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МИНИСТЕРСТВО НАУКИ И ВЫСШЕГО ОБРАЗОВАНИЯ

РОССИЙСКОЙ ФЕДЕРАЦИИ
Федеральное государственное автономное образовательное
учреждение высшего образования
«ЮЖНЫЙ ФЕДЕРАЛЬНЫЙ УНИВЕРСИТЕТ»

Институт филологии, журналистики и межкультурной коммуникации

А. А. Андриенко, А. А. Медведева

ENHANCING FLUENCY
Part 2

Учебное пособие
В двух частях

Ростов-на-Дону – Таганрог
Издательство Южного федерального университета
2018
УДК 811.111`36(075.8)
ББК 81.432.1-2я73
А65

Печатается по решению заседания кафедры английской филологии


Института филологии, журналистики и межкультурной коммуникации
Южного федерального университета (протокол № 6 от 01.02.2018 г.)

Рецензенты:
Н. С. Трифонова, канд фил наук, доц. каф. англ. филологии
ИФЖиМК ЮФУ;
А. В. Прохоров, канд. фил. наук, доц. Тамбовского государственного
университета им. Г. Р. Державина

Андриенко, А.А.
А65 Enhancing Fluency. Part 2 : учебное пособие : в 2 ч. / А. А.
Андриенко, А. А. Медведева ; Южный федеральный университет. –
Ростовна-Дону ; Таганрог : Издательство Южного федерального
университета, 2018.
ISBN 978-5-9275-2980-3
Ч. 2. – 152 с.
ISBN 978-5-9275-2982-7 (Ч. 2)

Пособие предназначено для студентов 1 курса языковых отделений


филологических факультетов. Пособие состоит из 2-х частей, каждая из
которых нацелена на изучение практического курса английского языка в
течение 1-го и 2-го семестров соответственно. Каждая часть пособия
включает три тематических раздела, состоящих из аутентичных
англоязычных текстов, комплекса упражнений в рамках тематического
раздела, аудио- и видеоматериалами, заданиями на развитие письменных и
устных компетенций студентов 1-го курса, тематическим глоссарием.

ISBN 978-5-9275-2982-7 (Ч. 2) УДК


811.111`36(075.8)
ISBN 978-5-9275-2980-3 ББК 81.432.1-2я73

© Южный федеральный университет, 2018


© Андриенко А. А., Медведева А. А., 2018
Пояснительная записка
Настоящее учебное пособие составлено на модульной основе, отвечает
основным целям обучения на 1-м курсе отделения зарубежной филологии и
направлено на овладение, развитие и совершенствование профессиональных
умений и навыков устной и письменной речи студентов в процессе их работы в
аудитории под руководством преподавателя и самостоятельной работы.
Упражнения по развитию навыков устной речи имеют коммуникативную
направленность, предусматривают групповую и индивидуальную работу и
способствуют формированию у учащихся навыков в продуктивных и рецептивных
видах речевой деятельности. Предлагаемые тексты и задания позволяют
значительно обогатить словарный запас студентов, приобщить их к
самостоятельной научноисследовательской работе над языком и развить у них
аналитический подход к изучаемым языковым явлениям.
Учебное пособие «Enhancing Fluency. Part 2» отвечает основным
дидактическим и методическим принципам обучения. Пособие предлагает
материал по 3 модулям, содержит вокабуляр по темам, тексты, упражнения,
диалоги и выборку из оригинальных художественных произведений. Тематически
организованный список лексических единиц состоит из слов и выражений как
подлежащих активному усвоению, так и не входящих в активный словарь, но
нуждающихся в пояснении. Упражнения по развитию устной речи имеют
коммуникативную направленность, предусматривают групповую и
индивидуальную работу. Система упражнений по письменной практике
предусматривает самостоятельную отработку норм современного английского
языка, подготовку студентов к написанию эссе. Ролевые игры и ситуативные
диалоги способствуют быстрейшему запоминанию материала в ситуациях,
максимально приближенных к реальной коммуникации.

3
CONTENTS
Section 1. ACCOMMODATION AND HOUSING
Module 1. Types of Dwellings ……………………………………………………. p.5
Module 2. Interior and Exterior………………………………………………..……p.29
Module 3. Buying and Renting Accommodation………………………………….. p.53
Vocabulary Section 1. ……………………………………………………………….p.62
Section 2. WEATHER AND CLIMATE
Module 1. Whether the Weather …………………………………………………….p.68
Module 2. Climate …………………………………………………………………...p.87
Module 3. Extreme Weather Conditions …………………………………………….p.97
Vocabulary Section 2…………………………………………………………………p.108
Section 3. STUDENT’S LIFE
Module 1. Daily Routine……………………………………………………………..p.112
Module 2. College Life……………………………………………………………….p.125
Module 3. Household Chores………………………………………………………...p.141
Vocabulary Section 3…………………………………………………………………p.148
References ……………………………………………………………………………p.151

Section 1
ACCOMMODATION AND HOUSING
MОDULE 1 TYPES
OF DWELLINGS
Ex. 1. Lead-in. My home is my Castle.
a) Look at the pictures. Which of the
houses has: five storeys and a house on
top, brick
walls, a thatched roof, a chimney, a rock
on the roof, wooden stairs up to the front
door, stone walls, a tiled roof? Is: built
underground, built on stilts? b) Use these
adjectives to describe the houses in the
pictures. Give reasons: economical,
five-storey Suffolk, England
building
terraced Zimbabwe
4 house
house on Portugal
stilts
rock house Headington,
England
impractical, cold, spacious, cramped, airy, comfortable, attractive, eccentric. c) Listen and match
the houses to the countries.
Which house would/wouldn’t you like to live in? Give reasons. [5]
Ex. 2. a) Look at the title of the text. What do you think it is about? What comes to
your mind when you think of a perfect home? Discuss in pairs. Now, listen to the
text and compare it to your ideas.
b) Read the article and answer the questions after the text.
In search of the perfect home?
How would you like to live in a castle, a tree house or even underground? This might not be as
unusual as you think. It seems that these days more and more people want to live somewhere special at
out of the ordinary, and if they can’t buy what they want they are quite prepared to build it from
scratch.
For John Mew and his wife Josephine their home really is their castle. They have built their
own English castle in the Sussex countryside. The building is brand new with all the luxuries you
would expect from a house that cost more than £350,000 pounds to build. However, when you first see
it from the outside it would be easy to think that you are looking at an ancient monument. The building
has a lot of the features of a traditional castle, including a keep, a moat and a drawbridge. “My
choice of house somewhat eccentric and building it was very hard work, but we’ve got the perfect
place to live,” Mew says. Although some would say that the building impractical and may be cold in
harsh British winter he certainly has got a unique and spacious home.
If you don’t look carefully, you might not even see the home that Jonathan Ridley-
Jones and Shanon Ridd built at all! That’s because the house is converted underground water tank. The
only thing that can be seen from the surface is a door leading into the hillside. “We’ve never wanted to
live in an ordinary house,” Shannon says. “Living below ground means that our home is quiet and very
cozy - none of the usual draughts. It doesn’t damage the local surroundings and has very low fuel bills.
Some our friends find it dark and feel shut in when they first visit us, but they soon get used to it”.
If an underground home doesn’t appeal to you, what about living in the tree tops? Dan Garner, a
tree surgeon from Gloucestershire, certainly thinks that this is the way to go up in the world. “When our
family became short of space at home, our solution was to build a luxury tree house in the garden. The
tree house is built into a spruce tree six meters above the ground. It has one main room, a bedroom and a
balcony running around two sides. Garner is so happy with this practical extension to his home that he
thinks he can convince more people of the benefits of living in the trees. He wants to set up his own
enterprise making more of the deluxe tree dwellings, saying, “Tree houses are airy, secure and
comfortable and the only disadvantage is that they might not be suitable for people who suffer from hay
fever or a fear of heights!”
Even people who live in more ordinary settings sometimes can’t resist doing something to
make them stand out from the crowd. One extreme example of this is Bill Heines’ house in
Headington, Oxfordshire. Until one morning in 1986, his house looked much like all the others in his
street, when suddenly overnight a 7.5 m long fibreglass shark appeared to have crashed through the roof.
The shark was a sculpture by local artist John Buckley. At first some people complained that it might be
dangerous or that it spoilt the look of the neighborhood, but engineers checked that the sculpture was
safe and the “Headington shark” has become a well-known and popular landmark. It seems that no
matter where you live, you can always do something to make sure your house says some about who you
are. 1. More and more people build their own home A so that they can live underground.
B so that they can have exactly the home they want.
C because it is cheaper than buying a new house.
D because they want all the modern luxuries you find in a new home.

5
2. John and Josephine Mew
A know that their choice of home is unusual.
B found that creating their dream home was easy.
C wanted to live like people would have in traditional castles.
D converted an ancient building into a modern home.
3. What do Jonathan Ridley-Jones and Shanon Ridd say about their home?
A It’s just an ordinary house.
B They always wanted to live underground.
C It doesn’t harm the environment.
D They don't pay anything for heating and lighting.
4. Why did Dan build a tree house in his garden? A He wants
to persuade people to buy one.
B His family wanted to live in a tree house.
C He builds them for a living.
D His family needed more room.
5. The 'Headington shark'
A was created by Bill Heines.
B crashed into the roof of Bill Heines’ house one night. C was
immediately popular with everyone in the town.
D was built without any warning. [5]
c) List the advantages and disadvantages of Mew's, Ridd's and Garner's dwellings, and
then talk about them.
d) Explain the words in bold, then suggest synonyms and use them in the sentences of your
own.

Ex. 3. Listening and Vocabulary Practice. Go through the table and look up the
words you don't know in your dictionary. Listen and underline the words that best
describe Ann's house. Circle the ones which best describe John's house [5].
Style traditional, modern, apartment/flat, (semi)detached, terraced house, cottage,
villa, l/2/3 storey building, castle
Location village, city, centrally located, residential area, close to the shops, in the
suburbs, on the outskirts, isolated, in the country
Size small, tiny, spacious, large, huge, average, family-sized, 1-2 bedroomed
Cost cheap, low-priced, overpriced, expensive, economical, frugal
General cosy, comfortable, secure, luxurious, well-maintained, fully furnished, airy,
Description noisy, cold
Use the words to describe Ann’s and John’s houses, then describe your house.

Ex. 4. Jigsaw Reading. Divide into four groups – A, B, C and D. Each group reads the description
of various types of dwellings. Which of them haven’t you heard of before? Now join
people from other groups and tell them about the types of dwellings you’ve read
about. “HOME IS WHERE THE HEART IS.”
There are many types of buildings people from all over the world sleep in every night. Some live in big,
tall modern buildings. Others sleep in a home with wheels under it.
Here are 31 house types from all over the World with explanation and each used in an example
sentence. What kind of building do you live in?

6
Group A
1. Apartment
An apartment is an American term for a home where you live (British English: flat) in a separate home
within a large building where others also have their own home.
This style of building is often called an apartment block. Or, if it’s very large, a skyscraper.
Apartment blocks are normally owned by a single company or developer and each apartment is rented
by the person living there.
• Young professionals like apartments because they’re cheaper than detached houses.
• The apartment looked so small now that she was all grown up.
2. Bungalow
A bungalow is a low-built one storey house. It’s often small in size. Bungalows often have a veranda
(porch), at the front and or back, which is a covered area to sit.
• I love living in my bungalow I never have to walk up or down stairs.
• Center Parks is a resort where families stay in bungalows instead of hotel rooms.
3. Caravan
A caravan is a vehicle, which can be pulled behind a car or truck, which is made for living in. A caravan is
also commonly called a trailer.
Caravans are often used for short term stay, for example when going on holiday.
• The circus clown is in his caravan, putting on makeup for tonight’s show.
• Many retirees are selling their homes and living in caravans due to rising living costs.
4. Castle
Castles are large and often old buildings. Hundreds of years ago, many kings and queens would live in
castles.
Castles are made with thick stone walls to protect the people living there. They’re also sometimes
surrounded by a circle of water, called a moat.
• Switzerland is home to some of the world’s most beautiful castles.
• The Disney Castle at Disneyland is visited by over 1 million people per year.
5. Condominium/Condo
A condominium is a style of an apartment which is individually owned. Normally by the person living
there, although you can rent from the condo owner.
Each condo owner is allowed to buy and sell their own condo and own a small percentage rights to the
land and common areas, like the gym or tennis court. This is different from an apartment where the
entire building is owned by one person or company.
 Condominiums are very popular in Bangkok where houses are too expensive to buy.  Some
people love living in condos because they can live close to their work.
6. Cottage
Cottages are small old-fashioned houses often found in the countryside. England style cottages are
world famous for their signature look. They are often made of stone or brick with a straw or thatched
roof.
• Little Red Riding Hood’s grandmother lived in a little cottage near the forest. 
Look! There’s smoke coming out of that cottage’s Someone’s home. 7. Dormitory/dorm
Dormitories are similar to apartments and common on college and university campuses. Here they are
used by students who want to live close to school.
7
Dormitories are large buildings with many individual rooms called dorm rooms. People often share
rooms with other people and share bathroom and kitchens with many other dorm rooms.
• My brother loved living in the dormitory because of all the parties they had. 
Excuse me, Professor, I forgot my calculator in my dorm May I go get it? Group B
8. Duplex
A duplex is a kind of house where two homes are built under one roof. It is similar to a semidetached
house because duplexes are attached to another person’s house on one side but not on both sides.
Some duplexes used to be one house but were split into two homes.
• Duplexes are often cheaper than single family homes because they cost less to build.
• When living in a duplex, you have to be careful not to make too much noise.
9. Farmhouse
A farm house is what it sounds like. A house on a farm. Farm houses are one story low built houses.
They are traditionally built far away from the city, on large areas of land used for farming or raising
animals.
• John dreamed of leaving the city to live in a farmhouse in the countryside.
• Timmy, run back to the farmhouse and ask mum for a glass of water please.
10. Houseboat
A houseboat is a type of floating building where people live. As the name suggests, they’re part house,
part boat.
There are different kinds of houseboat. Some look like a boat that has room to sleep.
Whereas others are square shaped and simply look like floating houses.
• Have you ever watched the Danish YouTuber who lives on a houseboat?
• Wouldn’t you get seasick living on a houseboat?
11. Hut
A hut is a very simple one story house, often built with cheap materials or natural materials like mud.
These kinds of homes have been used for thousands of years by our ancestors.
They’re still seen today in poor places and regions which have not changed their ways in many
generations.
• In the old days, the chief’s hut would be at the center or all the others.
• There’s a great video online where a guy builds a mud hut from start to finish.
12. Igloo
Igloos are buildings made out of ice and snow. They have a recognizable round dome like shape.
Igloos keep the people inside them warm by using the people’s body heat to warm the air inside the ice
building.
• Pete the Penguin lived in an igloo with his parents and brother.
• Some igloos can last for over 100 years in the right weather conditions.
13. Lighthouse
A lighthouse is a tall building near the ocean with a huge light on its top to warn boats coming too close
to the land at night.
• Many captains and their crew’s lives have been saved by
• The lighthouse is painted white to reflect the most light at night.

8
14. Lodge
A small building near the gates of a large estate or piece of land, often used as a guard’s house.
Presently, lodges are also halls where some groups go to meet.
• Stephenson met the other Free Masons in secrecy at the local lodge.
• The guard was sitting at his station in the lodge when he heard a strange noise.
Group C
15. Log Cabin
These buildings are small structures found in the forests or woods. They’re made almost completely out
of wood, or large logs.
A “log” is a round piece of wood cut right from a tree. People also use logs to keep their home warm in
a fireplace.
• Granddad used to have a log cabin he would stay in when he would go hunting.
• I wonder how many log cabins burn down every year because of their fireplace?
16. Manor
A big country house with a lot of land. They are an old style house, normally owned by wealthy families.
Manors have very large and beautiful gardens.
• Lord of Chester lived in a large manor that had been in his family for generations.
• There was a murder in the old Hill State manor last night.
17. Mansion
A large and impressive house. Similar to a manor. However, manors are generally old and in the
country.
In contrast, mansions can be anywhere. Mansions can be old, or new. Most famous actors and singers
live in mansions.
• Hollywood is famous around the world for its mansions and movie stars.
• Robert Di Niro just sold his mansion for a huge sum of $22 million dollars.
18. Motel
A hotel located close to a major road and mostly used by travelers who wish to rest while making long
road trips.
Motel comes from the words motor and hotel. On average motels are not as nice as most hotels and
offer only basic services.
• The truck driver decided to pull over into a motel to rest for the night.
• I hate motels. I once found a rat in the ice machine at one of them.
19. Palace
A palace is the home of a country’s king or queen. Buckingham Palace is the very famous home of the
Queen of England.
Palaces are generally very large and have many people working there to take care of the royal family.
• The changing of the guards at Buckingham Palace is a world famous tradition.
• The Queen likes to read the newspaper each morning in the Palace’s
20. Semi-detached House
Semi means half or partly. Detached means that it is not touching anything else.
A semi-detached house is a house that is touching another building on one of its sides but not on
another.
• Johnny lived in a semi-detached house on Smith Street before moving to London.
9
• The semi-detached house on 5th avenue sold for $500k last weekend.
21. Shack
A shack is a small building often put together loosely with left-over or cheap materials. A shack is
similar to a hut or cabin.
What makes a shack different is that it is often made with modern materials like wood and metal and
generally not well built.
 They stepped into the dimly lit shack where a man sat cross-legged, head in hands.  The
slums in Rio are mostly shacks made from garbage and sheets of metal. Group D
22. Single family home (Detached)
A single family home, often called a detached house, is an alone standing medium size house. There
aren’t any other buildings touching a single family house. Single family homes are most common
outside of the city in areas called “suburbs”.
• The agent told me about a single family home for sale near the local school.
• This single family home is perfect for me and my family. We’ll take it!
23. Skyscraper
A skyscraper is a very tall new style building. You will see many skyscrapers in nearly every city around
the world.
They are made of glass and metal. Skyscrapers are used as office buildings or apartments.
• The tallest building in the world is a skyscraper called the Burj Khalifa.
• Skyscrapers are made to be flexible and move in the wind.
24. Teepee
Teepees are the old style of house in which Native American Indians used to live. They were made with
animal skins and sticks.
Whole towns of Indians would live in a small group of Teepees which could be taken apart and moved
to new locations when the seasons changed.
• A whole family of Indians would live in one teepee together for safety and warmth.
• The chief and the soldier sat in the teepee, sharing a peace pipe.
25. Tent
A temporary shelter made from fabric. Most people use tents when they go camping and need to
quickly set up a place to sleep that will protect them from the rain, wind and small animals overnight.
• A tent is a great way to stop bugs and spiders but it won’t stop a bear.
• The old tents used to be so hard to put up. Now all you have to do it push a button.
26. Terraced House
A terraced house is a tall but narrow house which is attached on both sides to another house.
They are common in many European countries like England, Holland and Germany.
In those countries, whole streets of houses can all be connected to each other in a row.
 Sherlock Holmes famously lived in a terraced house at 221B Baker Street, London. 
Terraced houses were built closely together to share heat in the harsh winter. 27. Townhouse
A townhouse is similar to a terraced house. Townhouses are houses built for inner-city living. There are
tall and narrow buildings. They don’t have a lot of land around them and often only have very small
gardens at the back.
• Over 100 townhouses fell into the river when London Bridge collapsed in 1703.  You can’t
find a townhouse for under a million dollars in Sydney. 28. Trailer
10
(See Caravan) A trailer is a small cabin with wheels. They can be pulled by trucks or other vehicles and
often made from metal or fiberglass.
Trailers are commonly used by people who need to move from one place to another for short periods
of time. For example, circus performers and actors who live on set.
• Amanda Lawson sat in her trailer practicing her lines for the next scene.
• In America people believe that people living in trailers are low class.

Ex. 5. a) Match the pictures with words describing different types of houses and
A palace 1. a boat which people use as their
home, often kept in one place
on a river

B flat/ 2. a small house, usually in the


apartment countryside

C houseboat 3. a very tall modern building,


usually in a city

D mansion 4. a house that stands alone

cottage 5. a type of building which people


live in and which usually stays
E in one place, but which can be
moved using a vehicle or
sometimes its own engine

caravan 6. a large house that is the official


F home of a king, queen or other
person of high social rank

11
G skyscraper 7. a very large expensive house
(usually with 10 bedrooms)

H detached 8. a shelter made of cloth, which


house you can fold up and carry with
you and which is supported by
poles and ropes

terraced 9. a house that is joined to the


I house houses on either side of it by
shared walls

tent 10. a tower built next to the ocean


J that has a powerful flashing
light at the top to show ships
where to go or to warn them of
danger

K semidetache 11. a set of rooms for living in,


d house especially on one floor of a
building

L Block of 12. a fairly large house, especially


flats/ one that is used for holidays
apartment
building

12
M lighthouse 13. a house that is attached to
something on only one side

N villa 14. a tall building which contains


different apartments on
different floors

b) Which would you find in a suburban, urban or rural area? Give arguments for and against
living in different types of houses from the previous exercise:
Advantages Disadvantages
Flat secure lack of privacy
Semi-detached house homely, low security risk no individuality
Detached house spacious high security risk
Terraced house economical no individuality
Villa spacious, luxurious interior overpriced
Castle luxurious interior isolated
Mansion spacious overpriced

Ex. 6. Housing in Britain. Read the descriptions of houses below and decide which of them is for the
English: a) the most desirable; b) second best; c) less desirable; d) the least desirable. Translate the
texts.
There are many different types of housing in Britain, ranging from the traditional
thatched country cottage to flats in the centre of towns. Houses are often described by the
period in which they were built (e. g., Georgian, Victorian, 1930s, or post-war) and whether
they are terraced, semi-detached or detached. As well as preferring houses to flats, for many people a
garden is also an important consideration. Although Britain is relatively small the areas where people
live vary considerably: there are new towns and inner cities, suburbs, commuter belts and the open
countryside.
a. Terraced houses are usually found in inner cities. They can be anything up to 150 years old
and were often built by industries to house their workers near the factories. They are built in long rows
where each house is attached to the ones on either side. The back of this type of house faces the back
of another identical row of houses, so they are often-known as ‘back to backs’. In recent years many
terraced houses have been renovated; central heating has been added and other improvements made
to what was originally a simple and sometimes primitive home with an outside toilet and no bathroom.
b. Semi-detached houses have been built in large numbers since the 1930s, when Britain’s
towns and cities expanded into suburbs. Each house is part of a pair and is joined on one side to its

13
partner. The semi usually has a small back and front garden, three bedrooms and a small bathroom. It
is the most popular type of house in Britain and could be called the home of ‘Mr. and Mrs. Average’.
Towns in Britain have areas which contain streets and streets of semis, often with well-kept gardens.
c. The detached house stands by itself, usually with a garden all around it. These houses are
much more expensive than semis and are often owned by professional people. Most detached houses
are to be found in affluent suburbs or in the ‘green belt’ – a strip of protected open countryside around
a city, where no industrial development or major building schemes are allowed. Some large cities
(particularly London) also have a ‘commuter belt’ – so-called because the professionals who live there
travel (commute) every day to work into the city by train or car. London is surrounded by miles and
miles of ‘commuter belt’. Some commuters travel up to three or four hours a day to get from their
homes to the inner city.
d. Britain is famous for its country cottages which were often built on the country estates of
wealthy landowners. The workers on the estate rented the cottages from the landowner and worked
on the land. Cottages were also frequently built around a village green. Cottages have low ceilings,
wooden beams and sometimes a thatched roof. In recent years some cottages have become second
homes, bought by professionals during the economic boom of the 1980s.
e. In the 1950s and 1960s local councils cleared a lot of the slums in the inner city areas and
knocked down terraced houses in very poor areas. The people were re-housed in tower blocks on the
outskirts of the city or in the centre of the city. Tower blocks can vary from 3-5 storeys high up to 10-20
storeys high. Each storey contains 5 or 6 flats for families. In recent years local councils have tried to
improve the areas around tower blocks by creating ‘green space’, children’s playgrounds and facilities
for the community to use. Some tower blocks in large cities like London can be very dangerous at night
and they have been criticised for their long dark corridors, which encourage crime and vandalism.
f. A bungalow is a small house in which all the rooms are on the ground level. Many old people
live in bungalows because there are no stairs to climb. In Britain, large groups of bungalows are often
built together on the edges of towns, or in places where people go to live when they have retired from
work, such as the south coast. Many people find these groups of bungalows boring to look at.
g. The town house, which can be found in the inner areas of most cities, is an exception to the
general pattern. There is great variety regarding both design and use. They often have three or more
floors, perhaps including a basement or semi-basement. Although they are usually terraced, those that
are well-preserved and in a ‘good’ area may be thought highly desirable. Many have been broken up
into flats or rooms for rent. Most of the comparatively small number of people who rent from private
owners live in flats of this kind.

Using the information you have read above try to guess which type of house is meant in the
following sentences.
1) A …........................… house not only ensures privacy, but is also a status symbol.
2) Most people would be happy to live in a ….....................…….., reminiscent of
preindustrial age. 3) The dislike of living in ……......…..… is very strong in Britain.
4) In other countries millions of people live reasonably
happily in
...................................................... .
5) ....…................... at the end of the row are a bit more desirable – they are the most like a semi-
detached.

14
6) A ……..................... house usually has no way through to the back except through the house
itself. 7) Many older people dream of going to live in a …...................... when they retire.

Ex. 7. Skim the 2 articles. What ideas do they have in common? Can you find the answer to the
question raised in the first headline?
Why are houses in Britain so small?
We build the tiniest new dwellings in Europe, and yet more storage and living space is what
people desperately want. One left their kitchen bin in the middle of the kitchen, because there
was nowhere else for it. Another said their cupboards were so small they stored shopping in the
boot of the car, while Miriam and Matt from Liverpool were so short of space they kept their vacuum
cleaner at their mother's house, a good 20-minute drive away.
A report this week by Riba and Ipsos Mori found "long- and short-term storage space" – for
everyday functional items such as ironing boards and bed linen, as well as seasonal or nostalgic
possessions such as Christmas trees or a wedding dress – was one of the features people most wanted in
their home. The common theme could be summed up in two words: more space. That, though, is what
many British homes – especially modern ones – lack. We build the smallest new homes in Europe,
significantly smaller than 100 years ago. This is not because of pressure on land: a 2007 Riba survey
found the average floor space of a new dwelling in England and Wales was 76 sq m, against 81.5 sq m
in Italy, 92 sq m in Japan and 115 sq m in Holland, all as densely populated. It's because builders make
more money that way – and, perhaps, because we are the only EU country not to have minimum-space
standards for the homes we live in.
We did, once: in 1961, a government committee looked at what furniture was needed in which
room, the space needed to use it and move around it, and the space needed for other normal household
activities. The Parker Morris standards (named after the committee's chair) required, for example, that a
two-bed flat for four people should have a net floor area of 71 sq m, and that one for three or more
people should have enclosed storage space for the kitchen of 2.3 cubic metres.
Parker Morris defined these standards as a minimum; builders, on the whole, interpreted them as
a maximum. Also, he never dreamed of dishwashers and fridge freezers, so his standards are inadequate
today. Most of all, though, while they became mandatory for all council housing, and for a while
influenced the private sector too, in 1980 they were abandoned on cost grounds (Boris Johnson, to his
credit, has stipulated that publicly funded London housing must now be built to "Parker Morris +10%").
All of which helps explain why so many of us now live with insufficient space. As Ben Page, the
chief executive of Ipsos Mori, says: "The research graphically shows just how cramped and poorly
planned much of our housing is today – and the extraordinary lengths people go to, to cope with it."
• According to a 2009 survey by CABE, 58% of the occupants of fully occupied new homes
said there was not enough space for their furniture, and 69% said there was no room for all their
possessions either. Another 37% said they or their children couldn't entertain guests away from others.
• The UK Self-Storage Association says more than 350 specialist companies now operate and
there are now more than 800 self-storage facilities across Britain serving some 250,000 customers;
renting 20-50sq ft of lock-up storage (the size of a garden shed) can cost well over £100 a month in
central London, half that or less elsewhere.
• There are currently 40 books on how to declutter your home currently in print. The
Association of Professional Declutterers and Organisers will put you in touch with any of several dozen
firms around the country that you can pay to do the job for you – at a rate of about £25 an hour.
[Jon Henley, 16 May 2012. The Guardian]
THE BRITISH HAVE THE SMALLEST HOMES IN EUROPE!

15
In fact they are downright pokey, with only an average usable floor space of 76m sq according to
a new report by Bradford & Bingley. The Italians lead the rest of Europe with the most space - an
average of 92m sq per dwelling, over a fifth larger than us Brits enjoy. The report undertaken by the
Centre for Economics & Business Research for Bradford & Bingley compares the UK property market
to Germany, France, Italy and Spain. It reveals British living space per home is 12 percent smaller than
the average Spanish home, 14 percent smaller than in Germany and 16 percent smaller than in France.
Moreover, the gap between the UK and the continent is widening with new homes in France,
Germany and Spain getting bigger. On average, newly built homes in France and Germany have over
100m2 of usable floor space, while in Spain modern homes have 95m 2. In Britain, new homes remain the
same size as existing properties at 76m2.
These figures are more surprising when the types of properties are taken into account as over
four-fifths of British households prefer to live in a house. The report reveals that 82 percent of British
families live in a house and only 15 percent live in a flat. This is in stark contrast to families on
continental Europe where flats are more popular. In Spain, Italy and Germany more than 50 percent of
families live in a flat and France is not far behind with 41 percent. Yet almost bizarrely the average
British family home has the least usable living space of the countries surveyed.
Nickie Aiken of Bradford & Bingley Estate Agents commented on the findings: "It is interesting
that the UK is trailing the continent in terms of living space, particularly when you take the fact that we
tend to live in houses rather than flats into account. Quality of life is not only about income and
spending, comfort is a core component. Hopefully the Government is aware of these figures as it tackles
the increasing demand for new housing in the UK."
Owning your own property is popular to differing degrees and despite the widely held perception
to the contrary, Britons aren't Europe's most prolific homeowners. The Spanish (80%) own more of their
homes than the Brits and Italians (69%). The French (54%) and Germans (43%) own less. Despite the
right to buy initiatives of the Thatcher governments, Britain still has the highest number of 'social
housing', namely council or housing association dwellings (22%). France has the second highest
provision of social housing with 18% living in social owned homes. Whilst Spain barely has a social
sector at all with only 1%.
Compared to our counterparts on the continent, the UK has the least developed rental sector with
less than 1 in 10 (9%) British homes being rented privately. This contrasts sharply with the staggering
46% in Germany - over five times the UK level. This news is surprising given the recent surge in
popularity of buy to let mortgages in the UK. There are marked differences between the residential
property prices in the five countries and the types of homes people can purchase. For £60,000 a
homeowner could buy a semi-detached home in the north of England, a rural home in Italy, a villa in
Spain or an apartment in a French ski resort.
[Adapted from: https://www.learnenglish.de/culture/britishhouses.html] Do we
have a similar problem with dwellings in our country? Work in pairs, choose one article, sum it up
in 7-10 sentences and tell to your partner.

Ex. 8. Houses in your country. Describe the types of housing available in your country / area.
Speak to a partner.
• What are the main features?
• Do people live in the centre of cities or towns?
• Are there any unusual houses?
• Are there any historic houses?
• Have the types of houses changed over the last 50 years?

16
E. 9. What sort of accommodation do (did) these people have, or what might they
be living in at the moment? Match the words on the left with the
accommodations on the right.
1. a queen a. a ranch(-house)
2. an b. a villa
3. Eskimo c. a palace or castle
4. a red Indian a hundred years ago d. a convent or nunnery
5. a monk e. a motel
6. a nun f. an igloo
an eighty-year-old with no living
7. g. a monastery
relatives a soldier a cowboy
8. h. a hovel, garden shed, an old
a traveling sales representative away from
9. home hut
a forester in Canada skiers in the i. a wigwam or tepee
10. mountains holiday makers who find
11. hotels too big or/and expensive j. an old people’s home
12. a well-off couple holidaying in the South k. a tent (or caravan)
of France a camper l. a guest house (or boarding
13. a successful advertising executive house)
a tramp – if he’s lucky m. barracks or living quarters
14.
15.
n. a (log-)cabin
16.
o. a penthouse (suite)
p. a chalet

Ex. 10. Choose the correct answer.


1. They live in a(n) … house which stands by itself in a field.
a) attached b) detached c) detaching d) semi-detached
2. Having made his fortune he now … in great luxury in a large house in the country.
a) dwells b) inhabits c) leaves d) lives
3. My brother lives on the eleventh floor of that … of flats.
a) block b) building c) house d) tower
4. His house is nothing out of the … it’s just an average four-roomed house.
a) normal b) ordinary c) typical d) usual
5. Going down the street, she walked past a long … of houses, all exactly alike.
a) queue b) rank c) row d) train
6. In the village he was looked up to as the lord of the … .
a) castle b) fortress c) manor d) tower
7. He keeps all his tools and do-it-yourself equipment in a … in the garden.
a) barn b) hut c) shed d) stable
8. Our house isn’t joined to the other houses in the street: it’s … .
a) attached b) divided c) detached d) disconnected
9. The new police station is to be built … the main square.
a) close b) near c) side d) neighbourhood
10. I am staying in a youth … in the centre of the town.
a) hostel b) inn c) pub d) stable

17
Ex.11. Complete each of the following sentences with an appropriate word for a type of building.
Each dash represents one letter.
1. He is real prince and his family has lived in this _ _ _ t _ _ since the 14th century.
2. The high _ _ y _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ in New York are mostly to be found in the central part of Manhattan.
3. Students can save money and make friends by living in a university _ _ _ t _ _ .
4. An elderly person is better off in a _ _ _ _ a _ _ _ with no stairs to climb.
5. I’ve always dreamed of moving to the country and living in an old _ _ _ t _ _ _ .
6. The student’s room was so untidy it was like a p _ _ _ _ _ . 7. They don’t live in a house, they live in
a modern _ _ _ c _ of _ _ _ _ _ .
8. A family house standing on its own is called a _ _ _ _ c _ _ _ house.
9. He keeps his tools and equipment in a _ _ _ _ he has put up in his garden.
10. This small cottage is _ _ _ _u _ example of the local architecture of the 16th century. All the other
buildings in the neighbourhood date from at least one hundred years later.
11. Originally this building was d _ _ _ _ n _ _ as a hotel. It was only after its construction began that
they decided to turn it into a cottage.
12. They live outside the town centre in a little house in the _ _ _ u _ _ _ .
13. We love our old house so much that we never want to _ _ _ _ to a new one.

Ex. 12. Cross the odd one out.


1. The roof of the terraced house/cellar/semi-detached was in need of repair.
2. The farmhouse/maisonette/cottage we bought recently is in a perfect country setting far away from
the stress of the city.
3. Ellie has a luxurious penthouse/council flat/villa by the sea in the south of France.
4. The hotel suite/bed-sit/room cost 200 £ per night.
5. Our country cottage is so typical of those in the area with its thatched/slate/marble roof.
6. The new apartment included an antique/well-equipped/fitted kitchen.

Ex. 13. Vocabulary Practice (Listening 1.7 “Home and House” expressions [19]). A) How many new
words can you make by combining a word on the left with a word on the right? Which are nouns and
which are adjectives? Explain their meaning to your partner.
HOME work made wife sick proud

HOUSE page plant town coming less grown bound


warming
B) Listen to the conversations. After each one, discuss these questions: who is talking to
whom? What about? What compounds from the table are used? Complete the sentences from the
conversations. Listen again and check.
1. I’m going away for two weeks. Do you think you could possibly water my ________ for me?
2. Don’t worry. I know how ________ you are. I’ll make sure everything stays clean and tidy.
3. Let’s give her a spectacular _________ party when she gets back from New York.
4. Me? I’m just a _______. Four kids, _____ cakes, and _________ vegetables.
5. We’re having a _________ party on the 12th. Can you come? I can give you our new address.
6. Mind you, with it being much bigger there is much more ________ to do!
7. Her grandmother’s sick and _________, so they have to go and help.

18
C) Complete each sentence with the words home, house or a word formed from one of
these words.
1. The old couple decided to live in an old people’s … . 2. Graham bought a terraced … in a quiet city
street. 3. Many … people sleep in the streets in London. 5. Jack was unable to look after his children so
he employed a … . 6. I come from Newcastle. It’s my … town, you could say. 7. Paul used to live on
the river on a … boat. 8. When I went to boarding school I felt very … sick at first. 9. Our first … was
on the … estate on Oakwood Hill. 10. Pour yourself a drink and make yourself at …

Ex. 14. Listening. You will listen to an interview about some unusual English
Homes. Before you listen, look at the statements below and underline the key words. In
pairs, think of synonyms\antonyms for the key words. Then listen to the recording and
decide whether each of the following statements is True or False. Give proof from the
recording [6].
1. Scott-Betnick led a lonely life.
2. Scott-Betnick had every room in his house painted pink.
3. Whitaker Wright invested a lot of money in his house.
4. The ballroom of Witley Park is still in use.
5. Only rich people have eccentric houses.
6. Eagle Rock is built entirely from glass.
7. Alexander Wortley chose his home according to his political beliefs.

Ex. 15. Watch the TED Talk called “Magical houses, made of bamboo” by Elora Hardy
[https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kK_UjBmHqQw].
INTRODUCTION: You've never seen buildings like this. The stunning bamboo homes built by Elora
Hardy and her team in Bali twist, curve and surprise at every turn. They defy convention because the
bamboo itself is so enigmatic. No two poles of bamboo are alike, so every home, bridge and bathroom is
exquisitely unique. In this beautiful, immersive talk, she shares the potential of bamboo, as both a
sustainable resource and a spark for the imagination. "We have had to invent our own rules," she says.
Pre-listening. Study the vocabulary. In what way are these words connected with the topic? Make
predictions, then listen and check.
curving structure to keep compressive strength pins to
the bugs out a shoot (a hollow poles to be replicate
part of a plant) under construction viable building material
sustainable timber earth-quake resistant to weave
durable plywood
Listen again and answer the following questions.
1. What is Elora’s occupation?
2. What does Elora mean by necessary luxuries in bamboo houses?
3. What is “Green School” like?
4. Why is bamboo a good material for building houses, according to the video?
5. What is Ebuku and what are they doing together?
6. Is the concept of bamboo construction new? Give reasons
7. Why did they have “to invent” their own rules?
8. What is the construction process like?
9. What are the advantages and disadvanatages of building from bamboo?
10. Is Elora optimistic at the end of her talk? Why?
Would you like to live in a bamboo house? Give reasons.
19
Ex. 16. Project work. Prepare a talk/presentation about unusual houses/buildings all over the
world.

Ex. 17. Listening Practice. Describing areas where people live. Listen to three
speakers talking about the places where they live. For each of the speaker,
answer the questions [2]:
1. What kind of area is the speaker describing?
2. What are the advantages and disadvantages of living in this place?
Listen again and put down the expressions the speakers use to describe the places where they live.

Ex. 18. City Life vs Country Life. Read the notes about life in the city and in the country and note
the colocations.

20
[10] Ex.
19. A) Complete each sentence with the city and the country in the correct space.
1. There is less hectic pace of life in …………. than in ……………….
2. It’s much easier to hail a taxi in …………… than in ……………….
3. You are less likely to find reliable public transport in ………….. than in………….
4. You are more likely to find rustic charm in ……………… than in…………
5. You are more likely to find congested roads in …………… than in………..
B) Explain the difference in meaning between the sentences in each pair.
6. The roads are very congested. The streets are very crowded.
7. We live in the inner city. They live in the leafy suburbs.
8. He lives in a quiet backwater. She lives in a bustling city centre.
9. I enjoy urban living. I love my rural idyll.
B) Put the collocations in the box into pairs that are similar in meaning.
City life in the middle of nowhere rural idyll
Long opening hours urban living in the back of beyond
Rustic charm open all hours
C) Rewrite the underlined part of each sentence using a collocation from the previous page.
1. The village is regarded as a quiet place where nothing happens, but the people who live there
love it.
2. She lives in a simple cottage miles away from any other inhabited places.
3. The government plans to provide funds to subside the modernization and improvement
21
of our cities.
4. The city announced a plan to plant more trees in the year to come.
5. The south side of the city is an area where many people would like to have a home.
6. The city council has declared that part of the town may be used for people’s homes.
E) Find collocations on the previous page with the opposite meaning to these phrases.
1. smart, modern buildings
2. quiet roads (2)
3. a quiet city centre
4.urban decay
5. the urban nightmare
6. restricted opening times

Ex. 20. Describe the location of the house you live in. Make use of the collocations and vocabulary
given below.
A The house you live in can be located
· in a superb modern complex · far from the city centre
· in a side street · convenient for public transport
· in a lane · close to the bus stop
· in the city centre · about ….. metres from …..
· in the suburbs · some minutes’ walk from .....
· in a residential area of the city · handy for .....
· on the main road · a stone’s throw from .....
· off the main busy road / with heavy traffic B A house
can:
· overlook the river .…. · face the garden .….
· look over the public library ….. · have a lovely/pleasant view on…
C Name essential services/facilities that make life in your neighborhood easy and pleasant, i.e. a
park, a shopping center, a cinema, etc. Read the following advertisements for homes taken from a
British estate agent’s publicity. Assuming you had the money, which home, if any, would you want to
look at and why?
a. Spacious Victorian terraced house enjoying views across the city. Handy for local shops, buses,
schools, etc. Porch, entrance hall, 2 impressive reception rooms, kitchen/breakfast room, bathroom
with shower, 3 bedrooms, gas central heating, small but delightful garden.
b. A purpose-built upper floor flat located in one of the city’s prime residential areas, some
10 minutes’ walk from the city centre and railway station. Close to local shops and canal path walks.
Commanding superb views over the city and surrounding hills. Gas central heating, hall, 6m x 4m
living room, bathroom, 2 double bedrooms with wardrobes, garage.
c. Southern outskirts of the city: a double-fronted pre-war semi-detached 3 bed-roomed house
in a quiet tree-lined road. Convenient for local shops and city buses. Period hall, goodsized lounge,
dining room, utility room/storeroom, electric storage heaters, doubleglazing, charming mature garden,
garage.
d. A very well-proportioned detached bungalow, not far from the city centre, containing a
luxury kitchen, an impressive open-plan living room with a fireplace, 4 double bedrooms, and 2
bathrooms. Gas central heating, fair decorative order throughout, large secluded garden, and double
garage.

22
c. The following adjectives are all taken from the advertisements above. Put them in the table according
to whether their meanings relate to size, distance, age or quality.
Spacious - fair - good-sized - prime - superb - pre-war - period - impressive - luxury -
openplan - mature - not far - secluded - handy - convenient - charming - well-proportioned
purpose-built - close to

Size Distance Age Quality

Ex. 21. Make up a dialogue on the following situation: one of you lives in a city in a
flat with all modern conveniences while the other has moved to the country to enjoy its
peace and quiet. Discuss advantages and disadvantages of the place where you live.

Ex. 22. Watching about a British Home. Watch the video by Anglophenia called “Confusing things
about British Homes” [https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ATjMxH3-e4Y] about a traditional British
home and answer the questions:
1. Why do Brits have washing machines in the kitchen?
2. Give reasons why there are no plug sockets in the bathroom.
3. What expressions does the host use to describe the toilet? Are a toilet and a bathroom always
separate rooms?
4. What is the explanation for having two taps in British homes?
5. Do modern Brits still love separate water taps? Why?
6. In what way are plugs in Britain different from American ones?
7. What should one do if it is too hot in the room? Why?
Watch again and explain the context in which the following expressions are used:
 To put the kettle on  electric shocks
 To show somebody around  outlet
 front-loader  contaminated
 rad (coll.)  water tank
 to turn smth on and off with  exhilarating
a little tug  to stick around
What are the main differences in features between an American and a British
home?
• Most of the other answers have mentioned the smaller size. I’ll add a few other
things that people don’t necessarily think about.
• Laundry. Few older houses have enough room for a separate utility room. This means that
washers and dryers (if they even have a dryer) have to fit under the kitchen counters. Washers
therefore must be smaller and front-loading, which means you have to do more loads of laundry
to get it all done. Many people line-dry their clothes, or use an expensive washer/dryer
combination machine.
• Refrigeration. Most refrigerators are similarly smaller. Prior to the 1980s or so, many people
only had a little one that fit—you guessed it!—under a kitchen counter. This was the norm in an
era when many women shopped for their families every single day. They had no choice about it.
The fridge wouldn’t hold more than that. The freezer was a compartment inside the fridge and
only big enough for a couple of ice trays.
Full-height fridges are available now, but it’s rare for people to have a big side-by-side.
In the stores these are sold as “American-style refrigeration!”

23
• Plumbing. The traditional design, now thankfully on the way out, involved having two different
systems, one for the radiators and one for the drinking and bathing water. The boiler heated the
water for the radiators, and it passed through a heat exchanger inside a hot water tank to make hot
water for bathing. Cold water to replenish each system was kept in two (open!) tanks in the attic.
As the attic isn’t the cleanest place in the world, you were only supposed to drink from the
kitchen tap, which was the only place where the water came directly from the mains. All other
water was technically nonpotable. Another consequence of keeping the water in the attic is that
the only pressure available (except at the kitchen tap) is gravity. This means that the traditional
British shower is a disappointing drizzle. I have installed a pump to give my shower some
oomph. Lots of people are moving over to hot-water-on-demand systems and getting rid of the
tanks. The central heating is still a separate, closed system though.
• Stairs. Stairs tend to be steeper than those in American houses. Again, this saves space.
• The Walls. Older houses have actual plaster, not plasterboard/drywall /sheetrock. This means
you have to be careful about nailing into it, or you’ll make cracks. On the exterior walls are not
timber-framed.
• Roofs. Roofs are frequently made of tile or real slate. There’s definitely asphalt shingle as well,
but not as much as in the USA.
• Electricity. Every electrical outlet has a switch, and every plug has a fuse in it. If your appliance
is throwing sparks and starting to smoke, you don’t have to touch it; you can switch it off safely
at the wall.
• The Cupboard under the Stairs. Every house with stairs has a cupboard under it for keeping the
vacuum cleaner in. This is where Harry Potter first lived.
[Adapted from: https://www.quora.com/What-are-the-main-differences-in-features-betweenan-
American-and-a-British-home] Ex. 23. A) Read the article. Have you heard about this kind of
dwelling before? Answer the questions after the text.
EARTHSHIPS
When people hear about sustainable, off-the-grid living,
they usually picture primitive homes divorced from the
comforts of the 21st century. And rightfully so, as most sustainable
solutions proposed until now have fit that description. Earthships,
however, offer all of the comforts of modern homes and more in a
sustainable way. The Earthship was designed as a structure that
would be free of the constraints of centralized utilities, on which
most modern shelters rely. Earthships must be able to create their
own utilities, and to utilize readily available sustainable materials.
Even the most arid of climates can provide enough water for daily use through only a rainharvesting
system. Water collected in this fashion is used for every household activity except flushing toilets. The
water used for flushing toilets has been used at least once already: frequently it is filtered waste-water
from sinks and showers, and described as "Greywater". That used ‘grey water’ is then pumped into the
greenhouse to water the plants. After being cleaned by the plants, the water is pumped up into the
bathrooms for use in the toilets. After being flushed, the now ‘black water’ is pumped to the exterior
garden to give nutrients to non-edible plants.
Earthships are designed to collect and store their own energy from a variety of sources. The majority
of electrical energy is harvested from the sun and wind. Photovoltaic panels and wind turbines located
on or near the Earthship generate DC energy that is then stored in several types of deep-cycle
batteries. The space in which the batteries are kept is usually a special, purpose-built room placed on
24
the roof. Additional energy, if required, can be obtained from gasoline-powered generators or by
integrating with the city grid.
Each Earthship is outfitted with one or two greenhouses that grow crops year-round, no matter what
the climate is. The most brilliant piece of engineering in the Earthship is their ability to sustain
comfortable temperatures year round. This phenomenon results from the solar heat being absorbed
and stored by ‘thermal mass’ — or tyres filled with dirt, which make up the structure of the Earthship.
The thermal mass acts as a heat sink, releasing or absorbing heat when the interior cools and heats up,
respectively.
Much of the materials used to build Earthships are recycled. For starters, the structure is built with
used tyres filled with dirt! The walls (above the tyres) are created by placing plastic and glass bottles in
concrete. Earthships are exorbitantly cheaper than conventional houses. The most basic Earthships
cost as little as $7000 with the most glamorous models costing $70,000 and up, depending on how
flashy you want to be with your decorating. With all of your basic needs provided for and NO bills each
month, you’re free! You don’t have to work a job you hate just to survive. So you can focus your time
on doing what you love, and bettering the world around you.
The most powerful thing Earthships do is force people to think differently about how they live. If
housing can be this awesome, and be beneficial to the environment, then what else can we change?
What else can become simpler, cheaper and better at the same time?
1. Why don’t Earthships fit into the description of the usual primitive homes?
2. Mention two features of Earthships.
3. How is grey water used? Give two details.
4. What is black water and how is it used?
5. Apart from wind energy, what sources of electrical energy does the Earthship depend upon?
6. What do Earthships use to harvest the energy from the sources?
7. What helps Earthship maintain a comfortable temperature all through the year?
8. According to the graph, when will a person need to spend more than $1,500,000 on an Earthship?
9. What influence do Earthships have on people?
10. Apart from being environmentally friendly, what other factors of Earthship attract people?
Give four details.
B)Explain the words in bold. Make up new sentences with them.
C)Role-play. You are an estate agent. Make the presentation of the Earthship telling about all its
advantages over conventional houses.
[Adapted from https://highexistence.com/10-reasons-why-earthships-are-fing-awesome/]

Ex. 24. A) Have you heard the expression “smart-home”? Do you know what it is like? Is it a house
of the future or a modern one? Read the list of predictions below and decide if they are typical for a
smart home or not. Add some of your ideas about a house of the future to the list. Watch a short video
called “Homes of the future” to check your predictions
(http://learnenglishteens.britishcouncil.org)
Predictions
Thumbs up
Thumbs
down

25
1. Rainwater for washing and (after
purification) for drinking will be collected
in gutters.
2. A satellite will receive weather forecast
and pass them on to heating control unit.
3. The kitchen computer will store recipes,
monitor food stocks and program the oven
automatically.
4. Light switches will be activated by voice.
5. The toilet will analyze your output and give a
health report.
6. An enclosed temperature controlled garden will
protect plants from pollution.
7. A basement storage system will be run by a
computer.
8. Dirt will be sucked into cleaning system pipes
in the walls and then collected in certain units.
9. Homes will have an entertainment room with a
wall-sized screen for viewing virtual reality
holograms.
10. There will be sound-proof module for teenagers.
11. Many people will work from home, so they will
add office modules to their houses.
12. Automatic security shutters linked to sensors
outside will be fitted to all windows.
13. …..

B) Read the article below about the houses of the future and compare their description to your list
of predictions.

Future Homes
Future homes will be located in all locations on Earth plus beyond the planet’s atmosphere as
well. First, let’s take a look at where some of the futuristic homes of today are located and
then make some predictions on where we are headed.
Of course when one talks about future homes it is always tempting to either mention “The
Jetsons” or your favorite SciFi movie or TV show. But, let’s ground this discussion in reality for a
moment. And while we’re discussing grounding let’s talk about underground homes. In the U. S. there
are approximately 6,000 underground or earth sheltered homes to date. Many of these homes are
equipped with advanced energy conservation and generation features such as solar panels, solar
windows and smart home technology.
But, these underground homes are only the tip of the iceberg in regard to high tech dwellings as
there are also techy homes at the North
Pole and the Antarctic region as well. Of

26
course these homes may be temporary, set up by scientists doing research,
but they provide shelter nonetheless.
Less amazing are high tech homes on top of mountains, floating homes (boats, ships, houseboats) or
houses built on stilts that avoid the wrath of flooding or storm surges. And all of these dwellings could
be smart homes equipped with smart metering technology; smart appliances that communicate with the
power company and each other plus ones you can interact directly with your PC or smart phone app.
Future Solar Home on Water
This is all technology that is here now, today. So, let’s ratchet this discussion up a notch as to
what future homes will look like near-term (5 – 10 years). Researchers have already discovered thin film
solar technology and applied this to windows so that every window in your home or office can be a
power generator.
In the near-term we can expect future homes to use similar technology over the entire house.
Each future home will be its own power generation station. Many future homes will be tied into the grid
so that they may even out power distribution to those homeowners and businesses that have not made
the transition yet.
Home wind turbines, home use of geothermal energy and building homes further underground
(expanded basements) will become more the norm in the coming years as energy independence and
escaping addiction to foreign energy sources becomes a number one national priority.
Future homes of course will take advantage of future robots to do chores such as cleaning and
organizing. Some of this technology is happening now. Japanese engineers have made great strides in
recent years developing more realistic and functional robotics that can recognize human speech and
respond to it or do specific tasks around the house. The “Lazy Brother-in-Law Robot” who sleeps on
your couch and drinks your beer is now in its fourth generation.
Smart phone apps that interact with one’s home will increase exponentially over the next few
years. Want to check the temperature of your refrigerator, turn on the oven, or start the laundry? Well,
there’s an app for that.
And this is just the beginning because there will be apps created to interact with your future
home robots to tell them to put food in the oven, clothes in the laundry, feed the cat and clean the
bathroom. From your smart phone (or headphone as pictured) you’ll be able to check the supplies in
your refrigerator or pantry and order more from the grocery store. Or you’ll use future home automation
so that you don’t have to worry about this on a day by day basis as your pre-programmed smart home
technology will take care of this for you and you can
override it at will by using your phone application.
Future home entertainment systems will be out of this
world. By combining future augmented reality, virtual
reality and mediated reality movies and television will be
more interactive than ever before. Imagine in your living
room playing a future version of Wii golf or tennis with
your virtual friends while watching breaking news or the
latest 3-D movie.
You’ll be able to dial up the sensory stimulus or dial down the sensory overload on demand. In
fact, you’ll just have to think about what you want to see and do in your future home entertainment
center and it will become reality in a nanosecond.
Most future homes will have their own future home offices as well. The future workplace will
become decentralized and flexible so that you can work flexible hours, interact with coworkers virtually,
call meetings, collaborate and communicate all from your future home office.

27
For those with sleep problems future homes will address these issues using sensory deprivation
chambers combined with future medical technology that will target your body using personalized
designer medication which will ensure sound sleep every night.
Future home security will also be of the utmost importance. Cameras outside the home will
integrate with systems inside using facial recognition software to determine friend from foe. This system
will be automated so that police can be dispatched when a foe (including any old MoFo) is detected
outside your future home.
Seniors will be able to navigate better in the future homes equipped with escalators and moving
walkways. All future homes will be built with age appropriate child-proofing already in place that gives
different levels of access based upon the age and maturity of each child.
Inappropriate content on the Internet or from the future home entertainment system will be
screened automatically in a similar fashion as well. And, all of these systems may be overridden by the
adult in charge at any time.
So, to recap, there will be many advantages of future homes. More power and flexibility at your
fingertips will make your future home as busy, calm, organized, disorganized, exciting or relaxing as
you want it to be at any moment in time.

C) Basing on what you’ve watched and read, make up the list of features of the future smart home
and think of positive and negative aspect of each feature.
[Adapted from http://www.futuretechnology500.com/index.php/future-homes]

Ex. 25. Paraphrase/explain the following quotations. Which ones do you agree with most? Why?
Choose one to prepare a talk.

A man travels the world over in search of what he needs and returns home to find it.
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List of essay/exam topics
1. My home is my castle
2. Usual and unusual British houses / Typical Russian houses
3. Smart home – a house of the future
4. Living in a sustainable house – what’s it like?
5. City life vs country life

MОDULE 2

INTERIOR AND EXTERIOR


Ex. 1. Lead-in. Look at the picture and study the vocabulary given. Think of Russian
equivalents (check your dictionaries if you need). Work in pairs – try to remember as many
words as you can without looking at the picture.

Ex. 2. Tick the rooms/areas which your house has, then describe it to your partner.
Kitchen Loft
Guest room Games room
Bedroom Study
Yard Shed
Landing Balcony

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Front garden Garage
Patio Drive
Swimming pool Roof garden
Dining room Porch
Lounge Bedsitter

Ex. 3. Places in the house.


A) You probably already know the names of most rooms and locations in a typical home.
Here are some less common ones and what they are for. utility room: usually
just for washing machine, freezer, etc. shed: small building separated from the house
usually for storing garden tools attic: room in the roof space of a house (could be
lived in) loft: space in the roof of a house usually used only for storage cellar: room
below ground level, no windows, used for storage basement: room below ground
level, windows, for living/working
landing: flat area at the top of a staircase hall: open area as you come into a house porch:
covered area before an entrance-door pantry or larder: large cupboard (usually big enough
to walk into) for storing food terrace or patio: paved area between house and garden for
sitting and eating, etc.
study: a room for reading, writing, studying in a house
B) Where in a typical house would you look for the following things? Give reasons
1 a rake 5 suitcases 9 a grater
2 cutlery 6 a tumble-dryer 10 old empty boxes
3 dental floss 7 cane chairs 11 tinned food 4 a coat-hanger 8 bottles with wine 12 toolware
C) Fill the gaps with a suitable word.
1 I've got a darkroom in the ............................... where I develop films. It's perfect because there are no
windows down there.
2 Is there a ................................. where I can plug in this radio?
3 I think there's some cereal in the ……………, could you, please, fetch it.
4 We keep our skis up in the ................................. during the summer. They're out of the way up there.
5 You'll find the garden-chairs in the ................................. at the bottom of the garden. Bring them up
and we'll have a drink on the ................................. and watch the sunset. 6 The light-switch for the
stairs is on the ................................. as you come out of your bedroom.
[14]

Ex. 4. Read, translate and retell the text paying attention to the expressions marked in bold [9].
What types of buildings does the author mention? Which of them would you prefer to live in and
why? (Discuss with your partner)
HOME SWEET HOME
It does not matter what your home is like — a country mansion, a more modest detached
or semi-detached house, a flat in a block of flats or even a room in a communal flat.
Anyway, it is the place where you once move in and start to furnish and decorate it to your
own taste. It becomes your second "ego". Your second "ego" is very big and disquieting if you have a
house. There is enough space for everything: a hall, a kitchen with an adjacent dining-room, a living-
room or a lounge, a couple of bed-rooms and closets (storerooms), a toilet and a bathroom. You can
walk slowly around the house thinking what else you can do to renovate it. In the hall you cast a glance
at the coatrack and a chest of drawers for shoes. Probably, nothing needs to be changed here.
30
You come to the kitchen: kitchen furniture, kitchen utensils, a refridgerator (fridge) with a
freezer, a dishdrainer, an electric or gas cooker with an oven. Maybe, it needs a cooker hood? The
dining-room is lovely. A big dining table with chairs in the centre, a cupboard with tea sets and
dinner sets. There is enough place to keep all cutlery and crockery in. You know pretty well where
things go.
The spacious living-room is the heart of the house. It is the place where you can have a chance to
see the rest of your family. They come in the evening to sit around the coffee table in soft armchairs
and on the sofa. You look at the wall units, stuffed with china, crystal and books. Some place is left
for a stereo system and a TV set. A fireplace and houseplants make the living-room really cosy.
Your bedroom is your private area though most bedrooms are alike: a single or a double bed, a
wardrobe, one or two bedside tables and a dressing-table. You look inside the bathroom: a sink, hot
and cold taps and a bath. There is nothing to see in the toilet except a flush-toilet. You are quite
satisfied with what you have seen, but still doubt disturbs you: 'Is there anything to change?' Yes! The
walls of the rooms should be papered, and in the bathroom and toilet — tiled! Instead of linoleum
there should be parquet floors. Instead of patterned curtains it is better to put darker plain ones, so
that they might not show the dirt. You do it all, but doubt does not leave you. Then you start moving
the furniture around in the bedroom, because the dressing-table blocks out the light. You are ready to
give a sigh of relief, but... suddenly find out that the lounge is too crammed up with furniture.
Those who live in one-room or two-room flats may feel pity for those who live in houses. They do
not have such problems. At the same time they have a lot of privileges: central heating, running
water, a refuse-chute and... nice neighbours who like to play music at midnight. Owners of small flats
are happy to have small problems and they love their homes no less than those who live in three-storey
palaces. Home, sweet home.

Ex. 5. Say what else one can see in a hall, a kitchen, a dining room, a lounge, a bedroom ? Look at
the plan of a flat and decide how you would furnish it. Make use of the phrases below:

Let's ... in the middle


What about putting ... in the far end of the room What do you think of... in the right corner
by I think we should ... in the left comer at...
Shall we ... on the right
Perhaps the best thing would be to ... on the left
Everybody puts ... beside

31
Ex.6. A) Read through this rather strange application form, noting how the couple describes the
house in question and its furniture. As you read, answer the question below.

 If the couple decided to sell the house next month, which of these features could they say that it
had? Give proof from the text

32
1. two bathrooms
2. polished wooden floors
3. a slate roof
4. attractive wallpaper throughout
5. double glazed windows
6. three bedrooms
7. a spacious garden shed
8. excellent period fireplaces
9. a mature vegetable garden
10. a modern kitchen

Application Form XYB / 43Z Sect. 51


To Join The Yuppies’ (Young Upwardly-Mobile) Neighbourhood Scheme
Remarks: (Please state briefly below any qualifications and/or experience you have to support
your application.)

When my wife and I moved into our present house, it was little better than a slum,
completely unfurnished apart from a few bits and pieces which the former occupant had
either forgotten to or – more likely – decided not to take with her. (These included an
enormous sideboard that weighed a ton, a chest of drawers with only remaining door
hanging off, an ugly bookcase with all its panes of glass cracked, and a broken nineteenth-
century piano stool.)
The floors then were bare boards with one or two mats and strips of lino. We now
have fitted carpets in every room except the bathroom (where we have special long-lasting
tiles at over £20 per square foot,) and the kitchen (polished parquet floor), plus several
sheepskin rugs in the reception rooms. On arrival, we found most of the interior decorated
with faded, flowery-patterned wallpaper, peeling at the picture rail. We have painted
throughout in magnolia (windows and sills wine-red or stripped pine) except in the lounge,
where we have had Hessian hung. A few tasteful reproductions and a number of old German
prints (all expensively framed) are on the walls, along with some carefully selected posters
in the children’s rooms.
Numerous structural alternations have been carried out, notably the conversion of
the old garden shed into a second bathroom, complete with bath, basin, bidet and W.C.
(lambswool-covered lavatory seat and press-button flush) and the extension of the
conservatory to make a sun lounge – with window seats all around it – leading on to the
newly-laid patio. The roof, meanwhile, has been completely renovated, slates giving way
to tiles, double glazing has been fitted on all windows, and the old fireplaces have been
blocked up, except in the lounge which has retained its grate and mantelpiece for the
oldworld image it creates. In terms of heating, we have graduated from electric fires to gas
fires, convector heaters, storage heaters and recently to full gas-fired central heating with
extralarge boiler and double radiators, each with its own thermostatic control.
We have also made dramatic improvements in the kitchen. The old installations were
ripped out last year and in their place came a new sink unit with mixer tap and double
drainer, a line of smart cupboards all along one wall and two rows of shelves along the
other, a split-level cooker, eye-level grill, double oven – you name it, I think we’ve got it.
Upstairs the old iron double bed we inherited had been replaced by elegant twin beds with
interiorsprung mattresses and continental quilts (duvets), of course. Our children Alexandra
33
and Charles, have recently moved out of their bunk beds and into single beds in separate
rooms; these have been specially equipped with a desk, blackboard and easel, and toy chest.
All bedrooms have built-in wardrobes now and my wife has her own personal dressing
table.
Our more expensive purchases, apart from the above, include: a leather upholstered
lounge suite comprising a four-seater sofa – or should we say settee? – and two armchairs.
(We remember with horror the year we had to make do with a studio couch plus a few pouffes
and cushions.) a solid wood table and set of matching dining room chairs, plus a
microwave oven. a new shower unit in the master bathroom, plumbed in of course, so that
no unsightly pipes are visible. new stereo equipment with karaoke system, colour TV, a
video recorder with DVD player, home computer and cocktail cabinet.
It may interest you to know, finally, that we have made a formal complaint about the
ghastly tallboy and divan that our neighbours have had standing in their back garden for
nearly six months. (Our garden, incidentally, has been recently landscaped and completely
transformed: gone is the vegetable patch; in its place a neat lawn and flower-beds.) All our
(new) friends say we have done a wonderful job on our property. One or two have invited us
to join the amateur dramatic society and they are even giving us the names of private schools
in the area.
I hope you will consider our application favourably.
Signature: …………………………………..
Date: …………………………………..
B) Give synonyms and Russian equivalents to all the expressions marked in bold.

Ex. 7. A) In these e-mails people are describing their living accommodation. Read and
explain the expressions marked in bold.
view of the park, and a cosy study and into this really cramped room. I
where we can both work. And there are some lovely, want to buy a place of my own but
light, airy bedrooms which overlook the garden. there’s a shortage of affordable
There is a separate basement flat which we might housing here and I don’t want to take
turn into a granny flat for my mother. And if we out a big mortgage. I’d love to see
want to add an extension there is room for that too. your house. I hope you’ll invite me to
It needs to be completely refurbished, but Luke and your house-warming party.
I have always wanted to do up an old house. Big hug,
Come and visit. Love, Nick
Hi Nick. Hi Julia,
Luke and I have just moved into our You’re so lucky! I’d love to move out
dream home. It’s a big old four- of my awful one-room flat. It is such a storey
house. It’s got a spacious dilapidated building. You go into a living room
which has a wonderful draughty hall, down a chilly corridor
Julia
B) Match the beginning of each sentence on the left with its ending on the right.
1. We want to turn our garage into a house-warming party
2. Jill has just invited me to her mortgage
3. Next week I have to move out of my own
4.Karl makes a business out of doing up granny flat
5.Our bedroom overlooks my flat the
6. Our house needs to be completely garden old
34
7. I hope that one day I’ll have a place of houses
8. The bank can help if you want to take out a refurbished
[11]
C) Write a similar e-mail to your friend about a place you are living in. Use the
vocabulary from the exercise if necessary.

Ex. 8. Listening Practice. Things in the House [Zapp_English_Listening].

Listening task 1 (00.37-04.37). Listen to the recording and describing rooms. Which things do
you hear either of them talk about? Fill in the table below with the information that you hear.
Nicolas Ronny
Size
cost
Who they live with

Beds
Listening task 2 (05.35-07.16). Listen to Sandra describing her kitchen. Is it big or small?
What does she have in the kitchen? What expressions does she use to talk about her kitchen?
Listening task 3 (07.32-11.52). What’s your favourite room in the house? Listen to 3 people
talking about their favourite rooms: are they talking about the same or different kinds of
rooms? Give some details of the rooms they like in their houses. Give at least 5 expressions
that each speaker uses to talk about the parts of the house that he or she likes.

Ex. 9. Read the telephone conversation and draw a plan of the house and the garden. Tell
other students how you would furnish the house and use the rooms [9].
Martin: Hello, Linda! Linda: Hi!
Martin: Well, good news at last. After looking at about two hundred houses, I've found just
the place for us. It's in Blackwood, which is an outer suburb about twenty five minutes’ drive
from the city. I think you'll love it. It's got a lovely big garden and lots of trees.
Linda: Yes, fantastic. Now tell me all about it.
Martin: Well, it's basically a three bedroom house. Very individual in style. There's no front
door at all. You come into the hall from a side door. As you walk down the hall, there are
two bedrooms on the left. On the right there is a door leading into a huge lounge.
Linda: What about the third bedroom?
Martin: Well, if you keep going down the hall, it is on the right, past the lounge room. The
room on the left would make a useful study or family room. The one on the right, which has
a wine cellar by the way, would be a very good store room or junk room.
Linda: I see.
Martin: What sold me on the house was the kitchen. It leads off the lounge and is huge. We
can eat in there when we don't feel like having a formal meal in the dining room.
Linda: What about outside?
Martin: Well, there's a big wide verandah running across the front of the house. The two
main bedrooms look out onto this. It also continues down the left-hand side of the house. Part
of it, on the western side, acts as a passage to the bathroom and toilet.
Linda: And the garden? You said something about a garden.
35
Martin: Yes, it is one of the nicest things about the place. A driveway runs down the left-
hand side of the house to the garden. On the right of the house there is an orchard with apple,
plum and orange trees. At the rear there is a large grassed area surrounded by a border of
trees and shrubs.
Linda: Well, then, when can I see it? Martin: As soon as you arrive tomorrow.
Linda: Great. I'll see you then. Bye. Martin: Bye.

Ex. 10. Vocabulary Practice. Give synonyms of the following words and word
combinations
1. front door; 2. to throw open the window; 3. a tap; 4. to bang the door; 5. an electric lamp; 6.
a back wall; 7. a lavatory; 8. bathroom tissue; 9. to turn off the gas; 10. a toilet bowl; 11. an
icebox; 12. a wardrobe; 13. a rack; 14. a gas cooker; 15. a dust-pan; 16. a cot; 17. coverlet; 18.
a living-room; 19. a study; 20. interior designer; 21. to face; 22. a napkin; 23. to punch a
pillow; 24. Venetian blind; 25. a cane chair.

Ex. 11. Vocabulary Practice. Match the words in the box with the explanations below.
Not all words given are suitable. Then make up sentences with the words given.
Aerial, curtains, drive, parking, shelf, central heating, dishwasher, furniture, radiator, stool,
cook, doormat, landing, stove/cooker, rug, door knocker, letter box, settee/sofa, washing
machine
a) Rectangular hole in the front door
b) Kitchen appliance running on gas or electricity
c) Long narrow rectangular piece of wood or metal fixed to the wall
d) Short road between the street and a house or its garage
e) Use this if you want someone to open the door
f) Put the dirty dishes in this
g) This system makes the house warm
h) A small carpet
i) More than one person can sit on this
j) This helps a radio or television to receive a broadcast
k) An area at the top of some stairs
l) Wipe your feet on this before you enter the house
m) Pull these to cover the windows
n) Small seat without back or arms
o) Put your dirty washing in this.

Ex. 12. Vocabulary Practice. PARTS OF A HOUSE. Choose the correct answer.
1. The house is old and it’s in bad … .
a) condition b) damage c) situation d) state
2. Many old houses have an underground room called a(n) … .
a) attic b) cave c) cellar d) loft
3. His flat is in the … .
a) basement b) cellar c) ground d) lift
4. He hung up his overcoat in the … as soon as he came into the house.
a) attic b) cellar c) hall d) loft
5. There was a magnificent drive which … round to the front of the mansion.
a) arched b) bent c) curved d) inclined
36
6. Three stone … lead up to the front door.
a) levels b) stairs c) stones d) steps
7. The … from the gate to the cottage was overgrown with weeds.
a) passage b) path c) road d) street
8. The hall seemed … lit after the bright sunshine outside.
a) dimly b) faintly c) slightly d) vaguely
9. He went down to his workshop in the … .
a) annexe b) basement c) loft d) ground floor
10. We haven’t got a garage, so we leave our car outside in the … .
a) drive b) garden c) pavement d) porch
11. He waited in the … for the front door to open.
a) crypt b) inlet c) porch d) threshold
12. Although most of the rooms are small, the hall is … .
a) abundant b) extended c) spacious d) tiny
13. The … of the roof kept the rain off better.
a) climb b) flow c) plane d) slope
14. The villa has excellent … for cooking and for washing clothes.
a) amenities b) facilities c) utilities d) conveniences
15. In the old house he had to bend down to avoid hitting his head on the … .
a) beams b) bearings c) props d) supports
16. The kitchen was small and … so that the disabled woman could reach everything without
difficulty.
a) compact b) complete c) complex d) contained
17. The only way to see into the basement room was by peering through the … at the bottom
of the wall.
a) drain b) fanlight c) grating d) skylight
18. The … built onto the back of the house provided valuable extra space.
a) development b) extension c) growth d) enlargement
19. In … the room resembles the letter L.
a) figure b) form c) pattern d) shape
20. His bedroom … the park.
a) overlooks b) oversees c) overtakes d) undergoes
21. The old houses were … down to make way for a block of flats.
a) banged b) hit c) knocked d) put
22. My house is very … for getting to work as it is only a few minutes from the station.
a) convenient b) fit c) suitable d) useful
23. It is only a small flat but it … my needs perfectly.
a) fills b)fits c) settles d) supplies
24. This house has only been … since last summer.
a) dwelled b) lived c) occupied d) resided
25. Just looking at the room you would have no idea of the real purpose it … .
a) filled b) served c) took d) used
26. Greg is in the garden, chopping … for the fireplace.
a) forests b) trunks c) twigs d) wood
27. It was very … in the cottage with the comfortable armchairs by the fire.
37
a) easy b) gratifying c) refreshing d) snug
28. Do open the window; this room seems very … .
a) breathless b) mouldy c) rancid d) stuffy
29. He took out a big … of keys, and opened the door.
a) branch b) bunch c) group d) packet
30. The house looked … in the falling evening light.
a) austere b) lucky c) severe d) strict

Ex. 13. Vocabulary Practice. Choose the most suitable word for each gap.
When I first arrived to take up my new job, I stayed in a hotel, but soon started looking for
some permanent (1) _________. The first flat I (2) _________ over was in (3) __________,
and was obviously extremely damp in winter. Quite apart from the fact that the only (4)
__________ was of a brick wall. Then I had a look at a small flat in a modern (5) _________.
It had a (6) _______ space and a garden, but the (7) ______________ was far too high for me.
I didn’t want to (8) __________ up in a tiny space, so I answered an ad for house-sharing. The
house was in a quiet (9) __________, and as soon as I saw it I fell in love with it. There was a
high overgrown (10) ____________ around the front garden, and (11) ___________ to park
cars in the drive. The room to (12) __________ looked out (13) ____________ the back
garden, and had a big bay window. Although it meant (14) ___________ the kitchen and
living room, I did have my own bathroom, really just a shower and washbasin (15)
_______________ into what must have once been a cupboard.
1) a) home b) accommodation c) house d) landlords
2) a) passed b) viewed c) came d) looked
3) a) an attic b) a basement c) a cave d) a bedsit
4) a) view b) entrance c) distance d)
bathroom
5) a) tower b) department c) block d) square
6) a) living b) breathing c) working d) parking
7) a) lift b) roof c) area d) rent 8) a) end
b) live c) shut d) pay
9) a) surroundings b) neighbourhood c) context d) premises
10)a) fence b) bush c) hedge d) lawn
11)a) room b) permission c) areas d) place
12)a) let b) myself c) pay d) luckily
13)a) in b) over c) at d) for
14)a) without b) in d) sharing d) having
15)a) poured b) crowded d) cluttered d) crammed

Ex. 14. Match English expressions with their Russian equivalents.


1. to whitewash walls a) фундамент, цокольный этаж 1
2. a construction site b) спускаться по лестнице 2
3. an arched door c) жить по соседству с кем-то 3
4. a flower bed d) новоселье 4
5. upstairs e) наверху (вверх по лестнице) 5
6. to overlook the sea f) оклеивать стены обоями 6
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7. a basement g) клумба 7
8. to live next door to smb. h) мягкая мебель 8
9. a garret i) белить стены 9
10. at the rear of the house j) штукатурить 10
11. a house warming party k) арочная дверь 11
12. to plaster l) перешагнуть через порог 12
13. central heating m) чердак 13
14. to paint window-frames white n) красить оконные рамы в белый цвет 14
15. upholstered furniture o) позади дома 15
16. to take a bath p) центральное отопление 16
17. to go downstairs q) строительная площадка 17
18. a tap, a faucet r) принимать ванну 18
19. to cross the threshold s) выходить на море 19
20. to paper walls t) кран 20
21. a nursery u) ввернуть лампочку 21
22. an adjoining room v) детская (комната) 22
23. a cabinet w) кабинет 23
24. to screw in a bulb x) соседняя (примыкающая) комната 24
25. a study y) шкаф со стеклянными дверцами 25

Exercise 15. Vocabulary Practice. A) Choose the most appropriate word underlined.
1. The couple had their photo taken on the steps/stairs outside the church. 2. We had to put up
a fence/a hedge to stop the dog getting out. 3. I still haven’t found accommodations/lodgings
for this term. 4. Jim keeps his lawnmower in a shed/shack at the bottom of the garden. 5. They
are going to put up a ten-floor/storey building opposite my house. 6. Groups with guides
should go to the side access/entrance. 7. The children playing in the garden made a beautiful
scene/scenery. 8. It was an old house, with exposed oak beams/logs in all the rooms. B)
Complete each sentence a) to j) with one of the endings 1) to 10)
b. I paused at the top of the stairs on the … 1. … railings at the front of the house.
c. The walls of the bathroom were covered in 2. … hinges which were very rusty.
…. 3. … loft, in case we need them again.
d. I chained my bike to the … . 4. … mantelpiece over the fireplace.
e. There was a clock on the … . 5. … landing and wondered which was my
f. I left my umbrella in the … . room.
g. After the storm we had to replace several 6. … doormat outside the back door.
h. We stored our old books upstairs in the 7. … slates which had fallen off the roof.
i. I decided to oil the front door … . 8. … radiator under the window.
j. There was no heat coming from the … . 9. … tiles with a pattern of fruit and flowers.
k. You should try to remember to wipe your 10. … porch and opened the front door.
feet on the ….

C) Choose the most suitable word or phrase.


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1. The area was neglected and soon turned into an overcrowded … .
a) suburb b) slum c) quarter d) estate
2. The explosion shattered hundreds of … of glass in the building.
a) windows b) fragments c) sheets d)
panes
3. The old cottage had bow windows and a … roof.
a) plaited b) straw c) woven d) thatched
4. The city takes its water supply from a nearby … .
a) tanker b) pond c) reservoir d) sewer
5. When my parents retired they bought a tiny … in the country.
a) bungalow b) mansion c) shack d) barn
6. The pointed … of the church could be seen from miles away.
a) dome b) building c) summit d) steeple
7. A tall building like this requires very deep … .
a) establishment b) roots c) basis d) foundations
8. The house possesses extensive … with gardens, tennis-courts and an orchard.
a) grounds b) property c) fields d) surroundings
Exercise 16. PARTS OF THE HOUSE. Match the definitions with the correct part of a
house.
a. windows made up of two panes of glass instead of one
1. alcove b. the half-pipe along the edge of the roof to carry away
2. attic rainwater
3. chimney c. a small space in the form of a small room added to
4. cellar another room for a bed, books, etc.
5. central heating d. a window in the roof
6. double glazing e. used in houses instead of open fires
7. French windows f. the space at the top of the stairs
8. hall g. a roofed entrance built onto a house
9. guttering h. doors made of glass which usually open out onto a
10. landing garden
11. lobby i. a hall or corridor which leads from the entrance to the
12. lounge rooms inside a building
13. niche j. the wide passage just inside the entrance of a house off
14. porch which the rooms open
k. a room immediately below the roof of a house
15. skylight
l. a hollow passage often rising above the roof of a
building which allows smoke and gases to pass from
the fire
m. an underground room, usually used for storing goods
n. a comfortable room for sitting in
o. a hollow place in a wall, usually made to hold an
ornament, books, etc.

Ex.17. Choose the proper word from those in brackets. master – mistress –
landlord – landlady – host – hostess – owner

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1. Who is the … of this bicycle? I should like to use it for a while. 2. We apologised to
our amiable … and left soon after tea. 3. Paul avoided meeting his … in every possible way.
The money had not arrived and he had nothing to pay his rent with. 4. The maid-servant told
the visitor that her … could not receive him. She was in bed with a bad headache. 5. Margaret
was a most charming … and she seemed to be fully aware of it. 6. All the household trembled
when Mr. Lawson returned home. He was a cruel … and it was always best to keep out of his
way. 7. The … welcomed his guests heartily and immediately made them feel quite at home. 8.
The … and all his guests went for a walk to the neighbouring wood. 9. He didn’t know how to
tell his … that he had no money to pay the rent. lie – lay
1. We found her … in the street with a sprained ankle. 2. After dinner he … down on the
sofa to have a nap. 3. “Where did the body …? Show me the exact spot,” said Sherlock
Holmes. 4. He … his work aside and asked the man to be seated. 5. She … her hand on the
boy’s shoulder and gently led him away. inhabitant – inmate 1. it was a very small village
with no more than one hundred … 2. All the … of the flat liked her daughter. 3. There were
only two more … in the house besides Mrs. Bardel, one being her lodger, Mr. Pickwick, the
other her little son. cushion – pillow
1. The settee in the parlour was strewn with pretty embroidered … 2. I don’t like to sleep
on a soft … 3. I can put you up for the night but the trouble is that I have no spare … Would
you mind using this leather … instead?
floor – storey
1. A dog was barking at the passers-by from a balcony in the fourth … 2. All the
windows of the upper … were wide open. 3. We mounted the stairs to the fifth … and knocked
at the door. lamp – bulb
1. A beautiful bronze … was standing on the piano. 2. I don’t think I can use this …, I
need a 90 watt one at least. 3. Are you tall enough to reach the …? A new … has to be screwed
in.

staircase – ladder 1. A narrow winding …


led to the attic. 2. There was a … lying in the yard.

Ex. 18. Work in pairs. You friend is telling you about a new flat he has moved to.
Restore the dialogues. Use the questions from the box given below.
Are you planning to buy new furniture? Is it in a multi-storey house? Did you embroider the
bedspread and the curtains yourself? There’s not much furniture in this room, is there? What
do you keep in it? How many rooms does it have? Have you already moved into the new
flat? Would you like to see my bedroom? What is it like? Can you describe the floor plan?
Is it a two-room flat?
1) A: …..?
B:Oh, yes, we have, and we expect you to come to our house-warming party next Saturday. A:
Thank you. I’ll be very glad.
2) A: …..?
B: Yes, a very nice one, with all modern conveniences.
A:…?
A: It’ a four-storey dwelling house built by the City Municipals. It’s a five minute walk from
an underground station.
3) A: Ann has no taste at all. Her room is simply awful.
B: …?
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A:It’s rather small. There is a big table in the middle. There is a long narrow bed by the
window and there are some old chairs between the bed and the table. There are also some
awful pictures on the walls.
4) A: We are lucky to have such a good flat in the centre of the town.
B: ….?
A: No, there is little furniture here, only the most necessary things.
5) A:…?
B:Five – a living-room, kitchen, bathroom and two bedrooms.
A: …?
B: OK. Well, when you enter the flat, you’re in the living-room. The kitchen is off the
livingroom to the left. There’s a door at the far end of the living-room that leads into the hall.
The two bedrooms are down the hall on the right, and the bathroom is on the left.
6) A:…?
B: Oh, I’d love to. What a nice wardrobe, is it walnut? A:
Yes, it matches the bed and the dressing-table.
B:…?
A: No, that’s Mother’s work; she also did the lampshade for the reading lamp on the bedside
table.
B: Oh, how pretty they are. I see you’ve got a built-in cabinet here. …?
A: I keep some pillow slips and sheets, a spare blanket and even a pillow there.

Ex. 19. Choose one of the situations and make up a dialogue.


1. You and your husband/wife have bought a house which is in poor condition. Say
what is wrong with it and what jobs you’ll be able to do by yourselves and whether you’ll need
any professional help.
2. You and your husband/wife can’t afford buying a new house, so you have chosen
one which has been rather neglected and needs a lot of repairing and redecorating. But as your
husband is a Do-It-Yourself enthusiast your final decision is to buy it as you’re satisfied with
the price.
3. You are newly-weds. You are moving into a new house. You have come to see it
before you move in. You discuss what furniture you want to buy, how you are going to
decorate and equip the house.

Ex. 20. Listening Practice. Colours & Rooms. Listen and circle the words that are
mentioned in connection with each colour [5].

1) red 2) orange 3) yellow 4)blue 5)green 6)white


competitive, romantic, active, excited conservative; talkative, adventurous
shy, reliable, cheerful, generous, impatient, creative calm, confident, stressed,
relaxed, peaceful relaxed, peaceful, refreshed, depressed cheerful, isolated,
withdrawn
Listen again. What colour would you paint these rooms? Why?
a dining room - a child's bedroom - a play area - a living room - a classroom

Ex. 22. Listening Practice. Design Styles. What design styles have you heard of? Listen or
watch the video (Learn About Types of Design Styles) with the description of the 4 main
styles in interior design – were you right in your predictions?
42
Read through the list of expressions given below and try to remember/guess which
of them refers to which interior design style. Then listen again and check your
guesses.
Gilded details
Simple yet

classic
Bright and airy look architectural elements
Makes a dramatic statement Add a pop of colour
Lived-in appeal Embrace clean design
Array of influences Deeply carved embellishments
A mixture of textured and polished Geometric shapes surfaces Natural
materials
Sparse design Faded paint
Weathered and slightly distressed Elaborate hardware
Heirloom quality décor Enduring design legacy
Laid-back and welcoming look Authentic period patterns
Eclectic accessories Streamlined furniture
Inspired by nature Inviting style
Feast for the eyes Bold accents
Vintage accessories Sense of timelessness Elegant simplicity Design
symmetry
Old-world charm Natural appearance
Have a worn feel Myriad of colours and textures
Be on the cutting edge Muted colours

Ex. 23. Read the article about some other design styles and compare it to the information
from the listening task.
Basic Styles in Interior Design
1. Traditional Interior Style
Traditional interior design style stems from a variety of old-school European styles and
together are now referred to as “traditional”. Elements of this design include: classic
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European decor, elaborate moldings and wood paneling, built-in cabinetry, elegant furnishings
and antique pieces, pairings of furniture and accessories, neutral palette with vibrant colors
for furniture and accent pieces, expensive textiles like silk, velvet, cashmere or comfy fabrics
like cotton or linen, and intricate tile and wood floor patterns.
2. Modern Interior Style
Modern style for interiors is more popular in the media than in real life. I think people
appreciate the look of it and it’s definitely cool, but when it comes to living in the more
austere design, people opt for warmer home decor styles such as rustic, cottage or
traditional. Nevertheless, builders and architects are incorporating modern elements to many
homes which is kind of cool; but moderating it with materials, angles and lines that add
warmth.
Key attributes of modern interior design style include: absence of ornament, intentional
asymmetry, no clutter or chaos, neutrals with primary colors and bold color contrasts,
geometric-patterned or plain area rugs, furniture pieces have clean lines and basic shapes,
made of materials like metal, chrome, or glass and are streamlined with polished, smooth and
sleek surfaces,
3. Contemporary Home Decor Style
Contemporary design style is often confused with modern design style… usually references to
modern are in fact contemporary design. Contemporary design is current design which
includes open spaces, plenty of light, straight lines, plenty of glass, settel and wood and in
some cases unusual layouts. Elements of contemporary design: open spaces or open floor
plans, unusual layouts, use of natural light, neutral colors, metal accent pieces, textured and
natural fabric, very light or very dark wood tones, and lighting design used as an artistic
statement.
4. Shabby-Chic
Shabby-chic is big these days with the popularity of vintage and DIY home decor. While I
don’t want to say shabby-chic is a full crafty style, there are definitely craft elements that
people like such as distressed furnishings, floral prints and design elements and whitewashed
floors… all of which are popular DIY projects in the home. Main shabby-chic design attributes:
decor has a soft, feminine feel, vintage fabrics and items, distressed and painted furnishings,
whitewashed and pickling floors, pale palettes, and floral prints.
5. Eclectic Design Style
Eclectic design is a showcasing of contrasting elements including colors, furnishings and
materials. It can easily be overdone to look terrible, but when done well, the contrasting
aspects can be tied together to create a cohesive and attractive design.
Main design attributes: varied palette with a few grounding neutrals, different pieces in the
room are tied together with paint, fabric or a more refined or roughed-up finish, and defined
by contrasts and variety.
6. Scandinavian Interior Design
Important design elements: predominantly white, bright colors combine with the main white
color, large mirrors, principles of symmetry, furniture pieces are functional and stylish but not
too trendy and contemporary, use of light colored wood and warm colors, and light wood
flooring dressed up with rugs in subtle color,

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7. Rustic Style
Important rustic design elements: exposed ceiling beams, use of reclaimed wood, exposed
stone wall, wooden flooring, simple neutral-colored natural fabrics, distressed and
handcrafted items, wood-burning fireplace, and prominent staircases.
[Adapted from https://www.homestratosphere.com/photos/styles/]
Choose the style that you prefer and make a presentation about its main features.

Ex. 24. Make up your own dialogues describing the interior of the place where you
live/would like to live in detail. Use the vocabulary from the previous exercises.

Ex. 25. FURNITURE AND FITTINGS. Complete the following sentences.


1. I keep all my clothes in the bedroom in a big _ _ _ _ r _ _ _ .
2. The silver _ _ _ t _ _ on the table were shining brightly because they reflected the
flickering light of the _ _ n _ _ _ _ .
3. It was a cold evening so I had a log fire going in the _ _ r _ _ _ _ _ _ .
4. The most important thing about a house or flat is that it should be h _ _ _ _ _ .
5. My grandfather likes to sit in his favourite _ _ _ c _ _ _ _ , smoking his _ _ p _ .
6. I thought these were real flowers, but they are _ _ _ _ f _ _ _ _ _ . They are made of plastic.
7. The _ _ _ g _ _ of this carpet is about 8 ft.
8. Although we now have eight chairs, I’m afraid this will not be _ _ _ _ g _ and some of our
guests will have to sit on that old _ _ t _ _ _ .
9. I eventually found the scissors I’d lost behind the chest of _ _ _ w _ _ _ .
10. Our house has central heating, so every room has a _ _ d _ _ _ _ _ .
11. Doors that go round and round are called r _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ .
12. It is very difficult nowadays to find cheap and comfortable a _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ n in
Rostov.
13. Everything in my kitchen is stored away in _ _ _ b _ _ _ _ _ .
14. A door swings on its _ _ n _ _ _ .

Ex. 26. Vocabulary work.


Can you imagine anything worse than returning home to find that burglars
have broken into your house? ____________ (1) this happens to about 1 FORTUNE
mln people in Britain _______ (2). However, if you want better ANNUAL
__________ (3) against burglars, there are several things you can do. To
PROTECT
improve ________(4) check all the locks on your doors and windows. TheSECURE
___________ (5) of lighting all around your house will make sure a
INSTALL
burglar is __________ (6) to hide in the shadows. An alarm system is
ABLE
another good _________ (7) measure you can take. Starting a
_________(8) watch group is also a very PREVENT
__________ (9) way to prevent crime in your area. Since most NEIGHBOUR
EFFECT
___________(10) take place when people are away on holiday, this is BURGLAR
when your neighbours’ help is most ________ (11). Ask them to collect VALUE
your mail, switch your lights on and off to make your house look OCCUPY
_________ (12)

Particularly in teenagers’ rooms, lack of __________ (1) space is always a STORE


45
problem. Before you approach an interior ________(2) (they don’t come DESIGN
cheap), see if any of the following __________ (3) can make your teenager’s SUGGEST
living quarters a little more _________ (4). SPACE
If _____________(5) small objects are cluttering the room, place shoe VARY
organizers inside wardrobes. Use them ___________ (6) to put away scarves, WISE
sockes, __________ (7), hair accessories and anything else you need to store. JEWEL
____________ (8) hanging space can be created by placing hooks on doors. ADD
________ (9) use your walls! Shelves installed onto a wall are great for extra FINAL
space. Items that __________ (10) clutter a tabletop such as keys and NORM
paperwork can be secured on a cork bulletin board.

When Ann decided to move house, it was mainly because she was tired of the (1) NEIGHBOUR
_______________ she lived in. It was crowded, there was a (2)_______________ of SHORT
parking places, and the view from her (3) _________________ windows was of STAIRS
distant factory chimneys. Luckily she arranged the (4) _______________ of her SELL,
house very easily, and with a small (5) _______________ from the bank, was able to LEND
buy a house in the country. It was an old farm building, which had been (6) BUILD
___________________ and turned into a modern house. After loading all her
belongings into a van, Ann managed to get them into the new house (7) DAMAGE
__________________. She (8)______________ most of the rooms with what she FURNITURE
already owned. Even her curtains were the right (9) _____________ for the windows LONG
and she only had to buy a new (10) _______________ for the kitchen. It seemed too COOK
good to be true. Surely something was bound to go wrong.

Exercise 27. Translate into Russian.


A. …I went to Paris and took a couple of rooms in a hotel just out of the Place Vendôm. It was
a hotel I frequented, not only for its convenient situation, but because it had an air. It was a big
old house built around a courtyard and it had been an inn for close upon two hundred years.
The bathrooms were far from luxurious and the plumbing far from satisfactory; the bedrooms
with their iron beds, painted white, their old-fashioned white counterpanes had a
povertystricken look; but the parlours were furnished with fine old furniture. The sofa, the
armchairs, dated from the gaudy Napoleon the Third, and, though I could not say they were
comfortable, they had a florid charm. In that room I lived in the past of the French novelists.
When I looked at the Empire clock under its glass case I thought that a pretty woman in
ringlets and a flounced dress might have watched the minute hand move as she waited for a
visit from Rastignac.
(W. S. Maugham)
B. Herbert Whitall was in his study, which was so exactly what a study ought to be that there
was very little more to be said about it. The only thing it lacked was that indefinable something
which suggests that a room has been lived and worked in for many generations. So far as the
actual structure was concerned, this was true enough. It was one of the eighteenthcentury
rooms well-proportioned and well lighted, and it had had time to mellow. Adrian Grey, who
had had a hand in assembling the furniture, came to the conclusion that everything was too
much of one period, with none of those shabby survivals which are generally to be found in a
room where a man expects to take his ease. The handsome curtains were as new as yesterday.
There wasn’t so much as a rubbed place on arm or seat of any of the leathercovered chairs. It
was a good room, a perfectly suitable, but it missed the touch of familiar comfort.

46
(Patricia Wentworth)
C. River House! Thirty stories high, a full city block in width, and containing only
seventythree apartments – many of them duplex, one of them a triplex with a two-story living
room – when it was put up it was heralded as the most luxurious, and most expensive
apartment building in the world. It still is. It is also an unpluggable sinkhole for money. The
building soaks up money like a blotter, like a giant sponge. The building’s exterior badly needs
cleaning, and to sand-blast and steam-clean the facade will cost about a million dollars.
(Everything that needs to be done to the building seems to cost about a million dollars.) And
then there is a perennial problem of Graham Grenfell, the famous interior designer. Mr.
Grenfell’s apartment is lavishly furnished in antique pieces of museum quality. In fact, some
people suspect that Graham Grenfell uses his apartment as his showroom, though this is
strictly against the rules. Graham Grenfell has decorated a number of River House apartments,
including Monica McCluskey’s, who is said to have spent fifteen million on interior decor,
including Fourtuny wall coverings and window hangings, marble bathrooms, and a Baccarat
chandelier in her dining room that cost a cool million itself. Too big for the freight elevator,
the chandelier had to be hoisted up from the street by a construction crane mounted on the
roof.
(Stephen Birmingham)
D. The house was named “The Cave.” It was a large old-fashioned three-storied building
standing in about an acre of ground and situated about a mile outside the town of
Mugsborough. It stood back nearly two hundred yards from the main road and was reached by
means of a by-road or lane, on each side of which was a hedge formed of hawthorn trees and
blackberry bushes. This house had been unoccupied for many years and it was now being
altered and renovated for its new owner. There were, altogether, about twenty-five men
working there – carpenters, plumbers, bricklayers and painters, besides several unskilled
labourers. New floors were being put where the old ones were decayed, and upstairs two of the
rooms were being made into one by demolishing the parting wall and substituting an iron
girder. Some of the window frames and sashes were so rotten that they were being replaced.
Some of the ceilings and walls were so cracked and broken they had to be replaced. Openings
were being cut through walls and doors were being put where no doors had ever been before.
Old broken chimney pots were being taken down and new ones were being taken up and fixed
in their places. All the old whitewash had to be washed off the ceilings and all the paper had to
be scraped off the walls preparatory to the house being repaired and redecorated. The air was
full of the sounds of hammering and sawing, the ringing of trowels, the rattles of pails, the
splashing of water brushes, and the scraping of the stripping knives used by those who were
removing the old wall-paper.
(R. Tressell)
E. The Villa Faviola was situated approximately halfway between Monte Carlo and Menton. It
stood in its own small park, sheltered by pines at its back, with its many tall windows facing
out towards the sea. Built in the 1920s, it was a lovely old house, airy and gracious, with a
curving driveway, spacious green lawns that swept down from the terrace past the swimming
pool, up to the edge of the rocky promontory and the glittering Mediterranean Sea beyond. Its
exterior walls were painted a soft melon, but in a tone so pale it was almost sand, and the
canvas awnings shading the windows were of a deeper melon, partnered with shutters of
pristine white. A wide terrace stretched along the side of the house facing the sea and was
made of white stone and marble, and it appeared to float gracefully above the verdant gardens
where flowers grew in riotous colour and fountains sparkled in the shimmering sunlight.

47
Scattered along the terrace were several round white-metal tables topped by melon-coloured
parasols; matching white chairs, swing-sofas with sun-awnings, and chaises all had cushions
of cream, and because only these soft integrated tones had been used nothing jarred the
harmonious flow of pale colour across the lovely front facade. Inside Faviola its cool, lofty
rooms were filled with lovely filtered sunlight and furnished with a simple yet distinctive
elegance. Charming old French Provincial pieces made of dark woods or bleached oak were
mingled with vast sofas and comfortable chairs and there were chaises and ottomans, and
occasional tables held small pots of African violets and pink and white cyclamen and the latest
magazines and books. Floors of highly polished parquet and rose-veined cream marble were
either bare or were covered here and there by old Aubusson and plain rugs of cream wool, and
throughout the house colours were pale and cool. Cream, vanilla and white predominated,
flowed over the walls, were repeated in the fabrics that fell at the windows and covered sofas
and chairs, and accent colours were variations of melon and peach and sand. But none of the
rooms were so imposing or so grand that guests and children were intimidated and felt they
were in a museum and therefore hardly dare breathe. On the contrary, the house had been
designed as a vacation home, one to be lived in and enjoyed to the fullest, and it had a great
deal of comfort and an easy grace that was all its own.
(Barbara Taylor Bradford)
Ex.28. Translate into English:
A) На днях сестра переехала на новую квартиру. Вчера было новоселье. Теперь у
нее своя отдельная квартира недалеко от центра города. Квартира не очень большая, но
удобная. Она располагается на 3 этаже 9-этажного дома. Это двухкомнатная квартира с
кухней, прихожей и ванной комнатой, не говоря уже о кладовой. Квартира очень
светлая, т.к. окна выходят на юг. Вот гостиная. Мне очень нравятся обои, они
оживляют комнату. Эта стеклянная дверь ведет на балкон. Вид с балкона потрясающий.
Балкон выходит на центральную улицу. Здесь всегда шумно и людно. – У вас на окнах
шторы или жалюзи? – В гостиной - шторы, а на кухне - жалюзи, это очень удобно и
современно. Кухня очень чистая и уютная, она служит одновременно и столовой. На
мытье посуды у сестры уходит не очень много времени, т.к. есть посудомоечная
машина. Стены в кухне, ванной и туалете отделаны кафелем, а во всех остальных
комнатах – оклеены обоями. Спальню сестра использует и как кабинет: здесь стоит
компьютер, принтер, сканер и другие, необходимые для работы вещи. В прихожей стоит
вешалка для одежды и небольшой столик для телефона. У двери лежит небольшой
коврик. В двери имеется глазок, чтобы знать кто звонит в дверь.
B) 1. Мы хотели купить собственный отдельный дом, хотели, чтобы был большой
сад и озеро, но денег нам хватило только на два хозяина. 2. Газон перед домом —
гордость всех англичан. Газон тщательно стригут и высаживают по дорожкам розы. 3.
Прихожая была тёмная и мрачная, и я решила, что нужно переклеить обои — подобрать
более светлые. 4. Длинный коридор заканчивался лестницей, ведущей на второй этаж. 5.
В Европе мало кто живёт в многоквартирных домах. Большинство людей являются
собственниками домов в пригородах. 6. В английских домах количество комнат может
быть разным, но традиционно всегда есть небольшая прихожая, кухня, столовая,
гостиная, ванная, туалет, пара кладовок, одна или несколько спален. 7. В домах, где есть
дети, желательно сделать детскую. Там должна быть особая мебель и хорошее
освещение. 8. К гостиной примыкает столовая, которая, в свою очередь, соединена с
кухней. 9. Я предпочитаю электрическую плиту газовой — её гораздо легче мыть, да и
вытяжка не очень нужна. 10. На полках я храню фаянсовую посуду, а в этих
ящичках — столовые приборы. 11. Комната так заставлена мебелью, что трудно
48
подойти к окну. 12. У Гаррисонов очень просторная четырёхкомнатная квартира в
центре города. Она прекрасно отделана и обставлена. 13. Это комнатное растение у окна
загораживает свет. Переставь его в угол. 14. Мы живём в этом девятиэтажном доме.
Район нам не нравится, хотелось бы переехать в место с лучшей экологией. 15. Я не
смогла бы жить в деревне, так как не могу обходиться без удобств — водопровода,
мусоропровода, центрального отопления и городских развлечений. Хотя я признаю, что
деревенский шарм и покой кажутся привлекательными для многих жителей
мегаполисов уставших от стремительного городского темпа.

Ex.29. Translate into English.


Почему в одной квартире мы чувствуем себя так уютно, а в другой словно не
находим себе места? Секрет уюта комнаты заключается не только в подобранной со
вкусом мебели. Огромную роль в создании того или иного впечатления от интерьера
играют цвета и рисунки. Освещенность комнаты сильно влияет на настроение человека.
В темной комнате приходит ощущение подавленности. Особенно, если комната
прямоугольной и вытянутой формы. Здесь подойдут обои в теплых пастельных тонах.
Зеленый цвет приводит в гармонию мысли и чувства, успокаивает нервы, снижает
агрессивность. Его хорошо использовать в оформлении кабинетов, в помещениях, где
люди занимаются умственной деятельностью, принимают ответственные решения. В
детской комнате нельзя клеить обои с мелким рисунком. Он раздражает и часто бывает
причиной испорченного зрения. Маленьким комнатам большего всего подойдут обои
без рисунка или с рельефным рисунком светлых тонов – под кожу, яичную скорлупу.
Чтобы твоя мечта об элегантном доме стала реальностью, помни, что ванная и
туалет достойны не меньшего внимания, чем любая другая комната. Правильно
подобранный цвет плитки, зеркальные полочки, чистые пушистые полотенца и другие
аксессуары создадут приятную атмосферу. Качественно сделанный ремонт и со вкусом
подобранная мебель – это еще не все. Чтобы создать свою неповторимую атмосферу,
нужны декоративные детали. Например, цветы – они всегда оживляют интерьер. К тому
же оригинальная, необычной геометрической формы ваза уже сама по себе украшение
дома.

Ex.30. Make up a dialogue of your own on the suggested topics for conversation. Use
interesting expressions and words from Essential Vocabulary.
1. Your friend’s new flat. You discuss all the facilities and design features.
2. Discuss the furniture of your new three-room flat.
3. You are receiving your friends at the housewarming party and showing them around your
new flat.
4. Your flat is in the suburbs of the town. Your friend lives in the centre. Speak on the
advantages and disadvantages of both places to live.
5. Describe typical British homes.
6. You want to furnish your room anew. You discuss this matter with your parents and then
with your friend.
7. Compare your friend’s newly furnished flat with his old one.

Ex. 31. Listening and Speaking Practice.

49
Feng Shui: Ancient Wisdom Travels West. Today many people want to get out of the rat
race and live in a less stressful or less conventional lifestyle. Feng Shui [fʌƞ ʃwei] is a
Chinese philosophy which states that the position of buildings and the arrangement of
objects in the home affect the health and well-being of people living there [20].

 Read and listen to the information about feng shui and complete the chart below.

More and more Western architects, real estate developers, and interior designers are
using the principles of feng shui in their life and work. Previously, Westerners frowned upon
feng shui as merely superstition. Hard-bitten designers and architects, scientifically trained,
refused to acknowledge any possible transcendent explanation of success brought on by the
application of feng shui principles. Originally, they dismissed interest in feng shui as a
digression from established technical and artistic practices. Nowadays, however, feng shui is
becoming more accepted in places outside of Asia, such as the United States, Canada, Europe
and Latin America.
The Meaning of Feng Shui. Feng shui, meaning “wind” and “water” is an ancient form
of geomancy, or the art of aligning things in the environment to create harmony and good
luck. An art and a science, feng shui aims to create both physical and psychological comfort.
Practitioners believe that the arrangement of the elements in our environment can affect many
aspects of our lives such as health, happiness, and fortune. Feng shui experts generally
recommend simple changes; for example, they instruct people not to sit with their backs to the
door because they can be caught off-guard and startled unnecessarily. Or they encourage
business owners to put an aquarium in the entrance of their building since it symbolizes
abundance, as in the saying “there are always more fish in the sea”. In classical feng shui
water always symbolizes wealth and abundance. Very simply, where there was water, crops
could grow. Acquiarium represents the water element.
The Theory of Feng Shui. The theory behind feng shui is that there is an invisible life
force or energy, called ch’i (“chee”), that circulates through all things – rooms, buildings,
people, hills, rivers, power lines. If ch’i flows smoothly and freely, then things go well for
people. If ch’i is blocked, then the people in that space may feel discomfort or unhappiness.
Sharp corners, narrow openings, poor lighting and clutter are some of the many factors that can
create blocked or unfavourable ch’i. Relying on tools and knowledge that are centuries old,
trained feng shui experts can sense immediately if the ch’i is circulating properly. They
consider the shape, size, and location of objects as well as materials, colours, and numbers.
The Origin of Feng Shui. Feng shui grew out of the practical experience of farmers in
southern China over 3,000 years ago. Those who built their huts facing north were battered by
the wind and dust from the Gobi Desert in Mongolia. In contrast, those who built their huts
facing south enjoyed the warmth of the sun and protection from the wind. As a result, south
became the favoured direction. Over the years, south came to be associated with fame, fortune,
summer the colour red and the number nine. In fact, to quote the world-renowned feng shui
expert Lillioan Too, red, the color of the south, “could well bring you good fortune”. Ms.Too
encourages red wall-paper, curtains, carpets and all red in the southern part of the room, office
or building.
The Spread of Feng Shui. Today the work of feng shui masters is in great demand
among Chinese population in China, Taiwan, Singapore, Hong Kong, Malaysia, and the
Philippines. It is estimated that nearly 85 % of Hong Kong residents apply feng shui principles
when choosing an apartment or business. Now the ancient art of feng shui has migrated to the
West. Well-known architects, designers and business people no longer view the practice
50
skeptically. In fact, there are many popular books filled with anecdotes about people whose
lives have been dramatically changed by feng shui.

 Decide if each aspect of the environment listed on the chart below creates
favourable or unfavourable feng shui.
FENG SHUI
Aspects of the Environment REASON
favourable unfavourable
clutter (things piled up in a messy way)
an aquarium
plants and flowers
the colours red and purple
a desk facing a view
living in a house on a quiet, dead-end street
an odd number of dining room chairs
pictures of bats on the walls

 Vocabulary for comprehension. Read the following sentences. Circle the word or
expression that has the same meaning as the underlined words.

1. Donald Tramp, a well-known New York real estate developer, always consults a feng shui
practitioner. To begin, the expert uses feng shui principles to determine if the building is
aligned. a. parallel to other buildings b. positioned properly
2. The feng shui expert did not get to the point right away. He made digressions. Then he
finally returned to the topic. a. talked about another topic b. took a long time
3. Some modern Chinese frown upon feng shui, claiming that it is superstitious and
unscientific.
a. disapprove of b. dislike
4. Feng shui practitioners instruct people not to sit with their backs to the door because they
can be caught off guard. a. be startled b. be hurt
5. For centuries, people have explored the reasons for the success of feng shui. Expert
practitioners offer explanations that are both scientific and transcendent.
a. within the limits of ordinary experience b. beyond the limits of ordinary
experience
6. The feng shui expert told his client that the ch’i was not circulating properly because the
staircase was too close to the door. The staircase was blocking movement.
a. flowing freely b. blowing
7. According to feng shui, fish in an aquarium symbolize abundance, as in the saying, “There
are always more fish in the sea.” a. a large quantity b. food

Listening 1: Interview with a Feng Shui Expert.

Sedge Thomson, the radio host of West Coast Live from San Francisco, interviews Kristen
Lagatree, author of the book “Feng Shui: Arranging Your Home to Change Your Life”. At the
end of the interview, Thomson asks Lagatree how she senses whether a building has
favourable feng shui or not. Working with another student, predict how favourable feng shui
might a person feel. Then listen to an excerpt from the interview to check your answers.

51
 Listening for main ideas. Listen again and complete the table.

Part One
Definition of fenh shui

Popularity of feng shui in other


countries
Donald Trump’s attitude to feng shui

Basic design of Lagatree’s home


office

Part Two
Role of mirrors

Lagartree’s overall attitude towards feng shui

Who can sense good feng shui

 Listening for Details. Read the following questions. Then listen to Part One of the
interview and write short answers. Then do the same for Part Two.

Part One
1. Lagatree doesn’t thing feng shui is a way to keep out evil spirits. Why not?
2. Thomson says that feng shui is very important in Asia. What examples does he give to
support this statement?
3. What is Lagatree’s background?
4. Why do some Chinese people living in San Francisco ask to have one-way street signs
removed?
5. Why didn’t Lagatree put her desk facing out the window?
6. How does she feel about the impact of feng shui on the design of her home office?

Part Two
7. What two reasons does Lagatree give for not putting mirrors in the bedroom?
8. What three reasons does she give for putting mirrors in other rooms?
9. As a journalist, how did Lagatree feel about feng shui at first?
10. When Lagatree’s skeptical friends asked her if she believed in feng shui, how did she
respond?
11. You don’t have to be a feng shui expert to know if a place has good feng shui. Why not?

Listening 2: Feng shui in the news room.


First, look at the bagua chart. In feng shui it is an octagonal grid used to determine how parts of
the house or a room relate to different areas of one’s life. Lagatree visits a radio newsroom to

52
record this interview. She suggests changes in the newsroom based on feng shui principles
[20].

53
54
 Speaking Practice. When speaking informally, English speakers may use an emphatic
speaking style. Listen to the examples, and read them as you hear paying
attention to intonation patterns.
• Well, I wouldn’t say to keep out evil spirits. But I would say it’s a system of
arranging all the objects around you at home or at work.
• He would no more start working on a building project without a feng shui master than he
would without, you know, if it was L.A., without a seismologist.
• The new Regency Hotel in Singapore just opened with two beautiful fountains in the lobby.
Talk about great feng shui! The hotel is booked solid for the next two months!
• Now based on just simple things I’ve done and also lots of people I talked to for the book,
I’d have to say it works… and at the very least it couldn’t hurt.  We can’t see it but, boy,
is it there doing things!
Expression Explanation Example
Boy… Used as an exclamation Boy, did Bruce Lee have bad
followed by an inversion luck!
I wouldn’t say….., but I Used to clarify the meaning I wouldn’t say feng shui is huge
would say…. in the US, but I would say it’s
becoming popular.
… would no Followed by something I would no more hire a feng shui
more than…. obviously unreasonable expert to design my house than I
would hire a palm reader to
predict my future.
Talk about…. Followed by an explanation Talk about a perfect location!
The house was surrounded by
lovely streams and a beautiful
garden!
I’d have to say… Used to emphasize a strong Well, since I moved my desk to
point the northeast corner, I’d have to
say, my writing has improved.

 Work with a partner. Student A: ask the question given or make the comment. Student
B: cover the left column. Respond emphatically using expressions from the chart above
and appropriate intonation. Add further comments. Switch roles after question 5.
Student A Student B
You really hired a feng shui expert to boost Boy, ________! Profits are up to 100%!
profits? Did it work?
How about hiring a professional clutter Are you kidding? I would no more hire
consultant to clean the clutter out of your house? clutter consultant than __________ (add
It will bring instant luck to your life! something unreasonable)
You won’t believe this! A Chinese American Talk about_________(add and explanation)
millionaire paid a feng shui expert 50000$ to
advise him on the alignment of his building!
I think feng shui practitioners are nothing more Well, I wouldn’t say _______, but I would
than superstitious fortune tellers with a compass! say that __________.
Don’t you think that feng shui is really more than Absolutely! I have to say___________
55
just putting up mirrors or hanging wind
chimes?

Now switch roles


My friend Michael had had two robberies in his That’s amazing! Talk about ________(add
apartment. Then he consulted a feng shui expert an explanation). But I don’t think feng shui
who advised him to set up an aquarium. He’s had anything to do with it.
had no robberies since.
Another added flowers, wind chimes, crystals Boy, __________ (use inversion)
and mirrors in his house. Two days later he got
the biggest promotion in his life.
Would you buy a house near a cemetery? No, I would no more ________, than_____
What do you think of other Eastern practices, like Well, I’d have to say___________
Thai chi, macrobiotic diets, and so on?
Feng shui is trendy in the West now, it’ll fade in I wouldn’t say ________, but I would
a few years. say__________
[20]
Exam and essay topic
1. The key design styles and their main features
2. Feng shui principles – do they work?
3. The place where I live
4. The house of my dream

MОDULE 3
Renting or Buying
Accommodation
Ex. 1. Lead-in. Work in pairs. Imagine that you and your friend are going to study in
England and are looking for a place to rent. Decide on the kind of place you would like by
ticking the boxes below. Add more features of your own.

Spacious In a fashionable Fully furnished


district

Traditional Stylish Easily accessible

Cosy Fully-equipped Isolated

Affordable Modern décor Cheap

Easy to maintain In the countryside In the city centre

56
Ex.2. Read the short ads below and discuss positive features of the accommodation
offered.
2. Are you looking to move into a flat or
1. Short-let accommodation house next term? The Harmer Agency available
near university. Rooms has a wide range of suitable and studio flats. Tel.: 899544
accommodation. Call us on 4446677
3. Fully furnished flat available to 4. Newly-built apartment available
rent from 1st September. Quiet soon.
residential area. 800$ per calendar month. Spacious accommodation, fully-fitted kitchen.
Tel.: 897633 after 5 p.m. Off-road parking. To let furnished or
unfurnished. Would suit single academic or
mature student.

Answer the questions using collocations from the ads:


1. What kind of accommodation would suit a student who has no furniture of his own?
2. What kind of accommodation would suit someone who is only going to stay in s place for 3
months?
3. What part of the town would you like to live in if you wanted to be somewhere where there
are lots of private houses and no factories or other work places?
4. What kind of accommodation would suit a young single person who would prefer to live
alone rather than to share?
5. If accommodation does not have its own garage, what else might it have to make life easier
for car-owning residents?
6. If you are moving into a new unfurnished house, but don’t need to take a washing machine,
cooker or fridge with you, what does the house have?
[11]
Ex. 3. Accommodation and rent – vocabulary work. Study the expressions in the box.
Verb + accommodation Adj + accommodation Verb + rent
find accommodation free accommodation self- afford the rent
provide accommodation catering accommodation owe rent pay the
live in accommodation furnished accommodation rent put up the
guarantee accommodation temporary accommodation rent withhold
the rent
a) Complete the sentences with the correct verb changing its form if necessary.
1. We help our employees to ________ suitable accommodation in the city. Most get
something they like within a week or two.
2. Students are ________ accommodation in the hall of residence for the first
year. We are lucky to have plenty of student flats and rooms. 3. It’s a small hotel but
it can ______________ accommodation for up to 30 visitors.
4. My uncle is disabled and ______________ in sheltered accommodation where there is a
warden on call to provide help if needed.
b) Complete the sentences with the adjectives from the box above.
1. The city council is using the building of the local school hall as ______________
accommodation for the families made homeless by the recent flood.
2. We’re staying in _______________ accommodation so we’ll have to do cooking
ourselves. 3. The flat had a bed and a chair! That’s not what I call ______________
accommodation.

57
4. In return for ______________ accommodation and food, I tidy up the house and look after
the two kids while their parents are at home.
c) Complete the sentences with the right part of collocation with the word “rent”. 1.
I _______ a slightly higher rent than other tenants in the flat as my room is the biggest.
2. The landlord wants to _____________ the rent by 25$ a month, but I’m refusing to pay any
more.
3. We’re ___________ the rent unless the landlord agrees to get the central heating fixed.
4. We need a bigger house for our large family, but we can’t ___________ the rent.
5. The landlord is threatening to evict the tenants if they don’t pay the rent they _______ by
the end of the week.
d) Read and translate the given sentences paying attention to the collocations with the
key words on the topic.
1. There is a shortage/lack of cheap rented accommodation for students in London.
2. Since losing my job, I’ve fallen behind with the rent.
3. The rent is due one month in advance.
4. Most of my salary goes on rent. I have very little left for food and entertainment.
5. I have a spare room to let at a monthly rent of 250$.
e) Make up your own sentences with the collocations from all the parts of the exercise.
Work in pairs, read and translate all your sentences from English into Russian and vice
versa.

Ex. 4. a) Do you live alone or share a flat? Read and listen to the text below. Try to guess
the meaning of the expressions in bold from the context and discuss them with your
partner.
Leaving home and going to university is one of the major steps
in the life of a young person. In the UK, it's common for
university students to share digs that are provided by the
university. However, in some cases students are being forced to
share single rooms. The situation has come about because the
government raised the cap on student numbers in the UK,
allowing universities to recruit an extra 30,000 students. As a result of offering places to
thousands more than usual, a few universities have been unable to house all their first-year
students in halls of residence. This has led to first-years sleeping in bunk beds in rooms
meant for one, with a single sink and desk. The universities have agreed that the situation is
not ideal and have offered the students discounted rent and free food until they find them
more suitable accommodation. After leaving full-time education and entering the workforce,
many young graduates still find themselves having to share accommodation. In many cities the
cost of buying or renting even small properties is prohibitively expensive. It's not always
possible to pick and choose who you live with and there can be a number of problems that
arise. One survey suggests that untidiness, disgusting personal habits and petty pilfering of
food are some of the most common complaints among flatmates. The "borrowing" of personal
belongings without permission was also a big gripe. Despite these problems, many people love
the experience of sharing, at least for a few years
b) Match the expressions with their definitions and compare with your guesses.

58
digs come so expensive that it is impossible to afford
about raised to find accommodation
the cap to for made the limit higher
recruit to house stealing small items
halls of rented accommodation a
residence bunk big complaint
beds not ideal accommodation which is owned by the university
prohibitively expensive unsatisfactory
petty pilfering two single beds joined together with one bed above the other
a big gripe happened
to offer places at university to
c) Retell the text.
[From bbc.learningenglish.com]

Ex. 5. House share heaven - or hell? Have you ever had to share a
house? a) Check the meaning of the following phrasal verbs before you
read:
move in get on fall out
move take turns to do something make up
out tidy
up
Now read the article and answer the questions below.

How easy is it to buy - or rent - your own home? In some countries it might be relatively
cheap, but in the UK rising housing prices mean buying a house is too expensive for a lot of
people. The cost of renting is also going up - and this means many people have no choice: they
have to share a house or flat. What does this mean for the people who are almost forced to live
together? Do they live in housemate heaven – or housemate hell? Read this article and try to
answer this question: Which two living situations are discussed in the article?
How do people avoid picking a terrible flatmate?
Being able to afford to rent your own place is something that most people would like to
do. However, skyrocketing rent prices in London and around the UK mean that this is not
possible for most people. In 2011, a national census found that 1,850,137 households were
made up of either more than one person or more than one family. So what is the reality for
today's house- and flat-sharers? How easy is it to find a decent flatmate?
Some people will stick with what they already know and share with people who are
their friends. Others will look elsewhere to find a flatmate by placing an advert online or in a
shop window. Some others may even organise a 'speedflatmating' event - a bit like speed
dating but instead of trying to find a partner, many people are interviewed to decide if they are
the right person to move in.
Finding a good person to fill a vacant room can be difficult. How do you know if a
stranger can be trusted? Can they pay the rent? Will they nick your food? Will they cross the
line by doing something unacceptable? Imagine if your new flatmate showed up without any
socks. You might feel charitable and lend them a few pairs, which would be a kind thing to
do. But what if you found out later that they had gone into your room and taken more socks?

59
What if that person was actually one of your friends? That would probably be going a step too
far for most people.
Perhaps it is better to live with strangers than it is to live with friends. You might avoid
falling into a false sense of security and avoid odd clothes-sharing or food-related incidents.
Some people would say that living with random strangers is ok when you are younger - but
not so easy to do when you get older. The amount of house sharing is rising, for both younger
and older people. And this means that the dilemma of choosing who to live with is not going
away any time soon. (This article is based on an original BBC News story). b) Chose the
right option:
1. What could you say if the cost of rent is going up very quickly? It's...
A skyrocketing
B rising
C skyfalling
2.What are the three methods of finding a flatmate mentioned in the article?
A Asking their family, asking their friends, and holding flatmate interviews
B Holding flatmate interviews, asking friends, and having a flatmate competition
C Asking friends, holding flatmate interviews, and advertising online
3. If your flatmate did something you didn’t like and was unacceptable, then they have
crossed the… A road
B river
C line
4.“He nicked my shoes! That’s a step too far!” What has happened?
A My friend has walked one step in my shoes and I’m not happy.
B My friend has taken my shoes and I’m not happy.
5.What is the name for an event where you can interview a lot of possible flatmates in a
short time? A speed dating
B speedflatmating C
advertising
6.What is the phrase for when you think everything is OK, but it really
isn’t? A living with random strangers
B a false sense of security
C a dilemma of choosing who to live with
7.Living with strangers is easier when you are in your twenties than when you are in
your forties. According to the article this is...
A true B
false
c) Use the following words and expressions from the text to make sentences of your own:
 Skyrocketing going up or increasing very quickly
 Census an official survey of a population
 Households groups of people who live together
 Vacant empty; unused
 Stranger a person who you have not met before
 Nick (here) an informal way to stay 'steal'
 cross the line to start behaving in an unacceptable way
 charitable (here) generous, giving

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 going a step too far doing something that is unacceptable
 false sense of security when you think everything is OK, but there are really some
problems

Ex. 6. Listening. You will hear five people giving their views on sharing a house. Before
you listen, look at the headings (A-F) listed in the box. What do you expect each speaker
to talk about? [6]
A Appreciating one’s own space Speaker 1
B Managing household chores Speaker 2
C Finding a way to afford a house Speaker 3
D Adapting to someone else’s lifestyle Speaker 4
E Finding the right flat mate Speaker 5
F A difficult person to live with

Ex. 7. Write a paragraph about your experiences of sharing accommodation. Use some
of the vocabulary from the unit and some verbs used to talk about sharing accommodation and
living together. Compare your paragraph with your partner’s one.

Ex. 8. Listen to the dialogue about renting a flat. Do you think the tenant is
likely to rent it? Why/why not? Listen again and fill in the gaps. Then learn the
dialogue by heart.
L: So here it is! This is a cosy three-bedroom flat, with an _______ kitchen space,
and
a ______ bathroom.
T: Cosy is one way to describe it! This box-room here, was it always a bedroom?
L: Well spotted! This room has in fact been converted and re-developed into a
comfortable living _________. It was originally a built-in _______cupboard and
storage room. T: Wow! Yeah, I thought it seemed quite snug. So can I see the
kitchen?
L: Of course, it's just over here. As you can see there are all the _______ fixtures, a sink,
cooker, oven, fridge, washing machine...
T: Is the paint supposed to be ________ ____ the walls like that? And shouldn’t those
cupboards have doors on them?
L: Well. This room has been decorated to have a _______ look. It‘s a very popular style in
interior design at the moment.
T: Is that why the taps are old and rusty then? That can't be safe. Is there any chance you
would install a new _____ for us? Are we allowed to redecorate ourselves?
L: Well that would be something we could discuss once you‘ve moved in.
T: [under breath] IF we move in. [To Landlord] And so the bathroom is big enough for 3
to share then?
L: Yes the bathroom has recently been re-furbished with a ______ shower and large
bath. T: (surprised) Oh! It's really quite nice isn't it, so how much is the _____ for
this flat per month?
L: The rent as £350 per person per month, not including
_____ bills. T: And do we have to pay a security deposit?

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L: Yes there is also a deposit of £350, which will be returned to you once you move out,
assuming the flat is in the same ______ that it was when you moved in.
T: OK. Well I have a few more flats to see today and have to discuss this with my
friends. So I‘ll call you! Thanks.
[From Magazine “Cool English”]

Ex. 9. Listening. Oleg has just started to work in Dublin, Ireland. He is looking for a
place to stay and decides to phone an agency. Listen and answer the questions:
a) is he
going to share or live alone?
b) Does he
want to rent or buy a property? B)
Listen again and complete the form:
C) Now listen to the second part of the
conversation and choose the place(s) he
decides to go and see.

Ex. 10. Read these questions. Then listen to the property agent’s replies. Write the letter
of each reply (a-f) next to the correct question.
Tenancy agreement
1. How long is the rental agreement? ……….
2. Will the rent go up? ……….
3. Is insurance included? ……….
4. Can I sub-let? ……….
5. How much notice must I give if I want to leave early? ……….
6. Who do I contact of there is a problem? ……….
Look at the statements below. Choose True/False for each statement. Then listen again
and check your answers.
a) You need to give two months’ notice T/F
b) Contents insurance is not included T/F
c) The rent may go up after the lease expires T/F
d) You should pay for repairs yourself T/F
e) The rental agreement starts from the day you move in T/F
f) You will be evicted if you break the terms of your tenancy agreement T/F

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Ex. 11. Make up your own dialogues between a tenant and a landlord using the words and
word combinations from the box.

self-contained apartment; a bed-sitting room; to share a room; heating and laundry; lunch
and supper; all meals and heating; call back; come again; look back; to pay in advance; to
give a deposit; (don’t) mind sharing (doing my own washing, etc.); to give two months’
notice; to break the terms of agreement; to pay for repairs; to go up (about the rent); to
sublet; to have pets; to pay the rent

Ex. 12. Choose the right word.


1. We decided to look for a ____ house after years of living next door to noisy neighbours.
a. separate b. single c. non-terraced d. detached
2. This flat is only available for a ____ let.
a. brief b. short-term c. small d. short-time
3. The tenants should pay the ____ direct to the landlord or landlady.
a. money b. let c. rent d. hire
4. The rooms I've rented are ____ furnished, so I won't need to buy any furniture.
a. fully- b. completely c. totally d. pre-
5. My daughter is living in the university while she's doing her degree.
a. hostel of residents b. halls of residence c. place of lodging d. residential home
6. If you take this job, you get ____ free.
a. bed and sleep b. rooms and eating c. food and housing d. board and lodging
7. While he was working abroad, he his flat through an agency.
a. let out b. hired out c. sold out d. tenanted
8. This cottage is ____ to rent for the next nine months.
a. disposable b. available c. free d. open
9. This is a ____ building with plenty of space for all the family.
a. three-floor b. three-storey c. triple-floored d. three-levelled

Ex. 13. RENTING A FLAT. Choose the correct answer.


1. The only … of the flat is that it’s a bit too small.
a) complaint b) disadvantage c) mistake d) sorry
2. They are going to ask the landlord to … their rent.
a) drop b) leave c) lessen d) lower
3. I would like to have a house … , but for the time being I must rent this flat.
a) by my own b) for my own c) of my own d) to my own
4. Our main concern is to raise the lodgers’ … of living.
a) capacity b) conditions c) degree d) standard
5. Are you going to … your flat here while you are abroad?
a) dispose b) hire c) let d) sale
6. The … for the flat is $70 a week.
a) due b) fee c) hire d) rent
7. We are … into our new flat next week.
a) arriving b) entering c) moving d) transporting
8. The tenants were … not to disturb other tenants after 11 p.m.
a) appealed b) demanded c) desired d) requested
9. When the owner let the flat to me I signed a(n) … that I would leave at the end of June.
a) advice b) agreement c) bargain d) insurance
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10. … a flat with someone is cheaper than living on your own.
a) Dividing b) Halving c) Parting d) Sharing
11. The room was noisy and not very … for studying.
a) fitted b) matching c) proper d) suitable
12. Many accidents in the home could be … if householders gave more thought to safety in their
houses.
a) avoided b) excluded c) preserved d) protected
13. Some of the people living on the Council’s new estate decided to set up a(n) … association.
a) dwellers’ b) citizens’ c) inhabitants’ d) tenants’
14. There are several landladies approved by the university who take in … .
a) inhabitants b) lodgers c) residents d) settlers
15. The landlord requires a $50 … from tenants to cover possible damage.
a) bail b) deposit c) security d) tip
16. My landlady has recently signed an agreement renewing my … for the next four years.
a) occupation b) possession c) residence d) tenancy
17. Having decided to rent a flat, we … contacting all the accommodation agencies in our city.
a) set about b) set off c) set out d) set to
18. The Housing Committee has decided to give … to young married couples with children.
a) preferment b) prestige c) priority d) presentation
19. Homeless families … the empty houses and started to renovate and redecorate them.
a) homed b) moved c) squatted d) tenanted
20. The landlord … them because they hadn’t paid their rent for three months.
a) demolished b) dismissed c) evicted d) threw out
21. The scarcity of housing accommodation means that people can no longer afford to … where they
live.
a) buy and sell b) come and go c) look and see d) pick and choose
22. Considering how few services we get, the rates we pay are … .
a) daylight robbery b) down to earth c) out of this world d) peanuts
23. The squatters are fighting … and nail not to be evicted from the houses they have occupied.
a) finger b) hammer c) toe d) tooth
24. He lives a(n) … throw from the station.
a) apple’s b) arrow’s c) knife’s d) stone’s

Ex. 14. Read and translate the following text.


Buying a House
There are two types of organisations which are central to the buying of houses and flats.
The first is the estate agent. An estate agency is, essentially, a shop which arranges for the sale
of homes. Let us imagine that Mr and Mrs Smith want to sell their house. First, they ask one or
more local estate agents to visit the house and tell them how much they should be able to sell it
for. They will also want to know how much the agent will charge for his services (usually
between 1% and 2% of the selling price). If the Smiths are happy with his proposals, the agent
will publish details of the house in the form of give-away leaflets and possibly in the local or
even national newspapers. The leaflet will describe the house in detail, describing the position,
number and sizes of its rooms, the garden and so on. Mr and Mrs Smith then wait for
prospective buyers to arrive.

64
Imagine that Mr and Mrs Johnson want to buy a house in the same area. They go to the
estate agency and inspect the details of the houses on offer. If they are attracted by the
description of the Smiths’ house, they will visit the property to look at it. If they are still
interested after seeing the house they may make an offer to the Smiths via the estate agent.
Often the offer will be slightly less than the official “asking” does price. If the Smiths agree,
the house can be sold.
But the Johnsons probably do not have enough money to pay for the house immediately,
so what do they do? They go to the second type of institution involved in house buying and
selling – the building society. A building society’s main function is to lend people like the
Johnsons enough money to buy a house. Banks also offer a similar service. Building societies
make their money by borrowing money from some members of the public – their “deposits” –
and lending it to others. Many British people have building society savings accounts. They
save their money with a building society, which pays them interest. The society then lends this
money to people who want to buy a house or a flat and charges them a higher interest rate on
the amount borrowed. This long-term loan is called a “mortgage”.
So Mr and Mrs Johnson go to a local building society where they will be asked a number
of questions – what type of jobs do they have? How much do they earn? What are their
monthly expenses? And so on. The society will also inspect the house to see if it is worth the
money they are being asked to lend. All being well, it will offer to lend the Johnsons up to
about 90 per cent of the price of the house, to be paid back with interest over 25 years, or
sometimes less. When all is agreed and the papers signed, the money is paid to the Smiths or to
their legal representatives – usually a solicitor – and the Johnsons can move in.
Over the 25 years, the Johnsons, because of the interest on the loan, will pay far more
than the original price of the house – but since they are paying it in fairly small sums once a
month they are, at least, able to afford it.

Ex. 15. Answer the following questions.


1. What is an estate agency? 2. If a person wants to sell a house, what will he do first? 3.
What will he want to know from an estate agent first? 4. What will the agent start work with?
5. How can a prospective buyer know about the houses on offer? 6. Can the price be
negotiated? 7. Where can people get money to buy a property? 8. How do building societies
function? 9. What is a mortgage? 10. What questions will a person be asked at a local building
society and why? 11. How will the mortgage be paid back? 12. Why do people want to get
mortgages?

Ex. 16. Find Russian equivalents to the following words and word combinations.
1. an estate agent; 2. to purchase a house; 3. landlord/landlady; 4. to get a mortgage; 5.
downpayment; 6. to rent a studio apartment; 7. to inherit a property; 8. a tenant; 9. a room to
let; 10. a newspaper add; 11. to pay interest; 12. full board; 13. to share an apartment; 14. an
apartment owner.

Ex. 17. Find English equivalents to the following words and word combinations, use them
in sentences of your own.
1. агентство по продаже недвижимости; 2. комната в наем с предоставление завтрака; 3.
запаздывать с платой за квартиру; 4. первоначальный взнос за квартиру; 5.
меблированная комната; 6. кредит полученный для покупки недвижимости; 7. годовая
65
плата за квартиру; 8. снимать квартиру пополам с кем-либо; 9. позволить себе купить
дом; 10. дом продается

Ex. 18. What do we call:


1. a contract by which the owner of land or a building, etc allows another person to use it for a
specified time, usually in return for payment; 2. A person who rents land or a building from a
landlord; 3. The holding of land or a house, etc in absolute ownership for life; 4. A payment
made periodically for the use of land or living quarters; 5. Daily meals obtained in return for
payment; 6. A person who owns something as his property.

Exam and essay topics


1. Pros and cons of renting accommodation
2. Accommodation for students. Is it easy to share it?
3. Buying property: what should you take into account?
1. General
9. host (hostess)  permanent (temporary)
10. house residence
• the house faces (fronts, gives 23. storey/story (floor)
1. block (of flats) on, overlooks)  two-storey (storied) building
2. boarding house (Am E: rooming • house has a southern aspect  live (v) in the ground
house) floor (Br
3. building 11. housewarming party E)
• to erect a building 12. household • live (v) on the first floor (Am E)
• to pull down a building 13. inhabitant • upper (first, Am E: second) floor
• public building 14. landlord (landlady) • top floor
4. condominium 5. decorate (v) 15. lodgings 24. tenant (lodger)
 interior designer (decorator) 16. move (v) 25. tenement
6. dwelling 7. • move into 26. tenement house
furnish (v) smth. • move out 27. to build from scratch
• well furnished 17. owner 28. to become short of space
• arrange(v) furniture 18. smb’s place 29. to add an extension
• rearrange 19. property 30. to do up an old house
8. home  buy a property 31. ordinary setting
• at home 20. registration 32. to stand out from the crowd
• go home 21. residential area
• feel at home 22. residence
• homeless

1. affordable (housing) Adjectives used to describe houses


2. airy 12. good-sized 23. self-contained
3. charming 13. leafy suburbs 24. spacious
4. cosy 14. luxurious 25. stylish
5. crammed up with 15. mature (garden) 26. superb (view)
furniture 16. newly-laid (patio) 27. sustainable
6. cramped (room) 17. open-plan (living room) 28. tiny
7. derelict building 18. period (adj) 29. well-maintained
8. dilapidated building 19. poky 30. well-proportioned
9. draughty (hall) 20. prohibitively expensive
10. easily accessible 21. purpose-built
11. fully-furnished 22. secluded
Renting and Buying Property
Section 1. Vocabulary
66
1. advertise (v) for a house  inherit (v) 17. take in lodgers
2. ad (advertisement) 9. lease (n) 18. short-let
3. В&В (bed and breakfast) 10. lend (v) 19. to share digs
4. board 11. let 20. skyrocketing rent prices
 full/half board 12. to take out a mortgage 21. to pay security deposit
5. downpayment 13. pay (v) interest (rate) 22. to give two months’ notice
6. estate agent 14. purchase (n., v.) 23. sublet
7. freehold 15. real estate agency 24. vacant room
8. heritage 16. rent (v., n.) 25. to evict from a flat/house

2. Types of Dwellings
1. barracks (living quarters) 17. high-rise block of flats (Am E: 31. palace
2. block of flats (Am E: apartment apartment building) 32. penthouse (suite) building) 18. hostel 33. ranch(-
house)
3. bungalow 19. housing estate (development) 34. semidetached house
4. (log-)cabin 20. house on stilts 35. sky-scraper
5. castle 21. hovel (Am E: shack) 36. shack
6. chalet 22. hut 37. slums
7. convent (nunnery)  mud (clay-walled) hut 38. squat
8. cottage 23. igloo 39. studio
9. council housing 24. inn 40. stronghold
10. country house 25. log cabin 41. tenement
11. detached house (mansion) 26. lodge 42. tent
12. duplex house 27. monastery 43. caravan
13. duplex apartment 28. motel 44. terraced house
14. flat (Am E: apartment) 29. multi-storey block of flats 45. villa
 self-contained flat (multi-storey apartment 46. weekend house
15. granny flat building/high-rise flats) 47. wigwam (tepee)
16. guest house (boarding house) 30. old people’s home
• low ceiling (low-
parlour)
3. House Parts ceilinged)
1. alcove  go by the door 15. cellar 21. drawbridge
2. aerial  knock at the door 16. chimney / chimney pot
3. annex (extension)  front door 22. entrance-hall
17. conservatory (Am E:
4. arch  back door
23. facade
5. attic  sash door
conservatoire) 24. fire-
6. balcony  door frame  parapet
place (hearth)
 door lock 18. dining-room 25. garret
 flower box  lock the door (implies utter poverty)
7. basement unlock the door 19. door 26. guest room (spare
room)
8. bathroom 
• swing door 27. gutter
9. beam  shut the door
28. hall
10. bedroom  door handle (knob) • answer the door
29. handrail (banister, rails)
• master (main) bedroom  door hinge • bang (slam) the door
11. bedsit (room)  door plate 30.
h
12. burglar alarm  doorway
anging basket  door
13. canopy  in the doorway
is ajar
14. ceiling  spy-hole/peephole
• high ceiling (high-ceilinged) 20. drawing room (sitting-room,

67
31. keep (n) 8. vegetable patch
32. kitchen 9. kitchen garden
33. library 10. gardener
34. lift (Am E: 11. flower bed
elevator) 12. sward
• take a lift up (down) 13. parterre
• go up (down) in a lift 14. park
35. living-room 15. fence
36. lobby  wooden fence
37. loft
38. lounge 1. construction
39. lumber-room (store-room) • construction (building)
40. mantelpiece site
41. moat 2. architect  architecture
42. niche 3. materials
43. nursery 4. all metal
44. pantry (larder) 5. wood
45. partition • wooden
46. passage (corridor) • birch
47. rainwater pipe • curled (speckled) birch
48. ridge • cherry
49. patio • mahogany
50. porch • maple
51. recess 52. roof • oak
• flat roof • walnut
• tiled roof  slate roof • beech
• shingle roof • staircase landing • double glaze
• gable roof (saddleback roof)  pent (shad, lean-to) roof • downstairs • dormer wind
• thatch(ed) roof • upstairs • sash window
• roofless  slope of the roof • winding (corkscrew, spiral) • look out of (
53. room staircase • French wind
• adjoining room 57. stair light 58. the balcony)
• communicating rooms step • window fram
• cosy (snug) room • front stairs • window-sill
• downstairs room • two, three steps at a time • single casem
• furnished room • doorstep • double case
• unfurnished room 59. study • window com
• single room 60. suite (suite of rooms) • window fac
• spacious room 61. threshold looks out on
• tidy (orderly) room • cross the threshold • dormer (win
• untidy (disorderly) room  room is in disorder • on the threshold • reveal
• room smells of … 62. utility room 66. window shu
54. scullery 63. veranda rolling shutter
55. skylight 64. waiting-room 65. • folding shut
56. staircase window • put up the sh
 flight of stairs • bay window • take down t
• fling (throw) the window open
• glaze a window
1. at the front of the house
2. at the back (rear) of the house
3. front garden 4. Premises and Outhouse
4. open space  fenced 29. garden hose
 yard 16. hedge 30. lawn sprink
5. plot 17. path 31. paddling po
6. lawn (grass-plot)  flagstone path 32. litter bin
7. orchard 18. pond 33. back yard
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19. fountain 34. cowshed • have (take) a bath
20. summer house 35. kennel
21. arbour (bower) 36. pigsty 
22. green-house 37. stable candlestick
23. hot-house 38. poultry • run a bath for oneself
24. garage 39. shed, barn 15. chandelier (lustre;
candelabra)
 two-car garage 40. trespass (v)
4. bell (door-bell) 16.
25. tool shed 41. “no trespass”
(electric) torch, (pocket
26. driveway 42. gate
• ring the bell
27. pavement (Am. E: sidewalk)  gateway flashlight)
28. outside tap (Am. E: faucet) for the • press the bell 17. lamp
hose
• bell is heard 
standing lamp
5. Building and Repairing a House • answer the doorbell
• linden 12. marble  hanging
• ash(tree) 13. stone (suspension) lamp
• pine 14. masonry 5. electricity 
• spruce 15. panel reading (table, desk)
• larch 16. paint lamp
6. veneer  paint (v) 6. install (put) electricity in a
7. board  paint comes off (peels off) house  torchère
lamp
8. brick  freshly-painted
• switch on (off) the light
 brickwork  unpainted  wall lamp
9. cement  paint (v) a door white
10. concrete  repaint (v) 7. electric meter 
 concrete-mixer 17. wallpaper lampshade
• take the readings of the
11. glass  paper (v)
• frosted (opaque) glass 18. parquet
 lantern
• plate glass  parquet (v)
• stained glass  parqueted floor meter 18. plug
19. plaster 25. tiles • cabinet-maker 8. fault
• plaster work • tiled • brick-layer y
• plaster (of Paris) = plaster 26. whitewash • builder
cast • whitewash (v) • glass-cutter (glazier)
20. stucco mouldings • whitewashed • joiner
• moulded ceiling 27. prefabricated blocks • locksmith
21. metals 28. scaffolding (scaffolds) • painter
• stainless steel 29. condition of the house  be • plasterer
• iron in good repair • plumber
• copper • be falling into decay • upholsterer
• brass • be in the state of neglect • fitter
• bronze • be in need of repair • foreman
22. plastic • the house has to be done up
23. tessellated 30. construction workers  carpenter
24. mosaic

 plug in
6. House Fittings
1. accommodations (conveniences) 14. candle • be at fault 
• modem conveniences/ mod  candlelight plug switch
con  candle-power 9. go out 19. power point 10.
fuse box 20.
2. air conditioning  light a candle socket
3. bath  put out a candle
• safety fuse 26. gas
69
• have running water
• miniature circuit breaker  put (turn) on the gas 31. well
32. tap (Am E: faucet)
• replace the safety fuse  to ignite the gas
• tap is dripping
11. lead (cord)  put out (turn off) the gas • fix the tap
33. flush (v)  flushing lever
• extension  gas-meter 34. overflowing
35. get clogged
12. wiring  geyser 36. case of disorder/trouble
• bare wiring 27. heating system 37. plumber on duty 38. telephone
• answer the (tele)phone/call
13. (electric) bulb  central heating
• speak on/over the (tele)phone
• bulb fuses  gas-fired central heating • (tele)phone call 
• screw in a bulb  convector heater (tele)phone talk
• (tele)phone number
• unscrew (screw out) a bulb  hot-water heating • (tele)phone directory
• 75 watt bulb (75 candle- steam-heating power 39. key

• key gets stuck (in the lock)
bulb)  stove heating • insert a key
• boiler  thermostatic control • key to (of) …
28. radiator • keyhole
29. refuse chute/rubbish chute 30. water supply • latch key
• water line • padlock
• Yale lock
3. bookshelf 
settle (down) in
7. Rooms and Interiors an armchair
Interior design 4. bookcase 
1. A mixture of textured and 3. Array of influences polished surfaces rocking-chair
4. Authentic period patterns
2. Add a pop of colour 5. Be on the cutting edge 5. bookstand 
6. Bold accents seat cushion
(cushion)
7. Bright and airy look
6.
8. Deeply carved 18. Gilded details 28. Natural materials embellishments 19. Have a
r
worn feel 29. Old-world charm
9. Design symmetry 20. Heirloom quality décor 30. Sense of timelessness
10. Eclectic accessories 21. Inspired by nature 31. Simple yet classic
11. Elaborate hardware 22. Inviting style architectural elements
12. Elegant simplicity 23. Laid-back look 32. Sparse design
13. Embrace clean design 24. Lived-in appeal 33. Streamlined furniture
14. Enduring design legacy 25. Make a dramatic statement 34. Vintage accessories
15. Faded paint 26. Myriad of colours and 35. Weathered and slightly
16. Feast for the eyes textures distressed
17. Geometric shapes 27. Natural appearance 36. Welcoming look
Hall
1. hall (entrance hall) 6. coat hanger 11. tubular steel chair
2. coat rack 7. hall mirror (glass, looking-glass) 12. door-mat
3. hall-stand 8. telephone  wipe one’s feet on the door4. hat-stand 9. chest of drawers for shoes, etc
mat
5. coat hook 10. umbrella stand
ow of books 
settee
Living Room (Lounge) 7. display cabinet unit
1. wall units  arm couch
2. side wall  sit in an armchair
8. built-in cabinet 
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 ottoman 25. blind
9. buffet [′bʌfit]  back cushion • pull the blind down
(up)
10. cupboard base unit  sofa • Persian (Venetian)
11. cupboard unit  sofa bolster blinds
12. television set (TV set) 21. suite of furniture 26. carpet (Am E: rag) 
carpeted floor
13. TV aerial upholstered furniture
• spread the carpet
 • fitted carpet
14. remote control 27. door-mat
 28. (round) corner section
15. stereo system (stereo equipment) 22. hangings piece of 29. scatter cushion
furniture 30. coffee table
16. speaker (loudspeaker) 23. tapestry 31. ashtray
17. mantle clock 24. curtain 32. indoor plants
18. room divider (houseplants)
19. drink cupboard • curtain (v) 33. block out the light
• draw the curtain 34. flowery-patterned
20. upholstered suite (seating group)
• pull the curtain aside wallpaper
 armchair

Bedroom
1. bed  bedside (at, by  bunk • punch (puff) a
pillow
one’s bedside) 2. bedding, bedclothes
• pillow-case
• bed frame • bed-sheet
(pillow-slip)
• headboard • bedspread
• quilt
• bookshelf (attached to the • blanket/duvet 3. bedroom lamp
headboard) • blanket-cover 4. bedside cabinet
• double bed (double divan) • counterpane 5. bedside rug
• divan-bed • patchwork counterpane 6. drawer
• single bed • coverlet (bedspread) 7. dressing stool
• folding bed • cushion 8. dressing table
• bedstead • feather-bed 9. dressing-table mirror 
• foot of the bed • shake up feather-bed pier-glass
• get out of bed • eiderdown
 three-panelled glass
• go to bed • mattress
(mirror)
• make the bed • spring mattress 10. electric alarm clock
• open out the bed • pillow 11. linen shelf
• soft (hard) pillow 12. reading lamp
• lift the curtain 13. screen
• net curtain 14. valance
• lace curtain 15. wardrobe (Am E:
• curtain rail clothes closet)
16. what-not • bent-wood chair 9. lamp (pendant lamp)
• chair-bottom 10. shelf
1. dining set 11. sideboard (cupboard)
2. dining table 12. cutlery drawer
3. folding table Dining Room 13. linen drawer
4. serving table • high-backed chair 14. china cabinet (display cabinet)
• table with glass cover • leg of a chair 15. table linen
5. pull-out table • offer a chair • oilcloth
6. table leaf (flap) • revolving chair • tablecloth/tea-towel
7. table top • rickety chair • spread the tablecloth
8. dining chair • take a chair • tea-cloth
• back of a chair • cane (basket, wicker) chair • napkin (serviette)

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• place mat/table mat • place (place setting, cover)

Children's Room (Nursery)


1. children’s bed, a bunk-bed 5. ladder 9. children’s cupboard
2. cod (crib) 6. toy 10. desk
3. cradle 7. canopy 11. drop-flat writing surface 4. storage box 8. compendium of games

Kitchen
1. refrigerator (fridge, Am E:  oven 14. pot plant, a foliage plant icebox) 
oven window 15. kitchen lamp
• refrigerator shelf  hotplate 16. dishwasher
• salad drawer  cooker hood 17. dish rack
• frozen food compartment 5. pot holder 18. kitchen chair
• bottle rack (in storage door) 6. pot holder rack 19. stool
• upright freezer 7. kitchen clock 20. kitchen table
2. wall cupboard, a kitchen 8. timer 21. kettle cupboard 9. corner unit 22. mixer
3. base unit 10. revolving shelf 23. whisk
• cutlery drawer 11. spice rack 24. coffee grinder
• working top  spice jar 25. microwave oven
4. cooker unit 12. sink/sink unit 26. coffeemaker
• electric/ gas cooker 13. dish drainer 27. cooking pots

Bathroom and Toilet


1. bath tub 12. toilet roll holder (Am E: 22. mirrored bathroom cabinet
2. mixer tap (Am E: mixing faucet) bathroom tissue holder) 23. fluorescent lamp for hot and cold
water 13. toilet paper (coll. loo paper; Am 24. drawer
3. foam bath (bubble bath) E: bathroom tissue), a roll of 25. mouthwash
4. bath salts crepe paper 26. electric shaver
5. bath sponge 14. soap dish 27. shower cubicle/unit
6. bidet 15. soap  shower curtain
7. jacuzzi/swirling bath 16. flannel  adjustable shower head
8. towel rail 17. towel  shower nozzle
9. toilet (lavatory, W. C., coll. loo  dry(wipe) one’s hands on  shower
adjustable rail
Am E: bathroom, restroom) (with) a towel  shower base
10. toilet pan (toilet bowl)  rough (bath, Turkish) towel 28. waste pipe (overflow)
• toilet lid with cover 18. washbasin 29. bathroom mule
• toilet seat 19. overflow 30. bathroom scales
• cistern 20. washbasin pedestal with trap 31. bath mat
• pedestal mat (anti-syphon trap) 32. medicine cabinet
11. ventilator (extraction vent) 21. tooth glass (tooth mug)
 detachable brush heads

Study (den)
1. desk 4. bureau  portable typewriter
2. desk-lamp 5. typing table (stand) 6. computer table (stand)
3. writing set  typewriter 7. waste-paper basket

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Section 2
WEATHER AND CLIMATE
MОDULE 1
WHETHER THE
WEATHER
Wherever you go, no matter what the weather,
always bring your own sunshine.
Anthony J. D'Angelo
Ex. 1. Read the text about the weather. Why does the author call it “the naughtiest thing in the
world”? Do you agree with this idea? Answer the questions after the text [9].
WEATHER
The naughtiest thing in the world is the weather. It’s like a capricious woman who
always does the opposite to what you ask her.
When you want to go for a picnic in the open air you ask the skies to remain clear and the day
to be fine. Nervously you switch on the radio and listen to the weather forecast. You tremble with joy
to hear that it’ll stay warm and dry with bright sunshine, and moderate breeze. Your imagination
draws a hot summer afternoon and yourself saying: ‘Nice weather we are having today!’ you take a
lot of food and no warm clothes, go to the countryside but… do not get anything sunny.
You get it cloudy and cool with intermittent drizzle which ends with a thundery shower. The
sky is so heavily cast with clouds, the downpours follow one another with such frequency, the
rumbling of thunder and flashes of lightning are so frightening that you’ve got no illusions left. You
throw away the food and go back hungry and angry. And when you are already approaching your
home soaked to the skin it suddenly brightens up. Oh, Goodness!
Each summer every student survives through the best time of his or her life – an examination
session. Then many students plead: ‘Please, weather, stay cloudy, chilly or even cold with brisk
northerly wind and rain torrents leaving pools and puddles everywhere. And
I’ll be a good student’. The radio promises: ‘Patchy light drizzle with showery outbreaks of rain.’ But
the “patch” is never in the right place. Instead the skies send heat and excellent weather for a sun tan.
Everyone knows that sun tan never helps exams.
And it is always like this. When you go skiing and what to have frosty weather with a lot of
snow, it starts thawing and your skis sink in the slush. Instead of a snowfall and hoarfrost on the trees
you get excellent sleet. The weather does not feel any pangs of remorse.
When you go in the car to the country, enjoying nice weather and a beautiful view of a rainbow
in the blue sky, you pay no attention to some haze on the horizon. Some time later a thin mist in the
distance turns into a thick fog and you spend a lovely two hours instead of one at the steering wheel.
When you plant some much-cared-for flowers in the garden, either a ground frost or a hail
storm kills them. Digging muddy flowerbeds one feels exasperated: ‘What beastly weather we’ve had
this week! And it keeps nasty! Wretched!’
To tell the truth, sometimes the weather is ashamed and turns for the better. But not always.
More often it sticks to its own pattern and after a short warm spell turns bad again.
Why is it always like this? Maybe, because the weather likes surprises and wants to bring in
adventures to our life, breaking the boring routine with marvelous happenings?
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Questions. 1. Do you agree that the weather is like a capricious woman? Prove your point. 2. What
weather you like best of all and why? 3. Do you listen to the weather forecast? Do you trust them? 4.
Have you heard the weather forecast for today? Was it right?

E.2. Write out all the “weather words” from the text; work in pairs and check if your partner
knows them all.

Ex. 3. Study the collocations in the table. Give their Russian equivalents.
Verb + weather Adj + weather Noun+prep+weather
the weather changes the boiling (hot) weather (be in for) a spell of good
weather hold out/keeps up (bitterly) cold weather weather a pleasant spell of
the weather sets in dress glorious weather weather the best of the weather a
for the weather the unpredictable weather break in the weather a sudden
weather turns cold/hot to change in the weather a change is
brave the weather the coming in the weather the
vagaries ['veɪg(ə)rɪz] of the
weather lets up weather
weather
permitting (=if the
whatever the weather
weather allows)
a) Complete the sentences from the expressions from the box above.
1. Your’e not properly __________ for the weather. Put a coat on! It’s _________ cold outside. 2. If
the fine weather ___________ until the weekend, we’ll go camping on Sunday.
3. Deciding to _______ the weather, he grabbed his umbrella and went out into the rain.
4. We'll go out just as soon as this weather _______ .
5. I wanted to mend the roof before the cold weather _______.
6. We're having a barbecue next Saturday, weather ___________.
7. She packed all kinds of clothes to cope with the ___________of the English weather.
8. He swims in the sea every day, __________ the weather.
9. There is a chill in the air. It looks like the weather is __________ for the worse.
10. It’s 35C outside. We don’t usually have such ___________ weather here in Britain in summer.
11. My parents enjoyed two weeks of the ___________ weather at the seaside, but it rained heavily
all the time here.
12. Scotland is a beautiful country, but is has notoriously ___________ weather. It can be pouring
with rain one minute and briliant sushine the next.
13. It has been raining since Monday. We are in _______________ of unseasonally wet weather this
summer.
14. I think we got the ________ of the weather in the north today. It’s been so warm.
15. We’re hoping for the _________ in the weather. If this wind continues, we won’t be able to go on
a boat trip.
b) Make up your own sentences with the collocations above and practise translating them from
English into Russian and vice versa with your partner.

Ex. 4. Vocabulary work. Read the blogpost by Liz Walter from Cambridge Dictionary and discuss
the words in bold with the partner.
Sweltering, torrential and gusty: interesting words for talking about weather
Most students learn words for weather quite early in their
studies. It’s easy to stick with well-known phrases such as sunny day
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or heavy rain, but there is a lot of more interesting vocabulary associated with the weather, as you
would expect for one of the world’s favourite topics of conversation! In this post, I offer some
suggestions for expanding your range of weather vocabulary.
Let’s start with temperature. Very hot weather can be described as scorching, sweltering or
boiling. If it is the kind
of heat that makes you feel as if you can’t breathe, it is stifling or oppressive. At the other end of the
scale, we can describe very cold weather as freezing, bitter or even bone-chilling if we find it
unpleasant. Wintry weather is also cold, but this is not necessarily a negative description – it can be
used for a pleasant snowy or icy day. In between these two extremes, mild is a positive adjective for
weather that is not particularly hot but not too cold either.
Some areas have weather that is changeable or unpredictable, meaning that it does not stay
the same for long and you cannot guess what it will be like. Unfortunately, we are seeing more and
more extreme weather conditions in the world, with terrible storms, hurricanes and tornadoes (very
strong winds). We describe bad storms as violent, fierce or powerful. When they cause a lot of
damage, we can say they are devastating, and freak storms are ones which are unusual and
unexpected in an area. As well as adjectives, verbs can also be used to add impact and interest to your
writing. For example, we may say that a storm tears through a place, or that it is raging.
Some nice words to describe wind include gusty (when it starts and stops), biting (when it is
very cold) and howling (when it makes a loud noise). Heavy rain is torrential, while very light, fine
rain is misty and persistent rain goes on for a long time. We talk about very heavy rain lashing
down or lashing against the window. Glorious sunshine is hot and pleasant, but sunshine that is too
hot can be described as fierce or intense. We talk about the hot sun blazing or about sunshine
streaming into a place. Hazy sunshine makes it difficult to see the view clearly.
I hope that this post has taught you some new and useful weather words. Most of us have
weather we love or weather we hate, but I like the remark made by Alfred Wainwright, a British
writer of walking guides, who famously said, ‘There’s no such thing as bad weather, only unsuitable
clothing.’
[From https://dictionaryblog.cambridge.org]

Ex. 5. Collocations to talk about the weather. Read the e-mails below. Are the people happy
about the weather conditions? Why/why not?
a) It’s great here. Have had unbroken sunshine ever since we
arrived. We’re having a wonderful time – though in the
middle of the day it’s just too scorching hot to do
anything but lie on the beach soaking up the sunshine.
This is the life!
Anna
It’s been pouring with rain all day. In fact I’ve never seen such torrential
rain! It’s freezing cold in the tent – we all got soaked to the skin. Every
half hour we look out of the tent hoping for a break in the clouds. In vain!
We’re going to a hotel next year!

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It rained heavily all day yesterday but it’s dry at the moment. There’s thick cloud,

though, and it certainly looks like rain. Quite a strong wind is blowing too!
Am glad we brought warm clothes!
[11] b) Study the table below.
Weather Conditions
Collocation Example Comment
Weather deteriorates The weather is likely to Deteriorate sounds quite
[opposite improves] deteriorate later on today. formal – The weather is
getting worse - more
informal.
Thick/dense fog There is a thick fog on the Patches of fog/mist are
Patches of fog/mist motorway. small areas of fog/mist
A blanket of fog (literary) There are patches of fog on the whereas a blanket of
Fog/mist comes down east coast but these should lift by fog/mist is thicker and
[opposite lifts] midday. more extensive.
Strong sun Avoid going to the beach at
[opposite: weak] midday when the sun is
strongest.
Heavy rain/driving rain Road conditions are difficult Driving rain=rain falling
because of the driving rain. fast and heavily.
Heavy/fresh/crisp/thick/driving The snow is lovely and crisp this Crisp snow=snow that is
snow morning. fresh and hard
Hard/severe frost There will be a hard frost
[opposite: light frost] tonight.
High/strong/light/biting wind The wind was light this morning Biting winds=very cold
The wind picks up but it’s picking up now and will winds
[opposite: dies down] be very strong by the evening. If the wind picks up, it
The wind blows/whistles The wind was whistling through gets stronger.
the trees.

c) Look at the collocations above and complete the following phrases:


1. crisp_________ 4. a biting ________ 7. unbroken _______
2. patches of ______ 5. a hard __________ 8. a blanket of _____
3. light ___________ 6. torrential _______

d) Make the sentences opposite.


1. There was a warm breeze yesterday.
2. The wind picked up in the afternoon.
3. The weather is likely to improve tomorrow.
4. It was scorching hot here yesterday.
5. There may be some light rain later on today.
6. The mist came down at about midday.

Ex. 6. Read the following dialogues. Learn them by heart and act out in class.
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1. 2.
Fairly mild for the time of year A. It seems to be clearing up.
A.
B. Yes. Quite different from the forecast. B. It makes a change, doesn’t it?
A.
They say we’re in for snow. A. Apparently it’s going to turn colder.
B.
Let’s hope it keeps fine for the weekend. B. Still, another month should see us through the worst of it.

3. 4.
A. Nice and bright this morning. A. It’s good to see the sun again.
B. Yes. Much better than yesterday. B. A big improvement on what we’ve been having.
A. The wind will probably get up later. A. It’s supposed to cloud over this afternoon.
B. As long as it doesn’t rain. B. I didn’t think it would last.

Ex. 7. Talking about the weather. Match the questions with the answers.
1. Did you get caught in that shower a. Yeah, go ahead. It is a bit chilly, isn’t
earlier? it?
2. Was that rain? b. Yeah, it’s scorching!
3. Is it still raining outside? c. Yeah, it’s pouring down!
4. Hot today, isn’t it? d. Yeah, it’s an absolute blizzard!
5. Is it still snowing out there? e. Yeah, it’s quite mild out there.
6. Is it OK if I close the window? f. Yeah, it’s bitter out there!
7. Do you think I’ll need a coat?
g. Yeah, it’s just started spitting. It’s
8. Do you think I’ll be OK in a T-shirt? going to chuck it down any minute.
h. Yeah, I got absolutely soaked!
[4] Spend 5 minutes trying to memorize the answers, and then cover them. Read out
questions 1-8 while your partner answers them. Swap roles.

Ex. 8. Match the nouns in the box with each group of collocations.
Breeze fog rain sky weather winds
1. Clear blue / overcast / there wasn’t a cloud in the …. __________
2. Thick / freezing / patchy _________
3. Howling / gale-force / biting ________
4. Torrential / tropical / fine __________
5. Miserable / unpredictable / glorious ________
6. Light / stiff / sea ____________

Ex. 9. Choose the right word from a couple of similar looking ones. Change word forms if
necessary.
(slush, sleet)
1. The … under my feet was awful. I had an impression that I was walking through a muddy sea.
2. The rain changed into … . Wet snowflakes were falling on the ground and melted there.

77
(ice drift, snowdrift)
1. The path was hedged by two long … . They were like two mountain ranges.
2. The … started at night. In the morning the children ran to the river to look at the huge blocks of
ice drifting across the water.

(icing, icicle)
1. There was heavy … on the road and all cars were moving very slowly
2. After a thaw there appeared … on the edge of the roof; they looked like sparkling needles. (frost,
hoarfrost)
1. The branches were covered with … and the forest looked enchanting and somewhat mysterious.
2. The … was biting the nose and the cheeks. It was impossible to stay long in the street.
(draught, drought)
1. Severe … killed the crops. Not a drop of rain fell on the ground for a month.
2. When the door opened, the … blew off the papers down on to the floor.
(to freeze, to be freezing)
1. In winter all rivers and lakes in these parts always … .
2. The temperature was quite low and I felt that I … .
(blizzard, drizzle)
1. Boring … spoiled the day. It was too wet and dull.
2. The … was blinding us. Snowflakes were swirling in the air.
(light, lightning)
1. There is not enough … in the room. The table should be moved closer to the window.
2. The … split the sky into two parts. A deafening thunder crack followed.

Ex. 10. Match the weather words on the left with the correct definitions on the right.

1. a blizzard a. dark with a lot of clouds in the sky


2. a breeze b. a short period of rain
3. a gale c. rather cold
4. a shower d. a storm with heavy show and high winds
5. changeable e. light rain falling in very small drops
6. chilly f. sun and clouds
7. drizzle g. a very strong wind
8. overcast h. heavy rain
9. pouring i. changing from one type of weather to
another
10. sunny spells k. a light or gentle wind

Ex. 11. Match the weather expressions in the box to the descriptions/comments in 1-10.
You will need to use two words twice.
cold fog heat mist rain
snow a storm wind
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1. I don’t know how you slept through it. The thunder was so loud and the lightning was
incredible.
2. It’s really thick. I wouldn’t want to go driving in it while it’s like this. Why don’t you wait till
it’s lifted?
3. It was unbearable – and so humid I just didn’t want to move unless it was to jump into the
pool.
4. Honestly, I nearly froze to death. It was unbearable!
5. I got absolutely soaked on the way there. It took me all day to dry out.
6. There was a bit last night when I was coming home but it melted fast. It was all gone when I
woke up this morning.
7. You usually get a stunning view from up there, apparently. I heard you can even see the sea
on a good day. But we could only see for a couple of miles when we were there. It was still
nice though.
8. It’s eased off quite a bit. It’s only really spitting now. Shall we go to the shops now, before it
starts pouring again?
9. It’s really blowing outside. It almost knocked me off my bike it was so strong.
10. We tried to fly the kite, but there was only a slight breeze. It wasn’t enough to keep in in the
air for long.

Ex. 12. Talk to a partner. What kind of weather do you think is good for:
• Camping  Running a  Going on a picnic
• Going for a walk marathon  Going skiing in the mountains  Sailing
• Sightseeing
What cities do you associate with: fog, smog, heavy snow, light breeze, morning mist, rains.
Explain why.

Ex. 13. Translate the sentences into English.

1. Довольно тепло (прохладно, холодно), правда?


2. Стоит прекрасная (жаркая, чудесная) погода.
3. Какой прекрасный (хороший, очаровательный, восхитительный) день (ночь).
4. Я думаю, что хорошая погода постоит. Я бы сказал, что погода улучшается.
Постепенно прояснится. Проясняется.
5. Какая ясная (звездная, безоблачная) ночь! На небе ни облачка!
6. Чудесное утро (вечер), не правда ли, на улице чудесно!
7. Я думаю, что день будет чудесный. Солнце выходит. 2.
1. Небо все в облаках. На небе низко висят облака.
2. Дождь (снег) прекратился (перестал). Но погода такая неопределенная (не установилась),
переменчивая.
3. Начинает моросить. Идет мелкий моросящий дождь. Все еще идет сильный дождь. Льет
как из ведра. Дождливая погода (шутл.)
4. Кажется день сегодня пасмурный (серый, мрачный). Какой дождливый (облачный,
туманный, ветреный, штормовой) день. Туманный день (туманно).
5. Я думаю, что будет дождь (ливень, гроза). День окажется серым. Хорошая погода не
продержится. Плохой (холодной, дождливой, морозной) погоды не миновать.
79
6. Мрачное утро (день), правда? На улице довольно пасмурно, отвратительная погода. Какая
ужасная (жуткая, неприятная) погода!
7. Дождь все идет. Идет сильный дождь (сверкает молния, гремит гром, идет град). Сверкает
вспышка молнии. Слышишь раскат грома? Какой сильный удар грома! Всю неделю
постоянно идет дождь. Дождь идет уже целую неделю.
8. Не попади под дождь (ливень)! Ты промокнешь насквозь. Я вымок (промок насквозь, до
костей). Моя одежда насквозь мокрая.
3.
1. Жаркий (душный, пыльный, знойный, жаркий и влажный) день. Воздух влажный.
2. Идет жаркая волна. Установилась жаркая погода.
3. Дышать нечем (ни дуновения ветерка). Ни листочек не колышется. Не удивительно, такое
палящее (обжигающее) солнце.
4. 30° тепла в тени. Температура повышается.
5. Жара невыносимая (гнетущая).
4.
1. Река замерзла. Мороз сковал реку. Установилась холодная погода. Термометр показывает
0°. Я дрожу от холода. У меня зубы стучат от холода.
2. Была тяжелая (суровая, мягкая) зима. Но в воздухе уже весна.
3. Становится прохладно. Какой холодный (морозный) день! Ужасно холодно на улице. Я
думаю, что пойдет снег (будет мороз, слякоть). Какой свинцовый (серый, мрачный) день!
4. Идет снег. Какие мягкие, пушистые и большие снежинки! Они падают очень густо.
Сильный снегопад.
5. Морозит. Стоит суровый (сильный) мороз. Неожиданно установился период прохладной
погоды. Я промерз до костей.
6. Поднялся сильный ветер. Ветер метет снег. Похоже, что будет буран.
7. Стоит оттепель. Тает снег и лед. На улице слякотно (грязно). Иди осторожно, вокруг
слякоть и грязные лужи. Местами еще очень скользко.

Ex. 14. The most lightning-struck place on Earth - Graeme Anderson.


Lake Maracaibo is the stormiest place on the planet. Thunderstorms rage above this massive body of
water for up to 200 days of the year, with each ear-splitting event lasting for several hours. But why?
Graeme Anderson lists the factors that create Lake Maracaibo's seemingly ever-lasting storms.
Watch the video and choose the correct answers. 1. Sir Fransis Drake succeeded in his attempt to
overthrow the Spanish settlers A True
B False
3. How many times does lightning strike the earth each year on average?
A 35,000 times
B 3.5 million times
C 350 million times
D 35 billion times
4. In which country will you find the highest lightning density on Earth?
A Mexico
B Cuba
C Peru
D Venezuela
5. Which of these regions has the lowest average lightning density?
A Antarctica
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B Africa
C Central America
D Southeast Asia
6. How often do thunderstorms occur over Lake Maracaibo each year?
A Less than 10 days per year
B 20-30 days per year
C Up to 50 days per year
D Up to 200 days per year
7. Which factors are important for the lightning over Lake Maracaibo?
A Surrounding mountains and a supply of moist air
B Surrounding mountains and proximity to the equator
C Proximity to the equator and a supply of moist air
D All three (mountains, moist air and the proximity of the equator)
Watch the video again and complete the missing parts of the phrases given.
aiming ______ the nearby lake move towards the ______ of the lake under _______
of darkness his plot was magnificently ________ the massive _____ of water
thunderstorms ______ above it opposing _________ charges becomes a lightning
_____ measure the Earth’s lighning _______ lightning ____ places on Earth
nowhere can _____ compare _____ seemingly ____________ storms available to
_______ the storms provides an __________ supply massive mountain _________
cool winds _________ down these _________
give rise _____ the most _____________ thunderstorms on the planet a true
sight to __________ sailors ___________ this phenomenon Retell the
video using these expressions.
[From ed.ted.com] Ex.
15. Watch the weather forecast for Scotland. Do you know who the presenter is? Study the
information about the following locations from the video. What is the weather like in each of
them, according to the forecast?
1. Edinburgh is located in the south of Scotland that is between East Lothian and Lanarkshire.
As it is located close to water.
2. Dumfries House is in the north west of the country surrounded by Renfrewshire, Lanarkshire,
Dumfriesshire and Kirkcudbrightshire.
3. Balmoral is situated in the northeastern part of the country. The county where it is located
borders on Banffshire and Kincardineshire.
4. The Castle of Mey is in the far north of the country in the county that borders on Sutherland.
Watch the weather forecast again and fill in the gaps with the missing words.
Well, it’s an 1) ______________ as we head towards the end of the week. This afternoon it’ll be
cold, wet and windy across most of Scotland. We’re under the influence of low pressure, and this 2)
_________________ pushing nothwards is bringing cloud and 3)____________ of rain. The rain, of
course, will be heaviest over the borders and around Edinburgh, where it could lead to difficult
conditions on the roads. In the west, rain will be lighter and 4) ______________. There’ll be maybe a
few 5) ______________over Dumfries House in
Ayrshire. – Aha! – There’ll be snow for the higher ground of the Highlands and Aberdeenshire, the
potential for a few 6) ______________ over Balmoral – who the hell wrote this script? – as the
afternoon goes on. The best of the drier and brighter weather will, of course, be over the northern
isles and the far north of the 7)_____________. So, a little 8) _______________ for the Castle of

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Mey in Caithness, but a cold day everywhere, with temperatures of just 9)_________ Celcius and a
10) __________________. Thank God it isn’t a bank holiday!

Ex. 16. Read and translate the following weather forecasts from English newspapers.
1. General situation: Many eastern coastal areas of England will stay cloudy and cool, with
patchy light drizzle during the morning. Western parts of Wales and south-west England will be
cloudy with showery outbreaks of rain, although western Wales will brighten up during the
afternoon. The rest of England and Wales will stay warm and dry with hazy sunshine, although
there will be a brisk easterly breeze. Showery rain over Northern Ireland will clear during the
afternoon. Scotland will be dry with sunny periods, but eastern coasts will be cloudy and western
areas may have rain during the morning.
“The Independent” 2.
Cloud and outbreaks of rain over England and Wales will clear during the morning. The afternoon
will be mostly dry with bright or sunny spells, although wintry showers will develop at times in the
north and north-west. Scotland and Northern Ireland will have another cold day with sunshine and
blustery showers expected. The showers will be heavy in places and falling as snow over the high
ground.
Outlook: Bright with wintry showers at times, especially in the north. Rain spreading eastwards
on Monday.
“Daily Express” 3.
Forecast: A dry, sunny start over England and Wales, but there may be light showers adjacent to the
southern North Sea. Western Scotland and Northern Ireland will become cloudy during the morning
with outbreaks or rain moving to these areas by midday. This weather will spread south-eastwards
to all parts of Scotland, north-west England and north Wales by the evening. Temperatures 46°F
(8°C) in East Anglia, 50°F (10°C) in Northern Ireland.
Outlook: Little change in southern and eastern parts of England during Tuesday and
Wednesday. There will be cool nights with frost and possibly patchy fog, but dry with sunny spells
during daylight hours. Early cloud and rain in north-western districts will gradually die out during
Tuesday.
“The Independent”
4. Weather: England and Wales will start cloudy with outbreaks of rain. However, brighter,
showery weather already over Scotland and Northern Ireland will slowly spread south and east
throughout the day. The showers will be heaviest and most frequent in the north, falling as sleet or
snow over hills and mountains, with drifting occurring in places. It will fell cold in the blustery and
strong westerly wind.
Outlook: Sunny intervals and showers are expected. Feeling colder than of late in the north-
westerly wind.
“Daily Express”

Ex. 17. Complete the weather forecast with these adjectives.


Bright changeable clear heavy icy settles strong sunny thick
In the north of England and Scotland it will be very cold, with ________ winds and __________
rain. There will also be ___________ fog in the hills and near the coast, though
it should clear by midday. Driving will be dangerous as the roads will be
__________. However, the south of England and the Midlands will have
______________ skies and ___________ sunshine, though the temperature will still
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be quite low. Over the next few says the weather will be __________, with some showers but
occasional __________ periods. It should become more __________ over the weekend.

Ex. 18. Translate the following word combinations into English.


Местами дожди/туманы; ожидается сухая теплая погода; на востоке области пройдут сильные
проливные дожди; на почве возможны заморозки; ветер северный, умеренный, 10-15 м/сек; в
дальнейшем холодный характер погоды сохранится; облачная, дождливая погода; к концу
недели погода изменится.

Ex. 19. Project. Make a video of your own weather forecast for the next day (you may choose
the city you want).

Ex. 20. Scientifically Sound Weather Superstitions. Do you know any weather superstitions?
Match the halves of the sentence to make superstitions (think about the rhyme). Do you think
they are scientifically sound? Watch the video and check
[www.youtube.com/watch?v =mgrqvnuzeKM]
Red sky at night nice Weather Ends
Ring around the moon sailors take warning
Chimney Smoke Descends, frost soon
Red sky in the morning rain real soon
Cows lie down sailors delight
Clear moon when potentially rainy weather is on the way
Check the meaning of these expressions in the dictionary. How do you think they are connected
with the superstitions above?
the whims of the weather, vital crop, to abound, to hold water, to prompt something, to check out,
mid latitude, to scatter, lunar halo, wispy clouds, cirrostratus clouds, condense moisture, a whole
herd of smth, to radiate the heat
Watch the video about some weather superstitions again and decide if the following statements
are true/false/not stated.
1. Whims of the weather can conquer any army.
2. There is a great number of different weather superstitions
3. According to European wisdom, red sunrise means coming spell of nice weather
4. Red sunrise brings the same kind of the weather in all parts of the world
5. Cirrostratus clouds form around the moon
6. Animal behavior is the source of a lot of weather superstitions
7. Cows always lie down when the rain is approaching
8. When there are a lot of clouds in the sky, the surface of the earth gets increasingly cold.

Ex. 21. Read about some more weather superstitions. Translate the texts.
1. Count the Cricket Chirps, Tell the Temperature
The notion that animals can sense weather extends beyond cows. Crickets are
numerous in summertime and much quieter in winter, leading to this notion. But there is actually
more truth behind this than you might think! The Farmer's Almanac even provides a formula to
calculate the temperature yourself, next time you hear a cricket.

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2. Summer Fog for Fair, Winter Fog for Rain
When fog creeps in during the summer and winter, it's following a pattern. Fog forms when
the air cools in summertime, meaning the sky is likely clear of clouds. In the winter, fog forms
because of humidity, indicating rain.
"In most places, fog in the summer is always the result of humid air cooling off at night due to
clear skies and very little wind," weather.com senior digital meteorologist Nick Wiltgen says. "That
process can cause fog in the winter too, but more often, winter fog comes from warm, humid air
being chilled by blowing across cold, perhaps snow-covered ground. Usually that warm humid air is
blowing in ahead of an approaching storm system."
3. Lightning Strikes, Count the Seconds
Everyone knows this one! Believe it or not, it's fairly accurate. Light travels faster through air
than sound does, at a rate that's consistent with one mile for every five seconds. Though it's not the
most accurate prediction, it gives a rough estimate.
4. Mackerel Sky and Mare's Tails, Lofty Ships Carry Low Sails
This superstition looks to the clouds to predict weather in the same way that our own
meteorologists do. A "mackerel sky" consists of altocumulus or cirrocumulus clouds, formed by
instability in the atmosphere that indicates rain and storms, respectively. "Mare's tales" are those thin
and wispy cirrus clouds. When there are many cirrus clouds in the sky, it indicates the approach of a
frontal system, and in some cases, tropical storms and hurricanes.
5. Pine Cones Predict the Weather
If you take a look at pine cones during nice weather and rainy weather, you'll notice a
difference in appearance. Pine cones contain seeds, and the best way for those seeds to disperse is
with clear, dry weather. When it's rainy or very humid outside, they close up. You can make your
own pine cone weather station with this how-to from Science Sparks.
6. Rainbow at Noon, Rain Soon
This saying is fairly accurate considering that rainbows can't be formed without rain. A
rainbow can predict rain coming your way if that's the direction the rain is headed, so having an
umbrella on hand is always a good idea.
7. Ring around the Moon, Rain Real Soon
When the moon has a halo around it, it's a product of light refracting around ice crystals in the
air – the same particles that form cirrus clouds, or "mare's tails," we mentioned earlier.
"This one's not foolproof, as cirrus clouds can occur without stormy weather," Wiltgen says.
"But many times cirrus clouds are the first clouds to show up ahead of a large-scale storm system,
and other times cirrus clouds may be the first clouds you would see ahead of a localized thunderstorm
moving toward you."
8. Chimney Smoke Descends, Nice Weather Ends
When you look at a chimney, smoke either goes straight up into the air or "falls." If the smoke
is sinking, it means water vapor has condensed with the smoke, and rain may be on the way.
"This one has a kernel of truth. Smoke 'falling' from a chimney could be the result of strong
winds from an approaching storm," Wiltgen says. "But it could just as easily be strong wind behind a
departing storm, with nicer weather ahead." Wilgen explains that smoke can also fall due to a
temperature inversion, when the air just above the ground is significantly warmer than the air at
ground level. "Inversions can come from stormy warm fronts, but they can also come from
wintertime high pressure zones not associated with stormy weather," Wiltgen says.
9. Lingering Snow Waits for More
This superstition has some backing. If snow lingers, it hasn't melted, so any other precipitation
is likely to be snow. But it doesn't necessarily mean that there will be more precipitation at all.

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10. Feeling Weather in Your Bones
The phrase "feeling under the weather" didn't just come out of nowhere. The weather affects
our bodies in many ways. According to WebMD, barometric pressure changes can cause joint pain.
So if your great aunt starts complaining about shoulder pain or achy knees, it may be time to put on
your raincoat.
Sum up the information from the video and the texts above and prepare a talk about some
weather superstitions.
[Adapted from: https://weather.com/science/environment/news/weird-weather-superstitions]

Ex. 22. Translate into English.


1. Утро началось с моросящего дождя, который постепенно усилился и к
полудню перешел в сильный ливень. 2. Я слышала прогноз погоды на сегодня:
днем солнечно и тепло, температура около 20°С, ветер восточный, умеренный;
ночью температура около нуля, на почве местами заморозки.
3. Зима наступает здесь в ноябре – начинают дуть северные ветры, из-за
чего средняя температура становится ниже, выпадает первый снег. 4. Весной легкий ветер
часто нагоняет облака. Небо затягивается тучами, и погода портится. 5. Ожидается улучшение
погоды – дождь прекратится и станет сухо и жарко. 6. В июле невыносимая жара привела к
засухе. За месяц не выпало ни капли дождя. 7. Белые снежинки тихо кружились в воздухе и
ложились на землю. К утру все было занесено сугробами. 8. Первые лучи солнца пробивались
сквозь пелену тумана. К девяти туман начал рассеиваться. 9. Всходило солнце, дул теплый
ветерок, над землей курился туман. 10. Высокая ель отбрасывала тень, там можно было
спастись от жары. 11. С неба падал мокрый снег, было холодно и сыро. Сапоги промокли, из-
за талого снега под ногами. 12. После дождя прояснилось, и на небе появилась многоцветная
радуга. Хорошая примета. 13. Такой грозы я не припомню: гром, молния, сильные порывы
ветра, а потом – град. 14. Было чудесное утро. Быстро встало солнце и иссушило капли росы
на траве. 15. Сначала подмораживало. Ветви деревьев покрылись инеем. На дороге был
сильный гололед, потом начало оттаивать.

Ex. 23. Choose the most suitable words for each space.
Whenever we read about the natural world nowadays, it is generally to be (1)
………………. dire predictions about its imminent destruction. Some scientists go so (2)
………………. as to assert that from now on, the world can no longer be called ‘natural’, insofar as
future processes of weather, (3) ………………. , and all the interactions of plant and animal life will
no longer carry on in their time-honoured way, unaffected by (4) ………………. . There will never
be such a thing as ‘natural weather’ again, say such writers, only weather (5) ………………. by
global warming. It is hard to know whether to believe such (6) ………………. of doom, possibly
because what they are saying seems too terrible to be (7) ………………. . There are other equally
influential scientists who argue that climate, for example, has changed many times over the (8)
………………., and that what we are experiencing now may simply be part of an endless cycle of
change, rather than a disaster on a global (9) ………………. . One cannot help wondering whether
these attempts to wish the problem away (10) ………………. underline the extent to which western
industrialized countries are to blame for upsetting the world’s (11) ………………. . It is not our
fault, they seem to be saying, because everything is all right, really! One certain (12) ……………….
which is chilling in its implications, is that there is no longer anywhere on the earth’s (13)
……………….., where in the depths of the oceans or in the polar waters, which is not (14)

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………………. by polluted air or (15) ………………. with empty cans and bottles. Now we have to
come to terms with understanding just what that means, and it is far from easy.
1) A) made B) given C) told D) granted 2)
A) much B) often C) really D) far
3) A) change B) atmosphere C) climate D)
even
4) A) beings B) man C) people D) humans
5) A) built B) manufactured C) affected D) organised
6) A) prophets B) champions C) warriors D) giants
7) A) stopped B) true C) guessed D) here
8) A) top B) again C) centuries D) worlds
9) A) sense B) form C) scale D) existence
10) A) simply B) to C) that D) or
11) A) future B) ecology C) balance D)
population
12) A) fact B) must C) fault D) and
13) A) planet B) atmosphere C) anywhere D) surface
14) A) full B) stained C) breathing D) only
15) A) even B) recycled C) littered D)
bothered

Ex. 24. Expand on the following.


1. It’s terrible to find oneself in the country on a cold wet autumn day when it’s drizzling all
the time … 2. It’s an unbearably stifling day today … 3. We’re having a spell of wonderful spring
weather. It’s the best time for walks in the country… 4. I don’t think we should plan an outing. Look
at the sky … 5. I hate having a walk in early spring. One should always look out for the slush and
mud puddles. Besides, … 6. At last it has left off raining! But the weather is so unsettled. Should we
go out? … 7. Ann suggests an outing on Saturday. I think the weather is quite suitable … 8. I can feel
spring in the air … 9. I hope this dry warm weather will keep for a fortnight at least … 10. It has been
raining for 5 days running… 11. Aren’t we lucky to have dry weather for a week?… 12. You’d better
put on your hat and a warm scarf …

Ex. 25. Translate into Russian.


1. The dull sky soon began to tell its meaning by sending down drops of rain, and the stagnant
air of the day changed into a fitful breeze which played about their faces. The quick silvery glaze on
the rivers and pools vanished, from broad mirrors of light they changed to lustreless sheets of lead,
with a surface like a rasp.
T. Hardy
2. There had been short thaws when the wind blew warm and the snow softened and the air
felt like Spring, but always the clear hard cold had come again and the winter had returned. In March
came the first break in the winter. In the night it started raining. It rained on all the morning and
turned the snow to slush and made the mountain-side dismal. There were clouds over the lake and
over the valley. It was raining high up the mountain.
E. Hemingway
3. It comes when we remember nothing but clear skies, green fields, and sweet-smelling
flowers – when recollection of snow and ice, and bleak winds has faded from our minds as
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completely as they have disappeared from the earth, – and yet what a pleasant time it is! Orchards
and cornfields ring with the hum of labour; trees bend beneath the thick clusters of rich fruit which
bow their branches to the ground; and the corn, piled in graceful sheaves, or waving in every light
breath that sweeps above it, tinges the landscape with a golden hue. A mellow softness appears to
hang over the whole earth; the influence of the season seems to extend itself to the very wagon,
whose slow motion across the well-reaped field is perceptible only to the eye, but strikes with no
harsh sound upon the ear.
Ch. Dickens 4. The
scene upon the lake was beautiful. One side of it is bordered by a steep crag, from which hung a
thousand enormous icicles all glittering in the sun; on the other side was a little wood, now exhibiting
that fantastic appearance which the pine trees present when their branches are loaded with snow. On
the frozen bosom of the lake itself were a multitude of moving figures, some sweeping in the most
graceful circles and others deeply interested in a less active pastime, crowding round the spot where
the inhabitants of two rival parishes contended for the prize at curling.
W. Scott

Ex. 26. Discuss the dialogue. Find statements you agree and disagree with. Say why.
ANGRY, SAD, HAPPY? — BLAME THE WEATHER!
(Interview with an expert)
Q. Professor, how much impact does weather have on people's health and moods?
A. We know that weather has an effect on certain diseases such as arthritis and heart disorders.
Weather is also associated with emotional problems and disturbed behaviour. It is not by itself a
direct cause of mental illness, but it can create an added stress on people on top of marital, job and
other problems.
Q. What kinds of weather have the greatest effect?
A. Temperature is the most important factor. Heat is clearly linked to mood disturbances. We find
that heat is an important factor in the increase of emotional problems.
Q. How much effect does humidity have on individuals? A. Rainy weather leads to gloominess and
depression. Q. And sunshine?
A. It's not too surprising that sunshine, especially in the North, is associated with positive mood
states, especially during winter months. What's more interesting is the finding that people are more
likely to help others and behave in a prosocial way.
Q. How long does it take the body to adapt to weather changes? A. When people move from a cool
climate to a warm, subtropical one, they're very uncomfortable at first. But adaptation occurs rather
quickly — within about two weeks. Q. Are some people particularly sensitive to weather?
A. Certainly, elderly people tend to be more sensitive to weather than younger people because their
cardiovascular system is less efficient. Body weight also makes a difference. Heavier people have
more difficulty coping with hot weather, while thin people have a harder time in extreme cold.
Q. In your opinion, what is the ideal weather for physical and emotional well-being?
A. Temperature in the low 70s, with some variation. People enjoy a slight change in temperature —
but not a drastic change where the temperature rises or falls more than 15 degrees. A little bit of
breeze, but not a strong wind, is also ideal. Obviously, sunshine makes people feel good — as long as
there is not too much of it.
[1] Ex.
27. Pre-reading task 1. Consult a dictionary and find the meaning of the following
words and word combinations, practise their pronunciation:
to prophesy; county; tomfoolishness; to be plagued; fraud; wagonette; to chuckle;
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specimen; seaweed; cockleshell; lark; flimsy; rheumatism; barometer; to prognosticate; simoom; set-
fair day, a thing that is beyond me.
 Read and translate the following text.
George got hold of the paper, and read us out the weather forecast, which prophesied ‘rain,
cold, wet to fine’ (whatever more than usually ghastly thing in weather that may be), ‘occasional
local thunderstorms, east wind, with general depression over the Midland Counties (London and
Channel). Bar. falling.’
I do think that of all the silly, irritating tomfoolishness by which we are plagued, this
‘weather-forecast’ fraud is about the most aggravating. It ‘forecasts’ precisely what happened
yesterday or the day before, and precisely the opposite of what is going to happen today.
I remember a holiday of mine being completely ruined one late autumn by our paying attention
to the weather report of the local newspaper. ‘Heavy showers, with thunderstorms, may be expected
today’, it would say on Monday, and so we would give up our picnic, and stop indoors all day,
waiting for the rain. And people would pass the house, going off in wagonettes and coaches as jolly
and merry as could be, the sun shining out, and not a cloud to be seen.
‘Ah!’ we said, as we stood looking out at them through the window, ‘won’t they come home
soaked!’ And we chuckled to think how wet they were going to get, and came back and stirred the
fire, and got our books, and arranged our specimens of seaweed and cockleshells. By twelve o’clock
with the sun pouring into the room, the heat became quite oppressive, and we wondered when those
heavy showers and occasional thunderstorms were going to begin.
‘Ah ! They’ll come in the afternoon, you’ll find,’ we said to each other. ‘Oh, won’t those
people get wet. What a lark!’ At one o’clock the landlady would come in to ask if we weren’t going
out, as it seemed such a lovely day. ‘No, no,’ we replied, with a knowing chuckle, ‘not we. We don’t
mean to get wet – no, no.’
And when the afternoon was nearly gone, and still there was no sign of rain, we tried to cheer
ourselves up with the idea that it would come down all at once, just as people had started for home,
and were out of the reach of any shelter, and that they would thus get more drenched than ever. But
not a drop ever fell, and it finished a grand day, and a lovely night after it.
The next morning we would read that it was going to be a ‘warm, fine to set-fair day; much
heat’; and we would dress ourselves in flimsy things, and go out, and, half an hour after we had
started, it would commence to rain hard, and a bitterly cold wind would spring up, and both would
keep on steadily for the whole day, and we would come home with colds and rheumatism all over us,
and go to bed.
The weather is a thing that is beyond me altogether. I never can understand it. The barometer is
useless; it is as misleading as the newspaper forecast. There was one hanging up in a hotel at Oxford
at which I was staying last spring, and, when I got there, it was pointing to
‘set fair’. It was simply pouring with rain outside, and had been all day; and I couldn’t quite make
matters out. I tapped the barometer, and it jumped up and pointed to ‘very dry’. The Boots stopped as
he was passing and said he expected it meant tomorrow. I fancied that maybe it was thinking of the
week before last, but Boots said, No, he thought not.
I tapped it again the next morning, and it went up still higher, and the rain came down faster
than ever. On Wednesday I went and hit it again, and the pointer went round towards ‘set fair’, ‘very
dry’, and ‘much heat’, until it was stopped by the peg, and couldn’t go any further. It tried its best,
but the instrument was built so that it couldn’t prophesy fine weather any harder than it did without
breaking itself. It evidently wanted to go on, and prognosticate drought, and water famine, and
sunstroke, and simooms, and such things, but the peg prevented it, and it had to be content with
pointing to the mere commonplace ‘very dry’.

88
Meanwhile, the rain came down in a steady torrent, and the lower part of the town was under
water, owing to the river having overflowed. Boots said it was evident that we were going to have a
prolonged spell of grand weather some time. The fine weather never came that summer. I expect that
machine must have been referring to the following spring.

Ex. 28. Write a short story of your own (150-200) words to show what trick a weather forecast
may play on a person.

Ex. 29. Fill in prepositions or adverbs.


1. Be careful! Don’t splash mud … passers-by. 2. A thick fog is spreading … the city and
though cars and buses have put … their lights they can only crawl … . 3. It is pleasant to look … the
trees when the frost sparkles … the branches. 4. There is a bridge … the river. 5.
The rivers and lakes freeze … … winter. 6. I don’t like to be out-of-doors … such bad weather. I
prefer to stay … home. 7. Let us have a tramp … the country lanes. 8. The new corn is just
beginning to appear … the ground. 9. The ground is usually covered … snow … winter. 10. The
temperature is 25° … zero … the shade today. 11. Look … the sky. There is hardly a cloud … it.
12. A heat wave will spread … the south-west … Moscow. 13. It’s beginning to rain. Put …
your umbrella. 14. The rain is … and it’s clearing … . 15. The weather is getting worse. The sun
is going … . 16. It’s pouring. We shall be wet … .

Ex. 30. a) Read the story and discuss the questions below.
A BREEZE
.

For some folks everything is easy. Life is a breeze. They are always healthy. They are never
under the weather. If they walk into a room full of strangers, they make friends in five minutes.
They have no trouble breaking the ice. They can earn enough to save money every week.
They’re saving it for a rainy day. So, if trouble ever does come, they will be able to weather the
storm . Yes, some people have no problems whether times are good or bad. They’re OK come
rain or shine.

If something is a breeze, is it easy or hard for you to do?


If you’re under the weather, how do you feel? When
you break the ice, what do you do?
b) Study the table. Each example has an idiom with the weather word. Guess the meaning
of the idiom from the context and match them with the definitions.
Idiom Example Definitions
1.To break the Cedric is very shy. If he goes to a party where he a) not to know or
ice does not know anyone, he finds it very hard to understand what is
break the ice. going on
2.A breeze As I had studied hard the exam was a breeze. b) to have a lot of
work to do
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3.Come rain or Uncle George lives quite far away, but he c) a friend who
shine promised to come to my wedding come rain or doesn’t help his friend
shine. in need
4.A Julie showed that she is just a fair-weathered d) something easy for
fairweathered friend for me. When I needed help with the you to do
friend report, she refused.
5.To have one’s I don’t think that Alice understands that she is in e) no matter how hard
head in the danger of failing the course. She seems to have it is to do
clouds her head in the clouds.
6.To save Frank makes only 500 $ a month, but every week f) to wait and be
something for he saves 20 for a rainy day. patient until things get
a rainy day better
7.To be snowed I have to stay late and finish some urgent tasks as g) to prepare for
under I’m completely snowed under with work. trouble by saving
money
8.To weather the Our company has had a lot of troubles this year. h) To begin a
storm But I’m sure that things will be fine if we manage conversation with a
to weather the storm for just a few months. stranger
[12]

Ex. 31. Words which describe weather are often used to talk about people and their moods or
emotions. a) Use these words to complete the following definitions:
Shower storm breeze frosty hazy gloomy cloud over cool
1. Another word for a light or moderate wind is a _____
2. 10 minutes of light rain is a __________
3. When the sun is not clear it is __________
4. When the temperature drops to just below zero, it is _________
5. A day with lots of dark cloud is ___________
6. Sometimes even the sunniest skies can _________ and the day turns dull.
7. When the wind gets very strong, get ready for a __________
8. Spring days can be quite warm, but it is usually _________ in the evening.
b) Underline the correct word in the sentences below:
1. It was obvious that Charles was angry. He came storming/breezing into the room, threw the
contract on the table and demanded to know why he had not been consulted.
2. It was obvious from the way Peter breezed/stormed in this morning that Mary had said yes to his
proposal.
3. I think I drank too much last night at dinner. I'm afraid I'm feeling a bit under the sky/weather this
morning.
4. They used to be crazy about each other, but I think the relationship has cooled/ frozen recently.
5. Meeting Jane's parents for the first time was a bit worrying, but they gave me a very sunny /warm
welcome. Her mother was lovely.
6. The car broke down on the way to my husband's parents. We were two hours late for Sunday
lunch. You can imagine we got a rather frosty/wet reception.
7. Ladies and gentlemen, can I start by thanking you for giving me such a warm/hot welcome.
8. What's the matter? Cheer up! You look a bit foggy /gloomy.
9. I wish Dave was more dynamic. He always seems to be half asleep - he's a bit damp/wet, really.

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10. My students really annoy me sometimes - particularly when they never do their homework.
They really are a shower/storm!
c) Match the following adjectives to their moods:
1. frosty 2. warm 3. hazy 4. stormy 5. gloomy
a. angry b. unfriendly c. sad d. confused e. friendly
d) Fill in the correct word in the dialogues below:
Clouded cloud hazy brighten up warmed up warmed wind 1. Did
you hear about David? > No. Why did he leave so suddenly?
Well, apparently, he left under a________. Someone found out that he had been stealing from the
company expense account!
2. How was the office party? > A bit slow at first, but it soon_________when the boss left!
3. So, you met my old friend Larry yesterday. What did you think of him?
> A great guy! Yes, I _________ to him straightaway.
4. Have you replied to that letter from the bank? > Not yet. Can you help me? I'm a bit
___________about what to do, actually.
5. Did you have a good time last night? > Not really. Jill had some sad news which ___________the
whole evening.
6. Well, is it going to be a week sightseeing in Belgium or a fortnight in Bali? > Let's throw caution
to the Two weeks in the sun! We can worry about paying for it when we come back!
7. Liz seemed a bit depressed this morning. > Oh, she'll soon ______when I tell her she's being sent
to Paris!
e) Put the following pairs of words into the sentences below:
a. stormed, room d. soon, when
b. feeling, weather e. given, frosty
c. gave, welcome f. hazy, do
1. The party warmed up Mark's brother arrived.
2. We were a very reception.
3. They me a very warm 4. He into the and shouted at me!
5. I'm a bit about what to next.
6. I'm a bit under the this morning.

Ex. 32. Match the following idioms with the situations. Give their Russian equivalents.
Example: When I was in hospital I lost a lot of weight - so something good came out of it. - Every
cloud has a silver lining.
1. the calm before the 1) Because bad luck isn't repeated in the same place, I
storm parked where my car had been stolen.
2 come rain come shine 2) Don't spend all your money now - you might need
. make heavy weather of some later.
3
.
smth 3) No one trusted her after she was caught stealing
4 it never rains but it from the toyshop.
. pours I'm not feeling too good today. I think I'll stay in
feel under the weather 4) bed and rest.
5 save something for a I think a lot of fuss is being made over something
.
6 5)
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.
rainy day very unimportant.
7 be a storm in a teacup 6) The report was far too detailed - we needed only
. be under a cloud be in the basic information,
8 a fog 1 never receive complaints but now 1 have had ten
. in a row!
9 7) He's out playing tennis whatever the weather.
.
10. lightning never strikes 8)
the same place twice
9) I can't think clearly about what happened just
before the accident
10) This good luck is too good to last - something
is bound to go wrong.

Exam and essay topics


1. My most and least favourite kinds of weather.
2. Weather superstitions
3. How does weather influence our mood?

MОDULE 2
CLIMATE
Ex. 1. Pre-view. Have you ever wondered why one area of the world is a desert, another a
grassland, and another a rainforest? The answer is climate. Work in pairs and try to come up with
the definition of the term “climate”. Then read the following text and compare it with the ideas of
yours. Discuss the words in bold. Can you guess the meaning from the context?

Climate is the characteristic condition of the atmosphere near the earth's surface at a
certain place on earth. It is the long-term weather of that area (at least 30 years). This
includes the region's general pattern of weather conditions, seasons and weather
extremes, such as hurricanes, droughts, or rainy periods. Two of the most important
factors determining an area's climate are air temperature and precipitation.

Ex. 2. Read the text about the world climate. Underline the key points in the text. Make 7
questions to the text, close your books, ask your questions and check how well your partner
remembers the main ideas.
Some facts about climate
The sun's rays hit the equator at a direct angle between 23 ° latitude. Radiation that reaches
the atmosphere here is at its most intense. In all other cases, the rays arrive at an angle to the surface
and are less intense. The closer a place is to the poles, the smaller the angle and therefore the less
intense the radiation. Our climate system is based on the location of these hot and cold air-mass
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regions and the atmospheric circulation created by trade winds and westerlies. Trade winds north of
the equator blow from the northeast. South of the equator, they blow from the southeast. The trade
winds of the two hemispheres meet near the equator, causing the air to rise. As the rising air cools,
clouds and rain develop. The resulting bands of cloudy and rainy weather near the equator create
tropical conditions. Westerlies blow from the southwest on the Northern Hemisphere and from the
northwest in the Southern Hemisphere.
Seasons
The Earth rotates about its axis, which is tilted at 23.5 degrees. This tilt and the sun's radiation
result in the Earth's seasons. The sun emits rays that hit the earth's surface at different angles. These
rays transmit the highest level of energy when they strike the earth at the right angle (90 °).
Temperatures in these areas tend to be the hottest places on earth. Other locations, where the sun's
rays hit at lesser angles, tend to be cooler. As the Earth rotates on its tilted axis around the sun,
different parts of the Earth receive higher and lower levels of radiant energy. This creates the
seasons.
Köppen Climate Classification System
The Köppen Climate Classification System is the most widely used for classifying the world's
climates. Most classification systems used today are based on the one introduced in 1900 by the
Russian-German climatologist Wladimir Köppen. Köppen divided the Earth's surface into climatic
regions that generally coincided with world patterns of vegetation and soils. The Köppen system
recognizes five major climate types based on the annual and monthly averages of temperature and
precipitation.
[Adapted from http://www.blueplanetbiomes.org/climate.htm]
Name of the climate type Location The main features

Ex. 3. Jigsaw reading. Divide into 3 groups. Each group reads the information
about one climate group. Then exchange information with members of other
groups to fill in the table below in your copybooks.
Group I.
Low-latitude Climates: these climates are controlled by equatorial and tropical air masses.
Tropical Moist Climates (rainforests)
Rainfall is heavy in all months. The total annual rainfall is often more than 250 cm. There are
seasonal differences in monthly rainfall but temperatures of 27°C (80°F) mostly stay the same.
Humidity is between 77 and 88%. High surface heat and humidity cause cumulus clouds to form
early in the afternoons almost every day. The climate on eastern sides of continents is influenced by
maritime tropical air masses.
Average temperature: 18 °C (°F)
Annual Precipitation: 262 cm. (103 in.)
Global Position: Amazon Basin; Congo Basin of equatorial Africa; East Indies, from Sumatra to New
Guinea.
Wet-Dry Tropical Climates (savanna)
A seasonal change occurs between wet tropical air masses and dry tropical air masses. As a result,
there is a very wet season and a very dry season. Trade winds dominate during the dry season. It gets
a little cooler during this dry season but will become very hot just before the wet season.
Temperature Range: 16 °C
Annual Precipitation: 0.25 cm. All months less than 0.25 cm.

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Global Range: India, Indochina, West Africa, southern Africa, South America and the north coast of
Australia
Dry Tropical Climate (desert biome)
These desert climates are found in low-latitude deserts approximately
between 18° to 28° in both hemispheres. These latitudes coincide with
the edge of the equatorial subtropical high pressure belt and trade winds.
Winds are light, which allows for the evaporation of moisture in the
intense heat. They generally flow downward so the area is seldom
penetrated by air masses that produce rain. This makes for a very dry
heat. The dry arid desert
is a true desert climate, and covers 12 % of the Earth's land surface.
Temperature Range: 16° C
Annual Precipitation: 0.25 cm. All months less than 0.25 cm
Global Range: southwestern United States and northern Mexico; Argentina;
north Africa; south Africa; central part of Australia. Group II
Mid-latitude Climates: Climates in this zone are affected by two different air-masses. The
tropical air-masses are moving towards the poles and the polar air-masses are moving towards
the equator. These two air masses are in constant conflict. Either air mass may dominate the
area, but neither has exclusive control.
Dry Midlatitude Climate (steppe)
Characterized by grasslands, this is a semiarid climate. If it received less rain, the steppe would
be classified as an arid desert. With more rain, it would be classified as a tallgrass prairie. This
dry climate exists in the interior regions of the North American and Eurasian continents. Moist
ocean air masses are blocked by mountain ranges to the west and south. These mountain ranges
also trap polar air in winter, making winters very cold. Summers are warm to hot.
Temperature Range: 24° C (43° F).
Annual Precipitation: less than 10 cm (4 in) in the driest regions to 50 cm (20 in) in the moister
steppes.
Global Range: Western North America (Great Basin, Columbia Plateau, Great Plains); Eurasian
interior, from steppes of eastern Europe to the Gobi Desert and North China.
Mediterranean Climate
This is a wet-winter, dry-summer climate. Extremely dry summers are
caused by the sinking air of the subtropical highs and may last for up
to five months. Plants have adapted to the extreme difference in
rainfall and temperature between winter and summer seasons. Fires
occur frequently in Mediterranean climate zones.
Temperature Range: 7 °C (12 °F) Annual Precipitation: 42 cm
(17 in).
Global Position: central and southern California; coastal zones bordering
the Mediterranean Sea; coastal Western Australia and South Australia;
Chilean coast; Cape Town region of South Africa.
Moist Continental Climate (Deciduous Forest biome)
This climate is in the polar front zone - the battleground of polar and tropical air masses. Seasonal
changes between summer and winter are very large. Daily temperatures also change often.
Abundant precipitation falls throughout the year. It is increased in the summer season by invading
tropical air masses. Cold winters are caused by polar and arctic masses moving south.
Temperature Range: 31 °C (56 ° F)
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Average Annual Precipitation: 81 cm (32 in).
Global Position: eastern parts of the United States and southern Canada; northern China; Korea;
Japan; central and eastern Europe.
Group III
High-latitude climates: Polar and arctic air masses dominate these regions. Canada and Siberia are
two air-mass sources which fall into this group. A southern hemisphere counterpart to these
continental centers does not exist.
Boreal forest Climate (taiga biome)
This is a continental climate with long, very cold winters, and
short, cool summers. This climate is found in the polar air mass
region. Very cold air masses from the arctic often move in. The
temperature range is larger than any other climate. Precipitation
increases during summer months, although annual precipitation is
still small. Much of the boreal forest climate is considered humid.
However, large areas in western Canada and Siberia receive very
little precipitation and fall into the subhumid or semiarid climate type. Temperature
Range: 41 °C (74 °F), lows; -25 °C (-14 °F), highs; 16 °C (60 °F). Average Annual
Precipitation: 31 cm (12 in).
Global Position: central and western Alaska; Canada, from the Yukon Territory to Labrador; Eurasia,
from northern Europe across all of Siberia to the Pacific Ocean.
Tundra Climate
The tundra climate is found along arctic coastal areas. Polar
and arctic air masses dominate the tundra climate. The winter
season is long and severe. A short, mild season exists, but not
a true summer season. Moderating ocean winds keep the
temperatures from being as severe as interior regions.
Temperature Range: -22 °C to 6 °C (-10 °F to 41 °F).
Average Annual Precipitation: 20 cm (8 in).
Global Position: arctic zone of North America; Hudson Bay region; Greenland coast; northern
Siberia bordering the Arctic Ocean.
Highland Climate (Alpine Biome)
Highland climates are cool to cold, found in mountains and high plateaus. Climates change rapidly on
mountains, becoming colder the higher the altitude gets. The climate of a highland area is closely
related to the climate of the surrounding biome. The highlands have the same seasons and wet and
dry periods as the biome they are in. Mountain climates are very important to midlatitude biomes.
They work as water storage areas. Snow is kept back until spring and summer when it is released
slowly as water through melting.
Temperature Range: -18 °C to 10 °C (-2 °F to 50°F)
Average Annual Precipitation: 23 cm (9 in.)
Global Position: Rocky Mountain Range in North America, the Andean mountain range in South
America, the Alps in Europe, Mt. Kilimanjaro in Africa, the Himalayans in Tibet, Mt.
Fuji in Japan.
Bibliography: Strahler, Arthur N., Strahler, Arthur H., Elements of Physical Geography. John
Wiley & Sons, 1984. [Adapted from http://www.blueplanetbiomes.org/climate.htm]
Ex. 4.
Jigsaw watching. Divide into 4 groups and watch one part of the series “Secrets of World
Climate”. Present the key points of the episode to members of other groups.

95
Ex. 5. What do you know about seasons and climate in Great Britain? Discuss it with your
partner and name 5 key features. A) Read the following text and check your predictions.
Seasons in Britain
Although the seasonal differences in Britain are not as extreme as in some
countries, there is still a large difference between winter and summer. The year
is split into four seasons roughly each 3 months long, though the weather in
Britain can be very erratic and so the seasons often overlap or don’t follow
the standard pattern. Below you can find the general weather conditions of
each season in England. All the
stats are based on Met Office (the UK’s main source of information about weather). All the statistics
are only rough ideas as conditions can vary hugely even within England.
Winter (December to February)
Average Minimum/Maximum Temperatures: 6.6oC- 7.4oC
Average Min/Max Daylight Hours: 8-9 hours
Average Monthly Rainfall (mm): 78 mm
Winter is the coldest month in the UK, running roughly from December to February (although
November can often suffer very wintry conditions too). Temperatures often get as low as freezing
point (0oC), though not too much colder usually. This leads to frost in the
mornings, ice on car windscreens and roads, and sometimes snow
fall. British winters are usually very wet and windy as well, so make sure
you wrap up warm and waterproof. To add to the miserable
weather, the hours of daylight are very short during the winter, with days
in London getting as short as 8 hours at the end of December.
Spring (March to May) Average Min/Max Temperatures: 9.3 oC- 15.4oC
Average Min/Max Daylight Hours: 11-15 hours
Average Min/Max Rainfall (mm): 60 mm
Spring in the UK is all about new life springing up after the harsh conditions of winter. From
March (roughly), the temperatures start to get warmer, frosts get less frequent and the days start to
get longer. This brings with it plants shooting up all over the country, trees regaining their leaves
and animals giving birth. However, spring is often still quite wet and windy in Britain, so don’t crack
out the sunglasses and flip flops too early.
Summer (June to August)
Average Min/Max Temperatures: 18.1oC- 20.6oC
Average Min/Max Daylight Hours: 16 hours - 16 hours 30
mins
Average Min/Max Rainfall (mm): 61 mm
In theory summer in the UK should be hot and dry. In practice it is only hot in spells and it still rains
quite a bit most summers. It is best to think of it as a way of making the hot days feel more special.
On such days, temperatures can reach 30oC, though not much higher, and the British public make
the most of it. People swarm to beaches, sit out in parks and generally revel in the hot
temperatures. This is matched by the increased hours of daylight which reach almost 17 hours in
London in mid June. Autumn (September to November)
Average Min/Max Temperatures: 17.5oC- 9.5oC
Average Min/Max Daylight Hours: 10-14 hours
Average Min/Max Rainfall (mm): 81 mm
Autumn marks the gradual change from summer to winter and is

96
probably the season with the biggest range in weather conditions. Septembers and even Octobers in
Britain can often still be summery, recently even recording higher temperatures than August.
Equally, Novembers can be very cold, and the UK sometimes even experiences widespread snow
fall (like in 2010). In general, it is usually quite wet and windy in autumn though it is so variable
that one year after another, autumns can seem like different seasons. [Adapted from
http://www.foreignstudents.com/guide-to-britain/britishculture/weather/seasons] B) Explain the
words in bold and use them in sentences of your own describing Rostov climate.

Ex. 6. Describe a thaw on a frosty day, a snowstorm, Indian summer and spring using the
suggested words:
a) Warm, a soft carpet of dying leaves, nature is slowly falling asleep, still green, soft bronze,
stir the air, cobweb, to enjoy the last warm days, golden autumn, to fade. Leaves change their colour
from green to yellow and red. The landscape becomes rather dull.
b) The sky is pale gray, it continues freezing, snowy, to blow, a piercing wind, chilly, to snow
heavily, severe frost, low clouds, it keeps on snowing, large flakes, to be caught in a snowstorm, to
be snow bound, the snow lies deep, what nasty weather, bitterly cold, to be cut out from the outside
world, to stay indoors, motorways are cleared of snow, blockade.
c) The snow lies on the ground, frozen into a thick crust, bare trees, to slip and fall, a thaw
sets in, the ground is covered with a sleet, icicles hang from the roof, the roads become slushy and
slippery, it often sleets, a cutting wind, unpleasant time, hoarfrost glistens in the sun, the air is
transparent, the sky is clear, the countryside looks lovely, to be frozen over, the temperature is rising.
d) But nothing compares to spring; Spring sets in; the trees are in bud; the rustling of leaves;
to come into leaf; twittering of birds; thaw; ripen (to get ripe); Trees are bursting in leaf, flowers; the
nature awakes from the long sleep; It makes a nice change; to set into a good mood, nature comes to
life, the days get longer and warmer, to break into blossom, the air is fresh and cool, Ex. 7.
Translate into English.
Раньше я скептически относился ко всем разговорам о лондонских туманах. В конце
концов, туманы бывают и у нас. Поэтому первый лондонский туман я не воспринял серьезно.
«Ну вот и знаменитый английский туман», - сообщил я своим детям, и они запрыгали:
«Туман, туман...» Жена оказалась серьезнее: «Как же я в магазин пойду?» Она все-таки пошла
и даже вернулась. Но мы ждали ее два часа, хотя до магазина было рукой подать.
Туманы останавливают транспорт, даже железные дороги, закрывают предприятия и...
убивают людей. Нет, не только на дорогах, хотя в туманные дни происходит много аварий.
Гораздо больше людей убивает «смог» - туман, смешанный с дымом и сажей от каминов и
выхлопными газами. Знаменитый «киллер» - «смог» 1952 года унес жизни 435 человек,
страдающих астмой. Смог в декабре 1962 года убил более 200 человек. Лондонцы надевают в
такие дни марлевые повязки (gauze bandages): они становятся серыми через четверть часа.
Туман приносит много бед. Но не весь год в Англии только туманно, сыро и ветрено.
Надоедают дожди и сырость. Но человек ко всему может привыкнуть.
Привыкаешь постепенно и к английской погоде.
Зима пришла – весна не за горами (winter heralds the coming of spring) – говорят
англичане. А весна в Британии – чудное время. Она вся цветет. Цветет в городах, цветет в
пригородах. Нежные розовые цветы вишен. Белые цветы яблонь.
Чтобы по-настоящему увидеть весну в Англии, надо побывать в яблоневых садах
графства Кент. На шоссе стоят указатели «дорога в цвету». Вы можете ехать по ним, этим
провинциальным, узким и петляющим дорогам милю за милей и наслаждаться белыми и
розовыми в цвету деревьями. Англия прекрасна в эти весенние недели. И дождь щадит ее
красоту. И солнце делает яркими ее краски.
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Нет, думаешь про себя, гуляя по покрытым белыми и желтыми нарциссами лужайкам
лондонских парков, англичане все-таки знают, где надо жить. А потом появляются тюльпаны,
от которых невозможно оторвать взгляд. А впереди – лето, белые свечи каштанов, цветущие
розы, с их тонким ароматом, цветущие липовые аллеи. Но дождь к тому времени уже потерял
терпение. Он начнет напоминать, что это в конце концов Британские острова, а не Сахара.
Дождь сделает эту страну прохладной, и даже в июле здесь не пожалуешься на жару. Но
дождь сделает еще более красивой английскую зелень.
Не повезло англичанам с летом. Море, окружившее их со всех сторон, широкие, мягкие
песчаные пляжи Корнуэла, только дразнят. Даже на самом южном из Британских островов
Уайте (the Isle of Wight) не всегда искупаешься. Море и летом остается прохладным. И только
закаленные люди осмеливаются поплескаться неподалеку от берега. Большинство же
отдыхающих просто смотрят на купальщиков.
Сентябрь и октябрь в Англии превосходны. Бабье лето здесь долгое, солнечное, теплое.
Трава стала лишь чуть менее яркой. Деревья только слегка пожелтели. В лесу очень много
грибов, но англичане их никогда не собирают. Они едят только шампиньоны. В погожие
осенние дни не хочется думать о надвигающейся зиме. Здесь она, как правило, бесснежная,
дождливая, ветреная и туманная. На лыжах катаются только в Шотландии. В Лондоне всего
два закрытых катка. А многочисленные пруды, реки и озера замерзают только раз лет в
двадцать.
Есть, однако, в таком климате свое преимущество. Он дешев. Можно обойтись без
шубы и теплой шапки. В девятнадцати из каждых двадцати домов нет центрального
утопления. Впрочем, мне случилось провести «исключительно суровую» зиму в Англии. В
январе 1963 года снег в Лондоне лежал три недели. Температура падала до 5° С. Ничего
подобного не случалось в Англии последние... 150 лет или около того. У нас в России такой
морозец не назвали бы даже бодрящим. В Англии он вызвал хаос на транспорте. Только
одним железным дорогам эти три снежные недели обошлись в пять миллионов фунтов
стерлингов. Но подобные зимы в Англии случаются не чаще, чем раз в полвека.
[По В. Осипову, «Британия глазами русского»] Ex. 8.
Work with a partner and discuss these questions:
1. Roughly what time does it get light and dark in your country in different seasons? Does it
change much throughout the year?
2. What do you think it would be like to live somewhere where it was light for
twentyfour hours in the summer and dark for twenty-four hours in the winter?
Listen to Amna, who originally came from Pakistan, talking about life in the Norwegian city of
Tromso. Which does she prefer: long days or long nights? Why? Listen again and make notes in the
table below.
Positive aspects Negative aspects
Long days

Long nights

[18] Ex. 9. Write a summary of the following text. Before you start writing study
carefully the instructions given below.
 A summary is the expression of the essence of some piece of writing in a condensed form. The
main idea of the piece should be presented clearly, concisely and precisely. The length of a summary
makes up approximately one third of the length of the original source. Writing a summary includes
seven stages:
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1. reading the original text to gasp the main idea;
2. re-reading the passage to check up your understanding;
3. selecting the essential points;
4. linking the points in logical order;
5. writing a rough copy of a new concise text;
6. comparing the summary with the original passage to see whether all essentials are included;
7. writing a fair copy of a summary.
 In writing a summary only the information taken from the passage should be used. A summary
does not contain repetitions, illustrative details, figures of speech, wordy phrases consisting of
meaningless words. A good summary shows one’s ability to understand and present ideas.

Cold? Britain Is Actually Getting Hotter


Most Britons could be forgiven for thinking a new Ice Age is upon us. Small comfort, then, as
we struggle through snowdrifts and cope with burst pipes, that the present cold is a sign the British
climate is generally getting milder.
Ironically, most scientists now believe the short sharp shock of severe cold that has struck
Europe fro three winters running is an indicator that the world is growing warmer. The burning of
fossil fuels is building up a blanket of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere, creating a “greenhouse”
effect.
Britain and Europe have certainly experienced weather this cold before. In the 17th century, the
Thames froze solid so often that it became a regular winter sports attraction. The weather then was so
severe that it is sometimes referred to as the Little Ice Age. Even in the early 19th century, Britain’s
climate was still colder than it is today. We still have a cherished picture of Charles Dickens’s
Christmases – although, in fact, snow at Christmas has been a rarity in southern England for 150
years.
Studies of temperature trends around the world show that it has been warming up since the
middle of the 19th century. Most experts agree that this is a result of human activities. By burning
coal and oil, we are putting carbon dioxide into the air. This acts like a blanket round the earth,
trapping heat that would otherwise escape into space. As long as we keep burning fossil fuel, the
trend is likely to continue. So why have we had such severe cold spells in Europe recently?
According to researchers at the University of East Anglia, it is all part of the same process. When the
climate of the globe changes, it doesn’t do so evenly. Britain and Western Europe are just unlucky in
being in the path of a particularly significant wind shift.
By comparing the weather in different seasons, during the warmest and coldest years of the
20th century, the researchers have built up a picture of what is going on. Their key new discovery is
that although spring, summer and autumn are all warmer, severe cold spells in winter are most likely
over the whole of central Europe. So then, short cold spells mean it’s generally getting warmer – but
the bad news is it could get TOO warm. If the predictions come true – and the present changes are
exactly in line with computer forecasts – within the next 40 or 100 years we shall see a change in
climate as dramatic as the shift which ended the last Ice Age.

Ex. 10. Translate into English.


1. Климат Великобритании очень влажный, с мягкой зимой, сильными туманами и
ветрами и прохладным летом. Погода переменчива даже в течение одного дня. В сводках
погоды обычны слова «пасмурная или дождливая погода, временами – солнце». Поэтому
важной деталью британского туалета является зонтик, с которым почти никогда не
расстаются.
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На климат страны воздействуют циклоны Атлантики. С запада приходят воздушные
массы, согретые теплым североатлантическим течением, и несут с собой дожди. Наименее
влажная часть Великобритании – юго-восток.
Снег выпадает редко, обычно на севере в горах в течение одного-двух месяцев в году.
Случается, что снег выпадает и в других районах, но тут же тает. Осенью, зимой и весной
обычны сильные ветры, большей частью западные. Зимой часты туманы. Самый холодный
зимний месяц – январь, а самый теплый летний – июль. В январе температура воздуха редко
опускается ниже -6°, а летом редко превышает +15°.
[По Н.М. Польской, «Великобритания»] 2. В
первые четыре дня, которые я провел в Англии, там сияло солнце. «У вас здесь не так плохо»,
- сказал я своим товарищам-корреспондентам. «Эти четыре дня, - ответили они мне, -
англичане будут вспоминать лет десять». «Помните, летом 1958-го, в июне, четыре дня подряд
не было дождя?»
Два года спустя я снова приехал в Англию. В Шереметьеве была снежная вьюга и
температура 12° ниже нуля. В Лондоне +9° и опять солнечно. «Недурно для февраля»,
подумал я и … сглазил (to bewitch smth with the evil eye).
Два дня спустя шел дождь, потом было холодно и туманно, потом снова дождь, потом
пасмурно, ветрено и холодно. И я с досадой думал об англичанах: «Что их заставляет жить на
этих промокших насквозь островах, когда столько сухих стран на земле…»
[По В. Осипову, «Британия глазами русского»] Ex.
11. Translate the following text into Russian; explain why the author compares the weather in
Washington with a winning candidate. Retell the text.
The weather in Washington reminds me of a winning candidate who promises everything, but
you never know just when to expect it at all. Sometimes it’s April in January, and March often
behaves like December or May. Or as Mark Twain found it here: ‘When you arrived (at the station at
night) it was snowing. When you reached the hotel it was sleeting. When you went to bed it was
raining. During the night it froze hard and the wind blew some chimneys down. When you got up in
the morning, it was foggy. When you finished your breakfast at ten o’clock and went out, the
sunshine was brilliant, the weather balmy and delicious, and the mud and slush deep and all-
pervading. You will like the climate – when you get used to it.’
If you care to follow Mark Twain’s advice, take an umbrella and overcoat, and fan, and go
forth. My advice on what to expect, season by season, regarding the weather is: Spring – it’s a
wonderful, most attractive, liveliest time of the year. Mild weather usually arrives earlier than it does
in most northern cities. (Prepare for possible 27°C in March), flowers burst into bloom starting with
magnolia, then followed by cherry blossom, azalea and pansies. Summer – it can be hot, humid,
sticky. Men wear tropical outfits. Autumn – the best season except for spring; in some ways the best
of all. The climate is dry, mild. If you are driving, the colour in the mountains is beautiful. Winter –
unpredictable, some years raw, cold, soggy; others short and mild. You don’t have to bring your
umbrella and galoshes, but come prepared to buy them.
(From Washington. A Modern Guide to the Nation’s Capital by M. Frome)

CLIMATE CHANGE
Ex. 12. Have you ever heard about climate change? What does it mean? Match the questions to
the answers about climate change.
1. What is climate change?
2. What is the ‘greenhouse effect?’ 3. What is the
evidence of global warming?
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4. How will the weather change?
5. What is the international community doing?
A. Sea levels have risen by 10 – 20 cm. This is due to the expansion of warming oceans.
Temperature records show that the average temperature has increased by about 0.6ºC in the 20th
century.
B. The Kyoto Protocol (1997) commits industrialized countries to reduce their greenhouse gas
emissions. It suffered a huge set back in 2001 when the USA, responsible for a quarter of global
emissions, pulled out.
C. The planet’s climate is constantly changing but now scientists believe that the extreme changes
taking place today are a result of human activity. The changes we see today may affect the
stability of the climate on which much life on the planet depends.
D. The term refers to the role played by the layer of gases, including carbon dioxide, methane and
nitrous oxide, which trap the heat from the sun in the earth’s atmosphere. We need the layer to
keep in some of the heat but now the concentration of gases, especially CO2 is increasing and
retaining more heat.
E. It is difficult to predict, but we can expect more extreme weather conditions like floods, storms
and heat waves. Scientists believe there will be more rain but also a higher risk of drought in
inland areas
[www.teachingenglish.org.uk]

Ex. 13. Look at the pictures and the words in the box. Use the words to describe the pictures.
[18]

climate change drought heatwave crop damage/fail


wild fires high temperatures destroyed housing floods
landslide decrease/increase in rainfall global warming gale-force winds
tropical storm water shortage destruction and death toll
Put the words from the box into the columns.
Extreme weather events Effects/consequences of extreme weather
events

Ex. 14. Watch the video about the causes of climate change and answer the questions below.

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1. What is the driving force behind the world climate?
2. What is long wave radiation?
3. What is the role of green-house gases in the world temperature?
4. Are all climate variations absolutely natural? Why/why not? 5. What is the role of volcano
eruptions for earth’s climate?
6. How is the problem of overpopulation connected with the problem of climate change?
7. Why is CO2 dangerous?
8. How is carbon dioxide rate in the atmosphere connected with deforestation?
9. Do scientists know how much the temperature will increase in future? Why/why not?
10. What effects on the planet can temperature changes have?
11. What does “positive feedback mechanism” mean?
12. Why does ice melting warm up the planet eventually?
13. Why is reliable scientific research so vital?
14. In what way is climate change is a moral issue?
15. Why do people tend to say that climate change is not a problem?
16. Is the end of the video optimistic or pessimistic? Why?
Fill in the table below with some facts from the video and prepare a talk about Climate Change.
Causes Consequences

Essay and exam topics


1. World climate
2. Seasons in Rostov
3. Climate change is one of the burning issues of the modern world

MОDULE 3
EXTREME WEATHER
CONDITIONS

Ex. 1. Look at the pictures and briefly skim the blogposts. Try to guess what countries people
come from.

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Read the blogposts again and tick the right box(es). In which blog does someone …
Blog1 Blog2 Blog3
1. go out inspite of a severe weather warning
2. seem to be a foreigner living abroad
3. have fun in spite of the weather
4. complain about how the weather makes him/her feel
5. talk about problems with transport
6. describe how surprised people are by the weather
7. criticize some people for doing something
8. talk about the damage caused by the weather
9. complain that people are not well prepared to cope with the
weather
Would any of these three types of weather be surprising where you live? Have you had any
surprising weather where you live recently?
[15] Ex. 2.
Write a short blog like this one describing what the weather has been like recently. Talk about
how it has made you feel and how it has affected what you have been doing.

Ex. 3. A) Listen and answer the questions [3].


1. Where were the two people when they experienced extreme weather?
2. What kind of weather did each person experience?
3. How did they feel?
4. What did they do as a result of the weather?
B) Complete the summary of the second story by putting the verbs into the correct tense.
We were in Israel and we ________ (visit) this town called Acre. It __________ (be) boiling all say
and in the evening we ____________ (take) a walk along the old walls to look at the view across the
bay when suddenly we __________ (see) this incredible forked lightning. It __________ (start)
spitting and then just two seconds later, it started pouring doen. As we _________ (not bring) an
umbrella, we just _______ (run) to the nearest café we ______ (can) find. It can’t have been more
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than a minute, but we got absolutely soaked. I must have emptied like a litre of water out of my
shoes.
C) In pairs, retell the first story from listening. Then listen again to check who
remembers all the details.

Ex. 4. Your are going to listen to six short conversations. As you listen, try to
answer these questions [4].
a) What kind of weather are the people talking about?
b) What kind of problems do they mention?
Listen to the conversations again and complete each sentence with TWO words.
1a. The pitch was ____________, so it was too muddy to play on.
1b. I could _____________ warming up a bit.
2a. I thought they said it __________________ to be nice and sunny today.
2b. _ ___________________ them having the reception in the garden if it stays like this.
3a. She just really _____________ the heat.
3b. ______________ that, though, it was amazing!
4a. They’ve put an announcement saying it’s ____________________. 4b.
Anyway, listen, I’m almost ______________ money, so I’d better go. 5a. I was
____________________ a minor car crash.
5b.We went skidding off the road through all these bushes and we ______________ in the field.
6a. No, it’s ____________________ at this time of year.
6b. You’ve made your point, Jurgen. There’s ______________ to rub it in!

Ex. 5. Listen to the coversations again, following the script given below. Underline the phrases
that are difficult for understanding because of phonemic features. Learn two extracts by heart
copying the pronunciation.
Conversation 1
A You’re back home early, love.
B. Yeah. I know. It was rained off. The pitch was completely waterlogged, so it was too muddy to
play on. It was like a mud bath! They’ve postponed it till near the end of the season.
A Oh well, never mind. Do you want a cup of tea?
B. Oh, yes please. Could do with warming up a bit.
Conversation 2
A I thought they said it was supposed to be nice and sunny today.
B: I know. It’s started spitting outside. It's going to bucket down any minute. I can’t see them having
the reception in the garden if it stays like this.
A Me neither. Do you think they'll have enough room if they have to move everything indoors?
B: I don't know. We’ll have to wait and see, I guess.
Conversation 3
A: So how was Malaysia! Did you have a good time?
B: Yeah. it was amazing! Well, I enjoyed It anyway. I'm not sure my mum would want to go there
again, though.
A Oh no! How come?
B: She just really couldn’t handle the heat. I mean, it is a bit much,to be honest. When you first get
off the plane, it's like walking into a wall. You start sweating like a pig almost at once!
A Ugh! That doesn’t sound much fun.

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B: No, I know. You have to wear really light clothes and shower every few hours or so. My mum
started getting a heat rash too, which was pretty much the final straw for her! Apart from That,
though, it was amazing!
Conversation 4
A Hello. Johnson Learning.
B: Oh hi, Stef. It's me, Richard. Listen, I'm stuck in Amsterdam. My flight’s been grounded. It’s been
blowing a gale for hours and they've just put out an announcement saying it's delayed indefinitely, so
could you let whoever was supposed to be picking me up from Heathrow know. And I’ll all you
when I hear more news, OK.
A 0K. Sorry!
B; Oh well,there's nothing you can do about it, is there! Anyway. listen, I'm almost out of money, so
I'd better go. See you. Bye.
Conversation 5
A What happened to your face?
B: Oh, nothing much, just a few cuts and bruises. I was involved in a minor car crash.
A You’re kidding? How did that happen?
B: I was coming back from up north last weekend. It'd been snowing for ages and then it dropped to
minus God knows what during the night and by morning all the roads were thick with ice. Anyway,
this cab driver came to pick us up and take us to the airport and I don’t know if he’d been drinldng or
not… A It's always possible, up there!
B: Yeah, or if it was just because the roads were so slippery, but about five minutes after we set of,
we went skidding off the road and through all these bushes and ended up in this field.We were lucky
no-one was really hurt. We could've been killed!
Conversation 6
A. The 16.42 service to Oxford will be delayed for up to half an hour due to leaves on the line.
B: Oh, that's bloody typical!
C: Because of what was it? Did he say there was something on the line.’ B: Yeah,
it'll be leaves on the line.
C; Leaves! From trees! You're joking. aren’t you?
B: No, it's not uncommon at this time of year. The leaves fall off the trees, land on the line and then
get turned into a kind of slimy mush, which makes the line really slippery. When the driver tries to
brake, the train just carries on! It’s really dangerous. And some leaves are worse than others — so the
joke among passengers if a train is late is — it must be the wrong leaves again!
C: I've heard everything now! In Germany this would be impossible! Leaves on the line! You know
this could only happen here in England!
B: Listen, I'm not proud of it, OK!
C: Leaves on the line! Wait till I tell my friends back home! Nobody will believe me!
B: OK. OK.You’ve made your point. Jurgen.There's no need to rub it in! I never said it was perfect
here!

Ex. 6. Weather problems. Complete the sentences with the words in the box.
Blisters dropped power cut sunburnt Bucketing
down froze over snowed in
1. It was ____________ and all the parents drove their kids to school rather than
letting them walk, so the traffic was horrendous!
2. There was a blizzard and we got totally _________. We had to literally dig
ourselves out.
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3. There was a huge storm and then there was a _______________. We didn’t have any
electricity for about three days!
4. It ____________ to about minus twenty and all the rivers ________________.
5. I’m not really used to hot weather and it was absolutely scorching, so I got really badly
__________. It was horrible. I came out in _________________ everywhere.
Now complete these sentences with the words from the box.
chaos foggy skidded tailback downpour
icy soaked visibility
1. There was so much black ice on the roads we actually ________________ right off at one
point. We were lucky no one was hurt.
2. It rained for about ten hours non-stop and then it all froze during the night, so it was total
__________ on the rods in the morning.
3. It was the middle of winter and the roads were really ______________ and there’d been an
accident, so there was a huge __________________ on the motorway.
4. The drive back from the coast was a nightmare! It was really ______________ and it was
night-time, so we had almost zero _______________.
5. I got ____________________ cycling in to work yesterday! It was nice and sunny when I left
my house, but then suddenly the skies opened and I got caught in this __________.
Add some details to each sentence to make a short story.

Ex. 7. Write the correct words under the drawings below. Choose from those given in the box
below.

avalanche flood hurricane earthquake


drought forest fire volcanic eruption
Read the short text given and think of the possible consequences of the weather conditions
described [11].
FREAK STORMS DEVASTATE THE CITY
Yesterday freak weather conditions hit the south-west of England. Gale-force winds caused a
lot of damage to property. A number of buildings were destroyed, roofs were torn off and fences
were blown down. Several rivers burst their banks.

Ex. 8. Now try to work out which of the disasters the following people are talking about.

a. ‘It’s terrible! We haven’t had any rain now for over a year. The rivers are almost dry and if we
don’t get rain soon thousands of people are going to die.’

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b. ‘Suddenly the ground started shaking. Next thing, a big gap appeared in the road and the building
opposite collapsed. I’ve never been so frightened in all my life.
c. ‘We’re very lucky to be alive! Two more hours and the whole village would have been covered
with hot lava. It’s a miracle we managed to get away in time. And to think that we were taking
photographs of the volcano just two days before, when everything was so calm and peaceful.’
d. ‘It was our first visit to Florida and of course we’d heard about them before, but it’s only when
you’re there that you see just how strong the winds are and how much damage they can do. My
wife saw a whole roof being blown off and a car flying through the air. No, I think we’ll stick to
Spain next year – it’s safer.’
e. ‘The mountain looked all right and the snow seemed very firm when we were skiing. Then
suddenly it happened. It felt as if the whole mountain was moving. And the snow came down so
quickly. Thank God I’d decided to stop half an hour before it happened. Some others staying at
the hotel weren’t so lucky. They’re still trying to find them underneath all the snow.’
f. ‘The river overflowed its banks. Well, it was bound to happen after so many weeks of rain. There
was water everywhere. We had to sit on our roof and wait for someone to rescue us. It was pretty
frightening, I can tell you, as the water was rising by a couple of inches every hour.’
g. ‘My girlfriend and I were fishing by a lake when we first spotted it, or rather smelt it. Fortunately,
we had a car phone and were able to report it. But it still took a very long time to put out, and
nearly half the trees have been destroyed.’

Ex. 9. Study the table below and give Russian equivalents/English synonyms to the
expressions given. Collocations with storm
Verb + storm Common expressions
Storms break Be badly damaged in a storm
Storms strike Be blown down/off in a storm
Storms destroy Be struck by lightning in a storm
Storms rage Be wrecked in a storm
Storms die down Be uprooted in a storm
Be caught in a storm
Sleep through a storm

Complete the sentences with the expressions from the box.


1. Hundreds of people were made homeless when severe storms __________ the east coast of
America.
2. A violent storm _____________ just as we reached the beach and we had to run for shelter.
3. A terrible storm _________ for two whole days. We couldn’t leave our hotel til it had
____________ down. It was terrifying!
4. The old church was completely ________ in the great storm of 1954.
5. We were caught _______ a heavy storm on the way home last night. 6. I don’t know how you
managed to sleep __________ the thunderstorm. Collocations with earthquake and flood
Verb + earthquake Flood + verb Flood + noun
adj. + earthquake

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Predict an earthquake Floods cause damage Flood damage
Survive earthquake Floods cut the area off Flood victim
Withstand an earthquake Floods hit the area Flood warning
Set off an earthquake Floods sweep things away Flood waters recede
Earthquake hits Adj.+flood
Earthquake devastates Severe/devastating/
Earthquake shakes buildings catastrophic flood
Earthquake-prone region
To be prone to earthquake
Complete the sentences with the word from the box in the correct form.
1. Most buildings in Tokyo are designed to ____________ an earthquake. It is always the older
buildings that sustain the greater damage.
2. A major earthquake will probably __________ Los Angeles within the next 50 years.
3. In the future, scientists hope to become more accurate in ___________ earthquakes. But
persuading people to leave their homes is another matter.
4. A huge earthquake measuring 7.5 on the Richter Scale _________ the whole region. There are
only a few buildings left standing.
5. The earthquake __________ a lot of buildings in the area, but the tremors were not powerful
enough to cause any of them to collapse.
6. There are fears that slight tremors that we’ve experienced in recent months may _________ off a
full-scale earthquake.
7. The floods have ______ off a number of villages in the area. Rescue teams are using boats to get
food and drinking water to the flood __________.
8. The region was ________ by a series of flash floods. There was no time to issue flood warning
and hundreds of people got drowned as a result.
9. Heavy flood have __________ away homes and roads in the area. Villagers have to wait till the
flood waters _________ before they can return back home.
10. These _______ floods have _________ widespread destruction. It’ll be months before the flood
damage is cleared up.
11. After the _________ flood, the government declared the state of emergency.
12. The western coast of America is _________ to earthquakes.

Ex. 10. Chose the most suitable words in bold type


1. Could you close the window? There’s a bit of a current/draught.
2. I’m soaked, I got caught in a downpour/torrent.
3. The match had to be cancelled because of the severe frost/freezing.
4. Last year this tree was struck by lightning/thunder/a storm.
5. I like spring best, when the apple trees are in blooming/blossom/flowers.
6. When I want to relax, I go for a walk in the countryside/nature/outside.
7. In this part of the country, the earth/the land/the soil is quite expensive.
8. Suddenly we saw a ship appear on the atmosphere/horizon/sky. We were saved.
9. We got soaked to the skin in the torrential drizzle/downpour/snow.
10. The fields were flooded after the river burst its banks/edges/sides.
11. After the rain the street was full of floods/lakes/puddles.
12. I think it’s going to rain. It’s very clouding/clouded/cloudy.
13. The church caught fire when it was struck by hurricane/lightning/thunder.

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Ex. 11. Pre-reading task. Discuss these questions with the partner: What is a natural hazard?
What natural hazards do you know? What causes them? Do you think people can always
predict them? Then read the text below and answer the questions after it.
NATURAL HAZARDS
Natural hazards are dangers arising from geological or weather-related occurrences, such as
earthquakes, volcanoes, floods, hurricanes, or tornadoes. The most familiar and publicized hazards
are those that take place without warning, often of catastrophic dimensions. The most spectacular
natural hazards are earthquakes and the eruption of volcanoes, both of which occur on the crustal
plate boundaries and are consequently characteristic of certain areas, in particular the Pacific Rim.
Earthquake is shaking of the Earth’s surface caused by rapid movement of the Earth’s rocky
outer layer. Earthquakes occur when energy stored within the Earth, usually in the form of strain in
rocks, suddenly releases. This energy is transmitted to the surface of the Earth by earthquake waves.
Earthquakes can deform the ground, make buildings and other structures collapse, and create
tsunamis (large sea waves). Lives may be lost in the resulting destruction. The intensity of an
earthquake is measured on the Richter scale. Although there is no upper limit to the Richter scale,
earthquakes of magnitude 8 or greater are rare. Earthquakes can also cause water in lakes and
reservoirs to oscillate, or slosh back and forth. The water oscillations are called seiches. Seiches can
cause retaining walls and dams to collapse and lead to flooding and damage downstream.
Tsunami is a Japanese word, meaning “harbor wave”. It is used as the scientific term for
seismic sea wave generated by an undersea earthquake or possibly an undersea landslide or volcanic
eruption. When the ocean floor is tilted or offset during an earthquake, a set of waves is created
similar to the concentric waves generated by an object dropped into the water. Most tsunamis
originate along the Ring of Fire, a zone of volcanoes and seismic activity that encircles the Pacific
Ocean. A tsunami can have wavelengths, or widths, of 100 to 200 km, and may travel hundreds of
kilometers across the deep ocean, reaching speeds of about 725 to 800 km/h. Tsunamis have
tremendous energy because of the great volume of water affected. They are capable of obliterating
coastal settlements and can cause more death and damage than ground shaking.
Volcano is a mountain or hill formed by the accumulation of materials erupted through one or
more openings (called volcanic vents) in the earth’s surface. Volcanic eruptions can have massive
effects on a global as well as local scale. Volcanic eruptions in populated regions are a significant
threat to people, property, and agriculture. The danger is mostly from fast-moving, hot flows of
explosively erupted materials, falling ash, and highly destructive lava flows and volcanic debris
flows. In addition, explosive eruptions, even from volcanoes in unpopulated regions, can eject ash
high into the atmosphere, creating drifting volcanic ash clouds that pose a serious hazard to airplanes.
Thunderstorm occurs whenever hot and humid air rises rapidly. Electrical charges build up in
the rising air as moisture condenses, clouds form, and rain begins to fall. When the negative charges
in the clouds make contact with the positive charges on the earth’s surface, a streak of lightning
flashes across the sky. Thunder, the shock waves caused by the lightning bolt, rumbles after the flash.
Lightning is one of nature’s most dangerous elements. Each lightning bolt carries a powerful electric
charge. When these charges touch people or buildings, they can cause death and property damage.
Tropical hurricanes are the worst and most widespread natural hazard, causing damage not
only directly by wind action but also by flooding. Hurricanes are migratory tropical cyclones that
originate over oceans in certain regions near the equator, and particularly to those arising in the West
Indian region, including the Caribbean Sea and the Gulf of Mexico. Hurricane-type cyclones in the
western Pacific are known as typhoons. The strength of a hurricane is rated from 1 to 5. The mildest,
Category 1, has winds of at least 120 km/h. The strongest (and rarest), Category 5, has winds that
exceed 250 km/h. Once formed the storms are circular, with “eyes” of very low pressure at their
centers. The air in the eye usually remains calm, but winds swirl around it at high speeds.
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Tornadoes – rapidly rotating circular storms, extending from within a thundercloud down to
ground level, particularly prevalent in the United States – also cause substantial damage. The
strongest tornadoes may sweep houses from their foundations, destroy brick buildings, toss cars and
school buses through the air, and even lift railroad cars from their tracks. Tornadoes vary in diameter
from tens of meters to nearly 2 km. Most tornadoes in the northern hemisphere create winds that
blow counterclockwise around a center of extremely low atmospheric pressure. In the southern
hemisphere the winds generally blow clockwise. Peak wind speeds can range from near 120 km/h to
almost 500 km/h. The United States has the highest average annual number of tornadoes in the world,
about 800 per year.
When it rains or snows, some of the water is retained by the soil, some is absorbed by
vegetation, some evaporates, and the remainder, which reaches stream channels, is called runoff.
Floods occur when soil and vegetation cannot absorb all the water; water then runs off the land in
quantities that cannot be carried in stream channels or retained in natural ponds and constructed
reservoirs. Periodic floods occur naturally on many rivers, forming an area known as the flood plain.
These river floods often result from heavy rain, sometimes combined with melting snow, which
causes the rivers to overflow their banks; a flood that rises and falls rapidly with little or no advance
warning is called a flash flood. Flash floods usually result from intense rainfall over a relatively small
area. Coastal areas are occasionally flooded by unusually high tides induced by severe winds over
ocean surfaces, or by tsunamis. Floods not only damage property and endanger the lives of humans
and animals, but have other effects as well. Rapid runoff causes soil erosion as well as sediment
deposition problems downstream. Spawning grounds for fish and other wildlife habitat are often
destroyed.
The term drought is applied to a period in which an unusual scarcity of rain causes a serious
hydrological imbalance: water-supply reservoirs empty, wells dry up, and crop damage ensues. The
severity of the drought is gauged by the degree of moisture deficiency, its duration, and the size of
the area affected. If the drought is brief, it is known as a dry spell, or partial drought. Droughts tend
to be more severe in some areas than in others. Catastrophic droughts generally occur at latitudes of
about 15°-20°, in areas bordering the permanently arid regions of the world.
Quite often droughts create conditions leading to wild-land fires. Wild-land fires occur in
undeveloped areas of land and are fueled by forest or grassland vegetation. The leading causes of
wild-land fires are lightning and human-caused ignitions, including those from equipment exhaust,
abandoned campfires, cigarettes, and arson. Such fires destroy forested areas as well as homes and
property bordering these areas. Small-scale, periodic wild-land fires can actually improve the health,
resilience, and productivity of an ecosystem. When these fires do not occur often enough, however,
flammable vegetation can build up, leading to a large-scale fire that harms plant and animal species.
Natural hazards characteristic of mountain areas are called avalanches and landslides.
Avalanche is a sudden flow of a large mass of snow or ice down a slope or cliff, sometimes at speeds
exceeding 160 km/h. Such flows can be destructive of life and property. Pelletlike snow (graupnel) is
also more prone to avalanche than a fall of ordinary snowflakes. Flows of wind-packed slabs of snow
can be especially hazardous. Avalanches are set off by a combination of factors, including
temperature, shearing of creeping snow masses, and sudden vibrations, including loud noises. A
landslide is a similar massive movement of rock and soil down a mountain slope. Landslides may
occur when water from rain and melting snow sinks through the earth on top of a slope, seeps
through cracks and pore spaces in underlying sandstone, and encounters a layer of slippery material,
such as shale or clay, inclined toward the valley. Some great landslide masses move slowly and
spasmodically for years, causing little destruction. Earthquakes and volcanic eruptions can also cause
severe, fast-moving landslides.

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Many natural hazards, such as earthquakes, volcanoes, and hurricanes are unavoidable, but
measures can be taken to minimize their impact. Thus buildings can be constructed to withstand
earthquakes, and techniques are being developed to predict their occurrence.
 Answer the questions:
1. What is a natural hazard? 2. Where do earthquakes and eruptions of volcanoes mostly occur?
3. What is the origin of the word “tsunami”? What is a tsunami? 4. Why do volcanoes represent a
significant threat to people and property? 5. What is an ”eye” of the hurricane? In what countries do
tornadoes occur? 6. What causes floods? How can floods endanger people and property? 7. What
term is applied to a period of unusual scarcity of rain? 8. Where do wild-land fires occur? 9. What are
the possible causes of wild-land and forest fires? 10. What is the difference between an avalanche
and a landslide? 11. Where do the landslides mostly occur? 12. Can we avoid natural hazards? 13.
What measures can be taken to minimize the impact of natural hazards? 14. What natural hazards
have taken place in Russia recently? 15. Have you ever been a witness of any natural hazard? If so,
what natural hazard have you witnessed? 16. What natural hazards is Russia prone to? 17. Which of
them do you consider to be the most devastating ones?

Ex. 12. The effects of disasters. Complete the short conversations with the words in the boxes
[4].
flash recede stranded submerged
A: So did all the flooding last year affect you?
S: Yes, it was awful. It was (1)_________ flooding, so the river went up 15, 16 feet overnight. By the
time we woke up, the ground floor was totally (2)_________ and everything was ruined. We were
(3) __________ upstairs and we just had to sit tight and wait for the waters to (4)___________.
A: Really? That must have been awful!
control deliberately evacuated flames ground
A: So were your parents affected by all the forest fires?
B: Yeah, they were. Their village was (1)__________ and they had to go and stay with my uncle for
a few days until the firefighters got everything under (2)____________. The next village along from
them was pretty much burnt to the (3)__________ though. Everything just went up in (4)
____________. My mom was telling me they now think it might all have been started (5)
___________.
A: Really? What kind of person would do that?
almighty fleeing sheer terrifying eruption lit up terrified tremors A: So
was the area you were staying in affected by the volcano?
S: Yeah, totally! It was (1)___________, it really was. Apparently, they’d been feeling
(2)___________ for s few weeks and then the night before the (3) _____________, all these strange
lights (4)__________ the night sky. The at around 5 in the morning, there was an
(5)__________bang – like a huge explosion – and all those enormous clouds of ash and smoke
started pouring out. People started (6)____________ their homes to escape the lava. There was just
(7) _________ panic everywhere!
A: God! You must’ve been absolutely (8)____________!

Ex. 13. You’re going to listen to Martin Ginert from Prague talking about the night the River
Vltava flooded. Mark the sentences T (true) or F (false) [15].
1. His office wasn’t at risk but his flat was.
2. He took his wife and child to his parents’ house.
3. He went back to the flat because he was excited by the situation.
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4. Martin went to a place near his flat to watch the water level rising.
5. He looked out of the window and saw that his car park was starting to flood.
6. He was the last person to leave his block of flats.
7. All of the roads he tried were flooded now.
8. He decided to follow another car through the water.
9. Martin’s car broke down as he drove through the water.
10. All the flats in his building were seriously damaged. What do you think you would do in
Martin’s situation?

Ex. 14. In small groups talk about a time when you were somewhere when
• There was flood/downpour
• It was very foggy or there was bad smog
• It was unbearably cold
• It was pouring with rain for days on end
• There was a gale or a hurricane
• There was a terrible heatwave
• You were caught outside in a thunderstorm
What were you doing at the time? What did you do to protect yourself from the weather? How did
you feel?

Exam and essay topics


1. Natural disasters: causes and consequences
2. Extreme weather conditions

Section 2. Vocabulary 1.
WEATHER AND CLIMATE
1. awful weather 21. frosty w. 41. wretched w. 58. earth's
2. bad w. 22. glorious w. 42. windy w. climates:
3. beastly w. 23. humid w. 43. spell  equatorial
4. bright w. 24. intermittent w. 44. to brighten up /tropical
5. broken w. 25. jolly w. 45. to clear up (rain) zone
6. catch-cold w. 26. lovely w. 46. to be subject to  arid zones
7. chilly w. 27. marvelous w. semiarid
changes 
8. clear w. 28. mild w. climate desert
47. to change for better zone steppe
9. close w. 29. misty w.
10. cool w. 30. moist w. 48. to turn bad  zone
11. damp w. 31. muggy w. temperate rain
12. disappointing w. 32. nasty w. 49. to grow  zone snow
13. dismal w. 33. patchy w. hot/warm/cold  forest climate
14. dreary w. 34. raw w. 50. weather forecast polar climate
15. dry w. 35. soft w. tundra climate
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36. stormy w. 51. weather lore perpetual
37. sultry-hot w. frost climate

38. sunny w. 52. weather sign
39. variable w. 53. weatherman/
40. unsettled w.

meteorologist

54. weather chart/map

55. dry climate
56. humid c.
57. moderate

Some useful words and expressions


1. A change is coming in the weather 9. The air is stifling
2. We are in for a spell of good weather 10. It is suffocating
3. We are in for some rain (storm, frost, etc.) 11. I feel oppressed with the heat
4. The weather is improving 12. The heat is abating
5. The weather turns bad 13. The weather is subject to changes
6. It is unbearable hot 14. It brightens up
7. The weather is becoming sultry 15. It is getting/growing hot/warm/cold
8. The heat is oppressive 16. Indian summer
ATMOSPHERIC LIGHT
sunrise / dawn /sunup at dusk/in the pitch dark
(Am) at the crack of the dusk twilight at gloom
dawn to break a ray of twilight sunset/nightfall/sundown
light morning (Am.)
to slant twilight it’s sunshine
dim growing dusk sun tan
dusk dark
to grow (get, become) dark

2. ATMOSPHERE
1. sky • overcast sky • layer clouds
• clear/cloudless sky • starlit sky • rain clouds
• fair sky 2. clouds • tatters of clouds
• partly cloudy sky • to be cast/overcast with • shred
• cloudy sky clouds • strand
• cloudless sky • thunderclouds 3. rainbow
• leaden sky • heap/woolpack clouds 4. warm front
• mackerel sky • cirrus clouds 5. cold front
6. precipitation • to slacken • a gust/blast of
• precipitation of uniform • wind direction wind  a violent rush of w.
intensity • against the wind • a hurricane
• scattered precipitation • in the teeth of the wind • a squall

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• precipitation area • before the wind • storm
7. weather chart • biting (keen, sharp) wind • tempest
8. atmospheric pressure • brisk/ fresh • tornado
9. low-pressure area • calm wind • whirlwind
10. cyclone • chilly wind • windy
11. depression • cutting (piercing) w. 18. warm airstream (current)
12. high-pressure area • dry w. 19. cold airstream (current)
13. anticyclone • fair wind 20. draught
14. meteorological watch • fitful wind 21. greenhouse effect
office • off-shore wind 22. dust
15. weather station • slight wind • dusty
16. temperature • windswept • to cover with the dust
17. wind • a puff (breath) of w. • to raise the dust
• to blow • a breeze • the dust settled
• to swirl • a gale • to lay the dust
• to die down/away

Some useful expressions


Wind Sky

1. The wind is getting stronger 1. The sky has clouded


2. The wind howls 2. The sky is overcast with low, black clouds
3. The cold wind blew full in the face 3. The clouds are dispersing and the sun is
(directly in our teeth) appearing again
4. A cold biting wind almost swept me off my 4. The clouds have gone and the stars are feet
coming
5. There isn’t a breath of air 5. The clouds build up
6. A soft wind scarcely stirred the leaves 6. The clouds die away
7. The wind has abated 7. The sky is clean/clear 8. to be caught in the storm 8. It
clears up
Shadow 9. The stars peeped out
to cast a shadow Heat
shade stuffy heat drought
temperature in the shade burning heat heatwave
oppressive (close, stifling, sultry) h.

3. TYPES OF PRECIPITATION
1. fog  swirling mist  raindrop  heavy/pouring/pelt
• dense (thick) fog  misty  to drip heavy mist ing/driving/torrenti
• foggy  continuous r. smog al r. intermittent r.

• pea-soup fog  abundant r.  lasting r.
 light/slight rain
• haze to mount/lift/clear  acid rain 
• hazy  moderate r.
away  drizzling rain  occasional rains
• in a haze
 to steam up  electrical storm  passing rain
• brume
• mist 2. rain  fine/small rain  quiet/slight rain

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• rainy  glazed rain 
• rainwater 
• patchy r. • thunder, to thunder • snowfall/ snowing • to melt
• slanting r.  roll of thunder  new-fallen snow • to thaw
• steady r.  sand s. 6. ice pellets (soft
• widespread r.  • thunderbolt • spring s. hail)
rainfall • to rumble 7. hail, to hail
• powdery s. 
• heavy rainfall • pool • to mingle with hail
tapioca s. 
• excessive rainfall • puddle • shower of hail
untrodden snow  8. ice
• downpour • mud
violent drift s. • icicle
• drench • muddy
• drizzle, to drizzle • splashes of mud • water s.  wild s. • ice drift/ ice floating
• rainstorm • mire • snowflakes • ice cake/ piece of
• shower • miry • snowdrift ice
• thunderstorm • rain curtain • (mixed) rain and • icing/ice accretion
• torrents (n., pl) • a veil of rain snow • ice floe
• to fall • stream • blizzard • icebound
• to slacken • to stream • snowbound • to melt  Ice Age
• to pour • rainbow • snowcapped 9. dew
• lightning/flash • rainmaking/ • snowdrift • to bedew
• snow creep
• flash of lightning rainmaker • morning dew 
• to smite (smote, • rainless • snow slide
evening d.
smitten) • rainless storm • snowball
• light d.
• to be seared with the 3. sleet; to sleet • snowman
• heavy d.
flash • snow-broth
4. slush  slushy • white d.
• to flicker • thaw/snow-break
5. snow, to snow • yesterday night d.
• snowstorm
• dewy
• snowless
Some useful expressions
1. to get under the rain 17. The rain has laid down the dust a little
2. to be soaked to the skin/wet 18. I’m simply soaked through (drenched)
3. to stay out in the rain 19. I haven’t a dry stitch on
4. to get out of the rain 20. I’ve got a good ducking, I’m wet to the bone
5. It looks (feels) like rain 21. We haven’t had a drop of rain ever since last
6. These clouds omen rain month
7. It keeps on raining 22. to be caught in a storm
8. It’s raining cats and dogs 23. It lightens
9. It’s coming down in sheets 24. There is a thunderstorm hanging about
10. It’s raining pitchforks 25. It sounds like thunder
11. It’s beastly wet 26. A flash of lightning lit the sky
12. It rained now and then 27. Peals of thunder were heard
13. It’s leaving off 28. Dazzling flashes of lightning were followed
14. It will clear up by a clap of thunder
15. I was caught in the rain 29. It looks like snow
16. A drizzling piercing rain continued all 30. The snow is falling thick
day 31. We had a heavy fall of snow (snowfall)
yesterday
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32. The snow is just sprinkling 34. Last year we had a green winter
33. It’s a rather snowy winter 35. Snow-drifts surrounded us from all sides
36. to play snowballs/to have а snowball fight
Frost
1. to frost 16. ringing frost 30. The cold searched my
2. to freeze 17. slight frost marrow (I am chilled to the
3. frosty 18. to get cold marrow/bone)
4. black frost 19. to get stiff/numb with cold 31. There’s been a drop in the
5. white frost 20. to have a frost-bitten nose temperature
6. early frost 21. to frostbite 32. The air is stingingly cold
7. hard/sharp/bitter frost 22. frost bitten 33. There is a nip in the air
8. frost mist 23. frost bite 34. The air has a sting in it
9. hoarfrost/ frost dew 24. It’s perishing cold 35. We had a cold snap
10. 9 degrees of frost 25. It’s below freezing point yesterday
11. frost bound 26. It’s a sharp (ringing) frost 36. It’s freezing hard today
12. frostproof/frost-resistant 27. The frost breaks 37. I’m chilled to the bone
13. frost work/ice feathers 28. The air is frosty 38. like the bolt from the blue
14. glazed frost/ice frost 29. My hands are numb with 39. rain or shine
15. ground frost cold 40. It’s important as snow

4. Natural Disasters
1. avalanche 8. hurricane
2. blizzard 9. mudslide
3. cyclone 10. tsunami (tidal waves)
4. drought 11. tornadoes
5. earthquake 12. volcanic eruption
6. flood 13. whirlwind 14. waterspout
7. forest fire

Section 3
STUDENT’S LIFE
MОDULE 1
DAILY
ROUTINE

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Ex. 1. Introductory reading. Read the following text and answer the questions below [9].
I'm in the first year at the university, where I'm studying English. My elder sister, Betty, is
studying history at the same university. Betty can organise her time wisely, whereas I do not know
what order I should do things in. I find it hard to get up on time, and usually I do not get enough
sleep. I have to wind two alarm-clocks to make sure I do not oversleep. My sister, an early riser, is
awake by 7 o'clock, refreshed and full of energy. While I'm wandering round the kitchen, fighting
the urge to go back to bed, my sister manages to have a quick shower, make her bed, put on
makeup, do her hair, eat a full breakfast and set off to the university. It takes me an hour and a
half to get ready. I have a hasty bite and rush out of the house. Even if I catch a bus at once I
still arrive at the university 15 minutes late, which always makes me feel guilty. My studies keep
me busy all day long. I have 14 hours of English a week. I also have lectures and seminars. At
lunchtime I meet up with my sister and we have a snack at the university cafe. After classes I make
myself go to the library where I spend about six hours a week reading for my seminars. My sister
and I come home tired. I always find excuses to put my homework off. Unlike me, my sister
manages to do the housework and get down to homework. I like the idea of going to bed early,
but quite often I have to sit up late, brushing up on my grammar and vocabulary, though I feel
sleepy. My sister says that keeping late hours ruins one's health. Of course, I agree. As my sister
and I do not get any time off during the week, we try to relax on the weekends. One of my greatest
pleasures is to lie in bed and read my favourite books. My sister is a sporty person. To keep fit,
Betty goes for a run in the park; from time to time she works out in the gym. I hate staying in, and
sometimes on Saturday night my sister takes me out to a concert or a play. Sometimes we go to a
party or to a disco. But more often than not I end up catching up on my studies and my sister goes
out. I wonder how I manage to spoil my leisure time. Every Monday when I wake up I think I
should start a new life. I honestly think that I must become well-organized and correct my daily
routine. I make plans to go to keep-fit classes, to do shopping with my sister, to do the cleaning
and to do a hundred other good things. But then I remember that I have to call on my school friend in
the evening, and I put off my plans till next Monday. It is always better to start a new life in a week.
1. What is your usual day like? Is it very different from this girl's day?
2. What takes up most of your day?

Ex. 2. Tick the points below which you feel describe you and then talk about yourself using
adverbs of frequency.
clumsy, keep having accidents have a regular sleep pattern
feel dog tired in the evening have meals at the same time every day
get ill more often than other people skip breakfast
suffer from insomnia have sedentary lifestyle
have active lifestyle do morning exercises

Ex. 3. Is it important to have a standard daily routine? Why/why not? Read the text below to
find out [5].
’Routine’ is usually seen as a negative term nowadays, largely because we no longer
belong to a society of nine–to–fivers. We live in a world that is fast becoming a 24-hour
society, where everything is open all hours. You can buy groceries at midnight, book your
holiday on the Internet at 3am, and do business online at the crack of dawn. Before you join
the 24-hour revolution, however, take a minute to listen to what your body is trying to tell you –
that a round-the-clock lifestyle is not what nature intended.

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In an area in our brains called hypothalamus, we have a ’body clock’ that controls our
body’s natural rhythms. It tells us when it’s the right time to work, sleep, play, eat. It plays an
important part in our physical and psychological well-being. It is, in fact, what makes us tick
and it controls many things including our hormones, temperature, immune functions and
alertness. It synchronizes all these like a conductor with an orchestra; it regulates tempo and
brings in all the different instruments on time to make music rather than a random noise. If we
try to ignore our body clocks, or even to switch them off for a while, we not only deprive
ourselves of much needed rest but we also run the risk of seriously damaging our health.
Ignoring your body clock and changing your body’s natural rhythms can not only
make you depressed, anxious and accident prone, it can lead to much more serious health
problems. For example, heart disease, fatigue, ulcers, muscular pain, and frequent viral
infections can all result from trying to outsmart our body clocks. Altering our patterns of
sleeping and walking dramatically affects our immune system. While we sleep the body’s
repair mechanism are at work; when we are awake natural killer cells circulate around our
bodies and cause more damage. Our digestive system is affected, too – high levels of glucose and
fat remain in our bloodstream for longer periods on time and this can lead to heart disease.
Unfortunately, we were not designed to be members of a 24-hour society. We can't
ignore millions of years of evolution and stay up all night and sleep all day. We function best
with a regular pattern of sleep and wakefulness that is in tune with our natural
environment. Nature’s cues are what keep our body clocks ticking rhythmically and everything
is working in harmony. So, next time you think a daily routine is boring and predictable,
remember that routine may well save your life in the long run.
1. What does it in line 9 refer to?
1. our body’s natural rhythms
2. the hypothalamus
3. our body’s biological clock
4. our brain
2. What does the word tick in line 11 mean?
1. check
2. motivate
3. select
4. function
3. In what way is our body clock like the conductor of an orchestra?
1. The hypothalamus controls our actions.
2. It makes all the body’s functions work together at the right time.
3. The body clock is very precise.
4. We have a special programme.
4. If we change our sleep patterns, we 1. will
get an infection.
2. will disturb our immune system.
3. will get heart disease.
4. get high level of dangerous cells.
5. According to the text, we should
1. do things when our body clock tells us to.
2. organize our body clock according to a strict schedule.
3. use the natural environment to work out a regular routine.

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4. have a boring, slow-paced lifestyle.
6. According to the text, our body clock 1. can be
changed without harm.
2. determines when we should do things..
3. helps us to fight sleep.
4. is a boring routine.
7. The author recommends to 1. go
shopping at midnight.
2. work on the Internet at 3 am
3. do business online at dawn
4. listen to your body needs
8. Why is it important to have a standard daily routine?
1. It helps us to live in harmony with our natural environment.
2. It helps to better organize our life.
3. It helps to have regular sleep pattern.
4. It will help us to return to the society of nine-to-fivers.
9. What does the phrase round-the-clock lifestyle mean? (line 7)
1. altering our patterns of waking and sleeping
2. strict daily routine
3. predictable behaviour
4. life in accordance with our body clock
10. What is the best equivalent for the phrase the 24 hour revolution? (line 5)
1. fast evolution
2. staying up all night
3. round-the clock lifestyle
4. switching off our body clock

Ex. 4. Explain the meaning of the words and expressions marked in the text.
Check dictionary, if necessary. Make up a dialogue between a doctor and a
patient about the healthy daily routine using the expressions from the text.

Ex. 5. Daily Routines Vocabulary


Directions: Match the columns. Write the letters on the lines (several options are possible)
1. _____ get a. asleep
2. _____ take a c. breakfast
3. _____ eat b. bills
4. _____ set the d. cat
5. _____ wash the e. clothes
6. _____ go to f. coffee
7. _____ take out the g. dishes
8. _____ sweep the h. door
9. _____ wake i. dressed
10. _____ feed the j. floor
11. _____ drink k. mail
12. _____ iron your l. shopping list
13. _____ watch m. shower
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14. _____ set the n. table
15. _____ close the p. teeth
16. _____ brush your o. table
17. _____ pay the q. trash
18. _____ open the r. TV
19. _____ write a s. up
20. _____ fall t. work

Ex. 6. A) Listen to different people talking about their typical mornings.


Answer the questions.
1) How does Akane (speaker 1) make her breakfast? a) on
the stove b) in a toaster
2) What does Martin (speaker 2) do first in the morning? a)
Reads the news b) Eats breakfast
3) What does Naomi (speaker 3) do after breakfast? a) Drinks coffee
b) Prepares lessons 4) What does Jeyong (speaker 4) do last? a) Dry his hair
b) Eat something
5) Why does Mark (speaker 5) wake up early on the weekend? a)
He has to work. b) He wants to enjoy his day off 6) What are
Jeannie's (speaker 6) mornings like? a) Relaxed b)
Rushed
7) What do most people do in the morning? a)
exercise b) have breafast
c) clean the house d) take a shower
B) Learn vocabulary from the listening
Flip over - I fry my toast on one side and then flip it over.
When we 'flip something' it means we turn it over quickly. You usually flip
food when it is cooking. Notice the following:
1. Flip the burger before it burns!
2. When I cooked my first egg, I was afraid to flip it over.
Like everybody else - I take a shower like everybody else.
We use the phrase 'like everybody else' to talk about things that most people do the same way.
Notice the following:
1. I hate homework like everybody else.
2. Like everybody else, I'd like to get a good job after graduation. To be off
to (work) - I eat breakfast and then off to work I go.
'Off to' a place is simply an idiom that means to go somewhere. Notice
the following:
1. After school, I'm off to the gym.
2. Dad's off to work by 7:30 every morning.
On my way out the door - I grab a quick breakfast on my way out the door.
When you are 'on your way out the door' it means that you are leaving a
place. This means that Mark doesn't sit down and have a leisurely breakfast,
instead he either takes it and eats it while he is traveling or he eats it very
quickly before leaving. Notice the following:
1. I'm on my way out the door so I'll call you later.
2. Don't forget to turn off the lights on your way out the door.
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To squeeze - My day usually involves squeezing too many things into little time. Here,
'squeeze' means to do something when we have very little time. When you squeeze
something into your schedule it usually means that you give it less time than it deserves.
Notice the following:
1. Busy people need to squeeze in some exercise every day.
2. My schedule is full, but I'll try to squeeze you in this afternoon. C)
Listen again and fill in the gaps.
Akane, Canada
What is a typical morning for you? A typical morning for me ________ getting up with the _____
clock, __________ the news, taking a shower, and I make toast every day, but I don't have a
toaster so I have to toast my toast on the frying pan and then flip it over to the other side and then
I put margarin on it and a ____ of cheese and I have that with a cup of tea every morning.
Martin, United States
A typical morning for me is generally getting up, turning on the computer and reading the news.
After that I take a shower like everybody else, _____, and then have to have my coffee and my
_______, and then maybe a quick 5, 10 minute _______ and off to work I go.
Naomi, Australia
Usually in the morning, I'll wake up at about _____ and I'll put the ______ on and make myself a
cup of coffee. Often also, I'll toast myself some bread with butter and Veggiemite. After this,
after breakfast, I will _____ my teeth and get ready for classes.
Jeyong, South Korea
A typical morning for me would be getting up at 7 o'clock in the morning. ______ the window
and go to the bathroom, take a shower, get my hair _____, put my clothes on and have breakfast.
That ______ be a typical morning for me.
Mark, United States
A typical morning for me? I guess like anyone else, I wake up. I usually don't eat breakfast _______,
but I get a shower and ______ for work and usually ______ a quick breakfast on my way out the
door. That's typical morning on the week. On the weekend, I used to ______ but actually these day, I
like to get up earlier on the weekend, than during the week because I feel that's my one ______ day,
so I get up pretty early and usually go to do something on that Saturday or Sunday.
Jeanie, United States
OK, a typical morning for me is pretty ______. It usually involves squeezing too many things in too
little time. Ah, usually I wake up and I go ______. After which, I have to take a shower and prepare
myself for classes I'll be teaching, not just for one day, but mostly for the whole week, _______
things that have gone wrong, and things that can maybe be improved.
[Adapted from: http://www.elllo.org/english/Mixer001/T025-MorningRoutine.htm]

Ex. 7. Choose the correct word and then write a similar short paragraph about your morning:
"My typical morning starts quite early, because I don 't like getting / making ready in a hurry. My
alarm clock sounds / goes off at 6.30, then I get out of bed / from my bed and walk / go
downstairs in my dressing gown. I do / make a cup of tea and have / eat some breakfast. Then I
have / use a shower and clean / wash my teeth. Then I get clothed / dressed, order / comb my hair
and wear / put on my make-up. Then I do / make the bed and do / make the washing up. If I've got
time, I sometimes control / check my email and look at / watch the front page of the newspaper. I
never see / watch TV in the morning. I usually leave / depart the house by
8.15."

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Ex. 8. A) Listen to Elli comparing life-styles in England and Japan. Are they similar or
different? Note the things that Elli finds hard to put up with. Listen again and answer the
questions.
Answer the following questions about the interview. 1) In England, where would she eat
breakfast?
a) At home b) In a café c) At work 2) Where did she do
a lot of walking?
a) England b) Japan c) Both 3) Where does she live
in Japan?
a) City center b) The suburbs c) The countryside 4) How
is her routine here different?
a) She gets up early. b) She has a job. c) She studies all the time. 5) How
are the trains in London different than the trains in Japan?
a) They are cleaner. b) They run on time. c) They are less crowded. B)
Learn Vocabulary from the listening Scooter - I'd get on my scooter to do it.
A 'scooter' is a type of motorbike that is not very powerful and can be electric or use petrol. Notice
the following:
1. Having a scooter is very handy as it means I can park just about anywhere.
2. I can't carry many groceries when I am on my scooter.
Hassle - Walking anywhere would be just a massive hassle.
When something is a 'hassle' it means that it is a problem, difficult or frustrating. Notice the
following:
1. Please do not hassle me I am trying to concentrate on my work.
2. Traffic jams are a real hassle.
To walk one’s feet into the ground - When I first arrived, I walked my feet into the ground.
'Walking your feet into the ground' means that you have walked a very long way and you are feeling
tired. Notice the following:
1. On my first day at work I walked my feet into the ground.
2. When she takes me shopping she always walks my feet into the ground.
Bed towns - We all live out sort of in the suburbs in what we call bed towns.
'Bed towns' are areas of a city where people who work long hours live and they are only at home to
sleep. Notice the following:
1. I do not want to only go home to sleep and live in a bed town.
2. A lot of student doctors live in bed towns.
Like sardines - It's a pretty shocking experience for me, especially the hour of commuting on the
train where you're kept in like sardines.
When a lot of people are packed into a small space they are referred to as being 'like sardines.' Notice
the following:
1. We were all squeezed on to that train like sardines.
2. Airlines have so many people on planes nowadays that I feel like a sardine.
[Adapted from: http://www.elllo.org/english/0301/344-Eli-Japan.htm]

Ex. 9. Imagine that one of you have moved to Rostov from another town/city. Compare the
lifestyle and your new daily routine. Make up a dialogue on the topic.

Ex. 10. 6 minute English – Workaholics.


Warm-up: In the UK, how many hours are in the standard working week? Is it:
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a) 20 b) 40 c) 60
Find out what the correct answer is at the end of the programme! A)
Listen once and choose the best option:
1. People who work too much are called:
a. workaholics b. clock watches c. work addicted
2. If your work-life balance is OK, you get:
a. not enough time for relaxing b. enough technology in your life c. enough time for your family 3.
A “secondary issue” is:
a. a by-way to get out of work addiction b. something not as important as other things c.
tiredness 4. The “norm” is:
a. standard behaviour b. working 20 hours a day c. working late 5.
“Burn out” is:
a. Being fired b. long-term exhaustion c. emotional problems 6. Bogged
down means:
a. you have too much work b. you are not free to move c. you are creative
B) Listen for the second time: are these statements true or false? Justify your answers.
1. Everybody follows the same patterns at work.
2. Jackie is probably in danger of becoming addicted to work.
3. Having a mobile phone allows you to work from home. 4. The former workaholic we hear says
that he didn’t get enough sleep or food.
5. His boss thought it was OK to be exhausted at work.
6. Soldiers and city workers are not likely to become workaholics.
7. Frustration, anxiety and guilt are three terrible feelings experienced by workaholics.
8. Workaholism is good for productivity.
9. People who get holiday from time to time will be more productive.
10. Working 40 hours leaves you enough time for relaxing.
[6 minutes English: www.bbc.co.uk] Ex.
11. Who works in your family? Do you think these people are workaholics or do they have the
right work-life balance? Do the survey – ask these questions to working members of your
family and report to the class.
1. Do you get more excited about your work than about family or anything else?
2. Are there times when you can charge through your work and other times when you can't?
3. Do you take work with you to bed? On weekends? On vacation?
4. Is work the activity you like to do best and talk about most?
5. Do you work more than 40 hours a week?
6. Do you turn your hobbies into money-making ventures?
7. Do you take complete responsibility for the outcome of your work efforts?
8. Have your family or friends given up expecting you on time?
9. Do you take on extra work because you are concerned that it won't otherwise get done?
10. Do you underestimate how long a project will take and then rush to complete it?
11. Do you believe that it is okay to work long hours if you love what you are doing?
12. Do you get impatient with people who have other priorities besides work?
13. Are you afraid that if you don't work hard you will lose your job or be a failure?
14. Is the future a constant worry for you even when things are going very well?
15. Do you do things energetically and competitively including play?
16. Do you get irritated when people ask you to stop doing your work in order to do something else?
17. Have your long hours hurt your family or other relationships?
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18. Do you think about your work while driving, falling asleep or when others are talking?
19. Do you work or read during meals?
20. Do you believe that more money will solve the other problems in your life?
If you answer "yes" to three or more of these questions you may be a workaholic. Relax. You are not
alone.

Ex. 12. Pre-view. A) Read the title of the article. What do you think it is about? Skim to find
out.
WORKAHOLICS KISS GOODNIGHT TO SLEEP

B) Read the article below about workaholism and sleep deprivation. How are these issue
connected? Do you think it is a serious problem for the contemporary society? Why/why not?

The growing trend of UK employees working from their


beds is playing havoc with their sleeping patterns, research
suggests. The pressures of 24-seven society are forcing
many individuals to squeeze more working time out of their
day from the comfort of their bedrooms. Hard-pressed
staff are often surviving on less than the recommended eight hours sleep a night, as a
result.

One in six people taking part in the DuPont survey admitted The brain has to they
catch up on work in bed and a third said they make work- related process a lot of phone
calls from under the duvet. Others use their laptops and send e-mails information, and it's from
the bedroom. More than a third of British residents are sleeping six likely that it simply hours
can't do this
or less each night - losing a month's sleep every year. One in 10
continuously
manage five hours sleep or less each night - missing about six weeks of
Dr Derkjan Dijk,
sleep a year. Specialists say changing sleep cycles University of Surrey
can damage people's health. Research suggests that sleep deprivation
doubles the risk of a heart attack. Dr Derk-jan Dijk, a sleep researcher from the University of Surrey
at Guildford, told BBC News Online that, even for a young person, on average, six hours a sleep a
night was not enough. Even among those who believed they could cope on this amount or less, he
said, research had suggested that they were still suffering from the effects of sleep deprivation. He
said: "Whereas after a few days of sleeping these hours, the sleepiness wears off, performance
continues to decline. "The brain has to process a lot of information, and it's likely that it simply
can't do this continuously." Don't get wound up
Dr Peter Venn, director of the Sleep Studies Unit at Queen Victoria If you go to bed
Hospital in Sussex, told the BBC: "There is certainly data that has with a whirring
shown that if you don't get adequate sleep there are consequences for brain, your brain
health in later life. "It is not just the time you are in bed for that will continue to
whirr afterwards
matters, it is the quality of sleep. Even if you are sleeping alone if you have
snoring and breathing difficulties you can disrupt your own sleep."
Dr Peter Venn
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Dr Venn said it was important to prepare for sleep properly. "We all go and watch Jeremy
Paxman on Newsnight and get very wound up about things, and then we go to bed and expect to
switch off and go to sleep. But life isn't life that, if you go to bed with a whirring brain, your brain
will continue to whirr afterwards." He said hot milky drinks acted as a sedative. Sleeping alone was
best, but if you slept with a partner, it was best to use separate duvets to minimise the disturbance
created by the other person's movement.
[Adapted from: bbc.co.uk] C) Retell the article using the expressions in bold.

Ex. 13. You are going to read an article about the way teenagers sleep. Six sentences have been
removed from the article. Choose from the sentences A-G the one which
fits each gap (1-6). There is one extra sentence which you do not need to
use [23].
Understanding teenagers' sleeping habits
As we enter adolescence our sleeping patterns change drastically. It is a phase of our lives when we
seem to be able to go into the deepest sleep and not move for hours on end.
As any parent knows, rousing a sleeping adolescent can be, to put it mildly, difficult. Grumpy and
uncommunicative until later in the day, it can be just as much of a struggle to get a teen to go to bed
at night, what with homework, instant messaging, email and general late-night wakefulness. 1___ So
should we be concerned about this antisocial rite of passage? Or is there something more to an
adolescent's sleep habits? Relax. There is good news. Landmark studies into the adolescent brain
have revealed that a teen's biorhythms are in fact just what nature intended. 2 ____ As one adolescent
health care specialist comments, most parents will be familiar with the situation where the kid who
used to jump out of bed now has to be dragged out just to get on school on time'. Importantly, it's not
just a teen's shoe size that's getting bigger. 3___ While it has been well documented that 95% of
brain development takes place by the age of five years, research indicates that there is a second wave
of brain growth, which continues into the teen years and even into the 20s. During this time, new
brain cells and neural connections or 'wires', which connect the right and left sides of the brain and
are critical to intelligence, self-awareness and performance, grow like branches on a tree during the
latter stages of sleep. 4___ In other words, if you want to function really well, the best thing to do it
is to get a good night's sleep. Experts say that the average amount of sleep needed by teens is 9.5
hours. However, the reality of a typical teen life - early morning sports practice, homework and
perhaps a part-time job after school - means that most are lucky to get 7.5 hours. 5____ Yet since
there is a good deal of variation in the amount of sleep individuals need for optimum performance,
how do you tell if a teen is getting enough sleep to live up to his or her learning potential? Dr
RogerTonkin, an adolescent health care specialist, suggests that while some teens seem to be able to
cope with chronic sleep deprivation, others become irritable and apathetic. The treatment? Let him or
her sleep whenever they can, including the weekends. 'If a teen wants to sleep until noon on
Saturday,' advises Dr Tonkin, 'let him.' 6___ If you study something on Tuesday and are short of
sleep until Saturday, it's too late. You've got to get that sleep the same night.
A His or her brain is also developing rapidly at this stage.
B But according to the report, this doesn't mean that it is normal for teenagers not to get enough
sleep.
C The result is that, at the weekend, the door to their bedroom remains shut until noon — or even
later — while everyone else in the family, up for hours, goes about their business D Cut these short
and performance is likely to suffer the next day. However, catching up on sleep at the weekend,
while perfectly normal for most teens, may not help learning.
F According to new research, daytime sleepiness and late night alertness are the result of a
change in the sleep/ wake cycle as growth hormones start to work.
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G This mismatch is important because lack of sleep can affect mood and make it difficult for
a teen to perform or even react appropriately.

Ex. 14. Are you a lark or an owl?


Early birds and night owls
Do you bounce out of bed before your alarm clock
goes off each morning feeling bright and breezy? Or
do you despise it with a passion, feel groggy in the
morning and take several hours to adjust to the day?
What time of the day are you at your sharpest and
when do you feel at your lowest ebb? If you’re on
the way to a night party, do you have a sense of
dread or have a spring or bounce in your step?
Scientists are coming to believe that your genes may
determine whether you're a lark or a night-owl by nature. And that can have a profound effect on how
you cope with things like shift-work.
Take our test to find out:
1) Breakfast: how's your appetite in the first half hour after you wake up in the morning?
a) Very poor [ 1 ] b) Fairly poor [ 2 ] c) Fairly good [ 3 ] d) Very good [ 4 ] 2) For
the first half hour after you wake up in the morning, how do you feel?
a) Very tired [ 1 ] b) Fairly tired [ 2 ] c) Fairly refreshed [ 3 ] d) Very refreshed [ 4 ] 3)
When you have no commitments the next day, at what time do you go to bed compared to your usual
bedtime?
a) Seldom or never later [ 4 ] b) Less than one hour later [ 3 ]
c) 1-2 hours later [ 2 ] d) More than 2 hours later [ 1 ]
4) You are starting a new fitness regime. A friend suggests joining his fitness class between 7am and
8am. How do you think you'd perform?
a) Would be on good form [ 4 ] b) Would be on reasonable form [ 3 ]
c) Would find it difficult [ 2 ] d) Would find it very difficult [ 1 ] 5) At
what time in the evening do you feel tired and in need of sleep? a) 8pm - 9pm
[5] b) 9pm - 10.15pm [ 4 ]
c) 10.15pm - 12.45am [ 3 ] d) 12.45am - 2am [ 2 ]
e) 2am - 3am [ 1]
6) If you went to bed at 11pm, how tired would you be?
a) Not at all tired [ 0 ] b) A little tired [ 2 ]
c) Fairly tired [ 3 ] d) Very tired [ 5 ]
7) One night you have to remain awake between 4am and 6am. You have no commitments the next
day. Which suits you best:
a) Not to go to bed until 6am [ 1 ]
b) Nap before 4am and sleep after 6am [ 2 ]
c) Sleep before 4am and nap after 6am [ 3 ]
d) Sleep before 4 am and remain awake after 6am [ 4 ] 8)
Suppose that you can choose your own work hours, but
had to work five hours in the day. When would you like
to START your working day?
a) Midnight to 5am [1] b) 3am to 8am [5]

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c) 8 am - 10am [4] d) 10am - 2pm [3]
e) 2pm - 4pm [2] f) 4pm - midnight [1] 9) At
what time of day do you feel your best?
a) Midnight - 5am [1] b) 5am -9am [ 5 ]
c) 9am -11am [ 4 ] d) 11am -17 [3]
e) 5pm-10pm [2] f) 10pm - midnight [1] 10) Do you
think of yourself as a morning or evening person?
a) Morning type [ 6 ] b) More morning than evening [ 4 ]
c) More evening than morning [2] d) Evening type [ 0 ]
Scoring
Add up the points you scored for each answer (they're in the square brackets).
The maximum score for these questions is 46. The minimum is eight.
The higher your score, the more of a morning person you are.
The lower the score, the more you're a night owl.
How you can find out more
[This questionnaire was adapted from the Horne-Ostberg questionnaire, devised by Professor
Jim Horne of Loughborough University]

Ex. 15. What do you think people might say about why they like or dislike
being a lark or an owl? Work in pairs and out down your ideas.
Listen to the BBC radio programme. Were any of your ideas mentioned? Who
made statement 1-8 – a lark or an owl? Listen again and check [16].
1. It is just so peaceful and so beautiful.
2. I stay there till the absolute last second.
3. I do look at other people walking their dogs, or walking along with the
bounce in their step and I just think “Where does it come from?”
4. You’ve wasted the best part of your day.
5. It’s just quite a nice feeling of being awake and nobody else is there. 6.
That’s when I’m really thinking straight.
7. Anybody mentions party to me and I cringe.
8. David and I always jokes before we had children that it would be great
because he would be great in the morning and I would be great in the evening.

Ex. 16. Choose the correct option [5].


An early bird or a night owl?
Owl are nocturnal creatures. They’re wide 0) awake at night and they sleep during the day. If this 1)
_______ like bliss to you, then, like about 20 percent of the population 2)__________ find
themselves most active at around 9 pm, you may fall into the same category 3) _______ our
feathered friend. Night owls often have difficulty waking up in the morning, and like to be up late at
night. 4)_______ of animal behavior indicate that being a night owl may actually be
5)___________ into some people’s genes. This would explain 6)____________ those late-tobed,
late-to-rise people find it so difficult to change their behavior. The trouble for night owls is that they
just 7) _________ to be at places such as work or school for 8)_________ early.
This is when the alarm clock becomes the night owl’s most important survival tool. Experts 9)
_________ that one way for a night owl to beat their dependence 10) ______ their alarm clocks is to
sleep with the curtains open. The theory is that if they do so, the morning sunlight will awaken them

128
gently and naturally. The 11)_________ is that, unlike the weathered owl, human owls cannot claim
that a nocturnal existence is their 12)_________ lifestyle. They are programmed to be at their best
13)___________ the day. 14)_________ if we try to change our schedules and work at night, Mother
Nature isn’t fooled. Night is still the time when our body 15)______ down. Night owls simply start
and finish a little later than average.
0 A aware B wakeful C awake D alert
1 A sounds B hears C listens D looks
2 A when B whose C which D who
3 A like B as C with D for
4 A research B examinations C enquiries D studies
5 A constructed B built C erected D made
6 A why B when C how D where
7 A ought B have C must D should
8 A too B enough C from D away
9 A tell B speak C inform D say
10 A in B on C to D for
11 A truth B honesty C real D reason
12 A usual B expected C ordinary D natural
13 A while B throughout C through D during
14 A also B even C yet D as
15 A slows B moves C goes D falls

Ex. 17. Study the idioms in the box about sleep. Can they be used to describe your lifestyle?
Discuss with the partner.
Idiom Example Definition
To burn the midnight Try not to burn the midnight oil the Work or study until late at
oil night before exam. It’s best to get an night
early night.
To sleep on it Don’t decide now – sleep on it and Postpone making a decision
see how you feel in the morning. until after a night’s sleep
To go / be out like a The little boy went out like a light as To fall asleep very quickly
light soon as he went to bed
Not lose sleep over It was just a silly argument – I Not to worry about
something wouldn’t lose any sleep over it. something

Ex. 18. Listen to two people, Christa and James, talking about what they do in their free time.
What do they prefer doing going out or staying in? [23] Speaker 1 (Christa): Speaker
2 (James):
Listen again and mark what each person says they do: C for Christa and J for James.
1 eat out with friends 7 watch sport on TV 13 go to the beach
2 go to a party 8 paint and draw 14 go surfing
3 cook with friends 9 collect old postcards 15 go swimming
4 have a takeaway 10 go to junk shops 16 watch DVDs
5 play music 11 go clubbing 17 play online games
6 cook for myself 12 go to the cinema 18 read a book Which of the phrases
above could you use to describe your leisure time?

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Ex. 19. Write the correct word
The benefits of having a hobby
Hobbies can add (1)_____________ to everyday life. Sometimes the daily EXCITE
routine at work or school starts to drag, making you feel that everything is a
bit (2) __________, and in these circumstances a hobby offers fun and escape POINT
from your regular (3) __________. COMMIT
In fact, (3)_________ pastimes such as watching TV or listening to music, a LIKE
hobby usually involves learning new skills. In (4) _________ if there is a
ADD
social element to the hobby, you will have to interact with other people and
so go on to form new (5) ______________ . It is also very positive to feel
that you are FRIEND
making progress with your own (6) ____________development, and as PERSON
well as giving you the chance to learn new skills, a hobby will be a way of STRONG
building on the (7) _________ you already have. It's certainly the case that
the more different activities you try as hobbies, the closer you'll get to
being (8) _________fulfilled and the better you'll get to know yourself. TRUE

Ex. 20. Read the dialogue below and give Russian equivalents to the expressions in bold.
Ned: Hi, Liz. Haven’t seen oyu for ages. How are things?
Ex. 21. Study the expressions given (check the dictionary if necessary). Give minisituations
(contexts) when people might use them:
I haven't slept a wink; Let's call it a day; Let's make a rest from work; He has a very tight schedule;
He works like a slave/ horse; Tired Tim; I'm dog tired; Never put off till tomorrow what you can do
today; Business before pleasure; Still, we can stay home the following evening and put our feet up
and just watch the box.

MОDULE 2
COLLEGE LIFE
Ex. 1. Lead-in. Read and comment on the following quotations.
Which ones do you like most/agree with?
 College is the best time of your life. When else are your
parents going to spend several thousand dollars a year just
for you to go to a strange town and get drunk every night? -
David Wood
 A college is a place where pebbles are polished and diamonds
dimmed. - Robert Ingersoll
 80 % of the final exam will be based on the one lecture you missed and the one book you
didn't read. - Author Unknown
 For the true student, everything that happens in daily life is a test - Karlfried Graf Durckheim
 I learned three important things in college - to use a library, to memorize quickly and
visually, to drop asleep at any time given a horizontal surface and fifteen minutes - Agnes
DeMille (Dance to the Piper)

130
 For many, graduation marks the end of formal student life - the end of long spring breaks and
of thinking that a 10 A.M. class is far too early - Alexa Von Tobel

Ex. 2. Read this text from a university website. Who is it aimed at?
The university is on one campus which covers an area of 200 acres. There are five faculties —
Humanities, Science and technology, Social sciences, Law and Medicine — and these are
divided into departments like geography, art history, etc. You will have already looked at
our website, but when you arrive, you can pick up a prospectus and book which tour you
want to go on, according to your subject of interest. Your tour will begin with a talk by one of the
lecturers, who will tell you more about the courses. All our courses consist of a mixture of formal
lectures, seminars in groups of up to twenty students, and at least two tutorials per term where groups
of two or three students have the opportunity to discuss things in more detail with their own tutors.
Most degree courses require students to write a dissertation of at least 6,000 words in their last year.
The tours will show you the halls of residence where students live, the students' union where lots of
social events take place, and other useful facilities like the supermarket and launderette. Our
undergraduate courses all begin in October and most of our students are school leavers — just four
per cent are mature students of 21 and over. At present the university year consists of three terms but
we are changing to semesters (two a year) in three years' time. We will have different vacations as a
result: slightly longer in spring and shorter in summer. We have separate open day s for graduates
who want to go on to do a postgraduate course.
Complete these sentences with words from the text.
1. The buildings of a university and the land that surrounds them are called a _____ .
2 The university is organized by subject into different _______ and a group of these form a _______.
3. Information about the university can be found in a booklet called a________ or on the website.
4. Students attend _______ , _________ and________ where they are taught about their subject.
5. Students are taught by __________ and__________.
6. A long piece of written work is called a _____________.
7. Students live in __________ and attend social events arranged by the ____________.
8. Students who are at least 21 are referred to as __________students.
9. The university year is divided into _________ or __________. The breaks are called__________.
10. Students who are studying for a first degree are called ___________. When they finish
they are called ___________ . A student who continues to study after a first degree is called a
___________.
[22]
NOTE:
An essay is a short piece of writing about a particular subject. A dissertation is a much longer piece
of work, often a requirement of a degree course. A thesis is usually written for a higher degree over
an extended length of time and involves personal research.

Ex. 3. Listen to a short text about qualifications and fill in the gaps. Do you agree
with the author’s opinion?
Qualifications are __________________ days. Many years ago, a university degree
was enough. A B.A. or B.Sc. __________________ a good job. Not now. Not even a
Master’s degree is enough these days. It __________________ a Master’s degree. Some of the jobs I
want now require a Ph.D. It’s also not enough nowadays __________________ the qualifications
you have. You __________________ qualifications up to date, re-qualify, get new qualifications. It

131
seems life has __________________ certificate chase. Especially so now that many people will have
several careers in their life. I know someone
__________________ in physics, then became an accountant, didn’t like it and studied to be a
lawyer. He’s now studying __________________ license!
[Adapted from: From: http://www.listenAminute.com/q/qualifications.html]

Ex. 4. Collocations about studies. Study the table below. Make up your own sentences with the
expressions given [11].
Expressions with do/get Alternatives
do an exam I have to sit/take an exam in biology at the end of the term.
do research, do a Our class carried out / conducted a research project into the
research project history of our school.
do a course I decided to enroll on / take a course on computer programming.
do a degree/diploma She studied for / took a degree in engineering.
do a subject I studied / took history and economics in high school.
do an essay/assignment All students have to write an essay / assignment at the end of the
term.
do a lecture/talk Professor Parkinson gave a lecture on the American Civil War.
get a degree/diploma He obtained / was awarded a diploma in Town Planning in 2010.
get a grade Her essay received / was given an A-grade.
get a qualification You will need to obtain / acquire a qualification in social work.
get an education The country is poor, only 27 % of children receive a basic
education.
Look at these conversations between a teacher and students. Note how the teacher uses more
formal collocations to repeat what each student says.
St: Do we have to go to all the lectures to do the course or just yours?
T: You must attend all the lectures to complete the course.
St: Excuse me, where will the next week’s class be? In this room? T: No,
the next class will be held in Room 405.
St: When do we have to give you our essays?
T: You have to hand in your essays on Friday.
St: When do we have to send in our university applications?
T: You have to submit your applications by December 1st.
St: What do I have to do if I want to leave the course?
T: If you want to withdraw from the course, you have to go to the College office?
More collocations connected with study and learning
Do you keep a vocabulary notebook? It’s a good way of recording new collocations. I did the
first draft of my essay last week and the final draft this week. I have to hand it in tomorrow.
Then the teacher gives us feedback after about a week.
We don’t have exams at my school. We have continuous assessment [system where the quality of a
student’s work is judged by pieces of course work and not by one final examination].
The local technical college provides training for young people in a variety of professions. After
secondary school, 30 % of the population go on to higher/tertiary education and 20 %of adults do
some sort of further education course during their lives.
Does your government recognize foreign qualifications for school teachers?

Ex. 5. Underline the most suitable word or phrase.


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1. Jack decided to take a course/lesson in hotel management.
2. Sheila always got good marks/points in algebra.
3. After leaving school, Ann studied/trained as a teacher.
4. Peter decided not to go in/enter for the examination.
5. My sister learned/taught me how to draw.
6. I can't come to the cinema. I have to read/study for a test.
7. In history we had to learn a lot of dates by hand/heart.
8. I hope your work will improve by the end of course/term.
9. Martin failed/missed his maths exam and had to sit it again.
10. If you have any questions, raise/rise your hand.

Ex. 6. Complete each sentence with a word from the box. Use each word once only.
cheat copy memorise pay uderline divide
pass punish revise concentrate
a) Our teachers used to ______ us by making us stay behind after school.
b) If you __________ twenty-seven by nine, the answer is
three.
c) Try to ________ the most important rules.
d) It is difficult to ___________attention in a noisy classroom.
e) Pauline tried her best to _________the end of year
examinations.
f) Your work is the same as Harry's. Did you _________his work?
g) Your mind is wandering! You must _________more!
h) Helen decided to __________all her work at the end of every week.
i) It's a good idea to ___________important parts of the book in red.
j) The teacher saw Jerry trying to __________ in the exam.
[17]
Ex. 7. Listen to two students describing their courses at university and answer the questions
below [23].
1. What subject is each student studying?
architecture English literature biology law psychology history
economics chemistry medicine 2. How does each student say they learn?
lecture seminar tutorial essay assignment experiment dissertation presentation
3.What does each student think is good about their course?
Listen again and fill in the phrases the students use to express opinions.
1. I _____________ about the course I'm doing now.
2. They ______________ students having to plan their own time.
3. But_________________, you’ve got to spend lots of time reading and thinking things through.
4. I ______________ the timetable.
5. I ______________ the lectures are very good.
6. I ______________ it's a very good way of learning.
7. Now I _______________the system really works.
8. I _______________having the lectures each morning.
9. I ______________ concentrating on the experiments for now.

Ex. 8. Match the words in the box with a suitable definition (a-j). Use each word once only.
Classmate Graduate Examiner Lecturer Learner
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Professor Principal Tutor Pupil Coach
a) Someone who teaches at a university lecture
b) Someone who has a college degree
c) The head of a school
d) Someone who studies at primary or secondary school
e) The most important teacher in a university department
f) Someone who teaches one student or a very small class
g) Someone in the same class as yourself
h) Someone who trains a sports team
i) Someone who writes the question papers of an examination
j) Someone who drives but has not yet passed a driving test

Ex. 9. A) Listen to the interview with Tini about his life as a student. Answer the following
questions about the interview. 1) What does Tini like about being a
student? a) Studying
b) Seeing friends
c) Being a bookworm
d) Living on campus
2) What will Tini miss about school? a) Long
vacations
b) Not having work
c) Memories
d) Wearing shorts
3) What do they both say is good about being a teacher? a)
The work schedule
b) The pay
c) Staying young
d) The prestige
4) What profession would Tini like to try?
a) Actuary
b) Banker
c) Teacher
d) Broker
B) Learn vocabulary from the listening
Bookworm - I like studying although I'm not that much of a bookworm.
A 'bookworm' is someone who likes to study and read. Notice the following:
I have never been much of a bookworm.
She did very well at school, as she was a real bookworm.
The real world - It's about time to get out to the real world and earn some money.
'In the real world' means 'in reality.' Notice the following:
In the real world things are not as romantic as in the movies.
She needs to get in the real world and understand that she needs to earn money.
A 9-5 schedule - You get so much time off, and you don't have to work a 9-5 schedule. A '9-5
schedule' means that you are working normal office hours, which start at 9 AM and go to 5 PM.
Notice the following:
Because I run my own business I don't have a 9-5 schedule.
It suits her that she does not have the regular 9-5 schedule.
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To be really into smth - I have given it a couple of thoughts but right now, I'm really into the
banking industry. 'I'm really into the banking industry' means that you are interested in the world of
banking and would like to make that your career. Notice the following:
I'm really into the health industry, and I would like to get some work experience in that field.
She says that she is really into the music industry.
Give it a go - The financing industry, and so probably I might give it a go.
When you 'give something a go,' it means that you try it. Notice the following:
I have never done it before but I will give it a go.
Why don't you give it a go? You never know; you might like it.
[Adapted from: www.ello.org]

Ex. 10. A) Read the quotation below. That’s what one American university teacher thinks.
Students do not have enough time to be interested in their classes. They
are busy with activities and jobs. They try to learn only as much as they
have to.
Do you agree? How are things where you live? Are students interested in classes? Do they have
free time? Why or why not? Discuss this with a partner. After three minutes, report your opinions
to the group.
B) Study the following vocabulary notes.
A freshman is a first-year student. Some institutions prefer the term “first-year student” because it
avoids the sexist language of freshman. Informally, you’ll hear frosh too. The plural is freshmen.
A sophomore is a second-year student. The Greek roots are rather telling: sophos means wise, and
moros means fool. A sophomore is a little wiser than a freshman, but still might carry remnants of
foolishness.
Juniors and seniors are third- and fourth-year students, respectively.
C) Listen to a Short Take. Answer the following comprehension questions.
1. What is to be discussed and debated? 2.
What’s the book called?
3. How old is the writer?
4. What did the professor want to know about her students? 5.
What’s a university ethics committee?
D) Read and listen to the article and discuss the questions after the text.
Professor Wanted to Learn About Students, So She Became One
Written by Nancy Steinbach
Education Report, Voice of America
A new book is sure to be discussed, and debated, at colleges this fall. The book is called My
Freshman Year: What a Professor Learned by Becoming a Student. The writer is Rebekah Nathan.
That is not her real name. She is in her fifties. She is a professor of anthropology at a university in
the United States. Her name for it is “AnyU.”
The professor wanted to know why many of her students did not complete their work or ask
for help. She decided to do a research project. She got the approval of the university ethics
committee. Such groups consider moral and legal issues in studies.
In the spring of two thousand two, she applied to her own university under the name

135
“Rebekah Nathan” and was admitted. [Correction: she applied under her own name.] She lived in
student housing. She took five classes during her first term and two in the second semester. She did
pretty well, although she got one C, a mark of average. She also played sports.
In My Freshman Year, she does not identify any students by name. But she does discuss what
they told her about their lives.
Rebekah Nathan writes that students do not have enough time to be interested in their classes.
They are busy with activities and jobs. They try to learn only as much as they have to. But she says
they will read the material if it is directly linked to what is being discussed in class.
The professor says her year as a student changed the way she teaches. She gives less reading
now. She asks questions designed to get students to speak more. She offers help. And she says she
is no longer offended if a student falls asleep.
Other professors and research experts, however, criticize the experiment. They say she was spying.
They say she could have gotten the same information without dishonesty. There have been a lot of
angry comments on the Internet. But some people say she tells the real story of student life.
Rebekah Nathan says she did not interview any students without written permission on a
statement. It said she was doing research that would be published, but it did not say she was a
professor.
She says she decided to tell the truth if someone asked. But very few young people asked her
about herself. She heard that students avoided the subject because they thought there might be
trouble in her life.
1. Rebekah Nathan is in her fifties, yet she was able to fit in as a student at an American university.
Do older people attend Russian universities? Why or why not? Do you think it’s a good thing to
return to study at an older age?
2. Nathan says that most students didn’t ask for help from teachers. Why do you think this is?
Why would a student not ask for the teacher’s help?
3. Was Nathan a spy or not? How would you feel if a teacher—perhaps a younger teacher—
entered your university to do what Nathan did?
4. Can spying have positive benefits? When?
5. Would it be possible for a teacher to pose as a student in your institution? Why or why not?
6. Are your teachers in touch with the problems their students face? In what ways?
7. Do students fail to understand the problems that teachers face? Why? How?

Ex. 11. A) Learning abroad. Pre-view. Would you like to study abroad. Why/why not?
Listen to the interview with Jana. What countries is she talking about? B)
Listen to the interview again and answer the questions.
1) In Prague, the social events happen in ___. a)
community centers b) classrooms
c) dormitories d) private houses 2) When
did Jana eat with her host family? a) Every day
b) Once a week
c) At lunch time d) On Sundays 3)
Australia has a lot of _____.
a) big companies b) beautiful beaches
c) international students d) intelligent students 4) To
study in Australia you need to pay for ____. a) health
insurance b) a student visa

136
c) tuition fees d) special dormitories 5)
Who shares apartments in Sydney? a) Jana's friends
b) Students
c) Families d) Working adults
C) Learn the vocabulary from the listening.
Dorms - Did they eat at home or in dorms, or did they go out?
A 'dorm' or 'dormitory' is a place where university students live, which has shared bedrooms,
bathrooms and dining areas. Notice the following:
Do you have a gym and cafeteria in your dorm?
The dorms are completely full, so some of the students will have to stay in hotels.
Lectures/seminars - I was living with my parents, but obviously I would go to the university for my
lectures and seminars.
A 'lecture' is a class with a large number of students where the teacher speaks and the students take
notes. A 'seminar' is a smaller group with a discussion style. Notice the following:
Seminars are much more fun, because you get to be involved.
I slept late and missed my 8 o'clock lecture.
Apart from that - Every Sunday we had a really nice meal, but apart from that I would eat in the
cafeteria.
'Apart from that' is the same as 'other than that.' Jana ate with her host family on Sundays, but the rest
of the time she ate at the cafeteria. Notice the following:
I jog a few times a week, but apart from that I have no real time for exercise.
She eats fish, but apart from that she doesn't eat any meat.
Heat it up - I would often bring my own lunch and heat it up in the microwave.
When you 'heat something up,' you make it warm, usually to eat it. Notice the following:
Don't eat that soup cold. You have to heat it up.
This coffee is a bit cold. Could you heat it up a little?
Tuition - You have to pay the tuition fees depending where you come from.
Your 'tuition' is the money that you pay for classes, and it does not include money for housing.
Notice the following:
There has been a lot of discussion about tuition costs going up again.
The money for your tuition is due next week.
Funding - One of the requirements is that you need to show that you have enough funding for the
whole course.
'Funding' is a supply of money that will be used for a specific purpose. Notice the following:
We don't have enough funding to hire anyone else to help with this work.
Where does the funding come from for these events?
Juggle - There isn't much time for part-time work, but you need to try and juggle it somehow. When
you 'juggle' different things, you try to organize your time so you have enough time to do all that you
need to do. Notice the following:
You should take a vacation. You've been juggling a lot lately.
It's been very difficult for her to juggle 3 kids and a full time job. D)
Listen again and fill in the gaps.
Peter: So, Jana, we were talking about academic life in different countries but how about daily life
for students? Did students also have part time jobs and where did they eat? Did they eat at home or in
dorms or did they _________?
Jana: Right. So my life in Prague was quite different because I was living with my parents but
obviously I would go to university for the lectures or seminars and yeah, I think most of my
137
classmates had part time jobs or even ________ jobs and they would study sort of in their free time
and in the Czech Republic usually students go to university in their city so they stay at home with
their parents but if they choose to go to a different city then they would stay at dormitory. So some of
my classmates who were staying, who were living in dormitory, I felt like they had more
__________ life than I do because that's where all their social events happen.
Peter: Right.
Jana: I have actually never lived in a dormitory so I don't know what it's like.
Peter: How about student life in Sydney?
Jana: Yeah, in Sydney...
Todd: Actually can we have Spain.
Peter: So how about student life in Spain?
Jana: Yeah, I suppose again it depends on the students. Maybe local students and international
students might have different _______ but I was living with a host family and they cooked for me
once a week. That was really nice. Every Sunday we had a really nice meal but apart from that I
would eat at the __________or cook at home and I didn't have a part time job but I think a lot of my
classmates did. It wasn't so easy for international students to find work so...
Peter: Really? So what was the typical lunch in Spain for you?
Jana: Well, there weren't that many options at the university so ________ what you can buy at the
cafeteria is like a sandwich, kind of _______ food so I would often bring my own lunch and heat it
up in the microwave so that's what a lot of students did to _______ money too.
Peter: OK. So you could actually cook at home and bring the lunch?
Jana: Yes. They had a _________ and like a diner where you can bring your own food as well.
Peter: Oh, OK.
Jana: So I thought that was quite convenient.
Peter: Yeah, yeah. And then you moved to Sydney? How did that change things for you?
Jana: Well, Sydney was a lot of ______. There are so many international students, so many different
cultures and it's a big part of education actually. International education in Australia is a huge
business as well.
Peter: Really?
Jana: So there are so many international students. In fact, in my class I think there were maybe two
Australians.
Peter: Wow.
Jana: And the ________ were from all over the world.
Peter: Hm. I also had a friend who studied as an international student at, in Sydney and he told me
it's quite expensive for international students to live there. Is that true?
Jana: That's right. One, you have to pay the tuition fees but also, depending on where you come
from, you need to __________ for a student visa and often one of the requirements is you need to
show that you have enough funding for the whole course.
Peter: Right.
Jana: And the ______________ costs might not be that high. It depends where you live. A lot of
students share houses.
Peter: Right.
Jana: Or work part time as well.
Peter: So part time work is allowed then?
Jana: Yes. You can work up to twenty hours per week.
Peter: OK.
Jana: While on a student visa.
138
Peter: Right. So you can have some _________ at least to support yourself?
Jana: That's right, yeah, but a lot of the students study really hard so there isn't really much time for
part time work but yeah you need to try to juggle it somehow.
Peter: Where did you live in Sydney and did you have a share _______ or somewhere like that?
Jana: Yeah, I lived in a share house with other students. It's a really common thing to do in Sydney
because the _______ is so expensive.
Peter: Oh, really?
Jana: So not only students but even working adults often share apartments. Yeah, I actually moved
maybe five times while I was there.
Peter: It sounds pretty hard actually.
Jana: It was fun to try living in different areas and with different people. Peter: Great.

What problems of student life do the guys discuss? Are they similar to the ones that Russian
students face? Make up a dialogue discussing these issues.

Ex. 12. Choose the most suitable word or phrase to complete each sentence. a)
Helen's parents were very pleased when they read her school ____.
A) report B) papers C) diploma D) account
b) Martin has quite a good _____ of physics.
A) result B) pass C) understanding D) head
c) In Britain, children start ________ school at the age of five.
A) kindergarten B) secondary C) nursery D) primary
d) Edward has a _______ in French from Leeds University.
A) certificate B) degree C) mark D) paper
e) My favourite ________at school was history.
A) topic B) class C) theme D) subject
f) It's time for a break. The bell has________
A) gone off B) struck C) rung D) sounded
g) Our English teacher __________us some difficult exercises for homework.
A) set B) put C) obliged D) made
h) Before you begin the exam paper, always read the _________carefully.
A) orders B) instructions C) rules D) answers
i) If you want to pass the examination, you must study _________
A) hard B) enough C) thoroughly D) rather
j) Most students have quite a good sense of their own __________
A) grasp B) ability C) idea D) information

Ex. 13. Choose the correct option.


LEARNING HOW TO LEARN
There is usually one important (1) missing from most school (2) Very few students are (3) how to
organize their learning, and how to (4) the best use of their time. Let's take some simple (5) Do you
know how to (6) up words in a dictionary, and do you understand all the (7) the dictionary contains?
Can you (8) notes quickly, and can you understand them (9)? For some reason, many schools give
learners no (10) with these matters. Teachers ask students to (11) pages from books, or tell them to
write ten pages, but don't explain (12) to do it. Learning by (13) can be useful, but it is important to
have a genuine (14) of a subject. You can (15) a lot of time memorizing books, without
understanding anything about the subject!
139
1 A theme B book C subject D mark
2 A agendas B timetables C terms D organizations
3 A taught B learnt C educated D graduated
4 A take B give C get D make
5 A sentences B results C rules D examples
6 A find B look C research D get
7 A information B advise C subjects D themes
8 A do B send C make D revise
9 A after B afterwards C lastly D at last
10 A teaching B ability C instruction D help
11 A concentrate B remind C forget D memorize
12 A how B what C why D it
13 A the way B heart C now D law
14 A information B success C understanding D attention
15 A pass B waste C tell D use

Ex. 14. Pre-listening task.


Below you’ll find pairs of sentences. Put the word in the far left column into the proper blank so
that the two sentences are roughly synonymous. by heart 1. She presented his
writing as her own. She ____________. cheated
cheat sheets 2. There is a lot at risk. ____________.
copying
cum laude 3. She violated the rules. She ____________.
expulsion
plagiarized 4. She graduated with honors. She graduated _________.
the stakes are high
suspended 5. They memorized the poem. They learned the poem ________.

6. They hid notes up their sleeves. They used ____________.

7. She was kicked out of the school. She earned an ____________ from
the school.

8. He was looking at someone’s answers. He was ____________.

9. He barred from school for a period. He was ____________.

1. What would you consider a form of academic cheating?


Ex.
2. What is plagiarism? Describe it in your own words, or find out what it means.
16.
3. In Russia, what will happen if a teacher sees you looking at someone else’s test?
4. In America, what will happen if a teacher sees you looking at someone else’s test?
5. If, during a quiz, a neighbor in class looks at your paper, will you cover your answers?
Will you show that person willingly?
6. If a neighbor asks you for an answer, will you give it to him/her? Why or why not?
7. What will the teacher do if he/she sees two students whispering to one another during a
test? What do you think an American teacher would do?
8. What do you think of the American student who reveals to the teacher that someone
else in the class is cheating? 140
9. Have you ever taken some text from the Internet and presented it to the teacher as your
own? Do you consider that cheating?
10. Have you ever used cheat sheets (shpargalki)? Why or why not? Do you think it’s
okay to use cheat sheets? When and why?
Interview a partner. Each of you should answer the following questions. Be
prepared to report the results to the entire class.

Ex. 17. Listen to two views on cheating and make notes in the table below

Russian view American view

about causes and consequences of cheating.

Answer the questions below:


1. In what way the above article changed the way you think about the subject of cheating?
2. When we judge another culture from our own values, it is easy to look harshly on it. The idea of
cheating is an example. One can’t judge “cheating” in Russia from the American perspective.
Neither can one judge American “selfishness” in denying help to fellow students clearly through
the Russian lens.
3. Can you think of any other deep-rooted cultural perceptions that can make us judge a person from
another culture harshly? Describe.
4. Choose any statement from Dima and Kevin’s article and write whether you agree or disagree.
Make sure you state why.
5. If you are writing a paper for class, a novel, or a dissertation, is it important to credit ideas that you
get from other people? To what degree? How do a paper for class, a novel, and a dissertation
differ in this regard?
[Adapted from http://kevinmccaughey.com/e-textbook/101-cheating-two-perspectives]

Ex. 18. Complete the text below with the correct form of these verbs. Use each verb only once.
do fail give pass take retake revise study
I'm 16 now, and I'm (1) ______ some important exams in a few weeks' time. They're called GCSEs,
and my teachers have entered me for nine subjects, which is what most pupils at my school do. I'm
going to go through all my notes to (2) ______thoroughly for these exams, because I don't want to
have to (3) ______any of them next year. I've always thought it's better to (4) _____all exams the
first time you (5) _______them. I'm certainly hoping I won't (6) ______ my maths exam. I've never
been very good at maths, and I want to (7) ______ it up at the end of the year and spend more time
(8) _______history, geography and two foreign languages. I'm much better at those!
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Ex. 19. Reading. Read the text below and decide which section mentions:
 the view that students have always tended to lose attention in university lectures?
 the idea that expecting students to provide their own technology may lead to a form of
discrimination?
 the increase in the number of students learning in other ways apart from listening to
lectures?
 technical problems reducing the amount of teaching which takes place?
 the advantages for students of using technology they are accustomed to?
 a lack of progress in adapting study materials to make best use of students' technology?
 the disadvantage of students having access during lectures to material unconnected to their
studies?
 the economic advantage for universities if students use their own devices?
 university studies requiring the kind of concentration which is hard to find nowadays?
 universities being unable to impose restrictions on what students look at during lectures?
Students bring their own technology to lectures
A. A trend known as Bring Your Own Device (BYOD) has swept across countless
universities and institutions. The idea is that technology can allow students to access online learning
tools and interactive resources: students will no longer sit passively in the lecture hall, but instead
will be engaging with complementary material online. While supplying (and routinely upgrading)
enough technology so that all students can access virtual learning environments is too costly,
building a network that allows them to use online resources via their personal devices is less of a
financial burden. The practice also allows students to use technology that they're familiar with,
according to Jason Lodge, lecturer in higher education in learning futures at Griffith University in
Brisbane. 'BYOD eliminates quite a bit of the cognitive load associated with learning. For example,
any activity requires multiple levels of understanding in order for students to engage effectively. By
using devices they are already familiar with, they have more resources available to understand what
they are being asked to do and what the actual content of the task is.
B. Lodge admits that the BYOD trend does have a number of problems. His biggest concern?
It encourages students to use technology during teaching time: The major downside of BYOD is the
potential for distraction. Students' own devices are likely to include all the applications they use on a
regular basis. This cannot be controlled like it can be with computers provided by the institution.'
Tim Cappelli, a senior project manager at Manchester Medical School, disagrees. He explained: '93%
of our students said they use their Pads for accessing social networks. I'm surprised it's not higher.
Are they doing this in lectures? Probably. But is this any different from me reading a novel at the
back of the lecture theatre, or doodling on my notepad, when I was a student?' However, of course
the difference is that iPads offer a multitude of distractions far exceeding those of a novel or a biro.
C You don't have to look far to find studies warning that constant access to technology can damage
an individual's concentration. A study by Professor Lany Rosen, California State University, found
that people could only focus on a given task for six minutes before utilising some form of
technology. This of course is particularly problematic at universities, where deep, analytical thinking
is highly valued. The other aspect which can waste time is the issue of compatibility. Students utilise
a multitude of laptops, mobiles and tablets, all of which may have different operating systems.
Consequently, lectures and seminars can be dominated by struggles to make everything work
properly. Not only does this take up valuable time to sort out, but most professors lack the specialised
knowledge to resolve these issues.

142
D. While technology is undoubtedly changing the way students learn, there's still some way to go
before students' mobiles and tablets are seamlessly interwoven into the classroom environment, says
Lodge. The emphasis of BYOD thus far has been more on infrastructure, i.e. making sure there is
sufficient wireless bandwidth, rather than incorporating students' own devices into the learning
activities they do. Teaching practice is notoriously slow to change in a university setting. To my
knowledge, designing effective courses, subjects and activities that incorporate the students' devices
happens very seldom at the moment.' Professor Steven Furnell, head of Plymouth University's school
of computing and mathematics, points out another possible obstacle to universal access. Relying on
students to buy their own devices could 'result in a situation of the "haves" and "have nots" amongst
the student population'.
[23] Ex. 20. HOMEWORK. Choose the right answer.
1. Suddenly I understood perfectly and everything fell ….place.
a) down b) for c) into d) out
2. Judging by the….. Sean has put into his essay, he should do well.
a) exercise b) effort c) labour d) toil
3. In writing the account of his summer adventures, Neville chose not to… his experiences in the
order in which they happened.
a) arrange b) classify c) compare d) compose
4. I must know where these quotations….. Please indicate their source.
a) began b) come from c) invent d) start
5.If you want to learn you will, no ……. who teaches you.
a) consideration b) matter c) question d) way
6.Will you ....... …..this essay, please, and see if I have made any mistakes?
a) look through b) look up c) see through d) see to
7.My teacher never ….. my mistakes to me.
a) explains b) exposes c) marks d) reveals
8.There are a lot of mistakes in your homework, I'll have to….it again with you.
a) come through b) go over c) instruct d) pass
9.When I was at school we had to learn a poem ….. every fortnight.
a) by ear b) by eye c) by heart d) by mouth
10. I can't make anything ….. his writing.
a) from b) in c) of d) out
11. The instructor ….. me what my mistake was.
a) clarified b) demonstrated c) explained d) showed 12. It's no
good ... …… me of giving the wrong answer!
a) accusing b) blaming c) criticising d) scolding 13. Isn't
it ...... time you started your homework, Gilbert?
a) about b) good c) past d) the
14.I have been working since this morning, and I am absolutely …..
a) destroyed b) down c) exhausted d) tired
15. Turn the book round, you've got it …….
a) downside up b) inside out c) upside-down d) outside in

Ex. 22. STUDENTS. Choose the correct answer.


1.Andy was ........ …from school because of his bad behaviour.
a) evicted b) expelled c) left d) resigned
2.I'm not sure why he didn't go to the college, but I ….he failed the entrance test.
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a) deduce b) estimate c) predict d) suspect 3. The
study of ... …. .can be very interesting.
a) a history b) histories c) history d) the history
4. You can learn as much theory as you like, but you only master a skill by……it.
a) doing b) exercising c) practising d) training
5. Mabel's school report last term was most …
a) fortunate b) fulfilling c) satisfactory d) satisfied
6. Most of the students agreed to the plan, but a few … it.
a) argued b) differed c) failed d) opposed
7. Mr Genius was so … at maths at school that he became the youngest student ever to be accepted
by a college.
a) brilliant b) hopeful c) keen d) proud
8. Miss Lazy has hardly done any …….. this week!
a) effort b) job c) labour d) work
9. When I told him my opinion, he his head …… in disagreement.
a) hooked b) knocked c) rocked d) shook 10. Please
reply .... …… as I have no time to lose.
a) hastily b) promptly c) rapid d) swift

Ex. 23. Reading.


WHAT KIND OF STUDENT ARE YOU?
Would you like to know your strong and weak points in the classroom? Find your sign
of the zodiac below and read the text.
FIRE (Aries, Sagittarius, Leo)
Fire signs usually make optimistic students. However, you are to concentrate on one thing.
You have lots of energy but sometimes you have your head in the clouds and don't know or care what
is going on around you. To make good progress you should try to con¬centrate on what you are
doing today and not on what you want to do tomorrow. EARTH (Capricorn, Virgo, Taurus)
Earth signs usually make serious and hard-working students. Exams are very important to you
because you want to have a good job one day. You always check your homework. You like
everything in its place and demand clear explanations of what is going on. You don't like change.
Other students like you because you are practical and helpful and see everything so clearly. Try to let
your hair down from time to time.
WATER (Cancer, Pisces, Scorpio)
You live in a world of your own and often dream, even in class. You often lose things and forget the
time. You seem to learn without effort and usually do well if your teachers encourage you. You are
very resourceful and artistic which makes your work very interesting though not always very
accurate! Try to combine your imagination with the practical side of studying. And remember to do
your homework.
AIR ( Gemini, Libra, Aquarius)
You are a popular student and a good talker. You easily make friends and are happy to be part of a
team. You are a flatterer which means you are probably popular with your teacher! But sometimes
you are lazy. You have all the qualities to make success of your studies, so get on and do it! By the
way air signs are good at learning foreign languages.

Ex. 24. Find the phrases in box A in the article. Without checking in your dictionary, try to guess
from the context what each one means. If necessary, use the definitions in box В to help you.
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A В
1to sail through an exam a to make it difficult for smb to do something b to go
2 to gear yourself up for exams for a walk, especially after sitting for a long time с to
3 to stretch your legs make a determined effort to do something difficult d to
4 to hinder your performance succeed very easily in a difficult challenge e to rest or
5 to wind down relax after a lot of hard work or excitement f to do an
6 snatched exam again g to do something at a controlled, steady
7 the trickier (questions) speed h to prepare yourself for something you have to
do i taken quickly
8 to tackle a question
j difficult, complicated, needing great care to do well
9 to pace yourself
10 to retake an exam

[7]

Ex. 24. Read and translate the text. Do you think that the given tips are helpful? Retell the text.
HOW TO PASS EXAMS
There is a technique to just sailing through, so make sure you don't just count on good luck.
It's that time of year again when students across the country are gearing themselves up for exams. If
you feel you've left your revision too late, don't despair. Follow our guide and start today.
Before you start
Get organised: draw up a revision timetable of topics to cover. Stick to it and let friends and
family know that you are serious, so they don't interrupt your studies.
If you find it difficult to concentrate, don't study at home where you will be easily distracted;
go to your library instead. If motivation is a problem, arrange to meet a friend and study together. But
don't let it turn into an excuse for a social chat or a moaning session! Remember what you are
studying for. Why do you need these exams? Keeping your long-term goal in mind will help maintain
your motivation.
Studying tactics
Go with your body clock: if you're slow in the morning, use that time to do some background
reading. Do the weightier work in the afternoon. Don't study for more man thirty to forty minutes at a
time. Take regular breaks to get enough fresh air and stretch your legs.
Don't study too late, especially the night before your exam. Tiredness will hinder your performance
the next day. Always make sure you wind down before you go to bed.
It's important to maintain a happy, positive frame of mind, so don't let revising take over your
whole life. Give yourself something to look forward to after a day's studying: meet friends for a
drink, or relax in a warm bath. Eat well; have a proper meal rather than snacks snatched at your desk.
On the day
Allow plenty of time to get to the exam, but don't arrive too early or you'll sit around getting
nervous. Resist the temptation to compare what you've revised with other students while-waiting. Do
read the paper thoroughly before starting. It's time well spent. It’s very easy to misunderstand simple
instructions, when you are under a lot of pressure. On multiple-choice exam papers, go through and
do all the easy questions first then go back to the beginning and try the trickier ones.
On essay papers, tackle the questions you feel happiest about first, so you can build up your
confidence. Work out how much time you have for each question and pace yourself accordingly. You
have nothing to gain from finishing early. Always keep things in proportion. The worst thing that can
happen is that you'll fail. If necessary, you can usually retake an exam.

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Ex. 25. Fill in the suitable word.
EXAM SUCCESS
There are many ways of making sure you ____do (0) well in the examinations, both before and
during the exam. If you don’t ______ (1) much experience of examinations, read the following notes
carefully. First of all, if you are ______ ( 2) the exam the next day, make sure you ______ (3) a
good night’s rest. Check that you know exactly where the exam is going to ______ (4) place. You
should not sit the exam on an empty stomach so ______ (5) a good breakfast – but don’t overdo it.
Don’t forget to ______ (6) with you a pen, pencil and eraser. Try and get to the examination centre
in good time so you ______ (7) enough time to find the right room. As soon as you ______ (8) your
answer sheet, ______ (9) a deep breath, check your name and number and ______ (10) any errors to
the attention of the supervisor immediately. Read the instructions carefully and ______ (11) your
time answering before the invigilator ______ (12) the exam to a close.
CHEATING
You are doing a Grammar test. Your friend, who’s sitting next to you, really wants to succeed (1)
_____ the test. There is a question (2) _____ the use of the Present Perfect Tense, which you have
been learning (3) _____ recently. You know a lot (4) _____ it, but your friend isn’t really capable (5)
_____ answering the question properly. Your friend whispers “Help me!” to you. What should you
do? Should you help your friend (6) _____ the question, or just continue (7) _____ your own test?
Every student has to cope (8) _____ this difficult situation at some point. What’s your opinion (9)
_____ cheating? Should you help your friend cheat (10)______ the test or not?
(From Macmillan Exam Tests for Russia. Grammar and Vocabulary) Exam
and essay topics
1. Life on campus vs living with parents
2. Challenges and opportunities of college life
3. Cheating at exams

MОDULE 3
DOING THE CHORES
Ex. 1. Read the following text and answer these questions.
1. Why is it especially hard for housewives to manage a house? 2. Who is the hardestworking
member of the household? 3. What do the men do about the house?
A REALLY GOOD CLEAN
It is no easy matter to manage a house. It is especially hard when one works too. That’s why a
second day off is of great help to housewives. They may do the housecleaning on Saturday and
Sunday may be their day of rest. The Browns have a real housecleaning on Saturday. Here are a few
words about the way they fix up their flat.
Ann and her mother are up early in the morning. To begin with, they change the bedclothes,
make the beds, collect the dirty linen (sheets, pillow-cases, dish-cloths, thick towels, etc.) and put it
into the basket for dirty linen. After that they open the windows to let in the fresh air and start tidying
up the rooms. They dust and polish the walnut furniture, mop the floor (and wax it once a month),
clean the carpets with a vacuum-cleaner, shake out the doormat and bed rugs in the yard and arrange
them on the floor. Then Ann and her mother brush the clothes, polish the shoes and get down to
tidying up the kitchen. While Mrs Brown scrubs the gas-stove and the kitchen table clean, Ann
washes the sink and the bath-tub with cleansing (scouring) powders. Last of all they vacuum clean
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the floor and wash it. Now that everything looks shining and spotless Ann and her mother feel quite
happy about it.
Ann is always ready to help her mother to do the cleaning. As far as Ann’s father and brother
are concerned, they don’t do much about the house. Ann’s brother, Jack, is too small to help, he is
only four. Small as he is, he never throws his toys around the room, but puts them away himself. He
never comes home in torn clothes and thus saves his mother the trouble of doing them up.
Ann’s father’s only household chore is to fix electrical appliances (the vacuum-cleaner, the
washing-machine, the sewing-machine, the floorwaxer, the iron) when they go wrong
(which doesn’t happen very often).
You don’t think the household chores are shared equally in the family, do you? But nobody
minds it as everybody attends to the duties in earnest and the house is always nicely kept.

Ex. 2. Choose the right word. Explain its meaning. a)


manage, run, go, go wrong, fix, fix up
1. She knows how to ... the house. 2. Pat ... to catch up with the group very quickly. 3. Who is ... the
dancing club this August? 4. The TV set ... but the repairman ... it in no time. 5. I came home earlier
and helped my mother to ... the flat. 6. Charles got a bad mark for the exposition, but he didn’t know
where he ... . 7. My father’s chore is to ... electrical appliances when they
...

Ex. 3. Write English equivalents of the following words and phrases. Use them in sentences of
your own.
1. вести домашнее хозяйство; 2. заниматься уборкой квартиры; 3. чистить газовую плиту; 4.
сменить постельное белье; 5. проветривать комнаты; 6. вытереть пыль с мебели; 7. натирать
пол; 8. моющие средства; 9. швабра; 10. обязанности по дому; 11.
трясти ковры; 12. пылесос; 13. чинить электроприборы;

Ex. 4. Choose the words or word combinations you can correctly use in these sentences.
(See the list below.)
1. They say she is a good housewife and ... the house nicely. 2. In the kitchen we ... the sink and the
gas-range with ... . 3. The ... are shared equally in Peter’s family. 4. Aunt Rose ... the floor with ...
every day and ... it once a month. 5. They have ... every Saturday and ... the carpets and rugs in the
yard. 6. After a turn-out our room looked ... . 7. Mr Smith is very experienced in ... electrical
appliances. 8. We usually ... the bedclothes every week. 9. Lena often oversleeps in the morning and
has no time left to ... the bed. 10. My little brother ... the clothes and ... the shoes himself.
a real housecleaning, to fix, to make, to shake out, to scrub, cleansing powders, household chores,
to run, to mop, a broom, to wax, neat and tidy, to brush, to polish, to change

Ex. 5. Make up questions using a verb with any suitable noun. Let other students answer your
questions.
to mop shoes to manage furniture
to polish chores to beat out house
to clean windows to come out of order floor
to share rugs to fix up carpet
to seal up bath-tub

147
Ex. 6. A) Listen to the dialogue and fill in the gaps. Write out all the expressions
related to household chores and explain what they mean.
Rebecca: OK, Diego, so now that I've moved in, what chores do we have to do? Like
are we going to _________ the chores or yeah?
Diego: I think we're both very independent so as long as we _________ our own areas clean it should
be enough. There are some things that have to be cleaned like the shower the dishes the balcony and
the toilet of course. So we don't have a very strict policy about _________ chores which is cleanest
it goes, so your room is your own responsibility as well as my room is my own responsibility, but the
common area we'll just split it.
Rebecca: OK, so do you have a ________ cleaner or do we need to go and buy one?
Diego: I have a_________ cleaner. It's very small but it does the work.
Rebecca: OK, so we have to vacuum. What about the rubbish _____? Does that go out once a week
or...?
Diego: We have a trash shed so we can take it out every _____ night but we have a big recycling
policy, so we have three different _______ bags. We have a green one, that it's for burnables and
then we have a pink one, that it's for ______ and plastic, and we have a silver one, that it's for
everything else.
Rebecca: Maybe I need to print out this list so I know what to ________ out.
Diego: It's _______ on the fridge so you can just take a quick look at it before throwing away
anything.
Rebecca: OK. OK. So, shower and toilets: how often do you clean them?
Diego: The toilet, as it goes, I don't know. Every time it gets ________. And the shower, maybe once
every two weeks.
Rebecca: OK. Clean shower.
Diego: Yeah, very clean shower.
Rebecca: Cool. So do you want to do it so that I clean it first and then you clean it next?
Diego: I cleaned it yesterday so it should be OK for the next two weeks, but one thing about the
shower is you have to turn the hot water on every time you take a shower. Rebecca: Good to
_______.
Diego: Yeah, so you have to____ the little button that it's next to the kitchen, and yeah, just ______it
and that's it. You're good to take a shower.
Rebecca: OK, so I need to remember that.
Diego: Yes.
Rebecca: What else is there? Oh, the balcony. There's no grass so we don't need mow the
_________. There's just a balcony. Do you have any plants that we need water?
Diego: I have a cactus. Yes. So we water that once every month.
Rebecca: Yeah, cactuses don't need...
Diego: Yeah, they don't need a lot of water, so it should be OK.
Rebecca: OK.
Diego: And for the balcony, yeah, I don't know, just dust it once in a while. Rebecca: OK.
Great. Alright, so we've _______ that out.
Diego: Yes.
Rebecca: That'll be good. So I will wash the bathroom next time around in two weeks, and then our
bedrooms we'll do ourselves, and everything else, yeah.
Diego: Do you want go get _________ right now?
Rebecca: Yeah, I'm starving.
Diego: Yeah. me too. Let's cook some dinner. OK, great.
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B) Learn the vocabulary from the listening. Make your own examples. split - Are
we going to split the chores?
When you split something, you share it or divide it. Notice the following:
1. Let's split the dinner bill. We'll both pay half.
2. We split the chores. I do the dishes and he does the bathrooms.
strict policy - We don't have a very strict policy about dividing chores.
A strict policy is rules, usually written down, that everyone must follow. Notice the following:
1. We have a very strict policy agaist smoking at work.
2. Our school has a strict policy against wearing jewelry.
common area - But the common area, we'll just split it.
A 'common area' is a space shared by people in an apartment or dormitory. Notice the following:
1. The TV is in the common area.
2. It is hard to study in the common area because everyone ends up talking.
once in a while - Just dust it once in a while.
The phrase 'once in a while' means not that often, or less than sometimes. Notice the following:
1. I play soccer once in a while, about once every two months.
2. I have parties once in a while, but not that often. starving -
Yeah, I'm starving.
This means you are very hungry. Notice the following:
1. I'm starving. Let's have lunch.
2. You skipped breakfast. You must be starving.
[Adapted from: ww.ello.org]

Ex. 7. Read the text below (After A. Moravia). Make a list of the facts a) proving that Alfredo
was a man of order; b) describing the way he treated his wife.

DON’T DELVE TOO DEEPLY


Agnes could surely have given me some warning instead of going away like
that, without telling me. And even now, six months after she left me, I don’t
understand why it was.
That morning after doing the household shopping I had gone out again to buy a yard and a
half of fringe to sew on to the curtain in the dining-room. It was about twenty past eleven when I got
home, I went into the dining-room to compare the colour of the fringe with the colour of the curtain,
and I at once saw, on the table, the inkstand and the pen and a letter. To tell the truth, what struck me
most of all was an ink-stain on the table-cloth. “Why in the world,” I thought, “does she have to be so
clumsy? She’s made a stain on the table-cloth.” I took up the table-cloth, went with it into the
kitchen, and there, by rubbing it hard with a lemon, managed to take out the stain. Then I went back
into the dining-room and replaced the table-cloth, and only then I did remember the letter. I opened it
and read: “Alfredo, I’ve done the housework. You can cook the lunch yourself, you are quite
accustomed to it. Good-bye.
I’m going back to Mother’s. Agnes.”
For a moment I understood nothing, then it dawned upon me: Agnes had left me after two
years of married life. From force of habit I put the letter into the drawer of the sideboard, where I
keep receipts and correspondence, and sat down on a chair beside the window. I did not know what
to think, I was quite unprepared. As I sat reflecting this, I saw a little white feather which must have
come off the feather-brush when Agnes was doing the dusting. I picked it up and threw it out. Then I

149
took my hat and went out of the house. As I walked along I began to ask myself what I could have
done to Agnes that she should leave me.
“Let us see,” I thought, “whether Agnes could find fault with me.” I at once answered myself:
none whatever. I’ve never been crazy about women, I don’t understand them and they don’t
understand me. With regard to money it is true that I never gave her any, but then what need had she
of money? I myself was always at hand, ready to pay. As for the way I treated her, there was nothing
unkind about that: the cinema twice a week, twice a week to a cafe, and it did not matter whether she
had an ice or just a cup of coffee every day. So much for amusements. When Agnes needed
something in clothes whether it was a pair of stockings or a handkerchief, I was always ready: I went
with her to the shops, I helped her choose the article, I paid without any press. It was the same with
dressmakers and milliners. So it had nothing to do with affairs of the heart or money.
Agnes never contradicted me, in fact, she never spoke. During some of the evenings she
hardly opened her mouth. It was I who did the talking. I like talking and hearing myself speak. And
the subjects I prefer are domestic ones: about the prices of things and special offers, about
arrangements of the furniture, about the cooking and the heating, really, I should never get tired of
talking about these things. And what would one talk about with a woman? Once she said to me - just
a joke: “You made a mistake in being born a man. You’re really a woman – a housewife, in fact.”
There was some truth in that remark: I like cooking, washing, ironing, sewing and even embroidering
handkerchiefs in my leisure moments.
I reflected that the only person who could explain to me the mystery of her departure was
Agnes herself, so I went there. I ran upstairs and met her mother. She said cordially: “Oh Alfredo,
what are you doing here?” “You know why I’ve come,” I answered. “My dear boy,” she said calmly,
“these are things that just happen. Don’t delve too deeply.” “But why is it she’s left me?” I
exclaimed. “What have I done to her?”
While I was speaking, my eye fell on the table. It was covered with a cloth and on the cloth
was an embroidered centre-piece and on it stood a vase of flowers. But the centre-piece was crooked.
Automatically I lifted the vase and put the centre-piece in place. Then she said: “Well done, I hadn’t
noticed it but you saw it at once ... and now you had better go, dear boy.” From that day to this I’ve
never seen my wife. Some day, perhaps, she’ll come back. But she is not going to cross the threshold
of my house unless she first explains to me why it was that she left me.

Ex. 8. What Do You Think? Work in pairs and compare the lists you made while you were
reading.
1. Was Alfredo a man of order? 2. Did he treat his wife in a proper way? 3. Should a man
interfere that much with domestic affairs? 4. Should a man accompany his wife everywhere,
including dressmakers and milliners? 5. Was Agnes right leaving her husband? 6. Had she spoken
with her husband about the things she was not satisfied with before? 7. Would Agnes come back?
Translate the text.

Ex. 9. Imagine
a) what Alfredo might tell his friend about the mystery of Agnes’ leaving;
b) what Agnes might tell the mother about her decision.

Ex. 10. Imagine that Agnes came back to her husband in the long run. Make up the
conversation between her and Alfredo. While speaking you may like to use the following.
What about discussing...? Will you please...? Why not speak about...?
I’d like you to tell me

150
Let’s talk about...

Ex. 11. HOUSEHOLD CHORES. Choose the right answer.


1. Granny is coming for lunch. Please … the room before she arrives.
a) arrange b) order c) polish d) tidy
2. The attic was thick with … as no one had cleaned it for years.
a) dust b) powder c) rust d) sediment
3. Will you … the beds at once! Our guests are at the door.
a) clean b) cover c) make d) smooth
4. The house felt cold and … after weeks of bad weather.
a) damp b) moist c) watery d) wet
5. I must go to the laundry and … my washing
a) bring b) carry c) clean d) collect
6. Mrs. Helpful has cleaned our house from … to bottom.
a) attic b) first floor c) roof d) top
7. The only way to clean the box is to … it in soap and warm water
a) brush b) polish c) wash d) wipe
8. Don’t forget to put the … back on the toothpaste when you have finished with it.
a) cap b) cover c) hat d) lid
9. She has to work hard to keep the house … and tidy with such a big family.
a) arranged b) neat c) ordered d) smooth
10. “… your feet before you come into the house,” cried Mrs. Tidy.
a) Clean b) Polish c) Rub d) Wipe
11. Your … for today is to do the washing up.
a) duty b) homework c) labour d) task
12. Ask your sister if she could give me … with the washing up.
a) an aid b) a help c) a hand d) an assistance
13. They managed to get … all their unwanted things at the jumble sale.
a) away with b) even with c) out of d) rid of
14. When you’ve washed up, … the plates before you put them away.
a) clean b) dry c) dust d) sweep
15. … the tube gently, so as not to waste the toothpaste.
a) Hit b) Lick c) Press d) Squeeze
16. Don’t leave your coat lying on the sofa like that! Hang it up by the … at the back of the collar.
a) band b) hole c) hook d) loop
17. Please close the window; there’s a terrible … .
a) breeze b) current c) draught d) headwind
18. Her mother had asked her to do several … before she went out.
a) jobs b) labours c) studies d) works
19. We had a (an) … on the attic last weekend, and cleared out fifteen years’ accumulation of odds
and ends.
a) attack b) blitz c) invasion d) raid
20. There was a … of rubbish in the corner of the bedroom.
a) dump b) mass c) pile d) stack
21. Do straighten that picture over the fireplace, it looks … from here.
151
a) bent b) crooked c) inclined d) uneven
22. It was cold enough for a fire so Mr. Obedient went off to … some wood.
a) chip b) chop c) crumble d) splinter
23. The drunken couple did nothing to keep the flat clean and tidy and lived in the utter … .
a) contamination b) decay c) pollution d) squalor
24. I just have a few household … to cope with and then I’ll be able to rest.
a) assignments b) charges c) chores d) works
25. He has a(n) … habit of emptying ashtrays out of his window on to our doorstep.
a) disgusting b) offending c) uneducated d) uncultivated

Ex. 12. Working in pairs, speak on the following:


1. what you begin the housecleaning with;
2. what is to be done in the kitchen and in the bathroom;
3. how you participate in the housecleaning;
4. what other members of the family do during the housecleaning.

Ex. 13. Read the conversation between John and Mary, who are husband and wife, and their
friend Helen. Then talk over the following questions with your classmate.
1. What is the conversation about? 2. Why does the housework keep Mary busy? 3. What do the
children do about the house? 4. Is John of great help? 5. What labour-saving devices are used in their
family? Housekeeping
Helen: How do you manage to do all the work by yourself, Mary, with a family of four? Mary: Well,
the housework keeps me busy, you know. As soon as one job is finished there is another waiting to
be done. The children are too small to help.
John: Don’t forget to say that I do my share. I’m always willing to lend a hand.
Helen: Oh, John, I haven’t seen you doing much housework.
John: Oh, haven’t you? Who helps with the washing up? Who mends anything that gets broken?
And when the electric lights go out who changes the bulbs and mends the fuses? Yesterday, for
example, the iron went wrong and I’d been fixing it for half an hour before Mary could use it again.
Mary: Yes, he’s very helpful, Helen. Besides, he helps with the children.
John: And I must admit that housekeeping is much easier nowadays than it used to be. Times have
changed. Now we don’t think what a blessing electricity is. We soon become accustomed to new
things and take them for granted. Nobody thinks of electricity as a luxury now.
Yesterday’s luxury is today’s necessity.
Mary: I don’t know what I should do without my vacuum-cleaner, washing-machine or refrigerator
to say nothing of radio, television and the telephone. Helen: Right. All these things are very helpful
indeed.

Ex. 14. Translate the following into Russian:


1. The shabbiness, the emptiness of the house depressed her. The house was very old; the plaster
flaked constantly from ceiling and walls.
2. The club had only that day re-opened after its annual cleaning,.
3. He noticed the overflowing garbage pail by the door. Somebody had thrown peanut shells all over
the stairs.
4. He swept the strewn litter into a heap, then dropped it into a box.
5. She was disastrously lazy. She would lie about the house, reading magazines and spilling ash on
the floor, while the dirt piled up in the corners and the milk went sour in the musty larder.
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6. He came into the room: the bed had not been tidied up for a week, odds and ends of clothing
decorated improbable places. But if he felt better there would be a general cleaning.
7. That evening he carefully cleared up the kitchen and the medicine cabinet and closets and
bookcases. Then he had a big house-cleaning and aired everything out in the sun.
8. The apartment was in its familiar state of disorder, with the bed unmade and Eric's clothes draped
over chairs.
10. Ten minutes later equipped with dusting cloths, pail, mop and broom Joseph was attacking two
weeks' accumulation of dirt.
12. He was vacuuming the rug and apologized for the unmade bed.
13. She straightened the sheets on the bed.
14. It was left to Granny to clear and wash the breakfast things, make her own bed, dust and sweep a
little, go to the shops. Once a week she went to the launderette. She made breakfast and put the
kitchen to rights.

15. Translate into English.


(1) Вы можете быстро постирать в прачечной самообслуживания.
(2)Почему в квартире такой беспорядок? Возьми пылесос и почисть ковер в гостиной, затем
вытри пыль с мебели и полей цветы.
(3) Если у тебя будет время, вымой посуду, вытри ее и поставь в шкаф.
(4) Как часто вы делаете генеральную уборку? - Раз в три месяца. После генеральной уборки
все блестит. После такой уборки приятно посидеть в уютном кресле и отдохнуть.
(5) Что вы имеете в виду под «отдохнуть»? - Я имею в виду посмотреть хорошую
развлекательную телепрограмму, повязать, пошить что-нибудь или почитать
увлекательный детектив.
(6) Вы любите выходить куда-нибудь по вечерам? - Это зависит от моего настроения и планов.
(7) Я предпочитаю заниматься йогой или другими видами спорта. Это помогает мне
поддерживать хорошую форму.
(8) У нашей бабушки много работы по дому: она убирает и моет посуду после еды, подметает
в кухне, вытирает пыль с мебели, ходит по магазинам; в общем, вся домашняя работа
лежит на ней. Вы ведь помогаете ей? - Конечно, у каждого из нас есть свои обязанности по
дому.
(9) Как часто ты убираешь свою комнату? - Через день. Сколько времени нужно тебе, чтобы
комната выглядела как с иголочки? Ну, на это уходит слишком много времени. Я
предпочитаю просто почистить ковер пылесосом, затолкать разбросанные вещи по местам
и потом немного отдохнуть.
(10) Я считаю, что дома построены для людей. Не стоит слишком расстраиваться, если в
комнате беспорядок. - Ну, не все так думают, хотя, конечно, о вкусах не спорят.

Ex. 16. Talk it over with your classmates.


A. 1. Is running a house an easy matter? Why? 2. Who does the housework in your family? 3.
Do other members of the family help? How are household chores split in your family? 4. How often
do you have a real housecleaning? 5. What do you like to do about the house? 6. What do you do in
the kitchen when having a turn-out? 7. Are there any things about the house you usually try to avoid
doing?
B. 1. Do you think that the whole family should participate in housecleaning? Why? 2. What
can children do to help about the house? 3. Should a man know how to cook? 4. Should a woman
know how to use tools? 5. Should a man interfere much in the kitchen?

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C. 1. Is it hard to wash the linen nowadays if you have no washing machine? 2. Do you like to
iron starched cuffs and collars? 3. What should one remember about while washing white and
coloured things?
D. 1. Do you like the washing up? Why? 2. What do you start the washing up with? 3. Who
usually does the washing up in your family? 4. Is it necessary to wash the dishes after every meal? 5.
Which do you prefer: to wipe the dishes or to put them on the plate-rack to dry? 6. Do you ever use
any cleansing powders while washing up?

Section 3. Vocabulary
DAILY ROUTINE
I. Morning Activities
1. (not) to get enough sleep 15. to get up on time/ late/ 25. to make the bed
2. To adjust to the day early 26. on one’s way out the door
3. alarm goes off 16. to go for a run 27. to put on make-up
4. at the crack of dawn 17. to go jogging 28. to rush out of the house
5. to be (wide) awake 18. to go on foot 29. to set off to (university)
6. to be an early riser 19. to go to school (university, 30. to skip breakfast
7. to bounce out of bed work) by bus/ tram/ 31. to take a shower (a bath)
8. to catch a bus trolleybus/; 32. to take off one's clothes
9. to clean (brush) one's teeth 20. to go to the bathroom (pajamas, night dress, night
10. to comb (brush) one's hair 21. to feel refreshed gown)
11. to do one's hair 22. to have a hasty bite 33. to rise with the lark
12. to feel groggy (in the 23. to have a light (continental, 34. to wake up
morning) substantial, leisury) 35. to wind two alarm-clocks
13. to get dressed breakfast
14. to get out of bed 24. to have a warm-up

II. Evening Activities


1. to be a couch potato 6. to burn the midnight oil tomorrow.
2. to be a night- bird (an owl) 7. to feel sleepy 11. to lie (down) in bed
3. to be a TV addict 8. to feel dog tired 12. to listen to music
4. to be pooped (inf.) 9. to go to bed 13. Let's call it a day
5. to be/stay in 10. to leave smth till 14. to put on one's dressing gown (bath robe,
slippers) 15. to sit up late at night 16. to stay in bed

III. Sleep
1. changing sleep cycles 11. to have a regular sleep 18. to oversleep
2. to disrupt your own sleep pattern 19. pattern of sleep and
3. to doze off (inf) 12. to have an early night wakefulness
4. to drop asleep 13. to have/get a good night's 20. to sleep like a log
5. effects of sleep deprivation rest 21. to sleep on it
6. to feel sleepy 14. to keep late hours 22. to snore
7. to get enough sleep 15. to lie awake all night 23. to suffer from insomnia
8. to go / be out like a light 16. not lose sleep over 24. to take a nap
9. to go to bed early something
10. to have a good night's rest 17. not to slept a wink

IV. Lifestyles
1. a society of nine–to–fivers. 12. to be in tune with our 23. to minimise the
2. body’s natural rhythms natural environment disturbance
3. business before pleasure 13. to be like sardines 24. to organize one's time
4. fatigue 14. to deprive ourselves of 25. to outsmart our body
5. in the long run much needed rest clocks

154
6. patterns of sleeping and 15. to feel at your lowest ebb 26. to plan one's week walking 16. to get wound up 27. to play
havoc
7. physical and psychological 17. to hassle (inf.) 28. to run the risk of well-being 18. to have a profound effect 29. to
squeeze
8. pressures of 24-seven 19. to have a very tight 30. to start a new life. society schedule 31. to think straight
9. round-the-clock lifestyle 20. to have sedentary lifestyle 32. to walk one’s feet into the
10. to be accident prone 21. to ignore our body clocks ground
11. to be at your sharpest 22. to juggle 33. to work like a slave/ horse

V. Leisure Activities
1. to appreciate life 13. to cope with stress 28. to keep fit
2. to arrange a party 14. To do smth enjoyable 29. to keeps off streets/ out of
3. to attend classes of 15. to eat out gangs aerobics 16. to enjoy the day
off 30. to practise yoga
4. to be addicted to/engrossed 17. to feel positive 31. to provide entertainment in smth 18. to go clubbing
32. to put our feet up
5. to be beneficial to my 19. to go on a computer 33. to put smb in a good mood overall life 20. to go
out 34. to receive guests
6. to be a compulsive shopper 21. to go to keep-fit classes 35. to relax
7. to be fussy about 22. To go to see relatives 36. to stay occupied
8. to be in a good mood 23. to hang out with friends 37. to surf the Internet
9. to be sporty (to go in for 24. to have a takeaway 38. to take a rest
sport) 25. to have fun 39. to take smb out
10. to bond with my family. 26. to have some friends round 40. to use to the full
11. to chill out 27. to increase time spent 41. to watch the box (inf.) 12. to cope with anxiety
outdoors
28. free tuition 52. to carry on scientific/ research
VI. College life 29. graduate with work
1. a bookwarm honours/cum laude 53. to catch up on my studies
2. a final exam 30. graduation dissertation 54. to cheat
3. a full-time student 4. a 31. head of department 55. to coach smb. for an exam
graduate 32. home assignment 56. to cram
5. a hostel/dormitory 33. It goes in one ear and out 57. to crib (a crib)
6. a junior (student)/freshman the other 58. to devote much time to studies
7. a lecturer 34. Master of Arts (Sciences) 59. to disrupt classes
8. a part-time student 35. professor 60. to distract - distraction
9. a post-graduate student 36. rector 61. to do an essay/assignment
10. a senior (student) 37. scholarship/grant (to apply 62. to do postgraduate work
11. a sophomore for ~) 63. to do the first draft/final draft
12. a student/undergraduate 38. senior lecturer 64. to do well
13. a term/semester (Am.) 39. students’ council 65. to do/conduct/carry out
14. a tricky (question) 40. students’ membership card research / a research project
15. a tutor 41. students’ record book 66. to do/give/prepare a
42. students’ society lecture/talk
16. an applicant
43. subdean 67. to do/study a subject
17. an examiner
44. synopsis (pl. synopses) 68. to do/take a course
18. assistant professor
45. test period 69. to do/take/sit an exam
19. associate professor
46. to be expelled - expulsion 70. to educate
20. Bachelor of Arts (Sciences)
47. to attend the lectures 71. to examine
21. dean (dean’s office)
48. to be absorbed in smth 72. to fail an exam in (English)
22. department
49. to be good at smth./to 73. to gear yourself up for exams
23. diploma
have a good command of 74. to get a grade
24. dissertation/thesis (pl. theses)
smth. 75. to get a mark/grade (Am.)
25. examination card/paper
50. to be smth. by training 76. To get Bachelor’s degree
26. exams/examination period
51. to be suspended 77. to get down to homework
/session
27. faculty (faculty office)
155
78. to get higher/tertiary 96. to instruct 113.to play truant
education 97. to keep in one’s head 114.to provide training
79. To get Master’s degree 80. to 98. to lack smth. 115.to put my homework off
get on well in/at smth. 99. to lag behind the group 116.to read for seminars
81. to get/obtain a 100.to learn by 117.to read up for exams
degree/diploma heart/to memorize 118.to recognize foreign
82. to get/obtain a qualification 101.to live in qualifications
83. to give a lecture a hall 119.to retake exam
84. to give a pass/credit of residence 120.to revise for exam
85. to graduate from 102.to live on campus 121.to sail through an exam
the university 103.to major in smth. (Am.) 122.to stretch your legs
86. to grind away (for/at) 104.to make progress (in 123.to study at university
87. to have 8 hours of English a smth.) 105. to master 124.to tackle a question
week 106.to miss classes on a 125.to take a degree
88. to have classes 89. to have plausible excuse/ for a 126.to take an exam
classes in smth. good reason 127.to take notes
90. to have continuous 107.to neglect 128.to train
assessment 108.to pace yourself 109. to 129.to tutor smb. in English
91. To have enough funding pass an exam 130.to wind down
92. to have lectures and seminars 110.to pass in (Latin) 131.tutorial
93. to have vacation/holidays 111.to pay tuition fee 132.vice-rector
94. to hinder your performance 112.to pick up (coll.) a foreign 133.yearly essay
95. to improve language
19. to be of great 35. to empty the
help dustbin
20. to be thick 36. to fix
VII. Domestic Chores
with dust 37. to get out of
1. a broom 21. to buy order
2. a clothes line groceries 38. to give smb a
3. a mop 22. to clean/to hand with
4. a real do/to tidy up smth
housecleaning 23. to clear up the 39. to hang
5. accumulation / mess out
heap / pile of 24. to do one's
rubbish household washing
6. bed linen chores 40. to help smb
7. cleansing 25. to do one's about the
powders laundry house
8. darks (dark 26. to do the 41. to keep house
things to be cleaning (to run the
washed) and 27. to do the house)
lights dishes 42. to leave things
9. drudgery 28. to do the around
10. dustbin ironing 43. to live in the
11. floor-cloth 29. to do the utter squalor
12. household mending 44. to look spick
refuse 30. to do the and span
13. housekeeping repairs, 45. to mop
14. labor-saving 31. to do the 46. to polish the
devices washing floor
15. litter 32. to do up a 47. to put dishes
16. neat and tidy room on the plate-
17. not to be 33. to dry up rack to dry
much of a plates/ dishes 48. to put smth in
housewife 34. to dust the its place
18. to be an old furniture 49. to put things
hand at smth right

156
50. to put up the 56. to share the 61. to turn out a
curtains chores room/the
51. to rinse 57. to split the kitchen
52. to roll up one's chores 62. to wash by
sleeves 58. to take things hand
53. to scrub floors to the laundry 63. to wax
54. to sew (sewed, 59. to tidy up the 64. to wipe one’s
sewn) room feet
55. to shake out 60. to turn a blind
eye to smth
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