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МИНИСТЕРСТВО ОБРАЗОВАНИЯ И НАУКИ РОССИЙСКОЙ ФЕДЕРАЦИИ

НАЦИОНАЛЬНЫЙ ИССЛЕДОВАТЕЛЬСКИЙ ТОМСКИЙ ГОСУДАРСТВЕННЫЙ УНИВЕРСИТЕТ

Л.Ю. Минакова, А.В. Пилюкова

ENGLISH IN BIOLOGY AND ECOLOGY

(Английский язык в сфере Биологии и Экологии)

Учебное пособие
для студентов естественных специальностей

Издательство Томского университета


2015
УДК 378.14 : 811.111 (075.8)
ББК 74. 261 Англ.
М62

Р е ц е н з е н т ы:

С.К. Гураль – декан факультета иностранных языков, завкафедрой английской филологии


Национального исследовательского Томского государственного университета, д-р. пед. наук, профессор

В.М. Смокотин – зав кафедрой английского языка естественно-научных и физико-математических факультетов


Национального исследовательского Томского государственного университета, д-р. философ. наук, доцент

П.Дж. Митчелл – доцент кафедры иностранных языков Томского государственного университета систем
управления и радиоэлектроники, докторант Университета г. Дерби, Великобритания

Минакова Л. Ю., Пилюкова А. В.


М62 ENGLISH IN BIOLOGY AND ECOLOGY (Английский в сфере Биологии и экологии):
учеб. пособие для студентов естественных специальностей – Томск: Изд-во Том.
ун-та, 2015. – 152 с.

ISBN 978-5-7511-2290-4

Пособие предназначено для студентов высших учебных заведений, обучающихся по естественным


направлениям подготовки для изучения английского языка в сфере профессиональной коммуникации.

УДК 378.14 : 811.111 (075.8)


ББК 74. 261 Англ.

ISBN 978-5-7511-2290-4 © Л.Ю. Минакова, А.В. Пилюкова, 2015


CONTENTS

Предисловие .............................................................................................................................................. 4
Unit 1........................................................................................................................................................... 5
Unit 2........................................................................................................................................................... 18
Unit 3........................................................................................................................................................... 31
Module Self-Assessment (units 1–3)............................................................................................................. 44
Unit 4........................................................................................................................................................... 46
Unit 5........................................................................................................................................................... 60
Unit 6........................................................................................................................................................... 74
Module Self-Assessment (units 4–6)............................................................................................................. 88
Unit 7........................................................................................................................................................... 91
Unit 8........................................................................................................................................................... 102
Unit 9........................................................................................................................................................... 116
Module Self-Assessment (units 7–9)............................................................................................................. 133
Ecology Glossary.......................................................................................................................................... 137
Section 1. Project Work................................................................................................................................ 143
Section 2. How to make a good presentation................................................................................................. 144
Section 3. Useful phrases to be used while making a presentation................................................................. 146
Section 4. Primary criteria for evaluation of presentation.............................................................................. 148
Bibliography ................................................................................................................................................ 149

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ПРЕДИСЛОВИЕ
Основной целью данного пособия является обучение основам профессионального ино-
язычного общения студентов естественных факультетов. Пособие нацелено на обучение сту-
дентов базовому курсу профессионального иностранного языка и его использованию
в ситуациях коммуникации. Учебное пособие способствует формированию профессиональ-
ного тезауруса студентов естественных специальностей на основе экологического знания по
разработанному алгоритму. Пошаговая реализация обучения определенной терминосистеме
и умениям представлять и обсуждать результаты анализа аутентичных профессиональных
текстов составляет суть разработанного алгоритма обучения иноязычному профессиональ-
ному дискурсу.
В пособие включены аутентичные тексты на английском языке по широкому кругу
вопросов, связанных с защитой человека и окружающей среды от опасных техногенных
воздействий. Тексты снабжены упражнениями и заданиями, направленными на развитие
умений анализировать прочитанное, выделять основные идеи в тексте и прорабатывать
отдельные детали. Кроме того, комплекс заданий, включающий в себя дотекстовые и по-
слетекстовые упражнения, позволит формировать умения обсуждать прочитанное, что спо-
собствует обучению иноязычному профессиональному дискурсу и развитию устной ино-
язычной профессиональной речи.
Проектная деятельность включена во все уроки пособия, основывается на их материале,
предполагает задания для самостоятельной работы в ходе реализации проекта, обучает работе с
аутентичными профессиональными материалами, оперированию определенными фразами и вы-
ражениями в процессе обсуждения результатов проектов. Подготовка презентаций по результа-
там работы в проекте, дискуссия по материалам проекта способствуют максимальному прибли-
жению учебной ситуации к реальной коммуникации и готовят студентов к осуществлению ино-
язычного профессионального общения в рамках предложенных тем.
Структура пособия представлена отдельными уроками, построение которых может рас-
сматриваться как самостоятельный комплекс, состоящий из следующих частей: Warm-Up
Activities, Reading Comprehension, Language Development, Focus on Grammar, Focus on Busi-
ness, Talking Points, Project Work.
Разделы Warm-Up Activities и Reading Comprehension знакомят студентов с общей тема-
тикой и проблематикой урока, позволяют усвоить определенную профессиональную терми-
нологию.
Каждый урок включает в себя разделы Language Development, Focus on Grammar, что
позволяет отработать умения употребления профессиональных терминов в различных пред-
ложениях, а также усвоить определенный грамматический материал, способствующий фор-
мированию правильности высказываний.
Раздел Focus on Business развивает умения делового профессионального общения и
знакомит студентов с различными типами делового письма.
В каждом уроке находятся разделы Talking Points и Project Work, которые содержат
учебно-речевые ситуации, активизирующие употребление речевых образцов для решения
задач профессиональной коммуникации. Задания по выполнению коллективных и индиви-
дуальных проектов основаны на материале урока, имеют инструкции для работы в проекте,
содержат правила оформления и представления результатов.
В учебном пособии представлены аутентичные тексты по тематике, связанной с экологи-
ческим знанием. Комплекс условно-коммуникативных упражнений и задания по участию в про-
екте позволяют обучать иноязычному профессиональному дискурсу студентов естественных фа-
культетов. Работа с материалом, представленным в пособии, способствует формированию ино-
язычного профессионального дискурса на основе овладения терминологией на английском
языке из области защиты окружающей среды и безопасности жизнедеятельности.

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UNIT 1
Learn how to…
1. Define the term “ecology” and some basic notions connected with this branch of science.
2. Identify some important environmental problems that we face today.
3. Describe the characteristics of living things.
Focus on Grammar
Present simple / Progressive / Perfect / Perfect Progressive tenses.
The article
Four types of questions
Functions of the word “one”
Words of Latin and Greek origin
Language development
Vocabulary focus
Phrasal verb: bring
Speaking: tell other students about the past, present and future of ecology in Russia and
England
Focus on Business: letter layout
Talking points: our attitude to nature
Project work: objects of Ecology

Warm-Up Activities
1.1. Answer the following questions:
1. What is ecology? Give your definition of this branch of science.
2. What specialists are called ecologists?
3. Can you explain the main problems ecologists deal with?
4. Which branches of science is ecology connected with?

1.2. Read the following definitions of ecology and choose the most suitable one from your
point of view:
Ecology is a branch of science dealing with the relations of plants and living things to each
other and to their environment.
Ecology is the natural relationship between plants, animals and people, and the places where
they live.

1.3. Study the difference between these words:


Ecology, ecological, environment, environmental.
These words are sometimes used in the same way although they have different meanings. We
have already defined the term “ecology”, and the adjective connected with ecology is ecological. En-
vironment refers to the places or situations in which plants, animals and people live. The adjective
“environmental” has the same meaning. Sometimes “ecological” and “environmental” are used with
the same nouns and have the similar meaning.

Exercise
1.4. Fill in the blanks using the words according to their meaning:
1. Tourists are damaging the ________________ by leaving their rubbish in the forests.
2. Ship crashes often lead to the disruption of marine _____________.
3. The oil spill was ______________disaster for thousands of birds.
4. Water pollution causes an _______________disaster in this area.

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1.5. Guide to reading. Read and translate the text. Summarize some of the major principles of
ecological science.

Text 1
Ecology
Ecology is a branch of science that integrates organisms, the physical environment and humans.
This word comes from Greek “oikos” which means home and “logos” that means science. The idea
of home includes our whole planet, its population, nature, animals, birds, fish, insects and all other
living beings and even the atmosphere around our planet. Accordingly ecology is defined as the sci-
entific study of the distribution and abundance of living things and how the distribution and abun-
dance are affected by interactions between the organisms and their environment.
Since ancient times nature has served a man giving everything he needs: air to breathe, food to
eat, water to drink, wood for building and fuel for his home, for thousands of years people lived in
harmony with the environment and it seemed to them that the resources of nature had no end or
limit. The industrial development has changed the situation and its negative influence on nature can
be observed in all parts of the world. The by-products of industry pollute the air we breathe, the wa-
ter we drink the fields where our crops are grown. So, pollution is one of the most important prob-
lems nowadays and it concerns not only particular objects in definite regions but all constituents of
life called an ecosystem.
At present ecologists tend to identify themselves as ecosystems ecologists who focus on large
units (lakes, forests, watersheds, landscapes) as systems or communities of species. Because of the
fact that the discipline is so broad, it tends to fragment into numerous subdivisions or interfaces, with
their own organizations, meetings, and journals. Examples are conservation ecology, restoration
ecology, systems ecology, population genetics, ecological economics and many more. Environmental
studies, being taught in many schools and colleges, deal with ecological concepts in relation to eco-
nomic, legal, ethical, historical, social and demographic considerations, in other words, the interface
between environmental sciences and the humanity.
The major principles of ecological sciences can be summarized under the following headings:
ecological energetics, material recycling, ecosystem development or ecological succession, food
chains and food webs, biodiversity, evolutionary ecology.
Ecological energetics considers the ecosystem as a thermodynamically open system. For ex-
ample, a city is not a self-contained unit ecologically and economically, its well-being depends not
only on what goes on within city limits, but even more on the external life-support environment that:
1) provides air, water, food, fuel and minerals;
2) processes outgoing wastes generated by the intense consumption of resources imported
from outside.
Material recycling of human-made things becomes appropriate when supplies or landfills be-
come limited or when the value of the recycled product equals or doesn’t exceed the cost of collec-
tion and remanufacture.
During the ecosystem development species composition changes with time as opportunistic
species with high reproductive rates that colonize the early stages are replaced by species which are
specially adapted to the crowded conditions of the mature stages. When ecosystems are destroyed
either by natural events (such as storms) or by human abuses of the environment (such as severe ero-
sion or pollution) the biotic community is often set back to an earlier stage of development. Succes-
sion then becomes nature’s repair process.
As energy passes along a food chain, it decreases in quantity but increases in quality at each suc-
cessive transfer. Thus, predators are less numerous than herbivores but they have greater influence on the
function and species composition of the ecosystem. There are two main food chains: (a) the food chain
beginning with particulate organic matter such as dead leaves and (b) the food chain beginning with dis-
solved organic material exuded or extracted from cells or vascular systems.
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Biodiversity may be defined as the variety of life forms, the ecological roles they play, and the
genetic diversity they contain. Diversity of life forms is considered to be important not only because
of the direct or indirect importance of individual species to society, but because of the redundancy
and stability that diversity of ecological roles contributes to the ecosystem. Loss of genetic biodiver-
sity can result in rapid extinction of different species, while the variety of life forms in any region de-
pends on the size and dynamics of interconnection between inhabitants. Accordingly, efforts to pre-
serve biodiversity must focus on the landscape level of organization.
Evolutionary Ecology considers the process of surviving different organisms in their struggle
for energy and space. They have to adapt to their environment and their community in a cooperative
manner. Interaction of unrelated species for mutual benefit has special survival value when resources
become scarce, or where soil or water is nutrient poor.
So, as we can see that ecology is concerned with different spheres of living nature and has its
manifestation in conservation of all the varieties existing in ecosystems.

1.6. Look through the text again to focus on the particular facts and the details you need.
a) Make up several questions you would like to ask the students in your group.
b) Explain the meaning of new words from the text. Try to make up some sentences using
them.
c) Ask your partner about some facts you have learned from the text.
d) Try to analyse what facts were familiar to you and what facts are new.
e) Define the main concepts of the text and tell your partner about the main problems
ecologists deal with.
Vocabulary Focus
1.7. Find Russian equivalents for the following English words and expressions:
argument survival
cell to argue for centuries
cellular to be accepted
despite/in spite of to be capable of
diverse to be unresolved
efficient to capture the energy
living things to convert the energy
photosynthesis to reproduce
substance to respond to
surroundings

Reading Comprehension
1.8. Guide to Reading: Read the text and determine the main characteristics of living things
according to the following plan.
1. All living things have got some similarities.
2. The cell is the smallest unit of a living thing.
3. Basic kinds of reproduction.
4. The process of obtaining the energy.
5. Living things and their environment.
In order to connect your ideas remember to use the following linking words: furthermore,
moreover, similarly, what is more, also.

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Text 2
Characteristics of Living Things
Making up a list of the characteristics of living things is not as easy as it might sound. In fact,
scientists have argued for centuries over the basic characteristics that separate life and nonlife. Some
of these arguments are still unresolved. Despite these arguments, there do seem to be some generally
accepted characteristics common to all living things. We can state with some confidence that all liv-
ing things:
· are made up of one or more units called cells,
· reproduce,
· grow and develop,
· obtain and use energy,
· respond to their environment.

Living Things Are Made Up of Cells


Living things are made up of small self-contained units called cells. The cell is the structural
and functional unit of most living organisms. Cell size varies, but most cells are microscopic (average
diameter 0.01-0.1 mm). Cells are remarkably diverse. A single cell itself can form an entire living or-
ganism. Organisms consisting of only a single cell are called unicellular. Most of the organisms we
are familiar with such as dogs and trees, are multicellular. Multicellular organisms contain hundreds,
thousands, even trillions of cells or even more.
Each cell consists of a mass of protein material that is differentiated into the cytoplasm and the
nucleus, which contains DNA. The cell is bounded by a plasma membrane, which in the cells of
plants, fungi, algae, and bacteria is limited by a cell wall. There are two types of cells. They are called
prokaryotic cells and eukaryotic cells.

Living Things Reproduction


Living things can reproduce, or produce new organisms of the same type. There are two basic
kinds of reproduction: sexual and asexual. Sexual reproduction requires that two cells from different
individuals unite to produce the first cell of a new organism. For example, most familiar organisms –
from maple trees to birds and bees – reproduce sexually. In asexual reproduction, a single organism
can reproduce without the aid of another. This kind of reproduction can be very simple. Some single-
celled organisms merely divide in two to form two organisms.

Living Things Growth and Development


All living things, at one stage or another in their lives, are capable of growth. An acorn, when it
sprouts, produces roots, stems, a trunk, and leaves that continue to grow for years. As it grows, the
plant takes in substances from the air and soil and transforms these substances into living tissue.
During growth, most living things go through a cycle of change called development. The single
cell that starts an organism’s life divides and changes again and again to form the many and varied
cells of an adult organism. As development continues, organisms experience a process called aging.
During aging, an organism becomes less efficient in the process of life. The ability to reproduce
comes to an end. For virtually all organisms, death is the inevitable end of the life span of every indi-
vidual. Death, too, is a process of change that separates living and nonliving things.

Living Things Obtaining and Using Energy


Living things obtain energy from their environment, or their surroundings, and use that energy to
grow, develop, and reproduce. All organisms require energy to build the substances that make up their
cells. Any process in a living thing that involves putting together or synthesizing complex substances from

8
simpler substances is called anabolism. Plants obtain their energy from sunlight in a process called photo-
synthesis. In the process of photosynthesis, green plants capture the energy in sunlight and convert it into
chemical energy. Thus, the term photosynthesis means put together with light.
Animals cannot perform photosynthesis. Animals take in energy in the form of food. Food is
broken down during a process called digestion. The final breakdown of complex substances into
simple ones, usually resulting in the release of energy, is called catabolism.
It should be noted that the total sum of all chemical reactions in the body – the balance of
anabolism and catabolism – is called metabolism. The various compounds that take part in or are
formed by these reactions are called metabolites. The synthesis (anabolism) and breakdown (catabo-
lism) of most compounds occur by a number of reaction steps, the reaction sequence being termed a
metabolic pathway. Some pathways are linear, others are cyclic. The changes at each step in a path-
way are usually small and are promoted by efficient biological catalysts called the enzymes.

Living Things Respondent to Their Environment


Living things respond to their environment. Such responses can be rapid, usually through
changes in behaviour, or slow, usually through changes in metabolic processes or through growth.
Anything in the environment that causes an organism to react is called a stimulus. Organisms react to
many stimuli, including light, temperature, odour, sound, gravity, heat, water, and pressure.
The ability of living things to react to stimuli is known as irritability. Both plants and animals
exhibit irritability and can react to a variety of stimuli. Plants, however, usually respond to stimuli
more slowly than animals.
In general, living things respond to stimuli in ways that improve their chances for survival. The
process by which organisms respond to stimuli in order to keep conditions in their body suitable for
life is called homeostasis. Homeostasis refers to an ability of an organism to maintain constant or
stable conditions that are necessary for life. It should be noted that nonliving things also respond to
the environment. However, the responses of nonliving things are purely mechanical (like a spring that
jumps, when compressed and released) and are not related to survival.

Language Development
1.9. Work with vocabulary related to ecological and biological problems. Identify any words
that are new to you, memorize them and make up your own sentences.

1.10. Fill in the correct word(s) from the list below:


a body of knowledge carrying out research
an invaluable tool to bring about
to keep healthy fruitful
an entire living organism despite different arguments
comes to an end
1. The whole course in General Biology attempts … … an understanding of the terms
“bios” (life) and “logos” (study or science).
2. Science is viewed as … … accumulated over centuries.
3. The knowledge of biology helps us … … and also enables people to solve many
scientific and everyday problems.
4. In … … modern biologists use the scientific method that covers several stages.
5. In almost all areas of biology the computer has become … … that can be used to
perform complex tasks and analyse quantities of data.
6. The symbiosis of sciences is extremely … ….
7. … … there do seem to be some generally accepted characteristics common to all
living things.
8. A single cell itself can form … ….
9. The ability to reproduce … ….

9
1.11. Match the following words with the definitions:
1. contribution A quality of not being the same
2. disease B plant with seeds in pods, used for food
3. explanation C science or practice of farming
4. variety D statement, fact, circumstance that make
plain or clear
5. science E giving ideas, suggestions, helping to
bring about
6. zoologist F tendency to pass characteristics on to
offspring, etc.
7. heredity G illness; disorder of body or mind or of
plants
8. inheritance H knowledge arranged in an orderly
manner
9. pea I deriving qualities from ancestors
10. agriculture J expert in the science studying animals

1.12. Put each of the following words in its place in the passage below:
conservatism stability building national vision
associations gardening living thatched pond
opportunities privilege common health crime

The Love of Nature


Most of the British live in towns and cities. But they have an idealized _________ (1) of the
countryside. To the British, the countryside has almost none of the negative _________ (2) which it
has in some countries, such as poor facilities, lack of educational _________ (3), unemployment and
poverty. To them, the countryside means peace and quiet, beauty, good _________ (4) and no
_________ (5). Most of them would live in a country village if they thought that they could find a
way of earning a _________ (6) there. Ideally, this village would consist of _________ (7) cottages
built around an area of grass known as a “village green”. Nearby, there would be a _________ (8)
with ducks on it. Nowadays such a village is not actually very _________ (9), but it is a stereotypical
picture that is well-known to the British.
Perhaps this love of the countryside is another aspect of British _________ (10). The country-
side represents _________ (11). Those who live in towns and cities take an active interest in country
matters and the British regard it as both a right and a _________ (12) to be able to go “into the
country” whenever they want to. Large areas of the country are official “_________ (13) parks”
where almost no _________ (14) is allowed.
Even if they cannot get into the countryside, many British people still spend a lot of their time
with “nature”. They grow plants. _________ (15) is one of the most popular hobbies in the country.

1.13. Talking points: Say a few words about the attitude of British people to nature.
Remember to use the linking or sequence words:
· however, but, in contrast to, nevertheless, on the other hand, but are used to join
two contrasting ideas;
· although, even though, despite, in spite of, while, whereas, nevertheless are used to
make a clause of concession.

Examples:
1. Most British people live in cities and towns. However, they have an idealized vision of the
countryside.

10
2. Although British people cannot live in the country, they still spend a lot of their time with
“nature”.

Focus on Grammar
I. Phrasal Verb(s). Find out how many meanings of the verb “bring” you know.
to bring about – to cause to happen; to encourage sb to talk
to bring back – to return
to bring down – to fall or come down
to bring forward – to introduce; suggest
to bring sb, sth in – to introduce
to bring into – to cause an activity
to bring sth off – to succeed in doing sth successfully
to bring sb, sth out – to produce, to encourage
to bring sb round – to regain consciousness
to bring sb up – to educate, care for in the family until grown up
to bring sb through – to save someone from an illness
to bring sb over – to persuade

1.14. Fill in the correct particle:


1. The head of the Biology Institute …… a new plan …… for the future development of
this organizational structure (introduced, suggested).
2. It was a very difficult job but Ann was able to …… it …… successfully (to succeed in
doing it successfully).
3. This warm weather should …… the crops (to cause, help (to grow), to improve).
4. Bill is a very quiet boy; try to …… him …… (to encourage, esp. to talk).
5. Peter has fainted: try to …… him …… (to regain consciousness).
6. The doctor …… Mother …… a serious illness (saved her from an illness).
7. It should be noted that at the early age the greatest biologist Charles Darwin …… in the
family of a physician (was educated and cared for in the family until grown-up).
8. John was about to leave, when he was …… by a loud voice (caused to return).
9. The whole course in General Biology attempts …… students’ understanding of this vi-
tally important science (to persuade).

II. Tenses in the Active Voice


We use the Present Simple to talk about:
1. Habitual, customary, repeated, actions, and permanent situations.
E.g. The broad field of biology contains many branches or divisions.
2. General truth and laws of nature
E.g. The Moon and the Earth always move in orbits.
3. Timetables (planes, trains, etc) and programmes.
E.g. The plane from Moscow arrives at 8.45.
State verbs do not normally have continuous tenses because they describe a state rather than an
action. These include: like, love, dislike, hate, enjoy, prefer, see, hear, smell, taste, feel, look, know,
believe, understand, realise, remember, forget, think, be, contain, need, cost, want, have (= possess).
We use the Present Progressive to talk about:
1. Actions that are happening now or around now.
E.g. “What are you doing?” “I am writing my research paper”.
2. Temporary actions or situations.
E.g. We are not studying zoology while we are on holidays.
3. Changes and developments.
E.g. Your English is improving all the time.

11
Present Perfect connects the past actions or situations to the present ones:
We use the Present Perfect to talk about:
1. Finished actions or events that happened at some unspecified time in the past. We are not
interested in when the action happened.
E.g. Russian biologists have made great contributions to world science.
2. Finished actions or situations that have a result in the present, or a relevance to the
present (often with just).
E.g. I have just made up my mind to perform a new experiment. Could you help me
with it?
3. Finished actions or situations that happened in unfinished time (often with today, this
week, this year, already).
E.g. The biologists have already solved a lot of problems by discovering some new
methods of research.
4. Actions or situations that began in the past and continue in the present. A past time
reference must be included (often with for and since).

Voice
Aspect Tense
Active Passive
V1, V-s be V-ed, V3
help, helps am, is, are helped
Present (мне помогают часто, обычно,
(я помогаю часто, обычно,
всегда) всегда)
Simple tenses V-ed, V2
Fact was, were helped
Past helped
(мне помогли, помогали когда-то)
(помогал когда-то)
shall, will V1
shall, will be helped
Future shall, will help
(мне помогут)
(я помогу)
be V-ing be being V-ed, V3
Present am, is are helping am, is, are being helped
(я помогаю сейчас) (мне помогают сейчас)
Progressive tenses
was, were helping was, were being helped
Process Past
(я помогал в тот момент) (мне помогали в тот момент)
shall, will be helping
Future
(я буду помогать в тот момент)
have V-ed, V3 have been V-ed, V3
Present have, has helped have, has been helped
(я уже помог) (мне уже помогли)
Perfect tenses had helped had been helped
Past (мне помогли к тому моменту)
Result (я помог к тому моменту)
shall, will have been helped
shall, will have helped
Future (мне уже помогут к тому
(я уже помогу к тому моменту)
моменту)
have been V-ing
Present have, has been helping
(я уже помогаю в течение…)
Perfect Progres- had been helping
sive tenses Past (к тому моменту я уже помогал
Result+process в течение…)
shall, will have been helping
Future (к тому моменту я уже буду
помогать в течение…)

12
III. Four Types of Questions. Read the rule and think of several questions to ask your
partner. Then have a short question and answer session.
E.g. Biology is the science of life.
E.g. Scientists usually think of several possible explanations or solutions to the problem.
A. General Questions (Yes/No question)
a) Is Biology the science of life?
– Yes, it is.
– No, it isn’t.
b) Do scientists usually think of several possible explanations or solutions to the problem?
– Yes, they do.
– No, they don’t.
B. Special questions
a) What kind of subject is the science of life?
b) Who usually think of several possible explanations or solutions to the problem?
C. Disjunctive Questions (Tag Questions)
We use question tags to check information. We usually use a negative tag with a positive
statement, and a positive tag with a negative statement.
a) Biology is the science of life, isn’t it?
Biology isn’t the science of life, is it?
b) Scientists usually think of several possible explanations or solutions to the problem,
don’t they?
Scientists do not usually think of several possible explanations or solutions to the prob-
lem, do they?
D. Alternative Questions
a) Is Biology the science of life or any other kind of science?
b) Do scientists or juniour students usually think of several possible explanations or solu-
tions to the problem?

IV. Exercises
1.15. Use either the Present Simple Tense or Present Progressive Tense:
1. Anna is interested in biology: she (study) different biological subjects at the University.
2. Botany is the science that (deal with) plants.
3. Many plants (beautify) man’s environment.
4. Look! She (plant) a beautiful rose right now.
5. Most of these plants (live) on land, (possess) structures resembling stems and small
leaves.
6. The post-graduates (carry out) a very serious experiment in the laboratory now.
7. Dolphins (be) especially friendly towards children.
8. The cat (hide) from the dog, isn’t it?
9. Scientists (study) the migration of birds all over the world.
10. A mosquito’s life cycle (have) many stages.
11. Mosquitoes (belong) to the Diptera, the great order of flies.
12. A disease of the mother (affect) an embryo.
13. The man’s diet (lack) vitamin D. This is a very serious problem, indeed.

1.16. Ask all types of questions for each sentence:


1. The ancients were inspired by the great success of the other lensed instrument – the tele-
scope.
2. At that time the microscope had a profound effect on the biological sciences and related
fields.
3. The ancients knew that hollow glass spheres filled with water had a magnifying effect.

13
4. The magnification of the early microscopes was not very great according to the present
standards.
5. In the 18th century men began to experiment with lenses in order to increase the magnify-
cation of object.
6. Before the invention of the microscope, plant study had been dominated by investiga-
tions based primarily on the external features of plants.
7. I was preparing for my exam in Zoology last night when my parents came in and broke
the horrible news.

1.17. Use the correct form of the verb (Present Simple or Present Perfect):
Biology (be) the science of life and people who (be engaged) in it (call) biologists. They
(study) the secrets of living things. Their discoveries (be) of great value to all mankind.
Biology (tell) us about our body: how it (construct) and how it (function). It (give) us impor-
tant information about other living things and how their lives (affect) mankind.
Biologists (make) great contributions to science. They (increase) our food supply, they (de-
velop) new and better varieties of plants and animals. Scientific methods of farming (give) us more
food than before.

V. The functions of the word


Define the functions of the word “one”
“One”

a numeral the formal the formal a word


subject object substitute

Notes:
1. one by one – по одному
2. one and all – все как один
3. one who – тот, кто

1.18. Read and translate the following sentences paying attention to the function of the
word “one”:
1. One example is fairly enough.
2. One must realize that this experiment is of great importance.
3. One must see the situation with one’s own eyes.
4. Reading in a foreign language, one often comes across unfamiliar words and expressions.
5. One must try to understand the meaning of these words from the context.
6. Have you any books on farming? I want to borrow one.
7. The students came into the Principal’s study one by one.
8. One cannot solve this complicated problem quite easily.
9. Gardening is one of the most popular hobbies in England.
10. In a biologist’s laboratory one can see a variety of plants and animals, some of which
are invisible to the naked eye.
Make up your own sentences using the word “one”.

VI. The plural forms of nouns of Latin and Greek origin


analysis – analyses
alga – algae
bacterium – bacteria

14
crisis – crises
criterion – criteria
datum – data
genus – genera
hypothesis – hypotheses
medium – media
nucleus – nuclei
phenomenon – phenomena
quantum – quanta
species – species
stome – stomata
synthesis – syntheses
thesis – theses

1.19. Fill in the blanks using the following words:


Phenomena, data, species, nucleus, hypothesis, data, analysis, medium
1. Ecologists studied all the _________________ that had led to the catastrophe in this re
gion.
2. The __________ was confirmed by the __________ obtained in the experiments.
3. We will be ready to finish the ___________ of our results after getting some additional
________.
4. A lot of endangered _________________are included into the Red Book.
5. The cell consists of the ___________ and a mass of protoplasm.
6. Most living things can’t live in aggressive _____________ because it destructs their vital
organs.

Focus on Business
Business Course: Letter Layout
There are some important parts in a typical standard letter: the sender’s address, date, the re-
ceiver’s name, title and address, salutation, body of letter, complimentary close, signature and name
and title of sender.
The sender’s address is usually placed in the top right-hand corner of the page. It provides
all necessary information about the sender: the name and address of the institution, organization
or the name, position, title and address of the sender, the telephone, telex, fax numbers, e-mail
or any other details that may be required, such as reference numbers, codes, etc. here are some
samples:
Department of Cytology and Genetics, Prof. Manfred S.A. Golding
Tomsk State University Dept. of Genetics
36 Lenin Ave. University of Maryland
Tomsk, 634050 College Park, MD. 20742-2111
Russia USA
The date should be placed below the sender’s address usually one or two spaces lower.
The most common form of writing the date is March 20, 2012 or 20 March, 2012 both in the
UK and the USA. The British ways to write the date are 20th March, 2012 and March 20th,
2012. A comma should be put between the day of the month, and the year, to separate the nu-
merals and prevent confusion.
The receiver’s address includes the name, title and full address of the recipient. It is placed in
the left-hand side of the letter, two spaces below the date.
Susan Jackson Prof. V.N. Stegny
291 Redfern Avenue 47 Ul. Govorov, Apt. 30

15
Dayton, Texas 76109 Tomsk, 634003
USA Russia

Robert S. Canster
36 North St.,
London S.W. 10 2DB
England

The initials of the first name are placed in front of the surname: Prof. M.B. Linith.
The words street, road or avenue may be abbreviated St., Rd., Ave.: West St., Highland Rd.,
Charles Ave.
If the street has a number, it must be written out: 24 Second Ave., 135 Fifty-fourth St.
The zip code or zone number is a geographical abbreviation. Be sure to put it in all addresses
in countries that use it. In the United States the zip code uses five numbers; some countries use num-
bers and letters. Do not put a comma between the end of the address and the zip code.
383 Madison Avenue 200 Euston Road
New York, N.Y. 10017 London NW1 2DB

Components of a letter

95 New Edition Road


Cambridge CB2 2 RU 1. Sender’s address
United Kingdom
7 May, 2012 2. Date

Dr. Ivan S. Nikitenko 3. Receiver’s name,


Department of Botany title and address
Tomsk State University
36 Lenin Ave.
Tomsk, 634050
RUSSIA

Dear Dr. Nikitenko, 4. Salutation

The opening paragraph should generate the


reader’s interest in the subject of the letter. State 5. Body of letter
the purpose of your letter.

Put each separate idea in a separate para-


graph.

Letters have to be typed or word-processed


carefully with a smart, clear layout.

Yours sincerely, 6. Complimentary close

(sign here) 7. Signature

Should be printed or written accurately 8. Name and title of


(if you are noting that you have enclosed the sender
something else with your letter) 9. Enclosure

16
1.20. Write a letter to the Siberian Botanical Garden applying for a part-time job in sum-
mer. Use these notes to help you. Write 100 words.

Dear (Sir/Madam),

Writing to apply for a job:


I am writing to apply for the position of …

Why you would be suitable:


You are interested in science (give your own ideas):
I believe I would be suitable for the position because…

Intend to continue studying science at the University:


It is my intention to continue studying science at the University. I believe that…
Previous work experience: (school/library/chemical, botanical laboratory).
I have worked in a … for …months/years.

You should mention the fact that you are available for a job interview.
I am available for a job interview.

Yours faithfully,
(your full name: first name + surname)
Useful words and phrases:
Firstly, secondly, thirdly, furthermore, I hope to gain, I enjoy working with…
This will be an opportunity to …
I look forward to hearing from you soon.

Project work
Read about the main ideas of project work in section 1. Write about the most important
issues ecologists deal with. Plan what you are going to write (120-180 words). Use a variety of
narrative tenses to make your story more vivid.
1. Look through the texts you have read in this unit and complete the following table using
these statements:
1) When ecosystems are destroyed either by natural events or by human abuses of the en
vironment the biotic community is often set back to an earlier stage of development.
2) The process becomes appropriate when supplies or landfills become limited.
3) Different organisms have to adapt to their environment and their community in a
cooperative manner for mutual benefit.
4) City’s well-being depends not only on what goes on within city limits, but even more
on the external life-support environment.
5) The variety of life forms in any region depends on the size and dynamics of intercom-
nection between inhabitants.
6) The food chains have a great influence on the function and species composition of the
ecosystem.
Principal Issues of Ecological Science
Principle Issues Basic Concepts Results Your opinion
Ecological Ecosystem is a thermodynamically open
Energetics system
Material
The wastes should be remanufactured
recycling
Ecosystem Species composition changes with time
development
Food chains There are two main food chains: (1) begin-
ning with particulate organic matter; (2) be-
ginning with extracted organic material
Biodiversity Diversity of life forms is very important
because of the redundancy and stability it
contributes to the ecosystem
Evolutionary Different organisms try to survive in their
Ecology struggle for energy and space

17
Comment upon each principal issue given in the chart. Practice some useful speech pat-
terns:
It is quite evident … It is understandable …
It is well-known that… It is observed that…
I am quite sure that… I really do think that…
I strongly believe that… I’m absolutely convinced that…
As far as I’m concerned… There is no doubt in my mind that…
It was reported that… From the text we can conclude that…
It has been determined that… While reading the text I have realized
It has been noticed that… that…
It has been observed that…
Examples:
1. It has been noticed that the material recycling becomes appropriate when supplies or
landfills become limited.
2. I am quite sure that biodiversity plays an important role in the development of ecosys
tems.
1. Make a presentation about the characteristic features of living things according to the
following plan:
1. All living things consist of cells.
2. Living things grow and develop when then consume the energy.
3. Reproduction can be different.
4. Living things respond to stimuli in ways that improve their chances for survival
Find some pictures to illustrate various materials you describe. They will make your pres-
entation more interesting and vivid.

UNIT 2

Learn how to…


1. Speak about Tomsk State University’s Institute of Biology.
2. Appreciate the great contribution to science made by the outstanding biologists of
Tomsk State University.
3. Identify the problems Tomsk ecologists deal with.
Focus on Grammar
Past Tenses (Simple / Indefinite, Progressive / Continuous, Perfect, Perfect Continu-
ous)
Functions of the word “it”
Language development
Vocabulary focus
Phrasal Verb(s): set
Speaking: present some biographical facts about the outstanding scientists.
Focus on Business: a business letter
Talking points: studying at Tomsk State University’s Institute of Biology: problems in the
process of studies, outstanding scientists
Project work: prominent ecologists and biologists

Warm-Up Activities
2.1. Before you read the texts answer the questions:
1. Why have you chosen the profession that is connected with the study of living things and
conservation of nature?
2. Which subjects should you study to become a highly-qualified specialist?

18
3. Which branch of the biological science attracts you most of all?
4. What outstanding biologists of Tomsk State University do you know?

Vocabulary Focus
2.2. Before reading the text, find the meanings of the following words and expressions in a
dictionary and memorize them:
establish = set up (v) realize = understand (v)
appoint (v) follow (v)
retain = receive (v) available (adj)
summarize (v) amount of (n)
prominent = outstanding (adj) opportunity (n)
undergraduate (n) post-graduate (n)
supervision (n) issue (n)
adviser = advisor (n) ontribution (n)
major in = specialize (v)
as far as sth is concerned
to solve a research problem
to take an active part in
share information about sth
to make (a great) contribution to = to contribute to
to have a good command of English.

Reading Comprehension
2.3. Guide to reading. Read the text and then answer the following questions:
1. What kind of institution is Tomsk State University’s Institute of Biology?
2. Tomsk State University’s Institute of Biology consists of several departments, doesn’t it?
3. What can you say about the future of Tomsk State University’s Institute of Biology?
4. In what fields can the post-graduates work?

Text 1
Tomsk State University’s Institute of Biology

19
Nowadays Tomsk University is regarded as one of the nation’s top educational institutions. Its
history is very interesting, unique, and eventful. Tomsk University was set up as the Siberian Impe-
rial University in 1878. It was established thanks to the tireless efforts and ideas of the progressively-
minded people of the period. It should be noted that one of those outstanding people was the great-
est Russian chemist D.I. Mendeleev. The University opened its doors to students ten years later, that
is in 1888. The first professors came to Tomsk from Moscow, St. Petersburg, and Kazan. Originally,
Tomsk University had only one faculty – that of Medicine. Professor N.I. Gezekhus was appointed
Rector of the first Siberian University. The University was run by its Academic Council.
The Biology and Soil Studies Faculty was established at the University in 1960s. In the early
2000s the faculty became the Institute of Biology and has retained this status up to now.
At present, the Institute of Biology includes several departments – those of Botany, Human
and Animal Physiology, Vertebrate and Invertebrate Zoology, Cytology and Genetics, Soil Science,
and Soil Ecology etc. Professors run the departments; the Head of the Institute of Biology runs this
university organization. At the top of this hierarchy is the Rector of Tomsk University. He has a
council to help to govern the university.
The biology students study various subjects and disciplines. They deal with Botany, Zoology,
Anatomy, Microbiology, Soil Science, Cytology and Genetics, Ecology, Biotechnology, etc. Besides
these specialized disciplines they are also offered courses of Higher Mathematics, Chemistry, History
of Russia, Cultural Studies, Computer Science, and English. Junior biology students attend lectures,
seminars, tutorials, classes in all these subjects. Attendance in Tomsk University is compulsory.
Undergraduates major in their particular areas of science working under the supervision of
their scientific advisers. Biology is an enormous subject and it is impossible for one person to study
the whole of it in depth. Nevertheless there are students who want the opportunity to study a wider
range of biology than is possible in the more specialized courses. The process of specialization in-
cludes choosing the topic of a major research project which is carried out under the supervision of a
scientific adviser.
Nowadays the most popular areas in biological science are genetics, biotechnology, microbiol-
ogy, and molecular biology.
Ecology is a very promising branch of science demanded in different spheres of our life includ-
ing not only questions of nature conservation but also it concerns the rules of our relationship and
interaction in multicultural global society. A lot of specialists (chemists, biologists, geologists, psy-
chologists and others) have to work together to cope with the problems of the modern world.
Genetics is a core component of modern biology, dealing with heredity and variation in all or-
ganisms, from bacteria to humans. Genetics investigates the chemical structure of DNA, the manipu-
lation of genes from diverse organisms by means of genetic engineering and recombinant DNA tech-
nology. Genetic knowledge has been crucial in the development of new varieties of crop plants that
give high yields which are resistant to pests. They are suited to modern methods of agriculture. The
influence of genetics in medical science has led to the decline of infectious diseases.
Biotechnology is concerned with the industrial application of the properties and processes of
living cells and organisms. Biotechnology is the development of techniques for the application of bio-
logical processes to the production of materials to be used in medicine and industry. For example,
the production of antibiotics, cheese, and wine rely on the activity of various fungi and bacteria. Ge-
netic engineering can modify bacterial cells to synthesize completely new substances, e.g. hormones,
vaccines, antibodies, etc., or introduce novel traits into plants or animals.
Microbiology is the scientific study of microorganisms (e.g. bacteria, viruses, and fungi).
Originally this was directed towards their effects (e.g. in causing disease and decay), but during the
20th century the emphasis shifted to their physiology, biochemistry, and genetics. Microbes are now
recognized as important vehicles for the study of biochemical and genetic processes common to all
living organisms.
Molecular biology aims at a full understanding of cell function in molecular terms. The subject
began in the 1950s and 1960s with the elucidation of the structure of DNA and the discovery of how

20
genes are expressed and controlled in bacteria. Molecular biology studies the molecular mechanisms
such as photosynthesis, cell to cell communication, and the mode of action of antibiotics, cell differ-
entiation, and immunology. It crosses the boundaries of the traditional disciplines of cell biology,
biochemistry, genetics, and basic medical science as well.
Career opportunities for graduates in biological sciences are good, with opportunities in indus-
try, medical and laboratory research, hospital laboratory services, the pharmaceutical industry, in
universities, colleges, and schools.
In the late 1990s, the transition to a multi-level system of education started. The new system
includes three levels leading to a Bachelor’s degree, a Master’s degree or a Specialist diploma.
Bachelor is used in titles such as a Bachelor of Arts or a Bachelor of Science to indicate
that a person has a first degree in the arts or science. A Master’s degree is a university degree
which is of a higher level than a first degree. It usually takes one or two years to obtain a Mas-
ter’s degree, for example an MA or MS degree. Doing their Master’s degree undergraduates
usually work on their research projects which are both of theoretical and practical importance.
They study a lot of problems intensively, come to definite conclusions and write about the re-
sults obtained.
They share information about their results, findings, contributions, techniques and develop-
ments in their own areas of research, and talk about the literature available on their problems. They
also consult their thesis supervisors on the issues they deal with. Besides, future scientists are ex-
pected to participate in the work of conferences, symposia and forums in order to gain new knowl-
edge in their particular areas of investigation, exchange ideas about the work done and think about
the future.

2.4. Choose only one appropriate variant for each sentence:


1. In the late 1990s, the … to a new system of education started.
a) transition c) conversation
b) reference d) speculation
2. It is very important for ....... to have a good command of English.
a) an old professor c) a good housewife
b) a young scientist d) a newly-born baby
3. Tomsk University was set up as the Siberian…….. University in 1878.
a) state c) imperial
b) new d) ancient
4. The first Rector of Tomsk University who had come from Saint Petersburg was
a ....... by profession.
a) biologist c) chemist
b) physician d) physicist
5. The Biology and Soil Studies Faculty was established at the University in the.......
a) 1920s c) 1960s
b) 1900s d) 1940s

2.5. Talking points: Work in small groups. Choose one of the following trends in bio-
logical science and discuss the most interesting items. Then share your opinion with other
students.
· Ecology
· Genetics
· Biotechnology
· Microbiology
· Molecular Biology
Remember to use the following linking words: as well as, also, not only but, besides, neither
… nor…, both… and…

21
Use the following expressions to show your attitude to the above mentioned items:
To my mind In my view/ in my opinion
It seems to me If you asked me, I would answer that
I insist that As far as I’m concerned
I believe that As far as I’m able to judge
From my point of view I personally think that

2.6. Guide to reading. Look through the text and focus on the facts about the contribution
made by each scientist to biological research.

Text 2

Outstanding Biologists and Ecologists


Porfiry Krylov (1850–1931)
At present, Tomsk University has a reputation as one of the nation’s top educational institu-
tions. Tomsk State University is the oldest University in Siberia and the Far East. It was established
as the Siberian Imperial University in Russia in 1878. Ten years later Tomsk University opened its
doors to students. The Herbarium of Tomsk University as a research center had been founded by
Porfiry Krylov. Nowadays the Krylov Herbarium is both a great scientific, cultural centre and a mod-
ern research laboratory as well. The rich collection of the Herbarium enables people to solve a great
number of scientific problems such as the problems of biodiversity, plant resources and vegetation,
and the genesis of flora, too. In addition, the Herbarium of Tomsk University named after Krylov
provides a solid foundation for teaching and learning Botany as a vitally important biological science.
Porfiry Krylov was born to a peasant family in 1850 and lost his father at an early age. His
mother did her best to fight against extreme poverty and she was able to send the boy to study at a
grammar school. At the age of eighteen young Porfiry Krylov began to work in a drugstore. It was
there that he became interested in medicinal plants and the plants growing just on the outskirts of
Perm. Since then his botanical education had begun.
Three years later the young researcher took a two-year pharmaceutical course at Kazan Uni-
versity. Having completed this course of studies, Porfiry Krylov was offered the post of a scientific
gardener in the Botanical garden of Kazan University. By that time the richest flora of Siberia had
not been completely studied. This vast field of activity attracted the scientist and he moved to the
Siberian town of Tomsk in order to initiate the botanical research in the newly-born University. In
the summer of 1885 Porfiry Krylov moved to Tomsk and immediately started working as a research
botanist at the Siberian University. The scientist was the first to plan the erection of the greenhouses
and supervise their construction. He organized the system of obtaining seeds of tropical and sub-
tropical plants not only from the Russian botanical gardens but from foreign plant centres as well.
Soon the tireless researcher was offered the post of a Tomsk University scientific gardener. Thus,
Porfiry Krylov created a unique park, the University grove, where alongside with the endemic Sibe-
rian plants such as pines, birches, and bird cherry trees, some foreign plants were cultivated in Sibe-
ria. Porfiry Krylov considered the natural vegetation research to be the most important problem for
all Siberian botanists and plant researchers. It should be noted that the scientist appealed to the local
intelligentsia – teachers, doctors, agronomists to take an active part in collecting the endemic flora
plant samples. Soon dozens of enthusiasts responded to the scientist’s call. The collections from the
various Siberian regions and the Far East began to appear in the Herbarium. It was Porfiry Krylov
who worked out a detailed and original way of storing the Herbarium collections ensuring their reli-
able safety and convenience in use.
It is interesting to note that there exists a special inventory book for each section in which the names
of families, species and genera are listed according to the Engler system. Right from the very outset the
Herbarium was formed not only as a depository of exhibits but a great scientific laboratory as well.

22
A person can work here all day long without getting tired. By the way, the Herbarium furniture
is very old, it is made of cedar wood.
Porfiry Krylov was a painstaking perfectionist, who collected and classified information end-
lessly. By 1914 the scientist had completed his first fundamental work called “The Siberian Flora”.
The flora of the Tomsk and the Altai regions is well-described in this great book.
After that the researcher was invited by the Russian Academy of Sciences to study the flora of
the European part of the country. It was precisely at that time when a new stage in the development
of the Herbarium started. The botanist was engaged in solving many theoretical and practical prob-
lems of the Herbarium.
The fundamental research in the fields of geography and phytocenology was carried out under
the supervision of Prof. Krylov. A great deal of attention was given to the solution of numerous
practical problems of the period. The pharmaceutical and chemical industries of that time required
(=badly needed) local raw materials.
In the early 1930s Porfiry Krylov and his assistant Lydia Sergievskaya decided to investigate
the flora of the Trans-Baikal steppes. The researchers went on a scientific expedition with the inten-
tion of exploring this vast region of Russia. But unfortunately the expedition was not a success be-
cause one of the days the horses galloped off and it was impossible to stop them. The carriage in
which P. Krylov and L. Sergievskaya were going overturned and both of them were badly injured.
After the accident the researchers had to return to Tomsk. Unfortunately, Krylov’s health became
worse and soon he died.
As a matter of fact, the scientist organized 36 botanical expeditions, twenty four of which were
made in the territory of Russia. “The Siberian Flora” is considered to be the most exact and complete
work which has ever been written. The scientist described 12 new species and a lot of intra-specific
(внутривидовой) taxa. The learned world had always taken a great interest in P. Krylov’s works.
Throughout his life, he was very energetic, hardworking, and responsible. He managed to en-
courage, inspire, and lead his colleagues. He had a great passion for lecturing and doing research and
knew how to do it perfectly well. In other words, P. Krylov was a brilliant scientist and supervisor.
Thus, Porfiry Krylov was one of the most original and significant botanists of his time and his reputa-
tion was firmly established in the field of biology.

Lydia Sergievskaya (1897–1970)


Lydia Sergievskaya was born not far from Vologda in 1897. Her father was a country priest.
Soon the family moved to the Siberian town of Tomsk. In her youth Lydia Sergievskaya attended the
women’s courses in Tomsk. The lectures were delivered by the well-known University professors.
The botanist Porfiry Krylov was among those lecturers. His brilliant lectures produced a great im-
pression on the young woman. L. Sergievskaya researched the variety of plants on the Earth with
great enthusiasm and interest. In the 1920s she began to work as a junior guardian (curator) of the
botanical collections. Since then the botanist had become an assistant of P. Krylov in his research
work. The scientist was engaged in investigating the flora of Western Siberia.
In 1931 Prof. Krylov and L. Sergievskaya went on a scientific expedition to Trans-Baikal land.
After P. Krylov’s death L. Sergievskaya took charge of the Siberian Botanical Garden.
Since 1934 the botanist Lydia Sergievskaya regularly had gone on scientific expeditions around
Siberia. The scientist studied and described over 43 species of the Siberian flora. It was
L. Sergievskaya who published 74 works and 14 monographs.
The Great Patriotic War (1941-1945) posed new challenges for Soviet plant researchers. Be-
tween 1942 and 1944 she took part in three scientific expeditions to study the supply of the medici-
nal raw materials of the Trans-Baikal land.
Having studied the floristic nature of higher plants of the Trans-Baikal land and having got rich
botanical collections she published the book entitled “The Trans-Baikal Flora”.

23
L. Sergievskaya was an outstanding scientist. She devoted her life to studying plants. L. Ser-
gievskaya was an indefatigable researcher who worked hard from early morning till late at night. And
only during holidays she was able to relax in order to read the books she had carefully chosen.
She was a great enthusiast and a propagandist of the botanical science in Siberia.
Lydia Sergievskaya died in September 1970. P. Krylov and L. Sergievskaya were buried in the
grounds of the Botanical Garden. Here one can see a monument to the founder of the first scientific
botanical centre in Siberia – P. Krylov and his devoted follower Lydia Sergievskaya.
Prof. L. Sergievskaya received many awards and honours from scientific societies. Her contri-
bution to the development of botany is widely recognized today.

Nikolai Kaschenko (1855–1935)


Nikolai Kaschenko was a professor of zoology and anatomy from 1888 to 1912. He delivered
a course of lectures on anatomy to the medical students. He also gave a course of Zoology lectures
to the University students. Zoology is the scientific study of animals. The animal kingdom includes
thousands of different animals. Scientists classify them as follows:
A. Invertebrates (or animals without backbones).
1. One-celled animals.
2. Sponges.
3. Cup animals.
4. Spiny-skinned animals (starfishes and their relatives).
5. Worms.
6. Mollusks (oysters, snails, squids).
7. Jointed-legged animals (lobsters, spiders, insects).
B. Vertebrates or animals with backbones.
1. All kinds of fish.
2. Amphibia (frogs, toads, salamanders).
3. Reptiles (snakes, lizards and turtles).
4. Birds.
5. Mammals.
Prof. N. Kaschenko also explored the Ob, Altai, Krasnoyarsk and Omsk areas with the goal of
collecting various zoological materials. Thanks to his tireless work and the activities of the other sci-
entists such as A. Kulyabko, B. Ioganzen, I. Laptev, the people who come to the Tomsk University
zoology museum can see over 500 kinds of birds, more than 150 mammals and the other interesting
and rare exhibits.
The museum helps students to discover a wonderful world of the animals. It also enables stu-
dents to take an active part in scientific expeditions to the various areas of Siberia so that they can
study the migration of birds, populations of vertebrates, reptiles, and waterfowl as well.
Thus, N. Kaschenko made a great contribution to science.

The Chief Ecologist in Tomsk Alexander Adam


Prof. Adam is the head of the Tomsk regional administration department of natural resources
and environmental protection.
He graduated from the Biology and Soil Studies Faculty of Tomsk State University in 1973.
Five years later he was awarded a degree of environmentalist by the State Technological University
in Vladikavkaz. From 1975 to 1989 he worked at the Tomsk University Research Institute of Biol-
ogy and Biophysics. There he proved to be a good organizer and specialist in the field of natural pro-
tection.
In 1995 A.M. Adam proposed that an ecological management department should be estab-
lished at TSU. In addition, he introduced a new regional ecological course. In 1999 Prof. Adam set
up a project to evaluate social and economic natural resources in Tomsk Region.

24
Between 2000 and 2003 the researcher supervised the project “The development of the re-
gional ecological management system” which was sponsored by the British Government. It should
be noted that Prof. Adam has written eleven monographs and over seventy scientific articles. He was
awarded his doctorate degree on ensuring the ecological safety of technological objects and areas for
their sustainable development. His main monographs are the following:
1. “Ecological problems in the regions of Russia”, 2000.
2. “Natural resources and environmental safety of Western Siberia”, 2001.
3. “Specially protected areas of the Tomsk region”, 2001.
4. “Natural use management at the Federation level”, 2002.
All the works are devoted to the problems of natural use and environmental protection in
Western Siberia. It should be emphasized that the author has analysed the dynamics of natural re-
sources and environmental protection in the areas, regions, and the republics of Russia.
Prof. Adam has also suggested mechanisms of improving ecological management, licensing,
auditing, and regulating ecological safety. He is regarded as one of the leading environmental scien-
tists in Tomsk and Tomsk Region. Prof. Adam is a brilliant scientist who is gifted with ecological
insight. Besides, he is a good public speaker and a propagandist of ecological safety ideas. He is one
of the most original and significant contemporary researches, and his reputation is surely established
in the field of environmental science. Prof. Adam resigned the post of the chief ecologist in 2013.

2.7. Talking points: After reading the text complete the following table
Contribution to
The period of Sphere(s) of sci-
Scientist’s name Dates of life the development
activity in TSU entific interests
of science

Speak about one of the prominent scientists using the information presented in the table.
Practise some useful speech patterns:

To begin with Furthermore


Firstly/secondly/thirdly In addition
First of all Moreover
Afterwards Besides
Then/next Also
Finally Indeed

Language Development
2.8. Work with vocabulary related to ecological and biological problems. Identify any words
that are new to you, memorize them and make up your own sentences.

2.9. Complete the sentences below with the words from the box:
natural vegetation research fatigue
greenhouse planned
tirelessly fundamental work
described volumes

1. It was Prof. P. Krylov who (.......) to construct the (.......) of the Botanical Garden.
2. Prof. P. Krylov considered the (....... .......) to be the most important problem for all
Siberian botanists.
3. A person can work here (.......) all day long without feeling a (.......).
4. By 1914 the scientist had completed the first (....... .......) called “The Siberian Flora”
which consisted of seven (.......).

25
5. Since 1934, Lydia Sergievskaya regularly went on expeditions around Siberia, studied
and (.......) over forty-three species of the Siberian flora.

2.10. Fill in the correct word(s) from the list below:


volumes learn
multi-level system besides the specialized
natural vegetation was engaged in exploring
research departments was transferred
medicine all day long
tireless efforts

1. Tomsk University was established due to ....... and ideas of the progressively-minded
people of that time.
2. Originally, Tomsk University had only one faculty – that of .......
3. In the early 2000 the Biology and Soil Studies Faculty ....... into the Institute of
Biology.
4. ......., the students are taught the History of Russia, Cultural Studies, Physical Educa-
tion, Russian and English.
5. As far as the English language is concerned, the Biology students ....... it in order to
read understand and summarize scientific books.
6. At present, the Institute of Biology includes several .......
7. Prof. P. Krylov considered the (....... ....... …….) to be the most important problem for
all Siberian botanists.
8. A person can work here (....... ……. …….) without getting tired.
9. By 1914 the scientist had completed the work entitled “The Siberian Flora” which con-
sisted of seven (.......).
10. L.Sergievskaya ……. ……. …… the flora of Western Siberia.
11. In the late 1990s, the transition to a ....... system of education started.

Focus on Grammar
I. Phrasal Verb(s). Study the meanings of the verb “set”. Then make up your own sen-
tences using the verb “set”.
1) to set about sth = to begin to do, to start
2) to set sb, sth against = to cause to oppose
3) to set sth aside = to save for a special purpose
4) to set back = to place at a distance behind sth
5) to set sb, sth down = to write, to stop and let sb to get out
6) to set in (of unfourable weather) = to begin and probably continue
7) to set off = to set out = to begin a journey; to cause
(sudden activity)
8) to set on (upon) sb = to attack
9) to set sb up as sth = to establish (oneself or someone)
in business
Expressions:
to set one’s mind on = firmly decide on sth
to set to work = to start working

2.11. Fill in the correct particle(s):


1. The bad weather will set …… our building plans by three weeks. (make late)
2. The bus sets the children …… just outside the school. (stops and lets (a passenger) get out)

26
3. The discovery of gold in California set …… a rush to get there. (caused sudden activity)
4. The reasons for my decision are set …… in my report. (explained in writing)
5. Nobody has ever set foot …… that island. (entered, visited)
6. We must set …… this problem. (not to touch upon)
7. Winter has set …… very early this year. (begun)
8. He set …… for London last month. (left for)
9. I had never set eyes …… him before. (seen, met)
10. This man will never set the Thames …… fire. (do sth unusual)
11. Sheffield University is set …… the centre of the city. (located, situated)
Make up your own sentences with the verb “set”.

II. Tenses in the Active Voice


Past Tenses
Past Simple (verb + ed (V-ed) or irregular past form (V2)) denotes:
· Past actions which happened one immediately after the other.
E.g. The students made the experiments, got good results, and left the laboratory.
· Completed actions, events which happened at a stated past time.
E.g. They performed a very important experiment in the biochemical laboratory yesterday.
· Past habits or states.
E.g. They always discussed such problems with their colleagues.
· Complete actions not connected to the present with a stated time reference.
E.g. P.N. Krylov laid out a wonderful university park (grove) in Tomsk.
Time expressions: yesterday, last week/month/year, ago, then, when, in 2002, etc.
Past Progressive (was/were + verb + ing) expresses:
· An action which was occurring in the past and was interrupted by another action.
E.g. When Mark came home, Bob was watching television.
· Two actions occurring at the same time in the past.
E.g. Mary was reading an interesting book while Tom was making an experiment.
· An action which was occurring at some specific time in the past.
E.g. They were discussing the results of the experiment at 7 o’clock yesterday.
Past Perfect (had + verb + ed (had V-ed) or irregular past form (V3)) is used:
· For an action which happened before another past action or before a stated time in the past.
E.g. The professor had reviewed the material before he gave the quiz.
· An action which finished in the past and whose result was visible (evident) in the past.
E.g. They were satisfied with the results of their work. They had obtained good experimental
data.
Note: The Past Perfect is the past equivalent of the Present Perfect.
Time expressions: before, after, already, just, for, since, till/until, when by, by the time, never.
Past Perfect Progressive (Continuous) (had + been + verb + ing) is used:
· An action which began before a definite moment in the past, continued up to that moment
and still going on at that moment.
E.g. The Smiths had been living in Chicago for several years before they moved to Detroit.

Future tenses

Future Simple (shall/will + the Verb (shall, will + V1)) is used:


· To denote a future action.
E.g. We will discuss all these issues tomorrow.
Future Progressive (Continuous) (shall/will + Verb + ing):

27
· Denotes an action which will be going on at a definite moment in the future. The definite
moment is often not expressed, but it is understood from the situation.
E.g. At 12 o’clock they will be still working in the chemical laboratory.
Future Perfect (shall/will + have + ed (have V-ed) or irregular past form (V3)):
· Denotes an action completed before a definite moment in the future.
E.g. Prof. Semenov will have worked at the University for 25 years by next June.
Future Perfect Progressive (shall/will + have + been + Verb + ing):
· Denotes an action which will begin before a definite moment in the future, will continue up to
that moment and will be going on that moment.
E.g. They will have been conducting this experiment for a long time when you visit us a
second time.

Will and Going to:


Will is used when we decide to do sth at the time of speaking. Will is used to predict a future
situation.
We often use will in these situation:
1. Offering to do sth
E.g. ‘I need some money.’ ‘Don’t worry I’ll lend you some.’
2. Agreeing or refusing to do sth
E.g. a): Where is my book? Can I have it back?
b): I’ll bring it back this afternoon.
3. Promising to do sth
E.g. Thank you for helping me. I’ll remember it forever.
4. Asking someone to do sth (Will you…?)
E.g. Will you please be quiet? I am trying to solve this problem now.
Going to is used when we say what we have already decided to do, what we intend to do in
the future.
E.g. She is going to travel round the world.

III. Exercises
2.12. Past Simple or Past Progressive:
1. The post-graduates _______ (work) in the scientific library last week.
2. As he _______ (walk) through the woods, the birds _______ (sing) there.
3. They _______ (put forward) some new proposals to take part in the scientific confer-
ence.
4. She _______ (type) the text while the secretary _______ (answer) the telephone calls.
5. Professor Orlov _______ (lecture) in Cambridge University last year.
6. I _______ (not understand) what Mr Green _______ (do).
7. I _______ (not hear) what he _______ (say) I _______ (type) at the moment.
8. Last time the teacher of English _______ (select) grammar rules suitable for the stu-
dents’ linguistic aptitude.
9. She _______ (try) to find some grammar rules in the new text-book yesterday.

2.13. Past Simple or Present Perfect:


1. They _______ (already discuss) this approach as an effective one.
2. He _______ (return) from his business trip to France last month.
3. Prof Brown _______ (already make up one’s mind) to continue conducting these ex-
periments to obtain good results.
4. _______ you ever _______ (be) to Japan?
5. I _______ (run out) of petrol. I must have my car filled.

28
6. The students _______ (present) a lot of interesting facts about the effects of climate
warming and weather changes at the conference held last year.
7. He _______ (already speak) about the various adaptation mechanisms of the plants
developed to extreme environmental conditions.
8. In the past, people _______ (not often travel) from one part of the world to another.

9. Happily, ecotourists who shoot with cameras rather than rifles _______ (replace) big
game hunters.
10. The Sun _______ (come out) a moment ago.

2.14. Present Perfect or Past Perfect:


1. I _______ (lose) my IDcard and cannot remember where I _______ (see) it last.
2. He is a person who _______ (have) a hard life.
3.When we _______ (come) into the laboratory, the students _______ (already make) the
experiment and _______ (discuss) the results obtained.
4. Jack told us yesterday that he _______ (visit) England in 1985.
5. Nick _______ (live) in New York for twelve years before he moved to California.
6. Prof. Smirnov _______ (lecture) at the University for many years.
7. Hardly had the lecturer _______ (finish) his speech when a storm of applause followed.
8. After he _______ (think) an answer over, he made a decision.

IV. The functions of the word “it”


It

Personal Emphatic The Demonstrative The Impersonal The Introductory


“it” “it” “it” “it” “it”

2.15. Define the functions of the word “it” in the following sentences:
1. What is this? – It’s our new film about the biological processes.
2. It was P. Krylov who founded the Siberian Botanical Garden.
3. It is rainy today, so we are not going to leave the house.
4. I’m interested in the problem of waste recycling and I read a lot of books about it.
5. It is demanded that the scientists of different specialities work together to handle the
problems of nature conservation.
6. It is widely known that nanotechnology plays an important role in the development of
Natural science.
Make up your own sentences with the word “it”.

Focus on Business
Business Course: a business letter
A business letter is a particular piece of writing. It is usually addressed to the Directors, chief
executives, managers of companies or firms. Nowadays business correspondents prefer simple Eng-
lish to express what they want to say as effectively as possible.
Proper business letter writing is very important for business activity. Business letters are usu-
ally written on printed company forms (letter paper).

29
The ordinary business letter consists of the following principle parts:
1. The Date
2. The Inside Address
3. The Opening Salutation
4. The Subject Heading
5. The Opening Paragraph
6. The Body of the Letter
7. The Closing Paragraph
8. The Complimentary Closing
9. The Signature
10. Enclosures, Postscripts and copies sent
Exercises:
2.16. Put the parts of the business letter in the correct logical order:
a) 6 Pine Estate, Bedford Road, Bristol, UB28 12BP
Telephone 9036174369 Fax 9036 36924
6 August 2005

b) Dear Mr. Sawyer,

c) I look forward to hearing from you


Yours sincerely,
Simon Tramp
Sales Manager

d) James Sawyer, Sales Manager, Electro Ltd,


Perry Road Estate,
Oxbridge UN54 42KF

e) Thank you for your letter. I am afraid that we have a problem with your order. Unfor-
tunately, the manufacturers of the microscope you wish to order have advised us that they cannot
supply it until November. Would you prefer us to supply a substitute, or would you rather wait until
the original microscope is again available?

2.17. Match the information on the envelope with the items given below

New Jersey Power Company


5695 South 23 Road
(1) Ridgefield, (2) NJ 08887

(3) Mr. Frederick Wolf

Director of Marketing

(4) Smith Printing Company

590 (5) Sixth Avenue

Milwaukee, (6) WI 53216

30
a) The addressee
b) The town the letter comes from
c) The street name in the mailing address
d) The ZIP Code in the mailing address
e) The addressee’s company name
f) The ZIP Code in the return address

Project work
Write about the life and work of outstanding ecologists or biologists. Make a sum-
mary of the results in research work and the achievements gained by the well-known sci-
entists. Identify the traits of character which contributed to his or her success in life and
activity.
1. Use the following adjectives:
(a) the words having positive connotation: hard-working, determined, ambitious, motivated,
curious, intelligent, responsible, cooperative, helpful, careful, reliable, decisive, outgo-
ing, active, energetic, creative, goal-oriented, self-confident
(b) the words having negative connotation: mean, stubborn, selfish, aggressive, disorgan-
ized, arrogant, rude, indifferent, unreliable, dishonest
2. Use these words in your own sentences according to the examples given below:
K. Timiryazev was always an energetic and hard-working biologist. Nobody could notice
him to be arrogant or rude in discussions of very important problems with his colleagues.

UNIT 3
Learn how to …
1. Discuss some problems that are connected with chemical pollution.
2. Evaluate the threat of the ozone layer depletion.
3. Report on the constituents of the biosphere.
Focus on Grammar:
The system of tenses in English
The Passive Voice/ The Passive Voice (prepositional constructions)
Language development
Vocabulary focus
Phrasal verb: get
Speaking: tell other students about the consequences of chemical pollution observed in
water and air
Focus on Business: curriculum vitae
Talking points: characteristics of the biosphere
Project work: collective project “Problems of nature conservation”

Warm-Up Activities

3.1. Before reading the text answer the following questions:


1. What hazardous substances can pollute rivers, lakes, seas?
2. Which substances cause the most dangerous changes in the atmosphere?
3. What do you know about the greenhouse effect?

31
Vocabulary Focus
3.2. Find Russian equivalents for the following English words and expressions:
influence (v) estimate (v) synthetic (adj)
flow (n, v) delay (v) fibers (n)
consequence (n) precipitation (n) residues (n)
aquatic (adj) suspension (n) viscous (adj)
affect (v) photosynthesis (n) saturated (part)
approach (n) reduce (v) pesticide (n)
objective (n) lubricant (n) terrestrial (adj)
content (n) surface (n) insecticide (n)
impurity (n) exchange (n,v) herbicide (n)
substance (n) prevent (v) detergent (n)
contamination (n) runoff (n) bleach (v)
marine (adj) provide (v) deteriorate (v)
nutrients (n) petroleum (n) deposit (v)

Reading Comprehension
3.3. Guide to Reading. Scan the text and identify the main substances which pollute natural
water.

Text 1
Chemical Pollution of Natural Water
Any water source connected with the environment is influenced by the conditions of under-
ground water flow, a variety of natural phenomena, industrial and domestic activities of man. The
consequence of these effects is the introduction into the aquatic environment of a new, unusual mat-
ter - pollutants that affect water quality. This kind of pollution is classified in different ways, depend-
ing on the approaches, criteria and objectives. They can be chemical, physical and biologi-
cal. Chemical pollution changes the natural chemical properties of water by increasing the content of
harmful impurities like inorganic (mineral salts, acids, basics, clay particles) and organic substances
(oil and petroleum products, organic matter, pesticides).
Inorganic contamination
The main inorganic (mineral) contaminants in fresh and marine waters are a great variety of
chemical compounds that are toxic to aquatic organisms. These are compounds of arsenic, lead,
cadmium, mercury, chromium, copper, fluorine. Most of them fall into the water as a result of human
activity. Heavy metals are absorbed by phytoplankton, and then pass through the food chain to high-
developed organisms.
Organic pollution
Among the pollutants of the ocean we can find not only minerals, nutrients, and organic resi-
dues. Removal of organic matter in the ocean is estimated at 300 - 380 million tons a year. Polluted water
affects the quality of water and in this way delays the development or completely stops the vital activity of
microorganisms involved in the process of self-purification of water. In the process of precipitation these
pollutants can form harmful compounds and toxic substances such as hydrogen sulfide, and others. The
presence of suspensions prevents the penetration of light into the water and slows down the process of
photosynthesis. One of the basic health requirements for water quality is the content of corresponding
amount of oxygen. Pollution of water considerably reduces the oxygen content in water. Such pollutants
as fats, oils and lubricants form a film on the surface of water, which prevents a gas exchange between
water and atmosphere, decreasing the degree of saturation of water with oxygen. Increasing water pollu-
tion and runoff are observed in all industrially developed countries. Information about the content of some
organic substances in industrial waste water is provided below (table 1):

32
Table 1. Organic substances in industrial waste water

The number of the world's stock,


Contaminants
million tons a year
1. Petroleum products 26, 563

2. Phenols 0.460

3. Wastes from the manufacture of synthetic


5.500
fibers
4. Vegetable organic residues 0.170
5. Total 33, 273

Petroleum and petroleum products are the most common pollutants in the oceans. Oil is a vis-
cous liquid, having a dark brown colour, and possessing a weak fluorescence and it consists pre-
dominantly of saturated hydrocarbons.
The use of pesticides in agriculture causes different kinds of pollution. Every year more than 5
million tons of pesticide is produced for the world market. About 1.5 million tons of these substances
are already included in the composition of terrestrial and marine ecosystems. Industrial production of
pesticides is accompanied by a large number of by-products, wastewater pollutants. In the aquatic
environment it is more likely to meet representatives of insecticides, herbicides.
Synthetic pollutants, produced in the developed countries affect the environment. Detergents
are a large group of substances, which decrease the surface tension of water. They are part of deter-
gents widely used in household and industry. Together with waste water these detergents are poured
into continental waters and marine environment. Detergents contain not only sodium polyphos-
phates, but also a number of additional ingredients, which are toxic to marine organisms: flavoring
agents, bleaching agents, soda and sodium silicates.
One more pollutants deteriorating the environment are heavy metals. Heavy metals (mercury,
lead, cadmium, zinc, copper) are among the most popular and highly toxic pollutants. They are
widely used in various industrial processes; therefore, despite the cleaning processes, the content of
heavy metals in industrial waste water is quite high. Large masses of these compounds are deposited
in the ocean. For marine biogenesis mercury, lead and cadmium are the most dangerous met-
als. Mercury is transported into the ocean from continental runoff and the atmosphere.

3.4. Read the text again and decide if the following statements are true or false:
1. The conditions of underground water greatly influence the state of water sources on
the surface of the earth (oceans, seas, rivers, lakes).
T □ F □
2. Chemical pollution changes the natural chemical properties of water by decreasing the
content of different impurities like inorganic and organic substances.
T □ F □
3. Heavy metals are absorbed by phytoplankton, and then pass through the food chain to
high-developed organisms.
T □ F □
4. The absence of suspensions activates the penetration of light into the water and speeds
up the process of photosynthesis.
T □ F □
5. One of the basic health requirements for water quality is the content of corresponding
amount of hydrogen.
T □ F □
6. The formation of films on the water surface prevents a gas exchange between water
and atmosphere, decreasing the degree of saturation of water with oxygen.

33
T □ F □
7. Detergents contain a number of additional ingredients, which can be toxic or useful to
marine organisms.
T □ F □
8. The content of heavy metals in industrial waste water is not high because very few
industrial processes demand the use of these substances.
T □ F □

3.5. Guide to Reading. Put the paragraphs of the following text in order, then read and trans-
late the text.

Text 2
Ozone Layer Depletion
Causes of ozone depletion
What is the ozone layer?
The ozone hole

Ozone (O3) is a gas, and a variant of oxygen (O2). Although it is present in very small amounts
in the atmosphere, significant reductions or increases in this gas can have important environmental
consequences. Ozone in the Earth's stratosphere is created by ultraviolet light striking oxygen mole-
cules containing two oxygen atoms (O2), splitting them into individual oxygen atoms (atomic oxy-
gen); the atomic oxygen then combines with unbroken O2 to create ozone, O3.
Ozone occurring higher up in the atmosphere, between 15 and 55 km above ground level (i.e.,
the stratosphere) forms a protective barrier called the ozone layer, shielding the earth from extreme
heat radiated by the sun. Most of the atmosphere’s ozone is found in its two lowest layers: the tro-
posphere, which extends up to 12 km above the earth’s surface, and the stratosphere above it, which
extends up to about 50 km. The majority of ozone is found between 20 and 50 km above the ground,
with the highest ozone concentrations occurring between 20 and 25 km.
Oxygen and ozone in the stratosphere absorb ultraviolet (UV) radiation from the sun, pre-
venting it from reaching the earth. If radiation absorption did not occur, the consequences could be
fatal for humankind. Ultraviolet light of wavelengths between 280 and 320 nanometers is capable of
decomposing living substances: a strong dose to human skin causes cancer, eye damage such as cata-
racts, immune system damage, damage to the DNA, and the small quantities that get through the
ozone shield are an important cause of cancer in people. Even 1% thinning of the layer could result
in an increase of thousands of skin cancer cases every year.

Ozone in the atmosphere is broken down when it absorbs ultraviolet radiation. This natural
process can be disrupted by the presence of pollutants. Chlorine speeds up the breakdown of ozone
molecules, thus leading to a depletion of the ozone layer. Chlorine is one of the constituents of
CFCs. CFCs, or chlorofluorocarbons, are artificial substances and they do not occur in nature. They
have been used for many years as propellants in aerosols, in the production of some foam packing for
food and as coolants in refrigerators. Moreover, in the presence of UV light, CFCs dissociate, releas-
ing chlorine atoms, which then go on to catalyze ozone destruction. It is necessary to say that CFCs
have very long atmospheric lifetimes, ranging from 50 to over 100 years, so the complete recovery
of the ozone layer is expected to require several lifetimes. The depletion of the ozone layer is a chain
reaction and it includes the following steps:
1) Cl + O3 → ClO + O2 – The chlorine atom changes an ozone molecule to ordinary oxygen.

34
2) ClO + O3 → Cl + 2 O2 – The ClO from the previous reaction destroys a second ozone
molecule and recreates the original chlorine atom, which can repeat the first reaction and continue to
destroy ozone.
It is also established that the ozone is influenced by air pollutants which contain nitrogen. NO
(nitrogen monoxide) is formed in internal combustion engines. Accordingly, the launch of rockets,
missiles leads to the destruction of the ozone layer.

Depletion of the ozone layer could lead to the formation of the ozone hole. Ozone depletion
occurs in many places in the Earth's ozone layer, most severely in the Polar Regions. Ozone hole is
an area of the stratosphere in which the recent ozone levels have dropped to as low as 33%. How-
ever, the ozone hole is not usually measured in terms of ozone concentrations at these levels but by
reduction in the total column ozone, above a point on the Earth's surface, which is normally ex-
pressed in Dobson units, abbreviated as "DU".
In 1974, scientists in the USA put forward their theory that CFCs could destroy ozone. In
1978, the United States, Canada and Norway enacted bans on CFC-containing aerosol sprays that
are thought to damage the ozone layer. In 1982, British Antarctic Survey scientists detected a fall in
ozone concentrations above the southern ice cap. By October 1984, the hole over Halley Bay had
shown a 30% reduction in ozone. In 1987, 46 countries signed the Montreal Protocol on Substances
that deplete the ozone layer.

3.6. Talking points: work in small groups and discuss the problems raised in this text.
The following questions will help you to do it.
1) How much ozone is created in the atmosphere?
2) What is the significance of the ozone layer to support animated existence?
3) At what height can ozone be found?
4) Which substances can speed up the depletion of ozone?
5) How is the ozone hole formed in the atmosphere?
6) In what way can you estimate the consequences of ozone holes formation?
7) What have governments of different countries and ecological organizations done to
protect the atmosphere?
8) What could the united efforts of all nations lead to?
Then share the results of your consideration with other students. Use the following phrases
while discussing these issues.

Asking for information Inviting a response


Do you know…? Don’t you think?
Could you find out…? Don’t you agree?
I’m interested in … How do you feel about this?
I’d like to know… Returning to the topic
Could you tell me about…? As I have said…
Do you happen to know…? To return to my earlier point…
Anyway, going back to…

Language development
3.7. Work with vocabulary related to ecological and biological problems. Identify any words
that are new to you, memorize them and make up your own sentences.

3.8. Fill in the proper words from the list below:


significant occurs
aquatic environment

35
combine splitting
absorb tension
delays biogenesis
recovery depletion
1. Although ozone is present in very small amounts in the atmosphere, __________reductions
or increases in this gas can cause serious problems in the environment.
2. Ozone is created by ultraviolet light striking oxygen molecules by __________two oxygen
atoms into individual oxygen atoms (atomic oxygen), which then __________with unbro-
ken O2 to create ozone.
3. Oxygen and ozone in the stratosphere __________ ultraviolet (UV) radiation from the sun,
preventing it from reaching the earth.
4. The presence of pollutants can disrupt the absorption of ultraviolet radiation that leads to a
______________of the ozone layer.
5. Chlorofluorocarbons have very long atmospheric lifetimes and the complete
______________of the ozone layer is expected to require several lifetimes.
6. Ozone depletion ___________ in many places in the Earth's ozone layer, but the largest
ozone holes have been registered in the Polar Regions.
7. The consequence of chemical pollution is the introduction of poisonous substances into the
of __________ that affect water quality.
8. Polluted water ___________ the development or completely stops the process of water
self-purification by the vital activity of microorganisms.
9. Detergents widely used in household and industry decrease the surface __________of wa-
ter and affect marine life.
10. For marine ___________such heavy metals as mercury, lead and cadmium are the most
dangerous pollutants.

3.9. Fill in the correct preposition(s), then choose any three items and make up sentences
of your own:
1. to be in engaged _____ sth;
2. to be interested _____ sth;
3. the world _____ sb;
4. to write sth _____ sth, sb;
5. books _____ plants;
6. to lead _____ the discovery _____ sth;
7. to find more effective ways _____ treating diseases;
9. _____ the same time;
10. the evidence _____ evolution;
11. to link sth _____ a coherent whole;
12. to make _____ sth;
13. to pass _____ information _____sb, sth;

3.10. Fill in the blanks with the words and word combinations given below:
oxygen mammals
biosphere pollinators
energy continual recycling
free oxygen input of solar energy
environment constituents
carbon biological activity
hydrosphere solar energy
permanent inhabitants plants

36
lithosphere nitrogen
photosynthesis atmosphere

Biosphere
The first step to understanding the interrelationship of living organisms and their non-living
____________________ is to begin with the sun. From it comes most of the
____________________ on earth. But, it is largely unavailable to animals directly. It must be trans-
mitted to them by green vegetation through a process known as ____________________. In this
process the ____________________ is transferred through a substance in the vegetation called chlo-
rophyll (from Greek, chloros, green, and phyllos, leaf) in the presence of water to become
____________________ and food sugar. Now, animals can receive their energy by eating
____________________ or other animals (who have eaten plants at some stage). As plants and ani-
mals decay, with the help of bacteria and fungi, they release chemicals in the earth, helping to feed
plants. This circulation makes the earth's basic substances – ________________,
____________________, ____________________ – and others move between the earth's main
stratums: air – ____________________, water – ____________________, soil and rocks –
___________ and living organisms – ___________________.
The biosphere (or sphere of life), sometimes described as «the fourth envelope», is all living
matter on the planet or that portion of the planet occupied by life. It reaches well into the other three
spheres, although there are no __________________of the atmosphere. Relative to the volume of
the Earth, the biosphere is only the very thin surface layer which extends from 11,000 meters below
sea level to 15,000 meters above. The biosphere contains great quantities of elements such as car-
bon, nitrogen and oxygen. Other elements, such as phosphorus, calcium, and potassium, are also es-
sential to life, yet are present in smaller amounts. At the ecosystem and biosphere levels, there is a
_____________________of all these elements, which alternate between the mineral and organic
states.
The functioning of the ecosystem is based on the________________. Plants and photosyn-
thetic microorganisms convert light into chemical energy by the process of photosynthesis, which
creates glucose (a simple sugar) and releases free oxygen. Glucose thus becomes the secondary en-
ergy source which drives the ecosystem. Some of this glucose is used directly by other organisms for
energy. Other sugar molecules can be converted to other molecules such as amino acids. Plants use
some of this sugar, concentrated in nectar to attract ____________to help them in reproduction.
Cellular respiration is the process by which organisms (like______________) break the glucose back
down into its___________, water and carbon dioxide, thus regaining the stored energy of the sun.
Global air currents mix the atmosphere and maintain nearly the same balance of elements in areas of
intense ____________and areas of slight biological activity. Water is also exchanged between the
hydrosphere, lithosphere, atmosphere and biosphere in regular cycles. The oceans are large tanks,
which store water, ensure thermal and climatic stability, as well as the transport of chemical elements
thanks to large oceanic currents.

3.11. Which of these statements are true or false? Correct the false sentences.
1. The biosphere is a sphere of soils and rocks.
2. At the ecosystem and biosphere levels, there is a continual recycling of carbon,
nitrogen, oxygen and other elements, such as phosphorus, calcium, and potassium.
3. The process of photosynthesis releases carbon.
4. Glucose and other sugar molecules are concentrated in nectar and attract pollinators
to aid plants in reproduction.
5. Water and carbon dioxide are the two constituents which cause the process of cellular
respiration.
6. Water circulates between the hydrosphere, lithosphere, atmosphere and biosphere.

37
3.12. Talking points:
1. Define all the characteristics of the biosphere and their impact on the preservation
of life.
In order to join your ideas use the following phrases: furthermore, moreover, similarly,
what is more, also
To express contrasting ideas use these expressions: however, nevertheless, on the other
hand
To explain the reason use the following phrases: due to, because of, owing to, on
account of, as, since
2. Ask your partner as many questions as you can about the facts mentioned in the
text.
Focus on Grammar
I. Phrasal Verb(s). Study the meanings of the verb “get” and make up your own sentences
using the verb with the appropriate particles.
to get about = to move or travel from place to place
to get along with = to have a friendly relationship with sb
to get at = to succeed in reaching sth
to get away = to succeed in leaving a place or a situation
to get away with = to do sth wrong or risky
to get by = to manage to do things satisfactorily, to survive
to get down = to make sb unhappy
to get off = to leave a place because it is time to leave
to get on = to try to be successful in one’s career
to get over = to recover from an unpleasant experience or an illness,
to overcome a problem
to get together = to meet in order, to discuss sth or to spend time
together
to get through = to complete to finish sth

3.13. Fill in the blanks with the correct particle(s):


1. If you __________, you go away for a period of time in order to have a holiday (go
on holiday).
2. It took her 2 years __________ (recover from an unpleasant experience).
3. If you __________ a difficult or unpleasant period of time, you manage to live
through it (succeed in leaving a situation).
4. Some elderly people manage __________ on small amounts of money (survive).
5. You should try to __________ your fellow-students, you study in one and the
some group, after all (have a good relationship with).
6. When my work __________ , I like to fantasize about being a rich banker (make sb
unhappy).
7. At eight I said : “__________” (leave place because it is time to leave it).
8. Politics is seen as a man’s world. It is very difficult for women __________ (be suc-
cessful in one’s career).

II. The Passive Voice


Study the following sentences; compare their meanings and the structure:
The scientific article was published last year. (passive)
Somebody published the scientific article last year. (active)
We prefer the Passive Voice constructions when:
1. The doer of the action is unimportant or isn’t mentioned in the situation.
e.g. All the experiments were performed in the chemical laboratory last week.

38
The houses were decorated for a celebration.
2. The doer of the action exists in a sentence. (in this case the particle by is used)
e.g. This wonderful picture in Cubist style was painted by Pablo Picasso.
The famous experiments on dogs were carried out by Prof. Pavlov.

Simple (Indefinite) Passive tenses

Present Past Future


New laboratories The building was constructed Essays will be written
are opened in this city. a month ago. by the students next week.

Progressive Passive tenses

Present Past
The new university When I returned home, the building of
building is being built now. the old school was still being recon-
structed.

Perfect Passive tenses

Present Past Future


The lab. building The main experiment The experimental results
has been built this month. had been carried out will have been verified
by the first of September. by the end of the month.
Note: There is no Future Progressive Passive Tense in English.
In other words, we can present our grammar rule in the following table or scheme:
Note: the action is done to
TENSE ACTIVE PASSIVE
the subject
write(s) am She often writes essays.
Present is written The essay is
are was
Simple

wrote (V2) was will be


Past written written
were
Future will write will be written
am am She is writing the essay
Present is writing is being written now.
Continuous

are are The essay is


was was was
Past writing being written being written
were were
Future will be writing ------------------------
have have She has already written
Present written been written the essay.
has has The essay has already been
Past had written had been written written.
Perfect

The essay had been writ-


ten by the end of the term.
Future will have written will have been written The essay will have been
written by the end of the
term.

39
Modal Verbs: can/could should/would be done
may/might needn’t have been done must/have to

III. Exercises
3.14. Complete the sentences. Use the Passive (Present or Past) of these verbs:
give blow set classify keep divide
make (2) postpone study write pay
1. She has a very good job. She _______ £ 2000 a month.
2. The first books on plant life _______ by Theophrastus.
3. The life cycles of insects _______ in ancient Egypt.
4. The meeting _______ because of his serious disease.
5. An important decision _______ only last week.
6. Animals in the earliest zoological gardens _______ by the ancient Mesopotamians.
7. All living things _______ into the biological families by the Swedish scientist Carl Lin-
naeus.
8. Tomsk University _______ up by progressively-minded people in the second half of
the 19th century.
9. Many different languages _______ in India.
10. Two old trees _______ down in the storm last night.
11. Mr. Smith _______ the more important task.
12. All the plants in the Botanic Garden _______ into several large groups.
13. These experiments _______ by the group of scientists.

3.15. Multiple choice test (choose only one appropriate variant):


1. The exact nature of viruses _______ (settle) yet.
a) has not been settled b) is not settled
c) was not settled d) has not settled
2. Many names _______ (give) to the different cancer cells.
a) is being given b) was being given
c) have been given d) has been given
3. There are a lot of possibilities for young people to enjoy their holidays. They __ (of-
fer) a wide choice of places to stay and things to do.
a) had been offered b) are offered
c) were offered d) were being offered
4. Recently keen attention _______ (devote to) one of the basic functions of proteins –
their ability to act as catalysts in biochemical reactions.
a) has been devoted to b) was devoted to
c) was been devoted to d) is being devoted to
5. All major biochemical achievements _______ thanks to the wide use of agriculture and
medicine.
a) is being made b) is made
c) has been made d) are made
6. Under the contract a new project _______ (construct) next year.
a) had been constructed b) is constructed
c) will be constructed d) will have been constructed
7. Such information _______ (produce) now.
a) will not be produced b) is not being produced
c) has not been produced d) was not being produced
8. Living things _______ (make up) of small self-contained units called cells.
a) is made up b) are made up
c) were made up d) have been made up

40
3.16. Make up sentences using the words in brackets. All the sentences should be used
in the Present Tense (Passive) or in the Past Tense (Passive):
Examples:
a) (the composition/write/last week).
The composition was written last week.
b) (these experiments/conduct/a year ago?)
Were these experiments conducted a year ago?
1. (the car/repair/now)
2. (the equipment/just/set up)
3. (this beautiful house/build/now)
4. (the structure of the atom/discover/a century ago)
5. (many problems/cause/absent-mindedness)
6. (some new flowers/plant/in the Botanical Garden/last year)
7. (the Botanical Garden/head/L.Sergievskaya/in the 20th century)
8. (the foundations for the modern science of Biology/lay/by the scientists/several
centuries ago)
9. (the microscope/invent/in the 17th century).

3.17. Read the following sentences and rewrite them in the Passive as in the example.
Examples: They will check the conditions of the experiment.
The conditions of the experiment will be checked by them.
1. The Swedish botanist Linnaeus described more than 100 new species of plants and
announces his system of “binomial nomenclature”..
2. Theophrastus had written 200 treatises about plants by the beginning of the 16th
century.
3. Anton van Leeuwenhoek invented the microscope.
4. Ernest Hemingway wrote “For Whom the Bell Tolls” in 1940 and it was about the
Spanish Civil War.
5. Living organisms inhabit the biosphere.
6. Charles Darwin published the work “The Origin of Species”.
7. The British ecologist Arthur Tansley coined the term “ecosystem” in 1935.

1.18. Translate the following prepositional constructions of the Passive Voice. Make up
sentences of your own using these constructions:
to agree upon to laugh at to comment on
to arrive at to listen to to rely on (upon)
to consent to to look at to send for
to deal with to look after to speak (talk) of (about)
to do away with to meet with to think of
to insist on (upon) to refer to to touch upon
to account for to resort to to be confronted with
to approve of to bring about to be faced with

3.19. Fill in the missing prepositions:


1. In spite of all our efforts the final decision has not been approved …
2. The general outline of the project was agreed …
3. He was a prominent scientist and had been always spoken … with admiration.
4. A radical change in the teaching methods of the foreign languages at school was
insisted … by its school administration.
5. The idea of constructing a bridge over the Channel was widely commented … both in
Great Britain and France.

41
6. As soon as the fire broke out the firefighters were sent …
7. The speech of the Russian President has been commented … in press.
8. In this hospital the patients are well looked ... and provided with all the necessary
medicines.
9. This strange phenomenon can’t be easily … at all.

3.20. Translate into English:


1. Известно, что греческим философом Теофрастом было написано несколько
книг о растениях.
2. О новой методике выполнения этой работы много говорят.
3. На него можно положиться. Он очень надёжный человек.
4. О начале строительства нового железнодорожного вокзала скоро договорятся.
5. На многочисленные труды Чарльза Дарвина часто ссылаются.
6. Причину этого несчастного случая так и не выяснили (to find out).
7. Эти серьёзные вопросы будут рассмотрены позже (to deal with).
8. Эти значительные изменения были вызваны новыми условиями экологической
ситуации в этом районе.
9. Когда они попытались рассказать об этом инциденте, над ними только посмея-
лись.
10. О пациентах хорошо заботятся в этой больнице.
11. Многие важные характеристики этих веществ широко комментируются
в научных статьях.

3.21. Active or Passive. Choose the correct form of each verb:


What Is Wonderful About the Brain?
Inside your head is a remarkable organ, the brain. You use it to understand and re-
member things that 1 (to happen) around you.
The brain is soft and spongy. It 2 (to make up) of billions of tiny parts called
cells. Three coats or membranes 3 (to cover) the brain.
The brain sometimes 4 (to call) the busiest communication centre in the
world. The brain 5 (to control) your body functions and keeps all parts of your
body working together. Thousands of messages from all parts of the body 6 (to
send) to and from the brain. Messages 7 (to carry) to the brain by sensory nerves.
Special places, or centres, on the brain receive sensory messages from all parts of the
body. When messages 8 (to receive) by centres, the brain 9 (to interpret)
them.
All day long your muscles and your brain 10 (to work). By the end of the day
they
11 (to be tired). Then your brain and your muscles 12 (to start) to re-
lax and you go to sleep. As you sleep, the big muscles in your body relax.
1. a) are happened b) are happening c) happens
2. a) is made up b) makes up c) made up
3. a) is covered b) covered c) cover
4. a) is called b) has called c) calls
5. a) is controlled b) controlled c) controls
6. a) send b) are being sent c) has sent
7. a) are carried b) was carried c) carried
8. a) are received b) will be received c) will receive
9. a) is interpreted b) interpreted c) interprets
10. a) are worked b) is worked c) are working
11. a) have be tired b) are tired c) are being tired
12. a) are started b) started c) start

42
Focus on Business
Business Course: Curriculum Vitae
Curriculum Vitae (CV) is an outline of a person's educational history, usually prepared for a
job application. It normally includes the following points: personal profile (name, address, telephone,
e-mail, date of birth, family status), work experience, education, other qualifications, languages.
3.22. Study a CV sample and analyse the content of each item.

Curriculum Vitae
Personal profile:
Name: Matthew Levan
Address: 55 Bluebell View
Llanbradach
CF83 3GU
Telephone: 07886118488
E-mail: mattlevanecologist@gmail.com
Date of birth: 23rd January 1991
Family status: Single
Education:
· 2012: Bachelor of Science in Biology, Tomsk State University
· 2012: Computer Studies
Work Experience:
· Half-time assistant in the laboratory of Human Physiology, 2010-2011
· Volunteer of International Ecological Program, 2012
Other Qualifications:
Master of sport in swimming
Languages:
English (good), French (basic)

3.23. Write your own CV according to the plan given below.


The following phrases will help you to do it successfully:
· student of National Research Tomsk State University,
· membership in Students’ Scientific Society,
· participant of some International Conferences devoted to the problems of nature
conservation,
· member of a local basketball team,
· certificate of additional higher education in the English language,
· full-time laboratory assistant,
· driving licence.

Project work
Choose one of the topics to speak on. Then make a collective project titled “Problems of
environment conservation”:
1. Hazardous substances and their influence on the human’s health.
2. Biodiversity and the problem of species extinction.
3. Acid rain and the problem of deforestation.
4. The reasons and consequences of the ozone layer depletion.
5. Water pollution and its influence on the biosphere.
6. Energy consumption: nuclear energy and its alternatives.

43
While working on the project, follow the tips which will help you to get an adequate text.
1. The format of your text should include the following points:
· Introduction/Overview
· Theoretical Framework/Research Question
· Background/Literature Review
· Discussion of Data/Results
· Analysis
· Your own opinion on the matter
· Conclusion
2. Don’t spend a lot of time going over the existing literature and giving background in-
formation on your particular case. You need only to discuss the literature with which you are directly
engaging and contributing. Your background information should only include what is absolutely nec-
essary. If you are giving a 15-minute presentation, by the 6th minute, you need to be discussing your
data or case study.
3. Practise your presentation in full before you deliver it. You need to practise to ensure
that your presentation fits within the time parameters. Practising also makes it flow better.
(http://getalifephd.blogspot.ru/2011/04/how-to-give-fabulous-academic.html)
v While preparing for presentation read some tips in Section 2 “How to make a good
presentation” written by ROGER DARLINGTON (http://www.rogerdarlington.me.
uk/Presentation.html).
v Write an outline of your presentation, some phrases from section 3 “Useful phrases to
be used while making a presentation” will help you.

Module Self-Assessment (units 1–3)


1. Match the definitions with these words
1. Chemical pollu- a) defines as the content of corresponding amount of oxygen in it.
tion of water
b) a large group of substances, which decrease the surface tension
2. Pesticide
of water.
c) all living matter on the planet or that portion of the planet
3. By-product
occupied by life.
d) a branch of science dealing with the relations of plants and
4. Water quality
living things to each other and to their environment.
e) the content of harmful impurities like inorganic (mineral salts,
5. Biosphere acids, basics, clay particles) and organic substances (oil and
petroleum products, organic matter, pesticides).
f) the variety of life forms, the ecological roles they play, and the
6. Detergents
genetic diversity they contain.
7. Depletion of the
g) the structural and functional unit of most living organisms.
ozone layer
h) a system in which all the plants and living creatures
8. Ecosystem in a particular area are considered together with their physical
environment
i) the natural conditions in which people, animals and plants
9. Ecology
live.
10. Biodiversity j) a substance produced during the making of something else.
11. Environment k) the care and management of the natural environment.
12. Process of recy- l) the process of treating the material for obtaining new products
cling rom things that have been used.
m) a chemical substance used to kill insects which are dangerous
13. Food chain
for agricultural plants.
n) the destruction of a layer high above the earth’s surface
14. Cell
protecting the earth from the sun’s harmful rays.
15. Conservation of o) a series of living things, each of which feeds on the one below
nature it in the series.

44
2. Choose the correct item:
1. Ecology is the study of which includes all their characteristics: structure, functions,
origin, evolution, classification, interrelationships, and distribution.
a) living standards b) ecological systems c) internal structure d) external struc-
ture
2. Ecologists have made a great to world science.
a) contribution b) amount c) distribution d) revolution
3. Biologists have saved millions of lives by discovering the of many diseases and methods
of their prevention and cure.
a) principles b) roots c) errors d) causes
4. Fungi obtain their energy from the of organic compounds.
a) catabolism b) metabolism c) anabolism d) analysis
5. The principles of operation of the transmission electron microscope (TEM) are very to
those of the compound light microscope.
a) different b) popular c) familiar d) similar
6. Food is broken down during a process called .
a) conversion b) digestion c) combination d) generation
7. Homeostasis an organism ability to maintain constant or stable conditions that are
necessary for life.
a) refers to b) comes to c) goes to d) directs to
8. There is an enormous of life on the planet: from the microscopically small bacteria to
the giant organisms.
a) variety b) society c) vitality d) validity
9. All living things take in food from which they obtain matter for growth and energy for ____.
a) supplement b) movement c) nourishment d) astonish-
ment

3. Fill in the correct word(s) from the list below:


proper, carry out, lack, proteins, broad, self-contained, helpful, bring about, qualified, com-
munication
1. have very highly organized three-dimensional structures.
2. The post-graduates usually very serious experiments in the University chemical
laboratories.
3. Although a great number of insects are harmful there are many which are to wildlife
and man.
4. Microorganisms tissues.
5. Biology is such a science that no individual is an expert in all of its aspects.
6. Living things are made up of small units called cells.
7. The whole course in General Ecology attempts to an understanding of the terms
“oikos” (home) and “logos” (study or science).
8. If you want to become a good and a specialist, you will have to read a lot of special
literature.
9. I want to learn English in a way and I try to do it regularly.
10. The brain sometimes is called the busiest centre in the world.

4. Fill in the correct preposition.


Getting Oxygen
The most immediate need _______ animals is oxygen. Animals must have oxygen to make use
_______ their food and provide themselves _______ heat energy. Different kinds _______ animals
obtain oxygen _______ different ways, but all animals use oxygen _______ means _______ a life
activity known as respiration.

45
During respiration animals absorb oxygen _______ their body cells. Thus the oxygen combines
_______ digested food _______ a chemical process called oxidation. Energy is released, and carbon
dioxide and water are given _______ as waste products. These wastes are eliminated _______ the
same time oxygen is being absorbed _______ the cells.

5. Underline the correct word


1. Have they completed already/yet the experiment?
2. They discussed all their problems last week/now?
3. Haven’t you turned on the microwave oven still/yet.
4. All the scientific papers are being/are often referred to.
5. John said that he had been to S.-Petersburg still/before.

6. Active or Passive. Which sentences cannot be turned from the Active into the Passive
Voice?
a) passive form is possible;
b) passive form is impossible.

1. They didn’t ask her name.


2. Michael saw Mary in the park.
3. Has anyone answered your question?
4. They danced all night.
5. On Sunday evening we all met at my friend’s.
6. Someone told us a funny story yesterday.
7. You can’t park your car in the street before this office.
8. This kind of flowers doesn’t bloom very often.
9. His parents have brought him up to be polite.
10. The plane from Los Angeles was several hours late.
11. The fire has caused considerable damage.

UNIT 4

Learn how to …
1. Develop the key ideas of the history of the biological thought
2. Define new tendencies in the development of Genetics
3. Describe the causes, prevention and treatment of various serious diseases in the
modern world
Focus on Grammar
Sequence of Tenses
Functions of the word “since”
Language development
Vocabulary focus
Phrasal verb: put
Speaking: tell other students about the past, present and future of Genetics
Focus on Business: A letter of invitation
Talking points: the essence of classical and modern genetics
Project work: prevention of diseases using the body’s immune response

Warm-Up Activities
4.1. Answer the following questions:
1. The history of the biological science is of great interest and importance, isn’t it?

46
2. How did prehistoric people manage to survive?
3. What does some archeological evidence suggest?
4. When did modern biology really begin?
5. What do you know about the work done by such great biologists as Carl Linnaeus,
Gregor Mendel, Charles Darwin and the other prominent scientists of the XX and XXI centuries?

Vocabulary Focus
4.2. Before reading the text, find the meanings of the following words and expressions in a
dictionary and memorize them:
advance (n) classify (n) molecular (adj)
challenge (n) crucial (adj) look for (v)
present (n,v) nucleic acid (adj+n) treatment (n)
creature (n) inheritance (n) synthesis (n)
evidence (n) heredity (n) synthesize (v)
cultivate (v) diverse (adj) sequence (n)
come out (v) coherent (adj) protein (n)
pollen (n) concept (n) nucleus (nuclei) (n)
insect (n) cellular (adj) survive (v)
record (n,v) invade (v) treatise (n)
extraordinary (adj) noncellular (adj) treat (v),
set out (v) helix (n) molecule (n)
property (n) helices (n)
to be engaged in doing sth
to go through
to be greatly interested in
to have a profound effect on sb, sth
it should be noted that
ever growing knowledge
to come a long way since
to pass on information about sth

Reading Comprehension
4.3. Guide to reading. Read and translate the text. Summarize some of the main points of the
text. You should observe the following plan:
1. Early observations made by people.
2. Modern Biology
3. The work done by Antony van Leeuwenhoek
4. The Swedish scientist Carl Linnaeus and his significant contribution to science.
5. Gregor Mendel and his great work.
6. Natural selection as the basis of evolution – the essence of Ch. Daкwin’s work
in Biology.
7. The era of the genetic revolution has come!

Text 1
From the History of Biology
The history of the biological science is of great interest. Biology is a challenging branch of sci-
ence which investigates all living things.. Even in the distant past, people learnt many important
things around them and passed on information about plants and animals. Prehistoric people survived
by learning which plants were good to eat and which could be used for medicinal purposes. Our an-

47
cestors began to develop more reliable sources of food through primitive forms of agriculture. Some
archeological evidence suggests that people living in the Near East in 6500 BC were engaged in cul-
tivating grains, legumes, certain fruits, and other plants, such as figs, dines, pomegranates, dates etc.
The Near Eastern Centre and other major centres of origin of cultivated plants became very impor-
tant at that time. Farming would not have developed if people had not begun to realize which animals
could produce food like milk and eggs.
More than 2000 years ago the Middle East people understood the role that insects and pollen
played in the life cycle of plants. The ancient Egyptians studied the life cycles of insects and were
particularly interested in the changes they went through as they grew from larval to adult insects.
The ancient Mesopotamians even kept animals in what they thought to be the earliest zoological gar-
dens. The ancient Greeks, too, were greatly interested in understanding the world around them. Aris-
totle founded the first botanical garden. When Aristotle died, he willed the botanical garden and its
library to his pupil and assistant Theophrastus. Theophrastus was an extraordinary man who had
written 200 treatises about plants. The most important ones which have survived are two books enti-
tled “History of Plants” and “Causes of Plants”. Thus, he made a great contribution to the study of
Botany as one of the major biological sciences.
After the fall of the Roman Empire, the centre of the scientific world moved to the Middle
East. It should be noted that Arabic, Persian and Turkish scientists did much to set out the founda-
tions of the modern science of Biology. Later on, in Europe, particularly in Germany, scholars such
as Albertus Magnus discussed the properties of life. He wrote seven books on plants and twenty six
on animals.
Modern Biology really began in the 17th century. At that time, Antony van Leeuwenhoek
(1632–1723), in Holland, invented the microscope which had a profound effect on studies in the bio-
logical sciences and led to the discovery of cells. It should be noted that the microscope allowed sci-
entists to discover bacteria, leading to an understanding of the causes of disease, while new knowl-
edge about how the human body works allowed others to find more effective ways of treating dis-
eases.
All this new knowledge needed to be put into order and in the 18th century the Swedish scien-
tist Carl Linnaeus (1707–1778) classified all living things into the biological families we know and
use today. Thus, the Swedish botanist Linnaeus produced the elements to our present system of
naming and classifying plants.
In the middle of the 19th century, unnoticed by anyone else, the Austrian monk Gregor
Mendel (1822–1884) created his Laws of Inheritance, beginning the study of genetics that is an
important part of biology today. At the same time, while travelling around the world, Ch. Dar-
win (1809–1882) was formulating the central principle of modern biology – natural selection as
the basis of evolution. Charles Darwin’s grand theory, evolution by natural selection, linked di-
verse biological facts into a coherent whole. The evidence for evolution is overwhelming, it is a
theory about the origin of adaptation, complexity and diversity among Earth’s living creatures.
Evolutionary theory is such a dangerously wonderful and far reaching view of life that some
people find it unacceptable, despite the vast body of supporting evidence. Ch. Darwin’s theory
seemed to challenge conventional religious beliefs of his time. He described himself as an agnos-
tic. In 1859 his revolutionary book entitled “The Origin of Species” came out. Evolution is a
beautiful concept, more crucial nowadays to human welfare, to medical science, and to an un-
derstanding of the world than ever before.
It is hard to believe, but the nature of viruses has become evident only within the last half of
the 20th century and the first step on the path of this discovery was taken by the Russian botanist
Dmitry Iwanovsky in 1892. Now we know that a virus is a noncellular particle made up of genetic
material and protein that can invade living cells.
In the 20th century, biologists began to recognize how plants and animals live and pass on
their genetically coded information to the next generation. The scientists James Watson and

48
Francis Crick merged evolutionary theory with genetics. They managed to solve the molecule’s
double-helix structure.
Since then, because of developments in computer technology, there have been great advances
in the field of modern biology; it is an area of ever-growing knowledge. We have come a long way
since Charles Darwin looked for evidence making his numerous observations. The era of the genetic
revolution has come!

4.4. Read the text again and decide if the following statements are true or false:
1. Even in the distant past, people learnt many important things around them and passed
on information about treating serious diseases.
T □ F □
2. Farming would not have developed if people had not begun to understand which
animals could produce food like milk and eggs.
T □ F □
3. K. Linnaeus founded the first botanical garden in Great Britain.
T □ F □
4. Theophrastus was an extraordinary man, who had written 20 treatises about animals.
T □ F □
5. Modern biology really began in the 19th century.
T □ F □
6. The microscope allowed scientists to find more effective ways of treating diseases.
T □ F □
7. Charles Darwin’s grand theory, evolution by natural selection, was able to link diverse
biological facts into a coherent whole.
T □ F □
8. It is important to note that the nature of viruses became evident thanks to the work done
by the Russian philosopher Dmitry Iwanovsky in 1888.
T □ F □
9. The study of Biology hasn’t changed all over the centuries.
T □ F □

4.5. Guide to reading. Read the text and distinguish between classical and modern genetics.

Text 2
Classical and Modern Genetics
Genetics is the branch of biology concerned with the study of heredity and variation. Classical
genetics is based on the work of Gregor Mendel (1822-1884). Genes are regarded as the primary
units of inheritance in all organisms. A gene is a unit of heredity and a region of DNA that influences
a particular characteristic in an organism. All organisms, from bacteria to animals, share the same
basic machinery that copies and translates DNA into proteins. Cells transcribe a DNA gene into an
RNA version of the gene, a ribosome then translates the RNA into a protein.
DNA usually occurs as linear chromosomes in eukaryotes, and circular chromosomes in pro-
karyotes. The set of chromosomes in a cell is collectively known as its genome. A chromosome is an
organized structure consisting of DNA and histones. The genetic information in a genome is held
within genes, and the complete set of this information in an organism is called its genotype.

Genetic Engineering
This branch of genetics studies genetically modified organisms. Since the early 1980s develop-
ments in genetic engineering have made it possible to produce genetically modified organisms.
A gene from one organism is isolated and transferred to cells of another organism, where it is incor-
porated into the recipient’s chromosomes and expressed. Such transgenic organisms can exhibit quite
novel characteristics. During the 1990s there was a dramatic growth in the commercial applications

49
of this new technology, ranging from the production of human hormones in bacteria and vaccines in
yeasts to the development of genetically modified crop plants.

Techniques
Various methods are used to introduce novel genes, depending on the nature of the recipient
organisms. Much of the work with genetic modification of plants involves protoplasts, cultured
spherical cells from which the cell walls have been removed. The Ti plasmid has been used success-
fully as a vector with certain dicotyledons, including tobacco, tomato, potato, soyabean, and cotton.
It works much less well with grasses, cereals, and so on. In these plants various other techniques are
available, including:
Electropolation – treatment of cells by exposure to an electric field.
Microinjection – injection of DNA directly into cell nucleus
Biolistics – shooting a cell with a DNA-coated tungsten microprojectile.
To produce a transgenic animal the novel genes are inserted at a very early stage of using
microinjection. The recombinant embryos are then transferred to the uterus of a foster mother to
complete the development.

4.6. Talking points: Work in small groups. Choose one of the following items in the develop-
ment of Genetics and discuss it.. Then share your opinion with other students.
· Classical Genetics
· Modern Genetics
· Genetic Engineering
· Genetic Techniques
Use the following expressions to show your attitude to the above mentioned items:
It seems to me that … I personally think that …
I believe that … Naturally that …
From my point of view, … Needless to say that …
In my view/ in my opinion It is necessary to emphasize that …
As far as I’m concerned It’s quite clearly that …
As far as I’m able to judge

Language development
4.7. Work with vocabulary related to the problems of Genetics. Identify any words that are
new to you, memorize them and make up your own sentences.

4.8. Fill in the proper words from the list below:


treatises advances
discover share
merge archeological evidences
concerned with insects and pollen
evolution noncellular
inheritance to overlap
to set out a microscope ... effect
looked for evidence

1. Some __________ suggests that people living in the Near East in 6500 BC were engaged in
cultivating grains, legumes and certain fruits as well.
2. More than 2000 years ago the Middle East people understood the role that __________
played in the life cycle of plants.
3. Theophrastus was an extraordinary man who had written 200 __________ about plants.

50
4. Arabic, Persian and Turkish scientists did much __________ the foundations of the modern
science of Biology.
5. At that time Anton van Leeuwenhoek, in Holland, invented __________ which had a pro-
found __________ on studies of the biological sciences and led to the discovery of cells.
6. It should be noted that the microscope allowed scientists to __________ bacteria which led
to an understanding of the causes of disease.
7. In the middle of the 19th century, unnoticed by anyone else, the Austrian monk Gregor Men-
del created the Laws of __________.
8. Charles Darwin’s grand theory, __________ by natural selection, linked diverse biological
facts into a coherent whole.
9. Now we know that a virus is a __________ particle made up of genetic material and protein
that can invade living cells.
10. The scientists James Watson and Francis Crick managed to __________ evolutionary the-
ory with genetics.
11. Since then, because of developments in computer technology, there have been great
__________ in the field of modern Biology.
12. Genetics is the branch of biology __________ the study of heredity and variation.
13. All organisms, from bacteria to animal, __________ the same basic machinery that copies
and translates DNA into proteins.
14. We have come a long way since Charles Darwin _____________ making his numerous ob-
servations.

4.9. Fill in the correct preposition(s), then choose any three items and make up sentences
of your own:
1) to be engaged _____ sth;
2) to be interested _____ sth;
3) books _____ plants;
4) to lead _____ the discovery _____ sth;
5) to find more effective ways _____ treating diseases;
6) _____ that time, Anton van Leeuwenhoek, Holland, invented the microscope;
7) _____ the same time;
8) the evidence _____ evolution;
9) to link sth _____ a coherent whole;
10)to make _____ sth;
11)to pass _____ information _____sb, sth;
12)_____ the last half _____ the XX century;
13)because _____ developments _____ computer science;
14)depending _____ the nature ____the recipient organisms.

4.10. Guide to reading. Read the text and think of the possible titles for each part of the text.

Text 3
A
DNA is the nucleic acid that stores and transmits the genetic information from one generation
of an organism to the next.
DNA is a polymer that is made up of units called nucleotides. Each nucleotide is a molecule
made up of three parts: a 5-carbon sugar called deoxyribose, a phosphate group, and a nitrogenous
base. DNA has four nitrogenous bases: adenine, thymine, cytosine, and guanine. Adenine and gua-

51
nine belong to a group of compounds called purines. Thymine and cytosine belong to a group of
compounds, called pyrimidines.
During replication, the DNA molecule unzips, or separates, into two strands. Each of the sepa-
rate strands serves as a template, or pattern, for the attachment of complementary nucleotides.
Biologists call the program of the cell the genetic code. The word genetic refers to anything
that refers to heredity. The genetic code, therefore, is the way in which cells store the program that
they seem to pass from one generation of an organism to the next generation.

B
There are three major differences between DNA and RNA. RNA contains the sugar ribose in-
stead of deoxyribose. DNA is usually single-stranded instead of double-stranded. RNA contains the
nitrogenous base uracil instead of thymine. During transcription, the DNA code is transferred to
messenger RNA, which carries the code out of the nucleus into the cytoplasm.

C
During translation, messenger RNA binds to the ribosomes on which ribosomal RNA is found.
Amino acids in the cytoplasm are picked up by transfer RNA and are carried to messenger RNA.
Thus, the messenger RNA acts as the pattern for protein synthesis. In this way, amino acids are
brought together in the correct sequence to form a protein molecule.

4.11. Match the terms with their definitions. Use these words in your own sentences.
1. Vector A: An organic compound from which proteins are
made.
2. Recombinant DNA (research) B: A segment of DNA molecule that acts a kind of code
for the production of some specific protein.
3. Amino acid C: The application of genetic engineering technology for
the cure of genetic disorders.
4. DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) D: Large molecules that are essential to the structure and
functioning of all living cells.
5. Protein E: A large, complex chemical compound that makes up
the core of chromosomes and whose segments consist
of genes.
6. Gene F: A circular form of DNA often used as a vector in
Genetic engineering
7. Gene splicing G: A set of nitrogen base combinations that act as a code
for the production of certain amino acids.
8. Genetic code H: The cell into which a new gene is transplanted in
genetic engineering
9. Plasmid I: An organic compound consisting of carbon, hydrogen,
oxygen, and nitrogen arranged in a ring that plays an
essential role in the structure of DNA molecules
10. Host cell J: The process by which genes are cut apart and put back
together to provide them with some new information
11. Human gene therapy (HGT) K: Organism or chemical used to transport a gene into
a new host cell
12. Nitrogen base L: Genetic engineering; a technique for adding new
instructions to the DNA of a host cell by combining
genes
from two different sources.

52
Focus on Grammar
I. Phrasal Verb(s). Study the meanings of the verb “put”. Then make up your own
sentences using the verb “put”.
to put sth about = to spread rumours (bad or false news)
to put sth aside = to save (money) for a special purpose
to put sth away = to remove to a place where it is usually stored
to put back = to return, come back
to put sth down = to write sth down
to put sb, sth forward = to suggest for consideration
to put sth in = cause to be in
to put sth on = to clothe oneself with; cover (part of) the body
with; turn on (switch on)
to put sb’s heads together = to combine ideas
to put sth out = to extinguish, cause to stop burning; turn
(switch) off
to put sb to sb = to cause to be in (a certain place or condition)
to put up (for sth) = to offer oneself for election
to put off = to postpone
to put up = to place sth to attract attention of many people
to put up with sb, sth = to endure without protest, bear patiently

4.12. Fill in the correct particle(s):


1. I’ll put _____ my visit to the office until you come with me. (postpone)
2. Wise people always put some money _____ for a rainy day. (save money for later use)
3. Please, put your cigarette _____. This is a non-smoking compartment. (cause to stop
burning)
4. Are you going to put _____ your new dress for the party? (clothe yourself with)
5. Let’s put _____ a notice asking for volunteers to help to redecorate the assembly hall.
(put in a public place)
6. The holiday-makers refused to put _____ with such bad conditions and left the camp site.
(endure without protest, bear patiently)
7. She put _____ her glasses as the sun was too bright. (covered part of the body with)
8. You should put the books _____ neatly in the cupboard. (remove to a place where it
is usually stored)
9. May I put your name _____ as a possible chairman of the committee? (offer, suggest for
consideration)
10. They put their heads _____ for an answer. (combined ideas)

II. The Sequence of Tenses


The sequence of tenses is a certain dependence of the tense of the verb in a subordinate clause
on that of the verb in the principal clause.
Tenses used in English and Russian Subordinate Clauses
English Russian
He says that he lives in Tomsk. Он говорит, что живёт в Томске.
He says that he is living in Tomsk. Он говорит, что живёт в Томске (временно).
He says that he has lived in Tomsk for twenty
years. Он говорит, что живёт в Томске двадцать лет.
He said that he lived in Tomsk. Он сказал, что живёт в Томске.
He said that he had lived in Tomsk for twenty Он сказал, что жил в Томске двадцать лет.
years.
He said that he had been living in Tomsk then. Он сказал, что проживает в Томске.

53
Future in the Past
English Russian
He said he would live in Tomsk. Он сказал, что будет жить в Томске.
The teacher said that the Earth is round. Учитель сказал, что Земля круглая.
The pupils knew that water consists of oxygen Ученики знали, что вода состоит из кислоро-
and hydrogen. да и водорода.

The sequence of tenses is often not observed if something is represented as habitual, customary
or characteristic.
E.g. He asked the guard what time the train usually starts.
He did not seem to know that wasps can sting.
The sequence of tenses does not concern attributive relative clauses and adverbial clauses of
cause, result, comparison, and concession (if the verb stands in the Indicative Mood).
E.g. He didn’t go to the theatre last night because he will have an exam tomorrow.
Last year he made more experiments than he does this year.

III. Exercises
4.13. Change the following sentences using the appropriate form of the past tense:
1. It is clear that he is right.
2. The students say that the lecture is very interesting.
3. The children complain that the nurse has not been attentive to them.
4. She insists that she is unaware of the events going on now.
5. They claim that they are trying to reach an agreement on all the issues.
6. Our correspondent reports that the rate of unemployment is rising in the USA.
7. The teacher says that the students have been writing an essay for two hours.

4.14. Open the brackets using the verb in the proper tense form:
1. We knew that they (to study) English for three years.
2. The teacher explained to us that many botanical gardens in Europe (to be establish)
originally by private individuals or families.
3. We suppose that they (already, to complete) the experiment successfully.
4. We think that the concept of botanical garden (to be) nearly as old as history.
5. The tourists knew very well that the last train (to arrive) at 11 o’clock sharp.
6. We believe that experimental testing of new plants in botanical gardens (to contribute)
to improved varieties of landscaping.
7. A philosopher once said that nothing (can) harm a good man.
8. I was afraid that we (to be) late for the English class.
9. She believed that all her dreams (to come) true.
10. We all expected that these events (to be) soon over.
11. He says he (to stay) in Washington D.C. for two months.
12. The post-graduate thought that he (to take part in) the international conference next
month.
13. The head of the department informed us that there (to be) important changes in the
curriculum.
14. They expected they (to go on a business trip) soon.
15. The ecologists warned that the world reserves of fuel (not to last) long.

54
IV. Functions of the word “since”
Since

adv prep conj


He came to Tomsk in 1980 and She hasn’t been home since How long is it
has lived here since then. her arrival in Moscow. since you left
school?

4.15. Read and translate the following sentences paying attention to the polyfunctional
word “since”.
1. Since the early 1970’s a happy equilibrium has been reached in the society.
2. Whether the circumstances have been changed since then is not known.
3. Changes in the system since the last experiment result in new conditions.
4. The town was destroyed by an earthquake ten years ago and has since been rebuilt.
5. He went to Great Britain in 1980 and has lived there ever since.
6. She hasn’t been home since her marriage.
7. Where have you been since I last saw you?
8. How long is it since you were in London?
9. Since then they have not met each other.
10. Since you don’t believe, read the article yourself.
Make up your own sentences using the word “since”.

Focus on Business
Business Course: a letter of invitation
A letter of invitation is written to people inviting them for a special occasion or event in their
personal and professional life. An invitation letter is written for business events as well as for per-
sonal occasions like birthdays, family reunion, etc.
Before drafting the letter, first seriously think about the event. Once you have decided that the
event is for official purpose or personal then you can begin writing the letter. The letter has to be
formal invitation and should have all the relevant facts.
An invitation letter should convey the date, time and venue of the event. The letter has to
clearly mention the event. This will help the people in understanding the purpose of the letter. They
will get a clear idea of the nature of the event. The letter should be short and precise. A soft and po-
lite tone should be used in the letter. The letter will begin with a welcome note and end with the de-
tails of a person whom to contact to confirm your attendance for the event. This will help the organ-
izers in managing the event.

4.16. Study a sample of an invitation letter and analyse the content of each item.
Patricia White
200 Eastern Parkway,
Brooklyn, NY,
United States
(718) 638-500
November 15, 2014

55
Deborah Walker
Event Coordinator
Femme Fashions
11 West 40 Street,
New York, NY,
United States
(212) 340-0908
Dear Deborah,
You have been our valuable customer for a long time. You have visited our store regularly
for last five years. We are inviting you for a special event organized by our store. The event is a
Preview Showcasing our Winter Fashion Collection 2009. The event will be held at the store on
Tuesday evening, December 1, 2009 from 7.30 pm to 11.30 pm. The fashion show will be fol-
lowed by a dinner. There will be a fashion show that will feature our brand new winter collec-
tion before hitting the market. You will get special discounts on shopping for $1500. There are
draws on the winter collection.
The event is for special invitees and valued customers. In order to attend the event, you need
to confirm your attendance by contacting Susan Johnson at (212) 340-0908 by November 25th. On
the evening of the event, you need to bring the original invitation letter to participate in the draws.
The organizing team looks forward to meet you at the event, share the winter collection and
enjoy the evening with us.

Yours sincerely,
Patricia White

4.17. Fill in the missing phrases in the body of the letter from the list:
to attend the scientific conference pay for your accommodation
is held in looking forward to

Dear Prof. Brown,


We would like to invite you ________________________devoted to the major issues of mod-
ern biology which _______________Russia, Tomsk, April 20-22, 2014. The conference is organized
by the Tomsk University Biology Institute.
The organizing committee of our conference will ____________________including full board
and lodgings at the hotel during the conference.
I am _________________seeing you in Russia, Tomsk.

Sincerely yours,
Prof. Bushaev

4.18. Choose only one item and write a letter of invitation according to the following tasks.
1. Write a letter inviting the Head of Botanical Garden in Chicago to participate in the
conference which will be held in September 15-16 of the next year.
2. Write a letter inviting your colleague from British university to collaborate with your
laboratory in carrying out the joint research on …
The following phrases will help you:
We are pleased to inform you that …
We have recently started publishing a new monthly journal …
We will be pleased to submit one’s papers, detailed abstracts and other publications to our sci-
entific journal.
It gives me great pleasure to invite you to attend the jubilee conference of …

56
4.19. Talking points: read the text devoted to the structure and functions of cells and discuss
these items in your group according to the following questions:
1. What are cells?
2. Why are they regarded as “atoms” of biology?
3. What is the structure of the cell?
4. What is the role of DNA in the cell structure?
5. There are many kinds of cells in the human body, aren’t there?
6. What are the characteristic features of cells? Comment upon each kind of cells
and speak about their interrelationships.

Cells: the Basic Units of Life


Cells are the fundamental units of all living things – human, animal, plant, microbe. As far as
the human body is concerned, we have 30 billion cells in our brain alone and about 20 trillion red
blood cells. There are roughly 155,000 cells in every square centimeter of our skin. Many micro-
scopic organisms, including bacteria, consist of just a single cell. Despite our enormous complexity,
we all begin our lives as single cells.
Cells are the “atoms” of biology, the fundamental units of living organisms, the smallest units
than can reasonably be thought of as being alive. Every question in Biology – from ecology to inheri-
tance, from behaviour to evolution – must be answered partly at the level of the cell. Thus, under-
standing the cell is the key to understanding Biology.
Some organisms are made up of many cells. In other words they are called multicellular organ-
isms. Their human cells must work with one another and with the billions of other cells in the body
to carry out life functions. There also exist unicellular organisms. Each Micrasterias alga cell is an
individual organism capable of carrying out all its life functions.
Despite differences in size and shape, there are certain structures that are common to most
cells. The cells of animals, plants, and related organisms have three basic structures: the cell mem-
brane, or the outer boundary of the cell; the nucleus, or control centre; the cytoplasm, or material
between the cell membrane and the nucleus.
The cell membrane regulates what enters and leaves the cell and also aids in the protection and
support of the cell. The cell membrane is composed of several kinds of molecules. The most impor-
tant of these are the lipids. It should be noted that proteins and carbohydrates are also associated
with the cell membrane.
In organisms such as plants, algae, and some bacteria, the cell membrane is surrounded by a
cell wall. It helps to protect and support the cell. Because the cell wall is very porous, water, oxygen,
carbon dioxide, and other substances can pass through easily.
In many cells one can see a large dark structure called the nucleus, which was first de-
scribed by Robert Brown. Small unicellular organisms known as bacteria, as well as several
other kinds of organisms, do not have nuclei. The absence or presence of a nucleus can be used
to divide organisms into two general categories. Prokaryotes are organisms where cells lack nu-
clei. Eukaryotes are organisms where cells contain nuclei. Karyot means nucleus, pro- means
before, an eu- means true. The distinction between prokaryotes and eukaryotes is a basic one.
Many of the scientists who first examined cells under a microscope suspected that the nucleus
was doing something important. The nucleus is regarded as the information centre of the cell
and contains DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid).
Surrounding the nucleus are two membranes that form the nuclear envelope. Most nuclei con-
tain a small region called the nucleolus that is made up of RNA and proteins.
The DNA in the nucleus of eukariotic cells is attached to special proteins and forms large
structures called chromosomes. Chromosomes contain the genetic information and must be passed to
each new generation of cells. An organelle is a tiny structure that performs a specialized function in
the cell.

57
Each cell has its own life span. It is born (by the process of cell division), lives, feeds itself and
gets rid of waste products (the process called metabolism), grows, reproduces itself by division or
degenerates, dies, and is replaced. They also function, that is, perform the special task designed for
them in the living body. Cell specialization is one of the key characteristics of cells in a multicellular
organism. For example, some cells are specialized to move. Some cells are specialized to react to
their environment – the world around them. Some cells are specialized to make certain products.
Located just below the stomach is a small structure called the pancreas. It contains cells that
are specialized to produce digestive enzymes. Cells of the pancreas are dominated by organelles
needed for protein synthesis. The work of the pancreas reminds us of the work done by a factory in
miniature.
There are also a few cell types in the eye which are actually sensitive to light.
The air we breathe is filled with dust, smoke, and even small bacteria. Why doesn’t all this ma-
terial collect in the lungs and clog its passages? The particles that are inhaled are trapped in the
sticky mucus. Underneath this layer of mucus is another group of special cells that have cilia. As the
cilia move, they create a sweeping action. It reminds us of the action of street sweepers.
There are many kinds of cells in the human body, but they can generally be classified as fol-
lows:
1. Epithelial cells, which are found in the skin, membranes, and glands. Their function is to
protect surfaces and pour out secretions.
2. Connective tissue cells, found in bones, cardilage, ligaments, and tendons, make up the
supporting tissues of the body.
3. Muscle cells, which have the power to expand and contract, are of three kinds:
a) striped (striated) muscle cells, found in the voluntary muscles of the body;
b) smooth muscle cells, which appear in the walls of blood vessels, the alimentary canal
and other organs that operate by involuntary control;
c) cardiac muscle cells, found in the heart.
4. Nerve cells, found in the brain spinal cord, ganglia, and all other nerves.
5. Blood cells, red and white, found in the blood stream and the blood-forming organs (bone
marrow).
6. Sex or germ cells, which are the egg cells formed in the female ovary and the sperm cells
generated in the male testes.
While discussing the main questions of this text, use the following phrases:
In the current period …
In years to come…
Recent findings show that …
While the debate over this problem continues it has not had much impact on …
Recent investigations have offered a new explanation for …
The subject can be found in numerous publications.
The problem has not received all the attention it deserves.
This question requires closer examination.
The approach seems no longer be assumed.
We can find a set of reasons.
This problem is essential for understanding …
From a logical point of view…

Project work
1. After reading the text speak about the role of the immune system and the defensive
forces in the protection of humans from developing AIDS.
1. What is AIDS?
2. Is AIDS curable?
3. Is AIDS very contagious disease in comparison with other viruses?

58
4. Where did AIDS originate from?
5. Who and when identified the virus?
6. What is HIV?
7. What is the difference between AIDS and HIV?
8. What rare capacity for viruses has HIV got?
9. Does HIV kill the carrier instantly?
10. Can HIV kill human body itself?

AIDS
AIDS is an acronym for Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome and is thought to be caused
primarily by a virus that invades white blood cells (lymphocytes) and certain other body cells includ-
ing the brain.
AIDS is thought to have originated in sub-Saharan Africa during the twentieth century and is
now a global epidemic. There are several types of AIDS. No one has been cured up to the present
moment.
In 1983 and 1984, French and U.S. researchers independently identified the virus which is be-
lieved to cause AIDS as an unusual type of slow-acting retrovirus now called “human immunodefi-
ciency virus” or HIV. Like other viruses, HIV is basically a tiny package of genes. But being a retro-
virus, it has the rare capacity to copy and insert its genes right into a human DNA. Once inside a
human host cell, the retrovirus using its own capacities begins to copy its genetic code into a DNA
molecule which is then incorporated into the host’s DNA. The virus becomes an integral part of the
person’s body. But the viral DNA may sit hidden and inactive within human cells for years, until
some trigger stimulates it to replicate.
Although treatments for both AIDS and HIV exist to slow the virus’ progression in a human
patient, there is no known cure. The rate of clinical disease progression varies widely between indi-
viduals and has been shown to be affected by many factors such as host susceptibility.

2. Make a presentation about prevention of diseases using the body’s immune response.
The following phrases will help you to make your report.
Vocabulary
AIDS – Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome
to invade – to attack and spread into so as to take control of sth
lymphocytes – lymph cell
brain – the organ of the body in the upper part of the head,
which controls thought and feeling; the mind,
intelligence
treatment – the act, manner, or method of treating someone or
something
rate – speed, etc. measured by its relation to some other
amount
disease – (an) illness or disorder caused by infection or unnatural
growth
host – a cell organism that acts as the habitat for the growth of
another organism
susceptibility – early influenced, likely to suffer (from)
retrovirus – family of enveloped RNA animal viruses that use
reverse transcriptase to form a DNA macromolecule
needed for their replication
dormant – inactive, esp. not actually growing or producing typical
effects
massive herpes infections – a severe form of herpes

59
UNIT 5
Learn how to …
1. Get a good idea of the world’s great botanical gardens and botany as a science
2. Comment upon career opportunities connected with plant studies
3. Describe the activity of the Siberian Botanical Garden at Tomsk State University
Focus on Grammar
Direct and indirect (reported) speech
Functions of the words “for”, “during”, “while”
Language development
Vocabulary focus
Phrasal Verb(s): go
Speaking: tell the students about ways of solution at the ecological problems associated
with fauna conservation
Focus on business: a letter of request.
Talking points: A vital role of the great botanical gardens of the world in conservation of
nature
Project work: Similarities and differences among the British Botanical Gardens and the Si-
berian Botanical Garden in Tomsk

Warm-Up Activities
5.1. Before you read the text answer the following questions:
1. Why are people totally dependent on green plants?
2. What does botany as a science deal with?
3. What careers in botany are known to you?
4. A botanical garden is an institution organized to maintain plant collections, isn’t it?
5. What world’s famous botanical gardens can you name? What are they famous for?

Vocabulary Focus
5.2. Before reading the text, find the meanings of the following words and expressions in a
dictionary and memorize them:
attend (v) inspirational (adj) staff (n)
conservation (n) involve (v) substance (n)
cultivate (v) multiply (v) sustainable (adj)
design (n, v) preserve (n) threat (n)
establish (v) = set up relationship (n) threaten (v)
event (n) research work (n + n) value (n, v)
habitat (n) serve as sth (v) concern (n)
to occupy a peculiar position in to provide technical assistance to sb
to be engaged in as early as
to receive great impetus from to be converted to
to result in basic applied sciences to be appointed Director of ...
to devote oneself to to enjoy the reputation of
to have a solid grounding in sth to become a major issue of
to do research to raise awareness of

Reading Comprehension
5.3. Guide to reading. After reading the texts, dwell upon the following items: education, spe-
cializations, specialized requirements, job opportunities.

60
Text 1
Plant Study
Botany, the study of plants, occupies a peculiar position in the history of human knowledge.
We are totally dependent on green plants because they alone can convert the sun’s energy into forms
that are vital to the very existence of animal life. It is widely known that vegetables are plants, but
animals, animal products and other useful substances, such as fibers, lumber, coal, medicines, dyes,
and drugs, either depend on plants or are produced by them for many purposes.
The Assyrians and Egyptians cultivated fruits and cereals in 4000 B.C., and the Chinese prac-
tised primitive agriculture at least 4500 years ago. Botany, the study of plants, apparently began with
Stone Age peoples’ practical uses of plants. Eventually botany became a science, as intellectual curi-
osity about plants arose. Science involves observation, recordings, organization, classification of
facts, and experimentation. The scientific method involves following a routine series of steps and
generally assuming and testing hypotheses.
Botany as a science was constantly growing. It should be borne in mind that there was a tre-
mendous growth in plant anatomy and plant physiology in the 17th century. At that time Europeans
were engaged in botanical exploration on other continents.
During the 19th century, plant ecology, plant geography, and plant morphology developed, and
by the beginning of the twentieth century, genetics and cell biology had received great impetus from
the discovery of how cells multiply and function. Our modern libraries contain thousands of books
dealing with botanical subjects but much remains yet to be discovered and investigated. At the pre-
sent, there is a great deal of research going on in the field of botany.

Careers in Botany
Botany, like all the sciences, is growing in size, scope, and importance. This growth and the in-
creased involvement of botany in many facets of human life have resulted in a need for more highly
trained, professional botanists.
Education. The basic requirement for a professional botanist is a college degree in botany, in
one of the botanical sciences such as forestry, or in biology with a major concentration in botany. For
many positions, particularly those in research and teaching, and for general professional advance-
ment, graduate degrees – the master’s and the doctorate – are also required.
Specializations. The botanical sciences can be categorized as basic and applied. The basic sci-
ences concern themselves with research purely for the sake of knowledge. Investigators in the basic
sciences work to expand a person’s understanding of the world. The applied sciences commonly
called economic botany are devoted to plant research. This field of science will enable people to in-
crease food supply and eliminate hunger and poverty. Some botanists also specialize in diseases of
trees or classification of fungi.
Specialized Requirements. The botanists, as they progress through their training, generally
find themselves oriented to a given speciality. Depending on this speciality, botanists build their tech-
nical knowledge along certain lines. If, for example, they are interested in plant pathology, they
should have a solid grounding in bacteriology, virology, and other disciplines. If plant scientists are
interested in paleobotany, they are required to learn geology.
Job Opportunities. Once botanists have finished their formal training, they can apply knowl-
edge in a number of ways. Probably, a lot of plant scientists are employed in teaching. Teaching
schedules generally allow botanists to carry out research programs. Some teachers also act as techni-
cal consultants. Another large group of botanists is employed by governmental agencies to do re-
search and provide technical assistance to commercial organizations. Plant scientists are also em-
ployed by international agencies, and their work takes them all over the world.
Petroleum companies seek botanists with training in paleobotany and palynology (the study of
pollen) to help to evaluate geologic strata. Chemical firms producing fertilizers, herbicides, and simi-
lar products utilize the services of plant physiologists.

61
5.4. Choose only one appropriate variant for each sentence:
1. We are totally dependent on _______ .
a) wild animals c) green plants
b) scientific experiments d) domestic animals
2. The Chinese practised primitive _______ at least 4500 years ago.
a) agriculture c) instruments
b) culture d) ideas
3. Botany as a science was _______ developing.
a) never c) ever
b) constantly d) however
4. During the 17th century, _______ were engaged in botanical exploration on other con
tinents.
a) the Chinese c) Mongolian people
b) the Japanese d) Europeans
5. The basic requirement for a _______ botanist is a college degree in botany.
a) significant c) business-like
b) professional d) curious
6. The botanical sciences can be _______ as basic and applied.
a) reflected c) rejected
b) categorized d) demonstrated
7. _______, the botanist builds his technical knowledge along certain lines.
a) Depending on the speciality c) Since this speciality
b) Owing to this speciality d) Regardless of this speciality

5.5. Talking points: Work in small groups. Say a few words about the qualities, qualifica-
tions, requirements which the job of a botanist involves. Then share your opinion with other stu-
dents.
· Education
· Specialization
· Specialized requirements
· Job opportunities
Use the following expressions to show your attitude to the items mentioned above:
To my mind, … In my view/ in my opinion, …
It seems to me that … If you asked me, I would answer that …
I insist that … As far as I’m concerned, …
I believe that … As far as I’m able to judge, …
From my point of view, … I personally think that…

5.6 Guide to reading. While reading the text, pay special attention to the words you don’t
know. Look carefully at the context and see if you can get an idea what they mean.

Text 2
The World’s Botanical Gardens
A botanical garden is an institution organized to maintain plant collections. It usually includes a
large number of genera and species and is arranged to serve educational, aesthetic, scientific, and
economic purposes. Botanical gardens are regarded as places of recreation.
Botanical gardens serve many purposes. Educational programs are important to all gardens. If
a garden is associated with a college or university, it is usually regarded as an outdoor plant science
laboratory. Gardens are also used by amateur naturalists and members of garden clubs who attend
formal courses where they learn by doing.

62
Experimental testing of new plants in botanical gardens contributes to improved varieties for
landscaping. Plant breeding and propagation provide better plants from the standpoints of both ap-
pearance and tolerance to growing conditions. The gardens serve as a source of information on the
selection, care and maintenance of plants.
Many botanical gardens were established originally by private individuals or families as a
hobby. Later, most of these gardens were transferred partially or entirely to tax-supported institu-
tions or given to universities, to state or federal governments, or to municipal park and recreation
department. Many were endowed by their founders.
The concept of botanical garden is nearly as old as history. As early as 2000 B.C. the Assyrians
built formal gardens with shade trees, fruit-bearing plants, and occasionally fish ponds fringed with
reeds. Large hunting grounds and preserves were maintained in their communities. The famous hang-
ing gardens of Babylon were built about 612 B.C. Vegetables and herbs were used as border plant-
ings. The first organized gardens or gardens set up for other than ornamental purposes may have
been established much earlier by the Greeks, Chinese and Mexicans. In Europe some religious orders
established many gardens of medicinal plants in the 14th century.

Modern Botanical Gardens


Continental Europe. The botanical garden of the University of Pisa is said to be the oldest in
the world. It was founded by Lucia Ghini and Grand Duke de’ Medici in 1544. Since then it has be-
come an educational institution not limited to a single individual or group. Here coffee was first
grown in Europe.
Other gardens originated about this time were those of Bologna, Italy; Leiden, Netherlands;
Leipzig, Germany; Montpellier, France; Paris, France. In England, the Oxford Garden was estab-
lished in 1632. In 1680 the Chelsea Garden also known as the Physic Garden designed for growing
plants for commercial purposes was set up. It was later converted to its present use of furnishing
plant material to illustrate lectures in pharmacy and medicine.
During the 18th century many botanical gardens were set up throughout the world. Most wide-
ly known of these is the Royal Botanical Gardens of Kew, near London, established in 1759. Its con-
trol passed from the crown in 1840 when Sir William Hooker was appointed the first director. He
was regarded as the greatest gardener or plant explorer of that time. He organized several scientific
expeditions to many countries of the world. Sir W. Hooker’s prime objective was to discover plants
for the gardens and to introduce economically useful plants from one country to another. Two poli-
cies that remain unbroken at Kew are the encouragement of plant collection and exploration in all
parts of the world and a gardener training program. Research work at Kew has been principally
taxonomic, but valuable results have come from work in acclimatizing useful plants as well.
The USA. The first botanical garden in the United States was established in 1728 by John Bar-
traw. It is now a part of the Philadelphia park system.
Nowadays, the Chicago Botanic Garden (CBG) enjoys the reputation of one of the most im-
portant plant studies institutions in the country. This botanical garden has several programs in devel-
opment to introduce the public to climate change issues. The staff of the garden is developing the
project titled “Global Climate Change Monitoring Gardens”. They are doing their best to create a
nationwide “ecological antenna” where scientists record climate data and a standard set of
phenological events. Climate change has become a major issue of concern for governments and in-
ternational agencies over the last few years. The major botanical gardens are involved in World Spe-
cies Action Plans for endangered species, species conservation, and recovery program. The responsi-
bility to help conserve, monitor and raise awareness of these threats to native plants and their habi-
tats from climate change is a considerable challenge for botanical gardens worldwide.
Thus, the great botanic gardens of the world play a vital role in conservation of nature. Their
history is rich and varied. They play a great part in the fields of education, scientific research and
conservation.

63
Botanical gardens exist in every continent of the world. These great institutions are as diverse
as the collections found within them. The development of gardens is closely associated with the in-
spirational people behind them and their important work. These gardens are of great value as an ex-
ample of a long-term ecologically sustainable relationship between human culture and its natural bio-
diversity. In other words, botanic gardens may be termed as vital cases of nature and green theatres.
Botanic Gardens are living laboratories which are vital in conserving plant species. Their role
in building the relationship between people and their environment is great, indeed.

5.7. Talking points: After reading the text, choose one of the themes and express your opin-
ion on the following items:
a) the botanical gardens in continental Europe
b) the plant centres of the USA.
c) the project titled “Global Climate Change Monitoring Gardens” (GCCMG).

5.8. Guide to reading. Read the following text and identify the following dates, people, places
with the events in the history of Chelsea Physic Garden:
a) Dates: (1691-1771); 1983; 1673; 1683; 1733; 1993; 1899.
b) People: Paul Hermann, Hans Sloane and Philip Miller, Carl von Linnaeus, Sir Joseph
Banks, Robert Fortune.
c) Places: Chelsea, Leiden University, Chelsea Physic Garden, the British Museum Pharma-
ceutical Garden
Text 3
Chelsea Physic Garden
Chelsea Physic Garden is London’s oldest botanic garden founded in 1673. In 1673 the Soci-
ety of Apothecaries of London founded a Physic Garden at Chelsea, so that their apprentices could
learn to grow medicinal plants and study their uses. When the Garden was founded the word ‘physic’
meant ‘pertaining to things natural as distinct from the metaphysical’. Now the New Oxford English
Dictionary defines physic firstly as ‘medicinal drugs’, and secondly as ‘the art of healing’.
The Apothecaries went on expeditions to collect plants. Even today the special microclimate
enables them to cultivate many tender species including the largest olive tree growing outside in
Britain.
For the first ten years the Apothecaries had difficulty in finding a good Gardener, as the Cura-
tors were called. Then they appointed John Watts who was also an apothecary. Watts made contact
with Paul Hermann, the Professor of Botany at Leiden University. By 1683 the two men were ex-
changing plants and seeds, the most notable being four seedlings of Cedrus libani, the Cedar of
Lebanon, which were among the first cultivated in Britain. The Garden continues to publish an Index
Seminum, and still exchanges seeds with botanic gardens around the world. Glasshouses have always
been an important feature of the Garden.
Then the era of Dr. Hans Sloane and Philip Miller came. Dr. H. Sloane became President of
both the Royal Society and the Royal College of Physicians. He did much to secure the future of the
Garden. When Sloane died, aged almost 93, his collection of curiosities and his vast library became
the nucleus of the British Museum.
Sir H. Sloane made another great contribution to Chelsea Physic Garden when he appointed
Philip Miller as Gardener. Miller (1691-1771) made the garden world-famous during his fifty-year
tenure. His correspondence with the leading botanists of the day generated an exchange of plants and
seeds, many of them cultivated in the Garden for the first time in Britain. Miller also wrote eight edi-
tions of his famous “Dictionary of Gardening”, which became the standard reference book for gar-
deners in Britain and America.
It is interesting to note that Carl von Linnaeus, the great Swedish botanist, made several visits
to the Garden in 1730s.

64
In 1899 the Apothecaries finally gave up the management of the Garden. It was taken over by
the City Parochial Foundation. During this period, university and college students continued to use
the Garden for scientific research, but it remained closed to the general public. In 1983 it was de-
cided that the Garden should be opened to the public for the first time in its 300 year history.

Chelsea Physic Garden today


Nowadays, Chelsea Physic Garden covers 3.8 acres. The main buildings-offices, lecture rooms,
Curator’s house and most of the greenhouses – are at the northern end. Besides, many medicinal and
other useful plants are grown there. Some medicinal plants have been used as remedies for centuries.
Plant researchers explore the properties of some plants that can kill or cure.
Over 100 different trees grow at Chelsea Physic Garden: from pomegranates and cork trees to
grape fruit and olives, cedars and pines mulberries, magnolias and eucalyptus. The Garden probably
has the greatest variety of living trees in one place in central London. Many of them are rare in Brit-
ain, and everyone has its own story. The origins, anatomy, uses, mythologies of trees are investigated
at Chelsea Physic Garden.
A replica of the original statue of Sir Hans Sloane created by Michael Rysbrack in 1733 has
pride of place at the centre of the Garden. The original statue damaged by pollution, is now in the
British Museum.
There is a wide area of flowering shrubs, rare peonies, with plenty of places to sit and absorb
the atmosphere. Wildlife flourishes in the Garden, and frogs, toads, and newts have come back to
inhabit the Fortune’s Tank Pond which was restored in 2004. Rare lichens and insects have also been
identified in the Garden.
Today Chelsea Physic Garden is still dedicated to promoting education, conservation, and sci-
entific research. It should be emphasized that the Garden of World Medicine which was laid out in
1993 shows the use of plants for medicinal purposes by the world’s indigenous peoples. In the Gar-
den one can find plants employed in the perfumery and cosmetic industries, and others used for the
manufacture of fabrics for dyes. The Pharmaceutical Garden displays plants which are the origins of
many of the drugs used in contemporary medicine. In the Garden you can also follow its own his-
tory, with plants introduced into cultivation by Curators and notable botanists, such as William Hud-
son, Sir Joseph Banks, Philip Miller and Robert Fortune, who have been connected with the Garden
over the centuries.

Language Development
5.9. Work with vocabulary related to ecological and biological problems. Identify any words
that are new to you, memorize them and make up your own sentences.

5.10. Complete the sentences with the correct word(s) from the list below:
remains are ... dependent on
seek to do research
apparently once
are devoted to genera ... species
concept
1. We _______ totally _______ green plants, because they alone can convert the sun’s
energy into forms that are vital to the very existence to animal life.
2. Botany, the study of plants, _______ began with Stone Age peoples’ practical uses of
plants.
3. Much _______ yet to be discovered and investigated.
4. The applied sciences called economic botany _______ plant research.
5. _______ the botanist has finished his formal training, he can apply his knowledge in
a number of ways.

65
6. Another large group of botanists is employed by governmental agencies _______ and
provide technical assistance to commercial organizations.
7. Petroleum companies _______ botanists with training in paleobotany and palynology
(the study of pollen) to help evaluate geologic strata.
8. A botanical garden usually includes a number of _______ and _______ and is
arranged to serve educational, aesthetic, scientific and economic purposes.
9. The _______ of botanical garden is nearly as old as history.

5.11. Choose the correct definition of these words, then use them in your own sentences:
1) hypothesis a) test carried out to study what happens and gain new knowledge
2) unique b) organized knowledge
3) discover c) find out
4) experiment d) keeping up, maintaining sth
5) science e) woods, streams, where animals and fish are carefully looked after
6) biodiversity f) having no like or equal; being the only one of its sort
7) support g) provide a person or thing with what is necessary
8) sustainable h) keep safe from harm or danger
9) preserve i) idea, suggestion put forward as a starting point for reasoning

Focus on Grammar
I. Phrasal Verb(s). Study the meanings of the verb “go”.
to go about = to move from place to place, pay visits
to go after sb, sth = to try to win or obtain
to go against sb = a) to oppose; b) to have an unsatisfactory outcome
to go ahead = to proceed without hesitation
to go at sb, sth = a) to rush at, attack; b) to deal with sth energetically
to go back = to return, to come back
to go by = a) to pass; b) to be guided or directed by; to judge by
to go down = a) to sink (of a ship), to set (of the sun, moon); b) to be written, re-
corded in
to go on = a) to pass (of time); b) to behave, esp. in a wrong, shameful, or excited
way; c) to continue doing sth
to go out = a) to leave the room, building; b) to become unfashionable
to go over = a) to examine the details of, look at, inspect; b) process of examining or
putting in good working order; b) to examine the details of
to go through (= to get through) = to be passed or approved

5.12. Fill in the correct particle(s):


1. He will go …… in world history as the greatest biologist (be written, recorded).
2. May I start now? Yes, go …… (proceed without hesitation).
3. She went …… (the kitchen, house) to cook the dinner (entered the room).
4. The war is going …… them. They seem likely to be defeated (to have an unsatisfac-
tory outcome).
5. The document will need a careful going …… before we make a decision (examining
the details).
6. It goes …… my principles / interests (be contrary to).
7. The Bill in Parliament did not go …… (get through, pass, approve).
8. Have mini-skirts gone ……? (become unfashionable).
9. We must go …… the accounts carefully before we settle them (examine the details of).
10. Let’s go …… to what the chairman said earlier (come back, return).

66
11. He went …… talking even though no one was listening to him (continued doing sth).
Make up your own sentences with the verb “go”.

II. Reported Speech


We can report people’s words by using direct speech or reported speech. Direct speech is the
exact words someone used. We use quotation marks (‘ ‘) in direct speech. Reported speech is the
exact meaning of what someone said, but not the exact words. We do not use quotation marks in
reported speech.
Verb tenses and time expressions change in reported speech:
The tenses change as follows:
present simple → past simple
E.g. “I need a new textbook on biology”, Tom said.
Tom said (that) he needed a new textbook on biology.
present progressive → past progressive
E.g. “He is making an experiment”, she said.
She said that he was making an experiment.
present perfect → past perfect
E.g. “He has done the work”, he said.
He said (that) he had done the work.
past simple → past simple or past perfect
E.g. “I got up late”, Dolly said.
Dolly said (that) she (had) got up late.
past progressive → past progressive or past perfect continuous
E.g. “He was working at four o’clock”, Tom said.
Tom said (that) he was working (had been working) at four o’clock yesterday.
future (will) → conditional (would)
E.g. “I’ll call you tomorrow”, Liza said.
Liza said (that) she would call me the following day.
Time expressions change according to the meaning of the sentence.
now → then, at that time, immediately
today, tonight → that day, that night
yesterday → the day before, the previous day
tomorrow → the next day, the following day
this week → that week
last week → the week before, the previous week
next week → the week after, the following week
two days ago → two days before
here → there
come → go
Certain modal verbs change as follows:
will → would
can → could
can → could / would be able (future reference)
E.g. He said, “We can meet tomorrow”.
He said (that) we could/would be able to meet the next day.
may → might
must → must / had to (obligation)

E.g. He said, “You must finish this work”.


He said (that) I must / had to finish this work.
needn’t → needn’t / didn’t need to / didn’t have to

67
E.g. He said, “You needn’t pay in cash”.
He said (that) I needn’t / didn’t need to / didn’t have to pay in cash.
Word order in an indirect question is the same as in a statement. An indirect general question is
introduced by the conjunction if or whether.
E.g. I said to her, “Have you lived here long?”
He asked her if she had lived there long.
An indirect special question is introduced by the same adverb or pronoun that introduces a di-
rect question.
E.g. I said to her, “Where do you live?”
I asked her where she lived.
He asked, “Who is that man?”
He asked who the man was.
The direct question “What is the matter?” can be converted in two ways:
He asked what was the matter.
He asked what the matter was.

III. Exercises
5.13. Choose the correct alternative:
1. Helen warned me that she _______ late.
a) was b) was being
c) will be d) would be
2. She wrote to me that they _______ at the hotel Astoria.
a) will probably stay b) would probably stay
c) have been probably staying d) are probably staying
3. I thought he _______ in the international scientific conference the previous week.
a) participated b) is participating
c) had been participating d) had participated
4. The Dean of the faculty emphasized that he _______ to see me as soon as possible.
a) wanted b) will want
c) has wanted d) had wanted
5. The teacher said that the head of the botany department _______ from Moscow.
a) returned b) has been returned
c) would return d) had returned
6. They said to me that she _______ her own business the following year.
a) would start b) had been started
c) is starting d) had started

5.14. In the following sentences one sentence is correct, while the other ones are wrong.
Choose the right variant:
1. a) They said they are ready to start the experiment.
b) They said they were ready to start the experiment.
c) They said I am ready to start the experiment.
2. a) The lecturer informed the students when the exam on chemistry would take place.
b) The lecturer informed the students when would the exam on chemistry take place.
c) The lecturer informed the students when the exam on chemistry was taken place.
3. a) The President stated that everything possible would be done to stabilise the
economic situation.
b) The President stated that everything possible would do to stabilise the
economic situation.
c) The President stated that everything possible is done to stabilise the economic
situation.

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4. a) The newspapers didn’t say where exactly the accident takes place.
b) The newspapers didn’t say where exactly the accident took place.
c) The newspapers didn’t say where exactly the accident had taken place.
5. a) I can’t tell you exactly what time I would finish writing my paper.
b) I can’t tell you exactly what time I will finish writing my paper.
c) I can’t tell you exactly what time will I finish writing my paper.

5.15. Convert the following sentences into indirect speech:


1. “I think he is an intelligent man”, says Ann.
2. “I can’t understand what the lecturer is speaking about”, says Nick.
3. “He was born in Manchester”, she said.
4. “This day will go down in the history of the world”, remarks Professor Howard.
5. “We have lived in Tomsk for a long time”, Mother said.
6. “You must make corrections in all the tests you have written”, said the teacher of
English to the students.
7. “Have you seen Bob today? His new job has changed him entirely”, Laura remarked.
8. “Am I speaking to Nick”, asked a voice over the telephone.

IV. The functions of the words

The meanings of the words “for”, “during” and “while”.


For is used to show a period of time to say how long something goes on:
for six years, for a week.
E.g. I have lived in this house for six years.
Ann is going away for a week in June.
Where have you been? I’ve been waiting for ages.
Are you going away for the week-end?
During + noun are used to say when something happens (not how long):
During (prep) – throughout the continuance of
E.g. During the English class, during our holiday, during the night.
The students worked hard during the English class.
Ann and Paul met a lot of interesting people during their holiday.
The ground is wet. It must have rained during the night.
I’ll phone you some time during the afternoon.
While. We use while + subject + verb.
noun
I fell asleep during the film.
Compare:
subject + verb
I fell asleep while I was watching TV.

5.16. Choose “for”, “during” or “while” for the following sentences.


1. When we were at the theatre last night we met Ann _______ the interval.
2. What are you going to do _______ you are waiting?
3. Jack started a new job a few weeks ago. Before that he was out of work _______ six
months.
4. Sue was very angry after our argument. She didn’t speak to me _______ the week.

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5. The sun gives us light _______ the day.
6. He called to see me _______ me absence.
7. I haven’t seen him _______ a year.
8. _______ I admit that the problems are difficult, I don’t agree that they cannot be solved.
9. Jane was dressed in brown, _______ Mary was wearing blue.
10. Many interesting suggestions were made _______ the scientific conference.
Make up your own sentences using these words.

Focus on Business
Business Course: a letter of request
A letter of request usually consists of a request phrase, a reason for the request and an expres-
sion of gratitude. In other words, it is a polite demand, something that has been asked for.
Read the letters of request, pay attention to the way of expressing a request.
5.17. Read the following letters paying attention to their layout:
Letter 1
Dear Professor,
I would be pleased to accept a 150-word abstract of your article “The cell division cycle in
plants” published by Cambridge University Press.
We look forward to receiving this abstract as soon as possible.

Yours sincerely,
Name
Editor-in Chief

Letter 2
Dear Professor …,
I have been shown your letter devoted to the root anatomy and morphology of higher plants.
This is within my area of active research, and I am keenly interested in the development of these pro-
cesses. I am eager to know what research has been done in your country in recent years. It would be
a great honour for me to correspond with you and other researchers in your country.
I hope to hear from you soon.

Yours sincerely
Name
Laboratory of plant protection. Chief of the laboratory.

5.18. Write a letter expressing a request for exchanging scientific information. You should
confirm the fact why you want to exchange information. Use the following phrases expressing a
request:
· Could you inform me about the scientific programme in more detail?
· We would like your permission to publish our article in the Journal of Modern Biology.
· Could you please…?
· I would be very grateful to you if you could….
· Would it be possible for you to …?
· It would be a great honour for me to correspond with you.
· I would very much appreciate having a reprint of the paper….

70
Project work
I. Read the following texts and find the information relating to each park of London
and fill in the table.

Name of the park The date of origin Facilities of the park Great events
Hyde Park
Kensington Gar-
dens
Regent’s Park
St James’s Park
and Green Park
Richmond Park
Royal Botanic
Gardens at Kew
Bushy Park
Bablersea Park
Holland park

Text 5
Green London
One of the special joys of London is the amount of space devoted to parks, gardens, squares
and open areas, providing peaceful oases in the midst of all the buildings and traffic.
Hyde Park merges with Kensington Gardens, but there is a marked difference between the two
parks, even though they were once one and the same place: before Henry VIII enclosed Hyde Park
as a hunting chase, the area was a vast area of countryside. Since then it has had a varied history,
having been used for horse racing, dueling, as the site for the 1851 Great Exhibition and as a defen-
sive camp during the Second World War. Today it is a peaceful park, with the Serpentine forming a
wonderful habitat for wild creatures and for sailing, boating and swimming. In the north-east corner
of the park is Speakers’ Corner, where anyone can stand up and talk on any subject they please.
Kensington Gardens were once the private gardens of Kensington Palace, but they now form a
delightful refuge from the hurried pace of life beyond their boundaries. In the children’s play-ground
carved pixies frolic alongside a statue of Peter Pan and in the Serpentine Gallery there are monthly
exhibitions of contemporary art.
Regent’s Park was also once part of Henry VIII’s hunting forest, but in 1812 it was trans-
formed into its present design by Nash under the direction of the Prince Regent – hence its name.
Today excellent performances are put on at the open-air theatre and there are facilities for archery,
tennis and sailing.
St James’s Park and Green Park stand on either side of The Mall, the former in fact occupying
a site where a hospital for lepers once stood amid marshy surroundings. Today nothing could be
more relaxing and peaceful than a stroll through St James’s Park, thanks to the efforts of Henry VIII,
who converted the area into a deer park. Contributions by Charles II and George IV, who designed
the formal gardens and the lovely lake, enhanced the natural beauty of the park. Green Park, as its
name suggests, is mainly laid to lawn, and was once the favourite walking place of Charles II, who
took his constitutional stroll here – hence Constitution Hill.
Further west, Hampton Court, Bushy Park and Richmond Park provide just some of the de-
lightful green and floral areas available in London. Hampton Court has an outstanding array of for-
mal gardens and a famous maze, whilst nearby Bushy Park provides a delightfully informal contrast,
with its atmosphere of the natural countryside. Richmond Park comprises 1002 hectares (2,500
acres) where red and fallow deer roam and exotic shrubs coexist with wild flowers. Further west still
are the Royal Botanic Gardens at Kew, badly damaged by the hurricane-force winds of October

71
1987, but still providing 121 hectares (300 acres) of exotic plants and trees from all over the world.
Across the Thames from here is Syon Park, the country’s first national gardening centre.
Other green tracts in London include the 324 hectares (800 acres) of Hampstead Heath, the
deer-park and children’s facilities of Battersea Park, the magnificent Wren buildings of Greenwich
Park and the wonderful peacocks of Holland Park, which less than 30 years ago was the garden of a
private house.

Seasonal Walks at Kew


Kew is distinctive, an island of beauty in a sea of seasonal delights. In 1759 Princess Augusta,
mother of King George III, started an ambitious nine-acre garden around Kew Palace. Every genera-
tion has added to the charms and curiosities of Kew, how a major international visitor attraction
comprising 132 hectares of landscaped gardens. But Kew today is much more, since it plays a great
role as a world leader in plant science, conservation and plant-based solutions to global environ-
mental challenges.
As well as a site of World Heritage status, rich in history, Kew has the Earth’s largest and most
diverse botanical collections under its care. It is also an internationally respected centre of scientific
excellence: identifying and classifying plants, researching their structure, chemistry and genetics, col-
lecting and conserving endangered species, restoring damaged forests and other habitats, maintaining
reference collections and sharing this knowledge with others. People enjoy their time at Kew and
come again to see its richness and diversity through the seasons. Kew is a seasonal pleasure, featur-
ing an array of changing delights as the year progresses: from bluebells in spring to the sweet bloom
of summer, from glorious autumn colour to the icy beauty of winter.
There is an attractive seasonal display at Kew. One can see a superb collection of snowdrops
and other spring flowers in the Rock Garden. In February and March you will see a mass of daffodils
in the gardens. The pretty Lilae Collection is at its best in May. The azaleas are an eye-opener in
April and May.

Summer Walk
Past the peonies are the Order Beds, where related plants are grouped together in a colourful
parade. The students’ vegetable gardens are also here. The Grass Garden has over 550 species on
view. Next to it is the Duke’s Garden with sweetly-scented Lavender Trail and the Gravel Garden,
full of ideas for plants that need very little water. If you have time, enjoy the seasonal display where
you enter and a magnificent giant waterlily which should be in full flower in the centre of the house.
There is a crossroads with its specially planted collection of highly-scented Mediterranean style
shrubs, herbs and other plants.

Autumn Walk
During this season of the year, the autumn colour take on a new dimension. The Bamboo Gar-
den and Rhododendron Dell are the places which are worth seeing. If you have a little extra time
(about 20-30 minutes), you could see the beautiful autumn-flowering cyclamen in the Gueen’s Gar-
den behind Kew Palace. Rich autumnal hues can be seen in Kew’s Arboretumn throughout Septem-
ber and October. Berberis berries add to the warm autumn colours and are also an attractive food for
birds. The red oak (Quercus rubra) is so named due to its fantastic autumn leaf colour. Although of-
ten thought to be an English tree – this oak is native to eastern North America.

Winter Walk
On leaving Victoria Gate you can enjoy several trees with beautiful winter bark. Get warmed
up by visiting the galleries located at Kew. They are the Shirley Sherwood Gallery which is famous
for beautiful delicate botanical artworks, and the Marianne North Gallery which is well-known for its
collection of bold and evocative flower paintings.

72
II. Comment on the activity of Botanical Garden according to the table. Use the follow-
ing phrases:
It has been observed that…
It is observed that…
I really do think that…
I’m absolutely convinced that…
There is no doubt in my mind that…
From the text we can conclude that…
While reading the text I have realized that…
This fact makes (produces) a strong impression on…
I get the impression of …
I am under the impression that...
III. Make a collective project titled “The Siberian Botanical Garden” according to the
following plan:
· Date of foundation, the milestones in its history.
· People who have made great contributions to its foundation and development.
· Species of plants represented in the garden.
· Facilities for studying and doing research.
· Scientific and social significance of the Siberian Botanical Garden.
While working on the project, follow the tips of Unit 3 which will help you to get an
adequate text.
Use the following text and speak about the activities of its research laboratories.

The Siberian Botanical Garden in Tomsk


The Siberian Botanical Garden at Tomsk University was founded 1880. The tropical palms
which had been brought from Kazan University by the scientific gardener P.N. Krylov are still grow-
ing in the hothouse. In addition 700 plant samples were delivered to Tomsk by P.N. Krylov at that
time. Since then the Garden has transformed from a small plot into an exciting scene designed by
P.N. Krylov and his followers. It is interesting to note that the founder of the Tomsk botanical
school is regarded as a recognized leader in this field of science.
Nowadays the Siberian Botanical Garden (SBG) covers 126 hectares and offers much to see
whatever the season. The unique Greenhouse complex (70000 square metres) and the Experimental
area (114 hectares) are in operation. There are over 6000 species, forms and kinds of plant the Bo-
tanical Garden now.
The SBA structurally includes 9 research laboratories – those of:
– Introduction dendrology and landscape architecture;
– Introduction of tropical and subtropical plants;
– Introduction of medicinal herbs;
– Introduction of agricultural plants;
– Introduction of flower and ornamented plants;
– Biomorphology and cytogenetics;
– Phytochemistry;
– Seed studies and biotechnology;
– Plant protection from pests and diseases.
The SBG is a scientific research institute conducting botanical and agricultural studies. The
laboratories concerned specialize in the introduction of new plants, preservation of biodiversity and
endangered species, enrichment of the plant genofond in Siberia.
In 1885 the Tomsk University Herbarium was set up. Its staff conduct scientific research on a
large scale. One of the main functions of the Herbarium is to organize a systematic exchange of its

73
collections with foreign countries in order to preserve the world fauna. The famous Tomsk botanical
school also continues doing research of the unique flora of Siberia.
Thus, the SBG in Tomsk is a respected centre of scientific studies. People enjoy their time at
the Siberian Botanical Garden and come here to see its richness and diversity.
The SBG in Tomsk unites time and space and is regarded as a wonderful precious gem. It is
the object of pride and care of not only the city but the Tomsk region as well. The SBG is worth see-
ing! The Garden provides inspiration for all gardeners and visitors. This is a garden to be visited in
all seasons.

UNIT 6
Learn how to…
1. Define the term “healthy way of life” and distinguish some features of being active.
2. Identify some unhealthy habits in a man’s ordinary life.
3. Discuss the problem of keeping a diet.
Focus on Grammar
Modal Verbs
Functions of the word “as”
Language development
Vocabulary focus
Phrasal verb: fall
Speaking: tell other students about the ways to keep healthy and get rid of harmful habits
Focus on Business: order letter
Talking points: our attitude to different kinds of a diet, to the treatment of different diseases
with herbal remedy
Project work: health problems the population of Siberia and Tomsk region is facing now

Warm-Up Activities
6.1. Answer the following questions:
1. What does a healthy way of life mean to you?
2. Do you agree that laughter is the best medicine?
3. Do you support the law banning smoking in all public places?

6.2. Guide to reading. Read and translate the text. Summarize some of the major conse-
quences of an unhealthy way of life.

Text 1
A Healthy Way of Life
Sometimes we can hear that "Health is above wealth." People nowadays are more health-
conscious than they used to be. They understand that good health is the essential way of living.
There are certain laws of health which deserve particular attention and they are so simple that
even a child can learn them. A certain amount of exercise is necessary to keep the body in a perfect
condition. Moderation in eating and drinking, reasonable hours of labour and study, enough sleeping
time, regularity in exercises, recreation and rest provide a solid foundation for health and long
healthy happy life.
Thousands of people consider sports to be very helpful in gaining good health. That's why
every country pays much attention to developing sports. It is sport that helps to bring up physically
strong, strong-willed, courageous and energetic people. Recreational sport has recently become ex-
tremely popular. Hockey, figure skating, skiing and skating are among the most popular winter
sports. In summer swimming is enjoyed by millions of people. There are also many indoor swimming

74
pools, which makes swimming possible at any time. Cycling is a useful exercise, too, because it takes
you out into the fresh air and gives much work to all the muscles. So if you arrange your day cor-
rectly you can find an opportunity for going in for sport.
To be healthy we should avoid different bad habits that can affect our health. Smoking and
drinking too much alcohol, are the worst ones. These habits can shorten our lives dramatically.
Smoking, for example, causes a number of heart and lung diseases, such as pneumonia, emphysema
and cancer. Besides, it makes your teeth yellow and skin unhealthy. Fortunately, in recent years
smoking has received a lot of bad publicity, and fewer people smoke nowadays. Some companies
don't employ people who are smokers. Smoking has been banned in most public places because eve-
ryone agrees it does harm to our health.
One more serious problem is the habit of taking drugs. These drugs poison a human organism,
cause dangerous changes in mentality of people and finally lead to the whole degradation and death
of a man. Governments in many countries of the world struggle against this ruinous habit involving
more and more young people. Everybody should know that you must be responsible for your mental
and physical health to yourself, first of all and you should avoid taking drugs to prevent becoming
drug-addicts because this way will lead you into a dead end.
Smoking and drinking are joined by less dangerous habits, such as eating unhealthy junk food,
or even overeating. Of course, they are not quite as deadly as smoking, drinking alcohol or taking
drugs, but they also affect our health. A lot of people like drinking coca cola and coffee, and enjoy
pizzas and hamburgers. But what is tasty is not always healthy. Fast food makes you fat, causes such
diseases as diabetes and creates problems with the liver. Fat is believed to be one of the major causes
of obesity and heart diseases.
In recent years eating habits have undergone a change. Salads, beans, and fruit have taken the
place of steak and ice cream. The fashion for healthy food is growing all the time. There are a lot of
ways to lose weight and avoid gaining it. Perhaps the most popular of them is following a diet. If you
want to lose weight, you should cut out snacks and desserts, and cut down on fat. This is called a
calorie-controlled diet. Manufacturers are increasingly producing special foods with fewer calories
for those who want to become slimmer. But excessive dieting may be dangerous, too.

6.3. Choose only one appropriate variant for each sentence:


1. To be healthy we should avoid different bad habits that can _______ our health.
a) decrease c) create
b) affect d) reduce
2. It is common knowledge that smoking and drinking can _______ our lives
dramatically.
a) shorten c) increase
b) preserve d) protect
3. Fortunately, in recent years smoking has received a lot of bad _______, and fewer
people smoke nowadays.
a) publicity c) velocity
b) novelty d) curiosity
4. Smoking and drinking are joined by less dangerous habits, such as skipping meals,
eating unhealthy food, or even _______.
a) oversleeping c) overdoing
b) overloading d) overeating
5. If we eat too much, we will become _______.
a) thin c) obese
b) healthy d) smart
6. In recent years eating habits _______ a change.
a) have undergone c) have left
b) have increased d) have decreased

75
7. Some people refuse to eat meat as they consider it _______.
a) fruitful c) wonderful
b) harmful d) eventful

6.4. Look through the text again to focus on the particular facts and the details you need.
1. Make up several questions you would like to ask the students in your group.
2. Explain the meaning of the new words from the text. Try to make up some sentences
using them.
3. Ask your partner about some facts you have learned from the text.
4. Try to analyse what facts were familiar to you and what facts are new.
5. Define the main concepts of the text and tell your partner about a healthy way of life.

Vocabulary Focus
6.5. Find Russian equivalents for the following English words and expressions:
agree ≠ disagree (v) harmful ≠ harmless reduce (v)
avoid (v) junk food (n + n) research (n)
to burn sth off (v) lack in sth (v) researcher (n)
cause (a, v) lifestyle (n) slimmer (n)
dramatically (adv) lung disease (n + n) snack (n)
enjoy (v) nutrition (n) stressful (adj)
fashion (n) obese (adj) suffer from (v)
fibre (n) obesity (n) turn down (v)
fortunately (adv) overeating (n) value (n, v)
harm (n, v) publicity (n)

it’s well known that to cut down on fat


in recent years a calorie–controlled diet
to receive a lot of bad publicity to reduce the risk of cancer
to do harm to sb’s health to cause heath problems
to do research to keep fit
to become obese to burn sth off
to make sb fat to lack in nutrition
to undergo a change to be associated with
to improve one’s fitness to gain weight
to follow a diet to pick up an idea of
to cut out snacks and desserts to turn down sth

Reading Comprehension
6.6. Guide to reading. Read the text and determine the main characteristics of living things
according to the following plan:
1. Fast food is a reality of our life: it is available and cheap.
2. Junk food is not good for your health.
3. Measures should be taken to cut off the consumption of junk food.
4. There are some ways to avoid the harmful impact of junk food on man’s health.
In order to connect your ideas remember to use the following linking words: because, so, in
addition, furthermore, moreover, similarly, what is more, also.

76
Text 2
Junk Food
In today’s fast-moving world people have less time to spend on eating, let alone cooking. Peo-
ple are too busy to cook and eat proper meals, so they grab whatever is available – and that is usually
junk food. It is probably for this reason that junk food has become so popular. What exactly is junk
food?
Basically, it is anything that is high in calories but lacking in nutrition. Hamburgers, crisps,
chocolate bars and hot dogs fall into this category. Pizzas, although they can have vegetable and
cheese toppings, are also included as they contain a lot of fat. Obviously, a diet of junk food is not
the best thing for your health, particularly as it is high in saturated fat. Apart from the risk of cancer,
another side effect of consuming highly fattening junk food is that you are likely to gain weight. This
is less satisfying and lower in vital nutrients than healthier food. Researchers suggest that the new
generation is more likely to suffer from heart and liver diseases.
Scientists in the United Kingdom have found a way to effectively implement a “fat tax” on un-
healthy food. The key is to make it large enough — a minimum of 20 per cent is needed to improve
public health. A healthy food tax has the potential to improve overall health. It also has the potential
to draw a lot of controversy. Mark Bittman, the New York Times food writer and author, has spo-
ken out against unhealthy “non-foods” like pop and says he would support taxing them. He blames
soda companies and others that produce sugary drinks for the global obesity pandemic.
M. Bittman has argued that we should subsidize healthy foods to encourage people to eat them
and discourage them from buying unhealthy foods by making their costs less appealing. The re-
searchers from Oxford University would seem to agree. They have reviewed recent literature on ef-
forts to determine a rate that reduces consumption and have written about their findings in the Brit-
ish Medical Journal. A growing number of countries are introducing taxes on sugary food and
drinks: Denmark has a “fat tax,” Hungary a “junk food tax” and France a tax on sweetened drinks.
This type of tax should be introduced as part of a larger tax strategy that includes subsidies for
healthy foods. The food industry, which in many countries receives significant government subsidies,
has argued that the taxes would be ineffective, unfair and lead to job losses. The Oxford researchers
say similar arguments were used by the tobacco industry in the fight against cigarette taxes.
The best advice, then, for those who cannot live without their hamburgers or chocolate bars, is
to limit the amount of junk food they eat. A little now and then will probably do no harm. But why
have our eating habits changed? It’s lack of time and loss of tradition. Also, the style of life repre-
sented on TV, especially in music videos, is fast. Young people pick up the idea that speed means
excitement, whereas anything traditional is slow and boring. As a result, they turn down traditional
food and go for junk food instead. But if we improve our eating habits, we will be better equipped to
deal with our stressful lifestyle. (http://www.snackswap.com)

6.7. Talking points: work in small groups and discuss the problems raised in this text. The
following questions will help you to do it.
1. Why has junk food become so popular?
2. What is exactly junk food?
3. How does junk food affect our health?
4. What tips would you give to someone who cannot live without junk food?
5. What is the new generation more likely to suffer from, according to the researchers?
6. How should we deal with our stressful lifestyle?
7. What do you think about “fat tax” used in some countries? Will it help to solve the
problem with junk food consumption?
Use the following expressions to show your attitude to the items mentioned above:
It is common knowledge that It is thought that
It seems to me I believe that

77
According to this text As far as I know
From my point of view As far as I’m able to judge
In my view/ in my opinion I am sure that

6.8. Guide to reading. Read the text thoroughly and focus on the tips how to keep a diet.

Ideas and Tips for Keeping a Diet Rich in Nutrition


Nutrition involves giving your body necessary nutrients to maintain life. There is so much in-
formation available on eating right because of how important it is to your overall health. At the same
time, it can be difficult to find the information you need since there is so much out there. It’s usually
best to start with the basics. It is assumed that highly processed grains taste better than whole grains,
and that is supposedly why they are used so much. White flour does work for some baked goods.
But most of the time, whole grains are more flavourful and the best choice.
Even if you eat meat, you can improve your diet by eating a meatless meal for two to three
times every week. You will reduce your unhealthy animal fat consumption, and you will enjoy some
different, yet tasty, meals. It is not necessary to take tons of vitamin supplements in order to make
somebody healthier. If the diet is already healthful, supplements are truly supplemental. In this case it
is important to limit the amount of vitamins taken each day and to focus on eating healthy food in-
stead.
Just preparing your meals differently can help with your nutrition. Replace fried foods with
steamed ones to reduce your fat intake. The healthier one’s methods of food preparation, the more
one gets out of the cooking process. You should not eat high-sugar cereal as your breakfast. Aside
from sugar, these cereals contain added chemicals, trans fat and stabilizers. Oatmeal is full of great
nutrients that are essential to a good diet and will help you stay full longer.
In order to reward a child for making healthy food choices, give him attention, rather than un-
doing the effects of his choices by giving him a cake. Rather than giving him a slice of cake, reward
him with activities he enjoys or a hug and a kiss. You do not want your child to begin to associate
food with affection and love or as a reward for doing what they need to do. Even though you are
busy, taking a few minutes to prepare healthy lunches for your kids is well worth the effort. The food
they eat can affect their classroom and outside performance.
One way to maximize your nutrition is by eating healthy food, exercising, and resting enough.
Rest allows your muscles and mind to regroup, so that you are ready to take on the day tomorrow.
Carbohydrates are not as harmful as we think. Complex carbohydrates are actually necessary
for optimum health. You don’t need the amount you may tend to eat, but nutritionally a low-carb
diet is not smart for good nutrition. The body requires carbohydrates to produce energy; moreover
they help you feel full for a longer time.
By simply reducing the quantity of food in your meal by twenty-five percent, you can reduce
your total daily caloric intake by a quarter. Just a small change like that can really help you lose some
serious weight and improve your health. Don’t eat anything with microwave directions on the pack-
age. This food is filled with stabilizers and tends to be high in fat and sodium.
Eating a healthy diet you will make you feel and look good. It improves both your physical and
mental well-being, and is essential to living well. One of the most important ways of treating your
body right is to cut back on your consumption of refined sugars. Things like soda and fruit juice can
sometimes slip under the radar. Fruit juice and soda generally contain sugar, which is exactly what
you are trying to reduce in your diet. When you reduce the sugar in your diet, you will lose the
weight faster, and you will feel better and look better too.
Replacing the beef in your recipes with turkey creates a healthier meal, although some people
think it is too dry. Adding a dash of olive oil can help to enhance the turkey’s flavour. This way you
can still enjoy flavourful meat while consuming less fat. A great healthy eating tip is to take time off
from eating grains. Humans originally lived by eating fruit, nuts, vegetables, beans and meat. Proc-
essed grains haven’t been around as long, and we can live without them.

78
Clearly, excellent nutrition is the cornerstone of a healthy life. Sorting out all the available in-
formation can be confusing, but understanding the basics is a good place to start. Apply the tips you
have just read and you should be able to make some healthy changes.
(Muscle Bodybuilder, http://www.musclebodybuilder.org/ideas-and-tips-for-keeping-a-diet-
rich-in-nutrition/ )

6.9. Talking points: Work in small groups. Choose one of the following problems in eating
habits and express your opinion about the following tips we have read in the text. Then share your
opinion with other students.
· Vegetarian food
· Regular healthy lunch
· Carbohydrates
· Food cut-down
· Sports and exercises
Remember to use the following linking words: as well as, also, not only but, besides, neither
… nor…, both… and…, either … or …, as … as …

Language Development
6.10. Work with vocabulary related to the problem of a healthy way of life. Identify any
words that are new to you, memorize them and make up your own sentences.

6.11. Fill in the proper words from the list below:


saturated fat energy value of food
fall into cut out
reduces the risk of fitness
junk food smoking
obesity and heart disease does harm
to enjoy
1. _______, for example, causes a number of heart and lung diseases, such as pneumonia,
emphysema, and cancer.
2. Smoking has been banned in most public places because everyone agrees it _______ our
health.
3. A lot of people like drinking coca cola and coffee, and _______ pizzas and hamburgers.
4. Fat is believed to be one of the major causes of _______ _______.
5. _______ and low fat foods can now be found in all shops and supermarkets.
6. A lot of people try to improve their _______.
7. If you want to lose weight, you should _______ snacks and deserts and cut down on fat.
8. People have also become more aware of calories, the _______.
9. People say that a vegetation diet _______ of cancer and vegetarians live longer than others.
10. People are too busy to cook and eat proper meals, so they grab whatever is available – and
that is usually _______.
11. Hamburgers, crisps, chocolate bars and hot dogs _______ this category.

6.12. While reading the following text match one of the subtitles with the correct paragraph
Health improvement Anticancer remedy
Natural antibiotic The history of using herbal remedy
Methods of naturopathy
Medicinal Herbs

79
For thousands of years herbs were the principal form of medical treatment. They have over-
shadowed only in the last hundred years or so by western science-based medicine, which views the
body as a set of chemical reactions rather than an organic object. Modern medicine tends to use
drugs to suppress the symptoms of illness. Herbs, on the other hand, aim to assist the body's own
healing processes which, by definition, work on the body as a complete whole. Herbal means of
promoting health are becoming more and more popular and people are becoming increasingly dis-
trustful of the powerful and frequently toxic drugs prescribed by mainstream medical practitioners.
Newspaper and magazine articles dealing with herbs appear with increasing frequency, and herbal
treatments are becoming more accepted among some general practitioners and other members of the
medical profession. Sometimes a strong herbal remedy is required and in these cases it is necessary
to consult a practitioner who has an extensive herbal training. These stronger remedies can provide a
very effective treatment, but they can be costly and time-consuming.

Milder herbal products can be found at health food shops or mail-order suppliers. These prod-
ucts can be used safely without the need for supervision. Being milder in their effects, however, they
are likely to be more effective when combined with naturopathy. Although the term “naturopathy” is
only beginning to become more widely recognized, many of its methods are familiar and include the
following:
· Exercise, diet, relaxation, including some psycho-therapeutic approaches such as meditation
or counselling, moderate exposure to sunshine
· Hydrotherapeutic (water-based) treatments, such as hot baths, alternating immersion of parts
of the body in hot and cold water, and hip baths for the pelvic areas
· Bowel cleansing through enemas or colonics, and liver cleansing
· Bony and soft tissue manipulation

Naturopathy uses various combinations of these methods to promote health. Here is more de-
tail on some of these. Health can be improved in a variety of ways with the help of dietary changes.
One of the simplest improvements to make is to increase the quantities of fruit and vegetables in the
diet. A mixed salad with each main meal is a simple and extremely beneficial way of increasing the
quantity of minerals, vitamins and enzymes consumed each day. The health-giving properties of a
salad can be enhanced by using a dressing that includes, among other ingredients, extra virgin olive
oil, organic vinegar, fresh lemon juice, cayenne pepper and mustard.

Our knowledge of garlic's health benefits dates as far back as ancient Indian and Eastern medi-
cine. Throughout history, garlic has been used as everything from an antibiotic to a tasty cooking
ingredient. While many of the people who recognize garlic's health benefits today take it to reduce
their cholesterol levels and help to reduce their risk of heart disease, the so-called stinking rose also
functions as an antibiotic, antifungal, antiviral, antioxidant, carminative, expectorant and diuretic.
Generally speaking, it is known to stimulate the immune system.

Real tea is rich in flavonoids, powerful antioxidants. Herbal teas are derived from a different
plant source and lack the antioxidant properties of the flavonoids in real tea. Antioxidants help pro-
tect the body against disease by counteracting the harmful effects of free radicals - stray, highly reac-
tive particles that accumulate in the body as by-products of metabolism. Free radicals injure sur-
rounding cells through oxidation. Left unchecked they can damage cellular DNA and potentially
cause cancer. Most of the data supporting the anticancer benefits of tea at this point is derived from
animal studies in which animals were treated with polyphenols equivalent to amounts consumed by

80
regular tea drinkers. Evidence is the strongest for prevention of cancers of the oral cavity, stomach
and colon. A few animal studies link tea with a decreased risk of lung and skin cancers. Studies in
humans have been less consistent but still suggest that tea has anticancer benefits.
So, if you want to be healthy you should use all the opportunities our nature gives us through
the herbs which have antibiotic, antiviral, antioxidant and bracing effect for your organism.
(The Internet’s Resource on Medicinal Herbs, http://www.emedicinal.com/articles/herbal-
naturopathy.php#.UyVwtIUZ8qE )

6.13. Talking points: After reading the text discuss in small groups the problems of treatment
with the help of a herbal remedy using the subtitles of the text. Then share your ideas with the stu-
dents of other groups.
While sharing the ideas try to use the following phrases:
· I am convinced that · It is necessary to emphasize that …
· To my way of thinking · It’s quite clearly that …
· It seems to me that · In fact
· As far as I know · As a matter of fact
· Indeed · Actually
· Naturally that … · In practice
· Needless to say that … · To sum up

Focus on Grammar
I. Phrasal Verb(s). Find out how many meanings of the verb “fall” you know.
to fall apart – to break into pieces
to fall back on – to turn to smb for help when other plans have failed
to fall behind with – to fail to be on schedule
to fall for – to fall in love with smb
to fall off – to decrease
to fall in with – to agree with, to become friendly with
to fall into – to be divided into categories
to fall on – to attack, to eat hungrily
to fall out with – to quarrel
to fall through – to fail to be completed

6.14. Fill in the correct particle:


1. At university she ….. …….. …… a group that introduced her to the theatre
(became friendly with).
2. The work …. …. three distinct parts: administrative, planning and financial
(is divided into).
3. They … …. ….. their partners in business over profits and haven’t spoken since then
(quarreled).
4. We haven’t finished our research work this week, our plans have ….. … (failed to be
completed).
5. I had terrible problems assembling the shelves, then they … …. as soon as I put
something on them. (were broken into pieces).
6. If I don’t get this job, I won’t have any savings to … …. on (to turn for help).
7. The problems we have had mean that we have … …. and won’t meet the deadline
(failed to be on schedule).
8. He … … her the first time he saw her and asked her to marry him the second time!
(fell in love with).
9. Interest in the project … …. when they realized it wouldn't be profitable (decreased).

81
10. After he had worked hard he … …. sandwiches his wife had prepared for him
(ate hungrily).

II. Modal Verbs


Modal verbs are used to show the speaker’s attitude toward the action or state indicated by the
infinitive. The action can be possible, impossible, probable, improbable, obligatory, necessary, advis-
able, doubtful or uncertain.
The verb “can” has two forms: “can” for the Present Tense and “could” for the Past Tense;
the expression “to be able” which has the same meaning can be used to supply the missing forms of
the verb “can”.
The verb “can” expresses ability or capability, possibility, doubt or astonishment. It expresses:
– physical or mental ability E.g. We can carry out this experiment
successfully.
– possibility due to circumstances E.g. They could not come in time because of
traffic jam.
– possibility due to existing laws E.g. You cannot play football on the road.
– permission E.g. Both students and staff could use the
swimming pool.
– request E.g. Can you tell me the time?
– prohibition E.g. Can we stay here?
– No, I am afraid you can’t.
– doubt, astonishment E.g. Can (could) it be so late?
He can’t (couldn’t) be so old!
– reproach, disapproval E.g. You could have met me at the station
He could have analysed the results of the
experiment.
The expression “to be able to” is used instead of “can” because it has only two forms, but
sometimes it is necessary to express some other tenses. Moreover, we use “can (could”) for general
ability, but if we are talking about what happened in a particular situation, the expression “to be able
to” is preferable:
e.g. I haven’t been able to work hard lately.
They were able to save money to buy a car.
The modal verb “must” has only one form. The expressions “to have to” and “to be obliged
to” can be used to supply the missing tense forms of the verb “must”.
The verb “must” expresses:
– obligation, necessity, duty E.g. You must talk to your son about his future.
– prohibition E.g. Cars mustn’t be parked in front of the gate.
– command, urgent request E.g. Guests must be out before midnight.
– probability, supposition
bordering on assurance E.g. He must be working in the laboratory.
As a modal verb “to have to” is not a defective verb. It can have the category of person and
number and all tense-aspect forms as well as verbals. In the negative and interrogative sentences the
auxiliary verb “to do” is used.
The expression “to have to” expresses:
– obligation or necessity arising out of circumstances E.g. She had to postpone her trip.
There is sometimes difference between “must” and “have to”. In everyday statements of ne-
cessity “have to” is used more commonly that “must”. The modal verb “must” is usually stronger
than “have to” and can indicate urgency or stress importance.
E.g. I have to be at home by 10 o’clock.
Where is Sue? I must talk to her now!

82
In spoken English the meaning of obligation and necessity is also expressed by “have got to”.
For single actions “have to” and “have got to” are interchangeable.
E.g. I have got to check the oil level in the car.
Note that “mustn’t” does not mean the same as “don’t have to”.
E.g. You mustn’t do this. – Вам нельзя этого делать.
You don’t have to do this. – Вам нет необходимости делать это.
The modal expression “to be to” denotes obligation or necessity arising out of an arrangement
or plan. It is used in the Present and Past Simple Tenses.
E.g. We are to complete this work tomorrow.
Who was to speak at the meeting?
“Should” and “ought to” are very much alike in meaning and are often interchangeable. They
are very common in spoken English and have only one form.
These verbs express:
– obligation, duty E.g. You should do this experiment at once.
– advisability E.g. You shouldn’t miss the opportunity to set on a trip.
– naturally expected fact E.g. Apples ought to grow well here.
– reproach, criticism (when Perfect Infinitive is used after “should”)
E.g. You shouldn’t have gone to bed so late.
The verb “may” has two forms: “may” for the Present Tense and “might” for the Past Tense.
The expressions “to be allowed to” and “to be permitted to” can be used to supply the missing forms
of the verb “may”.
The modal verb “may” can express:
- permission E.g. You may ask some questions if you don’t
understand something.
“Might” is rather old fashioned and is not often used in modern English to ask for permission.
- prohibition E.g. You may not go swimming in cold and windy
weather.
- request (in this case “may” is more formal than “can” and “might” expresses a more
polite request) E.g. May I trouble you for the dictionary?
- possibility E.g. You may order a taxi by telephone.
He may have been at home for two hours ago (the action refers to the past).
- reproach, disapproval E.g. You might offer your help (a mild reproach, a kind
of request).
You might have bought her some flowers (a reproach about something that has not been
done).
The expression “to be allowed to” is used instead of “may” if the Future Tense is used or
when the action was permitted and performed.
E.g. Teachers will be allowed to take part in this festival.
We were allowed to feed the animals in the zoo.
The modal verb “need” may be used either as a regular or a defective verb. It expresses:
- necessity E.g. It looks like rain. You will need a raincoat.
Need I tell you what happened?
The teacher said that we needn’t come.
- absence of necessity (it is expressed by the negative form of “need”)
E.g. You needn’t get up so early, it is Sunday today.
You don’t need to tell me about this problem.
You needn’t have come today because the lesson doesn’t take place (the action was
done but it was unnecessary).

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III. Exercises
6.15. Explain the meanings of the verbs and expressions:
1. She can read though she is only 5.
2. I can go there today, I have plenty of time.
3. Could you tell me the time?
4. You can’t cross the street here.
5. You could have met me at the station.
6. Your education must not be sketchy.
7. Cars mustn’t be parked in front of this gate.
8. John is not here. He must be working in the garden.
9. You shouldn’t miss the opportunity to participate in the conference.
10. Apples ought to grow well at this soil.
11. You should have told me about this in advance.
12. We are to complete this work tomorrow.
13. He was often to be seen there.
14. You may leave as soon as you have finished.
15. You may not enter the room until I say so.
16. You might offer your help.
17. You might have bought her flowers.
18. You needn’t be afraid of me.
19. You needn’t have spent all the money. Now we’ve got nothing left.
20. She had to put off her visit to a doctor.

6.16. Fill in the gaps with the correct form of verbs or expressions.
1. They had fishhooks so they ________catch fish.
2. He __________to read Arabic when he has finished his course of this language.
3. You _________have a visa to travel to some countries.
4. If you come from EEC country and you want to travel another one, you
_______worry about visas. You ______even take your passport.
5. They _______________to go to the South next summer if they have enough money.
6. You_____walk alone around the town late at night.
7. If you are traveling by air, you ____________carry anything in your luggage that
_________ be used as a weapon, such as a knife or a pair of scissors.
8. You _____ enter the club without a card.
9. You _____walk on the grass!
10. We ________have taken a wrong map.
11. We ________have done the work very quickly if we had a detailed description of this
project.
12. I stepped aside so that she _________to go in.
13. The rules for basketball say that you ______run while holding the ball.
14. They look alike. They _________be twins.
15. I think you ________have told her you were sorry.
16. You _________ take my cassette-recorder. I needn’t it now.

6.17. Use the correct modal verb or expression according to the context
1. _____ we feed the animals in the zoo? No, you ________.
2. The raft is so small so we ______lie down comfortable.
3. We _______drink more water according to the doctor’s advice.
4. You _______have gone to bed earlier last night, but you didn’t follow my advice.
5. _____I come earlier to help you? No, you _________.
6. She ________to go to the cinema if she does her room quickly.

84
7. He __________be working in the garden, I saw him there a few minutes ago.
8. We _________ come so early because our flight is delayed.
9. My brother _________go to his mother last week as she felt ill.
10. We ________to respect the elderly. Everybody knows about this.
11. You ________to take this medicine twice a day according to the instruction.
12. The teacher _______have forgotten about our lesson.
13. ______I borrow your book? I have forgotten mine at home.
14. When we lived on the coast, we __________swim every day.
15. I’m not sure where Garry is. He _________be at the laboratory.
16. They __________have told about this accident to the police earlier.

IV. The functions of the word


As

adverb preposition conjunction

This word is used as an adverb and a preposition in comparisons meaning equally like, in the
condition.
E.g. He’s as old as me.
As a writer she’s wonderful, but as a teacher she’s not very good.
As (conjunction) is used: in comparisons; in the way or manner that; while, when; because;
though; as it is in reality, in fact.
as far as – насколько, поскольку
as yet – ещё, пока, до сих пор
as compared to (with) – по сравнению с
as to (as for) – что касается, относительно
such as – такой, как; например
as often as not – нередко
as such – как таковой, сам по себе, по существу
as it is – в действительности
as a whole – в целом

6.18. Read and translate the following sentences defining the function of the word “as”:
1. As the day went on, the weather got worse.
2. As she was going along the street, she looked in the shop windows.
3. During the Great Patriotic War some classrooms of Tomsk University were used as
hospital.
4. The news of her sudden disappearance came as a great shock and caused great mass
media interest.
5. Some animals such as the fox and the squirrel have bushy tails.
6. Tom failed his exam in mathematics, as we had expected.
7. As you emerge from mountainous forests into eastern “treeless” regions, you enter the
extensive, open woodland.
8. We hoped things would get better, but as it is they are getting worse.
9. Use one of the medicines, as case may be.
10. He speaks English as easily as he speaks French.
11. As far as I can judge, it is not correct at all.
12. He was a real scientist as well as a great writer.
13. As our last example we consider a simplified version of this complex phenomenon.
14. Do not do as I do, but do as I tell you.

85
15. As compared to the above method, this one gives rise to an alternative interpretation
of this problem.
16. The lack of published research activities in this area as such worried science students.
17. When in Rome, do as the Romans do.
18. As she has no car, she can’t get there easily.
Make up your own sentences paying attention to the function(s) of the word “as”.

Focus on Business
Business Course: Order Letter
An Order Letter is the one that is written by the person/company placing the request of pur-
chase from another company. This letter comes into action only when a detailed study of the desired
product has been done in the market and based on promised service, quality and price of the product,
a decision for a purchase has been made.
An Order Letter should be drafted very carefully as it needs to pen down all the terms and
conditions of the purchase for the benefit of both involved parties. It should have details such as
product specifications, quantities, price agreed upon, delivery date, late delivery clauses, etc. It
should be addressed to the person responsible for the execution of the order with a copy to the head
of department. Since it is totally an official letter it should be typed.
6.19. Analyse the following letter paying attention to its layout:
May 5, 2006
Mrs. Linda Ramos
IGM marketing,
Angeles city

Dear Mrs. Ramos,


Please send me the following goods by parcel from your April catalogue immediately:
1 piece bathing suit, cream and blue, size 31, No H61- $ 70.00
2 pairs of white canvas shoes, size 4, B width- $ 50.00
1 black sweater, round neck, size 28, no B22- $ 52.00
Please send the above materials within a week. I have enclosed a check of 100$ as ad-
vance for the order.
The remaining payment will be made after I get my order.

Yours truly,
Gwenn Harry

6.20. Put the parts of the order letter in the correct logical order:
a) Dear Miss Jackson,Please accept this purchase order for the following :

No. Product Quantity Unit Price Total

1 Single Brush Polisher Colombia 400 4 $ 3,000 $ 12,000


2 Extractor SX 144 4 $ 2,000 $ 8,000
3 Total $ 20,000

b) We require shipment by August 17, 2013.


c) July 9, 2013
Toko Englet
11 Main Street

86
San Fransisco, USA
ZIP CODE 91234
d) Sincerely,
Mr. John Prana
Purchasing Manager

6.21. You are going to write an order letter according to the following recommendations:
1. Before any company or individual place an order letter, they need to know exactly the product
they are going to order, any details, and also very important, the cost of it, and the price of the delivery if
the order it’s going to be sent to us by mail or any other company dedicated to the delivery of package.
2. The next thing we need to know is all the details of the purchase, like conditions or benefits
we can get from the purchase, refunds or extra charges, anything that the seller can offer or ask.
Now that we have the correct information, we can start to write the letter.
3. First, like all formal letters we will put the date, address, and name of the recipient. When
we start to write the letter we will start it with a formal manner, that is, using Dear Mr or Ms, fol-
lowed by the name.
4. We can use two or three paragraph to form the letter, if we pick three then we will use the
first one to make a little introduction of ourselves, the second to explain all the details about the or-
der, and finally the last one will be used to ask any question we may have or just clarify again our
order. If we use two paragraphs then we will skip the introduction and we will go straight to our
business, we will talk about the order and we will confirm any detail and formally ask for the order.
5. It’s good to add your number in the bottom of the letter, this why the buyer can contact you
if necessary.

6.22. Talking points: In groups take turns to give your presentations devoted to the following
problems. While the other students are listening, they should write down at least one or two ques-
tions to the speaker after the presentation is over. Then have a short question and answer session.
1. Harmful habits that have a great impact on human health:
a) smoking and drinking;
b) taking drugs;
c) overeating;
d) inactive life.
2. How to keep a diet rich in nutrition:
a) reduction of unhealthy animal fat consumption;
b) good and full-fledged rest;
c) reduction of the quantity of food in one’s meal;
d) cutting back on the consumption of refined sugars;
e) increasing the quantity of fruit and vegetables in a diet.
3. The aim of medicinal herbs is to assist the body's own healing processes:
a) they are milder in their effects;
b) health-giving properties of garlic and onion;
c) real tea as a source of flavonoids, powerful antioxidants.
While discussing these problems, use the following phrases:
Asking for reasons and giving reasons: · I’d like your advice on …
· What’s the reason for …? · I would strongly recommend you …
· How can you explain the fact …? · Why don’t you …?
· The basic reason is that … · I would advise you to …
· The point is … · I would be grateful if you …
· Let me explain. You see … Rephrasing, going into detail
Expressing and asking advice · In other words …
· What do you suggest we should do? · Put in another way …
· I would appreciate your advice on · Another way of saying it …
· What would you do in this position? · Let’s focus on one aspect of this …

87
Project work
After identifying and discussing the main problems of keeping a healthy way of life con-
tinue working on the item you have chosen. Develop your ideas in an individual project titled
“Problems with health in Siberia and Tomsk Region”. You should observe the following stages
to discuss the situation in Tomsk Region and Siberia:
· Problems with health which are the most common in Siberia and Tomsk Region
· Medicinal herbs that can be found in our region
· Sport facilities in Tomsk
· Public activity of making the population be aware of the health problems

Module Self-Assessment (units 4-6)


1. Match the definitions with these words
1.Desoxyribonucleic a) a substance containing chemicals combined in such a way that they cannot be
acid easily processed by the body when eaten.
2.Genera b) the nucleic acid that stores and transmits the genetic information from one
generation of an organism to the next.
3.Landscape c) a thing done to relieve or cure an illness or correct a problem.
4.Pharmacy d) a group of animals or plants within a family.
5.Immune system e) a process of providing and receiving food necessary for health and growth.
6.Acclimatization f) any of several substances such as sugar or starch that are composed of carbon,
hydrogen and oxygen.
7.Remedy g) the deliberate changing of inherited features by altering the structure or posi-
tion of individual genes.
8. Prokaryotes h) organisms where cells lack nuclei.
9.Saturated fat i) the study of the preparation of medicines and drugs.
10.Nutrition j) plants whose leaves or seeds can be used to give flavour to food or in medicines.
11.Treatment k) the system in the body which produces substances to help it to resist disease.
12.Carbohydrate l) the ability to live in and get used to a new climate or environment, new condi-
tions.
13.Medicinal herbs m) a treatment or medicine that cures a disease or relieves pain.
14.Overeating n) the process of eating more than one needs or more than is healthy.
15.Genetic Engineer- o) all the features of an area that can be seen when looking across.
ing

2. Choose the correct item:


1. People in the past began to develop more _________ sources of food through
primitive forms of agriculture.
a) reliable b) useful c) helpful d) changeable
2. The invention of microscope had a ___________ effect on studies in the biological
sciences and led to the discovery of cells.
a) stable b) profound c) difficult d) various
3. The nature of viruses has become _________ only within the last half of the 20th century
and the first step on the path of this discovery was taken by the Russian botanist
Ivanovsky in 1892.
a) hazardous b) tolerant c) wide-spread d) evident
4. Genetics regards genes as the primary units of ______________ in all living things.
a) information b) inheritance c) connection d) reliability
5. Genetic engineering has made it possible to produce genetically ______________
organisms.
a) modified b) classified c) organized d) changed
6. The cell ____________ regulates what enters and leaves the cell and also aids in the
protection and support of the cell.

88
a) nucleus b) membrane c) cytoplasm d) chromosome
7. Economic botany enables people to increase food supply and eliminate hunger and
________.
a) starvation b) prosperity c) security d) poverty
8. Climate change has become a major issue of concern for ______________and
international agencies over the last few years.
a) authorities b) governments c) organizations d) societies
9. Governments in many countries of the world struggle against a lot of __________habits
involving more and more young people.
a) ruinous b) favourable c) irreducible d) extraordinary

3. Fill in the verbs in brackets in the correct form.

The Human Brain


The brain _______ (be) enlarged anterior part of the vertebrate nervous system, which
_______ (encase) within the cranium of the skull. Continuous with the spinal cord, the brain
_______ (surround) by three membranes and _______ (bathe) in cerebro-spinal fluid, which
_______ (fill) internal cavities. The brain _______ (function) as the main coordinating centre for
nervous activity. It _______ (receive) information in the form of nerve impulses from sense organs
_______ (interpret) it, and _______ (transmit) “instructions” to muscles and other effectors. The
latter _______ (produce) a physiological response when stimulated by a nerve impulse. The brain
_______ (be) also the seat of intelligence and memory.
The embryonic vertebrate brain _______ (include) three sections (forebrain; hindbrain; mid-
brain), which _______ (become) further differentiated during development into specialized regions.
The main parts of the adult human brain _______ (be) a highly developed cerebrum in the form of
two cerebral hemispheres. Brain death _______ (occur) when the permanent absence of vital func-
tions of the brain _______ (observe), which _______ (mark) by cessation of breathing and other re-
flexes including the pupillary reflex controlled by the brainstem and by a zero reading on an electro-
encephalogram. Organs _______ (may, remove) for transplantation when brain death _______ (es-
tablish), which _______ (may, not necessarily) associate with permanent absence of heart beat. The
human brain _______ (regard) as the most complex biochemical mechanism created by Nature. It
_______ (have) a great potential which never _______ (reveal) completely. The brain of a modern
man _______ (be) the product of the long-term evolution of life on the Earth.

4. Put the following sentences into indirect speech


1. “Barny is in the garage,” says Norma.
2. “I’ll tell you this story when you finish chopping onions,” says Belle.
3. “What’s the time?”, he asks.
4. “Do it yourself, Monica!”, says Gloria.
5. “What exams have you passed and how many points do you have for your exams?”,
asked personnel manager.
6. “Did he finish school last year?”, his granny said.
7. “Can you read this text more loudly?”, the teacher said to the little girl.
8. “Don’t be so noisy!”, the lecturer asked his students.
9. “I have lived in this house since autumn,” said Stella Gibson.
10. “You may take this flower,” said my pretty neighbour in the plane.
11. “I don’t know where to go,” said the driver in a lost voice.

5. Choose the appropriate modal verb in the following sentences


1. On entering the house I _________smell something burning in the kitchen.
2. I’m not usually very good at tennis, but yesterday I __________beat my brother.

89
3. The city authorities insist we ___________use the public garage.
4. The director _________have spent so much money presenting such a weak story.
5. You ___________not take photos here.
6. ______I speak to Mr. Jones, please?
7. He __________put some petrol in the car.
8. You ___________respect the elderly.
9. You _________have gone to bed earlier last night.
10. He __not climb mountains now but he __________to do so before his accident.
11. She _____be present at the lecture last Monday.
12. You _______not worry about this. I’ll take care of that.
13. You __________not have said that. She was very upset by your remarks.
14. You _________get off the bus before it stops.
15. He _________still be working in the garden, I am sure.
16. I’m getting fatter. I ________to try to lose some weight, as the doctor said.
17. He is not here. I suppose he _________have gone to the party.
18. Waiter! You ________have served my soup with a dead fly in it!
19. I _____________to go to the nightclub tomorrow. My parents don’t approve this.

6. Fill in the article where it is necessary


1. He studies __Chinese history at __college.
2. Before ___ people invented _____wheel, they could not transport heavy loads easily.
3. I won’t let you leave in such ___stormy weather.
4. What ___wonderful journey, I’m happy I’ve joined you.
5. Not _word was said at _dinner about _accident that happened in _morning.
6. Yesterday I came from _____work nearly exhausted and went to _bed immediately.
7. _diplomat is _person who can tell you “go to hell” in such _____way that you actually
look forward to ___trip.
8. __dog is ______only thing on ___earth that loves you more than you love yourself.
9. California is __great place if you happen to be _____orange.

7. Fill in the gaps with the following prepositions


(on/in/at/to/from/along/under/into/off/past/ out of, opposite)
1. He arrived _________Great Britain half a month ago.
2. – Where is my English exercise-book?
- I don’t know. Try to find it __________your shelf.
3. My roommate is not ____home, he is ________the University.
4. Don’t you know that Carlson lived _________a small house _________the roof?
5. – Is it far _______here _______the market?
- No, it’s not. The market is ____________ that house.
6. When does your train arrive _____the station?
7. Go _____Gower Street, turn __________the right, go __________the bridge and you
see the Bloomsbury Theatre ________the corner.
8. Pour some water _________the kettle, please.
9. We spent two lovely weeks _________the Black Sea.
10. She walked _______me and didn’t tell me anything.
11. Please, take your feet _________the table.
12. I saw him go ________ _________ the house with a big bag _____his hand.
13. We have never been _______Italy before.

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UNIT 7
Learn how to…
1. Discuss the ecological problems in the modern world.
2. Develop the key ideas of the conservation of nature.
3. Speak about some well-known nature conservation organizations.
Focus on Grammar
The Subjunctive Mood
Functions of the word “other”
Functions of the word “rather”
Language Development
Vocabulary focus
Phrasal Verb(s): turn, cut.
Speaking: tell about real and unreal events that could happen in the present, past and future.
Focus on Business: a letter of complaint
Talking points: the role of nature conservation organizations
Project work: presentation and final discussion of the collective project titled “Problems of
nature conservation”

Warm-Up Activities
7.1. Match the causes of these disasters with the results obtained:
1) Air pollution a) Poisonous chemicals
2) Water pollution b) Exhaust fumes
3) Deforestation c) Cutting down of forests
4) The depletion of the ozone layer d) Illegal hunting
5) Extinction of wildlife e) Chlorofluorocarbons

Vocabulary Focus
7.2. Find Russian equivalents for the following English words and expressions:
deal with (v) illegal (adj)
affect (v) poisonous (adj)
encourage (v) consequently (adv)
concern (v) well-being (n)
rubbish landfill (n + n) contamination (n)
breathe (n) timber industry (n + n)
survival (n) extinction (n)
depend on (v) contribution to (n)
cause = stimulate, produce (v) survive (v)
get skin cancer
to be polluted with industrial wastes
to release poisonous chemicals into the atmosphere
to take an active part in
to lose one’s habitat
to prevent pollution
to use cleaner methods of production
to pay special attention
intensive shipping = a high level of shipping development

7.3. Reading Comprehension


Guide to Reading. Read the text and answer the following questions:
1. Why is it so important to be aware of ecological problems?

91
2. What problems are considered to be the most important in the modern world?
3. What ways of problems solution can you propose?
4. Which substances lead to the ozone layer depletion?

Text 1
Ecological Problems in the Modern World
Ecology is the branch of science that deals with the relationships of living things and the envi-
ronment. Scientists who study these relationships are called ecologists. The study of ecology in-
creases our understanding of the world we live in. This is important because our survival and well-
being depend on ecological relationships throughout the world. Even changes in distant parts of the
world and its atmosphere affect us and our environment.
In the world around us, there are many environmental problems. One of the most important of
them is water pollution. Dangerous chemicals from factories are poured into water. Consequently,
oceans, seas, rivers and lakes are polluted with industrial wastes. Intensive shipping causes the in-
creasing contamination of water with oil and petrol after collisions that sometimes happen to ships.
Many kinds of fish are dying in the sea, others are getting contaminated. Fishermen catch contami-
nated fish which can be sold in markets and people can get sick from eating them.
The second important problem is air pollution. Factories and cars release poisonous chemicals
into the air, which then are mixed with water in the clouds and after that polluted rains damage trees,
lakes, buildings and also affect human health. Air pollution also leads to the destruction of the ozone
layer which protects the Earth from the dangerous light of the sun. Moreover, chemicals from aero-
sol sprays and fridges go up into the atmosphere. As a result more and more people get skin cancer.
The third problem of the modern world is the high activity of timber industry when forests are
disappearing as trees are burnt or cut down. Especially this problem concerns rainforests, the de-
crease of which leads to the fact that less and less oxygen is produced, so people won’t be able to
breathe soon.
One more problem we are facing now is the pollution of our cities. Modern society pro-
duces too much packaging and food waste which are dropped in the streets or end up on the
rubbish landfill.
It should be mentioned that wildlife is also in danger now. Animals are losing their habitats as
growing cities cause the countryside to disappear. Pollution and disappearance of the forests also
lead to the extinction of many species among animals and birds. One more problem is illegal hunting
when animals are killed without any limitation and with special cruelty.
There are some possible ways to solve environmental problems. First of all, to prevent air and
water pollution we should use bicycles instead of cars or the alternative kinds of energy such as solar
and wind energy. What is more, the government should encourage industries to use cleaner methods
of production, paying special attention to the process of recycling. In addition, we should plant more
trees, protect jungles and forests and create national parks for keeping wild animals there. If we all
make efforts, we will be able to help to decrease the pollution of our planet and will contribute to the
conservation of nature.

7.4. Find the best choice to complete each sentence:


1. Changes in distant parts of the world and its atmosphere affect ……. .
a) only people’s lives c) flora and fauna
b) the sea level d) the environment
2. Our society produces a lot of ……………… which are dropped in the streets.
a) different goods c) poisonous chemicals
b) packaging food d) paper and plastic containers
3. Governments of different countries should encourage industries to use ………………,
paying special attention to the process of recycling.

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a) harmless substances c) raw materials
b) electric power d) cleaner methods of production
4. Intensive shipping causes the increasing……………… after collisions which have
happened to ships.
a) contamination of water c) contamination of water with oil and
with wastes petrol
b) contamination of water d) contamination of water with
with chemicals detergents

7.5. Guide to reading. Read the text carefully and put the headings in the right order:
a) Water с) Biodiversity
b) Energy and climate.

Text 2
Essential Problems of Ecology

More than 11,000 species of animals and plants are known to be threatened with extinction,
about a third of all coral reefs are expected to vanish in the next 30 years and about 36 million acres
of forests are being razed annually. In his new book, The Future of Life, Harvard biologist Edward
O. Wilson writes of his worry that unless we change our ways half of all species could disappear by
the end of the century.
The damage being done is more than aesthetic. Many vanishing species provide humans with
both food and medicine. The Equator Initiative, a public-private group, is publicizing examples of
sustainable development in the equatorial belt. Among the projects already cited are ones to help re-
store marine fisheries in Fiji and another that promotes beekeeping as a source of supplementary in-
come in rural Kenya. This organization also hopes to raise $260 million to help conserve genetic ma-
terial from plants for use by local agricultural programs.
Business is getting right with the environment too. The Center for Environmental Leader-
ship in Business, based in Washington, is working with auto and oil giants including Ford,
Chevron, Texaco and Shell to draft guidelines for incorporating biodiversity conservation into
oil and gas exploration.

For a world that is 70% water, things are drying up fast. Only 2.5% of water is fresh, and only
a fraction of that is accessible. Meanwhile, each of us requires about 50 quarts per day for drinking,
bathing, cooking and other basic needs. At present, 1.1 billion people lack access to clean drinking
water and more than 2.4 billion lack adequate sanitation. Unless we take decisive actions by 2025,
two-thirds of the world’s population may be living in the countries that face serious water shortages.
The answer is to be careful about how we use water. Agriculture accounts for about two-thirds of
the fresh water consumed. New situation calls for more efficient irrigation techniques, planting of
drought- and salt-tolerant variety that require less water and better monitoring of growing condi-
tions, such as soil humidity levels. Improving water-delivery systems will also help to reduce the
amount of the lost water.

In the USA people think of rural electrification as a long-ago legacy of the New Deal*. In
many parts of the world, it hasn’t even happened yet. About 2.5 billion people have no access to
modern energy services, and the power demands of developing economies are expected to grow
2.5% per year. While burning fuels such as oil, coal and gas, more and more carbon dioxide and
other greenhouse gases will hit the atmosphere. Scientists tell us that this effect will promote global
warming and can lead to rising seas, fiercer storms, severe droughts and other climatic disruptions.

93
The better way to meet the world’s energy needs is to develop cheaper and cleaner sources.
Among them we can find such sources as wind power system or solar panels that convert sunlight
into electricity. Micro-hydroelectric plants are operating now in numerous countries, including the
Netherlands, Germany and Sweden. The systems divert water from streams and rivers and use it to
run turbines without complex dams.
In conclusion it should be mentioned that only the united efforts of all nations could lead to the
prosperity of our planet, to the peaceful coexistence of a great number of plants and animals on the
earth.
*New Deal – was a series of domestic programs enacted in the United States between 1933
and 1936, and a few that came later. They included both laws passed by Congress as well as presi-
dential executive orders during the first term (1933–37) of President Franklin D. Roosevelt. The
programs were in response to the Great Depression, and focused on what historians call the "3 Rs":
Relief, Recovery, and Reform. That is Relief for the unemployed and poor; Recovery of the economy
to normal levels; and Reform of the financial system to prevent a repeat depression (Wikipedia).

7.6. Talking points: in small groups discuss the problems of this text. The following questions
will help you to develop your ideas.
1. How many species of animals and plants, and acres of forests are known to be
threatened with extinction?
2. What proposals does the Equator Initiative make to conserve nature?
3. How can business companies take part in the movement for nature conservation?
4. What can you say about the water resources that exist on the earth now?
5. How can this serious situation be improved in the nearest future?
6. Why is the use of oil, coal and gas as the source of fuel for industrial needs considered
to be very dangerous?
7. What alternative sources of energy can be used by people?
8. What could the united efforts of all nations lead to?
Then share the results of your discussion with other students. Use the following phrases while
discussing the issues.
1. Opening a discussion · Can you give me some more informa-
· I’d like to start with… tion about…?
· The first thing I’d like to discuss… · What I really need to know is…
· It seems best to start with… · What is your position on…?
· I’d like to begin by saying… · Could you be so pleased to explain me
2. Developing your thoughts this in details?
· I would like to say that… 4. Summarizing
· You should know that… · In conclusion I’d like to say…
· It should be mentioned that … · To sum up…
· Let me explain this in details · Having discussed everything we make
3. Asking for additional information a conclusion that…
· What I’d like to know is… · Finally we have decided that…

Language development
7.7. Work with vocabulary related to ecological and biological problems. Identify any words
that are new to you, memorize them and make up your own sentences.

7.8. Match the words with their definitions:


irrigate, humidity, equator, income,
guideline, coral, fuel, severe, access.

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1. A red, pink or white hard substance formed on the bottom of the sea from the bones
of tiny creatures.
2. An imaginary line around the earth at an equal distance from the North and the South
Poles.
3. Money received over a certain period, especially as payment for work or as interest
on investments.
4. A general rule, instruction or piece of advice.
5. A means of approaching or entering a place, the opportunity or right to use
something.
6. To supply land or crops with water, especially by means of specially constructed
channels or pipes.
7. The amount of moisture in the air.
8. Any material burned to produce heat or power.
9. Very bad, intense or difficult, demanding great skill, ability or patience.

7.9. Fill in the blanks with the proper words from the list below:
sources divert
destruct survival
relationships affect
fierce poisonous
coexistence severe
provide extinction
promote
accessible
1. Human’s survival on Earth depends on ecological …………………throughout the world
(contacts between people or countries).
2. Fish contaminated with ………….substances may be sold in markets and people may
get sick from eating them (hazardous).
3. When animals lose their habitats they are threatened with ………..(to be no longer in exis-
tence).
4. Many species of plants and animals ……………. people with necessary food and medicine
(to make sth available for sb)
5. Since fresh water is not always …………. in different countries millions of people
lack the use of clean drinking water and adequate sanitation (easy to use or understand).
6. Greenhouse gases can ……………global warming and lead to disasters connected with cli-
matic disruptions (to encourage or support).
7. Except nuclear stations we can find such ………….as wind power system or solar panels
that convert these kinds of natural energy into electricity (a place from which smth comes).
8. As a result of global warming we can observe ……..storms, ………droughts that happened
on the Earth during the last several decades (violent; very bad and intense).
9. If people all over the world don’t unite their efforts in the struggle for the prosperity of our
planet and for the peaceful ………………of plants and animals on the earth, we will face the prob-
lem of ……………in the nearest future (living together at the same time or at the same place; the
state of continuing to live or exist).
10. Special systems can ……… water from natural water reservoirs and use it to run turbines
without complex dams (to turn smth into another state).
11. Scientists have confirmed that climate change happening in distant areas can ……….. di-
rectly the weather in the densely populated regions of Europe or Asia ( to influence).
12. The ozone layer that protects the Earth from the dangerous light of the sun is ……….in
the process of air pollution (to destroy).

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Focus on Grammar
I. Phrasal Verb(s). Study the meanings of the verbs “turn” and “cut”. Make up some
sentences using them.
to turn away = to refuse admittance to turn up = to arrive or appear
to turn down = to refuse an offer/ to unexpectedly
reduce loudness
to turn off = to switch off to cut across = to take a shorter way
to turn on = to switch on to cut back = to reduce
to turn out = to produce/ to cut in/into = to interrupt
prove to be to cut off = to disconnect
to turn over = to turn to a new page/ to cut out = to omit
change the TV channel to cut up = to cut into small
to turn to = go to sb for help/advice pieces
/ to begin

7.10. Fill in the correct particles:


1. When you are leaving the room, don’t forget to turn ……the light (switch off).
2. If I have some problems with my experiment I shall turn ….. you (go to sb for help).
3. You have to read the instruction thoroughly before you start working with this device
and turn it ….. (switch on).
4. My friend turned …… to be interested in problems of nature conservation (proved to be).
5. I have a terrible headache! Could you turn ….the radio (reduce loudness)?
6. When our group completed the experiment we turned ……. all our hypotheses
(proved).
7. In spite of my good results at my exams I was turned ……..(refused admittance).
8. We were carrying out the experiments when the leader of our group turned ….
(appeared unexpectedly) .
9. She was advised to cut……..fat and sweets from her diet (reduce).
10. We had a lack of time, so we decided to cut …… the park (take a shorter way).
11. If you want to obtain reliable results in this reaction you will have to cut ….the
sample (cut into small pieces).
12. You should not cut …..the speech of your partner when he is presenting his report
(interrupt).
13. Don’t cut ….. all the details of this lecture (omit).
14. Some distant regions were cut ….. due to a severe storm (disconnected).

II. Mood
The Subjunctive Mood
The Subjunctive Mood shows that the action or state expressed by the verb is presented as a
non-fact, but as something imaginary or desired. Usually these kinds of sentences consist of the main
clause and the adverbial clause of condition (or if-clause). There are several types of Conditional sen-
tences.
1. Type 0 Conditionals are used to express a general truth or a scientific fact. In this type of
conditionals we can use when instead of if.
E.g. When you mix an acid and a base, you obtain a salt.
2. Type 1 conditionals are used to express a real or very probable situation in the present or
future.
E.g. If you carry out the experiment correctly, you will obtain the valid results.
Note: When the hypothesis comes before the main clause, we separate them with a comma.
When the main clause comes before the if-clause, then we do not use a comma to separate them.

96
3. Type 2 Conditionals (unreal present) are used to express imaginary situations which are
contrary to facts in the present, and therefore are unlikely to happen in the present or future. In case
of the verb to be we should use were for all pronouns (including I, he, she, it) in the if-clause, but
was is also possible.
E.g. a) We would include these facts in our paper if we knew their reliability.
b) If I were you, I would take part in this International conference.
4. Type 3 Conditionals (unreal past) are used to express imaginary situations which are con-
trary to facts in the past. They are also used to express regrets or criticism.
E.g. If you had asked me to help you, I would have finished my part of the investigation
earlier.
5. We can form mixed conditionals, if the context permits it, by combining an if-clause from
one type (2 or 3) with a main clause from another (1, 2 or 3).
E.g. a) If he returned later yesterday, he won’t be in time for work today.
b) You wouldn’t have offended him during the last meeting if you were polite.
c) If he had studied hard last term, he would get a scholarship now.

All these rules can be presented in the following table


.
Types of Conditionals
0 1 2 3 Mixed
Future Simple, Would/could/mig
Would/could/mi
Main can/must/may ht + perfect bare From types
Present Simple ght + bare infini-
clause etc. + bare in- infinitive (have + 2, 3
tive
finitive V3)
Past Simple/Past
Continuous, Past Past Perfect/Past
From types 2
If-clause Present Simple Present Simple Subjunctive of Perfect Continu-
and 3
the verb to be ous
(were)

6. The conjunctions introducing adverbial clauses of condition are: if, in case, provided, sup-
pose, unless and some others. But if is the common conjunction used in sentences of real and unreal
conditions.
E.g. a) In case I don’t find this laboratory, I shall ask somebody in the chair.
b) Provided you agreed to participate in this conference, you paper would be included
in its programme.
c) They would not have completed their experimental work unless they had studied
all the necessary samples.
7. Unreal conditions may also be expressed with the help of expression but for.
E.g. a) But for the rain we should go to the forest.
b) But for the contaminants they could have used the water in their experiments.
8. Adverbial clauses of condition containing the verbs had, were, could and should are often in-
troduced without any conjunctions. In this case we observe the inversion.
E.g. a) Had they known about this fact before, they would not have agreed to take part in
this expedition.
b) Were I in your place, I would do the same.
9. When the predicate of the principal clause is expressed by the verb to wish, we use such
sentences in the following cases:
1) To say that we would like something to be different about a present situation. The Past
Simple or the Past Progressive tenses are used.
2) To express regret about something which happened in the past the Past Perfect is used.
3) To express:
a) a polite imperative
b) a desire for a situation or person’s behavior to change
In this case we should use would + bare infinitive.

97
E.g. a) I wish I had chosen this problem for my graduation project.
b) I wish I had passed this exam successfully.
c) They wish it would stop snowing.
10. Unreal conditions may also be expressed with the help of expression as if.
As though and as if are subordinating conjunctions. We use as if or as though when we want
to give an explanation for something which may not be correct.
E.g. She looks as if she were ill.
I felt as if I had seen this man before.

III. Exercises
7.11. Put the verbs in brackets into the appropriate form:
1. If you don’t wind up your watch, it (stop).
2. I would be surprised if he (help) me with this problem.
3. I would have phoned you yesterday if you (be) in town.
4. If I hadn’t bought the car earlier, it (cost) less now.
5. If she had met him the day before, she (not /look for) him today afternoon.
6. You will never pass your drive test if you (not/work) harder.
7. What you (buy) if your friend gave you some money?
8. If I (be) you, I would help them to solve this problem.
9. We wouldn’t have watched this programme if we (know) it would be so boring.

7.12. Open the brackets paying attention to the inversion.


1) But for her eyes the girl (not attract) my attention.
2) I wish I (be) healthy like you.
3) Weren’t you so careless, you (not/make) such foolish mistakes.
4) But for you I (not come) here yesterday.
5) We wished you (finish) this work a week ago.
6) He seemed as if he (not believe) anybody.
7) She spoke about the film as if she (see) it already.

7.13. Translate the following sentences into English:


1. Если я буду работать с этими образцами, ты поможешь измерить температуру
реакций?
2. Если бы наша группа провела эксперимент в прошлом месяце, то мы смогли
бы принять участие в ежегодной конференции.
3. Что бы Вы сделали, если бы выиграли главный приз в этом конкурсе?
4. Будь он спокойнее, мы могли бы обсудить с ним все проблемы.
5. Закончил бы Джон университет в прошлом году, он бы смог работать в этой
фирме сейчас.
6. Если бы не моя семья, я бы давно уехала из этого города.
7. Вы выглядите так, как будто бы трудились усердно весь день.
8. Жаль, что зима уже закончилась.
9. Мне бы хотелось встретиться с тобой вновь.

IV. The functions of the words “rather” and “other”

“rather”

is used with negative words is used with positive words would rather =
and negative ideas in the meaning of “unusually” would prefer

98
7.14. Define the meaning of the word “rather” in the following sentences:
1. Would you rather deliver your paper in the morning session of the conference or in the
afternoon?
2. I think that this definition of an ecological problem is rather difficult.
3. This idea of using alternative kinds of energy is rather interesting.
4. The duration of the experiment was rather long.
5. I would rather analyse the results of investigation at once than postpone the discussion
of them till tomorrow.
6. I’d rather you didn’t mention this article in your scientific paper.
7. These apes are rather healthy. Where and how are you keeping them?
8. We were rather disappointed with the state of the lake but we were assured that the
situation would change soon.
“other”

additional or different the second of remaining people/ people/things that are


additional or people two people/things things in a group different from
or things those mentioned (pl)

7.15. Translate the following sentences paying attention to the meaning of the word
“other”.
1. You may continue to write your composition on the other side of the paper.
2. Treat others as you would like to be treated.
3. This option of solving the problem is preferable to any other.
4. Mr. Brown and other three members of Greenpeace organization were included in
the agenda of the meeting.
5. The other article on this problem belongs to a young researcher from Russia.
6. Do you have any other questions to the speaker?
7. I was going to prepare my presentation while the others were talking to Professor
Harris.
8. Two buildings were destroyed during the earthquake and many others were
damaged.
9. I haven’t read this article but I’ve read his other works.
Make up your own sentences using these words and paying attention to their meanings.

Focus on Business
Business Course: a letter of complaint
If goods are not delivered on the day on which they were promised or if you don’t obtain the
services you were guaranteed, you might send a letter to complain and ask the manufacturers, or
suppliers, or representatives of the firm to hurry up with the delivery or correct the situation with
some kinds of compensation. Such letters are called letters of complaint.
7.16. Analyse the content of the following letter paying attention to the phrases and the let-
ter layout:
The Manager, Harper School,
Sales Department, 34 Cross Road,
Marks and Spencer, Ltd., Exeter, EX54
25 Maple Street,
London, WH23

99
Dear Sir,
With reference to our order of 30th August for two hundred student-type desks, we shall be
glad to know when we may expect delivery, as they are now urgently required.
Firstly, when we made the initial enquiry, your department assured us that delivery would take
three weeks, and we placed the order on that understanding as we wished to have the desks before
the beginning of the new term.
Then, we were extremely upset to know that the delivery would be delayed for some days.
Your failure to deliver by the promised date was very inconvenient for us.
We would appreciate if you informed us by return of the earliest possible date when you can
deliver these goods. If the delay is longer than a week, we shall regretfully have to cancel the order.

Yours faithfully,
Ann Wilson
Headmistress

7.17. You are going to write a letter of complaint (100-120 words) using the following
phrases:
1. I am writing to express my total dissatisfaction with…
2. I would like to complain about …
3. I wish to make a serious complaint regarding …
4. I am extremely upset that …
5. I am quite disappointed with …
6. I insist that this matter be dealt with promptly
7. I demand you give me some of my money back …
8. I look forward to receiving a prompt reply.
9. I shall regretfully have to cancel the order.

7.18. Talking points: after reading the text “Conservation of Nature Organizations”, debate
the problem of environmental organizations in Russia according to the following plan:
1. What conservation organizations do you know?
2. Have you ever taken part in the actions of these organizations?
3. How do you estimate their role in conservation of nature in Russia?
4. Would you like to join such organizations in the future?
5. Which problems would you like to solve in our region?
While discussing, use the following phrases to express your own opinion on the matter:
· To my mind,…
· As far as I know…
· In my opinion…
· I am persuaded that it is true…
· I am really sure that…
· There is no doubt that…
· In fact, I think that…

7.19. In the course of reading put each of the following words in its place in the passage below:
headquarters experts and scientists visible confusion
expand legal actions borders isolation
donations resource achieve global warming

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Conservation of Nature Organizations
Greenpeace is a non-governmental environmental organization with offices in over 41 coun-
tries and _________________(1) in Amsterdam, the Netherlands. Greenpeace states its goal as to
"ensure the ability of the earth to nurture life in all its diversity". Greenpeace uses direct action,
lobbying and research to _______________ (2) its goals. The global organization states that it does
not accept funding from governments, corporations or political parties, relying on individual sup-
porters and foundation grants.
Today Greenpeace focuses on worldwide issues such as _______________(3), deforestation,
overfishing and nuclear power. Greenpeace is known for its direct actions and has been described as
the most ____________(4) environmental organization in the world. Campaigns of Greenpeace have
raised environmental issues to public knowledge and influenced both the private and the public sector
but Greenpeace has also been a source of controversy. Its motives and methods have received criti-
cism and the organizations direct actions have sparked ______________(5) against Greenpeace
activists.
To maintain its independence, Greenpeace does not accept ______________(6) from govern-
ments or corporations.
The International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) is an international organiza-
tion dedicated to natural _________________(7) conservation. It was founded in October 1948, as
the International Union for the Protection of Nature (IUPN), following an international conference at
Fontainebleau, France. Its headquarters are located in the Lake Geneva area in Gland, Switzerland.
The IUCN brings together 83 states, 108 government agencies, 766 Non-governmental organiza-
tions and 81 international organizations and about 10,000 __________________(8) from countries
around the world.
"WWF-World Wide Fund For Nature" was founded in 1961. However, as the organization
grew over the 70s and into the 80s, WWF began to __________________(9) its work to conserve
the environment as a whole (reflecting the interdependence of all living things), rather than focusing
on selected species in __________________(10). So, although we continued to use our well-known
initials, during the 80s our legal name became "WWF-World Wide Fund For Nature" (formerly
World Wildlife Fund – except in North America where the old name was retained). More and more,
however, to avoid __________________(11) and mixed messages across ________________(12)
and languages, WWF is known as simply "WWF".

7.20. Study the abbreviations and the definitions of the following world organizations:
WWF an organization focusing on selected species in isolation
GP a non-governmental organization dealing with nature conservation
IUCN an international organization dedicated to natural resource conservation
SSC an organization that deals with the problems of health in the world
WHO an organization focusing on the conditions of living organisms survival

7.21. Talking point: discuss the following problems in your group:


Pollution of nature leads to the…
1) Destruction of the ozone layer
2) Processes of global warming
3) Human diseases
4) Water pollution
5) Deforestation
6) Change of living conditions

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While discussing these problems, use the following phrases:
Expressing your opinion: · I completely/absolutely agree with
· From my point of view … your point.
· In my opinion … · You are right!
· As far as I know … Expressing total disagreement:
· I firmly believe/think that … · I don’t agree.
Expressing your total agreement: · No, I think you are mistaken.
· I quite agree with you. · I don’t see in that way.
· You have a strong point here. · I really must object to that comment.
· That makes sense to me. · I’d have to disagree with you.
Project work
1) Prepare all the materials for one of the problems you have chosen in Unit 3. Present the
information obtained to your partners.
2) Emphasize the main points in your presentation and get ready to answer the following
questions:
· Why is the problem being discussed so important for conservation of nature?
· What are the main reasons that lead to ecological disruption?
· What should be done to correct the situation, to minimize the consequences and to
solve this problem?
· Which organizations deal with nature conservation in the world?
· Do you know famous ecologists or biologists who investigated this problem and
suggested some ways to preserve nature?
3) After presentation and discussion of each problem make a collective project “Problems of
nature conservation” and prepare the final paper. Get ready for the final discussion.
4) Evaluate the presentations according to some criteria given in Section 4 “Primary Crite-
ria for Evaluation of Presentations”

UNIT 8
Learn how to…
1. Talk about the problems connected with water pollution.
2. Share the major ideas related to the use of nuclear energy.
3. Evaluate the quality of water resources on the Earth.
4. Report on the problem of sea pollution.
Focus on Grammar
Verbals (The Infinitive and the Infinitive Constructions)
Functions of the words “until”, “unless”
Language Development
Vocabulary focus
Phrasal Verb(s): come, run.
Speaking: explain some criteria of water quality
Focus on Business: memo
Talking points: the importance of saving seas and marine life
Project work: individual work on the project titled “Ecological problems of Siberia and the
Tomsk Region”

Warm-Up Activities
8.1. Explain the meaning of the proverbs connected with water:
Don’t spit into the well, you may want to drink out of it.

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Still waters run deep.
Drop by drop the sea is drained.
What do you think of the role of water in maintaining the existence of all living things?

Vocabulary Focus
8.2 Find Russian equivalents for the following English words and expressions:
potable (adj) effluent (n)
sewage (n) acidification (n)
supply (v) consent (n) = constraint (n)
predominately (adv) slurry (n)
catchment (n) silage (n)
survey (n), (v) run-off (n)
sporadically (adv) sediment (n)
discharge (n), (v) by-product (n)
mine drainage (n+n) amenity value (n+n)
to cause nuisance to decline fresh-water reserves
to be dumped into
to bleach with chlorine gas to exchange materials and energy
to exclude from to survey periodically
BOD = biochemical oxygen demand (used to determine the water quality)

Reading Comprehension
8.3. Guide to Reading. Read the text and answer the following questions:
1. How do people use water from rivers to satisfy their needs?
2. How can the quality of water be measured in order to show its usefulness for
consumption?
3. What are the main sources of water pollution?
4. What measures should be taken to prevent water contamination?

Text 1
Quality of Water
Because they flow, rivers and streams have been used by man throughout history, for transpor-
tation of materials, removal of wastes and supply of potable water (Figure 1.1).
Rivers are ecological systems in most respects like any others, sharing basic processes which
occur throughout the biosphere. They are extreme cases of “open” ecological systems, exchanging
materials and energy with their surroundings to an enormous extent.
Just as there can be tremendous chemical variations between rivers, there can be also consider-
able variation of pollutants at specific locations within the same river through time. The average con-
tent of chemical substances is predominately determined by the nature of the soils and geology in the
catchment, and also by the proximity to the sea and by prevailing winds. Besides varying chemically,
rivers are also dynamic in physical characteristics, particularly their discharge.

103
The water quality of rivers in Russia has been surveyed periodically since 1958. This survey ranks
water in several classes from Good Quality (Classes 1A and 1B) to Bad Quality (Class 4), largely on the
basis of chemical criteria and particularly biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) (Table 1).
Table 1. River water quality classification scheme.
Description Class Current potential use
Water of high quality suitable for potable supply ab-
Good quality 1A BOD<1,5 mg/l
stractions; high class fisheries; high amenity value
Water of less quality than Class 1A but usable for sub-
1B BOD<2,0 mg/l
stantially the same purposes
Water is suitable for potable supply after advanced
Fair quality 2 BOD<5,0 mg/l treatment; supporting reasonably good coarse fisheries;
moderate amenity value
Waters which are polluted to an extent that fish are
absent or only sporadically present; may be used for low
Poor quality 3 BOD<7,5 mg/l
grade industrial abstraction purposes; considerable po-
tential for further use if cleaned up
Waters which are grossly polluted and are likely to
Bad quality 4
cause nuisance

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The types and ranges of pollutants to which flowing water systems can be exposed are now in-
creasing with changes in industrial and agricultural practices. The origin of pollutants can be different
starting with sewage treatment works, fish farms and industry and ending with those that are mainly
diffuse, such as agricultural run-off and acid deposition. It can be represented as the following
scheme (Fig. 1.2)

Fig.1.2. Diagrammatic representation of water pollution sources

Although the quality of many major UK rivers has improved in recent years as a result of
substantial capital investment in sewage treament, water quality problems associated with old and
overloaded STWs are still widespread. STW (sewage treatment works) effluents often contain
significantly increased nutrient concentrations, but limitations on these are not included in consents
regulating the setting of limits of BOD and suspended solids. Nutrient enrichment in standing fresh
waters, particularly by nitrogen and phosphorus, has been the subject of extensive ecological
investigation.
Widespread problems with farm waste discharges have been also investigated. The most
frequently occurred causes are the release of animal slurry from stores, either deliberately or through
structural failure, the discharge of silage effluents, and run-off from farmyards, particularly during
heavy rainfall. Farm wastes have high concentrations of BOD and NH3 and have caused widespread
ecological damage to the rivers.
Most toxic and hazardous waste comes from industries that produce plastics, soap, synthetic
rubber, fertilizers, synthetic fibres, medicines, detergents, cosmetics, paints, pigments, adhesives,
explosives, pesticides and chemicals. Among the most serious consequences of chemical pollution is
deteriorating quality and declining fresh-water reserves. Hundreds of milliones of tones of untreated
toxic waste and pollution are dumped into the world’s seas each year. Poisonous sediments carried
by the world’s rivers can be traced 2000 km out to sea. A group of industrial chemicals that deserve
special mention is known as dioxins. Most of the bright white paper is bleached with chlorine gas and
in this process a dioxin is released as a by-product. This dioxin is allegedly the most dangerous
chemical that has ever been produced. It also results from the manufacture of some pecticides and is
released when some plastics burn.
Another disease causing substance is asbestos, whose hazards are now well recognized. This
substance is used while manufacturing different building materials and constructions.
It should be mentioned that there are always alternatives to the most toxic chemicals. For
example, in order to exclude dioxins from manufacture of bleached paper we should use unbleached
paper instead. Printing and writing paper can be safely whitened with hydrogen peroxide instead of
chlorine-bleached.

105
8.4. Find the best choice to complete each sentence:
1. Rivers can be considered to be the extreme cases of “open” ……………….. .
a) places for living c) fields for experiments
b) sources of fresh water d) ecological systems
2. The average content of chemical pollutants is predominately determined by the nature
of …………………… .
a) forests surrounding the river c) the soils and geology in the catchments
b) plants growing on the banks d) substances thrown into the water
of the river
3. Widespread problems with …………………discharges can be also considered as one
of the most essential items in water preservation.
a) agriculture activity c) chemical substances
b) farm waste d) nuclear waste
4. The group of industrial chemicals known as ……….. is the most dangerous pollutants
of water.
a) dioxins c) detergents
b) salts of heavy metals d) acids
5. The subject of extensive ecological investigation is nutrient ……. in standing fresh
waters.
а) enrichment c) substances
b) supply d) excess
6. Poisonous sediments are carried by the rivers and they can be ………. many thousands
kilometers in the out sea.
a) cleaned c) traced
b) retreated d) dumped
7. Another hazardous substance – ……… – is used while manufacturing different
building materials and constructions.
a) cement c) ceramics
b) asbestos d) formaldehyde

8.5. Guide to Reading: Read the text and comment upon the following statements
1. We can observe the decrease in the development of using nuclear energy in the world now.
2. It is hard to keep the nuclear wastes after they have been used in the process of atomic en-
ergy production.
3. Large doses of radiation obtained by a man can lead to the radiation disease.
4. The problem of using nuclear energy can be solved in the nearest future by the application
of alternative kinds of energy.
5. In spite of many advantages there are some disadvantages for alternative ways of energy
treatment and consumption.

Text 2
Nuclear Energy
All around the world the pace of nuclear development has slowed rapidly. There are three main
reasons for this: first of all, the cost of nuclear power; secondly, environmental degradation caused
by the technology; and thirdly, the threat of large-scale environmental destruction, the disasters in the
1970s and 1980s being the examples of such destruction.
Although nuclear power stations don’t pollute the atmosphere like those using fossil fuels, but
they produce very dangerous industrial wastes. They stay radioactive for thousands of years and they
are very hazardous for animals, plants and people as well. At the moment most stations keep their
wastes deep underground, or in the sea in special containers. Another problem for the nuclear indus-

106
try is different diseases that it causes like leukemia. This is blood cancer. The number of people with
this disease is much higher than normal when they live near nuclear power stations.
Radiation sickness is a disease that occurs as a result of different types of ionizing radiation
impact. In humans, radiation sickness may be caused by external exposure and internal contact
with radioactive substances. Common clinical manifestations of radiation sickness depend mainly
on the total radiation dose received. Doses of up to 1 Grays (Gy) which equal to 100 rads
cause relatively slight changes. Doses which are more than 1 Gy cause the bone marrow or intesti-
nal form of radiation sickness of various degrees, which depend mainly on the destruction of
blood. Doses above 10 Gy lead to a man’s death.
The solution to this problem can be found in using alternative sources of energy such as power
from the sun, sea, wind and earth. First of all, solar energy can replace fossil fuels and nuclear en-
ergy. It can be used directly because many modern buildings have big windows which face the south.
They can collect solar power directly. In fact some buildings in North America and Scandinavia get
100 % their energy from the sun. Secondly, another way to collect the sun’s power is with the help
of solar panels. They absorb and store energy on sunny days. But there are two problems with solar
panels on the Earth: they are expensive and they don’t work well on cloudy days. One answer to the
problems of clouds is to collect solar power in space. Satellites with huge solar panels collect the
sun’s energy, and then they send it back to Earth. A series of satellites like this will be able to work
for 24 hours a day.
Thirdly, 25% of the world’s electricity already comes from dams and rivers. The main aim is to
collect the energy contained in waves. At the beginning water enters a special wave machine. This
pushes all the air inside up to the top. Then the water leaves again and pulls the air back down. This
pushing and pulling makes enough energy to work an electric motor. At the moment wave machines
are small and expensive, but in the future they will be bigger and cheaper. One day scientists think
they will produce between 25% and 30% of all electricity.
One more source of alternative kinds of energy is power from wind. Several “wind farms” al-
ready exist in several European countries. Each farm is a group of machines which turn wind power
into electricity. The idea is popular in America, too. California, for example, expects to get 10% of
its electricity from wind farms by the year 2012.
Finally, energy from the hot rocks and water at the centre of the Earth is another kind of natu-
ral energy. This kind of “geo-thermal” energy already heats thousands of buildings in Iceland, Hun-
gary, Japan and New Zealand. In fact, 60% of Iceland’s energy comes from under the ground.
Thus, the development of alternative sources of energy from the sun, the wind, the sea and
from under the ground can solve the problem of using the fossil fuels and nuclear energy almost
completely. Natural energy will become more important. The reasons for this are as follows:
· It will become cheaper;
· It will be better for the environment;
· It will make it possible to conserve fossil fuels;
· It will be safer than nuclear energy.

Language Development
8.6. Work with vocabulary related to ecological and biological problems. Identify any words
that are new to you, memorize them and make up your own sentences.

8.7. Read text 2 again and match the headings with the paragraphs.
1. Conclusion
2. Dangerous consequences
3. Geothermal energy
4. Introduction
5. Radiation disease

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6. Solar power energy
7. Water power energy
8. Wind power energy

8.8. Talking points: Make notes under each heading and discuss the problem of nuclear en-
ergy on the basis of your plan. Remember to use the following expressions:
To express personal opinion: To emphasize the point:
· I am convinced that… · Indeed/Definitely…
· To my way of thinking · Naturally that …
· It seems to me that… · Needless to say that …
· It is quite clear that… · It is necessary to emphasize that …
· As far as I know · It is reasonable …
· It is widely known that… · In fact, …
· I am sure that … · As a matter of fact, …
· It has been shown that … · As stated above
· We assume … · Actually, …
· Let us consider/ compare/ · In practice, …
suppose …

8.9. Fill in the proper words from the list below:


absorb within
turn into store
rainfalls pulled
bleaching lethal
proximity replace
degradation enrichment
toxic
1. There is a considerable variation of pollutants at specific locations ………..the same river
through time (inside the range or limits of something).
2. The content of pollutants in the water depends on the ……………to the sea and by prevail-
ing winds (the state of being near some place).
3. Ecologists are working on the problem of nutrient ………………..of deteriorated water and
soil (improvement of the quality).
4. During heavy ……… a lot of farmyards pollutants penetrate into the water that causes
widespread ecological damage in the rivers (the total amount of rain).
5. Bright white paper is obtained by …………… with chlorine gas and in this process a dioxin
is released as a by-product (making sth white).
6. Most …………… chemicals are very hazardous for people’s health, they induce allergies
and problems with respiration (poisonous).
7. Ecological disasters that happen more and more often are able to lead to the full
……………of some areas on the Earth (extreme low in quality).
8. People working at and living near nuclear electric stations are in danger of receiving the
………doses of radiation (causing death).
9. Alternative sources of energy can ……… fossil fuels such as coal, oil and others, and nu-
clear energy used in industry (exchange sth for sth).
10. Solar panels are able to ………….and …………the sun’s energy on sunny days (to take or
draw sth in; to keep).
11. Before the motorcars have become a widespread means of transport, people depended on
horses which ……….different kinds of vehicles (to move sth in a special direction).

108
12. Special machines …… the energy of wind ……… electric power while rotating devices of
wind mills (to convert).

Focus on Grammar
I. Verbals (the Infinitive)
A verbal is a non-finite form of the verb that doesn’t express person, number or mood. There-
fore verbals cannot be used as the predicate of a sentence. Like the finite forms of the verb the
verbals have tense and voice distinctions. There are three verbals in English: the participle, the ger-
und and the infinitive.
The infinitive has a double nature – verbal and nominal. It has the following forms:
Active Passive
Indefinite to make to be made
Progressive to be making –
Perfect to have made to have been made
Perfect Progressive to have been making –

The to-infinitive is used:


· To express purpose.
E.g. They have carried out this experiment to confirm their hypothesis.
· After certain verbs (agree, appear, decide, expect, hope, promise, refuse, offer, plan, arrange,
learn, forget, afford, deserve, manage, fail, threaten, etc).
E.g. The group of scientists decided to participate in the expedition.
· After would like, would prefer, would love to express a specific preference.
E.g. I would like to complete writing my paper before the conference.
· After too and enough.
E.g. These animals are too weak to survive severe frosts.
· After adjectives which describe feelings/emotions, willingness/unwillingness, refer to a per-
son’s character (happy, sad, glad, eager, reluctant, clever, kind).
E.g. He was happy to be sunbathing that morning on the beach.
We were glad to have presented our paper at the seminar.
· After the verbs: seem, appear, tend, pretend, claim.
E.g. They seem not to be looking for the key.
He seemed to have been living here for many years.
· After the following verbs using a question word (what/where/how etc.): ask, decide, know,
remember, forget, explain, learn, understand, wonder.
E.g. We asked how to use this electronic microscope.
In some cases the infinitive is used without the particle to.
· After the modal verbs.
E.g. Ecologists can use different methods for monitoring the environment.
· After the verbs denoting sense perception: see, hear, feel.
E.g. I saw a man come into the house but I could not recognize him.
· After the verbs make, have.
E.g. This fact made him repeat the experiment once more.
· After had better and would rather.
E.g. You had better set of on the trip around Europe.
· The verb help can be followed either the to-infinitive or the infinitive without to.
E.g. My colleagues helped me (to) finish the experimental part of my research work.
Constructions with the infinitive.
· The Objective-with-the-Infinitive Construction (verb + object + to) is used after the verbs
denoting mental activity (know, think, consider, believe, suppose, expect, imagine, etc.), after the

109
verbs of declaring (pronounce, declare, report), after the verbs denoting wish and intension (wish,
desire, mean, intend), after the verbs denoting sense perception (hear, see, feel), after the verbs de-
noting feelings and emotions (like, dislike, love, hate), after the verbs and expressions denoting order
and permission (order, allow, suffer), after the verbs denoting compulsion (make, get, have).
E.g. I know him to be respected by his groupmates.
Everybody expected them to complete the experiment successfully.
She declared her parents not to interfere into her private life.
We hate them to be excited more than it is possible.
Parents allow their children to take part in family holidays.
· The Subjective-with the Infinitive Construction is used with the following verbs in the Passive
Voice: see, hear, think, consider, know, expect, believe, suppose, say, report; and the following
word-groups: to be likely, to be unlikely, to be sure, to be certain.
E.g. This pollutant is considered to be one of the most dangerous ones.
He is sure to deliver his lecture successfully.
This scientist is thought to be an honest and a creative person.
· The for-to-Infinitive Construction is a construction in which the infinitive is in predicative re-
lation to a noun or pronoun preceded by the preposition for. It is translated into Russian as a subor-
dinate clause or the infinitive.
E.g. The audience was waiting for the lecturer to speak.
The best thing for you to do is to change the topic of your investigation.
The teacher asked for the papers to be handed in.
It is necessary for people to take care of nature.
Note: Complex Object can be expressed by both an Objective-with-the-Infinitive Construction
and a for-to-Infinitive Construction.

II. Exercises
8.10. Use the correct form of the Infinitive.
1. Our friends are unlikely (to return), they are (to come back) only tomorrow.
2. He was lucky (to make) a trip to London.
3. He speaks English too fluently for us (to understand) him.
4. The boy wanted (to praise) for his high achievement.
5. He is so happy (to award) the first prize for his performance.
6. He didn’t suppose (to see) at the conference on that day.
7. I am sure (to ask) this question at the exam.
8. Susan is fortunate (to give) a scholarship last month.
9. We asked the driver (to give) us a lift, but he happened (to go) to a different place.
10. The British Museum is too big (to see) in one hour.
11. The man pretended (to read) a newspaper and not (to notice) us.
12. The guide explained the route for the tourists (to know) what they were going to see.
13. She is smiling all the time. She must (to read) something funny.
14. She has been sitting here for half an hour. Who can she (to wait) for?
15. What a strange place (to choose) for the picnic?
16. Nobody likes (to punish).

8.11. Use the right form of the Infinitive paying attention to the Complex Object in the fol-
lowing sentences:
1. This new article makes me (to change) my opinion about this event.
2. My teacher told me (to choose) a new problem for writing a course paper.
3. My parents expect me (to graduate) from the university successfully.
4. We saw the cells (to become) visible after they had been stained.
5. It is important for the hotel (to situate) near the sea.

110
6. I have told them (to discuss) the main points of the lecture.
7. I want these articles (to give out) among all the students.
8. This book will help you (to understand) the main idea of a new theory.
9. We supposed him (to become) a good researcher and (to discover) new forms
of life on our planet.
10. We considered the confirmation of a series of experiments (to be) reasonable.

8.12. Open the brackets paying attention to the Subjective-with-the-Infinitive Construction.


1. This laboratory (to think) to be equipped with modern devices.
2. Ecological problems (to know) to have become an essential part of our life.
3. Soil pollution (to consider) to be caused by an agricultural activity.
4. The main idea (to suggest) to be induced by this group of scientists.
5. Poisonous substances (to report) to be the main reason for an allergic development.
6. Solar energy (to claim) to be accumulated with the help of large windows in the
houses.
7. Each cell (to suppose) to obtain the necessary substances through a semi-permeable
delicate membrane.

8.13. Translate the following sentences into English:


1. Преподаватель попросил студентов выполнить эти задания снова.
2. Он счастлив, что его приняли в университет.
3. Язык дан человеку для того, чтобы скрывать отсутствие мыслей.
4. Он слишком умен, чтобы его можно было так легко обмануть.
5. Я не уверен, он собирается сделать доклад сегодня.
6. Девушка делала вид, что читает книгу и не замечает молодого человека.
7. Она заставила меня переделать работу в соответствии с новыми правилами
оформления документов.
8. Для некоторых гостей привычно опаздывать на встречу.
9. Как сообщалось, в конференции приняли участие 400 человек из 15 стран
мира.

III. Phrasal Verb(s). Study the meanings of the verbs “come” and “run”. Make up some
sentences using them.
to come across = to meet to run across/into = to meet by
somebody by chance chance
to come by = to obtain to run after = to chase
to come into = to inherit to run away with = to steal
to come off = to succeed in to run off = to make
doing sth prints/copies
to come out = to be published to run out of = to have no more of
to come round = to visit casually sth left
to come up = to be mentioned to run up = to accu-
/ to occur mulate
to come up with = to find to run through = to use up
(an answer, solution, etc)

8.14. Fill in the correct particles:


1. While carrying out the experiments we came …… interesting results
2. After his aunt he will come …….. a large sum of money.
3. Being in London I had plenty of time and came ……..my good friends.
4. This idea helped me to come … … the solution of this problem.

111
5. A new book of this author will come …. next month.
6. When we were going down the street yesterday we came ……. our former
schoolmates.
7. He was reported to come …. in invention of new apparatus for space exploration.
8. We were simply terrified because a large rhinoceros was running …. us.
9. Nuclear wastes can be run ….. deep underground and become a constant danger for
people who live in such regions.
10. While reading a journal I ran ….. his new paper.
11. In spite of a policeman’s attempt to catch a boy, he ran ….. ….. the briefcase.
12. We need to go to a petrol station because we run …. ….. petrol.
13. Before the beginning of the conference a secretary must run …. some documents.

IV. The functions of the words “unless” and “until”


unless

It is used in the meaning of “except if” It is also used in warnings (if…not)

8.15. Define the meaning of the word “unless” in the following sentences:
1. You can’t take part in the conference unless you have already registered at the
reception.
2. We will meet tomorrow unless I have to go on a business trip.
3. You will make incorrect conclusions unless you try to analyse this paper more
thoroughly.
4. Unless you work harder, you will not pass your exam.
until

It defines the continuation of a certain situation It also defines the specified time or
event

8.16. Translate the following sentences into Russian paying attention to the meanings of
the word “until”.
1. We had to stay at home and wait until it stopped raining.
2. The director of the laboratory will be absent until Tuesday.
3. Tomorrow I will be delivering my lecture until 12 o’clock.
4. I can’t leave my working place until my manager allows me to do this.
Make up your own sentences using these words. Practise saying the sentences with your
partner(s).

Focus on Business
Business Course: a letter of memorandum
A memo is a document typically used for communication within a company. Usually you write
memos to inform readers of specific information. You might also write a memo to persuade others to
take action, give feedback on an issue, or react to a situation. A memo's heading provides informa-
tion about who will receive the memo, who is sending the memo, the date, and the memo's subject.
This information may be highlighted in some way. For example:
TO: (readers' names and job titles)

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CC: (any people you are copying the memo to)
FROM: (your name and job title)DATE: (complete and current date)
SUBJECT: (what the memo is about, highlighted in some way)
The body of the memo conveys the message and generally consists of 4 parts:
1. Introduction – to state the general problem or the main idea
2. Statement of facts – to state the facts or discuss the problems or the issues
3. Argument – to explain the importance or relevance of facts
4. Conclusion – to summarize the main idea, to suggest or request the action.
Memos do not have a complimentary close or signature line and they end with a call to action

8.17. Analyse the following letter paying attention to its layout:


MEMORANDUM
To: All Staff Members
From: Allen White, President
Date: November 5, 2011
Re: Company Merger
_____________________________________________

I'd like to set the record straight. Perhaps you have heard rumours of all sorts to the effect that
the company is going out of business, is being sold, or is merging. Well, I am pleased to tell you that
the last is true. We are merging.
Effective January 1, we will become a wholly owned subsidiary of ABC, Inc. Principals at
ABC have asked me to let you know of their sincere intentions to continue operating this division on
an autonomous basis and to retain all the employees who are currently on the payroll.
There are many benefits to be gained by the merger, and I would like to inform you of them
personally. There will be a company-wide meeting in the auditorium on Monday, November 12,
2011 at noon. The meeting will be over lunch (provided by ABC), and members of the ABC team
will be on hand to personally answer any questions.
I'm sure that you'll approve of the merger wholeheartedly once you understand what we have
to gain. I look forward to seeing each of you at the luncheon on November 12.

8.18. Put the parts of the memo in the correct logical order:
Crafston Solutions, Inc.
100 N Central Road, Exeter, England,
TX 75083
MEMO
To: ________________________________________
CC:_______________________________________
From: _______________________________________
Date: _______________________________________
Subject: ___________________________________
Department Heads; December 10, 2011; Annual Bonus Leave for Employees; Debora Brown

8.19. You are going to write a letter of memorandum according to the following recom-
mendations:
1. Opening segment (the context of the event, background of the problem, description of
the actions that should be taken to overcome the problem)
Useful phrases:
a) To determine the best method of solution, I will …

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b) I’d like to set the problem of …
c) This memo presents a description of the current situation and my recommendations.
d) Starting with April 10, we introduce the following rules …
2. Discussion segment (the most important information, references to methods and
sources you have used to reach a desirable effect)
Useful phrases:
a) There are many benefits in new methods we propose …
b) We can obtain a lot of new opportunities while using …
c) Our company will be able to cope with the problem if it …
3. Closing segment (make sure you consider how the reader will benefit from the desired
actions and how you can make those actions easier).
Useful phrases:
a) I will be glad to discuss this problem during our meeting on Wednesday, 12 May
b) I am sure to follow any decision you make
c) Managers of the company will be on hand to personally answer any questions.

8.20. Talking points: after reading the text “To save the planet, save the seas” answer the
following questions:
1. What amount of annual carbon dioxide emissions do the world oceans absorb?
2. Why is it necessary for people to establish marine protected areas?
3. What should countries do to mitigate the climatic changes?

8.21. Put each of the following words in its place in the passage below:
buffer undertaken
species curb
mitigate affected
variety erect
absorbs encouraged
activity preserve
longer-term store
To Save the Planet, Save the Seas
Just like forests, the oceans can help reduce greenhouse gas emissions by trapping and stor-
ing carbon. The underwater world's potential to _______________(1) climate change should be
highlighted as a cost-effective solution.
We now need to look for similar opportunities to ________________(2) climate change in the
oceans. Few people may realize it, but in addition to producing most of the oxygen we breathe, the
ocean __________________(3) some 25 percent of current annual carbon dioxide emissions. Half
the world’s carbon stocks are held in plankton, mangroves and other marine life. So it is at least as
important to _______________(4) this ocean life as it is to preserve forests, to secure its role in
helping us adapt to and mitigate climate change.
Sea-grass meadows, for example, which flourish in shallow coastal waters, account for 15 per-
cent of the ocean’s total carbon storage, and underwater forests of kelp store huge amounts of car-
bon, just as forests do on land. The most efficient natural carbon sink of all is not on land, but in the
ocean, in the form of Posidonia oceanica*, a ______________(5) of sea grass that forms vast un-
derwater meadows that wave in the currents just as fields of grass on land sway in the wind.
Worldwide, coastal habitats like these are being lost because of human__________(6). Exten-
sive areas have been changed by land reclamation and fish farming, while coastal pollution and over-
fishing have further damaged habitats and reduced the _________________(7) of species. It is now
clear that such degradation has not only ________________(8) the livelihoods and well-being of

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more than two billion people dependent on coastal ecosystems for food, it has also reduced the ca-
pacity of these ecosystems to ___________________(9) carbon.
The case for better management of oceans and coasts is twofold. These healthy plant habitats
help meet the needs of people adapting to climate change, and they also reduce the amount of green-
house gases by storing carbon dioxide. Countries should be ____________________(10) to estab-
lish marine protected areas — that is, to protect parts of the coast and sea where nature is allowed to
thrive without harmful human interference — and do what they can to restore habitats like salt
marshes, kelp forests** and sea-grass meadows.
Managing these habitats is far less expensive than trying to restore the coastlines after the
damage has been done. Maintaining healthy stands of mangroves in Asia through careful manage-
ment, for example, has proved to cost only one-seventh of what it would cost to
______________(11) manmade coastal defenses against storms, waves and tidal surges.
Nowadays all the countries have to improve the management of oceans and coasts to har-
ness*** their immense potential to __________________(12) climate change — especially over the
next decade, while the world’s politicians, scientists and engineers develop ______________(13)
strategies for stabilizing the atmospheric concentration of greenhouse gases.
In their continuing negotiations on climate change, nations should now make it a priority to
produce a single map of the world that documents all the different types of coastal carbon sinks, and
identify the ones that are in most immediate need of preservation. New studies should be
_________________(14) to better understand how best to manage these areas to increase carbon
sequestration. Then, following the example of the forests programme, it will be possible to establish
formulas for compensating countries that preserve essential carbon sinks in the oceans. We urgently
need to bring the ocean into the agenda alongside forests so that, as soon as possible, we can help
the oceans to help us.
*Posidonia oceanica – a kind of seaweed
**kelp forests – places where such seaweeds as Laminaria, Nereocystis and Postelsia are
grown
*** to harness – to bring sth under control

8.22. Talking points: In groups take turns to give your presentations devoted to the following
problems. While the other students are listening, they should write down at least one or two ques-
tions to the speaker after the presentation is over. Then have a short question and answer session.
1. Water pollution is a serious ecological problem because it results in:
a) decrease of water supplies;
b) deterioration of water reservoirs available as a source of drinking water;
c) human diseases;
d) wildlife destruction.
2. Seas can help us to preserve nature.
a) They can reduce the greenhouse effect.
b) Carbon is held in plankton, mangroves and other forms of marine life.
c) Their effect can be compared with that of rainforests.
While discussing these problems, use the following phrases:
Expressing misunderstanding: · What’s the reason for …?
· I’m sorry, I didn’t catch that. · How can you explain the fact that.?
· Could you please say this once more? · The basic reason is that …
· I’m sorry, I’m not following you. · The point is …
Checking for comprehension: · Let me explain. You see …
· Do you know what I mean? Expressing and asking advice
· Does it make sense to you? · What do you suggest we should do?
· Are you following me? · I would appreciate your advice on
Asking for reasons and giving rea-sons: · What would you do in this position?

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· I’d like your advice on … Rephrasing, going into detail
· I would strongly recommend you … · In other words …
· Why don’t you …? · Put in another way …
· I would advise you to … · Another way of saying it …
· Let’s focus on one aspect of this …

Project work
After identifying and discussing the main problems of nature conservation continue work-
ing on the item you have chosen. Develop your ideas in an individual project titled “Ecological
problems of Siberia and Tomsk Region”. You should observe the following stages to discuss the
ecological situation in Tomsk Region and Siberia:
· Study ecological situation in Siberia and Tomsk Region
· Examine the statistical data on the level of pollution
· Investigate all the consequences of this ecological damage
· Analyse the measures that should be taken to solve this problem

UNIT 9
Learn how to…
1. Explain the issues connected with deforestation.
2. Share ideas of the main causes which result in species extinction.
3. Evaluate the problem of nature conservation.
4. Report on the importance of waste recycling.
Focus on Grammar
Verbals (The Participle and the Gerund)
The functions of the word “either”
The functions of the word “neither”
Language Development
Vocabulary focus
Phrasal Verb(s): keep, look.
Speaking: tell other students about the greatest role of forests for nature conservation.
Focus on Business: resume
Talking points: the importance of waste recycling process
Project work: final presentation and discussion of the individual projects titled “Ecological
problems of Siberia and Tomsk Region”

Warm-Up Activities
9.1. Think of the ecological problems and fill in the following table with the relevant in-
formation:
Problems Causes Effects Solutions
Deforestation
Species extinction
Waste recycling

After reading the texts of this unit come to this table again and correct your options if
necessary.

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Vocabulary Focus
9.2. Before reading the text, consult a dictionary to find the meanings of the following
words and expressions and memorize them:
accelerate (v) fluctuation (n)
extinction (n) impact (n)
result in (v) build-up (n)
crucial (adj) exploit (v)
diversity (n) debt (n)
dominate (v) exploration (n)
blow away (v) aid (n)
experience (v),(n) significant (adj)
sufficiently (adv) replace (v)

to proliferate in a shoulder-to- to be willing to do sth


shoulder existence to face one’s problem
to be endemic to lose a genetic storehouse of
to avert the fuelwood crisis species
to start a reforestation scheme

Reading Comprehension
9.3. Guide to Reading: while reading the text, find the answers to these questions:
1. Why are forests so important for maintaining the variety of living organisms on the
Earth?
2. What is the reason for plants flourishing in conditions of rainforests?
3. What actions accelerate the process of deforestation?
4. Which measures should be taken to prevent the deforestation development?

Text 1
Deforestation
Deforestation is the term used to describe the disappearance of forests from large parts of the
world’s surface. Nowadays many countries face this problem. In some regions the rate of forest loss has
accelerated so quickly that the result is complete deforestation. Especially, this problem concerns the
disappearance of rainforests because it has extremely serious, potentially catastrophic consequences for:
· the 200 million people living in or near tropical forests;
· regional climate, as weather conditions become radically changed;
· forest animals, plants and insects, which will become extinct in millions;
· the inhabitants of the world who will lose a genetic storehouse of species that provide the
bulk of our agricultural and medical progress.
The tropical rainforests are of crucial environmental importance because of the diversity of
plants and animals that inhabit them. As the temperature never falls below zero in these forests, plant
species do not need to concentrate their energy on survival during a cold winter, but can go for
maximum growth. The intense competition for survival means that species do not need to dominate,
as in parts of the north, but proliferate in a shoulder-to-shoulder existence. So, 155000 of the
250000 known species of plants are to be found in the rainforests, many plants, animals and insects
are likely to be endemic, i.e. found in one place and nowhere else.
There are two general reasons for global deforestation: survival and economics. Survival refers
to the population growth, pressure to clear land for farming and settlement schemes that have led to
much deforestation in tropical Africa. Economics means that nearly 1.5 billion people in 63 countries

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are cutting wood faster that it can grow. Around the world according to WWF between 11 and 15
million hectares of tropical forests are lost every year.
Deforestation has resulted in significant consequences. The forests fix soil to the earth; when the
trees are removed, the soil blows away or is removed by rains. This erosion of the soil makes the area
useless for farming as the soil is no longer able to retain the rains in sufficiently large quantities. Forests
absorb more of the sun’s energy than open land. Deforested zones experience greater fluctuations in air
and soil temperature than the forest that they have replaced. The impact of forests on world climate is still
largely unknown. There is a possibility, however, that the disappearance of trees over large areas may
increase carbon dioxide build-up in the atmosphere that will lead to global warming effect.
In 1985 a global plan was proposed in order to prevent deforestation, save the tropical forests
and avert the fuelwood crisis by increasing the number of plantations and better managing exploited
forests. Some countries have started large reforestation schemes. Some countries are willing to
exchange their foreign debt for a promise to protect certain forest areas. Some conservation groups
are exploring the possibility of direct aid to threatened forests.

9.4. Choose the best variant to complete each sentence:


1. Many countries ……………….. different ecological problems that demand a rapid
reaction and solution.
a) provide c) reveal
b) take d) face
2. The diversity of plants and animals depends mainly on the state of rainforests and the
problem of their keeping is quite ………….. .
a) crucial c) creative
b) critical d) curious
3. The ……………….. for survival is a constant law in nature that helps to maintain the
balance among different species of plants and animals.
a) high activity c) intense competition
b) mutual aid d) collective achievement
4. Many plants, animals and insects that are likely to be …………….. should be put into
the Red Book to keep their amount.
a) enormous c) occasional
b) endemic d) widespread
5. As a result of deforestation, the soil …………. or is removed by rainfals or other
climatic phenomena.
a) blows away c) takes over
b) brings up d) breaks down
6. In order to start large reforestation schemes we should ………… all the areas with
serious changes in forests.
a) explain c) explore
b) expose d) exchange
9.5. Guide to Reading: read the text paying special attention to the chief causes of species ex-
tinction.
Text 2
Species Extinction
Extinction is a natural feature of the evolution of life on the Earth. In the last 400 years, how-
ever, human activities have been responsible for the loss of most of the animals and plants that have
disappeared. Some researchers report that animal and plant extinction is occurring at present at the
rate of three species a day. Other researchers predict a smaller rate of loss – one species every 30
minutes. So, the ratios of endangered species are presented in the following diagram (Fig. 1.3).

118
Fig. 1.3. Diagram of the ratios of endangered species
The problem of extinction can be caused by several reasons:
· The first reason that leads to the extinction of animals and plants is the destruction of the
tropical rain forests. It is estimated that these areas are inhabited by a half of the entire world’s spe-
cies.
· The second reason for this problem is the loss of wetlands. Wetlands are areas of low-lying
land where the groundwater saturation reaches the surface for most of the time. The World Wide
Fund for Nature estimates that half of all the world’s wetlands have disappeared in this century.
· The third reason is connected with the fact that the countryside changes have also contributed
to the problem of extinction, as semi-natural and natural kinds of land have been taken over by agri-
culture and pesticides have destroyed a number of habitats.
· The fourth reason for this problem is determined by the process of building roads and towns
that changes the environment, making it uninhabitable for certain species.
· The final reason for species extinction is connected with the collecting or hunting of wildlife,
and the multi-billion dollar trade of rare species.
The biological diversity which has evolved over the centuries may be a cornerstone of the equi-
librium in nature. In different countries there are organizations, which protect animals and plants.
One of them is CITES. The Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna
and Flora was established on 1 July 1975 and now has 95 member countries. These countries agree
to ban commercial trade of endangered species. Among those listed are all apes, lemurs, cheetah,
leopards, tiger, all rhinoceroses, cranes, all sea turtles, giant salamanders, orchids, cacti and many
other species. There are some more organizations which protect animals and plants. The Interna-
tional Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Red List of Threatened Species is the world's most
comprehensive inventory of the global conservation status of biological species. The IUCN is the
world's main authority on the conservation status of species. A series of Regional Red Lists are pro-
duced by countries or organizations, which assess the risk of extinction to species within a political
management unit.
Major species assessors include BirdLife International in Cambridge, the Institute of Zoology
(of London), the World Conservation Monitoring Centre which is based in Cambridge in the United
Kingdom, Specialist Groups, and Species Survival Commission (SSC). Collectively, assessments by
these organizations and groups account for nearly half the species on the Red List. The aim of this
organization is to convey the urgency of conservation issues to the public and policy makers, as well
as help the international community to try to reduce species extinction.

119
The Red Book is the official document that contains information about the status and distribu-
tion of rare and endangered species of animal, plants, fungi, with a view to their preservation and re-
production. In the Red Book endangered species are divided into several categories:
0 – Species probably disappeared from the territory.
1– Species threatened with extinction.
2 – Decreasing in the number of species, this species is soon threatened to move to category 1.
3 – Rare species, usually they are represented by small populations and groups.
4 – Species of uncertain status.
5 – Recovered and recovering species.
6 – Species that are called “monuments of nature”. They are of great aesthetic and informative
value.
It takes huge efforts at all levels, from individual to global, to stop species extinction, to carry
out a constant input and analysis of data on species, their habitats and threats. The tools in the con-
servation arsenal are numerous and various and include:
• Effective management and restoration of habitats and ecosystems.
• Enforcement of key agreements such as the Convention on Biological Diversity, Convention
on Migratory Species, Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and
Flora.
• Creating incentives and finance for conservation of nature
• Assessment of biodiversity and related social and economic factors
• Organization of National parks and places for reintroduction, including seed banks
• Conservation information management and communication
• Limiting the use of pesticides, herbicides and other chemical pollutants
Nature is a place where we live. Therefore, we must protect, preserve and restore the small-
numbered species, to maintain the natural balance.
Notes on the text:
IUCN – the International Union for Conservation of Nature
WWF - the World Wide Fund for Nature
CITES -the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora
SSC - Species Survival Commission

9.6. Talking points: 1. Work in small groups. Choose the most important causes for species
extinction in Russia. You may add the supplementary reasons which have not been mentioned in the
text. Memorize some animals and birds that are enrolled in the Red Book and try to classify them
according to the categories given in the text.
2. Then share your opinion with the other groups of students and discuss this problem in ac-
cordance with the following questions:
1. What are the reasons for species extinction in the world now?
2. How do scientists estimate the rate of species loss nowadays?
3. What species are critically endangered according to the diagram presented in the text?
4. What world’s organizations deal with the problem of species protection?
5. Which categories of endangered species does the Red Book include?
6. What problems of species extinction are the most essential ones in the region where you
live in?
7. Which endangered species in your region are known to you?
8. What measures are taken by the local authorities in your region to cope with the
problem of species extinction? Are these measures effective or not?

120
Language development
9.7. Work with vocabulary related to ecological and biological problems. Identify any words
that are new for you, memorize them and make up your own sentences.

9.8. Read text 2 again and comment upon the main points mentioned in the text:
1. Reasons for species extinction.
2. The scale of this problem in the modern world.
3. The organizations that are involved in the process of nature protection.
4. The ways that should be used to solve this problem.

9.9. Concentrate on the problem of species extinction and write an essay expressing your
personal opinion. Use the following expressions in your work.
To list the points of a report: To refer to the sources:
· To begin with, … · According to…
· Firstly/secondly/thirdly, … · Due to the fact that…
· First of all, … · With reference to…
· Afterwards,… · On the basis that…
· Then/next… To give examples:
· Finally, … · For example, …
To add more points: · For instance, …
· Furthermore, … · Such as…
· In addition, … · Especially…
· Moreover, … To express the opposite view:
· Besides, … · However…
· Also… · But…
· In the same way… · On the other hand, …
· Likewise … · Although…
· Alternatively…
9.10. Fill in the proper words from the list below:
assess efforts
incentives maintain
low-lying destruction
urgency evolved
uninhabitable inventory
restoration rate

1. Some scientists report that species extinction is occurring at present at the …………of three
species a day. (a speed of movement, change).
2. The ………… of the tropical rain forests leads to the loss of areas which are inhabited by a
half of the entire world’s species. (devastation, disruption).
3. It is widely known that the groundwater saturation reaches the surface of ………….land
making it convenient for the life of many kinds of reptiles and water-resistant plants. (not high).
4. The vast expansion of growing cities and towns makes fields and forests ……………. for
most species. (impossible for living).
5. The biological diversity has …………. over the centuries and resulted in development of
numerous extraordinary species of animals and plants on the Earth. (to develop naturally and gradu-
ally).
6. Now a lot of organizations in the world are accomplishing a constant …………of the
global conservation status of biological species (a detailed list of sth).

121
7. In order to ……………. the risk of extinction to species a special monitoring is made in dif-
ferent countries. (to estimate the nature or value of sth).
8. As a result of outreach activities of ecological organizations people began to understand the
……………..of conservation measures (a matter of the greatest importance).
9. Huge ………………should be made at all levels, from individual to global, to stop species
extinction (attempts that require a lot of energy).
10. Special committees are anxious of habitats and ecosystems …………. as a way to recon-
struct the natural balance on the planet (the action of recovery, regeneration).
11. The local authorities should create ………………….industry to use cleaner methods of
production for reducing the harmful effects on the environment (encouragement).
12. It is necessary to preserve wildlife in order to ……………the natural biodiversity on the
Earth (to keep sth in existence).

Focus on Grammar
I. Verbals (the Participle, the Gerund)
The Participle is a non-finite form of the verb which has a verbal and an adverbial or an adjec-
tival character. There are two Participles in the English language – Participle I and Participle II. They
are called the Present Participle and the Past Participle correspondingly.
Participle I is formed by adding the suffix –ing to the stem of the verb. It has tense distinctions.
Participle I of transitive verbs has also voice distinction. So it has the following forms:
Active Passive
Indefinite making being made
Perfect having made having been made

The Participle I is used:


· As an attribute
E.g. The radiation causing serious diseases in animals and human should be restricted in using.
Twinkling stars illuminated the house and the garden around it making everything fantastic
and mysterious.
· As an adverbial modifier
E.g. Arriving there the ecologists began to measure the number of rare animals.
· As parenthesis
E.g. Generally speaking, deforestation results in the loss of animals’ habitats.
Participle II has no tense and voice distinction, it has only one form. It can be used in a sen-
tence:
· As an attribute
E.g. She came out of her room, attracted by the loud noise outside the house.
My brother could not leave the house through the locked door.
· As an adverbial modifier
E.g. He is working now on the law of the development which, if discovered, will bring him
a world-wide fame.
She looked at me as if lost in her thoughts and feelings.
· As a part of complex object
E.g. I have found her surprised with this strange event.
She wanted to have her coat cleaned by the beginning of September.
The Gerund is formed by adding the suffix –ing to the stem of the verb and coincides in form
with Participle I. The Gerund has the nominal characteristics and tense and voice distinctions. Thus,
it has the same forms as the Participle I. The Gerund is used:

122
· With the verbs and verbal phrases: to avoid, to burst out, to deny, to enjoy, to excuse, to
fancy, to finish, to forgive, to give up, to go on, to keep (on), to leave off, to mind, to postpone, to
put off, cannot help.
E.g. These scientists avoided disturbing the animals while making the experiment.
She denied having used this sample in her investigation.
· With the verbs and verbal phrases used with a preposition: to accuse of, to agree to, to ap-
prove of, to complain of, to depend on, to feel like, to insist on, to look like, to object to, to persist
in, to prevent from, to rely on, to speak of, to succeed in, to suspect of, to thank for, to think of, to
give up the idea of, to look forward to, to miss an opportunity of.
E.g. My parents approve of my playing tennis.
He insisted on being treated with a certain consideration
· With the following word-groups: to be aware of, to be busy in, to be capable of, to be fond
of, to be guilty of, to be indignant at, to be pleased at, to be proud of, to be sure of, to be surprised
at, to be worth.
E.g. We were not aware of Jack’s having finished his paper.
Many students are fond of taking part in various conferences held at the University.
Some verbs can be followed by either a to-infinitive or and –ing form, but there can be a differ-
ence in meaning. These verbs include: to come, to go on, to mean, to regret, to remember, to stop, to
try.
E.g. They stopped to discuss the results of the experiment.
They stopped discussing the results of the experiment and started to carry out its next stage.
Constructions with the Participle
· The Objective Participial Construction is used after the verbs denoting sense perception (to
hear, to see, to feel), after the verbs denoting mental activity (to consider, to understand.), after the
verbs denoting wish (to wish, to want, to desire), after the verbs to have, to get (only with the Parti-
ciple II).
E.g. I could hear the students of my group discussing this problem.
We consider this experiment completed successfully.
They desired the conference held with the participation of foreign scientists.
He had his house build by a group of workers.
· The Subjective Participial Construction is used with the following verbs: to see, to hear, to
think, to consider, to know, to expect, and some other.
E.g. This man was seen climbing the highest tower in this city.
· The Nominative Absolute Participial Construction is a construction in which both Participle I
and II are used. It is translated into Russian as an adverbial clause.
E.g. The device having been turned on, it showed the state of a sample.
· The Prepositional Absolute Participial Construction is used with the preposition with.
E.g. She was sitting on the bench, with her eyes closed.

II. Exercises
9.11. Use the correct form of Participle I or Participle II.
1. The mother tried to calm down her (to cry) baby.
2. While (to walk) across the street I saw an old friend of mine.
3. Pay attention to this point when (to discuss) the problem.
4. She looked at me as if not (to recognize).
5. (to arrive) half an hour earlier we had to wait outside.
6. (to delight) with the results of the experiment he went out to celebrate.
7. (to keep) in cages the animals look safely.
8. The house (to build) in this street is going to be a post-office.
9. (to shake) by the news they stood motionless.

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10. The plants need very little care if (to place) in a warm light room.
11. He brought me a large bunch of flowers (to wrap) in bright white paper.
12. This book (to write) ten years ago has not lost its significance.

9.12. Open the brackets paying attention to the Subjective, Objective, Nominative and
Prepositional Absolute Participial Constructions.
1. With the greetings (to be over) he began his speech.
2. I felt my hands (to tremble) with fear.
3. This conference was considered (to make) a great contribution to the development of
genetics.
4. Their house (to ruin) by the fire, they had to ask their neighbours for shelter.
5. When she was going along the street she heard somebody’s steps (to come) up to her.
6. Before the holiday they got the hall of the office (to decorate) by a fashionable
designer.
7. Time (to permit), we will check the quality of water once more.

9.13. Translate the following sentences into Russian paying attention to the meanings of
the verbs depending on the verbal which is used after them:
1. After some minutes of debates, they came to accept this proposal.
2. He came hurrying up along the path to the house.
3. After a few minutes’ break, the singer went on to sing a song.
4. In spite of his request, we went on discussing this question.
5. We regret to inform you that your experiment has been unsuccessful.
6. I regret asking him to help me in this deal. Everything was in vain.
7. Remember to take your umbrella when you go out.
8. I remember meeting him some years ago.
9. We stopped to have a rest on a beautiful slope of the mountain.
10. Stop talking, please!

9.14. Translate the following sentences into English:


1. Учитывая все неожиданные обстоятельства, можно сказать, что она сдала
экзамен хорошо.
2. Студенты пришли в восторг, увидев этот удивительный опыт.
3. Девушки поспешили к входу, на ходу складывая свои тетрадки в сумочки.
4. Я читаю все статьи, опубликованные по данной теме.
5. Прожив в Англии много лет, он так и не научился говорить без акцента.
6. Если хранить этот продукт в прохладном месте, он будет долго сохранять свои
свойства.
7. Если все придут вовремя, мы начнем лекцию с выполнения тестового задания.
8. Потрясенный известием, Джек ходил по комнате, обдумывая дальнейшие
действия.
9. Он был менеджером компании, производящей различные моющие средства.
10. После ужина, вымыв посуду и убрав кухню, они стали смотреть телевизор.

III. Phrasal Verb(s). Study the meanings of the verbs “keep” and “look”. Make up some
sentences using them.
to keep after = to continue to pursue
to keep away (from) = to stay away
to keep back = to conceal
to keep in = to make sb stay indoors
to keep off = to avoid doing sth
to keep on = to continue to do sth despite difficulties

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to keep out = to exclude sb/sth
to keep up (with) = to stay at the same level as sb/sth
to look after = to take care of
to look back (on) = to consider the past
to look for = to search
to look forward to = to anticipate with pleasure
to look in on sb = to pay a short visit to
to look into = to investigate
to look out = to be careful
to look over = to examine carefully
to look round = to inspect a place
to look through = to look at sth quickly
to look up = to search for sth in an appropriate book/list

9.15. Complete each sentence using the correct preposition:


1. After some unsuccessful attempts we decided to keep ……… the experiment.
2. While speaking you should keep ………making mistakes in pronunciation of difficult
words.
3. Nasty weather in the afternoon kept us ………….and didn’t allow us to go on our
exploration of the mountain region.
4. We had to keep this paper ……… because its theme didn’t correspond to the purpose of
this conference.
5. You must keep ……… from cages with wild animals while your excursion to the zoo.
They can be dangerous.
6. Don’t stop your experiments! Keep ……… studying the properties of these fungi! I am
sure that you will reach success.
7. The eruption of the volcano was keeping ……. the whole day without any changes.
8. I heard that Tom was looking ……….. a new job.
9. In order to look ………. the causes of this effect you should study all the reactions
resulting in obtaining this substance.
10. Before you are going to pitch a tent you have to look ………… in the forest.
11. If you don’t understand the terms you should look their meanings …… in a special dictionary
12. In spite of the fact I had a lack of time, I managed to look …….. on my relatives in Moscow.
13. When my sister is out, I look ……… my nephews.
14. All the students are looking ……………to taking part in the annual scientific conference.
15. These samples must be looked ……….. as they can help us to solve the problem.
16. When she looked …………the window, she noticed a man climbing slowly the hill.

IV. The functions of the words “either” and “neither”


“either”

is used as a part of the expression refers to two people, is used as a conjunction “also”
“either …or” things or groups in negative sentences

9.16. Translate the following sentences adequately:


1. You should try either to come to the conference or to call me up.
2. I want to carry out either of experiments to convince my opponents.
3. “I haven’t seen Jack today” – “I haven’t met him either”

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4. Either day which has been spent in nature is pleasant for me.

“neither”

is used as a part of the expression refers to two people, is used as a conjunction “also”
“neither …nor” things or groups in affirmative sentences

9.17. Translate the following sentences paying attention to the meanings of the word “nei-
ther”.
1. “I don’t recognize this man” – “Neither do I”
2. Neither of the students could prepare the material in a proper way.
3. Neither he nor his teacher was able to take part in this scientific seminar.
4. My family is not going to have a rest in the South this summer, and neither am I.
Make up your own sentences using these words.

9.18. Choose the correct variant (The Gerund or the Infinitive) in the following sentences:

1. Is there anything in that new magazine worth_________?


a) to read b) reading
2. Although I was in a hurry, I stopped _________to him.
a) to talk b) talking
3. I really must stop _________.
a) to smoke b) smoking
4. Would you mind ____the front door?
a) to close b) closing
5. You should remember __________him. He will be at home.
a) to phone b) phoning
6. All parts of London seem ________to different towns and epochs.
a) to belong b) belonging
7. I dislike _________around the town in the car.
a) touring b) to tour
8. Why have you stopped? Go on _____, please!
a) to read b) reading
9. When he had finished ________, the waiter brought the bill.
a) to eat b) eating
10. My elder brother went to college, and I hope __________there too.
a) to go b) going
11. My car needs service, and Tom offered __________me with it.
a) to help b) helping
12. Avoid ______and you’ll feel better soon.
a) to overeat b) overeating
13. I can’t help ____about this awful accident.
a) to think b) thinking
14. The Brians want _____Boston this week.
a) to leave for b) leaving for
15. I’ll always remember ________you for the first time.
a) to meet b) meeting

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9.19. Talking point: after reading the text “Noise pollution”, answer the following questions:
1. What are the main reasons for noise pollution in modern cities?
2. How can loud noise influence the behavior of wild animals in nature?
3. What measures should be taken to reduce the level of noise in different regions?

9.20. Put the following words in their places in the passage below:
emergency service louder military
boast human private
pollution construction engines
residential displeasing blood pressure

Noise Pollution
Noise pollution is a _________________(1) human, animal or machine-created sound that dis-
rupts the activity or balance of human or animal life. Indoor and outdoor noise pollution sources in-
clude car alarm systems, ___________________________(2) sirens, mechanical equipment, fire-
works, compressed air horns, barking dogs, appliances, audio entertainment systems, electric mega-
phones and others.
This undesirable sound can damage physiological and psychological health causing annoyance
and aggression in a man, sleep disturbances, increasing ________________________(3) and other
harmful effects. It can also result in noise induced hearing loss.
Noise pollution has a detrimental effect on animals by causing stress, increasing risk of death
by changing the delicate balance in predator/prey detection and avoidance, and by interfering with
their use of sounds in communication especially in relation to reproduction and in navigation. Noise
pollution has caused the death of certain species of whales that beached themselves after being ex-
posed to the loud sound of ______________________(4) sonars. Noise also makes species commu-
nicate louder. So, scientists have conducted experiments that show whales’ song length is longer
when submarine detectors are turned on.
In many cases the voice of species is masked by anthropogenic factors when these unheard
voices might be warnings, finding of prey and so on. When one species begins to
speak____________________(5), it will mask other species’ voice, causing the whole ecosystem to
eventually speak louder.
There are a variety of strategies for mitigating different sources of noise____________(6). Road-
way noise can be reduced by using noise barriers, restricting vehicle speeds, applying special surface tex-
ture in the ______________________(7) of the roads, installing tires of special design in cars. Aircraft
noise can be reduced to some extent by design of quieter__________________(8), which was pursued
vigorously in the 1970s and 1980s. This strategy has brought limited but noticeable reduction of urban
sound levels. Reconsideration of operations, such as altering flight path and time of day runway use, has
demonstrated benefits for _________________(9) populations near airports.
Most city ordinances prohibit sound above threshold intensity from trespassing over property
line at night, usually between 10 p.m. and 6 a.m. A contributing factor to the rise of noise pollution is
the increase in high- to medium-density housing. People are noisier now than they were a generation
ago when most of them lived in _______________(10) houses in suburbs which were situated quite
far from each other. Now they are living in blocks of flats, very close to each other and most homes
can ______________(11) at least one television, one radio, a stereo system and a range of house-
hold appliances.
The most widely used unit for measuring noise levels is the A-weighted scale in decibels. This
unit attempts to reflect __________________(12) reaction to “loudness’. Day-evening-night level is
based on a special scale which allows a level of 10 dB(A) for night time noise and a level of 15
dB(A) for evening noise.
Notes on the text:
detrimental – harmful

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predator/prey – an animal that kills and eats other animals/ an animal hunted and killed by
another for food
mitigate – to make sth less violent or painful
pursue – to follow, to chase
ordinance – an order or a rule
threshold - a particular level or standard
trespassing – entering sb’s land without permission
A-weighted scale – a special scale for measuring the level of sound
dB(A) – decibels according to A-weighted scale

Focus on Business
Business Course: resume
Employment trends indicate that workers will change careers—not just jobs— several times in
a lifetime. For this reason it is important to know that resume writing is a skill you will use through-
out your life.
Categories to generate ideas and organize your information include:
• Objective (the position you want to apply for)
• Education (universities attended, classes related to your career goal, certifications, special
training)
• Experience/Career History (paid/unpaid, part/full-time, internships, and military training)
• Volunteer Experience (public or civic groups, tutoring)
• Activities, Honours and Awards (student organizations, professional associations, scholar-
ships, academic achievements)
• Important Career-Related Skills (computer proficiency, foreign languages, problem solving,
critical thinking, communication abilities)
• Personal Achievements (financing your education, overcoming obstacles)
• Hobbies and Interests (planning trips, managing personal investments)
• References

The education section can include your credit-based higher education degrees and certificates
as well as non-credit learning. Your information should include:
• Degree (i.e., Bachelor of Science, Master of Arts)
• University name, city, and state
• Month and year of graduation

The experience section (career history) should communicate what you accomplished in past
paid or unpaid work experiences.
• Include the position title, employer/organization name, location (city, state), and dates with
months and years.
• Typically your experience is listed in reverse chronological order with your most recent ex-
perience first.
• Highlight transferable skills and abilities rather than describing work duties and responsibili-
ties. Think about the types of things that you did in your job or activities that relate to the types of
things you will be doing in your future professional positions.
• Whenever possible, use specific information to qualify and/or quantify your experience. For
example, “Increased population of beavers by 15% over a three month period” or “Taught a class
of 300 students.”
• Do not use full sentences to describe your experience; use short phrases beginning with an
action verb (produced, acted as, provided, advised).

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• Consider the type of position for which you are applying. You may want to try to use the
words listed in the position description when describing your experience. Highlight the skills that are
most relevant to the position for which you are applying.

The section of honours and awards can include scholarships, honour roll, competitive
awards, and so on.
• You may want to provide some information on the context of the award if it is not evident.
For instance, “One of ten students selected from across the nation for the Fulbright Scholarship”.
• Do not include dollar amounts for scholarships.
• Your honors and awards may be listed as a separate section or may be included within your
Education section if there are only a few items in your list.

The section of skills/personal details is included to highlight particular abilities. Frequently,


technical skills, laboratory skills, and proficiency or fluency in a foreign language are found in this
section. Items in this section should relate to the positions for which you are applying. The placement
of this section on your resume may vary depending on the relevancy to the employer.

9.21. Analyse the content of the following letter, paying attention to its component parts:
Ima J. Hawk imajhawk@ku.edu
Apartment 7, 36 Private Road, Phone: 662-832-0290
Sheffield, UK SH66 45NB

Objective: To work as an assistant in the Laboratory of Water Quality Monitoring

Education
· 2003: Bachelor of Science (Biological Science), University of Sheffield
· 2005: Master of Science (Management in Ecology), Staffordshire University

Work experience/Career history


Feb 2010 – Present
Freelance Ecologist
Self-employed ecological consultant combining professional contract work with contributions
to research and conservation projects.
Work carried out to date includes.
· Leading reptile translocation for Froglife Ltd.
· Providing ecological reports under the Code for Sustainable Homes for a private client.
· Habitat suitability assessment for reptiles.
Feb 2005 to Feb 2010
Jacobs, Ecologist, UK
Ecologist in a large multidisciplinary consultancy, work delivered included
· Produced ecological impact assessment for otters on the River Wye Special Area of Conser-
vation.
· Advised on Environment Agency schemes including flood defenses in north Wales and ob-
tained a license to disturb an otter resting site under the Conservation Regulations.
· Acted as an ecological advisor to the Royal Borough of Windsor dealing with the interaction
of ecological issues with planning policy.
Activities, honours and awards:
• One of a hundred students selected from across the nation for Academic Honour scholarship
• University of Sheffields Student Ambassador
• Scholarship Chair, Sorority
Personal achievements:

129
· Full Member of the Institute of Ecology and Environmental Management
· Assistant under English Nature license to disturb badger sett, 2006
· Named ecologist in the Welsh Assembly Government to prevent the disturbance of otter rest-
ing places, May 2009
Skills/Personal Details:
· a licensed diver
· diploma in Master of Business Administration program

Hobbies and interests: reading, extreme kinds of sport

Important Career-Related Skills


• Strong computer skills; willingness to adapt to rapid technological changes
• Excellent communication skills; speak and write clearly; listen and understand statements and
directives
• Possess ability to transfer effectively between individual and team work; contribute to success
of team
• Possess enthusiasm for ongoing learning; prepared to invest time and effort in learning new
skills
References:
Mr Brown, professor of Sheffield University

9.22. Arrange the following paragraphs in the right logical order to write a successful re-
sume.
1) Matthew A. McGregor
Current Address: 1923 W. Maine Street, Lawrence, KS 66044 (785) 312-5578
Permanent Address: 206 S. Washington Road, Salina, KS 62301 (316) 732-4701
E-mail Address: Mattm@ku.edu

2) Skills/Personal Details:
• Fluent in Spanish and English
• Excellent communication skills; speak and write clearly; listen and understand statements and
directives
• Excellent skills to organize people

3) Work experience/Career history: Project Manager Intern, Summer 2010


• Provided engineering support for the Project for Genetic Investigations fulfilled by students.
• Organized and led all client meetings and oversaw all project communication.

4) Objective: To apply for a full-time position as a genetic engineer.

5) Activities, honours and awards:


· Nominated for Rhodes and Marshall Scholarship,
· Leadership Scholarship,
· Massachusetts State University Champion in sailing.

6) Education
The University of Massachusetts
Bachelor of Science in Genetics, Expected May 2012

7) References:
Dr. Follower, Assistant Professor, University of Massachusetts

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8) Personal achievements:
Member of the Scientific Society;
Member of the Sailing Club.

9) Hobbies and interests: sailing, reading, playing the guitar

9.23. Write a resume according to the following task.

You are going to apply for a part-time job in the laboratory of ecological control as an assis-
tant. Provide information of your previous educational and working experiences and arrange all the
paragraphs of your resume in the right order. You can choose the headings for your resume from the
following list:
Objective Additional Experience
Honours and Awards Study Abroad Experience
Education Skills/Personal details
Specialized Training Work experience
Activities Certification
References Languages
International Experience Personal achievements
Volunteer Experience Additional Information
Hobbies and interests Summary of Qualifications

9.24. Talking points: read the text devoted to the problem of waste recycling, make up some
questions and discuss them in your group.

Waste Recycling
When you throw something away, it goes in a garbage can or plastic bag for litter. Regularly
the garbage truck comes and the can is emptied or the bags are taken away, and that’s the last you
see of it. But what do you think happens to the garbage then? Does it just disappear? No way! Most
of what we throw away goes into holes in the ground which are called landfills or garbage dumps.
Many people are now worried about the dangers of the by-products from decomposing waste
soaking into the ground and getting into rivers and lakes. Moreover, when these by-products are de-
composed, they give off gases such as methane and carbon dioxide which make their contribution to
the development of the greenhouse effect.
One of such products is plastic, used as a material for packaging different goods. It is esti-
mated that certain plastics will be disintegrated for over 400 years. That is why it is important to in-
troduce more recyclable kinds of plastic. Now we can often see the symbol “Biodegradable material”
on many packaging and products, which means that the material (i.e., plastic or something else) can
break down and disappear into the soil. This is an international symbol of the secondary conversion.
It should be mentioned that glass, metal, paper, plastics, textiles, used motor oil, wood are the things
that are recyclable or re-usable. In fact, 80% of what we throw away could have been used again.
For example, four out of every five dustbins of “rubbish” contain valuable recyclable materials. So,
we should only construct special plants for waste recycling and organize definite services for deliver-
ing these wastes to the plants.
In Europe people separate rubbish into different categories to relieve the further conversion.
They do special containers of different colours to separate the rubbish. In France there are three
types of containers. The first container is intended for domestic waste. The second container of yel-
low colour is intended for metal and plastic. The third container of blue colour is intended for paper-
board, magazines and paper. Also, there is a special capacity for salvaging the empty glass bottles
and cans.

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Thus, people can use waste with profit. It can be recycled for obtaining the energy and new
products. In spite of the fact that people spend much money to organize the process of recycling, we
believe that it is not more, than we shall spend for nature conservation.
Discuss the problems of waste recycling according to the following plan:
a) The importance of this process in modern industry
b) The term denoting a biodegradable material
c) The materials that can be recycled
d) The ways we can separate and collect rubbish
e) The solution to this problem in big cities
f) A throw-away society (a situation of utilizing waste products in Russia and abroad)
While discussing these problems, use the following phrases:
Numerous attempts have been made to …
In the current period …
In years to come…
Recent findings show that …
As it was mentioned in the beginning …
While the debate over this problem continues it has not had much impact on …
Recent investigations offered a new explanation for …
The idea has gained a number of followers.
The subject can be found in numerous publications.
The problem has not received all the attention it deserves.
This question requires closer examination.
The list of problems can go on.
The approach seems no longer be assumed.
We can find a set of reasons.
It is an issue of utmost social concern.
This problem is essential for understanding …
From a logical point of view…
My ideas are generally in line with…

Project work
You are going to prepare the results of your individual project for making a presenta-
tion.
1) Make a plan of what you want to say. While making a project, follow the steps given be-
low:
- The theme of your project.
- Issues of current (topical) interest (why this problem is interesting, what importance it has,
which scientists worked on this problem, what questions have not been examined in a proper
way, what made you choose this theme).
- The objectives of your work (they in general correspond to the theme of the project but
some more details can be given).
- The steps of your work (make clear the stages of the project fulfillment).
- Hypothesis (scientifically based assumption about possible results of your work).
- Methods which are used in your work (the description of all methods which are acceptable
in your investigation).
- The results of project work. Summary of what you have obtained while analysing all the
facts collected.
- Conclusion. Findings of the work, deductions formulated in general and synoptical form.
They briefly characterize the results which have been obtained and give a summary. You
should number the items of your conclusion (their number is not more than 4 or 5).

132
2) Prepare the PowerPoint presentation using these tips:
- Introductory slide (Title, name of the author).
- The objectives of the project.
- Actuality of work.
- Introduction to the subject of the problem.
- The review of literary data according to the theme of the project.
- Stages of the work (some slides), new facts.
- The results of the material analysis (some slides, photos, schemes, tables).
- Conclusion.
Consult sections 2 and 3 for making a successful presentation of your project work.

Module Self-Assessment (units 7-9)

1. Match the definitions with these words


1.Endangered spe- a) a natural feature of the evolution of life on the Earth. However, human
cies activities have been responsible for the loss of most of the animals and plants
that have disappeared.
2. Landfills or gar- b) areas of low-lying land where the groundwater saturation reaches the sur-
bage dumps. face for most of the time.
3.Deforestation c) the official document that contains information about the status and distri-
bution of rare and endangered species of animal, plants, fungi, with a view to
their preservation and reproduction.
4.Noise pollution d) the disappearance of forests from large parts of the world’s surface.

5.Erosion of the soil e) a process which makes the area useless for farming as the soil is no longer
able to retain the rains in sufficiently large quantities.
6.Species extinction f) a displeasing human, animal or machine-created sound that disrupts the
activity or balance of human or animal life.
7.Wetlands g) species of animals threatened with extinction.
8.The Red Book h) areas of land where waste material is buried.
9.Industrial wastes i) the development that has stable rates for a long time.
10.Sustainable de- j) some materials obtained in the process of production and useless for fur-
velopment ther application
11.Irrigation k) the gradual rise in temperature of the earth’s atmosphere caused by an in-
techniques crease of carbon dioxide.
12.Environmently l) a product that doesn’t damage the environment.
friendly product
13.Greenhouse effect m) an involuntary and uncontrolled release of radioactive substances.
14.Radioactive leak n) the process of supplying land or crops with water.
15.Poaching o) to catch animals without permission.

2. Choose the correct item:


1. When poisonous chemicals are mixed with water in the clouds, it results
in_______________ rains that damage the environment.
a) freezing b) heavy c) drizzling d) acid
2. The problem of air pollution is connected with the fact that people won’t be able
________________ soon.
a) to move b) to breathe c) to smell d) to marvel
3. In order to obtain a high-yielding crop in the areas suffered from a lack of water, we
should plant a __________________variety there.
a) light-demanding b) drought-tolerant c) salt-tolerant d) d) shade-requiring
4. The average content of chemical pollutants is _____________ on the basis of biochemi-
cal oxygen demand.
a) clarified b) disclosed c) accomplished d) determined

133
5. Most toxic and _______________ waste is produced by chemical enterprises which
manufacture plastics, synthetic rubber, medicines, pesticides and other chemicals.
a) hazardous b) harmless c) adhesive d) gaseous
6. Solar energy as an alternative source of energy can replace _____________ fuels and
nuclear energy.
a) coal b) fluid c) fossil d) solid
7. Many countries ___________ the problem of deforestation that is of crucial
environmental importance because of the diversity of plants and animals that inhabit
the forests.
a) contemplate b) face c) escape d) assume
8. The countryside changes have also contributed to the problem of____________, as
semi-natural and natural kinds of land have been taken over by agriculture and pesticides
have destroyed a number of habitats
a) reduction b) identification c) localization d) extinction
9. Noise pollution has a _______________effect on humans by causing stress,
increasing risk of different diseases.
a) detrimental b) favourable c) irreducible d) extraordinary

3. Fill in the correct word(s) from the list below:


Secondary conversion, smog, deterioration, humidity level, hazardous waste site, thresh-
old intensity, process of recycling, sewage, by-products, solar panel, poisonous sediments, po-
table water, endangered species, external exposure.
1. is a process of remaking something in order to use the obtained product once more.
2. _________________are the substances produced during the making of something else.
3. _____________is a physical or mental limit of something below which a person does not
respond to an external irritant.
4. ______________some kinds of are animals or plants that are in danger of becoming extinct
because of environmental changes or hunting.
5. _____________is a process of obtaining the material for new products from things that
have been used before.
6. __________________is the amount of moisture, especially in the air.
7. __________________is the water than can be used for drinking.
8. ___________is waste matter from human, factories, towns, usually flowing to treatment
centres through special pipes.
9. ___________are some hazardous chemicals carried by water and left somewhere at the
bottom of lakes, rivers and seas.
10.___________________is a device that converts the energy of sunlight into electricity.
11. _______________is a process of leaving something or somebody uncovered or unpro-
tected to the impact of outside forces.
12. ___________is a process of becoming worse in quality or condition.
13. ___________is a place where radioactive or other dangerous substances are thrown out.
14. ___________is a kind of air pollution that is visible and created by cars and factories.

4. Fill in the correct particle.


1. He finished to read a chapter and turned __________the page.
2. We were discussing a new project when one of our colleagues cut ________the dispute with
his proposal.
3. The results of this investigation will come ______ in the journal of Biochemical education.
4. Solar energy can be run__________through special panels situated on the roofs of the
houses.

134
5. My research supervisor is keeping ___________the realization of the experiment despite all
difficulties.
6. In order to obtain reliable results we should look ______the samples and fulfill all the neces-
sary calculations.

5. Fill in the verbal in the correct form.

The Language of Opportunity


The (learn) and (teach) of English have always been popular in Russia. But interest has grown
rapidly in the past few years and the educational system finds itself (challenge) by the demand. Eng-
lish is now perceived as the language of opportunity. People now feel a greater need (learn) the lan-
guage for (specialize) purposes and have a greater access to courses, materials and (train). In their
turn teachers need (increase) contact with native speakers and access to professional gatherings of
English (teach) specialists, if they want (develop) their skills of the language, culture and methodol-
ogy. Fortunately, a (grow) number of (qualify) native – (speak) English specialists are working with
Russian colleagues in different educational institutions. Now students also have more opportunities
(travel) to foreign countries and (participate) in international conferences, (deliver) their reports in
English, (take) part in professional seminars, (discuss) scientific problems with their colleagues
abroad.

6. Underline the correct word


1. On the way to the scientific conference we stopped/paused in the Centre of Biochemical Re-
search to participate/contribute in the discussion of important questions.
2. Our group is going to set off on an excursion/expedition to the Himalayas.
3. She was unsure/insecure of which way to carry out the experiment, so she consulted/advised
her research supervisor.
4. We spent/passed a few days watching exotic animals in a local zoo.
5. The holiday procession/process attracted the attention of many people in the street.

7. Choose the appropriate form of the verb in the following conditional sentences:
1. Plants die if you (not/water) them
a) won’t water b) don’t water
2. If Charles Darwin (not/work) so hard, he (not/write) his great book “The Origin of Species
by Means of Natural Selection”.
a) wouldn’t have worked/hadn’t b) hadn’t worked/ wouldn’t
written have written
3. If I (have) one million dollars, I (probably/buy) a yacht.
a) had/would buy b) had/would have bought
4. If Robby (work) harder at school, he (can study) at the university now.
a) worked/could have studied b) had worked/could study
5. I wish you . . . . .here and . . . . what we know.
a) had been/ had known
b) would be/know
c) were/knew

8. Put the Gerund or the Infinitive in the following sentences:


1. Although I had little time before the beginning of the lecture, I stopped … to him.
a) to talk b) talking
2. You should remember … him to this scientific conference in advance.
a) to invite b) inviting
3. The mother asked me about my lessons and went on … our dinner.

135
a) to cook b) cooking
4. I avoid … as my doctor advised me.
a) to smoke b) smoking
5. I decided … my vacations in England. I usually prefer … abroad.
a) to spend/traveling b) spending/to travel
6. I’d rather . .. . . at home tonight than . . . . to the cinema.
a) to stay/to go
b) stay/go
c) staying/going
7. I heard somebody . . . . at the door, but I didn’t want . . . . it to anybody.
a) knock/to open
b) to knock/open
c) knocked/to open

9. Try to find the most suitable adjectives to these words:


1) writer (known/flammable)
2) substance (insoluble/uncountable)
3) moment (dependent/certain)
4) furniture (countable/comfortable)
5) fact (real/soluble)
6) action (inhuman/non-reactive)
7) material (true/non-flammable)
8) method (unnatural/effective)

10. Put the adjectives in brackets in these sentences in the most appropriate order
1. Mine’s the ______________________automobile (luxurious, green, Japanese, large).
2. I rent a(n) ______________________house (wooden, old, Russian, furnished).
3. I’ve just bought a ______________________table (marble, toilet, small, white,
interesting).
4. Their ___________________forces soon overcome the invasion (combined, military,
powerful).
5. Have you seen this ____________________invention (fantastic, German, new).
6. There was a _______________rug on the floor (soft, wonderful, woolen, round).
7. She gave me a ________________box (jewelry, metal, small, square, useful).
8. Cycling is a(n) _________________ activity (outdoor, popular).
9. The live in _____________________houses (mud, straw, bad-looking, tiny).
10. I’ve just finished to read a _______________novel (boring, large, English, historical).

136
Ecology Glossary
abiotic/biotic environment, adj+n – абиотическая/биотическая окру-
жающая среда
abolition, n – ликвидация, уничтожение
absorb, v – поглощать
abuse, v – эксплуатация с нарушением норм
absorbent filter, n+n – поглощающий фильтр
acid rain, n+n – кислотный дождь
adapt, v – приспосабливаться
advanced treatment, part+n – предварительная обработка
adverse effect, adj+n – неблагоприятный эффект
air hunger, n+n – кислородное голодание
A air pollution, n+n – загрязнение воздуха
alimentary canal, adj+n – пищеварительный тракт
alternative kinds of energy – альтернативные виды энергии
amenity value, n+n – ценность для бытовых нужд
antifungal, adj – противогрибковый
antropogeneous, adj – антропогенный
apply, v – применять
approach, n – подход
atmospheric – выпадение атмосферных осадков (rainfall)
available, adj – доступный
avoid, v – избегать
bacterium, n – бактерия
bark, n – кора
barren, adj – без растительного покрова
biodegradable, adj – биологически разложимый
biodiversity, n – разнообразие
biological equilibrium, adj+n – биологическое равновесие
B biota, n – биота (совокупность организмов определенного района)
biotic community, adj+n – биотическое сообщество, сообщество ор-
ганизмов
blame, v – обвинять
breathe, v – дышать
by-product, n – побочный продукт
carbon dioxide, n+n – углекислый газ
carbohydrate, n – углевод
carnivorous, adj – плотоядный
catchment, n – водосбор
caterpillar, n – гусеница
cedar, n – кедр
cellular, adj – клеточный
cereal, n – блюдо из злаков, каша
chlorine, n – хлор
chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), n – хлор-фтор водороды
communities of species – сообщество видов
complete recovery, adj+n – полное восстановление
conserve, v – сохранять
C conservation, n – сохранение
consume, v – потреблять
consumption, n – потребление
constraints, n – ограничения
contaminate, n – загрязнять (to pollute)
convert, v – превращать
cooling agent (– liquid) – охлаждающий агент (жидкость)
corrode, v – подвергаться коррозии
corrosion, n – коррозия
cropland, n – пахотная земля
crowded conditions, part+n – условия скученности
cultivation, n – возделывание
cure up, v – излечивать

137
damselfly, n – равнокрылая стрекоза
danger, n – опасность
debris/mudrock flow, n+n – селевой поток
decompose, v – разрушать, разлагать (to decay, to break down)
deforestation, n – обезлесивание
deglaciation, n – таяние ледников
depletion of the ozone layer – разрушение озонового слоя
desertification, n – опустынивание
detergent, n – стиральный порошок
D deterioration, n – ухудшение, повреждение
devastating effect, adj+n – разрушительное воздействие
dissolve, v – растворять
disposable, adj – для одноразового использования
dispose of, v – избавляться от (to get rid of)
diversity, n – разнообразие
domesticated animals, part+n – одомашненные животные
drainage basin, n+n – водосборный бассейн
drought, n – засуха
dumping, n – свалка, захоронение отходов
earth fall, n+n – оползень
emission, n – испускание, выброс
ecological efficiency, adj+n – экологическая эффективность
ecological equilibrium, adj+n – экологическое равновесие
ecological/environmental impact, adj+n – воздействие на окружающую
среду
ecological succession, adj+n – экологическая последовательность
ecosphere, n – экосфера
ecosystem, n – экологическая система
enact bans, v+n – узаконить запрещение
endangered species, part+n – вымирающий вид
enhancement, n – оздоровление, улучшение окружающей среды
environment, n – окружающая среда
environmental exploitation, adj+n – природопользование
environmental protection, adj+n – природоохранные мероприятия
E environmently friendly, adv+adv – безвредный для окружающей среды
enzyme, n – энзим
equipment, n- оборудование
air pollution control~ – воздухоочистное оборудование
emission control~ – оборудование для борьбы с загрязнением воздуха
refuse disposal~ – оборудование для удаления отходов и мусора
erode, v – разъедать, корродировать
evaporation, n – испарение
evapotranspiration, n – суммарное испарение
exhaust, adj – выхлопной (газ)
explosion, n – взрыв
exposure, v – подвергать воздействию
exposure to sunlight – подвергать воздействию солнечного света
extinct, v – вымирать
extinction, n – вымирание
fallout, n – выпадение радиоактивных осадков
farmland, n – сельскохозяйственные угодья
fauna, n – фауна
fee effluent, n+n – штраф, налагаемый за сброс неочищенных сточ-
ных вод
fertility, n – плодородие
fertilizer, n – удобрение
F fire foam, n+n – огнетушительная пена
fishery, n – рыбный промысел
flammable substances, adj+n – легковоспламеняющиеся вещества
flood, flooding, n – наводнение
food web/chain, n+n – пищевая цепь
flora, n – флора
flourish, v - процветать

138
forest, n – лес, лесонасаждение
recreational~ – лесопарк
reserved~ – заповедный лес
timber~ – промышленный лес
wild~ – лесная чаща
fossil fuels, adj+ n – природное топливо
fume, n – дым, выхлопной газ
gamekeeper, n – егерь
garbage, n – мусор
gene, n – ген, фундаментальная единица наследственности
G genotype, n – генотип
germicidal plaster, adj+n – бактерицидный пластер
greenhouse effect, n+n – парниковый эффект
habitat, n – место обитания
harmful impurities, adj+n – вредные примеси
harvest failure, n+n – неурожай, гибель посевов
hatchery, n – питомник
hazardous, adj – опасный, вредный (dangerous, harmful)
hemisphere, n – полушарие (мозга)
heredity, n – наследственность
herbivore, adj – травоядное
H heron, n – цапля
human-made structures, part+n – конструкции, сделанные человеком
humidity, n – влажность (moisture)
humus, n – чернозем
hunting, n – охота
hurricane, n – ураган
hydrocarbon, n – углеводород
hydrosphere, n – гидросфера
ice jam, n+n – ледяной затор
illegal, adj – незаконный
impact, n – воздействие
implement, n – внедрение
improve, v – улучшать
increase, v – увеличивать, ускорять (to speed up, to accelerate)
incurable, adj – неизлечимый
index, n – индекс
air pollution~ – индекс загрязнения воздуха
air quality~ – индекс качества воздуха
diversity~ – индекс разнообразия
I noisiness ~ – шумовой индекс
industrial hygiene, adj+n – охрана труда
inhabitant, n – житель, обитатель
injure, v – повреждать, травмировать
insure, v – обеспечивать
intake, n – потребление, поглощение
interact, v – взаимодействовать
irreplaceable natural resources, adj+adj+n – невозобновляемые природ-
ные ресурсы
irreversible process, adj+n – необратимый процесс
irrigation, n – процесс орошения
land, n – земля
barren~ – пустошь
burnt~ – выжженная земля
~erosion – эрозия почвы
forestry~ – лесистая местность
improved~ – улучшенные земли
L nonproductive~ – неплодородная земля
tidal~ – приливно-отливная местность
virgin~ – целина
landfill, n – свалка, захоронение отходов
landscape, n – ландшафт
livestock, n – поголовье скота

139
life-support environment, n+n – система жизнеобеспечения
lifetime, n – продолжительность жизни
liming, n – известкование
liquid, n – жидкость
logging, n – лесозаготовка
lubricant, n – смазочный материал, машинное масло
man-made emissions, part +n – антропогенные выбросы
mainstream, n – основное направление
maximum concentration limit, n+n+n – предельно допустимая концен-
трация, ПДК
mercury, n – ртуть
micronutrient element, n+n – микропитательный элемент
M migration, n – миграция
mitigation, n – смягчение последствий
moisture, n – влажность
moorland, n – заболоченная местность
mortality, n – смертность
multicellular, adj – многоклеточный
nature reserve, n+n – природоохраняемая территория
nitrous oxide, n – закись азота
nuisance, n – вред
N natural environment, adj+n – природная среда
noise pollution, n+n – шумовое загрязнение
nutrients, n – питательные вещества
nutrition, n – питание
obesity, n – полнота, ожирение
odor, n – запах
offspring, n – потомство
oil spill, n+n – разлив нефти
organic compounds, adj+n – органические вещества
O organic residues, adj+n – органические остатки
overeating, n – излишнее потребление пищи
overshadow, v – затемнять, омрачать
oxidation/reduction, n – процессы окисления и восстановления
ozone layer, n – озоновый слой
paperstock, n – макулатура
peacock, n – павлин
permissible dose/ concentration, adj+n – допустимая доза/концентрация
permit, n – разрешение, лицензия (license)
pesticide, n – пестициды
petroleum products, n+n – нефтепродукты
phenotype, n – фенотип
photosynthesis, n – процесс фотосинтеза
plant ecology, n+n – экология растений, геоботаника
pneumonia, n – пневмония
poacher, n – браконьер
poaching, n – браконьерство
poison, n – яд, отрава
poisonous, adj – отравленный, ядовитый
P pollutant, n – загрязнитель
pollute, v – загрязнять (to contaminate)
pollution, n – загрязнение
pollution intensity, n+n – интенсивность загрязнения
pollution source identification n+n+n – выявление источников загрязнения
population, n – население, популяция
post treatment, n – доочистка
precipitation, n – выпадение осадка, отложение
prescribe, v – прописывать, предписывать
preserve, v – сохранять
preservation, n – предотвращение
pretreatment, n – предварительная обработка
prevent, v – предотвращать
preventive measures, adj+n – превентивные меры
140
produce, v – производить
progeny, n – потомство
protect, v – защищать
protein, n – белок
purification, n – очищение
qualitative, adj – качественный
quality, n – качество
Q quantify, v – исчислять(ся)
quantitative, adj – количественный
quantity, n – количество
radioactive dust, adj+n – радиоактивная пыль
radioactive decay, adj+n – радиоактивный распад
radioactive leak/release, adj+n – утечка радиоактивных веществ
rainfall, n – дождевые осадки
rainforest, n – тропический лес
rangeland, n – пастбище
reasonable, adj – разумный
reclamation, n – мелиорация, окультуривание земель
recreational, adj – развлекательный, восстанавливающий
recovery, n – восстановление
rectification, n – ректификация, восстановление
recultivation, n – восстановление продуктивности земель
recycling, n – процесс повторной переработки
relationships, n – отношения
R release, v – выпускать, освобождать
reliability, n – надежность
remedy, n – лекарственное средство
research, v – исследовать
respiration, n – дыхание
respond, v – реагировать
reduce, v – уменьшать, снижать (to deplete, to decrease)
refining, n – переработка
reforestation, n – восстановление лесов
refuge, n – заповедник, заказник
restoration ecology, n+n – восстановительная экология
rubbish, n – мусор (trash, garbage, litter, refuse)
ruinous, adj – разрушительный
runoff, n – поверхностный сток
salination = salinization, n – засоление (почвы)
sample, n – образец
saturated fats, adj+n – насыщенные жиры
sediment, n – осадки, отложения
self-purification of water – самоочищение воды
sewage, n – стоки
shrub, n - кустарник
side-effect, n – побочный эффект
silt, n – ил
slash-and-burn, n – подсечно-огневое земледелие
smuggling, n – контрабанда
skin cancer, n+n – рак кожи
S snow/water retention, n+n – снего/водозадержание
snowdrop, n – подснежник
soil erosion, n+n – эрозия почвы
solar, adj – солнечный
solid, n – твердое вещество
solvent, n – растворитель
species, n – вид
~ composition – видовая структура
endangered~ – вымирающий вид
threatened~ – вид под угрозой вымирания
~ extinction – вымирание видов
opportunistiс ~ – условно-патогенные виды
starvation, n – голод (femine)

141
storage, n – хранение
substance, n – вещество
supply, n, v – обеспечение, снабжать
support, v – поддерживать
support of animated existence – поддержка существования животных
suppress, v – сдерживать, подавлять
surface evaporation, n+n – поверхностное испарение
surrounding, adj – окружающая среда
survive, v – выживать
susceptibility, n – восприимчивость
sustain, v – поддерживать
sustainable development, adj+n – устойчивое развитие
thermodynamically open system – термодинамически открытая систе-
ма
tidal power, adj + n – энергия приливов
tissue, n – ткань
toadstool, n – несъедобный, ядовитый гриб
T toxic, adj – токсичный, ядовитый (poisonous)
traffic collision, adj+n – столкновение на дороге
transmit, v – передавать
treatment, n – трактовка, отношение, лечение
treatment facilities, n+n – очистные сооружения
ultraviolet radiation, adj+n – ультрафиолетовое облучение
U underground water, n+n – подземные воды
urban, adj – городской
vapour, n – пар
vegetation, n – растительность
V volatile compound, adj+n – летучее вещество
vulnerable, adj – уязвимый
warden, n – лесничий
waste, n – отходы
industrial~ s – промышленные отходы
household ~ – домашние отходы
water, n – вода
drinking ~ – питьевая вода
ground ~ s – грунтовые воды
potable ~ – питьевая вода
~ discharge – сброс сточных вод (sewage dispose)
W ~ intake – водозабор
~ observation laboratory – лаборатория качества воды
~ supply – водоснабжение
~ treatment – водоочистка
waterlogging, n – заболачивание
well-being, n – благополучие, процветание
wildlife, n – дикая природа
waste recycling – вторичное использование отходов
woodpecker, n – дятел
Organizations
1. World Health Organization (WHO) – Всемирная организация здравоохранения
2. World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF) – международная неправительственная
организация по защите дикой природы
3. Greenpeace – Всемирная экологическая организация

142
Section 1
Project work
Project work is student oriented, though the teacher plays a major role in offering support to
learners. It is cooperative rather than competitive. Students can work on their own, in small groups,
or as a class to complete a project, sharing resources, ideas along the way.
Types of projects. Projects differ in data collection techniques and sources of information.
They as follows: Research projects. They are associated with the gathering of information through
library research.
Text projects. They involve encounters with texts (e.g. literature, reports, news media, video
and audio material, or computer-based information) rather than people.
Correspondent projects require communication with individuals or businesses, schools to so-
licit information by means of letters, faxes, phone calls, or electronic mail.
Survey projects entail creating a survey instrument and then collection and analysing data.
Encounter projects result in face-to-face contact with guest speakers or individuals outside the
classroom.
The report on the results of project work. The report is broken into sections and each section and
subsection has a heading. Often, a numbering system is used to indicate each section or subsection.
Parts of the report
1. Introduction
In this section you indicate the purpose of the report. This section contains also any relevant
details regarding the background information that may be needed to make sense of the information in
the report. It may outline the history of a project, or major players in the project.
2. Procedures
In this section, you would briefly outline how you collected the data that will provide the basis
for analysis that will produce conclusions and recommendations. Even though it may be called some-
thing different, all reports use specific data and ways of collecting it that would be included in this
section.
3. Analysis of data
This section is perhaps the longest section in most reports and it is where, using visual displays,
you outline the data you have collected.
· Graphs, charts, tables, maps, graphic displays should always be used to summarise the find-
ings you have made from the data you have collected.
· Each set of data may be displayed in more than one way and each diagram or visual should
have a title, figure or table number, and should be thoroughly labelled.
· Each set of data is systematically displayed and analysed in a paragraph under the appropriate
diagram.
4. Conclusions
The conclusions are drawn directly from the analysis section of the report. For each section
under the main heading 'Analysis', there should be at least one corresponding conclusion.
5. Recommendations
These are your suggestions for further action based on your conclusions. Not all reports will
ask for recommendations. Some will have a section where both conclusions and recommendations
are given. Recommendations are numbered as they normally follow sequentially.
6. References
A reference list with publication details of sources used should be included after the conclu-
sions/recommendations section. Any appendices follow the reference list.
7. Appendices
Appendices include things like raw data sheets, extra or supplementary information or dia-
grams, maps of regions etc. You draw your reader's attention to the appropriate appendix by indicat-
ing this briefly at the appropriate place in the report.

143
Section 2
How to make a good presentation

Roger making a presentation in Turin to students from Japan

· Think about the presentation beforehand. It is short-changing the organizers of the event
and your audience if you only think about what you're going to say the day before or while travelling
to the event. If necessary, clarify with the organizers exactly what is required of you and what facili-
ties you will require.
· Do use PowerPoint if the facilities are available. Although some speakers seem to have
taken an aversion to PowerPoint, it is so convenient and ensures that your presentation has a clear
structure and something for your listeners to take away.
· Face your audience at all times even though the screen to which you are speaking is behind
you. So that you know what your audience is viewing at any given time in the presentation, either
have a computer screen on a desk in front of you showing the presentation or print off the slides and
use the paper copies as a speaking aid.
· Be very clear about how much time you have - and stick to that time in preparing and de-
livering your presentation. It's very difficult to 'cut' a PowerPoint presentation at the event itself, so
it's a great mistake to run out of time. Most presenters prepare too much material; but nobody ever
complains that a presentation was too short (it always allows more time for questions).
· Be very clear about your key message - and ensure that everything in your presentation is
both consistent with, and supportive of, that key message. You should be able to articulate the mes-
sage in a phrase or a sentence and indeed you might want to use that phrase or sentence in one of
your first slides, or one of your last, or even both.
· E-mail your presentation to the event organizers in advance. Ask them to load it onto a
laptop, run it through, check that it looks fine, and confirm that with you. Then you don't have to
worry about the technology when you arrive at the venue; you can concentrate on the delivery of
your material. Also it enables the event's organizers to run off copies of your slides, so that they are
available to them in good time.
· Make copies of your slides available. It is a matter of preference whether you do this at the
beginning of your presentation or at the end. If your listeners have copies at the beginning, they can
take notes simply by annotating the slides, instead of having to note down all the information on the
slides. On the other hand, you might feel that, if they can see in advance the slides you are going to
use, you lose the element of control or surprise. It might depend on the content of the presentation:
if you are going to show detailed tables or graphs with lots of figures, your audience will probably
find it easier to have a copy on their lap. It might depend on the circumstances of the presentation: if
there is a large audience, people at the back may not be able to see the screen clearly and would
really appreciate having copies of the slides.

144
· Ensure that the slides look good. This does not necessarily mean that they look flashy - al-
though suitable pictures or illustrations are very effective - but it does mean using a consistent format
and typeface and readable colours plus giving each slide the logo of the organization you are repre-
senting and a chronological number.
· The first slide should announce the title of your presentation, the event and date, and
your name and position. This may seem terribly obvious, but many speakers miss off some of this
basic information and then weeks later listeners (or their colleagues back at the organization) are not
clear who made the presentation or when. You should try to make the title catchy, so that you im-
mediately have the interest of your audience. A challenging question works well - for instance, a
presentation on the global economic crisis might ask: "Is this the end of capitalism as we've known
it?" Or a play on words works too - for example, a presentation on next generation broadband could
be titled "The Slow Arrival Of Fast Broadband".
· The second slide should seize the attention of your audience for your presentation. It
could be the central proposition of your presentation or a conventional wisdom that you wish to
challenge or a relevant or witty quote from a leader in your field. If it is amusing or controversial or
both, so much the better.
· The third slide should set out the structure of your presentation. The default struc-
ture should consist of three themes that you intend to examine. For a very short presentation,
there might only be time for two; if you want to look at more than five areas, write a book in-
stead.
· Each theme should be the subject of a small number of slides. Again, a good work-
ing assumption is that three slides for each theme is about right. Less than two and it isn't sub-
stantial enough to be a separate theme; more than five and it should probably be broken up into
two themes.
· Each slide should have a clear heading. A question is often a good way of winning at-
tention - but, in that case, make sure you answer the question in the body of the slide.
· Each slide should normally contain around 25-35 words, unless it is a quote (when
you might use more) or contains an illustration (when you will probably use less). Too many
words and your audience will have trouble reading the material; too few words and you're likely
to be flashing through the slides and spending too much time clicking the mouse.
· Each bullet point should consist of an intelligible phrase, rather than merely a word
or two that is meaningless on its own or conversely a complete sentence that is better delivered
orally. So, for instance, do use "Focus on profitable and growing markets" rather than simply
"Focus" or "Markets" or "It is necessary to focus on those markets which are profitable and
growing rather than those which are loss-making and declining". Consider this test: your slides
should make sense and be useful to someone who was not present at your presentation.
· Make appropriate use of pictures. It's a good idea to break up text with illustrations and it
is true that a picture is worth a thousand words.
· The last slide should set out all appropriate contact details: certainly e-mail address and
possibly snail mail address, the web site of your organization, and any personal website or web blog
if you have one.
ROGER DARLINGTON http://www.rogerdarlington.me.uk/Presentation.html

145
Section 3
Useful phrases to be used while making a presentation
Welcoming your audience As far as I am concerned,
Good morning, ladies and gentlemen As far as I know
Good morning, gentlemen I think that
Good afternoon, ladies and gentleman
Good afternoon, everybody Adding more points to the same topic
What is more,
Introducing your subject Furthermore,
I am going to talk today about... Apart from this/that,
The purpose of my presentation In addition (to this),
is to introduce.. Moreover,
Besides (this),...
Starting Ordering
I'd like to start by... Firstly...secondly...thirdly...lastly...
Let's begin by... First of all...then...next...after
First of all, I'll... that...finally...
Starting with... To start with...later...to finish up...
I'll begin by...
Emphasizing a point
Finishing one subject... Indeed,
Well, I've told you about... Naturally,
That's all I have to say about... Clearly,
We've looked at... Obviously,
So much for... Of course,
Needless to say that
...and starting another
Now we'll move on to...
Let me turn now to...
Next...
Turning to...
I'd like now to discuss...
Let's look now at...

Giving an example
For example,...
A good example of this is...
As an illustration,...
To give you an example,...
To illustrate this point...

Expressing personal opinion


In my opinion/view,
To my mind,
To my way of thinking,
I am convinced that,
It strikes me that,
It is my firm belief that,
I am inclined to believe that,
It seems to me that,

146
Summarizing and concluding
To conclude,...
Now, to sum up...
Right, let's sum up, shall we?
So let me summarize/recap what I've said.
Finally, may I remind you of some of the main points we've considered.
In conclusion,...
I'd like now to recap...
Let's summarise briefly what we've looked at...
Finally, let me remind you of some of the issues we've covered...
If I can just sum up the main points...

Stating other people’s opinion


It is popularly believed that…
People often claim that…
It is often alleged that…
Some people argue that…
Many argue that…
Most people feel that…
Some people point out that…

Making contrasting points


Although,
Even though,
Regardless of the fact that…
In spite of the fact that...
Despite the fact that…
While it is a well-known fact that…
However,
But,
Nevertheless,
On the other hand

Dealing with questions


We'll be examining this point in more detail later on...
Thank you for your question.
I'd like to deal with this question later, if I may...
I'll come back to this question later in my talk...
Perhaps you'd like to raise this point at the end...
I won't comment on this now...
It will be the task of our future investigation.

Thanking your audience


Many thanks for your attention.
May I thank you all for being such an attentive audience.

Inviting questions
Now I'll try to answer any questions you may have.
Are there any questions?
Do you have any questions?
Are there any final questions?

147
Section 4

Primary Criteria for Evaluation of Presentation

Outstanding
I. Organization Merrits Total
Poor Avg. Good Excellent Place
(15 ) (if any, specify & Score
give score 1 - 5)
Appropriate In-
1 2 3 4 5
troduction
Clear Outline 1 2 3 4 5
Logical Devel-
1 2 3 4 5
opment
II. Content (20)
Preparation and
Knowledge of 1 2 3 4 5
Materials
Depth of Ideas 1 2 3 4 5
Originality 1 2 3 4 5
Listeners' interest 1 2 3 4 5
III. Speech (20)
Clarity, Audibil-
1 2 3 4 5
ity
Pronunciation 1 2 3 4 5
Use of Appropri-
1 2 3 4 5
ate Words
Grammar 1 2 3 4 5
IV. Delivery
(30):
Enthusiasm 1 2 3 4 5
Confidence 1 2 3 4 5
Use of Allotted
2 4 6 8 10
Time
Interaction with
1 2 3 4 5
Audience
Q & A Session-
Knowledge of 1 2 3 4 5
Topic
V. Visuals (15 )
Pleasing (good
choice of font,
1 2 3 4 5
colours, pictures,
music)
Easy to See, Read
1 2 3 4 5
& Understand
Coordination
1 2 3 4 5
with Content

148
Bibliography
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Science. Student’s Book. – Macmillan Publishers, 2008.
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Periodical Editions:
Environment, Ecology, Ecologist, British Ecological Society, Journal of Applied Ecology,
Journal of Ecology, Functional Ecology, Journal of Animal Ecology

The Internet sources:


http://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/
http://scout-kg.narod.ru/library/l_geoek.energ.i.okrog.sreda.html
http://www.ecosystema.ru/07referats/him_sreda.htm
http://www.greenpeace.org/russia/ru/campaigns/toxics/
http://www.dec.ny.gov/25.html
http://www.green.tsu.ru
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/International_Union_for_Conservation_of_Nature
http://ozonewatch.gsfc.nasa.gov/
http://ru.titech.com/
www.wordsources.info/
http://www.rogerdarlington.me.uk/Presentation.html
http://getalifephd.blogspot.ru/2011/04/how-to-give-fabulous-academic.html
http://ecological-problems.blogspot.ru

149
Учебное издание

МИНАКОВА Людмила Юрьевна


ПИЛЮКОВА Антонина Владимировна

ENGLISH IN BIOLOGY AND ECOLOGY


(Английский язык в сфере Биологии и Экологии)

Учебное пособие
для студентов естественных специальностей

Редактор Е.В. Лукина


Компьютерная верстка Т.В. Дьяковой

Подписано в печать 26.12.2014.


Формат 60х841/8. Бумага офсетная. Печать офсетная.
Печ. л. 9,37; усл. печ. л. 13,11; уч.-изд. л. 13,5. Тираж 50. Заказ № 806.

«Издательство ТГУ», 634029, г. Томск, ул. Никитина, 4


Отпечатано на оборудовании Издательского Дома Томского государственного университета,
634050, г. Томск, пр. Ленина, 36, тел. 8(382)-53-15-28; 52-98-49
http:/publish.tsu.ru; e-mail; rio.tsu©mail.ru
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