are determined according to the Merchant Shipping Code?

Ex. VII Insert prepositions and adverbs.


1. Goods shipped … master’s knowledge shall be discharged … master’s op-tion.
2. Freight due … the place of shipment … … the place … discharging must be
fully paid.
3. These goods are inflammable … their nature.
4. Dangerous cargo may be landed … any time and … any place.
5. They may be destroyed … any compensation … the owner … such goods.
6. You must pay the agreed freight … full.
7. The shipper must declare the weight … the packages … one and a half tons.
8. You may discharge goods … quay or … lighters.
9. This cargo belongs … another owner.
10. The goods were not received … shipment.
11. General average shall be adjusted according … these rules.
12. All disputes in connection … this contract have already been judged.

Ex. VIII Insert the proper words.


1. Goods shipped without master’s (option, knowledge) shall be discharged in any
port.
2. Inflammable goods may become a (danger, dangerous) to the ship.
3. Dangerous goods may be (damaged, destroyed) at any time.
4. The owner pays the agreed freight (partly, in full).
5. The shipper is (at liberty, obliged) to declare the exact weight of extra-weights.
6. The provisions of this bill of lading remain (void, valid) for the whole voy-age.
7. The refrigerated goods are to be carried by (specialized, any) ships.
8. General average shall be adjusted according to (York-Antwerp Rules, Mer-chant
Shipping Code).

Ex. IX Give English equivalents to the following.


По усмотрению капитана; отправленный без ведома капитана; быть
разгруженным в любом порту; воспламеняющиеся, взрывчатые или опасные
грузы; причитающийся от места отправки до места разгрузки; должен быть
оплачен двойной фрахт; возникающий в результате такой перевозки; уничтожить
или обезвредить; в любом месте и в любое время; стать опасным для судна или
груза; опасные по своей природе; любой отдельный пакет; отправитель обязан
заявить точный вес; оплатить оговоренный фрахт полностью; последний обязан
оплатить; без компенсации владельцу; более полутора тонн; на риск и расходы
владельца; их средствами; если это необходимо; переправить груз с одного судна
на другое; передать груз на вспомогательный флот; отправить груз другими
средствами транспорта; пункты коносамента остаются в силе; если судно не
имеет классификации; быть окончательным и полным свидетельством; во всех
отношениях в пригодном и мореходном состоянии; расчёт по общей аварии
будет сделан; возникающий по этому коносаменту; в связи с; не упомянутый в
этом коносаменте; определяться согласно правилам

Ex. X Translate into English


1. Этот груз был погружен без ведома капитана.
2. Воспламеняющиеся грузы могут быть уничтожены в любое время.
3. Грузовладелец оплачивает фрахт полностью.
4. Отправитель обязан заявить точный вес тяжёлых грузов весом более
полутора тонн.
5. Перевозчик вправе перегрузить груз на другие суда.
6. Рефрижераторные грузы могут перевозиться только на судах, имеющих
соответствующий класс регистра.
7. Все спорные вопросы, возникающие по этому коносаменту, разрешаются в
судебном порядке в России.
8. Кодекс Торгового Мореплавания регулирует все вопросы, не упомяну-тые
в этом коносаменте.
БИБЛИОГРАФИЧЕСКИЙ СПИСОК

1. Бобин В.И. Терминологический справочник судоводителя по ведению дел и


документации на английском языке / В.И. Бобин. – М.: Транспорт, 1999. –
271 с.
2. Дубнер Г.Я. Деловая переписка на английском языке в морском флоте /
Г.Я. Дубнерю – М.:Принт, 2003. – 211 с.
3. Куян Г.Г. Судовая документация (для старших курсов и плавсостава) /
Г.Г. Куян. – М.: МГАВТ, 2000. – 113 с.
4. Longnan Language Activator. – 2nd ed. – Harlow: Longman, 1991. – 1890 p.

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