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МИНИСТЕРСТВО НАУКИ И ВЫСШЕГО ОБРАЗОВАНИЯ

РОССИЙСКОЙ ФЕДЕРАЦИИ
Федеральное государственное автономное образовательное
учреждение высшего образования
«ЮЖНЫЙ ФЕДЕРАЛЬНЫЙ УНИВЕРСИТЕТ»

Институт филологии, журналистики и межкультурной коммуникации

А. А. Андриенко, А. А. Медведева

ENHANCING FLUENCY
Part 2

Учебное пособие
В двух частях

Ростов-на-Дону – Таганрог
Издательство Южного федерального университета
2018
УДК 811.111`36(075.8)
ББК 81.432.1-2я73
А65

Печатается по решению заседания кафедры английской филологии


Института филологии, журналистики и межкультурной коммуникации
Южного федерального университета (протокол № 6 от 01.02.2018 г.) 

Рецензенты:
Н. С. Трифонова, канд фил наук, доц. каф. англ. филологии
ИФЖиМК ЮФУ;
А. В. Прохоров, канд. фил. наук, доц. Тамбовского государственного
университета им. Г. Р. Державина

Андриенко, А.А.
А65 Enhancing Fluency. Part 2 : учебное пособие : в 2 ч. / А. А. Андри-
енко, А. А. Медведева ; Южный федеральный университет. – Ростов-
на-Дону ; Таганрог : Издательство Южного федерального универси-
тета, 2018.
ISBN 978-5-9275-2980-3
Ч. 2. – 152 с.
ISBN 978-5-9275-2982-7 (Ч. 2)

Пособие предназначено для студентов 1 курса языковых отделений фи-


лологических факультетов. Пособие состоит из 2-х частей, каждая из кото-
рых нацелена на изучение практического курса английского языка в течение
1-го и 2-го семестров соответственно. Каждая часть пособия включает три
тематических раздела, состоящих из аутентичных англоязычных текстов,
комплекса упражнений в рамках тематического раздела, аудио- и видеома-
териалами, заданиями на развитие письменных и устных компетенций сту-
дентов 1-го курса, тематическим глоссарием.

ISBN 978-5-9275-2982-7 (Ч. 2) УДК 811.111`36(075.8)


ISBN 978-5-9275-2980-3 ББК 81.432.1-2я73

© Южный федеральный университет, 2018


© Андриенко А. А., Медведева А. А., 2018
Пояснительная записка
Настоящее учебное пособие составлено на модульной основе,
отвечает основным целям обучения на 1-м курсе отделения зарубежной
филологии и направлено на овладение, развитие и совершенствование
профессиональных умений и навыков устной и письменной речи студентов
в процессе их работы в аудитории под руководством преподавателя и
самостоятельной работы. Упражнения по развитию навыков устной речи
имеют коммуникативную направленность, предусматривают групповую и
индивидуальную работу и способствуют формированию у учащихся
навыков в продуктивных и рецептивных видах речевой деятельности.
Предлагаемые тексты и задания позволяют значительно обогатить
словарный запас студентов, приобщить их к самостоятельной научно-
исследовательской работе над языком и развить у них аналитический
подход к изучаемым языковым явлениям.
Учебное пособие «Enhancing Fluency. Part 2» отвечает основным
дидактическим и методическим принципам обучения. Пособие предлагает
материал по 3 модулям, содержит вокабуляр по темам, тексты,
упражнения, диалоги и выборку из оригинальных художественных
произведений. Тематически организованный список лексических единиц
состоит из слов и выражений как подлежащих активному усвоению, так и
не входящих в активный словарь, но нуждающихся в пояснении.
Упражнения по развитию устной речи имеют коммуникативную
направленность, предусматривают групповую и индивидуальную работу.
Система упражнений по письменной практике предусматривает
самостоятельную отработку норм современного английского языка,
подготовку студентов к написанию эссе. Ролевые игры и ситуативные
диалоги способствуют быстрейшему запоминанию материала в ситуациях,
максимально приближенных к реальной коммуникации.

3
CONTENTS
Section 1. ACCOMMODATION AND HOUSING
Module 1. Types of Dwellings ……………………………………………………. p.5
Module 2. Interior and Exterior………………………………………………..……p.29
Module 3. Buying and Renting Accommodation………………………………….. p.53
Vocabulary Section 1. ……………………………………………………………….p.62
Section 2. WEATHER AND CLIMATE
Module 1. Whether the Weather …………………………………………………….p.68
Module 2. Climate …………………………………………………………………...p.87
Module 3. Extreme Weather Conditions …………………………………………….p.97
Vocabulary Section 2…………………………………………………………………p.108
Section 3. STUDENT’S LIFE
Module 1. Daily Routine……………………………………………………………..p.112
Module 2. College Life……………………………………………………………….p.125
Module 3. Household Chores………………………………………………………...p.141
Vocabulary Section 3…………………………………………………………………p.148
References ……………………………………………………………………………p.151

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Section 1
ACCOMMODATION AND HOUSING
MОDULE 1
TYPES OF DWELLINGS
Ex. 1. Lead-in. My home is my Castle.
a) Look at the pictures. Which of the houses has: five storeys and a house on top, brick
walls, a thatched roof, a chimney,
a rock on the roof, wooden stairs
up to the front door, stone walls,
a tiled roof? Is: built
underground, built on stilts?
b) Use these adjectives to
describe the houses in the
pictures. Give reasons:
economical, impractical, cold,
spacious, cramped, airy,
comfortable, attractive, eccentric.
c) Listen and match the houses
to the countries.
five-storey Suffolk, England
building
terraced Zimbabwe
house
house on Portugal
stilts
rock house Headington,
England
Which house would/wouldn’t you like to live in? Give reasons. [5]
Ex. 2. a) Look at the title of the text. What do you think it is about? What comes to
your mind when you think of a perfect home? Discuss in pairs. Now, listen to the
text and compare it to your ideas.
b) Read the article and answer the questions after the text.
In search of the perfect home?
How would you like to live in a castle, a tree house or even underground? This might
not be as unusual as you think. It seems that these days more and more people want to live
somewhere special at out of the ordinary, and if they can’t buy what they want they are quite
prepared to build it from scratch.
For John Mew and his wife Josephine their home really is their castle. They have built
their own English castle in the Sussex countryside. The building is brand new with all the
luxuries you would expect from a house that cost more than £350,000 pounds to build.
However, when you first see it from the outside it would be easy to think that you are looking
at an ancient monument. The building has a lot of the features of a traditional castle, including
a keep, a moat and a drawbridge. “My choice of house somewhat eccentric and building it
was very hard work, but we’ve got the perfect place to live,” Mew says. Although some would

5
say that the building impractical and may be cold in harsh British winter he certainly has got
a unique and spacious home.
If you don’t look carefully, you might not even see the home that Jonathan Ridley-
Jones and Shanon Ridd built at all! That’s because the house is converted underground water
tank. The only thing that can be seen from the surface is a door leading into the hillside.
“We’ve never wanted to live in an ordinary house,” Shannon says. “Living below ground
means that our home is quiet and very cozy - none of the usual draughts. It doesn’t damage
the local surroundings and has very low fuel bills. Some our friends find it dark and feel shut
in when they first visit us, but they soon get used to it”.
If an underground home doesn’t appeal to you, what about living in the tree tops? Dan
Garner, a tree surgeon from Gloucestershire, certainly thinks that this is the way to go up in
the world. “When our family became short of space at home, our solution was to build a
luxury tree house in the garden. The tree house is built into a spruce tree six meters above the
ground. It has one main room, a bedroom and a balcony running around two sides. Garner is
so happy with this practical extension to his home that he thinks he can convince more people
of the benefits of living in the trees. He wants to set up his own enterprise making more of
the deluxe tree dwellings, saying, “Tree houses are airy, secure and comfortable and the only
disadvantage is that they might not be suitable for people who suffer from hay fever or a fear
of heights!”
Even people who live in more ordinary settings sometimes can’t resist doing
something to make them stand out from the crowd. One extreme example of this is Bill
Heines’ house in Headington, Oxfordshire. Until one morning in 1986, his house looked much
like all the others in his street, when suddenly overnight a 7.5 m long fibreglass shark appeared
to have crashed through the roof. The shark was a sculpture by local artist John Buckley. At
first some people complained that it might be dangerous or that it spoilt the look of the
neighborhood, but engineers checked that the sculpture was safe and the “Headington shark”
has become a well-known and popular landmark. It seems that no matter where you live, you
can always do something to make sure your house says some about who you are.
1. More and more people build their own home
A so that they can live underground.
B so that they can have exactly the home they want.
C because it is cheaper than buying a new house.
D because they want all the modern luxuries you find in a new home.
2. John and Josephine Mew
A know that their choice of home is unusual.
B found that creating their dream home was easy.
C wanted to live like people would have in traditional castles.
D converted an ancient building into a modern home.
3. What do Jonathan Ridley-Jones and Shanon Ridd say about their home?
A It’s just an ordinary house.
B They always wanted to live underground.
C It doesn’t harm the environment.
D They don't pay anything for heating and lighting.
4. Why did Dan build a tree house in his garden?
A He wants to persuade people to buy one.
B His family wanted to live in a tree house.
C He builds them for a living.
D His family needed more room.
5. The 'Headington shark'

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A was created by Bill Heines.
B crashed into the roof of Bill Heines’ house one night.
C was immediately popular with everyone in the town.
D was built without any warning. [5]
c) List the advantages and disadvantages of Mew's, Ridd's and Garner's dwellings, and
then talk about them.
d) Explain the words in bold, then suggest synonyms and use them in the sentences of
your own.

Ex. 3. Listening and Vocabulary Practice. Go through the table and look up the
words you don't know in your dictionary. Listen and underline the words that best
describe Ann's house. Circle the ones which best describe John's house [5].
Style traditional, modern, apartment/flat, (semi)detached, terraced house, cottage,
villa, l/2/3 storey building, castle
Location village, city, centrally located, residential area, close to the shops, in the
suburbs, on the outskirts, isolated, in the country
Size small, tiny, spacious, large, huge, average, family-sized, 1-2 bedroomed
Cost cheap, low-priced, overpriced, expensive, economical, frugal
General cosy, comfortable, secure, luxurious, well-maintained, fully furnished, airy,
Description noisy, cold
Use the words to describe Ann’s and John’s houses, then describe your house.

Ex. 4. Jigsaw Reading. Divide into four groups – A, B, C and D. Each group reads the
description of various types of dwellings. Which of them haven’t you heard of
before? Now join people from other groups and tell them about the types of
dwellings you’ve read about.
“HOME IS WHERE THE HEART IS.”
There are many types of buildings people from all over the world sleep in every night. Some
live in big, tall modern buildings. Others sleep in a home with wheels under it.
Here are 31 house types from all over the World with explanation and each used in an
example sentence. What kind of building do you live in?
Group A
1. Apartment
An apartment is an American term for a home where you live (British English: flat) in a
separate home within a large building where others also have their own home.
This style of building is often called an apartment block. Or, if it’s very large, a skyscraper.
Apartment blocks are normally owned by a single company or developer and each apartment
is rented by the person living there.
 Young professionals like apartments because they’re cheaper than detached houses.
 The apartment looked so small now that she was all grown up.
2. Bungalow
A bungalow is a low-built one storey house. It’s often small in size. Bungalows often have a
veranda (porch), at the front and or back, which is a covered area to sit.
 I love living in my bungalow I never have to walk up or down stairs.
 Center Parks is a resort where families stay in bungalows instead of hotel rooms.
3. Caravan

7
A caravan is a vehicle, which can be pulled behind a car or truck, which is made for living in. A
caravan is also commonly called a trailer.
Caravans are often used for short term stay, for example when going on holiday.
 The circus clown is in his caravan, putting on makeup for tonight’s show.
 Many retirees are selling their homes and living in caravans due to rising living costs.
4. Castle
Castles are large and often old buildings. Hundreds of years ago, many kings and queens
would live in castles.
Castles are made with thick stone walls to protect the people living there. They’re also
sometimes surrounded by a circle of water, called a moat.
 Switzerland is home to some of the world’s most beautiful castles.
 The Disney Castle at Disneyland is visited by over 1 million people per year.
5. Condominium/Condo
A condominium is a style of an apartment which is individually owned. Normally by the
person living there, although you can rent from the condo owner.
Each condo owner is allowed to buy and sell their own condo and own a small percentage
rights to the land and common areas, like the gym or tennis court. This is different from an
apartment where the entire building is owned by one person or company.
 Condominiums are very popular in Bangkok where houses are too expensive to buy.
 Some people love living in condos because they can live close to their work.
6. Cottage
Cottages are small old-fashioned houses often found in the countryside. England style
cottages are world famous for their signature look. They are often made of stone or brick
with a straw or thatched roof.
 Little Red Riding Hood’s grandmother lived in a little cottage near the forest.
 Look! There’s smoke coming out of that cottage’s Someone’s home.
7. Dormitory/dorm
Dormitories are similar to apartments and common on college and university campuses. Here
they are used by students who want to live close to school.
Dormitories are large buildings with many individual rooms called dorm rooms. People often
share rooms with other people and share bathroom and kitchens with many other dorm
rooms.
 My brother loved living in the dormitory because of all the parties they had.
 Excuse me, Professor, I forgot my calculator in my dorm May I go get it?
Group B
8. Duplex
A duplex is a kind of house where two homes are built under one roof. It is similar to a semi-
detached house because duplexes are attached to another person’s house on one side but
not on both sides.
Some duplexes used to be one house but were split into two homes.
 Duplexes are often cheaper than single family homes because they cost less to build.
 When living in a duplex, you have to be careful not to make too much noise.
9. Farmhouse
A farm house is what it sounds like. A house on a farm. Farm houses are one story low built
houses.

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They are traditionally built far away from the city, on large areas of land used for farming or
raising animals.
 John dreamed of leaving the city to live in a farmhouse in the countryside.
 Timmy, run back to the farmhouse and ask mum for a glass of water please.
10. Houseboat
A houseboat is a type of floating building where people live. As the name suggests, they’re
part house, part boat.
There are different kinds of houseboat. Some look like a boat that has room to sleep.
Whereas others are square shaped and simply look like floating houses.
 Have you ever watched the Danish YouTuber who lives on a houseboat?
 Wouldn’t you get seasick living on a houseboat?
11. Hut
A hut is a very simple one story house, often built with cheap materials or natural materials
like mud.
These kinds of homes have been used for thousands of years by our ancestors.
They’re still seen today in poor places and regions which have not changed their ways in
many generations.
 In the old days, the chief’s hut would be at the center or all the others.
 There’s a great video online where a guy builds a mud hut from start to finish.
12. Igloo
Igloos are buildings made out of ice and snow. They have a recognizable round dome like
shape.
Igloos keep the people inside them warm by using the people’s body heat to warm the air
inside the ice building.
 Pete the Penguin lived in an igloo with his parents and brother.
 Some igloos can last for over 100 years in the right weather conditions.
13. Lighthouse
A lighthouse is a tall building near the ocean with a huge light on its top to warn boats
coming too close to the land at night.
 Many captains and their crew’s lives have been saved by
 The lighthouse is painted white to reflect the most light at night.
14. Lodge
A small building near the gates of a large estate or piece of land, often used as a guard’s
house. Presently, lodges are also halls where some groups go to meet.
 Stephenson met the other Free Masons in secrecy at the local lodge.
 The guard was sitting at his station in the lodge when he heard a strange noise.
Group C
15. Log Cabin
These buildings are small structures found in the forests or woods. They’re made almost
completely out of wood, or large logs.
A “log” is a round piece of wood cut right from a tree. People also use logs to keep their
home warm in a fireplace.
 Granddad used to have a log cabin he would stay in when he would go hunting.
 I wonder how many log cabins burn down every year because of their fireplace?
16. Manor

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A big country house with a lot of land. They are an old style house, normally owned by
wealthy families. Manors have very large and beautiful gardens.
 Lord of Chester lived in a large manor that had been in his family for generations.
 There was a murder in the old Hill State manor last night.
17. Mansion
A large and impressive house. Similar to a manor. However, manors are generally old and in
the country.
In contrast, mansions can be anywhere. Mansions can be old, or new. Most famous actors
and singers live in mansions.
 Hollywood is famous around the world for its mansions and movie stars.
 Robert Di Niro just sold his mansion for a huge sum of $22 million dollars.
18. Motel
A hotel located close to a major road and mostly used by travelers who wish to rest while
making long road trips.
Motel comes from the words motor and hotel. On average motels are not as nice as most
hotels and offer only basic services.
 The truck driver decided to pull over into a motel to rest for the night.
 I hate motels. I once found a rat in the ice machine at one of them.
19. Palace
A palace is the home of a country’s king or queen. Buckingham Palace is the very famous
home of the Queen of England.
Palaces are generally very large and have many people working there to take care of the
royal family.
 The changing of the guards at Buckingham Palace is a world famous tradition.
 The Queen likes to read the newspaper each morning in the Palace’s
20. Semi-detached House
Semi means half or partly. Detached means that it is not touching anything else.
A semi-detached house is a house that is touching another building on one of its sides but
not on another.
 Johnny lived in a semi-detached house on Smith Street before moving to London.
 The semi-detached house on 5th avenue sold for $500k last weekend.
21. Shack
A shack is a small building often put together loosely with left-over or cheap materials. A
shack is similar to a hut or cabin.
What makes a shack different is that it is often made with modern materials like wood and
metal and generally not well built.
 They stepped into the dimly lit shack where a man sat cross-legged, head in hands.
 The slums in Rio are mostly shacks made from garbage and sheets of metal.
Group D
22. Single family home (Detached)
A single family home, often called a detached house, is an alone standing medium size house.
There aren’t any other buildings touching a single family house. Single family homes are most
common outside of the city in areas called “suburbs”.
 The agent told me about a single family home for sale near the local school.
 This single family home is perfect for me and my family. We’ll take it!
23. Skyscraper
10
A skyscraper is a very tall new style building. You will see many skyscrapers in nearly every
city around the world.
They are made of glass and metal. Skyscrapers are used as office buildings or apartments.
 The tallest building in the world is a skyscraper called the Burj Khalifa.
 Skyscrapers are made to be flexible and move in the wind.
24. Teepee
Teepees are the old style of house in which Native American Indians used to live. They were
made with animal skins and sticks.
Whole towns of Indians would live in a small group of Teepees which could be taken apart
and moved to new locations when the seasons changed.
 A whole family of Indians would live in one teepee together for safety and warmth.
 The chief and the soldier sat in the teepee, sharing a peace pipe.
25. Tent
A temporary shelter made from fabric. Most people use tents when they go camping and
need to quickly set up a place to sleep that will protect them from the rain, wind and small
animals overnight.
 A tent is a great way to stop bugs and spiders but it won’t stop a bear.
 The old tents used to be so hard to put up. Now all you have to do it push a button.
26. Terraced House
A terraced house is a tall but narrow house which is attached on both sides to another house.
They are common in many European countries like England, Holland and Germany.
In those countries, whole streets of houses can all be connected to each other in a row.
 Sherlock Holmes famously lived in a terraced house at 221B Baker Street, London.
 Terraced houses were built closely together to share heat in the harsh winter.
27. Townhouse
A townhouse is similar to a terraced house. Townhouses are houses built for inner-city living.
There are tall and narrow buildings. They don’t have a lot of land around them and often only
have very small gardens at the back.
 Over 100 townhouses fell into the river when London Bridge collapsed in 1703.
 You can’t find a townhouse for under a million dollars in Sydney.
28. Trailer
(See Caravan) A trailer is a small cabin with wheels. They can be pulled by trucks or other
vehicles and often made from metal or fiberglass.
Trailers are commonly used by people who need to move from one place to another for short
periods of time. For example, circus performers and actors who live on set.
 Amanda Lawson sat in her trailer practicing her lines for the next scene.
 In America people believe that people living in trailers are low class.

Ex. 5. a) Match the pictures with words describing different types of houses and
their definitions.
palace 1. a boat which people use as their
A home, often kept in one place
on a river

11
flat/ 2. a small house, usually in the
B apartment countryside

houseboat 3. a very tall modern building,


C usually in a city

mansion 4. a house that stands alone


D

cottage 5. a type of building which people


E live in and which usually stays
in one place, but which can be
moved using a vehicle or
sometimes its own engine

caravan 6. a large house that is the official


F home of a king, queen or other
person of high social rank

skyscraper 7. a very large expensive house


G (usually with 10 bedrooms)

detached 8. a shelter made of cloth, which


H house you can fold up and carry with
you and which is supported by
poles and ropes

terraced 9. a house that is joined to the


I house houses on either side of it by
shared walls

tent 10. a tower built next to the ocean


that has a powerful flashing
J light at the top to show ships
where to go or to warn them of
danger

12
semi- 11. a set of rooms for living in,
K detached especially on one floor of a
house building

Block of 12. a fairly large house, especially


L flats/ one that is used for holidays
apartment
building

lighthouse 13. a house that is attached to


M something on only one side

villa 14. a tall building which contains


N different apartments on
different floors

b) Which would you find in a suburban, urban or rural area? Give arguments for and
against living in different types of houses from the previous exercise:
Advantages Disadvantages
Flat secure lack of privacy
Semi-detached house homely, low security risk no individuality
Detached house spacious high security risk
Terraced house economical no individuality
Villa spacious, luxurious interior overpriced
Castle luxurious interior isolated
Mansion spacious overpriced

Ex. 6. Housing in Britain. Read the descriptions of houses below and decide which of
them is for the English: a) the most desirable; b) second best; c) less desirable; d) the least
desirable. Translate the texts.
There are many different types of housing in Britain, ranging from the
traditional thatched country cottage to flats in the centre of towns. Houses are
often described by the period in which they were built (e. g., Georgian, Victorian,
1930s, or post-war) and whether they are terraced, semi-detached or detached. As well as
preferring houses to flats, for many people a garden is also an important consideration.
Although Britain is relatively small the areas where people live vary considerably: there are
new towns and inner cities, suburbs, commuter belts and the open countryside.
a. Terraced houses are usually found in inner cities. They can be anything up to 150
years old and were often built by industries to house their workers near the factories. They
are built in long rows where each house is attached to the ones on either side. The back of

13
this type of house faces the back of another identical row of houses, so they are often-known
as ‘back to backs’. In recent years many terraced houses have been renovated; central
heating has been added and other improvements made to what was originally a simple and
sometimes primitive home with an outside toilet and no bathroom.
b. Semi-detached houses have been built in large numbers since the 1930s, when
Britain’s towns and cities expanded into suburbs. Each house is part of a pair and is joined on
one side to its partner. The semi usually has a small back and front garden, three bedrooms
and a small bathroom. It is the most popular type of house in Britain and could be called the
home of ‘Mr. and Mrs. Average’. Towns in Britain have areas which contain streets and
streets of semis, often with well-kept gardens.
c. The detached house stands by itself, usually with a garden all around it. These
houses are much more expensive than semis and are often owned by professional people.
Most detached houses are to be found in affluent suburbs or in the ‘green belt’ – a strip of
protected open countryside around a city, where no industrial development or major
building schemes are allowed. Some large cities (particularly London) also have a ‘commuter
belt’ – so-called because the professionals who live there travel (commute) every day to work
into the city by train or car. London is surrounded by miles and miles of ‘commuter belt’.
Some commuters travel up to three or four hours a day to get from their homes to the inner
city.
d. Britain is famous for its country cottages which were often built on the country
estates of wealthy landowners. The workers on the estate rented the cottages from the
landowner and worked on the land. Cottages were also frequently built around a village
green. Cottages have low ceilings, wooden beams and sometimes a thatched roof. In recent
years some cottages have become second homes, bought by professionals during the
economic boom of the 1980s.
e. In the 1950s and 1960s local councils cleared a lot of the slums in the inner city
areas and knocked down terraced houses in very poor areas. The people were re-housed
in tower blocks on the outskirts of the city or in the centre of the city. Tower blocks can vary
from 3-5 storeys high up to 10-20 storeys high. Each storey contains 5 or 6 flats for families.
In recent years local councils have tried to improve the areas around tower blocks by creating
‘green space’, children’s playgrounds and facilities for the community to use. Some tower
blocks in large cities like London can be very dangerous at night and they have been criticised
for their long dark corridors, which encourage crime and vandalism.
f. A bungalow is a small house in which all the rooms are on the ground level. Many
old people live in bungalows because there are no stairs to climb. In Britain, large groups of
bungalows are often built together on the edges of towns, or in places where people go to
live when they have retired from work, such as the south coast. Many people find these
groups of bungalows boring to look at.
g. The town house, which can be found in the inner areas of most cities, is an
exception to the general pattern. There is great variety regarding both design and use. They
often have three or more floors, perhaps including a basement or semi-basement. Although
they are usually terraced, those that are well-preserved and in a ‘good’ area may be thought
highly desirable. Many have been broken up into flats or rooms for rent. Most of the
comparatively small number of people who rent from private owners live in flats of this kind.

14
Using the information you have read above try to guess which type of house is
meant in the following sentences.
1) A …........................… house not only ensures privacy, but is also a status symbol.
2) Most people would be happy to live in a ….....................…….., reminiscent of pre-
industrial age.
3) The dislike of living in ……......…..… is very strong in Britain.
4) In other countries millions of people live reasonably happily in
...................................................... .
5) ....…................... at the end of the row are a bit more desirable – they are the most
like a semi-detached.
6) A ……..................... house usually has no way through to the back except through
the house itself.
7) Many older people dream of going to live in a …...................... when they retire.

Ex. 7. Skim the 2 articles. What ideas do they have in common? Can you find the answer
to the question raised in the first headline?
Why are houses in Britain so small?
We build the tiniest new dwellings in Europe, and yet more storage and living space is
what people desperately want. One left their kitchen bin in the middle of the kitchen,
because there was nowhere else for it. Another said their cupboards were so small they
stored shopping in the boot of the car, while Miriam and Matt from Liverpool were so short of
space they kept their vacuum cleaner at their mother's house, a good 20-minute drive away.
A report this week by Riba and Ipsos Mori found "long- and short-term storage space"
– for everyday functional items such as ironing boards and bed linen, as well as seasonal or
nostalgic possessions such as Christmas trees or a wedding dress – was one of the features
people most wanted in their home. The common theme could be summed up in two words:
more space. That, though, is what many British homes – especially modern ones – lack. We
build the smallest new homes in Europe, significantly smaller than 100 years ago. This is not
because of pressure on land: a 2007 Riba survey found the average floor space of a new
dwelling in England and Wales was 76 sq m, against 81.5 sq m in Italy, 92 sq m in Japan and
115 sq m in Holland, all as densely populated. It's because builders make more money that
way – and, perhaps, because we are the only EU country not to have minimum-space
standards for the homes we live in.
We did, once: in 1961, a government committee looked at what furniture was needed
in which room, the space needed to use it and move around it, and the space needed for other
normal household activities. The Parker Morris standards (named after the committee's chair)
required, for example, that a two-bed flat for four people should have a net floor area of 71 sq
m, and that one for three or more people should have enclosed storage space for the kitchen of
2.3 cubic metres.
Parker Morris defined these standards as a minimum; builders, on the whole,
interpreted them as a maximum. Also, he never dreamed of dishwashers and fridge freezers, so
his standards are inadequate today. Most of all, though, while they became mandatory for all
council housing, and for a while influenced the private sector too, in 1980 they were
abandoned on cost grounds (Boris Johnson, to his credit, has stipulated that publicly funded
London housing must now be built to "Parker Morris +10%").
All of which helps explain why so many of us now live with insufficient space. As Ben
Page, the chief executive of Ipsos Mori, says: "The research graphically shows just how
cramped and poorly planned much of our housing is today – and the extraordinary lengths
people go to, to cope with it."

15
• According to a 2009 survey by CABE, 58% of the occupants of fully occupied new
homes said there was not enough space for their furniture, and 69% said there was no room for
all their possessions either. Another 37% said they or their children couldn't entertain guests
away from others.
• The UK Self-Storage Association says more than 350 specialist companies now
operate and there are now more than 800 self-storage facilities across Britain serving some
250,000 customers; renting 20-50sq ft of lock-up storage (the size of a garden shed) can cost
well over £100 a month in central London, half that or less elsewhere.
• There are currently 40 books on how to declutter your home currently in print. The
Association of Professional Declutterers and Organisers will put you in touch with any of
several dozen firms around the country that you can pay to do the job for you – at a rate of
about £25 an hour.
[Jon Henley, 16 May 2012. The Guardian]
THE BRITISH HAVE THE SMALLEST HOMES IN EUROPE!
In fact they are downright pokey, with only an average usable floor space of 76m sq
according to a new report by Bradford & Bingley. The Italians lead the rest of Europe with the
most space - an average of 92m sq per dwelling, over a fifth larger than us Brits enjoy. The
report undertaken by the Centre for Economics & Business Research for Bradford & Bingley
compares the UK property market to Germany, France, Italy and Spain. It reveals British
living space per home is 12 percent smaller than the average Spanish home, 14 percent smaller
than in Germany and 16 percent smaller than in France.
Moreover, the gap between the UK and the continent is widening with new homes in
France, Germany and Spain getting bigger. On average, newly built homes in France and
Germany have over 100m2 of usable floor space, while in Spain modern homes have 95m2. In
Britain, new homes remain the same size as existing properties at 76m2.
These figures are more surprising when the types of properties are taken into account
as over four-fifths of British households prefer to live in a house. The report reveals that 82
percent of British families live in a house and only 15 percent live in a flat. This is in stark
contrast to families on continental Europe where flats are more popular. In Spain, Italy and
Germany more than 50 percent of families live in a flat and France is not far behind with 41
percent. Yet almost bizarrely the average British family home has the least usable living space
of the countries surveyed.
Nickie Aiken of Bradford & Bingley Estate Agents commented on the findings: "It is
interesting that the UK is trailing the continent in terms of living space, particularly when you
take the fact that we tend to live in houses rather than flats into account. Quality of life is not
only about income and spending, comfort is a core component. Hopefully the Government is
aware of these figures as it tackles the increasing demand for new housing in the UK."
Owning your own property is popular to differing degrees and despite the widely held
perception to the contrary, Britons aren't Europe's most prolific homeowners. The Spanish
(80%) own more of their homes than the Brits and Italians (69%). The French (54%) and
Germans (43%) own less. Despite the right to buy initiatives of the Thatcher governments,
Britain still has the highest number of 'social housing', namely council or housing association
dwellings (22%). France has the second highest provision of social housing with 18% living in
social owned homes. Whilst Spain barely has a social sector at all with only 1%.
Compared to our counterparts on the continent, the UK has the least developed rental
sector with less than 1 in 10 (9%) British homes being rented privately. This contrasts sharply
with the staggering 46% in Germany - over five times the UK level. This news is surprising
given the recent surge in popularity of buy to let mortgages in the UK. There are marked
differences between the residential property prices in the five countries and the types of homes

16
people can purchase. For £60,000 a homeowner could buy a semi-detached home in the north
of England, a rural home in Italy, a villa in Spain or an apartment in a French ski resort.
[Adapted from: https://www.learnenglish.de/culture/britishhouses.html]
Do we have a similar problem with dwellings in our country? Work in pairs, choose one
article, sum it up in 7-10 sentences and tell to your partner.

Ex. 8. Houses in your country. Describe the types of housing available in your country /
area. Speak to a partner.
• What are the main features?
• Do people live in the centre of cities or towns?
• Are there any unusual houses?
• Are there any historic houses?
• Have the types of houses changed over the last 50 years?

E. 9. What sort of accommodation do (did) these people have, or what might


they be living in at the moment? Match the words on the left with the
accommodations on the right.
1. a queen a. a ranch(-house)
2. an Eskimo b. a villa
3. a red Indian a hundred years ago c. a palace or castle
4. a monk d. a convent or nunnery
5. a nun e. a motel
6. an eighty-year-old with no living relatives f. an igloo
7. a soldier g. a monastery
8. a cowboy h. a hovel, garden shed, an old hut
9. a traveling sales representative away from i. a wigwam or tepee
home
10. a forester in Canada j. an old people’s home
11. skiers in the mountains k. a tent (or caravan)
12. holiday makers who find hotels too big l. a guest house (or boarding
or/and expensive house)
13. a well-off couple holidaying in the South of m. barracks or living quarters
France
14. a camper n. a (log-)cabin
15. a successful advertising executive o. a penthouse (suite)
16. a tramp – if he’s lucky p. a chalet

Ex. 10. Choose the correct answer.


1. They live in a(n) … house which stands by itself in a field.
a) attached b) detached c) detaching d) semi-detached
2. Having made his fortune he now … in great luxury in a large house in the country.
a) dwells b) inhabits c) leaves d) lives
3. My brother lives on the eleventh floor of that … of flats.
a) block b) building c) house d) tower
4. His house is nothing out of the … it’s just an average four-roomed house.
a) normal b) ordinary c) typical d) usual
5. Going down the street, she walked past a long … of houses, all exactly alike.
a) queue b) rank c) row d) train
6. In the village he was looked up to as the lord of the … .

17
a) castle b) fortress c) manor d) tower
7. He keeps all his tools and do-it-yourself equipment in a … in the garden.
a) barn b) hut c) shed d) stable
8. Our house isn’t joined to the other houses in the street: it’s … .
a) attached b) divided c) detached d) disconnected
9. The new police station is to be built … the main square.
a) close b) near c) side d) neighbourhood
10. I am staying in a youth … in the centre of the town.
a) hostel b) inn c) pub d) stable

Ex.11. Complete each of the following sentences with an appropriate word for a type of
building. Each dash represents one letter.
1. He is real prince and his family has lived in this _ _ _ t _ _ since the 14th century.
2. The high _ _ y _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ in New York are mostly to be found in the central part of
Manhattan.
3. Students can save money and make friends by living in a university _ _ _ t _ _ .
4. An elderly person is better off in a _ _ _ _ a _ _ _ with no stairs to climb.
5. I’ve always dreamed of moving to the country and living in an old _ _ _ t _ _ _ .
6. The student’s room was so untidy it was like a p _ _ _ _ _ .
7. They don’t live in a house, they live in a modern _ _ _ c _ of _ _ _ _ _ .
8. A family house standing on its own is called a _ _ _ _ c _ _ _ house.
9. He keeps his tools and equipment in a _ _ _ _ he has put up in his garden.
10. This small cottage is _ _ _ _u _ example of the local architecture of the 16th century. All
the other buildings in the neighbourhood date from at least one hundred years later.
11. Originally this building was d _ _ _ _ n _ _ as a hotel. It was only after its construction
began that they decided to turn it into a cottage.
12. They live outside the town centre in a little house in the _ _ _ u _ _ _ .
13. We love our old house so much that we never want to _ _ _ _ to a new one.

Ex. 12. Cross the odd one out.


1. The roof of the terraced house/cellar/semi-detached was in need of repair.
2. The farmhouse/maisonette/cottage we bought recently is in a perfect country setting far
away from the stress of the city.
3. Ellie has a luxurious penthouse/council flat/villa by the sea in the south of France.
4. The hotel suite/bed-sit/room cost 200 £ per night.
5. Our country cottage is so typical of those in the area with its thatched/slate/marble roof.
6. The new apartment included an antique/well-equipped/fitted kitchen.

Ex. 13. Vocabulary Practice (Listening 1.7 “Home and House” expressions [19]). A) How
many new words can you make by combining a word on the left with a word on the right?
Which are nouns and which are adjectives? Explain their meaning to your partner.
HOME work made wife sick proud
page plant town coming
HOUSE less grown bound warming
B) Listen to the conversations. After each one, discuss these questions: who is talking
to whom? What about? What compounds from the table are used?
Complete the sentences from the conversations. Listen again and check.
1. I’m going away for two weeks. Do you think you could possibly water my
________ for me?

18
2. Don’t worry. I know how ________ you are. I’ll make sure everything stays clean and
tidy.
3. Let’s give her a spectacular _________ party when she gets back from New York.
4. Me? I’m just a _______. Four kids, _____ cakes, and _________ vegetables.
5. We’re having a _________ party on the 12th. Can you come? I can give you our new
address.
6. Mind you, with it being much bigger there is much more ________ to do!
7. Her grandmother’s sick and _________, so they have to go and help.
C) Complete each sentence with the words home, house or a word formed from one of
these words.
1. The old couple decided to live in an old people’s … . 2. Graham bought a terraced … in a
quiet city street. 3. Many … people sleep in the streets in London. 5. Jack was unable to look
after his children so he employed a … . 6. I come from Newcastle. It’s my … town, you could
say. 7. Paul used to live on the river on a … boat. 8. When I went to boarding school I felt
very … sick at first. 9. Our first … was on the … estate on Oakwood Hill. 10. Pour yourself a
drink and make yourself at …

Ex. 14. Listening. You will listen to an interview about some unusual English
Homes. Before you listen, look at the statements below and underline the key words.
In pairs, think of synonyms\antonyms for the key words. Then listen to the recording
and decide whether each of the following statements is True or False. Give proof from
the recording [6].
1. Scott-Betnick led a lonely life.
2. Scott-Betnick had every room in his house painted pink.
3. Whitaker Wright invested a lot of money in his house.
4. The ballroom of Witley Park is still in use.
5. Only rich people have eccentric houses.
6. Eagle Rock is built entirely from glass.
7. Alexander Wortley chose his home according to his political beliefs.

Ex. 15. Watch the TED Talk called “Magical houses, made of bamboo” by Elora Hardy
[https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kK_UjBmHqQw].
INTRODUCTION: You've never seen buildings like this. The stunning bamboo homes built
by Elora Hardy and her team in Bali twist, curve and surprise at every turn. They defy
convention because the bamboo itself is so enigmatic. No two poles of bamboo are alike, so
every home, bridge and bathroom is exquisitely unique. In this beautiful, immersive talk, she
shares the potential of bamboo, as both a sustainable resource and a spark for the imagination.
"We have had to invent our own rules," she says.
Pre-listening. Study the vocabulary. In what way are these words connected with the
topic? Make predictions, then listen and check.
curving structure compressive strength pins
to keep the bugs out hollow poles to replicate
a shoot (a part of a plant) to be under construction viable building material
sustainable timber earth-quake resistant to weave
durable plywood
Listen again and answer the following questions.
1. What is Elora’s occupation?
2. What does Elora mean by necessary luxuries in bamboo houses?
3. What is “Green School” like?

19
4. Why is bamboo a good material for building houses, according to the video?
5. What is Ebuku and what are they doing together?
6. Is the concept of bamboo construction new? Give reasons
7. Why did they have “to invent” their own rules?
8. What is the construction process like?
9. What are the advantages and disadvanatages of building from bamboo?
10. Is Elora optimistic at the end of her talk? Why?
Would you like to live in a bamboo house? Give reasons.

Ex. 16. Project work. Prepare a talk/presentation about unusual houses/buildings all
over the world.

Ex. 17. Listening Practice. Describing areas where people live. Listen to three
speakers talking about the places where they live. For each of the speaker, answer
the questions [2]:
1. What kind of area is the speaker describing?
2. What are the advantages and disadvantages of living in this place?
Listen again and put down the expressions the speakers use to describe the places where
they live.

Ex. 18. City Life vs Country Life. Read the notes about life in the city and in the country
and note the colocations.

20
[10]
Ex. 19. A) Complete each sentence with the city and the country in the correct space.
1. There is less hectic pace of life in …………. than in ……………….
2. It’s much easier to hail a taxi in …………… than in ……………….
3. You are less likely to find reliable public transport in ………….. than in………….
4. You are more likely to find rustic charm in ……………… than in…………
5. You are more likely to find congested roads in …………… than in………..
B) Explain the difference in meaning between the sentences in each pair.
6. The roads are very congested. The streets are very crowded.
7. We live in the inner city. They live in the leafy suburbs.
8. He lives in a quiet backwater. She lives in a bustling city centre.
9. I enjoy urban living. I love my rural idyll.
C) Put the collocations in the box into pairs that are similar in meaning.
City life in the middle of nowhere rural idyll
Long opening hours urban living in the back of beyond
Rustic charm open all hours
D) Rewrite the underlined part of each sentence using a collocation from the
previous page.
1. The village is regarded as a quiet place where nothing happens, but the people who live
there love it.
2. She lives in a simple cottage miles away from any other inhabited places.
3. The government plans to provide funds to subside the modernization and improvement

21
of our cities.
4. The city announced a plan to plant more trees in the year to come.
5. The south side of the city is an area where many people would like to have a home.
6. The city council has declared that part of the town may be used for people’s homes.
E) Find collocations on the previous page with the opposite meaning to these
phrases.
1. smart, modern buildings
2. quiet roads (2)
3. a quiet city centre
4.urban decay
5. the urban nightmare
6. restricted opening times

Ex. 20. Describe the location of the house you live in. Make use of the collocations and
vocabulary given below.
A The house you live in can be located
· in a superb modern complex · far from the city centre
· in a side street · convenient for public transport
· in a lane · close to the bus stop
· in the city centre · about ….. metres from …..
· in the suburbs · some minutes’ walk from .....
· in a residential area of the city · handy for .....
· on the main road · a stone’s throw from .....
· off the main busy road / with heavy traffic
B A house can:
· overlook the river .…. · face the garden .….
· look over the public library ….. · have a lovely/pleasant view on…
C Name essential services/facilities that make life in your neighborhood easy and
pleasant, i.e. a park, a shopping center, a cinema, etc.
Read the following advertisements for homes taken from a British estate agent’s publicity.
Assuming you had the money, which home, if any, would you want to look at and why?
a. Spacious Victorian terraced house enjoying views across the city. Handy for local shops,
buses, schools, etc. Porch, entrance hall, 2 impressive reception rooms, kitchen/breakfast
room, bathroom with shower, 3 bedrooms, gas central heating, small but delightful garden.
b. A purpose-built upper floor flat located in one of the city’s prime residential areas, some
10 minutes’ walk from the city centre and railway station. Close to local shops and canal path
walks. Commanding superb views over the city and surrounding hills. Gas central heating,
hall, 6m x 4m living room, bathroom, 2 double bedrooms with wardrobes, garage.
c. Southern outskirts of the city: a double-fronted pre-war semi-detached 3 bed-roomed
house in a quiet tree-lined road. Convenient for local shops and city buses. Period hall, good-
sized lounge, dining room, utility room/storeroom, electric storage heaters, double-
glazing, charming mature garden, garage.
d. A very well-proportioned detached bungalow, not far from the city centre, containing
a luxury kitchen, an impressive open-plan living room with a fireplace, 4 double bedrooms,
and 2 bathrooms. Gas central heating, fair decorative order throughout, large secluded garden,
and double garage.
c. The following adjectives are all taken from the advertisements above. Put them in the table
according to whether their meanings relate to size, distance, age or quality.

22
Spacious - fair - good-sized - prime - superb - pre-war - period - impressive - luxury - open-
plan - mature - not far - secluded - handy - convenient - charming - well-proportioned -
purpose-built - close to

Size Distance Age Quality

Ex. 21. Make up a dialogue on the following situation: one of you lives in a city in a
flat with all modern conveniences while the other has moved to the country to enjoy
its peace and quiet. Discuss advantages and disadvantages of the place where you live.

Ex. 22. Watching about a British Home. Watch the video by Anglophenia called “Confusing
things about British Homes” [https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ATjMxH3-e4Y] about a
traditional British home and answer the questions:
1. Why do Brits have washing machines in the kitchen?
2. Give reasons why there are no plug sockets in the bathroom.
3. What expressions does the host use to describe the toilet? Are a toilet and a
bathroom always separate rooms?
4. What is the explanation for having two taps in British homes?
5. Do modern Brits still love separate water taps? Why?
6. In what way are plugs in Britain different from American ones?
7. What should one do if it is too hot in the room? Why?
Watch again and explain the context in which the following expressions are used:
 To put the kettle on  electric shocks
 To show somebody around  outlet
 front-loader  contaminated
 rad (coll.)  water tank
 to turn smth on and off with  exhilarating
a little tug  to stick around
What are the main differences in features between an American and a British
home?
 Most of the other answers have mentioned the smaller size. I’ll add a few other
things that people don’t necessarily think about.
 Laundry. Few older houses have enough room for a separate utility room. This means
that washers and dryers (if they even have a dryer) have to fit under the kitchen
counters. Washers therefore must be smaller and front-loading, which means you have
to do more loads of laundry to get it all done. Many people line-dry their clothes, or
use an expensive washer/dryer combination machine.
 Refrigeration. Most refrigerators are similarly smaller. Prior to the 1980s or so, many
people only had a little one that fit—you guessed it!—under a kitchen counter. This
was the norm in an era when many women shopped for their families every single
day. They had no choice about it. The fridge wouldn’t hold more than that. The freezer
was a compartment inside the fridge and only big enough for a couple of ice trays.
Full-height fridges are available now, but it’s rare for people to have a big side-by-side.
In the stores these are sold as “American-style refrigeration!”
 Plumbing. The traditional design, now thankfully on the way out, involved having two
different systems, one for the radiators and one for the drinking and bathing water. The
boiler heated the water for the radiators, and it passed through a heat exchanger inside
a hot water tank to make hot water for bathing. Cold water to replenish each system
23
was kept in two (open!) tanks in the attic. As the attic isn’t the cleanest place in the
world, you were only supposed to drink from the kitchen tap, which was the only place
where the water came directly from the mains. All other water was technically non-
potable. Another consequence of keeping the water in the attic is that the only pressure
available (except at the kitchen tap) is gravity. This means that the traditional British
shower is a disappointing drizzle. I have installed a pump to give my shower some
oomph. Lots of people are moving over to hot-water-on-demand systems and getting
rid of the tanks. The central heating is still a separate, closed system though.
 Stairs. Stairs tend to be steeper than those in American houses. Again, this saves
space.
 The Walls. Older houses have actual plaster, not plasterboard/drywall /sheetrock. This
means you have to be careful about nailing into it, or you’ll make cracks. On the
exterior walls are not timber-framed.
 Roofs. Roofs are frequently made of tile or real slate. There’s definitely asphalt shingle
as well, but not as much as in the USA.
 Electricity. Every electrical outlet has a switch, and every plug has a fuse in it. If your
appliance is throwing sparks and starting to smoke, you don’t have to touch it; you can
switch it off safely at the wall.
 The Cupboard under the Stairs. Every house with stairs has a cupboard under it for
keeping the vacuum cleaner in. This is where Harry Potter first lived.
[Adapted from: https://www.quora.com/What-are-the-main-differences-in-features-between-
an-American-and-a-British-home]
Ex. 23. A) Read the article. Have you heard about this kind of dwelling before? Answer
the questions after the text.
EARTHSHIPS
When people hear about sustainable, off-the-grid living,
they usually picture primitive homes divorced from the
comforts of the 21st century. And rightfully so, as most sustainable
solutions proposed until now have fit that description. Earthships,
however, offer all of the comforts of modern homes and more in a
sustainable way. The Earthship was designed as a structure that would
be free of the constraints of centralized utilities, on which most
modern shelters rely. Earthships must be able to create their own
utilities, and to utilize readily available sustainable materials.
Even the most arid of climates can provide enough water for daily use through only a rain-
harvesting system. Water collected in this fashion is used for every household activity except
flushing toilets. The water used for flushing toilets has been used at least once already:
frequently it is filtered waste-water from sinks and showers, and described as "Greywater".
That used ‘grey water’ is then pumped into the greenhouse to water the plants. After being
cleaned by the plants, the water is pumped up into the bathrooms for use in the toilets. After
being flushed, the now ‘black water’ is pumped to the exterior garden to give nutrients to
non-edible plants.
Earthships are designed to collect and store their own energy from a variety of sources. The
majority of electrical energy is harvested from the sun and wind. Photovoltaic panels and
wind turbines located on or near the Earthship generate DC energy that is then stored in
several types of deep-cycle batteries. The space in which the batteries are kept is usually a

24
special, purpose-built room placed on the roof. Additional energy, if required, can be
obtained from gasoline-powered generators or by integrating with the city grid.
Each Earthship is outfitted with one or two greenhouses that grow crops year-round, no
matter what the climate is. The most brilliant piece of engineering in the Earthship is their
ability to sustain comfortable temperatures year round. This phenomenon results from the
solar heat being absorbed and stored by ‘thermal mass’ — or tyres filled with dirt, which
make up the structure of the Earthship. The thermal mass acts as a heat sink, releasing or
absorbing heat when the interior cools and heats up, respectively.
Much of the materials used to build Earthships are recycled. For starters, the structure is built
with used tyres filled with dirt! The walls (above the tyres) are created by placing plastic and
glass bottles in concrete. Earthships are exorbitantly cheaper than conventional houses. The
most basic Earthships cost as little as $7000 with the most glamorous models costing $70,000
and up, depending on how flashy you want to be with your decorating. With all of your basic
needs provided for and NO bills each month, you’re free! You don’t have to work a job you
hate just to survive. So you can focus your time on doing what you love, and bettering the
world around you.
The most powerful thing Earthships do is force people to think differently about how they
live. If housing can be this awesome, and be beneficial to the environment, then what else
can we change? What else can become simpler, cheaper and better at the same time?
1. Why don’t Earthships fit into the description of the usual primitive homes?
2. Mention two features of Earthships.
3. How is grey water used? Give two details.
4. What is black water and how is it used?
5. Apart from wind energy, what sources of electrical energy does the Earthship depend upon?
6. What do Earthships use to harvest the energy from the sources?
7. What helps Earthship maintain a comfortable temperature all through the year?
8. According to the graph, when will a person need to spend more than $1,500,000 on an
Earthship?
9. What influence do Earthships have on people?
10. Apart from being environmentally friendly, what other factors of Earthship attract people?
Give four details.
B) Explain the words in bold. Make up new sentences with them.
C) Role-play. You are an estate agent. Make the presentation of the Earthship telling about all
its advantages over conventional houses.
[Adapted from https://highexistence.com/10-reasons-why-earthships-are-fing-awesome/]

Ex. 24. A) Have you heard the expression “smart-home”? Do you know what it is like? Is
it a house of the future or a modern one? Read the list of predictions below and decide if they
are typical for a smart home or not. Add some of your ideas about a house of the future to the
list. Watch a short video called “Homes of the future” to check your predictions
(http://learnenglishteens.britishcouncil.org)
Predictions Thumbs up Thumbs
down

1. Rainwater for washing and (after


purification) for drinking will be collected
in gutters.
2. A satellite will receive weather forecast

25
and pass them on to heating control unit.
3. The kitchen computer will store recipes,
monitor food stocks and program the oven
automatically.
4. Light switches will be activated by voice.
5. The toilet will analyze your output and
give a health report.
6. An enclosed temperature controlled
garden will protect plants from pollution.
7. A basement storage system will be run by
a computer.
8. Dirt will be sucked into cleaning system
pipes in the walls and then collected in
certain units.
9. Homes will have an entertainment room
with a wall-sized screen for viewing
virtual reality holograms.
10. There will be sound-proof module for
teenagers.
11. Many people will work from home, so
they will add office modules to their
houses.
12. Automatic security shutters linked to
sensors outside will be fitted to all
windows.
13. …..
B) Read the article below about the houses of the future and compare their description to
your list of predictions.
Future Homes
Future homes will be located in all locations on Earth plus beyond the planet’s
atmosphere as well. First, let’s take a look at where some of the futuristic homes of
today are located and then make some predictions on where we are headed.
Of course when one talks about future homes it is always tempting to either mention
“The Jetsons” or your favorite SciFi movie or TV show. But, let’s ground this discussion in
reality for a moment. And while we’re discussing grounding let’s talk about underground
homes. In the U. S. there are approximately 6,000 underground or earth sheltered homes to
date. Many of these homes are equipped with advanced energy conservation and generation
features such as solar panels, solar windows and smart home technology.
But, these underground homes are only the tip of the iceberg in regard to high tech
dwellings as there are also techy homes at the North Pole and
the Antarctic region as well. Of course these homes may be
temporary, set up by scientists doing research, but they provide
shelter nonetheless.
Less amazing are high tech homes on top of mountains, floating
homes (boats, ships, houseboats) or houses built on stilts that
avoid the wrath of flooding or storm surges. And all of these
dwellings could be smart homes equipped with smart metering

26
technology; smart appliances that communicate with the power company and each other plus
ones you can interact directly with your PC or smart phone app.
Future Solar Home on Water
This is all technology that is here now, today. So, let’s ratchet this discussion up a
notch as to what future homes will look like near-term (5 – 10 years). Researchers have
already discovered thin film solar technology and applied this to windows so that every
window in your home or office can be a power generator.
In the near-term we can expect future homes to use similar technology over the entire
house. Each future home will be its own power generation station. Many future homes will be
tied into the grid so that they may even out power distribution to those homeowners and
businesses that have not made the transition yet.
Home wind turbines, home use of geothermal energy and building homes further
underground (expanded basements) will become more the norm in the coming years as energy
independence and escaping addiction to foreign energy sources becomes a number one
national priority.
Future homes of course will take advantage of future robots to do chores such as
cleaning and organizing. Some of this technology is happening now. Japanese engineers have
made great strides in recent years developing more realistic and functional robotics that can
recognize human speech and respond to it or do specific tasks around the house. The “Lazy
Brother-in-Law Robot” who sleeps on your couch and drinks your beer is now in its fourth
generation.
Smart phone apps that interact with one’s home will increase exponentially over the
next few years. Want to check the temperature of your refrigerator, turn on the oven, or start
the laundry? Well, there’s an app for that.
And this is just the beginning because there will be apps created to interact with your
future home robots to tell them to put food in the oven, clothes in the laundry, feed the cat and
clean the bathroom. From your smart phone (or headphone as pictured) you’ll be able to check
the supplies in your refrigerator or pantry and order more from the grocery store. Or you’ll use
future home automation so that you don’t have to worry about this on a day by day basis as
your pre-programmed smart home technology will take care of this for you and you can
override it at will by using your phone application.
Future home entertainment systems will be out of
this world. By combining future augmented reality, virtual
reality and mediated reality movies and television will be
more interactive than ever before. Imagine in your living
room playing a future version of Wii golf or tennis with
your virtual friends while watching breaking news or the
latest 3-D movie.
You’ll be able to dial up the sensory stimulus or
dial down the sensory overload on demand. In fact, you’ll
just have to think about what you want to see and do in your future home entertainment center
and it will become reality in a nanosecond.
Most future homes will have their own future home offices as well. The future
workplace will become decentralized and flexible so that you can work flexible hours, interact
with coworkers virtually, call meetings, collaborate and communicate all from your future
home office.
For those with sleep problems future homes will address these issues using sensory
deprivation chambers combined with future medical technology that will target your body
using personalized designer medication which will ensure sound sleep every night.

27
Future home security will also be of the utmost importance. Cameras outside the home
will integrate with systems inside using facial recognition software to determine friend from
foe. This system will be automated so that police can be dispatched when a foe (including any
old MoFo) is detected outside your future home.
Seniors will be able to navigate better in the future homes equipped with escalators and
moving walkways. All future homes will be built with age appropriate child-proofing already
in place that gives different levels of access based upon the age and maturity of each child.
Inappropriate content on the Internet or from the future home entertainment system
will be screened automatically in a similar fashion as well. And, all of these systems may be
overridden by the adult in charge at any time.
So, to recap, there will be many advantages of future homes. More power and
flexibility at your fingertips will make your future home as busy, calm, organized,
disorganized, exciting or relaxing as you want it to be at any moment in time.

C) Basing on what you’ve watched and read, make up the list of features of the future
smart home and think of positive and negative aspect of each feature.
[Adapted from http://www.futuretechnology500.com/index.php/future-homes]

Ex. 25. Paraphrase/explain the following quotations. Which ones do you agree with
most? Why? Choose one to prepare a talk.

A man travels the world over in search of what he needs and returns home to
find it.

28
List of essay/exam topics
1. My home is my castle
2. Usual and unusual British houses / Typical Russian houses
3. Smart home – a house of the future
4. Living in a sustainable house – what’s it like?
5. City life vs country life

MОDULE 2
INTERIOR AND EXTERIOR
Ex. 1. Lead-in. Look at the picture and study the vocabulary given. Think of Russian
equivalents (check your dictionaries if you need). Work in pairs – try to remember as
many words as you can without looking at the picture.

Ex. 2. Tick the rooms/areas which your house has, then describe it to your partner.
Kitchen Loft
Guest room Games room
Bedroom Study
Yard Shed
Landing Balcony
Front garden Garage
Patio Drive
29
Swimming pool Roof garden
Dining room Porch
Lounge Bedsitter

Ex. 3. Places in the house.


A) You probably already know the names of most rooms and locations in a typical home.
Here are some less common ones and what they are for.
utility room: usually just for washing machine, freezer, etc.
shed: small building separated from the house usually for storing garden tools
attic: room in the roof space of a house (could be lived in)
loft: space in the roof of a house usually used only for storage
cellar: room below ground level, no windows, used for storage
basement: room below ground level, windows, for living/working
landing: flat area at the top of a staircase
hall: open area as you come into a house
porch: covered area before an entrance-door
pantry or larder: large cupboard (usually big enough to walk into) for storing food
terrace or patio: paved area between house and garden for sitting and eating, etc.
study: a room for reading, writing, studying in a house
B) Where in a typical house would you look for the following things? Give reasons
1 a rake 5 suitcases 9 a grater
2 cutlery 6 a tumble-dryer 10 old empty boxes
3 dental floss 7 cane chairs 11 tinned food
4 a coat-hanger 8 bottles with wine 12 toolware
C) Fill the gaps with a suitable word.
1 I've got a darkroom in the ............................... where I develop films. It's perfect because
there are no windows down there.
2 Is there a ................................. where I can plug in this radio?
3 I think there's some cereal in the ……………, could you, please, fetch it.
4 We keep our skis up in the ................................. during the summer. They're out of the way
up there.
5 You'll find the garden-chairs in the ................................. at the bottom of the garden. Bring
them up and we'll have a drink on the ................................. and watch the sunset.
6 The light-switch for the stairs is on the ................................. as you come out of your
bedroom.
[14]

Ex. 4. Read, translate and retell the text paying attention to the expressions marked in
bold [9]. What types of buildings does the author mention? Which of them would you
prefer to live in and why? (Discuss with your partner)
HOME SWEET HOME
It does not matter what your home is like — a country mansion, a more modest
detached or semi-detached house, a flat in a block of flats or even a room in a
communal flat. Anyway, it is the place where you once move in and start to furnish
and decorate it to your own taste. It becomes your second "ego". Your second "ego" is very
big and disquieting if you have a house. There is enough space for everything: a hall, a
kitchen with an adjacent dining-room, a living-room or a lounge, a couple of bed-rooms
and closets (storerooms), a toilet and a bathroom. You can walk slowly around the house

30
thinking what else you can do to renovate it. In the hall you cast a glance at the coatrack and
a chest of drawers for shoes. Probably, nothing needs to be changed here.
You come to the kitchen: kitchen furniture, kitchen utensils, a refridgerator (fridge)
with a freezer, a dishdrainer, an electric or gas cooker with an oven. Maybe, it needs a
cooker hood? The dining-room is lovely. A big dining table with chairs in the centre, a
cupboard with tea sets and dinner sets. There is enough place to keep all cutlery and
crockery in. You know pretty well where things go.
The spacious living-room is the heart of the house. It is the place where you can have a
chance to see the rest of your family. They come in the evening to sit around the coffee table
in soft armchairs and on the sofa. You look at the wall units, stuffed with china, crystal and
books. Some place is left for a stereo system and a TV set. A fireplace and houseplants
make the living-room really cosy.
Your bedroom is your private area though most bedrooms are alike: a single or a double
bed, a wardrobe, one or two bedside tables and a dressing-table. You look inside the
bathroom: a sink, hot and cold taps and a bath. There is nothing to see in the toilet except a
flush-toilet. You are quite satisfied with what you have seen, but still doubt disturbs you: 'Is
there anything to change?' Yes! The walls of the rooms should be papered, and in the
bathroom and toilet — tiled! Instead of linoleum there should be parquet floors. Instead of
patterned curtains it is better to put darker plain ones, so that they might not show the dirt.
You do it all, but doubt does not leave you. Then you start moving the furniture around in the
bedroom, because the dressing-table blocks out the light. You are ready to give a sigh of
relief, but... suddenly find out that the lounge is too crammed up with furniture.
Those who live in one-room or two-room flats may feel pity for those who live in houses.
They do not have such problems. At the same time they have a lot of privileges: central
heating, running water, a refuse-chute and... nice neighbours who like to play music at
midnight. Owners of small flats are happy to have small problems and they love their homes no
less than those who live in three-storey palaces. Home, sweet home.

Ex. 5. Say what else one can see in a hall, a kitchen, a dining room, a lounge, a bedroom ?
Look at the plan of a flat and decide how you would furnish it. Make use of the phrases below:

Let's ... in the middle


What about putting ... in the far end of the room
What do you think of... in the right corner by
I think we should ... in the left comer at...
Shall we ... on the right
Perhaps the best thing would be to ... on the left
Everybody puts ... beside

Ex.6. A) Read through this rather strange application form, noting how the couple
describes the house in question and its furniture. As you read, answer the question
below.
 If the couple decided to sell the house next month, which of these features could they
say that it had? Give proof from the text

31
1. two bathrooms
2. polished wooden floors
3. a slate roof
4. attractive wallpaper throughout
5. double glazed windows
6. three bedrooms
7. a spacious garden shed
8. excellent period fireplaces
9. a mature vegetable garden
10. a modern kitchen

Application Form XYB / 43Z Sect. 51


To Join The Yuppies’ (Young Upwardly-Mobile) Neighbourhood Scheme
Remarks: (Please state briefly below any qualifications and/or experience you have to support
your application.)
When my wife and I moved into our present house, it was little better than a slum, completely
unfurnished apart from a few bits and pieces which the former occupant had either forgotten
to or – more likely – decided not to take with her. (These included an enormous sideboard
that weighed a ton, a chest of drawers with only remaining door hanging off, an ugly
bookcase with all its panes of glass cracked, and a broken nineteenth-century piano stool.)
The floors then were bare boards with one or two mats and strips of lino. We now
have fitted carpets in every room except the bathroom (where we have special long-lasting
tiles at over £20 per square foot,) and the kitchen (polished parquet floor), plus several
sheepskin rugs in the reception rooms. On arrival, we found most of the interior decorated
with faded, flowery-patterned wallpaper, peeling at the picture rail. We have painted
throughout in magnolia (windows and sills wine-red or stripped pine) except in the lounge,
where we have had Hessian hung. A few tasteful reproductions and a number of old German
prints (all expensively framed) are on the walls, along with some carefully selected posters
in the children’s rooms.
Numerous structural alternations have been carried out, notably the conversion of
the old garden shed into a second bathroom, complete with bath, basin, bidet and W.C.
(lambswool-covered lavatory seat and press-button flush) and the extension of the
conservatory to make a sun lounge – with window seats all around it – leading on to the
newly-laid patio. The roof, meanwhile, has been completely renovated, slates giving way to
tiles, double glazing has been fitted on all windows, and the old fireplaces have been
blocked up, except in the lounge which has retained its grate and mantelpiece for the old-
world image it creates. In terms of heating, we have graduated from electric fires to gas fires,
convector heaters, storage heaters and recently to full gas-fired central heating with extra-
large boiler and double radiators, each with its own thermostatic control.
We have also made dramatic improvements in the kitchen. The old installations were
ripped out last year and in their place came a new sink unit with mixer tap and double
drainer, a line of smart cupboards all along one wall and two rows of shelves along the other,
a split-level cooker, eye-level grill, double oven – you name it, I think we’ve got it. Upstairs
the old iron double bed we inherited had been replaced by elegant twin beds with interior-
sprung mattresses and continental quilts (duvets), of course. Our children Alexandra and
Charles, have recently moved out of their bunk beds and into single beds in separate rooms;
these have been specially equipped with a desk, blackboard and easel, and toy chest. All
bedrooms have built-in wardrobes now and my wife has her own personal dressing table.
Our more expensive purchases, apart from the above, include: a leather upholstered
32
lounge suite comprising a four-seater sofa – or should we say settee? – and two armchairs.
(We remember with horror the year we had to make do with a studio couch plus a few
pouffes and cushions.) a solid wood table and set of matching dining room chairs, plus a
microwave oven. a new shower unit in the master bathroom, plumbed in of course, so that
no unsightly pipes are visible. new stereo equipment with karaoke system, colour TV, a
video recorder with DVD player, home computer and cocktail cabinet.
It may interest you to know, finally, that we have made a formal complaint about the
ghastly tallboy and divan that our neighbours have had standing in their back garden for
nearly six months. (Our garden, incidentally, has been recently landscaped and completely
transformed: gone is the vegetable patch; in its place a neat lawn and flower-beds.) All our
(new) friends say we have done a wonderful job on our property. One or two have invited us
to join the amateur dramatic society and they are even giving us the names of private schools
in the area.
I hope you will consider our application favourably.
Signature: …………………………………..
Date: …………………………………..
B) Give synonyms and Russian equivalents to all the expressions marked in bold.

Ex. 7. A) In these e-mails people are describing their living accommodation. Read and
explain the expressions marked in bold.
Hi Nick. Hi Julia,
Luke and I have just moved into our You’re so lucky! I’d love to move out
dream home. It’s a big old four- of my awful one-room flat. It is such a
storey house. It’s got a spacious dilapidated building. You go into a
living room which has a wonderful draughty hall, down a chilly corridor
view of the park, and a cosy study and into this really cramped room. I
where we can both work. And there are some lovely, want to buy a place of my own but
light, airy bedrooms which overlook the garden. there’s a shortage of affordable
There is a separate basement flat which we might housing here and I don’t want to take
turn into a granny flat for my mother. And if we out a big mortgage. I’d love to see
want to add an extension there is room for that too. your house. I hope you’ll invite me to
It needs to be completely refurbished, but Luke and I your house-warming party.
have always wanted to do up an old house. Big hug,
Come and visit. Love, Nick
Julia
B) Match the beginning of each sentence on the left with its ending on the right.
1. We want to turn our garage into a house-warming party
2. Jill has just invited me to her mortgage
3. Next week I have to move out of my own
4.Karl makes a business out of doing up granny flat
5.Our bedroom overlooks my flat
6. Our house needs to be completely the garden
7. I hope that one day I’ll have a place of old houses
8. The bank can help if you want to take out a refurbished
[11]
C) Write a similar e-mail to your friend about a place you are living in. Use the
vocabulary from the exercise if necessary.

Ex. 8. Listening Practice. Things in the House [Zapp_English_Listening].


33
Listening task 1 (00.37-04.37). Listen to the recording and describing rooms. Which things
do you hear either of them talk about? Fill in the table below with the information that you
hear.
Nicolas Ronny
Size
cost
Who they live with

Beds
Listening task 2 (05.35-07.16). Listen to Sandra describing her kitchen. Is it big or small?
What does she have in the kitchen? What expressions does she use to talk about her kitchen?
Listening task 3 (07.32-11.52). What’s your favourite room in the house? Listen to 3 people
talking about their favourite rooms: are they talking about the same or different kinds of
rooms? Give some details of the rooms they like in their houses. Give at least 5 expressions
that each speaker uses to talk about the parts of the house that he or she likes.

Ex. 9. Read the telephone conversation and draw a plan of the house and the garden. Tell
other students how you would furnish the house and use the rooms [9].
Martin: Hello, Linda! Linda: Hi!
Martin: Well, good news at last. After looking at about two hundred houses, I've found just
the place for us. It's in Blackwood, which is an outer suburb about twenty five minutes’ drive
from the city. I think you'll love it. It's got a lovely big garden and lots of trees.
Linda: Yes, fantastic. Now tell me all about it.
Martin: Well, it's basically a three bedroom house. Very individual in style. There's no front
door at all. You come into the hall from a side door. As you walk down the hall, there are two
bedrooms on the left. On the right there is a door leading into a huge lounge.
Linda: What about the third bedroom?
Martin: Well, if you keep going down the hall, it is on the right, past the lounge room. The
room on the left would make a useful study or family room. The one on the right, which has a
wine cellar by the way, would be a very good store room or junk room.
Linda: I see.
Martin: What sold me on the house was the kitchen. It leads off the lounge and is huge. We
can eat in there when we don't feel like having a formal meal in the dining room.
Linda: What about outside?
Martin: Well, there's a big wide verandah running across the front of the house. The two main
bedrooms look out onto this. It also continues down the left-hand side of the house. Part of it,
on the western side, acts as a passage to the bathroom and toilet.
Linda: And the garden? You said something about a garden.
Martin: Yes, it is one of the nicest things about the place. A driveway runs down the left-hand
side of the house to the garden. On the right of the house there is an orchard with apple, plum
and orange trees. At the rear there is a large grassed area surrounded by a border of trees and
shrubs.
Linda: Well, then, when can I see it? Martin: As soon as you arrive tomorrow.
Linda: Great. I'll see you then. Bye. Martin: Bye.

Ex. 10. Vocabulary Practice. Give synonyms of the following words and word
combinations
1. front door; 2. to throw open the window; 3. a tap; 4. to bang the door; 5. an electric lamp; 6.
a back wall; 7. a lavatory; 8. bathroom tissue; 9. to turn off the gas; 10. a toilet bowl; 11. an
34
icebox; 12. a wardrobe; 13. a rack; 14. a gas cooker; 15. a dust-pan; 16. a cot; 17. coverlet; 18.
a living-room; 19. a study; 20. interior designer; 21. to face; 22. a napkin; 23. to punch a
pillow; 24. Venetian blind; 25. a cane chair.

Ex. 11. Vocabulary Practice. Match the words in the box with the explanations below.
Not all words given are suitable. Then make up sentences with the words given.
Aerial, curtains, drive, parking, shelf, central heating, dishwasher, furniture, radiator, stool,
cook, doormat, landing, stove/cooker, rug, door knocker, letter box, settee/sofa, washing
machine
a) Rectangular hole in the front door
b) Kitchen appliance running on gas or electricity
c) Long narrow rectangular piece of wood or metal fixed to the wall
d) Short road between the street and a house or its garage
e) Use this if you want someone to open the door
f) Put the dirty dishes in this
g) This system makes the house warm
h) A small carpet
i) More than one person can sit on this
j) This helps a radio or television to receive a broadcast
k) An area at the top of some stairs
l) Wipe your feet on this before you enter the house
m) Pull these to cover the windows
n) Small seat without back or arms
o) Put your dirty washing in this.

Ex. 12. Vocabulary Practice. PARTS OF A HOUSE. Choose the correct answer.
1. The house is old and it’s in bad … .
a) condition b) damage c) situation d) state
2. Many old houses have an underground room called a(n) … .
a) attic b) cave c) cellar d) loft
3. His flat is in the … .
a) basement b) cellar c) ground d) lift
4. He hung up his overcoat in the … as soon as he came into the house.
a) attic b) cellar c) hall d) loft
5. There was a magnificent drive which … round to the front of the mansion.
a) arched b) bent c) curved d) inclined
6. Three stone … lead up to the front door.
a) levels b) stairs c) stones d) steps
7. The … from the gate to the cottage was overgrown with weeds.
a) passage b) path c) road d) street
8. The hall seemed … lit after the bright sunshine outside.
a) dimly b) faintly c) slightly d) vaguely
9. He went down to his workshop in the … .
a) annexe b) basement c) loft d) ground floor
10. We haven’t got a garage, so we leave our car outside in the … .
a) drive b) garden c) pavement d) porch
11. He waited in the … for the front door to open.
a) crypt b) inlet c) porch d) threshold
12. Although most of the rooms are small, the hall is … .
35
a) abundant b) extended c) spacious d) tiny
13. The … of the roof kept the rain off better.
a) climb b) flow c) plane d) slope
14. The villa has excellent … for cooking and for washing clothes.
a) amenities b) facilities c) utilities d) conveniences
15. In the old house he had to bend down to avoid hitting his head on the … .
a) beams b) bearings c) props d) supports
16. The kitchen was small and … so that the disabled woman could reach everything without
difficulty.
a) compact b) complete c) complex d) contained
17. The only way to see into the basement room was by peering through the … at the bottom
of the wall.
a) drain b) fanlight c) grating d) skylight
18. The … built onto the back of the house provided valuable extra space.
a) development b) extension c) growth d) enlargement
19. In … the room resembles the letter L.
a) figure b) form c) pattern d) shape
20. His bedroom … the park.
a) overlooks b) oversees c) overtakes d) undergoes
21. The old houses were … down to make way for a block of flats.
a) banged b) hit c) knocked d) put
22. My house is very … for getting to work as it is only a few minutes from the station.
a) convenient b) fit c) suitable d) useful
23. It is only a small flat but it … my needs perfectly.
a) fills b)fits c) settles d) supplies
24. This house has only been … since last summer.
a) dwelled b) lived c) occupied d) resided
25. Just looking at the room you would have no idea of the real purpose it … .
a) filled b) served c) took d) used
26. Greg is in the garden, chopping … for the fireplace.
a) forests b) trunks c) twigs d) wood
27. It was very … in the cottage with the comfortable armchairs by the fire.
a) easy b) gratifying c) refreshing d) snug
28. Do open the window; this room seems very … .
a) breathless b) mouldy c) rancid d) stuffy
29. He took out a big … of keys, and opened the door.
a) branch b) bunch c) group d) packet
30. The house looked … in the falling evening light.
a) austere b) lucky c) severe d) strict

Ex. 13. Vocabulary Practice. Choose the most suitable word for each gap.
When I first arrived to take up my new job, I stayed in a hotel, but soon started looking for
some permanent (1) _________. The first flat I (2) _________ over was in (3) __________,
and was obviously extremely damp in winter. Quite apart from the fact that the only (4)
__________ was of a brick wall. Then I had a look at a small flat in a modern (5) _________.
It had a (6) _______ space and a garden, but the (7) ______________ was far too high for me.
I didn’t want to (8) __________ up in a tiny space, so I answered an ad for house-sharing. The
house was in a quiet (9) __________, and as soon as I saw it I fell in love with it. There was a
high overgrown (10) ____________ around the front garden, and (11) ___________ to park
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cars in the drive. The room to (12) __________ looked out (13) ____________ the back
garden, and had a big bay window. Although it meant (14) ___________ the kitchen and
living room, I did have my own bathroom, really just a shower and washbasin (15)
_______________ into what must have once been a cupboard.
1) a) home b) accommodation c) house d) landlords
2) a) passed b) viewed c) came d) looked
3) a) an attic b) a basement c) a cave d) a bedsit
4) a) view b) entrance c) distance d) bathroom
5) a) tower b) department c) block d) square
6) a) living b) breathing c) working d) parking
7) a) lift b) roof c) area d) rent
8) a) end b) live c) shut d) pay
9) a) surroundings b) neighbourhood c) context d) premises
10) a) fence b) bush c) hedge d) lawn
11) a) room b) permission c) areas d) place
12) a) let b) myself c) pay d) luckily
13) a) in b) over c) at d) for
14) a) without b) in d) sharing d) having
15) a) poured b) crowded d) cluttered d) crammed
Ex. 14. Match English expressions with their Russian equivalents.
1. to whitewash walls a) фундамент, цокольный этаж 1
2. a construction site b) спускаться по лестнице 2
3. an arched door c) жить по соседству с кем-то 3
4. a flower bed d) новоселье 4
5. upstairs e) наверху (вверх по лестнице) 5
6. to overlook the sea f) оклеивать стены обоями 6
7. a basement g) клумба 7
8. to live next door to smb. h) мягкая мебель 8
9. a garret i) белить стены 9
10. at the rear of the house j) штукатурить 10
11. a house warming party k) арочная дверь 11
12. to plaster l) перешагнуть через порог 12
13. central heating m) чердак 13
14. to paint window-frames white n) красить оконные рамы в белый цвет 14
15. upholstered furniture o) позади дома 15
16. to take a bath p) центральное отопление 16
17. to go downstairs q) строительная площадка 17
18. a tap, a faucet r) принимать ванну 18
19. to cross the threshold s) выходить на море 19
20. to paper walls t) кран 20
21. a nursery u) ввернуть лампочку 21
22. an adjoining room v) детская (комната) 22
23. a cabinet w) кабинет 23
24. to screw in a bulb x) соседняя (примыкающая) комната 24
25. a study y) шкаф со стеклянными дверцами 25

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Exercise 15. Vocabulary Practice. A) Choose the most appropriate word underlined.
1. The couple had their photo taken on the steps/stairs outside the church. 2. We had to put up
a fence/a hedge to stop the dog getting out. 3. I still haven’t found accommodations/lodgings
for this term. 4. Jim keeps his lawnmower in a shed/shack at the bottom of the garden. 5. They
are going to put up a ten-floor/storey building opposite my house. 6. Groups with guides
should go to the side access/entrance. 7. The children playing in the garden made a beautiful
scene/scenery. 8. It was an old house, with exposed oak beams/logs in all the rooms.
B) Complete each sentence a) to j) with one of the endings 1) to 10)
b. I paused at the top of the stairs on the … 1. … railings at the front of the house.
c. The walls of the bathroom were covered 2. … hinges which were very rusty.
in … . 3. … loft, in case we need them again.
d. I chained my bike to the … . 4. … mantelpiece over the fireplace.
e. There was a clock on the … . 5. … landing and wondered which was my
f. I left my umbrella in the … . room.
g. After the storm we had to replace several 6. … doormat outside the back door.
h. We stored our old books upstairs in the 7. … slates which had fallen off the roof.
i. I decided to oil the front door … . 8. … radiator under the window.
j. There was no heat coming from the … . 9. … tiles with a pattern of fruit and flowers.
k. You should try to remember to wipe your 10. … porch and opened the front door.
feet on the ….
C) Choose the most suitable word or phrase.
1. The area was neglected and soon turned into an overcrowded … .
a) suburb b) slum c) quarter d) estate
2. The explosion shattered hundreds of … of glass in the building.
a) windows b) fragments c) sheets d) panes
3. The old cottage had bow windows and a … roof.
a) plaited b) straw c) woven d) thatched
4. The city takes its water supply from a nearby … .
a) tanker b) pond c) reservoir d) sewer
5. When my parents retired they bought a tiny … in the country.
a) bungalow b) mansion c) shack d) barn
6. The pointed … of the church could be seen from miles away.
a) dome b) building c) summit d) steeple
7. A tall building like this requires very deep … .
a) establishment b) roots c) basis d) foundations
8. The house possesses extensive … with gardens, tennis-courts and an orchard.
a) grounds b) property c) fields d) surroundings
Exercise 16. PARTS OF THE HOUSE. Match the definitions with the correct part of
a house.
a. windows made up of two panes of glass instead of one
1. alcove b. the half-pipe along the edge of the roof to carry away
2. attic rainwater
3. chimney c. a small space in the form of a small room added to
4. cellar another room for a bed, books, etc.
5. central heating d. a window in the roof
6. double glazing e. used in houses instead of open fires
7. French windows f. the space at the top of the stairs

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8. hall g. a roofed entrance built onto a house
9. guttering h. doors made of glass which usually open out onto a
10. landing garden
11. lobby i. a hall or corridor which leads from the entrance to the
12. lounge rooms inside a building
13. niche j. the wide passage just inside the entrance of a house off
14. porch which the rooms open
15. skylight k. a room immediately below the roof of a house
l. a hollow passage often rising above the roof of a
building which allows smoke and gases to pass from the
fire
m. an underground room, usually used for storing goods
n. a comfortable room for sitting in
o. a hollow place in a wall, usually made to hold an
ornament, books, etc.

Ex.17. Choose the proper word from those in brackets.


master – mistress – landlord – landlady – host – hostess – owner
1. Who is the … of this bicycle? I should like to use it for a while. 2. We apologised to
our amiable … and left soon after tea. 3. Paul avoided meeting his … in every possible way.
The money had not arrived and he had nothing to pay his rent with. 4. The maid-servant told
the visitor that her … could not receive him. She was in bed with a bad headache. 5. Margaret
was a most charming … and she seemed to be fully aware of it. 6. All the household trembled
when Mr. Lawson returned home. He was a cruel … and it was always best to keep out of his
way. 7. The … welcomed his guests heartily and immediately made them feel quite at home.
8. The … and all his guests went for a walk to the neighbouring wood. 9. He didn’t know how
to tell his … that he had no money to pay the rent.
lie – lay
1. We found her … in the street with a sprained ankle. 2. After dinner he … down on the
sofa to have a nap. 3. “Where did the body …? Show me the exact spot,” said Sherlock
Holmes. 4. He … his work aside and asked the man to be seated. 5. She … her hand on the
boy’s shoulder and gently led him away.
inhabitant – inmate
1. it was a very small village with no more than one hundred … 2. All the … of the flat
liked her daughter. 3. There were only two more … in the house besides Mrs. Bardel, one
being her lodger, Mr. Pickwick, the other her little son.
cushion – pillow
1. The settee in the parlour was strewn with pretty embroidered … 2. I don’t like to sleep
on a soft … 3. I can put you up for the night but the trouble is that I have no spare … Would
you mind using this leather … instead?
floor – storey
1. A dog was barking at the passers-by from a balcony in the fourth … 2. All the
windows of the upper … were wide open. 3. We mounted the stairs to the fifth … and
knocked at the door.
lamp – bulb
1. A beautiful bronze … was standing on the piano. 2. I don’t think I can use this …, I
need a 90 watt one at least. 3. Are you tall enough to reach the …? A new … has to be
screwed in.

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staircase – ladder
1. A narrow winding … led to the attic. 2. There was a … lying in the yard.

Ex. 18. Work in pairs. You friend is telling you about a new flat he has moved to.
Restore the dialogues. Use the questions from the box given below.
Are you planning to buy new furniture? Is it in a multi-storey house? Did you embroider
the bedspread and the curtains yourself? There’s not much furniture in this room, is there?
What do you keep in it? How many rooms does it have? Have you already moved into the
new flat? Would you like to see my bedroom? What is it like? Can you describe the floor
plan? Is it a two-room flat?
1) A: …..?
B:Oh, yes, we have, and we expect you to come to our house-warming party next Saturday.
A: Thank you. I’ll be very glad.
2) A: …..?
B: Yes, a very nice one, with all modern conveniences.
A:…?
A: It’ a four-storey dwelling house built by the City Municipals. It’s a five minute walk from
an underground station.
3) A: Ann has no taste at all. Her room is simply awful.
B: …?
A:It’s rather small. There is a big table in the middle. There is a long narrow bed by the
window and there are some old chairs between the bed and the table. There are also some
awful pictures on the walls.
4) A: We are lucky to have such a good flat in the centre of the town.
B: ….?
A: No, there is little furniture here, only the most necessary things.
5) A:…?
B:Five – a living-room, kitchen, bathroom and two bedrooms.
A: …?
B: OK. Well, when you enter the flat, you’re in the living-room. The kitchen is off the living-
room to the left. There’s a door at the far end of the living-room that leads into the hall. The
two bedrooms are down the hall on the right, and the bathroom is on the left.
6) A:…?
B: Oh, I’d love to. What a nice wardrobe, is it walnut?
A: Yes, it matches the bed and the dressing-table.
B:…?
A: No, that’s Mother’s work; she also did the lampshade for the reading lamp on the bedside
table.
B: Oh, how pretty they are. I see you’ve got a built-in cabinet here. …?
A: I keep some pillow slips and sheets, a spare blanket and even a pillow there.

Ex. 19. Choose one of the situations and make up a dialogue.


1. You and your husband/wife have bought a house which is in poor condition. Say what is
wrong with it and what jobs you’ll be able to do by yourselves and whether you’ll need any
professional help.
2. You and your husband/wife can’t afford buying a new house, so you have chosen one which
has been rather neglected and needs a lot of repairing and redecorating. But as your husband is
a Do-It-Yourself enthusiast your final decision is to buy it as you’re satisfied with the price.

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3. You are newly-weds. You are moving into a new house. You have come to see it before you
move in. You discuss what furniture you want to buy, how you are going to decorate and
equip the house.

Ex. 20. Listening Practice. Colours & Rooms. Listen and circle the words that are
mentioned in connection with each colour [5].
1) red 2) orange 3) yellow 4)blue 5)green 6)white
competitive, romantic, active, excited
conservative; talkative, adventurous
shy, reliable, cheerful, generous, impatient, creative
calm, confident, stressed, relaxed, peaceful
relaxed, peaceful, refreshed, depressed
cheerful, isolated, withdrawn
Listen again. What colour would you paint these rooms? Why?
a dining room - a child's bedroom - a play area - a living room - a classroom

Ex. 22. Listening Practice. Design Styles. What design styles have you heard of? Listen or
watch the video (Learn About Types of Design Styles) with the description of the 4 main
styles in interior design – were you right in your predictions?
Read through the list of expressions given below and try to remember/guess which of
them refers to which interior design style. Then listen again and check your guesses.
Gilded details Simple yet classic
Bright and airy look architectural elements
Makes a dramatic statement Add a pop of colour
Lived-in appeal Embrace clean design
Array of influences Deeply carved embellishments
A mixture of textured and polished Geometric shapes
surfaces Natural materials
Sparse design Faded paint
Weathered and slightly distressed Elaborate hardware
Heirloom quality décor Enduring design legacy
Laid-back and welcoming look Authentic period patterns
Eclectic accessories Streamlined furniture
Inspired by nature Inviting style
Feast for the eyes Bold accents
Vintage accessories Sense of timelessness
Elegant simplicity Design symmetry
Old-world charm Natural appearance
Have a worn feel Myriad of colours and textures
Be on the cutting edge Muted colours

Ex. 23. Read the article about some other design styles and compare it to the information
from the listening task.
Basic Styles in Interior Design
1. Traditional Interior Style
Traditional interior design style stems from a variety of old-school European styles and

41
together are now referred to as “traditional”. Elements of this design include: classic
European decor, elaborate moldings and wood paneling, built-in cabinetry, elegant
furnishings and antique pieces,
pairings of furniture and accessories, neutral palette with vibrant colors for furniture and
accent pieces, expensive textiles like silk, velvet, cashmere or comfy fabrics like cotton or
linen, and intricate tile and wood floor patterns.
2. Modern Interior Style
Modern style for interiors is more popular in the media than in real life. I think people
appreciate the look of it and it’s definitely cool, but when it comes to living in the more
austere design, people opt for warmer home decor styles such as rustic, cottage or
traditional. Nevertheless, builders and architects are incorporating modern elements to
many homes which is kind of cool; but moderating it with materials, angles and lines that add
warmth.
Key attributes of modern interior design style include: absence of ornament, intentional
asymmetry, no clutter or chaos, neutrals with primary colors and bold color contrasts,
geometric-patterned or plain area rugs, furniture pieces have clean lines and basic shapes,
made of materials like metal, chrome, or glass and are streamlined with polished, smooth
and sleek surfaces,
3. Contemporary Home Decor Style
Contemporary design style is often confused with modern design style… usually references to
modern are in fact contemporary design. Contemporary design is current design which
includes open spaces, plenty of light, straight lines, plenty of glass, settel and wood and in
some cases unusual layouts. Elements of contemporary design: open spaces or open floor
plans, unusual layouts, use of natural light, neutral colors, metal accent pieces, textured and
natural fabric, very light or very dark wood tones, and lighting design used as an artistic
statement.
4. Shabby-Chic
Shabby-chic is big these days with the popularity of vintage and DIY home decor. While I
don’t want to say shabby-chic is a full crafty style, there are definitely craft elements that
people like such as distressed furnishings, floral prints and design elements and whitewashed
floors… all of which are popular DIY projects in the home. Main shabby-chic design
attributes: decor has a soft, feminine feel, vintage fabrics and items, distressed and painted
furnishings, whitewashed and pickling floors, pale palettes, and floral prints.
5. Eclectic Design Style
Eclectic design is a showcasing of contrasting elements including colors, furnishings and
materials. It can easily be overdone to look terrible, but when done well, the contrasting
aspects can be tied together to create a cohesive and attractive design.
Main design attributes: varied palette with a few grounding neutrals, different pieces in the
room are tied together with paint, fabric or a more refined or roughed-up finish, and defined
by contrasts and variety.

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6. Scandinavian Interior Design
Important design elements: predominantly white, bright colors combine with the main white
color, large mirrors, principles of symmetry, furniture pieces are functional and stylish but
not too trendy and contemporary, use of light colored wood and warm colors, and light
wood flooring dressed up with rugs in subtle color,
7. Rustic Style
Important rustic design elements: exposed ceiling beams, use of reclaimed wood, exposed
stone wall, wooden flooring, simple neutral-colored natural fabrics, distressed and
handcrafted items, wood-burning fireplace, and prominent staircases.
[Adapted from https://www.homestratosphere.com/photos/styles/]
Choose the style that you prefer and make a presentation about its main features.

Ex. 24. Make up your own dialogues describing the interior of the place where you
live/would like to live in detail. Use the vocabulary from the previous exercises.

Ex. 25. FURNITURE AND FITTINGS. Complete the following sentences.


1. I keep all my clothes in the bedroom in a big _ _ _ _ r _ _ _ .
2. The silver _ _ _ t _ _ on the table were shining brightly because they reflected the
flickering light of the _ _ n _ _ _ _ .
3. It was a cold evening so I had a log fire going in the _ _ r _ _ _ _ _ _ .
4. The most important thing about a house or flat is that it should be h _ _ _ _ _ .
5. My grandfather likes to sit in his favourite _ _ _ c _ _ _ _ , smoking his _ _ p _ .
6. I thought these were real flowers, but they are _ _ _ _ f _ _ _ _ _ . They are made of
plastic.
7. The _ _ _ g _ _ of this carpet is about 8 ft.
8. Although we now have eight chairs, I’m afraid this will not be _ _ _ _ g _ and some of our
guests will have to sit on that old _ _ t _ _ _ .
9. I eventually found the scissors I’d lost behind the chest of _ _ _ w _ _ _ .
10. Our house has central heating, so every room has a _ _ d _ _ _ _ _ .
11. Doors that go round and round are called r _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ .
12. It is very difficult nowadays to find cheap and comfortable a _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ n in
Rostov.
13. Everything in my kitchen is stored away in _ _ _ b _ _ _ _ _ .
14. A door swings on its _ _ n _ _ _ .

Ex. 26. Vocabulary work.


Can you imagine anything worse than returning home to find that burglars
have broken into your house? ____________ (1) this happens to about 1 FORTUNE
mln people in Britain _______ (2). However, if you want better ANNUAL
__________ (3) against burglars, there are several things you can do. To PROTECT
improve ________(4) check all the locks on your doors and windows. The SECURE
___________ (5) of lighting all around your house will make sure a INSTALL
burglar is __________ (6) to hide in the shadows. An alarm system is ABLE
another good _________ (7) measure you can take. Starting a PREVENT
_________(8) watch group is also a very NEIGHBOUR
__________ (9) way to prevent crime in your area. Since most EFFECT

43
___________(10) take place when people are away on holiday, this is BURGLAR
when your neighbours’ help is most ________ (11). Ask them to collect VALUE
your mail, switch your lights on and off to make your house look OCCUPY
_________ (12)

Particularly in teenagers’ rooms, lack of __________ (1) space is always a STORE


problem. Before you approach an interior ________(2) (they don’t come DESIGN
cheap), see if any of the following __________ (3) can make your teenager’s SUGGEST
living quarters a little more _________ (4). SPACE
If _____________(5) small objects are cluttering the room, place shoe VARY
organizers inside wardrobes. Use them ___________ (6) to put away scarves, WISE
sockes, __________ (7), hair accessories and anything else you need to store. JEWEL
____________ (8) hanging space can be created by placing hooks on doors. ADD
________ (9) use your walls! Shelves installed onto a wall are great for extra FINAL
space. Items that __________ (10) clutter a tabletop such as keys and NORM
paperwork can be secured on a cork bulletin board.

When Ann decided to move house, it was mainly because she was tired of the (1) NEIGHBOUR
_______________ she lived in. It was crowded, there was a (2)_______________ of SHORT
parking places, and the view from her (3) _________________ windows was of distant STAIRS
factory chimneys. Luckily she arranged the (4) _______________ of her house very SELL,
easily, and with a small (5) _______________ from the bank, was able to buy a house in LEND
the country. It was an old farm building, which had been (6) ___________________ and BUILD
turned into a modern house. After loading all her belongings into a van, Ann managed to
get them into the new house (7) __________________. She (8)______________ most DAMAGE
of the rooms with what she already owned. Even her curtains were the right (9) FURNITURE
_____________ for the windows and she only had to buy a new (10) _______________ LONG
for the kitchen. It seemed too good to be true. Surely something was bound to go wrong. COOK

Exercise 27. Translate into Russian.


A. …I went to Paris and took a couple of rooms in a hotel just out of the Place Vendôm. It was
a hotel I frequented, not only for its convenient situation, but because it had an air. It was a big
old house built around a courtyard and it had been an inn for close upon two hundred years.
The bathrooms were far from luxurious and the plumbing far from satisfactory; the bedrooms
with their iron beds, painted white, their old-fashioned white counterpanes had a poverty-
stricken look; but the parlours were furnished with fine old furniture. The sofa, the armchairs,
dated from the gaudy Napoleon the Third, and, though I could not say they were comfortable,
they had a florid charm. In that room I lived in the past of the French novelists. When I looked
at the Empire clock under its glass case I thought that a pretty woman in ringlets and a
flounced dress might have watched the minute hand move as she waited for a visit from
Rastignac.
(W. S. Maugham)
B. Herbert Whitall was in his study, which was so exactly what a study ought to be that there
was very little more to be said about it. The only thing it lacked was that indefinable
something which suggests that a room has been lived and worked in for many generations. So
far as the actual structure was concerned, this was true enough. It was one of the eighteenth-
century rooms well-proportioned and well lighted, and it had had time to mellow. Adrian
Grey, who had had a hand in assembling the furniture, came to the conclusion that everything
was too much of one period, with none of those shabby survivals which are generally to be
found in a room where a man expects to take his ease. The handsome curtains were as new as
yesterday. There wasn’t so much as a rubbed place on arm or seat of any of the leather-
44
covered chairs. It was a good room, a perfectly suitable, but it missed the touch of familiar
comfort.
(Patricia Wentworth)
C. River House! Thirty stories high, a full city block in width, and containing only seventy-
three apartments – many of them duplex, one of them a triplex with a two-story living room –
when it was put up it was heralded as the most luxurious, and most expensive apartment
building in the world. It still is. It is also an unpluggable sinkhole for money. The building
soaks up money like a blotter, like a giant sponge. The building’s exterior badly needs
cleaning, and to sand-blast and steam-clean the facade will cost about a million dollars.
(Everything that needs to be done to the building seems to cost about a million dollars.) And
then there is a perennial problem of Graham Grenfell, the famous interior designer. Mr.
Grenfell’s apartment is lavishly furnished in antique pieces of museum quality. In fact, some
people suspect that Graham Grenfell uses his apartment as his showroom, though this is
strictly against the rules. Graham Grenfell has decorated a number of River House apartments,
including Monica McCluskey’s, who is said to have spent fifteen million on interior decor,
including Fourtuny wall coverings and window hangings, marble bathrooms, and a Baccarat
chandelier in her dining room that cost a cool million itself. Too big for the freight elevator,
the chandelier had to be hoisted up from the street by a construction crane mounted on the
roof.
(Stephen Birmingham)
D. The house was named “The Cave.” It was a large old-fashioned three-storied building
standing in about an acre of ground and situated about a mile outside the town of
Mugsborough. It stood back nearly two hundred yards from the main road and was reached by
means of a by-road or lane, on each side of which was a hedge formed of hawthorn trees and
blackberry bushes. This house had been unoccupied for many years and it was now being
altered and renovated for its new owner. There were, altogether, about twenty-five men
working there – carpenters, plumbers, bricklayers and painters, besides several unskilled
labourers. New floors were being put where the old ones were decayed, and upstairs two of the
rooms were being made into one by demolishing the parting wall and substituting an iron
girder. Some of the window frames and sashes were so rotten that they were being replaced.
Some of the ceilings and walls were so cracked and broken they had to be replaced. Openings
were being cut through walls and doors were being put where no doors had ever been before.
Old broken chimney pots were being taken down and new ones were being taken up and fixed
in their places. All the old whitewash had to be washed off the ceilings and all the paper had to
be scraped off the walls preparatory to the house being repaired and redecorated. The air was
full of the sounds of hammering and sawing, the ringing of trowels, the rattles of pails, the
splashing of water brushes, and the scraping of the stripping knives used by those who were
removing the old wall-paper.
(R. Tressell)
E. The Villa Faviola was situated approximately halfway between Monte Carlo and Menton. It
stood in its own small park, sheltered by pines at its back, with its many tall windows facing
out towards the sea. Built in the 1920s, it was a lovely old house, airy and gracious, with a
curving driveway, spacious green lawns that swept down from the terrace past the swimming
pool, up to the edge of the rocky promontory and the glittering Mediterranean Sea beyond. Its
exterior walls were painted a soft melon, but in a tone so pale it was almost sand, and the
canvas awnings shading the windows were of a deeper melon, partnered with shutters of
pristine white. A wide terrace stretched along the side of the house facing the sea and was
made of white stone and marble, and it appeared to float gracefully above the verdant gardens
where flowers grew in riotous colour and fountains sparkled in the shimmering sunlight.
45
Scattered along the terrace were several round white-metal tables topped by melon-coloured
parasols; matching white chairs, swing-sofas with sun-awnings, and chaises all had cushions
of cream, and because only these soft integrated tones had been used nothing jarred the
harmonious flow of pale colour across the lovely front facade. Inside Faviola its cool, lofty
rooms were filled with lovely filtered sunlight and furnished with a simple yet distinctive
elegance. Charming old French Provincial pieces made of dark woods or bleached oak were
mingled with vast sofas and comfortable chairs and there were chaises and ottomans, and
occasional tables held small pots of African violets and pink and white cyclamen and the latest
magazines and books. Floors of highly polished parquet and rose-veined cream marble were
either bare or were covered here and there by old Aubusson and plain rugs of cream wool, and
throughout the house colours were pale and cool. Cream, vanilla and white predominated,
flowed over the walls, were repeated in the fabrics that fell at the windows and covered sofas
and chairs, and accent colours were variations of melon and peach and sand. But none of the
rooms were so imposing or so grand that guests and children were intimidated and felt they
were in a museum and therefore hardly dare breathe. On the contrary, the house had been
designed as a vacation home, one to be lived in and enjoyed to the fullest, and it had a great
deal of comfort and an easy grace that was all its own.
(Barbara Taylor Bradford)
Ex.28. Translate into English:
A) На днях сестра переехала на новую квартиру. Вчера было новоселье. Теперь у нее
своя отдельная квартира недалеко от центра города. Квартира не очень большая, но
удобная. Она располагается на 3 этаже 9-этажного дома. Это двухкомнатная квартира с
кухней, прихожей и ванной комнатой, не говоря уже о кладовой. Квартира очень
светлая, т.к. окна выходят на юг. Вот гостиная. Мне очень нравятся обои, они
оживляют комнату. Эта стеклянная дверь ведет на балкон. Вид с балкона потрясающий.
Балкон выходит на центральную улицу. Здесь всегда шумно и людно. – У вас на окнах
шторы или жалюзи? – В гостиной - шторы, а на кухне - жалюзи, это очень удобно и
современно. Кухня очень чистая и уютная, она служит одновременно и столовой. На
мытье посуды у сестры уходит не очень много времени, т.к. есть посудомоечная
машина. Стены в кухне, ванной и туалете отделаны кафелем, а во всех остальных
комнатах – оклеены обоями. Спальню сестра использует и как кабинет: здесь стоит
компьютер, принтер, сканер и другие, необходимые для работы вещи. В прихожей
стоит вешалка для одежды и небольшой столик для телефона. У двери лежит
небольшой коврик. В двери имеется глазок, чтобы знать кто звонит в дверь.
B) 1. Мы хотели купить собственный отдельный дом, хотели, чтобы был большой сад и
озеро, но денег нам хватило только на два хозяина. 2. Газон перед домом — гордость
всех англичан. Газон тщательно стригут и высаживают по дорожкам розы. 3. Прихожая
была тёмная и мрачная, и я решила, что нужно переклеить обои — подобрать более
светлые. 4. Длинный коридор заканчивался лестницей, ведущей на второй этаж. 5. В
Европе мало кто живёт в многоквартирных домах. Большинство людей являются
собственниками домов в пригородах. 6. В английских домах количество комнат может
быть разным, но традиционно всегда есть небольшая прихожая, кухня, столовая,
гостиная, ванная, туалет, пара кладовок, одна или несколько спален. 7. В домах, где есть
дети, желательно сделать детскую. Там должна быть особая мебель и хорошее
освещение. 8. К гостиной примыкает столовая, которая, в свою очередь, соединена с
кухней. 9. Я предпочитаю электрическую плиту газовой — её гораздо легче мыть, да и
вытяжка не очень нужна. 10. На полках я храню фаянсовую посуду, а в этих
ящичках — столовые приборы. 11. Комната так заставлена мебелью, что трудно
подойти к окну. 12. У Гаррисонов очень просторная четырёхкомнатная квартира в
46
центре города. Она прекрасно отделана и обставлена. 13. Это комнатное растение у
окна загораживает свет. Переставь его в угол. 14. Мы живём в этом девятиэтажном
доме. Район нам не нравится, хотелось бы переехать в место с лучшей экологией. 15. Я
не смогла бы жить в деревне, так как не могу обходиться без удобств — водопровода,
мусоропровода, центрального отопления и городских развлечений. Хотя я признаю, что
деревенский шарм и покой кажутся привлекательными для многих жителей
мегаполисов уставших от стремительного городского темпа.

Ex.29. Translate into English.


Почему в одной квартире мы чувствуем себя так уютно, а в другой словно не
находим себе места? Секрет уюта комнаты заключается не только в подобранной со
вкусом мебели. Огромную роль в создании того или иного впечатления от интерьера
играют цвета и рисунки. Освещенность комнаты сильно влияет на настроение человека.
В темной комнате приходит ощущение подавленности. Особенно, если комната
прямоугольной и вытянутой формы. Здесь подойдут обои в теплых пастельных тонах.
Зеленый цвет приводит в гармонию мысли и чувства, успокаивает нервы, снижает
агрессивность. Его хорошо использовать в оформлении кабинетов, в помещениях, где
люди занимаются умственной деятельностью, принимают ответственные решения. В
детской комнате нельзя клеить обои с мелким рисунком. Он раздражает и часто бывает
причиной испорченного зрения. Маленьким комнатам большего всего подойдут обои
без рисунка или с рельефным рисунком светлых тонов – под кожу, яичную скорлупу.
Чтобы твоя мечта об элегантном доме стала реальностью, помни, что ванная и
туалет достойны не меньшего внимания, чем любая другая комната. Правильно
подобранный цвет плитки, зеркальные полочки, чистые пушистые полотенца и другие
аксессуары создадут приятную атмосферу. Качественно сделанный ремонт и со вкусом
подобранная мебель – это еще не все. Чтобы создать свою неповторимую атмосферу,
нужны декоративные детали. Например, цветы – они всегда оживляют интерьер. К тому
же оригинальная, необычной геометрической формы ваза уже сама по себе украшение
дома.

Ex.30. Make up a dialogue of your own on the suggested topics for conversation. Use
interesting expressions and words from Essential Vocabulary.
1. Your friend’s new flat. You discuss all the facilities and design features.
2. Discuss the furniture of your new three-room flat.
3. You are receiving your friends at the housewarming party and showing them around your
new flat.
4. Your flat is in the suburbs of the town. Your friend lives in the centre. Speak on the
advantages and disadvantages of both places to live.
5. Describe typical British homes.
6. You want to furnish your room anew. You discuss this matter with your parents and then
with your friend.
7. Compare your friend’s newly furnished flat with his old one.

Ex. 31. Listening and Speaking Practice.

Feng Shui: Ancient Wisdom Travels West. Today many people want to get out of the rat
race and live in a less stressful or less conventional lifestyle. Feng Shui [fʌƞ ʃwei] is a
Chinese philosophy which states that the position of buildings and the arrangement of
objects in the home affect the health and well-being of people living there [20].

47
 Read and listen to the information about feng shui and complete the chart below.

More and more Western architects, real estate developers, and interior designers are
using the principles of feng shui in their life and work. Previously, Westerners frowned upon
feng shui as merely superstition. Hard-bitten designers and architects, scientifically trained,
refused to acknowledge any possible transcendent explanation of success brought on by the
application of feng shui principles. Originally, they dismissed interest in feng shui as a
digression from established technical and artistic practices. Nowadays, however, feng shui is
becoming more accepted in places outside of Asia, such as the United States, Canada, Europe
and Latin America.
The Meaning of Feng Shui. Feng shui, meaning “wind” and “water” is an ancient form
of geomancy, or the art of aligning things in the environment to create harmony and good
luck. An art and a science, feng shui aims to create both physical and psychological comfort.
Practitioners believe that the arrangement of the elements in our environment can affect many
aspects of our lives such as health, happiness, and fortune. Feng shui experts generally
recommend simple changes; for example, they instruct people not to sit with their backs to the
door because they can be caught off-guard and startled unnecessarily. Or they encourage
business owners to put an aquarium in the entrance of their building since it symbolizes
abundance, as in the saying “there are always more fish in the sea”. In classical feng shui
water always symbolizes wealth and abundance. Very simply, where there was water, crops
could grow. Acquiarium represents the water element.
The Theory of Feng Shui. The theory behind feng shui is that there is an invisible life
force or energy, called ch’i (“chee”), that circulates through all things – rooms, buildings,
people, hills, rivers, power lines. If ch’i flows smoothly and freely, then things go well for
people. If ch’i is blocked, then the people in that space may feel discomfort or unhappiness.
Sharp corners, narrow openings, poor lighting and clutter are some of the many factors that
can create blocked or unfavourable ch’i. Relying on tools and knowledge that are centuries
old, trained feng shui experts can sense immediately if the ch’i is circulating properly. They
consider the shape, size, and location of objects as well as materials, colours, and numbers.
The Origin of Feng Shui. Feng shui grew out of the practical experience of farmers in
southern China over 3,000 years ago. Those who built their huts facing north were battered by
the wind and dust from the Gobi Desert in Mongolia. In contrast, those who built their huts
facing south enjoyed the warmth of the sun and protection from the wind. As a result, south
became the favoured direction. Over the years, south came to be associated with fame, fortune,
summer the colour red and the number nine. In fact, to quote the world-renowned feng shui
expert Lillioan Too, red, the color of the south, “could well bring you good fortune”. Ms.Too
encourages red wall-paper, curtains, carpets and all red in the southern part of the room, office
or building.
The Spread of Feng Shui. Today the work of feng shui masters is in great demand
among Chinese population in China, Taiwan, Singapore, Hong Kong, Malaysia, and the
Philippines. It is estimated that nearly 85 % of Hong Kong residents apply feng shui principles
when choosing an apartment or business. Now the ancient art of feng shui has migrated to the
West. Well-known architects, designers and business people no longer view the practice
skeptically. In fact, there are many popular books filled with anecdotes about people whose
lives have been dramatically changed by feng shui.

 Decide if each aspect of the environment listed on the chart below creates favourable or
unfavourable feng shui.
48
FENG SHUI
Aspects of the Environment REASON
favourable unfavourable
clutter (things piled up in a messy way)
an aquarium
plants and flowers
the colours red and purple
a desk facing a view
living in a house on a quiet, dead-end street
an odd number of dining room chairs
pictures of bats on the walls

 Vocabulary for comprehension. Read the following sentences. Circle the word or
expression that has the same meaning as the underlined words.

1. Donald Tramp, a well-known New York real estate developer, always consults a feng shui
practitioner. To begin, the expert uses feng shui principles to determine if the building is
aligned. a. parallel to other buildings b. positioned properly
2. The feng shui expert did not get to the point right away. He made digressions. Then he
finally returned to the topic. a. talked about another topic b. took a long time
3. Some modern Chinese frown upon feng shui, claiming that it is superstitious and
unscientific.
a. disapprove of b. dislike
4. Feng shui practitioners instruct people not to sit with their backs to the door because they
can be caught off guard. a. be startled b. be hurt
5. For centuries, people have explored the reasons for the success of feng shui. Expert
practitioners offer explanations that are both scientific and transcendent.
a. within the limits of ordinary experience b. beyond the limits of ordinary
experience
6. The feng shui expert told his client that the ch’i was not circulating properly because the
staircase was too close to the door. The staircase was blocking movement.
a. flowing freely b. blowing
7. According to feng shui, fish in an aquarium symbolize abundance, as in the saying, “There
are always more fish in the sea.” a. a large quantity b. food

Listening 1: Interview with a Feng Shui Expert.

Sedge Thomson, the radio host of West Coast Live from San Francisco, interviews Kristen
Lagatree, author of the book “Feng Shui: Arranging Your Home to Change Your Life”. At the
end of the interview, Thomson asks Lagatree how she senses whether a building has
favourable feng shui or not. Working with another student, predict how favourable feng shui
might a person feel. Then listen to an excerpt from the interview to check your answers.

 Listening for main ideas. Listen again and complete the table.

Part One
Definition of fenh shui

49
Popularity of feng shui in other
countries
Donald Trump’s attitude to feng shui

Basic design of Lagatree’s home


office

Part Two
Role of mirrors

Lagartree’s overall attitude towards feng shui

Who can sense good feng shui

 Listening for Details. Read the following questions. Then listen to Part One of the
interview and write short answers. Then do the same for Part Two.

Part One
1. Lagatree doesn’t thing feng shui is a way to keep out evil spirits. Why not?
2. Thomson says that feng shui is very important in Asia. What examples does he give to
support this statement?
3. What is Lagatree’s background?
4. Why do some Chinese people living in San Francisco ask to have one-way street signs
removed?
5. Why didn’t Lagatree put her desk facing out the window?
6. How does she feel about the impact of feng shui on the design of her home office?

Part Two
7. What two reasons does Lagatree give for not putting mirrors in the bedroom?
8. What three reasons does she give for putting mirrors in other rooms?
9. As a journalist, how did Lagatree feel about feng shui at first?
10. When Lagatree’s skeptical friends asked her if she believed in feng shui, how did she
respond?
11. You don’t have to be a feng shui expert to know if a place has good feng shui. Why not?

Listening 2: Feng shui in the news room.


First, look at the bagua chart. In feng shui it is an octagonal grid used to determine how parts
of the house or a room relate to different areas of one’s life. Lagatree visits a radio newsroom
to record this interview. She suggests changes in the newsroom based on feng shui principles
[20].

50
51
 Speaking Practice. When speaking informally, English speakers may use an emphatic
speaking style. Listen to the examples, and read them as you hear paying attention
to intonation patterns.
 Well, I wouldn’t say to keep out evil spirits. But I would say it’s a system of
arranging all the objects around you at home or at work.
 He would no more start working on a building project without a feng shui master than he
would without, you know, if it was L.A., without a seismologist.
 The new Regency Hotel in Singapore just opened with two beautiful fountains in the lobby.
Talk about great feng shui! The hotel is booked solid for the next two months!
 Now based on just simple things I’ve done and also lots of people I talked to for the book,
I’d have to say it works… and at the very least it couldn’t hurt.
 We can’t see it but, boy, is it there doing things!
Expression Explanation Example
Boy… Used as an exclamation Boy, did Bruce Lee have bad
followed by an inversion luck!
I wouldn’t say….., but I Used to clarify the meaning I wouldn’t say feng shui is huge
would say…. in the US, but I would say it’s
becoming popular.
… would no more Followed by something I would no more hire a feng shui
than…. obviously unreasonable expert to design my house than I
would hire a palm reader to
predict my future.
Talk about…. Followed by an explanation Talk about a perfect location!
The house was surrounded by
lovely streams and a beautiful
garden!
I’d have to say… Used to emphasize a strong Well, since I moved my desk to
point the northeast corner, I’d have to
say, my writing has improved.

 Work with a partner. Student A: ask the question given or make the comment.
Student B: cover the left column. Respond emphatically using expressions from the
chart above and appropriate intonation. Add further comments. Switch roles after
question 5.
Student A Student B
You really hired a feng shui expert to boost Boy, ________! Profits are up to 100%!
profits? Did it work?
How about hiring a professional clutter Are you kidding? I would no more hire
consultant to clean the clutter out of your house? clutter consultant than __________ (add
It will bring instant luck to your life! something unreasonable)
You won’t believe this! A Chinese American Talk about_________(add and explanation)
millionaire paid a feng shui expert 50000$ to
advise him on the alignment of his building!
I think feng shui practitioners are nothing more Well, I wouldn’t say _______, but I would
than superstitious fortune tellers with a compass! say that __________.
Don’t you think that feng shui is really more Absolutely! I have to say___________
than just putting up mirrors or hanging wind

52
chimes?
Now switch roles
My friend Michael had had two robberies in his That’s amazing! Talk about ________(add
apartment. Then he consulted a feng shui expert an explanation). But I don’t think feng shui
who advised him to set up an aquarium. He’s had had anything to do with it.
no robberies since.
Another added flowers, wind chimes, crystals Boy, __________ (use inversion)
and mirrors in his house. Two days later he got
the biggest promotion in his life.
Would you buy a house near a cemetery? No, I would no more ________, than_____
What do you think of other Eastern practices, Well, I’d have to say___________
like Thai chi, macrobiotic diets, and so on?
Feng shui is trendy in the West now, it’ll fade in I wouldn’t say ________, but I would
a few years. say__________
[20]

Exam and essay topic


1. The key design styles and their main features
2. Feng shui principles – do they work?
3. The place where I live
4. The house of my dream

MОDULE 3
Renting or Buying
Accommodation
Ex. 1. Lead-in. Work in pairs. Imagine that you and your friend are going to study in
England and are looking for a place to rent. Decide on the kind of place you would like by
ticking the boxes below. Add more features of your own.
Spacious In a fashionable Fully furnished
district
Traditional Stylish Easily accessible
Cosy Fully-equipped Isolated
Affordable Modern décor Cheap
Easy to maintain In the countryside In the city centre

Ex.2. Read the short ads below and discuss positive features of the accommodation
offered.
2. Are you looking to move into a flat or
1. Short-let accommodation house next term? The Harmer Agency
available near university. Rooms has a wide range of suitable
and studio flats. Tel.: 899544 accommodation. Call us on 4446677
53
4. Newly-built apartment available soon.
3. Fully furnished flat available to rent Spacious accommodation, fully-fitted kitchen.
from 1st September. Quiet residential Off-road parking. To let furnished or
area. 800$ per calendar month. Tel.: unfurnished. Would suit single academic or
897633 after 5 p.m. mature student.

Answer the questions using collocations from the ads:


1. What kind of accommodation would suit a student who has no furniture of his own?
2. What kind of accommodation would suit someone who is only going to stay in s place for 3
months?
3. What part of the town would you like to live in if you wanted to be somewhere where there
are lots of private houses and no factories or other work places?
4. What kind of accommodation would suit a young single person who would prefer to live
alone rather than to share?
5. If accommodation does not have its own garage, what else might it have to make life easier
for car-owning residents?
6. If you are moving into a new unfurnished house, but don’t need to take a washing machine,
cooker or fridge with you, what does the house have?
[11]
Ex. 3. Accommodation and rent – vocabulary work. Study the expressions in the box.
Verb + accommodation Adj + accommodation Verb + rent
find accommodation free accommodation afford the rent
provide accommodation self-catering accommodation owe rent
live in accommodation furnished accommodation pay the rent
guarantee accommodation temporary accommodation put up the rent
withhold the rent
a) Complete the sentences with the correct verb changing its form if necessary.
1. We help our employees to ________ suitable accommodation in the city. Most get
something they like within a week or two.
2. Students are ________ accommodation in the hall of residence for the first year. We
are lucky to have plenty of student flats and rooms.
3. It’s a small hotel but it can ______________ accommodation for up to 30 visitors.
4. My uncle is disabled and ______________ in sheltered accommodation where there is a
warden on call to provide help if needed.
b) Complete the sentences with the adjectives from the box above.
1. The city council is using the building of the local school hall as ______________
accommodation for the families made homeless by the recent flood.
2. We’re staying in _______________ accommodation so we’ll have to do cooking ourselves.
3. The flat had a bed and a chair! That’s not what I call ______________ accommodation.
4. In return for ______________ accommodation and food, I tidy up the house and look after
the two kids while their parents are at home.
c) Complete the sentences with the right part of collocation with the word “rent”.
1. I _______ a slightly higher rent than other tenants in the flat as my room is the biggest.
2. The landlord wants to _____________ the rent by 25$ a month, but I’m refusing to pay any
more.
3. We’re ___________ the rent unless the landlord agrees to get the central heating fixed.
4. We need a bigger house for our large family, but we can’t ___________ the rent.
5. The landlord is threatening to evict the tenants if they don’t pay the rent they _______ by
the end of the week.

54
d) Read and translate the given sentences paying attention to the collocations with the
key words on the topic.
1. There is a shortage/lack of cheap rented accommodation for students in London.
2. Since losing my job, I’ve fallen behind with the rent.
3. The rent is due one month in advance.
4. Most of my salary goes on rent. I have very little left for food and entertainment.
5. I have a spare room to let at a monthly rent of 250$.
e) Make up your own sentences with the collocations from all the parts of the exercise.
Work in pairs, read and translate all your sentences from English into Russian and vice
versa.

Ex. 4. a) Do you live alone or share a flat? Read and listen to the text below. Try to guess
the meaning of the expressions in bold from the context and discuss them with your
partner.
Leaving home and going to university is one of the major
steps in the life of a young person. In the UK, it's common for
university students to share digs that are provided by the
university. However, in some cases students are being forced to
share single rooms. The situation has come about because the
government raised the cap on student numbers in the UK,
allowing universities to recruit an extra 30,000 students. As a result of offering places to
thousands more than usual, a few universities have been unable to house all their first-year
students in halls of residence. This has led to first-years sleeping in bunk beds in rooms
meant for one, with a single sink and desk. The universities have agreed that the situation is
not ideal and have offered the students discounted rent and free food until they find them
more suitable accommodation. After leaving full-time education and entering the workforce,
many young graduates still find themselves having to share accommodation. In many cities the
cost of buying or renting even small properties is prohibitively expensive. It's not always
possible to pick and choose who you live with and there can be a number of problems that
arise. One survey suggests that untidiness, disgusting personal habits and petty pilfering of
food are some of the most common complaints among flatmates. The "borrowing" of personal
belongings without permission was also a big gripe. Despite these problems, many people
love the experience of sharing, at least for a few years
b) Match the expressions with their definitions and compare with your guesses.
digs so expensive that it is impossible to afford
come about to find accommodation for
raised the cap made the limit higher
to recruit stealing small items
to house rented accommodation
halls of residence a big complaint
bunk beds accommodation which is owned by the university
not ideal unsatisfactory
prohibitively expensive two single beds joined together with one bed above the other
petty pilfering happened
a big gripe to offer places at university to
c) Retell the text.
[From bbc.learningenglish.com]

55
Ex. 5. House share heaven - or hell? Have you ever had to share a house?
a) Check the meaning of the following phrasal verbs before you read:
 move in  get on  fall out
 move out  take turns to do something  make up
 tidy up
Now read the article and answer the questions below.
How easy is it to buy - or rent - your own home? In some countries it might be relatively
cheap, but in the UK rising housing prices mean buying a house is too expensive for a lot of
people. The cost of renting is also going up - and this means many people have no choice: they
have to share a house or flat. What does this mean for the people who are almost forced to live
together? Do they live in housemate heaven – or housemate hell? Read this article and try to
answer this question: Which two living situations are discussed in the article?
How do people avoid picking a terrible flatmate?
Being able to afford to rent your own place is something that most people would like to
do. However, skyrocketing rent prices in London and around the UK mean that this is not
possible for most people. In 2011, a national census found that 1,850,137 households were
made up of either more than one person or more than one family. So what is the reality for
today's house- and flat-sharers? How easy is it to find a decent flatmate?
Some people will stick with what they already know and share with people who are
their friends. Others will look elsewhere to find a flatmate by placing an advert online or in a
shop window. Some others may even organise a 'speedflatmating' event - a bit like speed
dating but instead of trying to find a partner, many people are interviewed to decide if they are
the right person to move in.
Finding a good person to fill a vacant room can be difficult. How do you know if
a stranger can be trusted? Can they pay the rent? Will they nick your food? Will they cross
the line by doing something unacceptable? Imagine if your new flatmate showed up without
any socks. You might feel charitable and lend them a few pairs, which would be a kind thing
to do. But what if you found out later that they had gone into your room and taken more
socks? What if that person was actually one of your friends? That would probably be going a
step too far for most people.
Perhaps it is better to live with strangers than it is to live with friends. You might avoid
falling into a false sense of security and avoid odd clothes-sharing or food-related incidents.
Some people would say that living with random strangers is ok when you are younger -
but not so easy to do when you get older. The amount of house sharing is rising, for both
younger and older people. And this means that the dilemma of choosing who to live with is
not going away any time soon. (This article is based on an original BBC News story).
b) Chose the right option:
1. What could you say if the cost of rent is going up very quickly? It's...
A skyrocketing
B rising
C skyfalling
2.What are the three methods of finding a flatmate mentioned in the article?
A Asking their family, asking their friends, and holding flatmate interviews
B Holding flatmate interviews, asking friends, and having a flatmate competition
C Asking friends, holding flatmate interviews, and advertising online
3. If your flatmate did something you didn’t like and was unacceptable, then they have crossed
the…
A road
B river
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C line
4.“He nicked my shoes! That’s a step too far!” What has happened?
A My friend has walked one step in my shoes and I’m not happy.
B My friend has taken my shoes and I’m not happy.
5.What is the name for an event where you can interview a lot of possible flatmates in a short
time?
A speed dating
B speedflatmating
C advertising
6.What is the phrase for when you think everything is OK, but it really isn’t?
A living with random strangers
B a false sense of security
C a dilemma of choosing who to live with
7.Living with strangers is easier when you are in your twenties than when you are in your
forties. According to the article this is...
A true
B false
c) Use the following words and expressions from the text to make sentences of your own:
 Skyrocketing going up or increasing very quickly
 Census an official survey of a population
 Households groups of people who live together
 Vacant empty; unused
 Stranger a person who you have not met before
 Nick (here) an informal way to stay 'steal'
 cross the line to start behaving in an unacceptable way
 charitable (here) generous, giving
 going a step too far doing something that is unacceptable
 false sense of security when you think everything is OK, but there are really some
problems

Ex. 6. Listening. You will hear five people giving their views on sharing a house. Before
you listen, look at the headings (A-F) listed in the box. What do you expect each speaker
to talk about? [6]
A Appreciating one’s own space Speaker 1
B Managing household chores Speaker 2
C Finding a way to afford a house Speaker 3
D Adapting to someone else’s lifestyle Speaker 4
E Finding the right flat mate Speaker 5
F A difficult person to live with

Ex. 7. Write a paragraph about your experiences of sharing accommodation. Use some
of the vocabulary from the unit and some verbs used to talk about sharing accommodation and
living together. Compare your paragraph with your partner’s one.

Ex. 8. Listen to the dialogue about renting a flat. Do you think the tenant is likely
to rent it? Why/why not? Listen again and fill in the gaps. Then learn the
dialogue by heart.
L: So here it is! This is a cosy three-bedroom flat, with an _______ kitchen space, and

57
a ______ bathroom.
T: Cosy is one way to describe it! This box-room here, was it always a bedroom?
L: Well spotted! This room has in fact been converted and re-developed into a comfortable
living _________. It was originally a built-in _______cupboard and storage room.
T: Wow! Yeah, I thought it seemed quite snug. So can I see the kitchen?
L: Of course, it's just over here. As you can see there are all the _______ fixtures, a sink,
cooker, oven, fridge, washing machine...
T: Is the paint supposed to be ________ ____ the walls like that? And shouldn’t those
cupboards have doors on them?
L: Well. This room has been decorated to have a _______ look. It‘s a very popular style in
interior design at the moment.
T: Is that why the taps are old and rusty then? That can't be safe. Is there any chance you
would install a new _____ for us? Are we allowed to redecorate ourselves?
L: Well that would be something we could discuss once you‘ve moved in.
T: [under breath] IF we move in. [To Landlord] And so the bathroom is big enough for 3 to
share then?
L: Yes the bathroom has recently been re-furbished with a ______ shower and large bath.
T: (surprised) Oh! It's really quite nice isn't it, so how much is the _____ for this flat per
month?
L: The rent as £350 per person per month, not including _____ bills.
T: And do we have to pay a security deposit?
L: Yes there is also a deposit of £350, which will be returned to you once you move out,
assuming the flat is in the same ______ that it was when you moved in.
T: OK. Well I have a few more flats to see today and have to discuss this with my friends. So
I‘ll call you! Thanks.
[From Magazine “Cool English”]

Ex. 9. Listening. Oleg has just started to work in Dublin, Ireland. He is looking for a
place to stay and decides to phone an agency. Listen and answer the questions:
a) is he going to share or live alone?
b) Does he want to rent or buy a property?
B) Listen again and complete the form:
C) Now listen to the second part of the
conversation and choose the place(s) he
decides to go and see.

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Ex. 10. Read these questions. Then listen to the property agent’s replies. Write the letter
of each reply (a-f) next to the correct question.
Tenancy agreement
1. How long is the rental agreement? ……….
2. Will the rent go up? ……….
3. Is insurance included? ……….
4. Can I sub-let? ……….
5. How much notice must I give if I want to leave early? ……….
6. Who do I contact of there is a problem? ……….
Look at the statements below. Choose True/False for each statement. Then listen again
and check your answers.
a) You need to give two months’ notice T/F
b) Contents insurance is not included T/F
c) The rent may go up after the lease expires T/F
d) You should pay for repairs yourself T/F
e) The rental agreement starts from the day you move in T/F
f) You will be evicted if you break the terms of your tenancy agreement T/F

Ex. 11. Make up your own dialogues between a tenant and a landlord using the words and
word combinations from the box.

self-contained apartment; a bed-sitting room; to share a room; heating and laundry; lunch
and supper; all meals and heating; call back; come again; look back; to pay in advance; to
give a deposit; (don’t) mind sharing (doing my own washing, etc.); to give two months’
notice; to break the terms of agreement; to pay for repairs; to go up (about the rent); to
sublet; to have pets; to pay the rent

Ex. 12. Choose the right word.


1. We decided to look for a ____ house after years of living next door to noisy neighbours.
a. separate b. single c. non-terraced d. detached
2. This flat is only available for a ____ let.
a. brief b. short-term c. small d. short-time
3. The tenants should pay the ____ direct to the landlord or landlady.
a. money b. let c. rent d. hire
4. The rooms I've rented are ____ furnished, so I won't need to buy any furniture.
a. fully- b. completely c. totally d. pre-
5. My daughter is living in the university while she's doing her degree.
a. hostel of residents b. halls of residence c. place of lodging d. residential home
6. If you take this job, you get ____ free.
a. bed and sleep b. rooms and eating c. food and housing d. board and lodging
7. While he was working abroad, he his flat through an agency.
a. let out b. hired out c. sold out d. tenanted
8. This cottage is ____ to rent for the next nine months.
a. disposable b. available c. free d. open
9. This is a ____ building with plenty of space for all the family.
a. three-floor b. three-storey c. triple-floored d. three-levelled

Ex. 13. RENTING A FLAT. Choose the correct answer.


1. The only … of the flat is that it’s a bit too small.
a) complaint b) disadvantage c) mistake d) sorry

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2. They are going to ask the landlord to … their rent.
a) drop b) leave c) lessen d) lower
3. I would like to have a house … , but for the time being I must rent this flat.
a) by my own b) for my own c) of my own d) to my own
4. Our main concern is to raise the lodgers’ … of living.
a) capacity b) conditions c) degree d) standard
5. Are you going to … your flat here while you are abroad?
a) dispose b) hire c) let d) sale
6. The … for the flat is $70 a week.
a) due b) fee c) hire d) rent
7. We are … into our new flat next week.
a) arriving b) entering c) moving d) transporting
8. The tenants were … not to disturb other tenants after 11 p.m.
a) appealed b) demanded c) desired d) requested
9. When the owner let the flat to me I signed a(n) … that I would leave at the end of June.
a) advice b) agreement c) bargain d) insurance
10. … a flat with someone is cheaper than living on your own.
a) Dividing b) Halving c) Parting d) Sharing
11. The room was noisy and not very … for studying.
a) fitted b) matching c) proper d) suitable
12. Many accidents in the home could be … if householders gave more thought to safety in their
houses.
a) avoided b) excluded c) preserved d) protected
13. Some of the people living on the Council’s new estate decided to set up a(n) … association.
a) dwellers’ b) citizens’ c) inhabitants’ d) tenants’
14. There are several landladies approved by the university who take in … .
a) inhabitants b) lodgers c) residents d) settlers
15. The landlord requires a $50 … from tenants to cover possible damage.
a) bail b) deposit c) security d) tip
16. My landlady has recently signed an agreement renewing my … for the next four years.
a) occupation b) possession c) residence d) tenancy
17. Having decided to rent a flat, we … contacting all the accommodation agencies in our city.
a) set about b) set off c) set out d) set to
18. The Housing Committee has decided to give … to young married couples with children.
a) preferment b) prestige c) priority d) presentation
19. Homeless families … the empty houses and started to renovate and redecorate them.
a) homed b) moved c) squatted d) tenanted
20. The landlord … them because they hadn’t paid their rent for three months.
a) demolished b) dismissed c) evicted d) threw out
21. The scarcity of housing accommodation means that people can no longer afford to … where they
live.
a) buy and sell b) come and go c) look and see d) pick and choose
22. Considering how few services we get, the rates we pay are … .
a) daylight robbery b) down to earth c) out of this world d) peanuts
23. The squatters are fighting … and nail not to be evicted from the houses they have occupied.
a) finger b) hammer c) toe d) tooth
24. He lives a(n) … throw from the station.
a) apple’s b) arrow’s c) knife’s d) stone’s

Ex. 14. Read and translate the following text.


Buying a House
There are two types of organisations which are central to the buying of houses and flats.
The first is the estate agent. An estate agency is, essentially, a shop which arranges for the sale
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of homes. Let us imagine that Mr and Mrs Smith want to sell their house. First, they ask one or
more local estate agents to visit the house and tell them how much they should be able to sell
it for. They will also want to know how much the agent will charge for his services (usually
between 1% and 2% of the selling price). If the Smiths are happy with his proposals, the agent
will publish details of the house in the form of give-away leaflets and possibly in the local or
even national newspapers. The leaflet will describe the house in detail, describing the position,
number and sizes of its rooms, the garden and so on. Mr and Mrs Smith then wait for
prospective buyers to arrive.
Imagine that Mr and Mrs Johnson want to buy a house in the same area. They go to the
estate agency and inspect the details of the houses on offer. If they are attracted by the
description of the Smiths’ house, they will visit the property to look at it. If they are still
interested after seeing the house they may make an offer to the Smiths via the estate agent.
Often the offer will be slightly less than the official “asking” does price. If the Smiths agree,
the house can be sold.
But the Johnsons probably do not have enough money to pay for the house immediately,
so what do they do? They go to the second type of institution involved in house buying and
selling – the building society. A building society’s main function is to lend people like the
Johnsons enough money to buy a house. Banks also offer a similar service. Building societies
make their money by borrowing money from some members of the public – their “deposits” –
and lending it to others. Many British people have building society savings accounts. They
save their money with a building society, which pays them interest. The society then lends this
money to people who want to buy a house or a flat and charges them a higher interest rate on
the amount borrowed. This long-term loan is called a “mortgage”.
So Mr and Mrs Johnson go to a local building society where they will be asked a number
of questions – what type of jobs do they have? How much do they earn? What are their
monthly expenses? And so on. The society will also inspect the house to see if it is worth the
money they are being asked to lend. All being well, it will offer to lend the Johnsons up to
about 90 per cent of the price of the house, to be paid back with interest over 25 years, or
sometimes less. When all is agreed and the papers signed, the money is paid to the Smiths or
to their legal representatives – usually a solicitor – and the Johnsons can move in.
Over the 25 years, the Johnsons, because of the interest on the loan, will pay far more
than the original price of the house – but since they are paying it in fairly small sums once a
month they are, at least, able to afford it.
Ex. 15. Answer the following questions.
1. What is an estate agency? 2. If a person wants to sell a house, what will he do first? 3.
What will he want to know from an estate agent first? 4. What will the agent start work with?
5. How can a prospective buyer know about the houses on offer? 6. Can the price be
negotiated? 7. Where can people get money to buy a property? 8. How do building societies
function? 9. What is a mortgage? 10. What questions will a person be asked at a local building
society and why? 11. How will the mortgage be paid back? 12. Why do people want to get
mortgages?
Ex. 16. Find Russian equivalents to the following words and word combinations.
1. an estate agent; 2. to purchase a house; 3. landlord/landlady; 4. to get a mortgage; 5.
downpayment; 6. to rent a studio apartment; 7. to inherit a property; 8. a tenant; 9. a room to
let; 10. a newspaper add; 11. to pay interest; 12. full board; 13. to share an apartment; 14. an
apartment owner.
Ex. 17. Find English equivalents to the following words and word combinations, use
them in sentences of your own.
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1. агентство по продаже недвижимости; 2. комната в наем с предоставление завтрака; 3.
запаздывать с платой за квартиру; 4. первоначальный взнос за квартиру; 5.
меблированная комната; 6. кредит полученный для покупки недвижимости; 7. годовая
плата за квартиру; 8. снимать квартиру пополам с кем-либо; 9. позволить себе купить
дом; 10. дом продается
Ex. 18. What do we call:
1. a contract by which the owner of land or a building, etc allows another person to use it for a
specified time, usually in return for payment; 2. A person who rents land or a building from a
landlord; 3. The holding of land or a house, etc in absolute ownership for life; 4. A payment
made periodically for the use of land or living quarters; 5. Daily meals obtained in return for
payment; 6. A person who owns something as his property.

Exam and essay topics


1. Pros and cons of renting accommodation
2. Accommodation for students. Is it easy to share it?
3. Buying property: what should you take into account?

Section 1. Vocabulary
1. General
1. block (of flats) 9. host (hostess)  permanent (temporary)
2. boarding house (Am E: rooming 10. house residence
house)  the house faces (fronts, gives 23. storey/story (floor)
3. building on, overlooks)  two-storey (storied) building
 to erect a building  house has a southern aspect  live (v) in the ground floor (Br
 to pull down a building 11. housewarming party E)
 public building 12. household  live (v) on the first floor (Am E)
4. condominium 13. inhabitant  upper (first, Am E: second) floor
5. decorate (v) 14. landlord (landlady)  top floor
 interior designer (decorator) 15. lodgings 24. tenant (lodger)
6. dwelling 16. move (v) 25. tenement
7. furnish (v) smth.  move into 26. tenement house
 well furnished  move out 27. to build from scratch
 arrange(v) furniture 17. owner 28. to become short of space
 rearrange 18. smb’s place 29. to add an extension
8. home 19. property 30. to do up an old house
 at home  buy a property 31. ordinary setting
 go home 20. registration 32. to stand out from the crowd
 feel at home 21. residential area
 homeless 22. residence
Adjectives used to describe houses
1. affordable (housing) 12. good-sized 23. self-contained
2. airy 13. leafy suburbs 24. spacious
3. charming 14. luxurious 25. stylish
4. cosy 15. mature (garden) 26. superb (view)
5. crammed up with furniture 16. newly-laid (patio) 27. sustainable
6. cramped (room) 17. open-plan (living room) 28. tiny
7. derelict building 18. period (adj) 29. well-maintained
8. dilapidated building 19. poky 30. well-proportioned
9. draughty (hall) 20. prohibitively expensive
10. easily accessible 21. purpose-built
11. fully-furnished 22. secluded
Renting and Buying Property

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1. advertise (v) for a house  inherit (v) 17. take in lodgers
2. ad (advertisement) 9. lease (n) 18. short-let
3. В&В (bed and breakfast) 10. lend (v) 19. to share digs
4. board 11. let 20. skyrocketing rent prices
 full/half board 12. to take out a mortgage 21. to pay security deposit
5. downpayment 13. pay (v) interest (rate) 22. to give two months’ notice
6. estate agent 14. purchase (n., v.) 23. sublet
7. freehold 15. real estate agency 24. vacant room
8. heritage 16. rent (v., n.) 25. to evict from a flat/house
2. Types of Dwellings
1. barracks (living quarters) 17. high-rise block of flats (Am E: 31. palace
2. block of flats (Am E: apartment apartment building) 32. penthouse (suite)
building) 18. hostel 33. ranch(-house)
3. bungalow 19. housing estate (development) 34. semidetached house
4. (log-)cabin 20. house on stilts 35. sky-scraper
5. castle 21. hovel (Am E: shack) 36. shack
6. chalet 22. hut 37. slums
7. convent (nunnery)  mud (clay-walled) hut 38. squat
8. cottage 23. igloo 39. studio
9. council housing 24. inn 40. stronghold
10. country house 25. log cabin 41. tenement
11. detached house (mansion) 26. lodge 42. tent
12. duplex house 27. monastery 43. caravan
13. duplex apartment 28. motel 44. terraced house
14. flat (Am E: apartment) 29. multi-storey block of flats 45. villa
 self-contained flat (multi-storey apartment 46. weekend house
15. granny flat building/high-rise flats) 47. wigwam (tepee)
16. guest house (boarding house) 30. old people’s home
3. House Parts
1. alcove  go by the door 31. keep (n)
2. aerial  knock at the door 32. kitchen
3. annex (extension)  front door 33. library
4. arch  back door 34. lift (Am E: elevator)
5. attic  sash door  take a lift up (down)
6. balcony  door frame  go up (down) in a lift
 parapet  door lock 35. living-room
 flower box  lock the door 36. lobby
7. basement 37. loft
 unlock the door
8. bathroom 38. lounge
 shut the door
9. beam 39. lumber-room (store-room)
 door handle (knob)
10. bedroom 40. mantelpiece
 door hinge
 master (main) bedroom 41. moat
11. bedsit (room)  door plate 42. niche
12. burglar alarm  doorway 43. nursery
13. canopy  in the doorway 44. pantry (larder)
14. ceiling  spy-hole/peephole 45. partition
 high ceiling (high-ceilinged) 20. drawing room (sitting-room, 46. passage (corridor)
 low ceiling (low-ceilinged) parlour) 47. rainwater pipe
15. cellar 21. drawbridge 48. ridge
16. chimney / chimney pot 22. entrance-hall 49. patio
17. conservatory (Am E: 23. facade 50. porch
conservatoire) 24. fire-place (hearth) 51. recess
18. dining-room 25. garret (implies utter poverty) 52. roof
19. door 26. guest room (spare room)  flat roof
 swing door 27. gutter  tiled roof
28. hall 
 answer the door slate roof
29. handrail (banister, rails) 
 bang (slam) the door shingle roof
30. hanging basket
 door is ajar  gable roof (saddleback roof)

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 pent (shad, lean-to) roof  staircase landing  double glazed window
 thatch(ed) roof  downstairs  dormer window
 roofless  upstairs  sash window
 slope of the roof  winding (corkscrew, spiral)  look out of (through) the window
53. room staircase  French window (opening on to
 adjoining room 57. stair light the balcony)
 communicating rooms 58. step  window frame
 cosy (snug) room  front stairs  window-sill
 downstairs room  two, three steps at a time  single casement window
 furnished room  doorstep  double casement window
 unfurnished room 59. study  window commands a view of…
 single room 60. suite (suite of rooms)  window faces (fronts, gives
 spacious room 61. threshold upon, looks out on, overlooks)
 tidy (orderly) room  cross the threshold  dormer (window)
 untidy (disorderly) room  on the threshold  reveal
 room is in disorder 62. utility room 66. window shutter
63. veranda 
 room smells of … rolling shutter
54. scullery 64. waiting-room  folding shutter
65. window
55. skylight  put up the shutters
 bay window
56. staircase  take down the shutters
 flight of stairs  fling (throw) the window open
 glaze a window
4. Premises and Outhouse
1. at the front of the house  fenced 29. garden hose
2. at the back (rear) of the house 16. hedge 30. lawn sprinkler
3. front garden 17. path 31. paddling pool
4. open space  flagstone path 32. litter bin
 yard 18. pond 33. back yard
5. plot 19. fountain 34. cowshed
6. lawn (grass-plot) 20. summer house 35. kennel
7. orchard 21. arbour (bower) 36. pigsty
8. vegetable patch 22. green-house 37. stable
9. kitchen garden 23. hot-house 38. poultry
10. gardener 24. garage 39. shed, barn
11. flower bed  two-car garage 40. trespass (v)
12. sward 25. tool shed 41. “no trespass”
13. parterre 26. driveway 42. gate
14. park 27. pavement (Am. E: sidewalk)  gateway
15. fence 28. outside tap (Am. E: faucet) for
 wooden fence the hose
5. Building and Repairing a House
1. construction  linden 12. marble
 construction (building) site  ash(tree) 13. stone
2. architect  pine 14. masonry
 architecture  spruce 15. panel
3. materials  larch 16. paint
4. all metal 6. veneer  paint (v)
5. wood 7. board  paint comes off (peels off)
 wooden 8. brick  freshly-painted
 birch  brickwork  unpainted
 curled (speckled) birch 9. cement  paint (v) a door white
 cherry 10. concrete  repaint (v)
 mahogany  concrete-mixer 17. wallpaper
 maple 11. glass  paper (v)
 oak  frosted (opaque) glass 18. parquet
 walnut  plate glass  parquet (v)
 beech  stained glass  parqueted floor

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19. plaster 25. tiles  cabinet-maker
 plaster work  tiled  brick-layer
 plaster (of Paris) = plaster 26. whitewash  builder
cast  whitewash (v)  glass-cutter (glazier)
20. stucco mouldings  whitewashed  joiner
 moulded ceiling 27. prefabricated blocks  locksmith
21. metals 28. scaffolding (scaffolds)  painter
 stainless steel 29. condition of the house  plasterer
 iron  be in good repair  plumber
 copper  be falling into decay  upholsterer
 brass  be in the state of neglect  fitter
 bronze  be in need of repair  foreman
22. plastic  the house has to be done up
23. tessellated 30. construction workers
24. mosaic  carpenter
6. House Fittings
1. accommodations (conveniences) 14. candle  boiler
 modem conveniences/ mod  candlelight  thermostatic control
con  candle-power 28. radiator
2. air conditioning  light a candle 29. refuse chute/rubbish chute
3. bath  put out a candle 30. water supply
 have (take) a bath  candlestick  water line
 run a bath for oneself 15. chandelier (lustre; candelabra)  have running water
4. bell (door-bell) 16. (electric) torch, (pocket 31. well
 ring the bell flashlight) 32. tap (Am E: faucet)
 press the bell 17. lamp  tap is dripping
 bell is heard  standing lamp  fix the tap
 answer the doorbell  hanging (suspension) lamp 33. flush (v)
5. electricity  reading (table, desk) lamp  flushing lever
6. install (put) electricity in a house  torchère lamp 34. overflowing
 switch on (off) the light  wall lamp 35. get clogged
7. electric meter  lampshade 36. case of disorder/trouble
 take the readings of the  lantern 37. plumber on duty
meter 18. plug 38. telephone
8. faulty  plug in  answer the (tele)phone/call
 be at fault  plug switch  speak on/over the
9. go out 19. power point (tele)phone
10. fuse box 20. socket  (tele)phone call
 safety fuse 26. gas  (tele)phone talk
 miniature circuit breaker  put (turn) on the gas  (tele)phone number
 replace the safety fuse  to ignite the gas  (tele)phone directory
11. lead (cord)  put out (turn off) the gas 39. key
 extension  gas-meter  key gets stuck (in the lock)
12. wiring  geyser  insert a key
 bare wiring 27. heating system  key to (of) …
13. (electric) bulb  central heating  keyhole
 bulb fuses  gas-fired central heating  latch key
 screw in a bulb  convector heater  padlock
 unscrew (screw out) a bulb  hot-water heating  Yale lock
 75 watt bulb (75 candle-  steam-heating
power bulb)  stove heating
7. Rooms and Interiors
Interior design
1. A mixture of textured and 3. Array of influences 6. Bold accents
polished surfaces 4. Authentic period patterns 7. Bright and airy look
2. Add a pop of colour 5. Be on the cutting edge

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8. Deeply carved 18. Gilded details 28. Natural materials
embellishments 19. Have a worn feel 29. Old-world charm
9. Design symmetry 20. Heirloom quality décor 30. Sense of timelessness
10. Eclectic accessories 21. Inspired by nature 31. Simple yet classic
11. Elaborate hardware 22. Inviting style architectural elements
12. Elegant simplicity 23. Laid-back look 32. Sparse design
13. Embrace clean design 24. Lived-in appeal 33. Streamlined furniture
14. Enduring design legacy 25. Make a dramatic statement 34. Vintage accessories
15. Faded paint 26. Myriad of colours and 35. Weathered and slightly
16. Feast for the eyes textures distressed
17. Geometric shapes 27. Natural appearance 36. Welcoming look
Hall
1. hall (entrance hall) 6. coat hanger 11. tubular steel chair
2. coat rack 7. hall mirror (glass, looking-glass) 12. door-mat
3. hall-stand 8. telephone  wipe one’s feet on the door-
4. hat-stand 9. chest of drawers for shoes, etc mat
5. coat hook 10. umbrella stand
Living Room (Lounge)
1. wall units  arm  lift the curtain
2. side wall  sit in an armchair  net curtain
3. bookshelf  settle (down) in an armchair  lace curtain
4. bookcase  rocking-chair  curtain rail
5. bookstand  seat cushion (cushion) 25. blind
6. row of books  settee  pull the blind down (up)
7. display cabinet unit  Persian (Venetian) blinds
 couch
8. built-in cabinet
 ottoman 26. carpet (Am E: rag)
9. buffet [′bʌfit]  back cushion  carpeted floor
10. cupboard base unit  sofa  spread the carpet
11. cupboard unit  sofa bolster  fitted carpet
12. television set (TV set) 21. suite of furniture 27. door-mat
13. TV aerial  upholstered furniture 28. (round) corner section
14. remote control
 piece of furniture 29. scatter cushion
15. stereo system (stereo equipment) 30. coffee table
22. hangings
16. speaker (loudspeaker) 31. ashtray
23. tapestry
17. mantle clock 32. indoor plants (houseplants)
24. curtain
18. room divider 33. block out the light
 curtain (v)
19. drink cupboard 34. flowery-patterned wallpaper
20. upholstered suite (seating group)  draw the curtain
 armchair  pull the curtain aside
Bedroom
1. bed  bunk  punch (puff) a pillow
 bedside (at, by one’s 2. bedding, bedclothes  pillow-case (pillow-slip)
bedside)  bed-sheet  quilt
 bed frame  bedspread 3. bedroom lamp
 headboard  blanket/duvet 4. bedside cabinet
 bookshelf (attached to the  blanket-cover 5. bedside rug
headboard)  counterpane 6. drawer
 double bed (double divan)  patchwork counterpane 7. dressing stool
 divan-bed  coverlet (bedspread) 8. dressing table
 single bed  cushion 9. dressing-table mirror
 folding bed  feather-bed  pier-glass
 bedstead  shake up feather-bed  three-panelled glass (mirror)
 foot of the bed 10. electric alarm clock
 eiderdown
 get out of bed 11. linen shelf
 mattress
12. reading lamp
 go to bed  spring mattress 13. screen
 make the bed  pillow 14. valance
 open out the bed  soft (hard) pillow 15. wardrobe (Am E: clothes closet)
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16. what-not
Dining Room
1. dining set  high-backed chair 13. linen drawer
2. dining table  leg of a chair 14. china cabinet (display cabinet)
3. folding table  offer a chair 15. table linen
4. serving table  revolving chair  oilcloth
 table with glass cover  rickety chair  tablecloth/tea-towel
5. pull-out table  take a chair  spread the tablecloth
6. table leaf (flap)  cane (basket, wicker) chair  tea-cloth
7. table top 9. lamp (pendant lamp)  napkin (serviette)
8. dining chair 10. shelf  place mat/table mat
 back of a chair 11. sideboard (cupboard)  place (place setting, cover)
 bent-wood chair 12. cutlery drawer
 chair-bottom
Children's Room (Nursery)
1. children’s bed, a bunk-bed 5. ladder 9. children’s cupboard
2. cod (crib) 6. toy 10. desk
3. cradle 7. canopy 11. drop-flat writing surface
4. storage box 8. compendium of games
Kitchen
1. refrigerator (fridge, Am E:  oven 14. pot plant, a foliage plant
icebox)  oven window 15. kitchen lamp
 refrigerator shelf  hotplate 16. dishwasher
 salad drawer  cooker hood 17. dish rack
 frozen food compartment 5. pot holder 18. kitchen chair
 bottle rack (in storage door) 6. pot holder rack 19. stool
 upright freezer 7. kitchen clock 20. kitchen table
2. wall cupboard, a kitchen 8. timer 21. kettle
cupboard 9. corner unit 22. mixer
3. base unit 10. revolving shelf 23. whisk
 cutlery drawer 11. spice rack 24. coffee grinder
 spice jar 25. microwave oven
 working top
12. sink/sink unit 26. coffeemaker
4. cooker unit
27. cooking pots
 electric/ gas cooker 13. dish drainer
Bathroom and Toilet
1. bath tub 12. toilet roll holder (Am E: 22. mirrored bathroom cabinet
2. mixer tap (Am E: mixing faucet) bathroom tissue holder) 23. fluorescent lamp
for hot and cold water 13. toilet paper (coll. loo paper; Am 24. drawer
3. foam bath (bubble bath) E: bathroom tissue), a roll of 25. mouthwash
4. bath salts crepe paper 26. electric shaver
5. bath sponge 14. soap dish 27. shower cubicle/unit
6. bidet 15. soap  shower curtain
7. jacuzzi/swirling bath 16. flannel  adjustable shower head
8. towel rail 17. towel  shower nozzle
9. toilet (lavatory, W. C., coll. loo  dry(wipe) one’s hands on  shower adjustable rail
Am E: bathroom, restroom) (with) a towel  shower base
10. toilet pan (toilet bowl)  rough (bath, Turkish) towel 28. waste pipe (overflow)
 toilet lid with cover 18. washbasin 29. bathroom mule
 toilet seat 19. overflow 30. bathroom scales
 cistern 20. washbasin pedestal with trap 31. bath mat
 pedestal mat (anti-syphon trap) 32. medicine cabinet
11. ventilator (extraction vent) 21. tooth glass (tooth mug)
 detachable brush heads
Study (den)
1. desk 4. bureau  portable typewriter
2. desk-lamp 5. typing table (stand) 6. computer table (stand)
3. writing set  typewriter 7. waste-paper basket

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Section 2
WEATHER AND CLIMATE
MОDULE 1
WHETHER THE
WEATHER
Wherever you go, no matter what the weather,
always bring your own sunshine.
Anthony J. D'Angelo
Ex. 1. Read the text about the weather. Why does the author call it “the naughtiest thing
in the world”? Do you agree with this idea? Answer the questions after the text [9].
WEATHER
The naughtiest thing in the world is the weather. It’s like a capricious woman who
always does the opposite to what you ask her.
When you want to go for a picnic in the open air you ask the skies to remain clear and
the day to be fine. Nervously you switch on the radio and listen to the weather forecast. You
tremble with joy to hear that it’ll stay warm and dry with bright sunshine, and moderate
breeze. Your imagination draws a hot summer afternoon and yourself saying: ‘Nice weather
we are having today!’ you take a lot of food and no warm clothes, go to the countryside but…
do not get anything sunny.
You get it cloudy and cool with intermittent drizzle which ends with a thundery shower.
The sky is so heavily cast with clouds, the downpours follow one another with such frequency,
the rumbling of thunder and flashes of lightning are so frightening that you’ve got no illusions
left. You throw away the food and go back hungry and angry. And when you are already
approaching your home soaked to the skin it suddenly brightens up. Oh, Goodness!
Each summer every student survives through the best time of his or her life – an
examination session. Then many students plead: ‘Please, weather, stay cloudy, chilly or even
cold with brisk northerly wind and rain torrents leaving pools and puddles everywhere. And
I’ll be a good student’. The radio promises: ‘Patchy light drizzle with showery outbreaks of
rain.’ But the “patch” is never in the right place. Instead the skies send heat and excellent
weather for a sun tan. Everyone knows that sun tan never helps exams.
And it is always like this. When you go skiing and what to have frosty weather with a lot
of snow, it starts thawing and your skis sink in the slush. Instead of a snowfall and hoarfrost
on the trees you get excellent sleet. The weather does not feel any pangs of remorse.
When you go in the car to the country, enjoying nice weather and a beautiful view of a
rainbow in the blue sky, you pay no attention to some haze on the horizon. Some time later a
thin mist in the distance turns into a thick fog and you spend a lovely two hours instead of one
at the steering wheel.
When you plant some much-cared-for flowers in the garden, either a ground frost or a
hail storm kills them. Digging muddy flowerbeds one feels exasperated: ‘What beastly
weather we’ve had this week! And it keeps nasty! Wretched!’
To tell the truth, sometimes the weather is ashamed and turns for the better. But not
always. More often it sticks to its own pattern and after a short warm spell turns bad again.

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Why is it always like this? Maybe, because the weather likes surprises and wants to bring in
adventures to our life, breaking the boring routine with marvelous happenings?
Questions. 1. Do you agree that the weather is like a capricious woman? Prove your point. 2.
What weather you like best of all and why? 3. Do you listen to the weather forecast? Do you
trust them? 4. Have you heard the weather forecast for today? Was it right?

E.2. Write out all the “weather words” from the text; work in pairs and check if your
partner knows them all.

Ex. 3. Study the collocations in the table. Give their Russian equivalents.
Verb + weather Adj + weather Noun+prep+weather
the weather changes boiling (hot) weather (be in for) a spell of good weather
the weather hold out/keeps (bitterly) cold weather a pleasant spell of weather
up glorious weather the best of the weather
the weather sets in unpredictable weather a break in the weather
dress for the weather a sudden change in the weather
the weather turns cold/hot a change is coming in the weather
to brave the weather the vagaries ['veɪg(ə)rɪz] of the
the weather lets up weather
weather permitting (=if the whatever the weather
weather allows)
a) Complete the sentences from the expressions from the box above.
1. Your’e not properly __________ for the weather. Put a coat on! It’s _________ cold
outside.
2. If the fine weather ___________ until the weekend, we’ll go camping on Sunday.
3. Deciding to _______ the weather, he grabbed his umbrella and went out into the rain.
4. We'll go out just as soon as this weather _______ .
5. I wanted to mend the roof before the cold weather _______.
6. We're having a barbecue next Saturday, weather ___________.
7. She packed all kinds of clothes to cope with the ___________of the English weather.
8. He swims in the sea every day, __________ the weather.
9. There is a chill in the air. It looks like the weather is __________ for the worse.
10. It’s 35C outside. We don’t usually have such ___________ weather here in Britain in
summer.
11. My parents enjoyed two weeks of the ___________ weather at the seaside, but it rained
heavily all the time here.
12. Scotland is a beautiful country, but is has notoriously ___________ weather. It can be
pouring with rain one minute and briliant sushine the next.
13. It has been raining since Monday. We are in _______________ of unseasonally wet
weather this summer.
14. I think we got the ________ of the weather in the north today. It’s been so warm.
15. We’re hoping for the _________ in the weather. If this wind continues, we won’t be able
to go on a boat trip.
b) Make up your own sentences with the collocations above and practise translating them
from English into Russian and vice versa with your partner.

Ex. 4. Vocabulary work. Read the blogpost by Liz Walter from Cambridge Dictionary and
discuss the words in bold with the partner.
Sweltering, torrential and gusty: interesting words for talking about weather
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Most students learn words for weather quite early in
their studies. It’s easy to stick with well-known phrases such as
sunny day or heavy rain, but there is a lot of more interesting
vocabulary associated with the weather, as you would expect
for one of the world’s favourite topics of conversation! In this
post, I offer some suggestions for expanding your range of
weather vocabulary.
Let’s start with temperature. Very hot weather can be
described as scorching, sweltering or boiling. If it is the kind
of heat that makes you feel as if you can’t breathe, it is stifling or oppressive. At the other end
of the scale, we can describe very cold weather as freezing, bitter or even bone-chilling if we
find it unpleasant. Wintry weather is also cold, but this is not necessarily a negative
description – it can be used for a pleasant snowy or icy day. In between these two extremes,
mild is a positive adjective for weather that is not particularly hot but not too cold either.
Some areas have weather that is changeable or unpredictable, meaning that it does
not stay the same for long and you cannot guess what it will be like. Unfortunately, we are
seeing more and more extreme weather conditions in the world, with terrible storms,
hurricanes and tornadoes (very strong winds). We describe bad storms as violent, fierce or
powerful. When they cause a lot of damage, we can say they are devastating, and freak
storms are ones which are unusual and unexpected in an area. As well as adjectives, verbs can
also be used to add impact and interest to your writing. For example, we may say that a storm
tears through a place, or that it is raging.
Some nice words to describe wind include gusty (when it starts and stops), biting
(when it is very cold) and howling (when it makes a loud noise). Heavy rain is torrential,
while very light, fine rain is misty and persistent rain goes on for a long time. We talk about
very heavy rain lashing down or lashing against the window. Glorious sunshine is hot and
pleasant, but sunshine that is too hot can be described as fierce or intense. We talk about the
hot sun blazing or about sunshine streaming into a place. Hazy sunshine makes it difficult to
see the view clearly.
I hope that this post has taught you some new and useful weather words. Most of us
have weather we love or weather we hate, but I like the remark made by Alfred Wainwright, a
British writer of walking guides, who famously said, ‘There’s no such thing as bad weather,
only unsuitable clothing.’
[From https://dictionaryblog.cambridge.org]

Ex. 5. Collocations to talk about the weather. Read the e-mails below. Are the people
happy about the weather conditions? Why/why not?
a) It’s great here. Have had unbroken sunshine ever since we
arrived. We’re having a wonderful time – though in the
middle of the day it’s just too scorching hot to do anything
but lie on the beach soaking up the sunshine. This is the life!
Anna
It’s been pouring with rain all day. In fact I’ve never seen such torrential
rain! It’s freezing cold in the tent – we all got soaked to the skin. Every

70
half hour we look out of the tent hoping for a break in the clouds. In vain!
We’re going to a hotel next year!
It rained heavily all day yesterday but it’s dry at the moment. There’s
thick cloud, though, and it certainly looks like rain. Quite a strong wind
is blowing too! Am glad we brought warm clothes!
[11]
b) Study the table below.
Weather Conditions
Collocation Example Comment
Weather deteriorates The weather is likely to Deteriorate sounds quite
[opposite improves] deteriorate later on today. formal – The weather is
getting worse - more
informal.
Thick/dense fog There is a thick fog on the Patches of fog/mist are
Patches of fog/mist motorway. small areas of fog/mist
A blanket of fog (literary) There are patches of fog on the whereas a blanket of
Fog/mist comes down east coast but these should lift by fog/mist is thicker and
[opposite lifts] midday. more extensive.
Strong sun Avoid going to the beach at
[opposite: weak] midday when the sun is
strongest.
Heavy rain/driving rain Road conditions are difficult Driving rain=rain falling
because of the driving rain. fast and heavily.
Heavy/fresh/crisp/thick/driving The snow is lovely and crisp this Crisp snow=snow that is
snow morning. fresh and hard
Hard/severe frost There will be a hard frost
[opposite: light frost] tonight.
High/strong/light/biting wind The wind was light this morning Biting winds=very cold
The wind picks up but it’s picking up now and will winds
[opposite: dies down] be very strong by the evening. If the wind picks up, it
The wind blows/whistles The wind was whistling through gets stronger.
the trees.

c) Look at the collocations above and complete the following phrases:


1. crisp_________ 4. a biting ________ 7. unbroken _______
2. patches of ______ 5. a hard __________ 8. a blanket of _____
3. light ___________ 6. torrential _______

d) Make the sentences opposite.


1. There was a warm breeze yesterday.
2. The wind picked up in the afternoon.
3. The weather is likely to improve tomorrow.
4. It was scorching hot here yesterday.
5. There may be some light rain later on today.
6. The mist came down at about midday.

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Ex. 6. Read the following dialogues. Learn them by heart and act out in class.
1. 2.
A. Fairly mild for the time of year A. A. It seems to be clearing up.
B. Yes. Quite different from the forecast. B. It makes a change, doesn’t it?
A. They say we’re in for snow. A. Apparently it’s going to turn colder.
B. Let’s hope it keeps fine for the weekend. B. Still, another month should see us through the
worst of it.

3. 4.
A. A. Nice and bright this morning. A. A. It’s good to see the sun again.
B. B. Yes. Much better than yesterday. B. B. A big improvement on what we’ve been having.
A. The wind will probably get up later. A. It’s supposed to cloud over this afternoon.
B. As long as it doesn’t rain. B. I didn’t think it would last.

Ex. 7. Talking about the weather. Match the questions with the answers.
1. Did you get caught in that shower a. Yeah, go ahead. It is a bit chilly, isn’t
earlier? it?
2. Was that rain? b. Yeah, it’s scorching!
3. Is it still raining outside? c. Yeah, it’s pouring down!
4. Hot today, isn’t it? d. Yeah, it’s an absolute blizzard!
5. Is it still snowing out there? e. Yeah, it’s quite mild out there.
6. Is it OK if I close the window? f. Yeah, it’s bitter out there!
7. Do you think I’ll need a coat? g. Yeah, it’s just started spitting. It’s
8. Do you think I’ll be OK in a T-shirt? going to chuck it down any minute.
h. Yeah, I got absolutely soaked!
[4]
Spend 5 minutes trying to memorize the answers, and then cover them. Read out
questions 1-8 while your partner answers them. Swap roles.

Ex. 8. Match the nouns in the box with each group of collocations.
Breeze fog rain sky weather winds
1. Clear blue / overcast / there wasn’t a cloud in the …. __________
2. Thick / freezing / patchy _________
3. Howling / gale-force / biting ________
4. Torrential / tropical / fine __________
5. Miserable / unpredictable / glorious ________
6. Light / stiff / sea ____________

Ex. 9. Choose the right word from a couple of similar looking ones. Change word forms
if necessary.
(slush, sleet)
1. The … under my feet was awful. I had an impression that I was walking through a muddy
sea.
2. The rain changed into … . Wet snowflakes were falling on the ground and melted there.
(ice drift, snowdrift)
1. The path was hedged by two long … . They were like two mountain ranges.
2. The … started at night. In the morning the children ran to the river to look at the huge
blocks of ice drifting across the water.

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(icing, icicle)
1. There was heavy … on the road and all cars were moving very slowly
2. After a thaw there appeared … on the edge of the roof; they looked like sparkling needles.
(frost, hoarfrost)
1. The branches were covered with … and the forest looked enchanting and somewhat
mysterious.
2. The … was biting the nose and the cheeks. It was impossible to stay long in the street.
(draught, drought)
1. Severe … killed the crops. Not a drop of rain fell on the ground for a month.
2. When the door opened, the … blew off the papers down on to the floor.
(to freeze, to be freezing)
1. In winter all rivers and lakes in these parts always … .
2. The temperature was quite low and I felt that I … .
(blizzard, drizzle)
1. Boring … spoiled the day. It was too wet and dull.
2. The … was blinding us. Snowflakes were swirling in the air.
(light, lightning)
1. There is not enough … in the room. The table should be moved closer to the window.
2. The … split the sky into two parts. A deafening thunder crack followed.

Ex. 10. Match the weather words on the left with the correct definitions on the right.
1. a blizzard a. dark with a lot of clouds in the sky
2. a breeze b. a short period of rain
3. a gale c. rather cold
4. a shower d. a storm with heavy show and high winds
5. changeable e. light rain falling in very small drops
6. chilly f. sun and clouds
7. drizzle g. a very strong wind
8. overcast h. heavy rain
9. pouring i. changing from one type of weather to
another
10. sunny spells k. a light or gentle wind

Ex. 11. Match the weather expressions in the box to the descriptions/comments in 1-10.
You will need to use two words twice.
cold fog heat mist
rain snow a storm wind
1. I don’t know how you slept through it. The thunder was so loud and the lightning was
incredible.
2. It’s really thick. I wouldn’t want to go driving in it while it’s like this. Why don’t you
wait till it’s lifted?
3. It was unbearable – and so humid I just didn’t want to move unless it was to jump into
the pool.
4. Honestly, I nearly froze to death. It was unbearable!
5. I got absolutely soaked on the way there. It took me all day to dry out.
6. There was a bit last night when I was coming home but it melted fast. It was all gone
when I woke up this morning.

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7. You usually get a stunning view from up there, apparently. I heard you can even see
the sea on a good day. But we could only see for a couple of miles when we were
there. It was still nice though.
8. It’s eased off quite a bit. It’s only really spitting now. Shall we go to the shops now,
before it starts pouring again?
9. It’s really blowing outside. It almost knocked me off my bike it was so strong.
10. We tried to fly the kite, but there was only a slight breeze. It wasn’t enough to keep in
in the air for long.

Ex. 12. Talk to a partner. What kind of weather do you think is good for:
 Camping  Running a  Going on a picnic
 Going for a walk marathon  Going skiing
in the mountains  Sailing
 Sightseeing
What cities do you associate with: fog, smog, heavy snow, light breeze, morning mist,
rains. Explain why.

Ex. 13. Translate the sentences into English.


1. Довольно тепло (прохладно, холодно), правда?
2. Стоит прекрасная (жаркая, чудесная) погода.
3. Какой прекрасный (хороший, очаровательный, восхитительный) день (ночь).
4. Я думаю, что хорошая погода постоит. Я бы сказал, что погода улучшается.
Постепенно прояснится. Проясняется.
5. Какая ясная (звездная, безоблачная) ночь! На небе ни облачка!
6. Чудесное утро (вечер), не правда ли, на улице чудесно!
7. Я думаю, что день будет чудесный. Солнце выходит.
2.
1. Небо все в облаках. На небе низко висят облака.
2. Дождь (снег) прекратился (перестал). Но погода такая неопределенная (не
установилась), переменчивая.
3. Начинает моросить. Идет мелкий моросящий дождь. Все еще идет сильный дождь.
Льет как из ведра. Дождливая погода (шутл.)
4. Кажется день сегодня пасмурный (серый, мрачный). Какой дождливый (облачный,
туманный, ветреный, штормовой) день. Туманный день (туманно).
5. Я думаю, что будет дождь (ливень, гроза). День окажется серым. Хорошая погода не
продержится. Плохой (холодной, дождливой, морозной) погоды не миновать.
6. Мрачное утро (день), правда? На улице довольно пасмурно, отвратительная погода.
Какая ужасная (жуткая, неприятная) погода!
7. Дождь все идет. Идет сильный дождь (сверкает молния, гремит гром, идет град).
Сверкает вспышка молнии. Слышишь раскат грома? Какой сильный удар грома!
Всю неделю постоянно идет дождь. Дождь идет уже целую неделю.
8. Не попади под дождь (ливень)! Ты промокнешь насквозь. Я вымок (промок
насквозь, до костей). Моя одежда насквозь мокрая.
3.
1. Жаркий (душный, пыльный, знойный, жаркий и влажный) день. Воздух влажный.
2. Идет жаркая волна. Установилась жаркая погода.
3. Дышать нечем (ни дуновения ветерка). Ни листочек не колышется. Не удивительно,
такое палящее (обжигающее) солнце.
4. 30° тепла в тени. Температура повышается.
74
5. Жара невыносимая (гнетущая).
4.
1. Река замерзла. Мороз сковал реку. Установилась холодная погода. Термометр
показывает 0°. Я дрожу от холода. У меня зубы стучат от холода.
2. Была тяжелая (суровая, мягкая) зима. Но в воздухе уже весна.
3. Становится прохладно. Какой холодный (морозный) день! Ужасно холодно на
улице. Я думаю, что пойдет снег (будет мороз, слякоть). Какой свинцовый (серый,
мрачный) день!
4. Идет снег. Какие мягкие, пушистые и большие снежинки! Они падают очень густо.
Сильный снегопад.
5. Морозит. Стоит суровый (сильный) мороз. Неожиданно установился период
прохладной погоды. Я промерз до костей.
6. Поднялся сильный ветер. Ветер метет снег. Похоже, что будет буран.
7. Стоит оттепель. Тает снег и лед. На улице слякотно (грязно). Иди осторожно, вокруг
слякоть и грязные лужи. Местами еще очень скользко.

Ex. 14. The most lightning-struck place on Earth - Graeme Anderson.


Lake Maracaibo is the stormiest place on the planet. Thunderstorms rage above this massive
body of water for up to 200 days of the year, with each ear-splitting event lasting for several
hours. But why? Graeme Anderson lists the factors that create Lake Maracaibo's seemingly
ever-lasting storms. Watch the video and choose the correct answers.
1. Sir Fransis Drake succeeded in his attempt to overthrow the Spanish settlers
A True
B False
3. How many times does lightning strike the earth each year on average?
A 35,000 times
B 3.5 million times
C 350 million times
D 35 billion times
4. In which country will you find the highest lightning density on Earth?
A Mexico
B Cuba
C Peru
D Venezuela
5. Which of these regions has the lowest average lightning density?
A Antarctica
B Africa
C Central America
D Southeast Asia
6. How often do thunderstorms occur over Lake Maracaibo each year?
A Less than 10 days per year
B 20-30 days per year
C Up to 50 days per year
D Up to 200 days per year
7. Which factors are important for the lightning over Lake Maracaibo?
A Surrounding mountains and a supply of moist air
B Surrounding mountains and proximity to the equator
C Proximity to the equator and a supply of moist air
D All three (mountains, moist air and the proximity of the equator)

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Watch the video again and complete the missing parts of the phrases given.
aiming ______ the nearby lake
move towards the ______ of the lake
under _______ of darkness
his plot was magnificently ________
the massive _____ of water
thunderstorms ______ above it
opposing _________ charges
becomes a lightning _____
measure the Earth’s lighning _______
lightning ____ places on Earth
nowhere can _____ compare _____
seemingly ____________ storms
available to _______ the storms
provides an __________ supply
massive mountain _________
cool winds _________ down these _________
give rise _____ the most _____________ thunderstorms on the planet
a true sight to __________
sailors ___________ this phenomenon
Retell the video using these expressions.
[From ed.ted.com]
Ex. 15. Watch the weather forecast for Scotland. Do you know who the presenter is?
Study the information about the following locations from the video. What is the weather
like in each of them, according to the forecast?
1. Edinburgh is located in the south of Scotland that is between East Lothian and
Lanarkshire. As it is located close to water.
2. Dumfries House is in the north west of the country surrounded by Renfrewshire,
Lanarkshire, Dumfriesshire and Kirkcudbrightshire.
3. Balmoral is situated in the northeastern part of the country. The county where it is
located borders on Banffshire and Kincardineshire.
4. The Castle of Mey is in the far north of the country in the county that borders on
Sutherland.
Watch the weather forecast again and fill in the gaps with the missing words.
Well, it’s an 1) ______________ as we head towards the end of the week. This afternoon it’ll
be cold, wet and windy across most of Scotland. We’re under the influence of low pressure,
and this 2) _________________ pushing nothwards is bringing cloud and 3)____________ of
rain. The rain, of course, will be heaviest over the borders and around Edinburgh, where it
could lead to difficult conditions on the roads. In the west, rain will be lighter and 4)
______________. There’ll be maybe a few 5) ______________over Dumfries House in
Ayrshire. – Aha! – There’ll be snow for the higher ground of the Highlands and
Aberdeenshire, the potential for a few 6) ______________ over Balmoral – who the hell wrote
this script? – as the afternoon goes on. The best of the drier and brighter weather will, of
course, be over the northern isles and the far north of the 7)_____________. So, a little 8)
_______________ for the Castle of Mey in Caithness, but a cold day everywhere, with
temperatures of just 9)_________ Celcius and a 10) __________________. Thank God it isn’t
a bank holiday!

Ex. 16. Read and translate the following weather forecasts from English newspapers.

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1. General situation: Many eastern coastal areas of England will stay cloudy and cool,
with patchy light drizzle during the morning. Western parts of Wales and south-west England
will be cloudy with showery outbreaks of rain, although western Wales will brighten up during
the afternoon. The rest of England and Wales will stay warm and dry with hazy sunshine,
although there will be a brisk easterly breeze. Showery rain over Northern Ireland will clear
during the afternoon. Scotland will be dry with sunny periods, but eastern coasts will be
cloudy and western areas may have rain during the morning.
“The Independent”
2. Cloud and outbreaks of rain over England and Wales will clear during the morning.
The afternoon will be mostly dry with bright or sunny spells, although wintry showers will
develop at times in the north and north-west. Scotland and Northern Ireland will have another
cold day with sunshine and blustery showers expected. The showers will be heavy in places
and falling as snow over the high ground.
Outlook: Bright with wintry showers at times, especially in the north. Rain spreading
eastwards on Monday.
“Daily Express”
3. Forecast: A dry, sunny start over England and Wales, but there may be light showers
adjacent to the southern North Sea. Western Scotland and Northern Ireland will become
cloudy during the morning with outbreaks or rain moving to these areas by midday. This
weather will spread south-eastwards to all parts of Scotland, north-west England and north
Wales by the evening. Temperatures 46°F (8°C) in East Anglia, 50°F (10°C) in Northern
Ireland.
Outlook: Little change in southern and eastern parts of England during Tuesday and
Wednesday. There will be cool nights with frost and possibly patchy fog, but dry with sunny
spells during daylight hours. Early cloud and rain in north-western districts will gradually die
out during Tuesday.
“The Independent”
4. Weather: England and Wales will start cloudy with outbreaks of rain. However,
brighter, showery weather already over Scotland and Northern Ireland will slowly spread
south and east throughout the day. The showers will be heaviest and most frequent in the
north, falling as sleet or snow over hills and mountains, with drifting occurring in places. It
will fell cold in the blustery and strong westerly wind.
Outlook: Sunny intervals and showers are expected. Feeling colder than of late in the
north-westerly wind.
“Daily Express”

Ex. 17. Complete the weather forecast with these adjectives.


Bright changeable clear heavy icy settles strong sunny
thick
In the north of England and Scotland it will be very cold, with ________ winds and
__________ rain. There will also be ___________ fog in the hills and near the
coast, though it should clear by midday. Driving will be dangerous as the roads will
be __________. However, the south of England and the Midlands will have
______________ skies and ___________ sunshine, though the temperature will still
be quite low. Over the next few says the weather will be __________, with some showers but
occasional __________ periods. It should become more __________ over the weekend.

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Ex. 18. Translate the following word combinations into English.
Местами дожди/туманы; ожидается сухая теплая погода; на востоке области пройдут
сильные проливные дожди; на почве возможны заморозки; ветер северный, умеренный,
10-15 м/сек; в дальнейшем холодный характер погоды сохранится; облачная, дождливая
погода; к концу недели погода изменится.

Ex. 19. Project. Make a video of your own weather forecast for the next day (you may
choose the city you want).

Ex. 20. Scientifically Sound Weather Superstitions. Do you know any weather
superstitions? Match the halves of the sentence to make superstitions (think about the
rhyme). Do you think they are scientifically sound? Watch the video and check
[www.youtube.com/watch?v =mgrqvnuzeKM]
Red sky at night nice Weather Ends
Ring around the moon sailors take warning
Chimney Smoke Descends, frost soon
Red sky in the morning rain real soon
Cows lie down sailors delight
Clear moon when potentially rainy weather is on the way
Check the meaning of these expressions in the dictionary. How do you think they are
connected with the superstitions above?
the whims of the weather, vital crop, to abound, to hold water, to prompt something, to check
out, mid latitude, to scatter, lunar halo, wispy clouds, cirrostratus clouds, condense moisture, a
whole herd of smth, to radiate the heat
Watch the video about some weather superstitions again and decide if the following
statements are true/false/not stated.
1. Whims of the weather can conquer any army.
2. There is a great number of different weather superstitions
3. According to European wisdom, red sunrise means coming spell of nice weather
4. Red sunrise brings the same kind of the weather in all parts of the world
5. Cirrostratus clouds form around the moon
6. Animal behavior is the source of a lot of weather superstitions
7. Cows always lie down when the rain is approaching
8. When there are a lot of clouds in the sky, the surface of the earth gets increasingly
cold.

Ex. 21. Read about some more weather superstitions. Translate the texts.
1. Count the Cricket Chirps, Tell the Temperature
The notion that animals can sense weather extends beyond cows. Crickets are
numerous in summertime and much quieter in winter, leading to this notion. But there
is actually more truth behind this than you might think! The Farmer's Almanac even provides
a formula to calculate the temperature yourself, next time you hear a cricket.
2. Summer Fog for Fair, Winter Fog for Rain
When fog creeps in during the summer and winter, it's following a pattern. Fog forms
when the air cools in summertime, meaning the sky is likely clear of clouds. In the winter, fog
forms because of humidity, indicating rain.
"In most places, fog in the summer is always the result of humid air cooling off at night
due to clear skies and very little wind," weather.com senior digital meteorologist Nick Wiltgen

78
says. "That process can cause fog in the winter too, but more often, winter fog comes from
warm, humid air being chilled by blowing across cold, perhaps snow-covered ground. Usually
that warm humid air is blowing in ahead of an approaching storm system."
3. Lightning Strikes, Count the Seconds
Everyone knows this one! Believe it or not, it's fairly accurate. Light travels faster
through air than sound does, at a rate that's consistent with one mile for every five seconds.
Though it's not the most accurate prediction, it gives a rough estimate.
4. Mackerel Sky and Mare's Tails, Lofty Ships Carry Low Sails
This superstition looks to the clouds to predict weather in the same way that our own
meteorologists do. A "mackerel sky" consists of altocumulus or cirrocumulus clouds, formed
by instability in the atmosphere that indicates rain and storms, respectively. "Mare's tales" are
those thin and wispy cirrus clouds. When there are many cirrus clouds in the sky, it indicates
the approach of a frontal system, and in some cases, tropical storms and hurricanes.
5. Pine Cones Predict the Weather
If you take a look at pine cones during nice weather and rainy weather, you'll notice a
difference in appearance. Pine cones contain seeds, and the best way for those seeds to
disperse is with clear, dry weather. When it's rainy or very humid outside, they close up. You
can make your own pine cone weather station with this how-to from Science Sparks.
6. Rainbow at Noon, Rain Soon
This saying is fairly accurate considering that rainbows can't be formed without rain. A
rainbow can predict rain coming your way if that's the direction the rain is headed, so having
an umbrella on hand is always a good idea.
7. Ring around the Moon, Rain Real Soon
When the moon has a halo around it, it's a product of light refracting around ice
crystals in the air – the same particles that form cirrus clouds, or "mare's tails," we mentioned
earlier.
"This one's not foolproof, as cirrus clouds can occur without stormy weather," Wiltgen
says. "But many times cirrus clouds are the first clouds to show up ahead of a large-scale
storm system, and other times cirrus clouds may be the first clouds you would see ahead of a
localized thunderstorm moving toward you."
8. Chimney Smoke Descends, Nice Weather Ends
When you look at a chimney, smoke either goes straight up into the air or "falls." If the
smoke is sinking, it means water vapor has condensed with the smoke, and rain may be on the
way.
"This one has a kernel of truth. Smoke 'falling' from a chimney could be the result of
strong winds from an approaching storm," Wiltgen says. "But it could just as easily be strong
wind behind a departing storm, with nicer weather ahead." Wilgen explains that smoke can
also fall due to a temperature inversion, when the air just above the ground is significantly
warmer than the air at ground level. "Inversions can come from stormy warm fronts, but they
can also come from wintertime high pressure zones not associated with stormy weather,"
Wiltgen says.
9. Lingering Snow Waits for More
This superstition has some backing. If snow lingers, it hasn't melted, so any other
precipitation is likely to be snow. But it doesn't necessarily mean that there will be more
precipitation at all.
10. Feeling Weather in Your Bones
The phrase "feeling under the weather" didn't just come out of nowhere. The weather
affects our bodies in many ways. According to WebMD, barometric pressure changes can

79
cause joint pain. So if your great aunt starts complaining about shoulder pain or achy knees, it
may be time to put on your raincoat.
Sum up the information from the video and the texts above and prepare a talk about
some weather superstitions.
[Adapted from: https://weather.com/science/environment/news/weird-weather-superstitions]

Ex. 22. Translate into English.


1. Утро началось с моросящего дождя, который постепенно усилился
и к полудню перешел в сильный ливень. 2. Я слышала прогноз погоды на
сегодня: днем солнечно и тепло, температура около 20°С, ветер восточный,
умеренный; ночью температура около нуля, на почве местами заморозки.
3. Зима наступает здесь в ноябре – начинают дуть северные ветры, из-за
чего средняя температура становится ниже, выпадает первый снег. 4. Весной легкий
ветер часто нагоняет облака. Небо затягивается тучами, и погода портится. 5.
Ожидается улучшение погоды – дождь прекратится и станет сухо и жарко. 6. В июле
невыносимая жара привела к засухе. За месяц не выпало ни капли дождя. 7. Белые
снежинки тихо кружились в воздухе и ложились на землю. К утру все было занесено
сугробами. 8. Первые лучи солнца пробивались сквозь пелену тумана. К девяти туман
начал рассеиваться. 9. Всходило солнце, дул теплый ветерок, над землей курился туман.
10. Высокая ель отбрасывала тень, там можно было спастись от жары. 11. С неба падал
мокрый снег, было холодно и сыро. Сапоги промокли, из-за талого снега под ногами.
12. После дождя прояснилось, и на небе появилась многоцветная радуга. Хорошая
примета. 13. Такой грозы я не припомню: гром, молния, сильные порывы ветра, а потом
– град. 14. Было чудесное утро. Быстро встало солнце и иссушило капли росы на траве.
15. Сначала подмораживало. Ветви деревьев покрылись инеем. На дороге был сильный
гололед, потом начало оттаивать.

Ex. 23. Choose the most suitable words for each space.
Whenever we read about the natural world nowadays, it is generally to be (1)
………………. dire predictions about its imminent destruction. Some scientists go so (2)
………………. as to assert that from now on, the world can no longer be called ‘natural’,
insofar as future processes of weather, (3) ………………. , and all the interactions of plant
and animal life will no longer carry on in their time-honoured way, unaffected by (4)
………………. . There will never be such a thing as ‘natural weather’ again, say such writers,
only weather (5) ………………. by global warming. It is hard to know whether to believe
such (6) ………………. of doom, possibly because what they are saying seems too terrible to
be (7) ………………. . There are other equally influential scientists who argue that climate,
for example, has changed many times over the (8) ………………., and that what we are
experiencing now may simply be part of an endless cycle of change, rather than a disaster on a
global (9) ………………. . One cannot help wondering whether these attempts to wish the
problem away (10) ………………. underline the extent to which western industrialized
countries are to blame for upsetting the world’s (11) ………………. . It is not our fault, they
seem to be saying, because everything is all right, really! One certain (12) ……………….
which is chilling in its implications, is that there is no longer anywhere on the earth’s (13)
……………….., where in the depths of the oceans or in the polar waters, which is not (14)
………………. by polluted air or (15) ………………. with empty cans and bottles. Now we
have to come to terms with understanding just what that means, and it is far from easy.
1) A) made B) given C) told D) granted
2) A) much B) often C) really D) far

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3) A) change B) atmosphere C) climate D) even
4) A) beings B) man C) people D) humans
5) A) built B) manufactured C) affected D) organised
6) A) prophets B) champions C) warriors D) giants
7) A) stopped B) true C) guessed D) here
8) A) top B) again C) centuries D) worlds
9) A) sense B) form C) scale D) existence
10) A) simply B) to C) that D) or
11) A) future B) ecology C) balance D) population
12) A) fact B) must C) fault D) and
13) A) planet B) atmosphere C) anywhere D) surface
14) A) full B) stained C) breathing D) only
15) A) even B) recycled C) littered D) bothered

Ex. 24. Expand on the following.


1. It’s terrible to find oneself in the country on a cold wet autumn day when it’s drizzling
all the time … 2. It’s an unbearably stifling day today … 3. We’re having a spell of wonderful
spring weather. It’s the best time for walks in the country… 4. I don’t think we should plan an
outing. Look at the sky … 5. I hate having a walk in early spring. One should always look out
for the slush and mud puddles. Besides, … 6. At last it has left off raining! But the weather is
so unsettled. Should we go out? … 7. Ann suggests an outing on Saturday. I think the weather
is quite suitable … 8. I can feel spring in the air … 9. I hope this dry warm weather will keep
for a fortnight at least … 10. It has been raining for 5 days running… 11. Aren’t we lucky to
have dry weather for a week?… 12. You’d better put on your hat and a warm scarf …

Ex. 25. Translate into Russian.


1. The dull sky soon began to tell its meaning by sending down drops of rain, and the
stagnant air of the day changed into a fitful breeze which played about their faces. The quick
silvery glaze on the rivers and pools vanished, from broad mirrors of light they changed to
lustreless sheets of lead, with a surface like a rasp.
T. Hardy
2. There had been short thaws when the wind blew warm and the snow softened and the
air felt like Spring, but always the clear hard cold had come again and the winter had returned.
In March came the first break in the winter. In the night it started raining. It rained on all the
morning and turned the snow to slush and made the mountain-side dismal. There were clouds
over the lake and over the valley. It was raining high up the mountain.
E. Hemingway
3. It comes when we remember nothing but clear skies, green fields, and sweet-smelling
flowers – when recollection of snow and ice, and bleak winds has faded from our minds as
completely as they have disappeared from the earth, – and yet what a pleasant time it is!
Orchards and cornfields ring with the hum of labour; trees bend beneath the thick clusters of
rich fruit which bow their branches to the ground; and the corn, piled in graceful sheaves, or
waving in every light breath that sweeps above it, tinges the landscape with a golden hue. A
mellow softness appears to hang over the whole earth; the influence of the season seems to
extend itself to the very wagon, whose slow motion across the well-reaped field is perceptible
only to the eye, but strikes with no harsh sound upon the ear.
Ch. Dickens
4. The scene upon the lake was beautiful. One side of it is bordered by a steep crag, from
which hung a thousand enormous icicles all glittering in the sun; on the other side was a little
81
wood, now exhibiting that fantastic appearance which the pine trees present when their
branches are loaded with snow. On the frozen bosom of the lake itself were a multitude of
moving figures, some sweeping in the most graceful circles and others deeply interested in a
less active pastime, crowding round the spot where the inhabitants of two rival parishes
contended for the prize at curling.
W. Scott
Ex. 26. Discuss the dialogue. Find statements you agree and disagree with. Say why.
ANGRY, SAD, HAPPY? — BLAME THE WEATHER!
(Interview with an expert)
Q. Professor, how much impact does weather have on people's health and moods?
A. We know that weather has an effect on certain diseases such as arthritis and heart
disorders. Weather is also associated with emotional problems and disturbed behaviour. It is
not by itself a direct cause of mental illness, but it can create an added stress on people on
top of marital, job and other problems.
Q. What kinds of weather have the greatest effect?
A. Temperature is the most important factor. Heat is clearly linked to mood disturbances.
We find that heat is an important factor in the increase of emotional problems.
Q. How much effect does humidity have on individuals? A. Rainy weather leads to
gloominess and depression. Q. And sunshine?
A. It's not too surprising that sunshine, especially in the North, is associated with positive
mood states, especially during winter months. What's more interesting is the finding that
people are more likely to help others and behave in a prosocial way.
Q. How long does it take the body to adapt to weather changes? A. When people move from
a cool climate to a warm, subtropical one, they're very uncomfortable at first. But adaptation
occurs rather quickly — within about two weeks.
Q. Are some people particularly sensitive to weather?
A. Certainly, elderly people tend to be more sensitive to weather than younger people because
their cardiovascular system is less efficient. Body weight also makes a difference. Heavier
people have more difficulty coping with hot weather, while thin people have a harder time in
extreme cold.
Q. In your opinion, what is the ideal weather for physical and emotional well-being?
A. Temperature in the low 70s, with some variation. People enjoy a slight change in
temperature — but not a drastic change where the temperature rises or falls more than 15
degrees. A little bit of breeze, but not a strong wind, is also ideal. Obviously, sunshine makes
people feel good — as long as there is not too much of it.
[1]
Ex. 27. Pre-reading task 1. Consult a dictionary and find the meaning of the
following words and word combinations, practise their pronunciation:
to prophesy; county; tomfoolishness; to be plagued; fraud; wagonette; to chuckle;
specimen; seaweed; cockleshell; lark; flimsy; rheumatism; barometer; to prognosticate;
simoom; set-fair day, a thing that is beyond me.
 Read and translate the following text.
George got hold of the paper, and read us out the weather forecast, which prophesied
‘rain, cold, wet to fine’ (whatever more than usually ghastly thing in weather that may be),
‘occasional local thunderstorms, east wind, with general depression over the Midland Counties
(London and Channel). Bar. falling.’
I do think that of all the silly, irritating tomfoolishness by which we are plagued, this
‘weather-forecast’ fraud is about the most aggravating. It ‘forecasts’ precisely what happened
yesterday or the day before, and precisely the opposite of what is going to happen today.

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I remember a holiday of mine being completely ruined one late autumn by our paying
attention to the weather report of the local newspaper. ‘Heavy showers, with thunderstorms,
may be expected today’, it would say on Monday, and so we would give up our picnic, and
stop indoors all day, waiting for the rain. And people would pass the house, going off in
wagonettes and coaches as jolly and merry as could be, the sun shining out, and not a cloud to
be seen.
‘Ah!’ we said, as we stood looking out at them through the window, ‘won’t they come
home soaked!’ And we chuckled to think how wet they were going to get, and came back and
stirred the fire, and got our books, and arranged our specimens of seaweed and cockleshells.
By twelve o’clock with the sun pouring into the room, the heat became quite oppressive, and
we wondered when those heavy showers and occasional thunderstorms were going to begin.
‘Ah ! They’ll come in the afternoon, you’ll find,’ we said to each other. ‘Oh, won’t those
people get wet. What a lark!’ At one o’clock the landlady would come in to ask if we weren’t
going out, as it seemed such a lovely day. ‘No, no,’ we replied, with a knowing chuckle, ‘not
we. We don’t mean to get wet – no, no.’
And when the afternoon was nearly gone, and still there was no sign of rain, we tried to
cheer ourselves up with the idea that it would come down all at once, just as people had started
for home, and were out of the reach of any shelter, and that they would thus get more drenched
than ever. But not a drop ever fell, and it finished a grand day, and a lovely night after it.
The next morning we would read that it was going to be a ‘warm, fine to set-fair day;
much heat’; and we would dress ourselves in flimsy things, and go out, and, half an hour after
we had started, it would commence to rain hard, and a bitterly cold wind would spring up, and
both would keep on steadily for the whole day, and we would come home with colds and
rheumatism all over us, and go to bed.
The weather is a thing that is beyond me altogether. I never can understand it. The
barometer is useless; it is as misleading as the newspaper forecast. There was one hanging up
in a hotel at Oxford at which I was staying last spring, and, when I got there, it was pointing to
‘set fair’. It was simply pouring with rain outside, and had been all day; and I couldn’t quite
make matters out. I tapped the barometer, and it jumped up and pointed to ‘very dry’. The
Boots stopped as he was passing and said he expected it meant tomorrow. I fancied that maybe
it was thinking of the week before last, but Boots said, No, he thought not.
I tapped it again the next morning, and it went up still higher, and the rain came down
faster than ever. On Wednesday I went and hit it again, and the pointer went round towards
‘set fair’, ‘very dry’, and ‘much heat’, until it was stopped by the peg, and couldn’t go any
further. It tried its best, but the instrument was built so that it couldn’t prophesy fine weather
any harder than it did without breaking itself. It evidently wanted to go on, and prognosticate
drought, and water famine, and sunstroke, and simooms, and such things, but the peg
prevented it, and it had to be content with pointing to the mere commonplace ‘very dry’.
Meanwhile, the rain came down in a steady torrent, and the lower part of the town was
under water, owing to the river having overflowed. Boots said it was evident that we were
going to have a prolonged spell of grand weather some time. The fine weather never came that
summer. I expect that machine must have been referring to the following spring.
Ex. 28. Write a short story of your own (150-200) words to show what trick a weather
forecast may play on a person.

Ex. 29. Fill in prepositions or adverbs.


1. Be careful! Don’t splash mud … passers-by. 2. A thick fog is spreading … the city
and though cars and buses have put … their lights they can only crawl … . 3. It is pleasant to
look … the trees when the frost sparkles … the branches. 4. There is a bridge … the river. 5.
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The rivers and lakes freeze … … winter. 6. I don’t like to be out-of-doors … such bad
weather. I prefer to stay … home. 7. Let us have a tramp … the country lanes. 8. The new corn
is just beginning to appear … the ground. 9. The ground is usually covered … snow … winter.
10. The temperature is 25° … zero … the shade today. 11. Look … the sky. There is hardly a
cloud … it. 12. A heat wave will spread … the south-west … Moscow. 13. It’s beginning to
rain. Put … your umbrella. 14. The rain is … and it’s clearing … . 15. The weather is getting
worse. The sun is going … . 16. It’s pouring. We shall be wet … .

Ex. 30. a) Read the story and discuss the questions below.
A BREEZE
.
For some folks everything is easy. Life is a breeze. They are always healthy. They are never
under the weather. If they walk into a room full of strangers, they make friends in five
minutes. They have no trouble breaking the ice. They can earn enough to save money every
week. They’re saving it for a rainy day. So, if trouble ever does come, they will be able to
weather the storm. Yes, some people have no problems whether times are good or bad.
They’re OK come rain or shine.

If something is a breeze, is it easy or hard for you to do?


If you’re under the weather, how do you feel?
When you break the ice, what do you do?
b) Study the table. Each example has an idiom with the weather word. Guess the
meaning of the idiom from the context and match them with the definitions.
Idiom Example Definitions
1.To break the Cedric is very shy. If he goes to a party where he a) not to know or
ice does not know anyone, he finds it very hard to understand what is
break the ice. going on
2.A breeze As I had studied hard the exam was a breeze. b) to have a lot of
work to do
3.Come rain or Uncle George lives quite far away, but he c) a friend who
shine promised to come to my wedding come rain or doesn’t help his friend
shine. in need
4.A fair- Julie showed that she is just a fair-weathered d) something easy for
weathered friend friend for me. When I needed help with the you to do
report, she refused.
5.To have one’s I don’t think that Alice understands that she is in e) no matter how hard
head in the danger of failing the course. She seems to have it is to do
clouds her head in the clouds.
6.To save Frank makes only 500 $ a month, but every week f) to wait and be
something for a he saves 20 for a rainy day. patient until things get
rainy day better
7.To be snowed I have to stay late and finish some urgent tasks as g) to prepare for
under I’m completely snowed under with work. trouble by saving
money
8.To weather the Our company has had a lot of troubles this year. h) To begin a

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storm But I’m sure that things will be fine if we manage conversation with a
to weather the storm for just a few months. stranger
[12]

Ex. 31. Words which describe weather are often used to talk about people and their
moods or emotions. a) Use these words to complete the following definitions:
Shower storm breeze frosty hazy gloomy cloud over cool
1. Another word for a light or moderate wind is a _____
2. 10 minutes of light rain is a __________
3. When the sun is not clear it is __________
4. When the temperature drops to just below zero, it is _________
5. A day with lots of dark cloud is ___________
6. Sometimes even the sunniest skies can _________ and the day turns dull.
7. When the wind gets very strong, get ready for a __________
8. Spring days can be quite warm, but it is usually _________ in the evening.
b) Underline the correct word in the sentences below:
1. It was obvious that Charles was angry. He came storming/breezing into the room, threw the
contract on the table and demanded to know why he had not been consulted.
2. It was obvious from the way Peter breezed/stormed in this morning that Mary had said yes
to his proposal.
3. I think I drank too much last night at dinner. I'm afraid I'm feeling a bit under the
sky/weather this morning.
4. They used to be crazy about each other, but I think the relationship has cooled/ frozen
recently.
5. Meeting Jane's parents for the first time was a bit worrying, but they gave me a very sunny
/warm welcome. Her mother was lovely.
6. The car broke down on the way to my husband's parents. We were two hours late for
Sunday lunch. You can imagine we got a rather frosty/wet reception.
7. Ladies and gentlemen, can I start by thanking you for giving me such a warm/hot welcome.
8. What's the matter? Cheer up! You look a bit foggy /gloomy.
9. I wish Dave was more dynamic. He always seems to be half asleep - he's a bit damp/wet,
really.
10. My students really annoy me sometimes - particularly when they never do their
homework. They really are a shower/storm!
c) Match the following adjectives to their moods:
1. frosty 2. warm 3. hazy 4. stormy 5. gloomy
a. angry b. unfriendly c. sad d. confused e. friendly
d) Fill in the correct word in the dialogues below:
Clouded cloud hazy brighten up warmed up warmed wind
1. Did you hear about David? > No. Why did he leave so suddenly?
Well, apparently, he left under a________. Someone found out that he had been stealing from
the company expense account!
2. How was the office party? > A bit slow at first, but it soon_________when the boss left!
3. So, you met my old friend Larry yesterday. What did you think of him?
> A great guy! Yes, I _________ to him straightaway.
4. Have you replied to that letter from the bank? > Not yet. Can you help me? I'm a bit
___________about what to do, actually.
5. Did you have a good time last night? > Not really. Jill had some sad news which
___________the whole evening.
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6. Well, is it going to be a week sightseeing in Belgium or a fortnight in Bali? > Let's throw
caution to the Two weeks in the sun! We can worry about paying for it when we come back!
7. Liz seemed a bit depressed this morning. > Oh, she'll soon ______when I tell her she's being
sent to Paris!
e) Put the following pairs of words into the sentences below:
a. stormed, room d. soon, when
b. feeling, weather e. given, frosty
c. gave, welcome f. hazy, do
1. The party warmed up Mark's brother arrived.
2. We were a very reception.
3. They me a very warm
4. He into the and shouted at me!
5. I'm a bit about what to next.
6. I'm a bit under the this morning.

Ex. 32. Match the following idioms with the situations. Give their Russian equivalents.
Example: When I was in hospital I lost a lot of weight - so something good came out of it. -
Every cloud has a silver lining.
1. the calm before the 1) Because bad luck isn't repeated in the same place, I
storm parked where my car had been stolen.
2. come rain come shine 2) Don't spend all your money now - you might need
3. make heavy weather of some later.
smth 3) No one trusted her after she was caught stealing
4. it never rains but it from the toyshop.
pours 4) I'm not feeling too good today. I think I'll stay in
5. feel under the weather bed and rest.
6. save something for a 5) I think a lot of fuss is being made over something
rainy day very unimportant.
7. be a storm in a teacup 6) The report was far too detailed - we needed only
8. be under a cloud the basic information,
9. be in a fog 7) 1 never receive complaints but now 1 have had ten
10. lightning never strikes in a row!
the same place twice 8) He's out playing tennis whatever the weather.
9) I can't think clearly about what happened just
before the accident
10) This good luck is too good to last - something
is bound to go wrong.

Exam and essay topics


1. My most and least favourite kinds of weather.
2. Weather superstitions
3. How does weather influence our mood?

86
MОDULE 2
CLIMATE
Ex. 1. Pre-view. Have you ever wondered why one area of the world is a desert, another a
grassland, and another a rainforest? The answer is climate. Work in pairs and try to come up
with the definition of the term “climate”. Then read the following text and compare it with the
ideas of yours. Discuss the words in bold. Can you guess the meaning from the context?

Climate is the characteristic condition of the atmosphere near the earth's surface at a
certain place on earth. It is the long-term weather of that area (at least 30 years).
This includes the region's general pattern of weather conditions, seasons and
weather extremes, such as hurricanes, droughts, or rainy periods. Two of the most
important factors determining an area's climate are air temperature and
precipitation.

Ex. 2. Read the text about the world climate. Underline the key points in the text. Make 7
questions to the text, close your books, ask your questions and check how well your partner
remembers the main ideas.
Some facts about climate
The sun's rays hit the equator at a direct angle between 23 ° latitude. Radiation that
reaches the atmosphere here is at its most intense. In all other cases, the rays arrive at an angle to
the surface and are less intense. The closer a place is to the poles, the smaller the angle and
therefore the less intense the radiation. Our climate system is based on the location of these hot
and cold air-mass regions and the atmospheric circulation created by trade winds and westerlies.
Trade winds north of the equator blow from the northeast. South of the equator, they blow from
the southeast. The trade winds of the two hemispheres meet near the equator, causing the air to
rise. As the rising air cools, clouds and rain develop. The resulting bands of cloudy and rainy
weather near the equator create tropical conditions. Westerlies blow from the southwest on the
Northern Hemisphere and from the northwest in the Southern Hemisphere.
Seasons
The Earth rotates about its axis, which is tilted at 23.5 degrees. This tilt and the sun's
radiation result in the Earth's seasons. The sun emits rays that hit the earth's surface at different
angles. These rays transmit the highest level of energy when they strike the earth at the right
angle (90 °). Temperatures in these areas tend to be the hottest places on earth. Other locations,
where the sun's rays hit at lesser angles, tend to be cooler. As the Earth rotates on its tilted axis
around the sun, different parts of the Earth receive higher and lower levels of radiant energy.
This creates the seasons.
Köppen Climate Classification System
The Köppen Climate Classification System is the most widely used for classifying the
world's climates. Most classification systems used today are based on the one introduced in 1900
by the Russian-German climatologist Wladimir Köppen. Köppen divided the Earth's surface into
climatic regions that generally coincided with world patterns of vegetation and soils. The
Köppen system recognizes five major climate types based on the annual and monthly averages of
temperature and precipitation.
[Adapted from http://www.blueplanetbiomes.org/climate.htm]

87
Ex. 3. Jigsaw reading. Divide into 3 groups. Each group reads the information
about one climate group. Then exchange information with members of other
groups to fill in the table below in your copybooks.
Name of the climate type Location The main features

Group I.
Low-latitude Climates: these climates are controlled by equatorial and tropical air masses.
Tropical Moist Climates (rainforests)
Rainfall is heavy in all months. The total annual rainfall is often more than 250 cm. There are
seasonal differences in monthly rainfall but temperatures of 27°C (80°F) mostly stay the same.
Humidity is between 77 and 88%. High surface heat and humidity cause cumulus clouds to form early
in the afternoons almost every day. The climate on eastern sides of continents is influenced by
maritime tropical air masses.
Average temperature: 18 °C (°F)
Annual Precipitation: 262 cm. (103 in.)
Global Position: Amazon Basin; Congo Basin of equatorial Africa; East Indies, from Sumatra to New
Guinea.
Wet-Dry Tropical Climates (savanna)
A seasonal change occurs between wet tropical air masses and dry tropical air masses. As a result,
there is a very wet season and a very dry season. Trade winds dominate during the dry season. It gets
a little cooler during this dry season but will become very hot just before the wet season.
Temperature Range: 16 °C
Annual Precipitation: 0.25 cm. All months less than 0.25 cm.
Global Range: India, Indochina, West Africa, southern Africa, South America and the north coast of
Australia
Dry Tropical Climate (desert biome)
These desert climates are found in low-latitude deserts approximately
between 18° to 28° in both hemispheres. These latitudes coincide with the
edge of the equatorial subtropical high pressure belt and trade winds. Winds
are light, which allows for the evaporation of moisture in the intense heat.
They generally flow downward so the area is seldom penetrated by air
masses that produce rain. This makes for a very dry heat. The dry arid desert
is a true desert climate, and covers 12 % of the Earth's land surface.
Temperature Range: 16° C
Annual Precipitation: 0.25 cm. All months less than 0.25 cm
Global Range: southwestern United States and northern Mexico; Argentina;
north Africa; south Africa; central part of Australia.
Group II
Mid-latitude Climates: Climates in this zone are affected by two different air-masses. The
tropical air-masses are moving towards the poles and the polar air-masses are moving towards
the equator. These two air masses are in constant conflict. Either air mass may dominate the area,
but neither has exclusive control.
Dry Midlatitude Climate (steppe)
Characterized by grasslands, this is a semiarid climate. If it received less rain, the steppe would
be classified as an arid desert. With more rain, it would be classified as a tallgrass prairie. This
dry climate exists in the interior regions of the North American and Eurasian continents. Moist
ocean air masses are blocked by mountain ranges to the west and south. These mountain ranges
also trap polar air in winter, making winters very cold. Summers are warm to hot.
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Temperature Range: 24° C (43° F).
Annual Precipitation: less than 10 cm (4 in) in the driest regions to 50 cm (20 in) in the moister
steppes.
Global Range: Western North America (Great Basin, Columbia Plateau, Great Plains); Eurasian
interior, from steppes of eastern Europe to the Gobi Desert and North China.
Mediterranean Climate
This is a wet-winter, dry-summer climate. Extremely dry summers are
caused by the sinking air of the subtropical highs and may last for up to
five months. Plants have adapted to the extreme difference in rainfall
and temperature between winter and summer seasons.
Fires occur frequently in Mediterranean climate zones.
Temperature Range: 7 °C (12 °F)
Annual Precipitation: 42 cm (17 in).
Global Position: central and southern California; coastal zones
bordering the Mediterranean Sea; coastal Western Australia and South
Australia; Chilean coast; Cape Town region of South Africa.
Moist Continental Climate (Deciduous Forest biome)
This climate is in the polar front zone - the battleground of polar and tropical air masses.
Seasonal changes between summer and winter are very large. Daily temperatures also change
often. Abundant precipitation falls throughout the year. It is increased in the summer season by
invading tropical air masses. Cold winters are caused by polar and arctic masses moving south.
Temperature Range: 31 °C (56 ° F)
Average Annual Precipitation: 81 cm (32 in).
Global Position: eastern parts of the United States and southern Canada; northern China; Korea;
Japan; central and eastern Europe.
Group III
High-latitude climates: Polar and arctic air masses dominate these regions. Canada and Siberia
are two air-mass sources which fall into this group. A southern hemisphere counterpart to these
continental centers does not exist.
Boreal forest Climate (taiga biome)
This is a continental climate with long, very cold winters, and
short, cool summers. This climate is found in the polar air mass
region. Very cold air masses from the arctic often move in. The
temperature range is larger than any other climate. Precipitation
increases during summer months, although annual precipitation is
still small. Much of the boreal forest climate is considered humid.
However, large areas in western Canada and Siberia receive very
little precipitation and fall into the subhumid or semiarid climate type.
Temperature Range: 41 °C (74 °F), lows; -25 °C (-14 °F), highs; 16 °C (60 °F).
Average Annual Precipitation: 31 cm (12 in).
Global Position: central and western Alaska; Canada, from the Yukon Territory to Labrador;
Eurasia, from northern Europe across all of Siberia to the Pacific Ocean.
Tundra Climate
The tundra climate is found along arctic coastal areas. Polar
and arctic air masses dominate the tundra climate. The winter
season is long and severe. A short, mild season exists, but not a
true summer season. Moderating ocean winds keep the
temperatures from being as severe as interior regions.
Temperature Range: -22 °C to 6 °C (-10 °F to 41 °F).
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Average Annual Precipitation: 20 cm (8 in).
Global Position: arctic zone of North America; Hudson Bay region; Greenland coast;
northern Siberia bordering the Arctic Ocean.
Highland Climate (Alpine Biome)
Highland climates are cool to cold, found in mountains and high plateaus. Climates change
rapidly on mountains, becoming colder the higher the altitude gets. The climate of a highland
area is closely related to the climate of the surrounding biome. The highlands have the same
seasons and wet and dry periods as the biome they are in. Mountain climates are very
important to midlatitude biomes. They work as water storage areas. Snow is kept back until
spring and summer when it is released slowly as water through melting.
Temperature Range: -18 °C to 10 °C (-2 °F to 50°F)
Average Annual Precipitation: 23 cm (9 in.)
Global Position: Rocky Mountain Range in North America, the Andean mountain range in
South America, the Alps in Europe, Mt. Kilimanjaro in Africa, the Himalayans in Tibet, Mt.
Fuji in Japan.
Bibliography: Strahler, Arthur N., Strahler, Arthur H., Elements of Physical Geography. John
Wiley & Sons, 1984. [Adapted from http://www.blueplanetbiomes.org/climate.htm]

Ex. 4. Jigsaw watching. Divide into 4 groups and watch one part of the series “Secrets of
World Climate”. Present the key points of the episode to members of other groups.

Ex. 5. What do you know about seasons and climate in Great Britain? Discuss it with
your partner and name 5 key features. A) Read the following text and check your
predictions.
Seasons in Britain
Although the seasonal differences in Britain are not as extreme as in
some countries, there is still a large difference between winter and
summer. The year is split into four seasons roughly each 3 months long,
though the weather in Britain can be very erratic and so the seasons
often overlap or don’t follow the standard pattern. Below you can
find the general weather conditions of each season in England. All the
stats are based on Met Office (the UK’s main source of information about weather). All the
statistics are only rough ideas as conditions can vary hugely even within England.
Winter (December to February)
Average Minimum/Maximum Temperatures: 6.6oC- 7.4oC
Average Min/Max Daylight Hours: 8-9 hours
Average Monthly Rainfall (mm): 78 mm
Winter is the coldest month in the UK, running roughly from December to February (although
November can often suffer very wintry conditions too). Temperatures often get as low as
freezing point (0oC), though not too much colder usually. This leads to
frost in the mornings, ice on car windscreens and roads, and
sometimes snow fall. British winters are usually very wet and windy
as well, so make sure you wrap up warm and waterproof.
To add to the miserable weather, the hours of daylight are very
short during the winter, with days in London getting as short as 8 hours at the end of
December.
Spring (March to May) Average Min/Max Temperatures: 9.3oC- 15.4oC
Average Min/Max Daylight Hours: 11-15 hours
Average Min/Max Rainfall (mm): 60 mm

90
Spring in the UK is all about new life springing up after the harsh conditions of winter.
From March (roughly), the temperatures start to get warmer, frosts get less frequent and the
days start to get longer. This brings with it plants shooting up all over the country, trees
regaining their leaves and animals giving birth. However, spring is often still quite wet and
windy in Britain, so don’t crack out the sunglasses and flip flops too
early.
Summer (June to August)
Average Min/Max Temperatures: 18.1oC- 20.6oC
Average Min/Max Daylight Hours: 16 hours - 16 hours 30 mins
Average Min/Max Rainfall (mm): 61 mm
In theory summer in the UK should be hot and dry. In practice it is only hot in spells and it
still rains quite a bit most summers. It is best to think of it as a way of making the hot days feel
more special. On such days, temperatures can reach 30oC, though not much higher, and the
British public make the most of it. People swarm to beaches, sit out in parks and generally
revel in the hot temperatures. This is matched by the increased hours of daylight which
reach almost 17 hours in London in mid June.
Autumn (September to November)
Average Min/Max Temperatures: 17.5oC- 9.5oC
Average Min/Max Daylight Hours: 10-14 hours
Average Min/Max Rainfall (mm): 81 mm
Autumn marks the gradual change from summer to winter and is
probably the season with the biggest range in weather conditions. Septembers and even
Octobers in Britain can often still be summery, recently even recording higher temperatures
than August. Equally, Novembers can be very cold, and the UK sometimes even experiences
widespread snow fall (like in 2010). In general, it is usually quite wet and windy in autumn
though it is so variable that one year after another, autumns can seem like different seasons.
[Adapted from http://www.foreignstudents.com/guide-to-britain/british-
culture/weather/seasons]
B) Explain the words in bold and use them in sentences of your own describing Rostov
climate.

Ex. 6. Describe a thaw on a frosty day, a snowstorm, Indian summer and spring using
the suggested words:
a) Warm, a soft carpet of dying leaves, nature is slowly falling asleep, still green, soft bronze,
stir the air, cobweb, to enjoy the last warm days, golden autumn, to fade. Leaves change their
colour from green to yellow and red. The landscape becomes rather dull.
b) The sky is pale gray, it continues freezing, snowy, to blow, a piercing wind, chilly, to snow
heavily, severe frost, low clouds, it keeps on snowing, large flakes, to be caught in a
snowstorm, to be snow bound, the snow lies deep, what nasty weather, bitterly cold, to be cut
out from the outside world, to stay indoors, motorways are cleared of snow, blockade.
c) The snow lies on the ground, frozen into a thick crust, bare trees, to slip and fall, a thaw sets
in, the ground is covered with a sleet, icicles hang from the roof, the roads become slushy and
slippery, it often sleets, a cutting wind, unpleasant time, hoarfrost glistens in the sun, the air is
transparent, the sky is clear, the countryside looks lovely, to be frozen over, the temperature is
rising.
d) But nothing compares to spring; Spring sets in; the trees are in bud; the rustling of leaves; to
come into leaf; twittering of birds; thaw; ripen (to get ripe); Trees are bursting in leaf, flowers;
the nature awakes from the long sleep; It makes a nice change; to set into a good mood, nature
comes to life, the days get longer and warmer, to break into blossom, the air is fresh and cool,

91
Ex. 7. Translate into English.
Раньше я скептически относился ко всем разговорам о лондонских туманах. В
конце концов, туманы бывают и у нас. Поэтому первый лондонский туман я не
воспринял серьезно. «Ну вот и знаменитый английский туман», - сообщил я своим
детям, и они запрыгали: «Туман, туман...» Жена оказалась серьезнее: «Как же я в
магазин пойду?» Она все-таки пошла и даже вернулась. Но мы ждали ее два часа, хотя
до магазина было рукой подать.
Туманы останавливают транспорт, даже железные дороги, закрывают
предприятия и... убивают людей. Нет, не только на дорогах, хотя в туманные дни
происходит много аварий. Гораздо больше людей убивает «смог» - туман, смешанный с
дымом и сажей от каминов и выхлопными газами. Знаменитый «киллер» - «смог» 1952
года унес жизни 435 человек, страдающих астмой. Смог в декабре 1962 года убил более
200 человек. Лондонцы надевают в такие дни марлевые повязки (gauze bandages): они
становятся серыми через четверть часа.
Туман приносит много бед. Но не весь год в Англии только туманно, сыро и
ветрено. Надоедают дожди и сырость. Но человек ко всему может привыкнуть.
Привыкаешь постепенно и к английской погоде.
Зима пришла – весна не за горами (winter heralds the coming of spring) – говорят
англичане. А весна в Британии – чудное время. Она вся цветет. Цветет в городах, цветет
в пригородах. Нежные розовые цветы вишен. Белые цветы яблонь.
Чтобы по-настоящему увидеть весну в Англии, надо побывать в яблоневых садах
графства Кент. На шоссе стоят указатели «дорога в цвету». Вы можете ехать по ним,
этим провинциальным, узким и петляющим дорогам милю за милей и наслаждаться
белыми и розовыми в цвету деревьями. Англия прекрасна в эти весенние недели. И
дождь щадит ее красоту. И солнце делает яркими ее краски.
Нет, думаешь про себя, гуляя по покрытым белыми и желтыми нарциссами
лужайкам лондонских парков, англичане все-таки знают, где надо жить. А потом
появляются тюльпаны, от которых невозможно оторвать взгляд. А впереди – лето,
белые свечи каштанов, цветущие розы, с их тонким ароматом, цветущие липовые аллеи.
Но дождь к тому времени уже потерял терпение. Он начнет напоминать, что это в конце
концов Британские острова, а не Сахара. Дождь сделает эту страну прохладной, и даже
в июле здесь не пожалуешься на жару. Но дождь сделает еще более красивой
английскую зелень.
Не повезло англичанам с летом. Море, окружившее их со всех сторон, широкие,
мягкие песчаные пляжи Корнуэла, только дразнят. Даже на самом южном из
Британских островов Уайте (the Isle of Wight) не всегда искупаешься. Море и летом
остается прохладным. И только закаленные люди осмеливаются поплескаться
неподалеку от берега. Большинство же отдыхающих просто смотрят на купальщиков.
Сентябрь и октябрь в Англии превосходны. Бабье лето здесь долгое, солнечное,
теплое. Трава стала лишь чуть менее яркой. Деревья только слегка пожелтели. В лесу
очень много грибов, но англичане их никогда не собирают. Они едят только
шампиньоны. В погожие осенние дни не хочется думать о надвигающейся зиме. Здесь
она, как правило, бесснежная, дождливая, ветреная и туманная. На лыжах катаются
только в Шотландии. В Лондоне всего два закрытых катка. А многочисленные пруды,
реки и озера замерзают только раз лет в двадцать.
Есть, однако, в таком климате свое преимущество. Он дешев. Можно обойтись
без шубы и теплой шапки. В девятнадцати из каждых двадцати домов нет центрального
утопления. Впрочем, мне случилось провести «исключительно суровую» зиму в

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Англии. В январе 1963 года снег в Лондоне лежал три недели. Температура падала до -
5° С. Ничего подобного не случалось в Англии последние... 150 лет или около того. У
нас в России такой морозец не назвали бы даже бодрящим. В Англии он вызвал хаос на
транспорте. Только одним железным дорогам эти три снежные недели обошлись в пять
миллионов фунтов стерлингов. Но подобные зимы в Англии случаются не чаще, чем раз
в полвека.
[По В. Осипову, «Британия глазами русского»]
Ex. 8. Work with a partner and discuss these questions:
1. Roughly what time does it get light and dark in your country in different seasons? Does it
change much throughout the year?
2. What do you think it would be like to live somewhere where it was light for twenty-
four hours in the summer and dark for twenty-four hours in the winter?
Listen to Amna, who originally came from Pakistan, talking about life in the Norwegian
city of Tromso. Which does she prefer: long days or long nights? Why?
Listen again and make notes in the table below.
Positive aspects Negative aspects
Long days

Long nights

[18]
Ex. 9. Write a summary of the following text. Before you start writing study carefully the
instructions given below.
 A summary is the expression of the essence of some piece of writing in a condensed form.
The main idea of the piece should be presented clearly, concisely and precisely. The length of
a summary makes up approximately one third of the length of the original source. Writing a
summary includes seven stages:
1. reading the original text to gasp the main idea;
2. re-reading the passage to check up your understanding;
3. selecting the essential points;
4. linking the points in logical order;
5. writing a rough copy of a new concise text;
6. comparing the summary with the original passage to see whether all essentials are
included;
7. writing a fair copy of a summary.
 In writing a summary only the information taken from the passage should be used. A
summary does not contain repetitions, illustrative details, figures of speech, wordy phrases
consisting of meaningless words. A good summary shows one’s ability to understand and
present ideas.
Cold? Britain Is Actually Getting Hotter
Most Britons could be forgiven for thinking a new Ice Age is upon us. Small comfort,
then, as we struggle through snowdrifts and cope with burst pipes, that the present cold is a
sign the British climate is generally getting milder.
Ironically, most scientists now believe the short sharp shock of severe cold that has
struck Europe fro three winters running is an indicator that the world is growing warmer. The
burning of fossil fuels is building up a blanket of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere, creating a
“greenhouse” effect.

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Britain and Europe have certainly experienced weather this cold before. In the 17th
century, the Thames froze solid so often that it became a regular winter sports attraction. The
weather then was so severe that it is sometimes referred to as the Little Ice Age. Even in the
early 19th century, Britain’s climate was still colder than it is today. We still have a cherished
picture of Charles Dickens’s Christmases – although, in fact, snow at Christmas has been a
rarity in southern England for 150 years.
Studies of temperature trends around the world show that it has been warming up since
the middle of the 19th century. Most experts agree that this is a result of human activities. By
burning coal and oil, we are putting carbon dioxide into the air. This acts like a blanket round
the earth, trapping heat that would otherwise escape into space. As long as we keep burning
fossil fuel, the trend is likely to continue. So why have we had such severe cold spells in
Europe recently? According to researchers at the University of East Anglia, it is all part of the
same process. When the climate of the globe changes, it doesn’t do so evenly. Britain and
Western Europe are just unlucky in being in the path of a particularly significant wind shift.
By comparing the weather in different seasons, during the warmest and coldest years of
the 20th century, the researchers have built up a picture of what is going on. Their key new
discovery is that although spring, summer and autumn are all warmer, severe cold spells in
winter are most likely over the whole of central Europe. So then, short cold spells mean it’s
generally getting warmer – but the bad news is it could get TOO warm. If the predictions
come true – and the present changes are exactly in line with computer forecasts – within the
next 40 or 100 years we shall see a change in climate as dramatic as the shift which ended the
last Ice Age.

Ex. 10. Translate into English.


1. Климат Великобритании очень влажный, с мягкой зимой, сильными туманами и
ветрами и прохладным летом. Погода переменчива даже в течение одного дня. В
сводках погоды обычны слова «пасмурная или дождливая погода, временами – солнце».
Поэтому важной деталью британского туалета является зонтик, с которым почти
никогда не расстаются.
На климат страны воздействуют циклоны Атлантики. С запада приходят
воздушные массы, согретые теплым североатлантическим течением, и несут с собой
дожди. Наименее влажная часть Великобритании – юго-восток.
Снег выпадает редко, обычно на севере в горах в течение одного-двух месяцев в
году. Случается, что снег выпадает и в других районах, но тут же тает. Осенью, зимой и
весной обычны сильные ветры, большей частью западные. Зимой часты туманы. Самый
холодный зимний месяц – январь, а самый теплый летний – июль. В январе температура
воздуха редко опускается ниже -6°, а летом редко превышает +15°.
[По Н.М. Польской, «Великобритания»]
2. В первые четыре дня, которые я провел в Англии, там сияло солнце. «У вас
здесь не так плохо», - сказал я своим товарищам-корреспондентам. «Эти четыре дня, -
ответили они мне, - англичане будут вспоминать лет десять». «Помните, летом 1958-го,
в июне, четыре дня подряд не было дождя?»
Два года спустя я снова приехал в Англию. В Шереметьеве была снежная вьюга и
температура 12° ниже нуля. В Лондоне +9° и опять солнечно. «Недурно для февраля»,
подумал я и … сглазил (to bewitch smth with the evil eye).
Два дня спустя шел дождь, потом было холодно и туманно, потом снова дождь,
потом пасмурно, ветрено и холодно. И я с досадой думал об англичанах: «Что их
заставляет жить на этих промокших насквозь островах, когда столько сухих стран на
земле…»

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[По В. Осипову, «Британия глазами русского»]
Ex. 11. Translate the following text into Russian; explain why the author compares the
weather in Washington with a winning candidate. Retell the text.
The weather in Washington reminds me of a winning candidate who promises
everything, but you never know just when to expect it at all. Sometimes it’s April in January,
and March often behaves like December or May. Or as Mark Twain found it here: ‘When you
arrived (at the station at night) it was snowing. When you reached the hotel it was sleeting.
When you went to bed it was raining. During the night it froze hard and the wind blew some
chimneys down. When you got up in the morning, it was foggy. When you finished your
breakfast at ten o’clock and went out, the sunshine was brilliant, the weather balmy and
delicious, and the mud and slush deep and all-pervading. You will like the climate – when you
get used to it.’
If you care to follow Mark Twain’s advice, take an umbrella and overcoat, and fan, and
go forth. My advice on what to expect, season by season, regarding the weather is: Spring –
it’s a wonderful, most attractive, liveliest time of the year. Mild weather usually arrives earlier
than it does in most northern cities. (Prepare for possible 27°C in March), flowers burst into
bloom starting with magnolia, then followed by cherry blossom, azalea and pansies. Summer –
it can be hot, humid, sticky. Men wear tropical outfits. Autumn – the best season except for
spring; in some ways the best of all. The climate is dry, mild. If you are driving, the colour in
the mountains is beautiful. Winter – unpredictable, some years raw, cold, soggy; others short
and mild. You don’t have to bring your umbrella and galoshes, but come prepared to buy
them.
(From Washington. A Modern Guide to the Nation’s Capital by M. Frome)
CLIMATE CHANGE
Ex. 12. Have you ever heard about climate change? What does it mean? Match the
questions to the answers about climate change.
1. What is climate change?
2. What is the ‘greenhouse effect?’
3. What is the evidence of global warming?
4. How will the weather change?
5. What is the international community doing?
A. Sea levels have risen by 10 – 20 cm. This is due to the expansion of warming oceans.
Temperature records show that the average temperature has increased by about 0.6ºC in the
20th century.
B. The Kyoto Protocol (1997) commits industrialized countries to reduce their greenhouse gas
emissions. It suffered a huge set back in 2001 when the USA, responsible for a quarter of
global emissions, pulled out.
C. The planet’s climate is constantly changing but now scientists believe that the extreme
changes taking place today are a result of human activity. The changes we see today may
affect the stability of the climate on which much life on the planet depends.
D. The term refers to the role played by the layer of gases, including carbon dioxide, methane
and nitrous oxide, which trap the heat from the sun in the earth’s atmosphere. We need the
layer to keep in some of the heat but now the concentration of gases, especially CO2 is
increasing and retaining more heat.
E. It is difficult to predict, but we can expect more extreme weather conditions like floods,
storms and heat waves. Scientists believe there will be more rain but also a higher risk of
drought in inland areas
[www.teachingenglish.org.uk]

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Ex. 13. Look at the pictures and the words in the box. Use the words to describe the
pictures. [18]

climate change drought heatwave


crop damage/fail wild fires high temperatures
destroyed housing floods landslide
decrease/increase in rainfall global warming gale-force winds
tropical storm water shortage destruction and death
toll
Put the words from the box into the columns.
Extreme weather events Effects/consequences of extreme weather
events

Ex. 14. Watch the video about the causes of climate change and answer the questions
below.
1. What is the driving force behind the world climate?
2. What is long wave radiation?
3. What is the role of green-house gases in the world temperature?
4. Are all climate variations absolutely natural? Why/why not?
5. What is the role of volcano eruptions for earth’s climate?
6. How is the problem of overpopulation connected with the problem of climate change?
7. Why is CO2 dangerous?
8. How is carbon dioxide rate in the atmosphere connected with deforestation?
9. Do scientists know how much the temperature will increase in future? Why/why not?
10. What effects on the planet can temperature changes have?
11. What does “positive feedback mechanism” mean?
12. Why does ice melting warm up the planet eventually?
13. Why is reliable scientific research so vital?
14. In what way is climate change is a moral issue?
15. Why do people tend to say that climate change is not a problem?
16. Is the end of the video optimistic or pessimistic? Why?
Fill in the table below with some facts from the video and prepare a talk about Climate
Change.
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Causes Consequences

Essay and exam topics


1. World climate
2. Seasons in Rostov
3. Climate change is one of the burning issues of the modern world

MОDULE 3
EXTREME WEATHER
CONDITIONS

Ex. 1. Look at the pictures and briefly skim the blogposts. Try to guess what countries
people come from.

97
Read the blogposts again and tick the right box(es). In which blog does someone …
Blog1 Blog2 Blog3
1. go out inspite of a severe weather warning
2. seem to be a foreigner living abroad
3. have fun in spite of the weather
4. complain about how the weather makes him/her feel
5. talk about problems with transport
6. describe how surprised people are by the weather
7. criticize some people for doing something
8. talk about the damage caused by the weather

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9. complain that people are not well prepared to cope with the
weather
Would any of these three types of weather be surprising where you live? Have you had
any surprising weather where you live recently?
[15]
Ex. 2. Write a short blog like this one describing what the weather has been like recently.
Talk about how it has made you feel and how it has affected what you have been doing.

Ex. 3. A) Listen and answer the questions [3].


1. Where were the two people when they experienced extreme weather?
2. What kind of weather did each person experience?
3. How did they feel?
4. What did they do as a result of the weather?
B) Complete the summary of the second story by putting the verbs into the correct tense.
We were in Israel and we ________ (visit) this town called Acre. It __________ (be) boiling
all say and in the evening we ____________ (take) a walk along the old walls to look at the
view across the bay when suddenly we __________ (see) this incredible forked lightning. It
__________ (start) spitting and then just two seconds later, it started pouring doen. As we
_________ (not bring) an umbrella, we just _______ (run) to the nearest café we ______ (can)
find. It can’t have been more than a minute, but we got absolutely soaked. I must have emptied
like a litre of water out of my shoes.
C) In pairs, retell the first story from listening. Then listen again to check who
remembers all the details.

Ex. 4. Your are going to listen to six short conversations. As you listen, try to
answer these questions [4].
a) What kind of weather are the people talking about?
b) What kind of problems do they mention?
Listen to the conversations again and complete each sentence with TWO words.
1a. The pitch was ____________, so it was too muddy to play on.
1b. I could _____________ warming up a bit.
2a. I thought they said it __________________ to be nice and sunny today.
2b. _ ___________________ them having the reception in the garden if it stays like this.
3a. She just really _____________ the heat.
3b. ______________ that, though, it was amazing!
4a. They’ve put an announcement saying it’s ____________________.
4b. Anyway, listen, I’m almost ______________ money, so I’d better go.
5a. I was ____________________ a minor car crash.
5b.We went skidding off the road through all these bushes and we ______________ in the
field.
6a. No, it’s ____________________ at this time of year.
6b. You’ve made your point, Jurgen. There’s ______________ to rub it in!

Ex. 5. Listen to the coversations again, following the script given below. Underline the
phrases that are difficult for understanding because of phonemic features. Learn two
extracts by heart copying the pronunciation.
Conversation 1
A You’re back home early, love.

99
B. Yeah. I know. It was rained off. The pitch was completely waterlogged, so it was too
muddy to play on. It was like a mud bath! They’ve postponed it till near the end of the season.
A Oh well, never mind. Do you want a cup of tea?
B. Oh, yes please. Could do with warming up a bit.
Conversation 2
A I thought they said it was supposed to be nice and sunny today.
B: I know. It’s started spitting outside. It's going to bucket down any minute. I can’t see them
having the reception in the garden if it stays like this.
A Me neither. Do you think they'll have enough room if they have to move everything
indoors?
B: I don't know. We’ll have to wait and see, I guess.
Conversation 3
A: So how was Malaysia! Did you have a good time?
B: Yeah. it was amazing! Well, I enjoyed It anyway. I'm not sure my mum would want to go
there again, though.
A Oh no! How come?
B: She just really couldn’t handle the heat. I mean, it is a bit much,to be honest. When you first
get off the plane, it's like walking into a wall. You start sweating like a pig almost at once!
A Ugh! That doesn’t sound much fun.
B: No, I know. You have to wear really light clothes and shower every few hours or so. My
mum started getting a heat rash too, which was pretty much the final straw for her! Apart from
That, though, it was amazing!
Conversation 4
A Hello. Johnson Learning.
B: Oh hi, Stef. It's me, Richard. Listen, I'm stuck in Amsterdam. My flight’s been grounded.
It’s been blowing a gale for hours and they've just put out an announcement saying it's delayed
indefinitely, so could you let whoever was supposed to be picking me up from Heathrow
know. And I’ll all you when I hear more news, OK.
A 0K. Sorry!
B; Oh well,there's nothing you can do about it, is there! Anyway. listen, I'm almost out of
money, so I'd better go. See you. Bye.
Conversation 5
A What happened to your face?
B: Oh, nothing much, just a few cuts and bruises. I was involved in a minor car crash.
A You’re kidding? How did that happen?
B: I was coming back from up north last weekend. It'd been snowing for ages and then it
dropped to minus God knows what during the night and by morning all the roads were thick
with ice. Anyway, this cab driver came to pick us up and take us to the airport and I don’t
know if he’d been drinldng or not…
A It's always possible, up there!
B: Yeah, or if it was just because the roads were so slippery, but about five minutes after we
set of, we went skidding off the road and through all these bushes and ended up in this
field.We were lucky no-one was really hurt. We could've been killed!
Conversation 6
A. The 16.42 service to Oxford will be delayed for up to half an hour due to leaves on the line.
B: Oh, that's bloody typical!
C: Because of what was it? Did he say there was something on the line.’
B: Yeah, it'll be leaves on the line.
C; Leaves! From trees! You're joking. aren’t you?

100
B: No, it's not uncommon at this time of year. The leaves fall off the trees, land on the line and
then get turned into a kind of slimy mush, which makes the line really slippery. When the
driver tries to brake, the train just carries on! It’s really dangerous. And some leaves are worse
than others — so the joke among passengers if a train is late is — it must be the wrong leaves
again!
C: I've heard everything now! In Germany this would be impossible! Leaves on the line! You
know this could only happen here in England!
B: Listen, I'm not proud of it, OK!
C: Leaves on the line! Wait till I tell my friends back home! Nobody will believe me!
B: OK. OK.You’ve made your point. Jurgen.There's no need to rub it in! I never said it was
perfect here!

Ex. 6. Weather problems. Complete the sentences with the words in the box.
Blisters dropped power cut sunburnt
Bucketing down froze over snowed in
1. It was ____________ and all the parents drove their kids to school rather than letting
them walk, so the traffic was horrendous!
2. There was a blizzard and we got totally _________. We had to literally dig ourselves
out.
3. There was a huge storm and then there was a _______________. We didn’t have any
electricity for about three days!
4. It ____________ to about minus twenty and all the rivers ________________.
5. I’m not really used to hot weather and it was absolutely scorching, so I got really badly
__________. It was horrible. I came out in _________________ everywhere.
Now complete these sentences with the words from the box.
chaos foggy skidded tailback
downpour icy soaked visibility
1. There was so much black ice on the roads we actually ________________ right off at
one point. We were lucky no one was hurt.
2. It rained for about ten hours non-stop and then it all froze during the night, so it was
total __________ on the rods in the morning.
3. It was the middle of winter and the roads were really ______________ and there’d
been an accident, so there was a huge __________________ on the motorway.
4. The drive back from the coast was a nightmare! It was really ______________ and it
was night-time, so we had almost zero _______________.
5. I got ____________________ cycling in to work yesterday! It was nice and sunny
when I left my house, but then suddenly the skies opened and I got caught in this
__________.
Add some details to each sentence to make a short story.

Ex. 7. Write the correct words under the drawings below. Choose from those given in the
box below.

101
avalanche flood hurricane earthquake
drought forest fire volcanic eruption

Read the short text given and think of the possible consequences of the weather
conditions described [11].
FREAK STORMS DEVASTATE THE CITY
Yesterday freak weather conditions hit the south-west of England. Gale-force winds caused
a lot of damage to property. A number of buildings were destroyed, roofs were torn off and
fences were blown down. Several rivers burst their banks.

Ex. 8. Now try to work out which of the disasters the following people are talking about.
a. ‘It’s terrible! We haven’t had any rain now for over a year. The rivers are almost dry and if we
don’t get rain soon thousands of people are going to die.’
b. ‘Suddenly the ground started shaking. Next thing, a big gap appeared in the road and the
building opposite collapsed. I’ve never been so frightened in all my life.
c. ‘We’re very lucky to be alive! Two more hours and the whole village would have been
covered with hot lava. It’s a miracle we managed to get away in time. And to think that we
were taking photographs of the volcano just two days before, when everything was so calm
and peaceful.’
d. ‘It was our first visit to Florida and of course we’d heard about them before, but it’s only when
you’re there that you see just how strong the winds are and how much damage they can do.
My wife saw a whole roof being blown off and a car flying through the air. No, I think we’ll
stick to Spain next year – it’s safer.’
e. ‘The mountain looked all right and the snow seemed very firm when we were skiing. Then
suddenly it happened. It felt as if the whole mountain was moving. And the snow came down
so quickly. Thank God I’d decided to stop half an hour before it happened. Some others
staying at the hotel weren’t so lucky. They’re still trying to find them underneath all the
snow.’
f. ‘The river overflowed its banks. Well, it was bound to happen after so many weeks of rain.
There was water everywhere. We had to sit on our roof and wait for someone to rescue us. It
was pretty frightening, I can tell you, as the water was rising by a couple of inches every
hour.’
g. ‘My girlfriend and I were fishing by a lake when we first spotted it, or rather smelt it.
Fortunately, we had a car phone and were able to report it. But it still took a very long time to
put out, and nearly half the trees have been destroyed.’

Ex. 9. Study the table below and give Russian equivalents/English synonyms to the
expressions given.
Collocations with storm
Verb + storm Common expressions
Storms break Be badly damaged in a storm
Storms strike Be blown down/off in a storm
Storms destroy Be struck by lightning in a storm
Storms rage Be wrecked in a storm
Storms die down Be uprooted in a storm
Be caught in a storm
Sleep through a storm

102
Complete the sentences with the expressions from the box.
1. Hundreds of people were made homeless when severe storms __________ the east coast of
America.
2. A violent storm _____________ just as we reached the beach and we had to run for shelter.
3. A terrible storm _________ for two whole days. We couldn’t leave our hotel til it had
____________ down. It was terrifying!
4. The old church was completely ________ in the great storm of 1954.
5. We were caught _______ a heavy storm on the way home last night.
6. I don’t know how you managed to sleep __________ the thunderstorm.
Collocations with earthquake and flood
Verb + earthquake Flood + verb Flood + noun
adj. + earthquake
Predict an earthquake Floods cause damage Flood damage
Survive earthquake Floods cut the area off Flood victim
Withstand an earthquake Floods hit the area Flood warning
Set off an earthquake Floods sweep things away Flood waters recede
Earthquake hits Adj.+flood
Earthquake devastates Severe/devastating/
Earthquake shakes buildings catastrophic flood
Earthquake-prone region
To be prone to earthquake
Complete the sentences with the word from the box in the correct form.
1. Most buildings in Tokyo are designed to ____________ an earthquake. It is always the
older buildings that sustain the greater damage.
2. A major earthquake will probably __________ Los Angeles within the next 50 years.
3. In the future, scientists hope to become more accurate in ___________ earthquakes. But
persuading people to leave their homes is another matter.
4. A huge earthquake measuring 7.5 on the Richter Scale _________ the whole region. There
are only a few buildings left standing.
5. The earthquake __________ a lot of buildings in the area, but the tremors were not
powerful enough to cause any of them to collapse.
6. There are fears that slight tremors that we’ve experienced in recent months may _________
off a full-scale earthquake.
7. The floods have ______ off a number of villages in the area. Rescue teams are using boats
to get food and drinking water to the flood __________.
8. The region was ________ by a series of flash floods. There was no time to issue flood
warning and hundreds of people got drowned as a result.
9. Heavy flood have __________ away homes and roads in the area. Villagers have to wait till
the flood waters _________ before they can return back home.
10. These _______ floods have _________ widespread destruction. It’ll be months before the
flood damage is cleared up.
11. After the _________ flood, the government declared the state of emergency.
12. The western coast of America is _________ to earthquakes.

Ex. 10. Chose the most suitable words in bold type


1. Could you close the window? There’s a bit of a current/draught.
2. I’m soaked, I got caught in a downpour/torrent.
3. The match had to be cancelled because of the severe frost/freezing.
4. Last year this tree was struck by lightning/thunder/a storm.
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5. I like spring best, when the apple trees are in blooming/blossom/flowers.
6. When I want to relax, I go for a walk in the countryside/nature/outside.
7. In this part of the country, the earth/the land/the soil is quite expensive.
8. Suddenly we saw a ship appear on the atmosphere/horizon/sky. We were saved.
9. We got soaked to the skin in the torrential drizzle/downpour/snow.
10. The fields were flooded after the river burst its banks/edges/sides.
11. After the rain the street was full of floods/lakes/puddles.
12. I think it’s going to rain. It’s very clouding/clouded/cloudy.
13. The church caught fire when it was struck by hurricane/lightning/thunder.

Ex. 11. Pre-reading task. Discuss these questions with the partner: What is a natural
hazard? What natural hazards do you know? What causes them? Do you think people
can always predict them? Then read the text below and answer the questions after it.
NATURAL HAZARDS
Natural hazards are dangers arising from geological or weather-related occurrences, such
as earthquakes, volcanoes, floods, hurricanes, or tornadoes. The most familiar and publicized
hazards are those that take place without warning, often of catastrophic dimensions. The most
spectacular natural hazards are earthquakes and the eruption of volcanoes, both of which occur
on the crustal plate boundaries and are consequently characteristic of certain areas, in
particular the Pacific Rim.
Earthquake is shaking of the Earth’s surface caused by rapid movement of the Earth’s
rocky outer layer. Earthquakes occur when energy stored within the Earth, usually in the form
of strain in rocks, suddenly releases. This energy is transmitted to the surface of the Earth by
earthquake waves. Earthquakes can deform the ground, make buildings and other structures
collapse, and create tsunamis (large sea waves). Lives may be lost in the resulting destruction.
The intensity of an earthquake is measured on the Richter scale. Although there is no upper
limit to the Richter scale, earthquakes of magnitude 8 or greater are rare. Earthquakes can also
cause water in lakes and reservoirs to oscillate, or slosh back and forth. The water oscillations
are called seiches. Seiches can cause retaining walls and dams to collapse and lead to flooding
and damage downstream.
Tsunami is a Japanese word, meaning “harbor wave”. It is used as the scientific term for
seismic sea wave generated by an undersea earthquake or possibly an undersea landslide or
volcanic eruption. When the ocean floor is tilted or offset during an earthquake, a set of waves
is created similar to the concentric waves generated by an object dropped into the water. Most
tsunamis originate along the Ring of Fire, a zone of volcanoes and seismic activity that
encircles the Pacific Ocean. A tsunami can have wavelengths, or widths, of 100 to 200 km,
and may travel hundreds of kilometers across the deep ocean, reaching speeds of about 725 to
800 km/h. Tsunamis have tremendous energy because of the great volume of water affected.
They are capable of obliterating coastal settlements and can cause more death and damage
than ground shaking.
Volcano is a mountain or hill formed by the accumulation of materials erupted through
one or more openings (called volcanic vents) in the earth’s surface. Volcanic eruptions can
have massive effects on a global as well as local scale. Volcanic eruptions in populated
regions are a significant threat to people, property, and agriculture. The danger is mostly from
fast-moving, hot flows of explosively erupted materials, falling ash, and highly destructive
lava flows and volcanic debris flows. In addition, explosive eruptions, even from volcanoes in
unpopulated regions, can eject ash high into the atmosphere, creating drifting volcanic ash
clouds that pose a serious hazard to airplanes.

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Thunderstorm occurs whenever hot and humid air rises rapidly. Electrical charges
build up in the rising air as moisture condenses, clouds form, and rain begins to fall. When the
negative charges in the clouds make contact with the positive charges on the earth’s surface, a
streak of lightning flashes across the sky. Thunder, the shock waves caused by the lightning
bolt, rumbles after the flash. Lightning is one of nature’s most dangerous elements. Each
lightning bolt carries a powerful electric charge. When these charges touch people or
buildings, they can cause death and property damage.
Tropical hurricanes are the worst and most widespread natural hazard, causing damage
not only directly by wind action but also by flooding. Hurricanes are migratory tropical
cyclones that originate over oceans in certain regions near the equator, and particularly to
those arising in the West Indian region, including the Caribbean Sea and the Gulf of Mexico.
Hurricane-type cyclones in the western Pacific are known as typhoons. The strength of a
hurricane is rated from 1 to 5. The mildest, Category 1, has winds of at least 120 km/h. The
strongest (and rarest), Category 5, has winds that exceed 250 km/h. Once formed the storms
are circular, with “eyes” of very low pressure at their centers. The air in the eye usually
remains calm, but winds swirl around it at high speeds.
Tornadoes – rapidly rotating circular storms, extending from within a thundercloud
down to ground level, particularly prevalent in the United States – also cause substantial
damage. The strongest tornadoes may sweep houses from their foundations, destroy brick
buildings, toss cars and school buses through the air, and even lift railroad cars from their
tracks. Tornadoes vary in diameter from tens of meters to nearly 2 km. Most tornadoes in the
northern hemisphere create winds that blow counterclockwise around a center of extremely
low atmospheric pressure. In the southern hemisphere the winds generally blow clockwise.
Peak wind speeds can range from near 120 km/h to almost 500 km/h. The United States has
the highest average annual number of tornadoes in the world, about 800 per year.
When it rains or snows, some of the water is retained by the soil, some is absorbed by
vegetation, some evaporates, and the remainder, which reaches stream channels, is called
runoff. Floods occur when soil and vegetation cannot absorb all the water; water then runs off
the land in quantities that cannot be carried in stream channels or retained in natural ponds and
constructed reservoirs. Periodic floods occur naturally on many rivers, forming an area known
as the flood plain. These river floods often result from heavy rain, sometimes combined with
melting snow, which causes the rivers to overflow their banks; a flood that rises and falls
rapidly with little or no advance warning is called a flash flood. Flash floods usually result
from intense rainfall over a relatively small area. Coastal areas are occasionally flooded by
unusually high tides induced by severe winds over ocean surfaces, or by tsunamis. Floods not
only damage property and endanger the lives of humans and animals, but have other effects as
well. Rapid runoff causes soil erosion as well as sediment deposition problems downstream.
Spawning grounds for fish and other wildlife habitat are often destroyed.
The term drought is applied to a period in which an unusual scarcity of rain causes a
serious hydrological imbalance: water-supply reservoirs empty, wells dry up, and crop damage
ensues. The severity of the drought is gauged by the degree of moisture deficiency, its
duration, and the size of the area affected. If the drought is brief, it is known as a dry spell, or
partial drought. Droughts tend to be more severe in some areas than in others. Catastrophic
droughts generally occur at latitudes of about 15°-20°, in areas bordering the permanently arid
regions of the world.
Quite often droughts create conditions leading to wild-land fires. Wild-land fires occur
in undeveloped areas of land and are fueled by forest or grassland vegetation. The leading
causes of wild-land fires are lightning and human-caused ignitions, including those from
equipment exhaust, abandoned campfires, cigarettes, and arson. Such fires destroy forested

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areas as well as homes and property bordering these areas. Small-scale, periodic wild-land
fires can actually improve the health, resilience, and productivity of an ecosystem. When these
fires do not occur often enough, however, flammable vegetation can build up, leading to a
large-scale fire that harms plant and animal species.
Natural hazards characteristic of mountain areas are called avalanches and landslides.
Avalanche is a sudden flow of a large mass of snow or ice down a slope or cliff, sometimes at
speeds exceeding 160 km/h. Such flows can be destructive of life and property. Pelletlike
snow (graupnel) is also more prone to avalanche than a fall of ordinary snowflakes. Flows of
wind-packed slabs of snow can be especially hazardous. Avalanches are set off by a
combination of factors, including temperature, shearing of creeping snow masses, and sudden
vibrations, including loud noises. A landslide is a similar massive movement of rock and soil
down a mountain slope. Landslides may occur when water from rain and melting snow sinks
through the earth on top of a slope, seeps through cracks and pore spaces in underlying
sandstone, and encounters a layer of slippery material, such as shale or clay, inclined toward
the valley. Some great landslide masses move slowly and spasmodically for years, causing
little destruction. Earthquakes and volcanic eruptions can also cause severe, fast-moving
landslides.
Many natural hazards, such as earthquakes, volcanoes, and hurricanes are unavoidable,
but measures can be taken to minimize their impact. Thus buildings can be constructed to
withstand earthquakes, and techniques are being developed to predict their occurrence.
 Answer the questions:
1. What is a natural hazard? 2. Where do earthquakes and eruptions of volcanoes mostly
occur? 3. What is the origin of the word “tsunami”? What is a tsunami? 4. Why do volcanoes
represent a significant threat to people and property? 5. What is an ”eye” of the hurricane? In
what countries do tornadoes occur? 6. What causes floods? How can floods endanger people
and property? 7. What term is applied to a period of unusual scarcity of rain? 8. Where do
wild-land fires occur? 9. What are the possible causes of wild-land and forest fires? 10. What
is the difference between an avalanche and a landslide? 11. Where do the landslides mostly
occur? 12. Can we avoid natural hazards? 13. What measures can be taken to minimize the
impact of natural hazards? 14. What natural hazards have taken place in Russia recently? 15.
Have you ever been a witness of any natural hazard? If so, what natural hazard have you
witnessed? 16. What natural hazards is Russia prone to? 17. Which of them do you consider to
be the most devastating ones?

Ex. 12. The effects of disasters. Complete the short conversations with the words in the
boxes [4].
flash recede stranded submerged
A: So did all the flooding last year affect you?
S: Yes, it was awful. It was (1)_________ flooding, so the river went up 15, 16 feet overnight.
By the time we woke up, the ground floor was totally (2)_________ and everything was
ruined. We were (3) __________ upstairs and we just had to sit tight and wait for the waters to
(4)___________.
A: Really? That must have been awful!
control deliberately evacuated flames ground
A: So were your parents affected by all the forest fires?
B: Yeah, they were. Their village was (1)__________ and they had to go and stay with my
uncle for a few days until the firefighters got everything under (2)____________. The next
village along from them was pretty much burnt to the (3)__________ though. Everything just

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went up in (4) ____________. My mom was telling me they now think it might all have been
started (5) ___________.
A: Really? What kind of person would do that?
almighty fleeing sheer terrifying eruption lit up terrified tremors
A: So was the area you were staying in affected by the volcano?
S: Yeah, totally! It was (1)___________, it really was. Apparently, they’d been feeling
(2)___________ for s few weeks and then the night before the (3) _____________, all these
strange lights (4)__________ the night sky. The at around 5 in the morning, there was an
(5)__________bang – like a huge explosion – and all those enormous clouds of ash and smoke
started pouring out. People started (6)____________ their homes to escape the lava. There was
just (7) _________ panic everywhere!
A: God! You must’ve been absolutely (8)____________!

Ex. 13. You’re going to listen to Martin Ginert from Prague talking about the night the
River Vltava flooded. Mark the sentences T (true) or F (false) [15].
1. His office wasn’t at risk but his flat was.
2. He took his wife and child to his parents’ house.
3. He went back to the flat because he was excited by the situation.
4. Martin went to a place near his flat to watch the water level rising.
5. He looked out of the window and saw that his car park was starting to flood.
6. He was the last person to leave his block of flats.
7. All of the roads he tried were flooded now.
8. He decided to follow another car through the water.
9. Martin’s car broke down as he drove through the water.
10. All the flats in his building were seriously damaged.
What do you think you would do in Martin’s situation?

Ex. 14. In small groups talk about a time when you were somewhere when
 There was flood/downpour
 It was very foggy or there was bad smog
 It was unbearably cold
 It was pouring with rain for days on end
 There was a gale or a hurricane
 There was a terrible heatwave
 You were caught outside in a thunderstorm
What were you doing at the time? What did you do to protect yourself from the weather? How
did you feel?

Exam and essay topics


1. Natural disasters: causes and consequences
2. Extreme weather conditions

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Section 2. Vocabulary
1. WEATHER AND CLIMATE
1. awful weather 21. frosty w. 41. wretched w. 58. earth's
2. bad w. 22. glorious w. 42. windy w. climates:
3. beastly w. 23. humid w. 43. spell  equatorial
4. bright w. 24. intermittent w. 44. to brighten up /tropical (rain)
5. broken w. 25. jolly w. 45. to clear up zone
6. catch-cold w. 26. lovely w. 46. to be subject to  arid zones
7. chilly w. 27. marvelous w. changes  semiarid
8. clear w. 28. mild w. 47. to change for better climate
9. close w. 29. misty w. 48. to turn bad  desert zone
10. cool w. 30. moist w. 49. to grow  steppe zone
11. damp w. 31. muggy w. hot/warm/cold  temperate rain
12. disappointing w. 32. nasty w. 50. weather forecast zone
13. dismal w. 33. patchy w. 51. weather lore
 snow forest
14. dreary w. 34. raw w. 52. weather sign
climate
15. dry w. 35. soft w. 53. weatherman/
 polar climate
16. dull w. 36. stormy w. meteorologist
17. filthy w. 37. sultry-hot w. 54. weather chart/map  tundra climate
18. fine w. 38. sunny w. 55. dry climate  perpetual frost
19. foggy w. 39. variable w. 56. humid c. climate
20. fresh w. 40. unsettled w. 57. moderate
Some useful words and expressions
1. A change is coming in the weather 9. The air is stifling
2. We are in for a spell of good weather 10. It is suffocating
3. We are in for some rain (storm, frost, etc.) 11. I feel oppressed with the heat
4. The weather is improving 12. The heat is abating
5. The weather turns bad 13. The weather is subject to changes
6. It is unbearable hot 14. It brightens up
7. The weather is becoming sultry 15. It is getting/growing hot/warm/cold
8. The heat is oppressive 16. Indian summer
ATMOSPHERIC LIGHT
sunrise / dawn /sunup (Am) at dusk/in the dusk pitch dark
at the crack of the dawn twilight gloom
to break at twilight sunset/nightfall/sundown
a ray of light morning twilight (Am.)
to slant it’s growing dusk sunshine
dim dark sun tan
dusk to grow (get, become) dark
2. ATMOSPHERE
1. sky  overcast sky  layer clouds
 clear/cloudless sky  starlit sky  rain clouds
 fair sky 2. clouds  tatters of clouds
 partly cloudy sky  to be cast/overcast with  shred
 cloudy sky clouds  strand
 cloudless sky  thunderclouds 3. rainbow
 leaden sky  heap/woolpack clouds 4. warm front
 mackerel sky  cirrus clouds 5. cold front
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6. precipitation  to slacken  a gust/blast of wind
 precipitation of uniform  wind direction  a violent rush of w.
intensity  against the wind  a hurricane
 scattered precipitation  in the teeth of the wind  a squall
 precipitation area  before the wind  storm
7. weather chart  biting (keen, sharp) wind  tempest
8. atmospheric pressure  brisk/ fresh  tornado
9. low-pressure area  calm wind  whirlwind
10. cyclone  chilly wind  windy
11. depression
 cutting (piercing) w. 18. warm airstream (current)
12. high-pressure area
 dry w. 19. cold airstream (current)
13. anticyclone
14. meteorological watch  fair wind 20. draught
office  fitful wind 21. greenhouse effect
 off-shore wind 22. dust
15. weather station
 slight wind  dusty
16. temperature
 windswept  to cover with the dust
17. wind
  to raise the dust
 to blow a puff (breath) of w.
  the dust settled
 to swirl a breeze
  to lay the dust
 to die down/away a gale
Some useful expressions
Wind Sky
1. The wind is getting stronger 1. The sky has clouded
2. The wind howls 2. The sky is overcast with low, black clouds
3. The cold wind blew full in the face 3. The clouds are dispersing and the sun is
(directly in our teeth) appearing again
4. A cold biting wind almost swept me off my 4. The clouds have gone and the stars are
feet coming
5. There isn’t a breath of air 5. The clouds build up
6. A soft wind scarcely stirred the leaves 6. The clouds die away
7. The wind has abated 7. The sky is clean/clear
8. to be caught in the storm 8. It clears up
Shadow 9. The stars peeped out
to cast a shadow Heat
shade stuffy heat drought
temperature in the shade burning heat heatwave
oppressive (close, stifling, sultry) h.
3. TYPES OF PRECIPITATION
1. fog  swirling mist  raindrop  heavy/pouring/pelt
 dense (thick) fog  misty  to drip ing/driving/torrenti
 foggy  heavy mist  continuous r. al r.
 pea-soup fog  smog  abundant r.  intermittent r.
 haze  to mount/lift/clear  acid rain  lasting r.
 hazy away  drizzling rain  light/slight rain
 in a haze  to steam up  electrical storm  moderate r.
 brume 2. rain  fine/small rain  occasional rains
 mist  rainy  glazed rain  passing rain
 rainwater  quiet/slight rain
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 patchy r.  thunderbolt  powdery s. 7. hail, to hail
 slanting r.  to rumble  tapioca s.  to mingle with hail
 steady r.  pool  untrodden snow  shower of hail
 widespread r.  puddle  violent drift s. 8. ice
 rainfall  mud  water s.  icicle
 heavy rainfall  muddy  wild s.  ice drift/ ice
 excessive rainfall  splashes of mud  snowflakes floating
 downpour  mire  snowdrift  ice cake/ piece of
 drench  miry  (mixed) rain and ice
 drizzle, to drizzle  rain curtain snow  icing/ice accretion
 rainstorm  a veil of rain  blizzard  ice floe
 shower  stream  snowbound  icebound
 thunderstorm  to stream  snowcapped  to melt
 torrents (n., pl)  rainbow  snowdrift  Ice Age
 to fall  rainmaking/  snow creep 9. dew
 to slacken rainmaker  snow slide  to bedew
 to pour  rainless  snowball  morning dew
 lightning/flash  rainless storm  snowman  evening d.
 flash of lightning 3. sleet; to sleet  snow-broth  light d.
 to smite (smote, 4. slush  thaw/snow-break  heavy d.
smitten)  slushy  snowstorm  white d.
 to be seared with 5. snow, to snow  snowless  yesterday night d.
the flash  snowfall/ snowing  to melt  dewy
 to flicker  new-fallen snow  to thaw
 thunder, to thunder  sand s. 6. ice pellets (soft
 roll of thunder  spring s. hail)
Some useful expressions
1. to get under the rain 20. I’ve got a good ducking, I’m wet to the
2. to be soaked to the skin/wet bone
3. to stay out in the rain 21. We haven’t had a drop of rain ever since
4. to get out of the rain last month
5. It looks (feels) like rain 22. to be caught in a storm
6. These clouds omen rain 23. It lightens
7. It keeps on raining 24. There is a thunderstorm hanging about
8. It’s raining cats and dogs 25. It sounds like thunder
9. It’s coming down in sheets 26. A flash of lightning lit the sky
10. It’s raining pitchforks 27. Peals of thunder were heard
11. It’s beastly wet 28. Dazzling flashes of lightning were
12. It rained now and then followed by a clap of thunder
13. It’s leaving off 29. It looks like snow
14. It will clear up 30. The snow is falling thick
15. I was caught in the rain 31. We had a heavy fall of snow (snowfall)
16. A drizzling piercing rain continued all yesterday
day 32. The snow is just sprinkling
17. The rain has laid down the dust a little 33. It’s a rather snowy winter
18. I’m simply soaked through (drenched) 34. Last year we had a green winter
19. I haven’t a dry stitch on 35. Snow-drifts surrounded us from all sides

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36. to play snowballs/to have а snowball fight
Frost
1. to frost 16. ringing frost 30. The cold searched my
2. to freeze 17. slight frost marrow (I am chilled to the
3. frosty 18. to get cold marrow/bone)
4. black frost 19. to get stiff/numb with cold 31. There’s been a drop in the
5. white frost 20. to have a frost-bitten nose temperature
6. early frost 21. to frostbite 32. The air is stingingly cold
7. hard/sharp/bitter frost 22. frost bitten 33. There is a nip in the air
8. frost mist 23. frost bite 34. The air has a sting in it
9. hoarfrost/ frost dew 24. It’s perishing cold 35. We had a cold snap
10. 9 degrees of frost 25. It’s below freezing point yesterday
11. frost bound 26. It’s a sharp (ringing) frost 36. It’s freezing hard today
12. frostproof/frost-resistant 27. The frost breaks 37. I’m chilled to the bone
13. frost work/ice feathers 28. The air is frosty 38. like the bolt from the blue
14. glazed frost/ice frost 29. My hands are numb with 39. rain or shine
15. ground frost cold 40. It’s important as snow
4. Natural Disasters
1. avalanche 8. hurricane
2. blizzard 9. mudslide
3. cyclone 10. tsunami (tidal waves)
4. drought 11. tornadoes
5. earthquake 12. volcanic eruption
6. flood 13. whirlwind
7. forest fire 14. waterspout

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Section 3
STUDENT’S LIFE
MОDULE 1
DAILY ROUTINE
Ex. 1. Introductory reading. Read
the following text and answer the
questions below [9].
I'm in the first year at the
university, where I'm studying
English. My elder sister, Betty, is
studying history at the same
university. Betty can organise her
time wisely, whereas I do not know
what order I should do things in. I find
it hard to get up on time, and usually I
do not get enough sleep. I have to
wind two alarm-clocks to make sure I
do not oversleep. My sister, an early
riser, is awake by 7 o'clock,
refreshed and full of energy. While
I'm wandering round the kitchen,
fighting the urge to go back to bed, my
sister manages to have a quick
shower, make her bed, put on make-
up, do her hair, eat a full breakfast
and set off to the university. It takes
me an hour and a half to get ready. I
have a hasty bite and rush out of the
house. Even if I catch a bus at once I
still arrive at the university 15 minutes late, which always makes me feel guilty. My studies
keep me busy all day long. I have 14 hours of English a week. I also have lectures and
seminars. At lunchtime I meet up with my sister and we have a snack at the university cafe.
After classes I make myself go to the library where I spend about six hours a week reading
for my seminars. My sister and I come home tired. I always find excuses to put my
homework off. Unlike me, my sister manages to do the housework and get down to
homework. I like the idea of going to bed early, but quite often I have to sit up late,
brushing up on my grammar and vocabulary, though I feel sleepy. My sister says that
keeping late hours ruins one's health. Of course, I agree. As my sister and I do not get any
time off during the week, we try to relax on the weekends. One of my greatest pleasures is to
lie in bed and read my favourite books. My sister is a sporty person. To keep fit, Betty goes
for a run in the park; from time to time she works out in the gym. I hate staying in, and
sometimes on Saturday night my sister takes me out to a concert or a play. Sometimes we
go to a party or to a disco. But more often than not I end up catching up on my studies and
my sister goes out. I wonder how I manage to spoil my leisure time. Every Monday when I
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wake up I think I should start a new life. I honestly think that I must become well-organized
and correct my daily routine. I make plans to go to keep-fit classes, to do shopping with my
sister, to do the cleaning and to do a hundred other good things. But then I remember that I
have to call on my school friend in the evening, and I put off my plans till next Monday. It is
always better to start a new life in a week.
1. What is your usual day like? Is it very different from this girl's day?
2. What takes up most of your day?

Ex. 2. Tick the points below which you feel describe you and then talk about yourself
using adverbs of frequency.
clumsy, keep having accidents have a regular sleep pattern
feel dog tired in the evening have meals at the same time every day
get ill more often than other people skip breakfast
suffer from insomnia have sedentary lifestyle
have active lifestyle do morning exercises

Ex. 3. Is it important to have a standard daily routine? Why/why not? Read the text
below to find out [5].
’Routine’ is usually seen as a negative term nowadays, largely because we no
longer belong to a society of nine–to–fivers. We live in a world that is fast becoming a
24-hour society, where everything is open all hours. You can buy groceries at midnight,
book your holiday on the Internet at 3am, and do business online at the crack of dawn.
Before you join the 24-hour revolution, however, take a minute to listen to what your
body is trying to tell you – that a round-the-clock lifestyle is not what nature
intended.
In an area in our brains called hypothalamus, we have a ’body clock’ that controls
our body’s natural rhythms. It tells us when it’s the right time to work, sleep, play, eat.
It plays an important part in our physical and psychological well-being. It is, in fact,
what makes us tick and it controls many things including our hormones, temperature,
immune functions and alertness. It synchronizes all these like a conductor with an
orchestra; it regulates tempo and brings in all the different instruments on time to make
music rather than a random noise. If we try to ignore our body clocks, or even to switch
them off for a while, we not only deprive ourselves of much needed rest but we also
run the risk of seriously damaging our health.
Ignoring your body clock and changing your body’s natural rhythms can not
only make you depressed, anxious and accident prone, it can lead to much more serious
health problems. For example, heart disease, fatigue, ulcers, muscular pain, and
frequent viral infections can all result from trying to outsmart our body clocks.
Altering our patterns of sleeping and walking dramatically affects our immune system.
While we sleep the body’s repair mechanism are at work; when we are awake natural
killer cells circulate around our bodies and cause more damage. Our digestive system is
affected, too – high levels of glucose and fat remain in our bloodstream for longer periods
on time and this can lead to heart disease.
Unfortunately, we were not designed to be members of a 24-hour society. We
can't ignore millions of years of evolution and stay up all night and sleep all day. We
function best with a regular pattern of sleep and wakefulness that is in tune with our
natural environment. Nature’s cues are what keep our body clocks ticking rhythmically

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and everything is working in harmony. So, next time you think a daily routine is boring
and predictable, remember that routine may well save your life in the long run.
1. What does it in line 9 refer to?
1. our body’s natural rhythms
2. the hypothalamus
3. our body’s biological clock
4. our brain
2. What does the word tick in line 11 mean?
1. check
2. motivate
3. select
4. function
3. In what way is our body clock like the conductor of an orchestra?
1. The hypothalamus controls our actions.
2. It makes all the body’s functions work together at the right time.
3. The body clock is very precise.
4. We have a special programme.
4. If we change our sleep patterns, we
1. will get an infection.
2. will disturb our immune system.
3. will get heart disease.
4. get high level of dangerous cells.
5. According to the text, we should
1. do things when our body clock tells us to.
2. organize our body clock according to a strict schedule.
3. use the natural environment to work out a regular routine.
4. have a boring, slow-paced lifestyle.
6. According to the text, our body clock
1. can be changed without harm.
2. determines when we should do things..
3. helps us to fight sleep.
4. is a boring routine.
7. The author recommends to
1. go shopping at midnight.
2. work on the Internet at 3 am
3. do business online at dawn
4. listen to your body needs
8. Why is it important to have a standard daily routine?
1. It helps us to live in harmony with our natural environment.
2. It helps to better organize our life.
3. It helps to have regular sleep pattern.
4. It will help us to return to the society of nine-to-fivers.
9. What does the phrase round-the-clock lifestyle mean? (line 7)
1. altering our patterns of waking and sleeping
2. strict daily routine
3. predictable behaviour
4. life in accordance with our body clock
10. What is the best equivalent for the phrase the 24 hour revolution? (line 5)

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1. fast evolution
2. staying up all night
3. round-the clock lifestyle
4. switching off our body clock

Ex. 4. Explain the meaning of the words and expressions marked in the text.
Check dictionary, if necessary. Make up a dialogue between a doctor and a
patient about the healthy daily routine using the expressions from the text.

Ex. 5. Daily Routines Vocabulary


Directions: Match the columns. Write the letters on the lines (several options are possible)
1. _____ get a. asleep
2. _____ take a c. breakfast
3. _____ eat b. bills
4. _____ set the d. cat
5. _____ wash the e. clothes
6. _____ go to f. coffee
7. _____ take out the g. dishes
8. _____ sweep the h. door
9. _____ wake i. dressed
10. _____ feed the j. floor
11. _____ drink k. mail
12. _____ iron your l. shopping list
13. _____ watch m. shower
14. _____ set the n. table
15. _____ close the p. teeth
16. _____ brush your o. table
17. _____ pay the q. trash
18. _____ open the r. TV
19. _____ write a s. up
20. _____ fall t. work

Ex. 6. A) Listen to different people talking about their typical mornings. Answer the
questions.
1) How does Akane (speaker 1) make her breakfast?
a) on the stove b) in a toaster
2) What does Martin (speaker 2) do first in the morning?
a) Reads the news b) Eats breakfast
3) What does Naomi (speaker 3) do after breakfast?
a) Drinks coffee b) Prepares lessons
4) What does Jeyong (speaker 4) do last?
a) Dry his hair b) Eat something
5) Why does Mark (speaker 5) wake up early on the weekend?
a) He has to work. b) He wants to enjoy his day off
6) What are Jeannie's (speaker 6) mornings like?
a) Relaxed b) Rushed
7) What do most people do in the morning?
a) exercise b) have breafast
c) clean the house d) take a shower
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B) Learn vocabulary from the listening
Flip over - I fry my toast on one side and then flip it over.
When we 'flip something' it means we turn it over quickly. You usually flip
food when it is cooking. Notice the following:
1. Flip the burger before it burns!
2. When I cooked my first egg, I was afraid to flip it over.
Like everybody else - I take a shower like everybody else.
We use the phrase 'like everybody else' to talk about things that most people do the same
way. Notice the following:
1. I hate homework like everybody else.
2. Like everybody else, I'd like to get a good job after graduation.
To be off to (work) - I eat breakfast and then off to work I go.
'Off to' a place is simply an idiom that means to go somewhere. Notice the
following:
1. After school, I'm off to the gym.
2. Dad's off to work by 7:30 every morning.
On my way out the door - I grab a quick breakfast on my way out the door.
When you are 'on your way out the door' it means that you are leaving a place.
This means that Mark doesn't sit down and have a leisurely breakfast, instead
he either takes it and eats it while he is traveling or he eats it very quickly
before leaving. Notice the following:
1. I'm on my way out the door so I'll call you later.
2. Don't forget to turn off the lights on your way out the door.
To squeeze - My day usually involves squeezing too many things into little time.
Here, 'squeeze' means to do something when we have very little time. When you squeeze
something into your schedule it usually means that you give it less time than it
deserves. Notice the following:
1. Busy people need to squeeze in some exercise every day.
2. My schedule is full, but I'll try to squeeze you in this afternoon.
C) Listen again and fill in the gaps.
Akane, Canada
What is a typical morning for you? A typical morning for me ________ getting up with the
_____ clock, __________ the news, taking a shower, and I make toast every day, but I don't
have a toaster so I have to toast my toast on the frying pan and then flip it over to the other
side and then I put margarin on it and a ____ of cheese and I have that with a cup of tea every
morning.
Martin, United States
A typical morning for me is generally getting up, turning on the computer and reading the
news. After that I take a shower like everybody else, _____, and then have to have my coffee
and my _______, and then maybe a quick 5, 10 minute _______ and off to work I go.
Naomi, Australia
Usually in the morning, I'll wake up at about _____ and I'll put the ______ on and make
myself a cup of coffee. Often also, I'll toast myself some bread with butter and Veggiemite.
After this, after breakfast, I will _____ my teeth and get ready for classes.
Jeyong, South Korea
A typical morning for me would be getting up at 7 o'clock in the morning. ______ the window
and go to the bathroom, take a shower, get my hair _____, put my clothes on and have
breakfast. That ______ be a typical morning for me.
Mark, United States

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A typical morning for me? I guess like anyone else, I wake up. I usually don't eat breakfast
_______, but I get a shower and ______ for work and usually ______ a quick breakfast on my
way out the door. That's typical morning on the week. On the weekend, I used to ______ but
actually these day, I like to get up earlier on the weekend, than during the week because I feel
that's my one ______ day, so I get up pretty early and usually go to do something on that
Saturday or Sunday.
Jeanie, United States
OK, a typical morning for me is pretty ______. It usually involves squeezing too many things
in too little time. Ah, usually I wake up and I go ______. After which, I have to take a shower
and prepare myself for classes I'll be teaching, not just for one day, but mostly for the whole
week, _______ things that have gone wrong, and things that can maybe be improved.
[Adapted from: http://www.elllo.org/english/Mixer001/T025-MorningRoutine.htm]

Ex. 7. Choose the correct word and then write a similar short paragraph about your
morning:
"My typical morning starts quite early, because I don 't like getting / making ready in a hurry.
My alarm clock sounds / goes off at 6.30, then I get out of bed / from my bed and walk / go
downstairs in my dressing gown. I do / make a cup of tea and have / eat some breakfast. Then
I have / use a shower and clean / wash my teeth. Then I get clothed / dressed, order / comb
my hair and wear / put on my make-up. Then I do / make the bed and do / make the washing
up. If I've got time, I sometimes control / check my email and look at / watch the front page
of the newspaper. I never see / watch TV in the morning. I usually leave / depart the house by
8.15."

Ex. 8. A) Listen to Elli comparing life-styles in England and Japan. Are they similar or
different? Note the things that Elli finds hard to put up with. Listen again and answer
the questions.
Answer the following questions about the interview.
1) In England, where would she eat breakfast?
a) At home b) In a café c) At work
2) Where did she do a lot of walking?
a) England b) Japan c) Both
3) Where does she live in Japan?
a) City center b) The suburbs c) The countryside
4) How is her routine here different?
a) She gets up early. b) She has a job. c) She studies all the time.
5) How are the trains in London different than the trains in Japan?
a) They are cleaner. b) They run on time. c) They are less crowded.
B) Learn Vocabulary from the listening
Scooter - I'd get on my scooter to do it.
A 'scooter' is a type of motorbike that is not very powerful and can be electric or use
petrol. Notice the following:
1. Having a scooter is very handy as it means I can park just about anywhere.
2. I can't carry many groceries when I am on my scooter.
Hassle - Walking anywhere would be just a massive hassle.
When something is a 'hassle' it means that it is a problem, difficult or frustrating. Notice the
following:
1. Please do not hassle me I am trying to concentrate on my work.
2. Traffic jams are a real hassle.

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To walk one’s feet into the ground - When I first arrived, I walked my feet into the ground.
'Walking your feet into the ground' means that you have walked a very long way and you are
feeling tired. Notice the following:
1. On my first day at work I walked my feet into the ground.
2. When she takes me shopping she always walks my feet into the ground.
Bed towns - We all live out sort of in the suburbs in what we call bed towns.
'Bed towns' are areas of a city where people who work long hours live and they are only at
home to sleep. Notice the following:
1. I do not want to only go home to sleep and live in a bed town.
2. A lot of student doctors live in bed towns.
Like sardines - It's a pretty shocking experience for me, especially the hour of commuting on
the train where you're kept in like sardines.
When a lot of people are packed into a small space they are referred to as being 'like
sardines.' Notice the following:
1. We were all squeezed on to that train like sardines.
2. Airlines have so many people on planes nowadays that I feel like a sardine.
[Adapted from: http://www.elllo.org/english/0301/344-Eli-Japan.htm]

Ex. 9. Imagine that one of you have moved to Rostov from another town/city. Compare
the lifestyle and your new daily routine. Make up a dialogue on the topic.

Ex. 10. 6 minute English – Workaholics.


Warm-up: In the UK, how many hours are in the standard working week? Is it:
a) 20 b) 40 c) 60
Find out what the correct answer is at the end of the programme!
A) Listen once and choose the best option:
1. People who work too much are called:
a. workaholics b. clock watches c. work addicted
2. If your work-life balance is OK, you get:
a. not enough time for relaxing b. enough technology in your life c. enough time for your
family
3. A “secondary issue” is:
a. a by-way to get out of work addiction b. something not as important as other things c.
tiredness
4. The “norm” is:
a. standard behaviour b. working 20 hours a day c. working late
5. “Burn out” is:
a. Being fired b. long-term exhaustion c. emotional problems
6. Bogged down means:
a. you have too much work b. you are not free to move c. you are creative
B) Listen for the second time: are these statements true or false? Justify your answers.
1. Everybody follows the same patterns at work.
2. Jackie is probably in danger of becoming addicted to work.
3. Having a mobile phone allows you to work from home.
4. The former workaholic we hear says that he didn’t get enough sleep or food.
5. His boss thought it was OK to be exhausted at work.
6. Soldiers and city workers are not likely to become workaholics.
7. Frustration, anxiety and guilt are three terrible feelings experienced by workaholics.
8. Workaholism is good for productivity.

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9. People who get holiday from time to time will be more productive.
10. Working 40 hours leaves you enough time for relaxing.
[6 minutes English: www.bbc.co.uk]
Ex. 11. Who works in your family? Do you think these people are workaholics or do they
have the right work-life balance? Do the survey – ask these questions to working
members of your family and report to the class.
1. Do you get more excited about your work than about family or anything else?
2. Are there times when you can charge through your work and other times when you can't?
3. Do you take work with you to bed? On weekends? On vacation?
4. Is work the activity you like to do best and talk about most?
5. Do you work more than 40 hours a week?
6. Do you turn your hobbies into money-making ventures?
7. Do you take complete responsibility for the outcome of your work efforts?
8. Have your family or friends given up expecting you on time?
9. Do you take on extra work because you are concerned that it won't otherwise get done?
10. Do you underestimate how long a project will take and then rush to complete it?
11. Do you believe that it is okay to work long hours if you love what you are doing?
12. Do you get impatient with people who have other priorities besides work?
13. Are you afraid that if you don't work hard you will lose your job or be a failure?
14. Is the future a constant worry for you even when things are going very well?
15. Do you do things energetically and competitively including play?
16. Do you get irritated when people ask you to stop doing your work in order to do something
else?
17. Have your long hours hurt your family or other relationships?
18. Do you think about your work while driving, falling asleep or when others are talking?
19. Do you work or read during meals?
20. Do you believe that more money will solve the other problems in your life?
If you answer "yes" to three or more of these questions you may be a workaholic. Relax. You
are not alone.

Ex. 12. Pre-view. A) Read the title of the article. What do you think it is about? Skim to
find out.
WORKAHOLICS KISS GOODNIGHT TO SLEEP

B) Read the article below about workaholism and sleep deprivation. How are these issue
connected? Do you think it is a serious problem for the contemporary society? Why/why
not?

The growing trend of UK employees working from their beds


is playing havoc with their sleeping patterns, research
suggests. The pressures of 24-seven society are forcing
many individuals to squeeze more working time out of their
day from the comfort of their bedrooms. Hard-pressed staff
are often surviving on less than the recommended eight hours sleep a night, as a
result.

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One in six people taking part in the DuPont survey admitted The brain has to
they catch up on work in bed and a third said they make work- process a lot of
related phone calls from under the duvet. Others use their laptops and information, and it's
send e-mails from the bedroom. More than a third of British residents likely that it simply
are sleeping six hours or less each night - losing a month's sleep every can't do this
year. One in 10 manage five hours sleep or less each night - missing continuously
about six weeks of sleep a year. Specialists say changing sleep cycles
can damage people's health. Research suggests that sleep deprivation Dr Derkjan Dijk,
doubles the risk of a heart attack. Dr Derk-jan Dijk, a sleep researcher University of Surrey
from the University of Surrey at Guildford, told BBC News Online that, even for a young
person, on average, six hours a sleep a night was not enough. Even among those who believed
they could cope on this amount or less, he said, research had suggested that they were still
suffering from the effects of sleep deprivation. He said: "Whereas after a few days of
sleeping these hours, the sleepiness wears off, performance continues to decline. "The brain
has to process a lot of information, and it's likely that it simply can't do this continuously."
Don't get wound up
Dr Peter Venn, director of the Sleep Studies Unit at Queen Victoria If you go to bed
Hospital in Sussex, told the BBC: "There is certainly data that has with a whirring
shown that if you don't get adequate sleep there are consequences for brain, your brain
health in later life. "It is not just the time you are in bed for that will continue to
matters, it is the quality of sleep. Even if you are sleeping alone if you whirr afterwards
have snoring and breathing difficulties you can disrupt your own
sleep." Dr Peter Venn
Dr Venn said it was important to prepare for sleep properly. "We all go and watch
Jeremy Paxman on Newsnight and get very wound up about things, and then we go to bed
and expect to switch off and go to sleep. But life isn't life that, if you go to bed with a whirring
brain, your brain will continue to whirr afterwards." He said hot milky drinks acted as a
sedative. Sleeping alone was best, but if you slept with a partner, it was best to use separate
duvets to minimise the disturbance created by the other person's movement.
[Adapted from: bbc.co.uk]
C) Retell the article using the expressions in bold.

Ex. 13. You are going to read an article about the way teenagers sleep. Six sentences have
been removed from the article. Choose from the sentences A-G the one which
fits each gap (1-6). There is one extra sentence which you do not need to use
[23].
Understanding teenagers' sleeping habits
As we enter adolescence our sleeping patterns change drastically. It is a phase of our lives
when we seem to be able to go into the deepest sleep and not move for hours on end.
As any parent knows, rousing a sleeping adolescent can be, to put it mildly, difficult. Grumpy
and uncommunicative until later in the day, it can be just as much of a struggle to get a teen to
go to bed at night, what with homework, instant messaging, email and general late-night
wakefulness. 1___ So should we be concerned about this antisocial rite of passage? Or is there
something more to an adolescent's sleep habits? Relax. There is good news. Landmark studies
into the adolescent brain have revealed that a teen's biorhythms are in fact just what nature
intended. 2 ____ As one adolescent health care specialist comments, most parents will be
familiar with the situation where the kid who used to jump out of bed now has to be dragged
out just to get on school on time'. Importantly, it's not just a teen's shoe size that's getting
bigger. 3___ While it has been well documented that 95% of brain development takes place by

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the age of five years, research indicates that there is a second wave of brain growth, which
continues into the teen years and even into the 20s. During this time, new brain cells and
neural connections or 'wires', which connect the right and left sides of the brain and are critical
to intelligence, self-awareness and performance, grow like branches on a tree during the latter
stages of sleep. 4___ In other words, if you want to function really well, the best thing to do it
is to get a good night's sleep. Experts say that the average amount of sleep needed by teens is
9.5 hours. However, the reality of a typical teen life - early morning sports practice, homework
and perhaps a part-time job after school - means that most are lucky to get 7.5 hours. 5____
Yet since there is a good deal of variation in the amount of sleep individuals need for optimum
performance, how do you tell if a teen is getting enough sleep to live up to his or her learning
potential? Dr RogerTonkin, an adolescent health care specialist, suggests that while some
teens seem to be able to cope with chronic sleep deprivation, others become irritable and
apathetic. The treatment? Let him or her sleep whenever they can, including the weekends. 'If
a teen wants to sleep until noon on Saturday,' advises Dr Tonkin, 'let him.' 6___ If you study
something on Tuesday and are short of sleep until Saturday, it's too late. You've got to get that
sleep the same night.
A His or her brain is also developing rapidly at this stage.
B But according to the report, this doesn't mean that it is normal for teenagers not to get
enough sleep.
C The result is that, at the weekend, the door to their bedroom remains shut until noon — or
even later — while everyone else in the family, up for hours, goes about their business
D Cut these short and performance is likely to suffer the next day. However, catching up on
sleep at the weekend, while perfectly normal for most teens, may not help learning.
F According to new research, daytime sleepiness and late night alertness are the result of a
change in the sleep/ wake cycle as growth hormones start to work.
G This mismatch is important because lack of sleep can affect mood and make it difficult for a
teen to perform or even react appropriately.

Ex. 14. Are you a lark or an owl?


Early birds and night owls
Do you bounce out of bed before your alarm
clock goes off each morning feeling bright and
breezy? Or do you despise it with a passion,
feel groggy in the morning and take several
hours to adjust to the day? What time of the
day are you at your sharpest and when do you
feel at your lowest ebb? If you’re on the way
to a night party, do you have a sense of dread
or have a spring or bounce in your step?
Scientists are coming to believe that your genes may determine whether you're a lark or a
night-owl by nature. And that can have a profound effect on how you cope with things like
shift-work.
Take our test to find out:
1) Breakfast: how's your appetite in the first half hour after you wake up in the morning?
a) Very poor [ 1 ] b) Fairly poor [ 2 ] c) Fairly good [ 3 ] d) Very good [ 4 ]
2) For the first half hour after you wake up in the morning, how do you feel?
a) Very tired [ 1 ] b) Fairly tired [ 2 ] c) Fairly refreshed [ 3 ] d) Very refreshed [ 4 ]

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3) When you have no commitments the next day, at what time do you go to bed compared to
your usual bedtime?
a) Seldom or never later [ 4 ] b) Less than one hour later [ 3 ]
c) 1-2 hours later [ 2 ] d) More than 2 hours later [ 1 ]
4) You are starting a new fitness regime. A friend suggests joining his fitness class between
7am and 8am. How do you think you'd perform?
a) Would be on good form [ 4 ] b) Would be on reasonable form [ 3 ]
c) Would find it difficult [ 2 ] d) Would find it very difficult [ 1 ]
5) At what time in the evening do you feel tired and in need of sleep?
a) 8pm - 9pm [ 5 ] b) 9pm - 10.15pm [ 4 ]
c) 10.15pm - 12.45am [ 3 ] d) 12.45am - 2am [ 2 ]
e) 2am - 3am [ 1]
6) If you went to bed at 11pm, how tired would you be?
a) Not at all tired [ 0 ] b) A little tired [ 2 ]
c) Fairly tired [ 3 ] d) Very tired [ 5 ]
7) One night you have to remain awake between 4am and 6am. You have no commitments the
next day. Which suits you best:
a) Not to go to bed until 6am [ 1 ]
b) Nap before 4am and sleep after 6am [ 2 ]
c) Sleep before 4am and nap after 6am [ 3 ]
d) Sleep before 4 am and remain awake after 6am [ 4 ]
8) Suppose that you can choose your own work hours, but
had to work five hours in the day. When would you like to
START your working day?
a) Midnight to 5am [1] b) 3am to 8am [5]
c) 8 am - 10am [4] d) 10am - 2pm [3]
e) 2pm - 4pm [2] f) 4pm - midnight [1]
9) At what time of day do you feel your best?
a) Midnight - 5am [1] b) 5am -9am [ 5 ]
c) 9am -11am [ 4 ] d) 11am -17 [3]
e) 5pm-10pm [2] f) 10pm - midnight [1]
10) Do you think of yourself as a morning or evening person?
a) Morning type [ 6 ] b) More morning than evening [ 4 ]
c) More evening than morning [2] d) Evening type [ 0 ]
Scoring
Add up the points you scored for each answer (they're in the square brackets).
The maximum score for these questions is 46. The minimum is eight.
The higher your score, the more of a morning person you are.
The lower the score, the more you're a night owl.
How you can find out more
[This questionnaire was adapted from the Horne-Ostberg questionnaire, devised by Professor
Jim Horne of Loughborough University]

Ex. 15. What do you think people might say about why they like or dislike
being a lark or an owl? Work in pairs and out down your ideas.
Listen to the BBC radio programme. Were any of your ideas mentioned? Who
made statement 1-8 – a lark or an owl? Listen again and check [16].
1. It is just so peaceful and so beautiful.
2. I stay there till the absolute last second.

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3. I do look at other people walking their dogs, or walking along with the bounce
in their step and I just think “Where does it come from?”
4. You’ve wasted the best part of your day.
5. It’s just quite a nice feeling of being awake and nobody else is there.
6. That’s when I’m really thinking straight.
7. Anybody mentions party to me and I cringe.
8. David and I always jokes before we had children that it would be great because
he would be great in the morning and I would be great in the evening.

Ex. 16. Choose the correct option [5].


An early bird or a night owl?
Owl are nocturnal creatures. They’re wide 0) awake at night and they sleep during the day. If
this 1) _______ like bliss to you, then, like about 20 percent of the population 2)__________
find themselves most active at around 9 pm, you may fall into the same category 3) _______
our feathered friend. Night owls often have difficulty waking up in the morning, and like to be
up late at night. 4)_______ of animal behavior indicate that being a night owl may actually be
5)___________ into some people’s genes. This would explain 6)____________ those late-to-
bed, late-to-rise people find it so difficult to change their behavior. The trouble for night owls
is that they just 7) _________ to be at places such as work or school for 8)_________ early.
This is when the alarm clock becomes the night owl’s most important survival tool. Experts 9)
_________ that one way for a night owl to beat their dependence 10) ______ their alarm
clocks is to sleep with the curtains open. The theory is that if they do so, the morning sunlight
will awaken them gently and naturally. The 11)_________ is that, unlike the weathered owl,
human owls cannot claim that a nocturnal existence is their 12)_________ lifestyle. They are
programmed to be at their best 13)___________ the day. 14)_________ if we try to change
our schedules and work at night, Mother Nature isn’t fooled. Night is still the time when our
body 15)______ down. Night owls simply start and finish a little later than average.
0 A aware B wakeful C awake D alert
1 A sounds B hears C listens D looks
2 A when B whose C which D who
3 A like B as C with D for
4 A research B examinations C enquiries D studies
5 A constructed B built C erected D made
6 A why B when C how D where
7 A ought B have C must D should
8 A too B enough C from D away
9 A tell B speak C inform D say
10 A in B on C to D for
11 A truth B honesty C real D reason
12 A usual B expected C ordinary D natural
13 A while B throughout C through D during
14 A also B even C yet D as
15 A slows B moves C goes D falls

Ex. 17. Study the idioms in the box about sleep. Can they be used to describe your
lifestyle? Discuss with the partner.
Idiom Example Definition
To burn the midnight Try not to burn the midnight oil the Work or study until late at

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oil night before exam. It’s best to get an night
early night.
To sleep on it Don’t decide now – sleep on it and Postpone making a decision
see how you feel in the morning. until after a night’s sleep
To go / be out like a The little boy went out like a light as To fall asleep very quickly
light soon as he went to bed
Not lose sleep over It was just a silly argument – I Not to worry about something
something wouldn’t lose any sleep over it.

Ex. 18. Listen to two people, Christa and James, talking about what they do in their free
time. What do they prefer doing going out or staying in? [23]
Speaker 1 (Christa): Speaker 2 (James):
Listen again and mark what each person says they do: C for Christa and J for James.
1 eat out with friends 7 watch sport on TV 13 go to the beach
2 go to a party 8 paint and draw 14 go surfing
3 cook with friends 9 collect old postcards 15 go swimming
4 have a takeaway 10 go to junk shops 16 watch DVDs
5 play music 11 go clubbing 17 play online games
6 cook for myself 12 go to the cinema 18 read a book
Which of the phrases above could you use to describe your leisure time?

Ex. 19. Write the correct word


The benefits of having a hobby
Hobbies can add (1)_____________ to everyday life. Sometimes the daily EXCITE
routine at work or school starts to drag, making you feel that everything is a
bit (2) __________, and in these circumstances a hobby offers fun and escape POINT
from your regular (3) __________. COMMIT
In fact, (3)_________ pastimes such as watching TV or listening to music, a LIKE
hobby usually involves learning new skills. In (4) _________ if there is a ADD
social element to the hobby, you will have to interact with other people and
so go on to form new (5) ______________ . It is also very positive to feel FRIEND
that you are PERSON
making progress with your own (6) ____________development, and as well STRONG
as
giving you the chance to learn new skills, a hobby will be a way of building
on the (7) _________ you already have. It's certainly the case that the more TRUE
different activities you try as hobbies, the closer you'll get to being
(8) _________fulfilled and the better you'll get to know yourself.
Ex. 20. Read the dialogue below and give Russian equivalents to the expressions in bold.
Ned: Hi, Liz. Haven’t seen oyu for ages. How are things?
Ex. 21. Study the expressions given (check the dictionary if necessary). Give mini-
situations (contexts) when people might use them:
I haven't slept a wink; Let's call it a day; Let's make a rest from work; He has a very tight
schedule; He works like a slave/ horse; Tired Tim; I'm dog tired; Never put off till tomorrow
what you can do today; Business before pleasure; Still, we can stay home the following
evening and put our feet up and just watch the box.
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MОDULE 2
COLLEGE LIFE
Ex. 1. Lead-in. Read and comment on the following quotations.
Which ones do you like most/agree with?
 College is the best time of your life. When else are your parents
going to spend several thousand dollars a year just for you to
go to a strange town and get drunk every night? - David Wood
 A college is a place where pebbles are polished and diamonds
dimmed. - Robert Ingersoll
 80 % of the final exam will be based on the one lecture you
missed and the one book you didn't read. - Author Unknown
 For the true student, everything that happens in daily life is a test - Karlfried Graf
Durckheim
 I learned three important things in college - to use a library, to memorize quickly and
visually, to drop asleep at any time given a horizontal surface and fifteen minutes -
Agnes DeMille (Dance to the Piper)
 For many, graduation marks the end of formal student life - the end of long spring
breaks and of thinking that a 10 A.M. class is far too early - Alexa Von Tobel

Ex. 2. Read this text from a university website. Who is it aimed at?
The university is on one campus which covers an area of 200 acres. There are five
faculties — Humanities, Science and technology, Social sciences, Law and Medicine
— and these are divided into departments like geography, art history, etc. You will
have already looked at our website, but when you arrive, you can pick up a prospectus
and book which tour you want to go on, according to your subject of interest. Your tour will
begin with a talk by one of the lecturers, who will tell you more about the courses. All our
courses consist of a mixture of formal lectures, seminars in groups of up to twenty students,
and at least two tutorials per term where groups of two or three students have the opportunity
to discuss things in more detail with their own tutors. Most degree courses require students to
write a dissertation of at least 6,000 words in their last year. The tours will show you the halls
of residence where students live, the students' union where lots of social events take place, and
other useful facilities like the supermarket and launderette. Our undergraduate courses all
begin in October and most of our students are school leavers — just four per cent are mature
students of 21 and over. At present the university year consists of three terms but we are
changing to semesters (two a year) in three years' time. We will have different vacations as a
result: slightly longer in spring and shorter in summer. We have separate open day s for
graduates who want to go on to do a postgraduate course.
Complete these sentences with words from the text.
1. The buildings of a university and the land that surrounds them are called a _____ .
2 The university is organized by subject into different _______ and a group of these form a
_______.
3. Information about the university can be found in a booklet called a________ or on the
website.
4. Students attend _______ , _________ and________ where they are taught about their
subject.
5. Students are taught by __________ and__________.

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6. A long piece of written work is called a _____________.
7. Students live in __________ and attend social events arranged by the ____________.
8. Students who are at least 21 are referred to as __________students.
9. The university year is divided into _________ or __________. The breaks are
called__________.
10. Students who are studying for a first degree are called ___________. When they finish
they are called ___________ . A student who continues to study after a first degree is called a
___________.
[22]
NOTE:
An essay is a short piece of writing about a particular subject. A dissertation is a much longer
piece of work, often a requirement of a degree course. A thesis is usually written for a higher
degree over an extended length of time and involves personal research.

Ex. 3. Listen to a short text about qualifications and fill in the gaps. Do you agree
with the author’s opinion?
Qualifications are __________________ days. Many years ago, a university degree was
enough. A B.A. or B.Sc. __________________ a good job. Not now. Not even a
Master’s degree is enough these days. It __________________ a Master’s degree. Some of the
jobs I want now require a Ph.D. It’s also not enough nowadays __________________ the
qualifications you have. You __________________ qualifications up to date, re-qualify, get
new qualifications. It seems life has __________________ certificate chase. Especially so
now that many people will have several careers in their life. I know someone
__________________ in physics, then became an accountant, didn’t like it and studied to be a
lawyer. He’s now studying __________________
license!
[Adapted from: From: http://www.listenAminute.com/q/qualifications.html]

Ex. 4. Collocations about studies. Study the table below. Make up your own sentences
with the expressions given [11].
Expressions with do/get Alternatives
do an exam I have to sit/take an exam in biology at the end of the term.
do research, do a Our class carried out / conducted a research project into the
research project history of our school.
do a course I decided to enroll on / take a course on computer programming.
do a degree/diploma She studied for / took a degree in engineering.
do a subject I studied / took history and economics in high school.
do an essay/assignment All students have to write an essay / assignment at the end of the
term.
do a lecture/talk Professor Parkinson gave a lecture on the American Civil War.
get a degree/diploma He obtained / was awarded a diploma in Town Planning in 2010.
get a grade Her essay received / was given an A-grade.
get a qualification You will need to obtain / acquire a qualification in social work.
get an education The country is poor, only 27 % of children receive a basic
education.
Look at these conversations between a teacher and students. Note how the teacher uses
more formal collocations to repeat what each student says.
St: Do we have to go to all the lectures to do the course or just yours?
T: You must attend all the lectures to complete the course.
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St: Excuse me, where will the next week’s class be? In this room?
T: No, the next class will be held in Room 405.
St: When do we have to give you our essays?
T: You have to hand in your essays on Friday.
St: When do we have to send in our university applications?
T: You have to submit your applications by December 1st.
St: What do I have to do if I want to leave the course?
T: If you want to withdraw from the course, you have to go to the College office?
More collocations connected with study and learning
Do you keep a vocabulary notebook? It’s a good way of recording new collocations.
I did the first draft of my essay last week and the final draft this week. I have to hand it in
tomorrow. Then the teacher gives us feedback after about a week.
We don’t have exams at my school. We have continuous assessment [system where the
quality of a student’s work is judged by pieces of course work and not by one final
examination].
The local technical college provides training for young people in a variety of professions.
After secondary school, 30 % of the population go on to higher/tertiary education and 20
%of adults do some sort of further education course during their lives.
Does your government recognize foreign qualifications for school teachers?

Ex. 5. Underline the most suitable word or phrase.


1. Jack decided to take a course/lesson in hotel management.
2. Sheila always got good marks/points in algebra.
3. After leaving school, Ann studied/trained as a teacher.
4. Peter decided not to go in/enter for the examination.
5. My sister learned/taught me how to draw.
6. I can't come to the cinema. I have to read/study for a test.
7. In history we had to learn a lot of dates by hand/heart.
8. I hope your work will improve by the end of course/term.
9. Martin failed/missed his maths exam and had to sit it again.
10. If you have any questions, raise/rise your hand.

Ex. 6. Complete each sentence with a word from the box. Use each word once only.
cheat copy memorise pay uderline
divide pass punish revise concentrate
a) Our teachers used to ______ us by making us stay behind after school.
b) If you __________ twenty-seven by nine, the answer is three.
c) Try to ________ the most important rules.
d) It is difficult to ___________attention in a noisy classroom.
e) Pauline tried her best to _________the end of year
examinations.
f) Your work is the same as Harry's. Did you _________his
work?
g) Your mind is wandering! You must _________more!
h) Helen decided to __________all her work at the end of every week.
i) It's a good idea to ___________important parts of the book in red.
j) The teacher saw Jerry trying to __________ in the exam.
[17]

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Ex. 7. Listen to two students describing their courses at university and answer the
questions below [23].
1. What subject is each student studying?
architecture English literature biology law psychology history
economics chemistry medicine
2. How does each student say they learn?
lecture seminar tutorial essay assignment experiment dissertation presentation
3.What does each student think is good about their course?
Listen again and fill in the phrases the students use to express opinions.
1. I _____________ about the course I'm doing now.
2. They ______________ students having to plan their own time.
3. But_________________, you’ve got to spend lots of time reading and thinking things
through.
4. I ______________ the timetable.
5. I ______________ the lectures are very good.
6. I ______________ it's a very good way of learning.
7. Now I _______________the system really works.
8. I _______________having the lectures each morning.
9. I ______________ concentrating on the experiments for now.

Ex. 8. Match the words in the box with a suitable definition (a-j). Use each word once
only.
Classmate Graduate Examiner Lecturer Learner
Professor Principal Tutor Pupil Coach
a) Someone who teaches at a university lecture
b) Someone who has a college degree
c) The head of a school
d) Someone who studies at primary or secondary school
e) The most important teacher in a university department
f) Someone who teaches one student or a very small class
g) Someone in the same class as yourself
h) Someone who trains a sports team
i) Someone who writes the question papers of an examination
j) Someone who drives but has not yet passed a driving test

Ex. 9. A) Listen to the interview with Tini about his life as a student. Answer the
following questions about the interview.
1) What does Tini like about being a student?
a) Studying
b) Seeing friends
c) Being a bookworm
d) Living on campus
2) What will Tini miss about school?
a) Long vacations
b) Not having work
c) Memories
d) Wearing shorts
3) What do they both say is good about being a teacher?
a) The work schedule

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b) The pay
c) Staying young
d) The prestige
4) What profession would Tini like to try?
a) Actuary
b) Banker
c) Teacher
d) Broker
B) Learn vocabulary from the listening
Bookworm - I like studying although I'm not that much of a bookworm.
A 'bookworm' is someone who likes to study and read. Notice the following:
I have never been much of a bookworm.
She did very well at school, as she was a real bookworm.
The real world - It's about time to get out to the real world and earn some money.
'In the real world' means 'in reality.' Notice the following:
In the real world things are not as romantic as in the movies.
She needs to get in the real world and understand that she needs to earn money.
A 9-5 schedule - You get so much time off, and you don't have to work a 9-5 schedule.
A '9-5 schedule' means that you are working normal office hours, which start at 9 AM and go
to 5 PM. Notice the following:
Because I run my own business I don't have a 9-5 schedule.
It suits her that she does not have the regular 9-5 schedule.
To be really into smth - I have given it a couple of thoughts but right now, I'm really into the
banking industry. 'I'm really into the banking industry' means that you are interested in the
world of banking and would like to make that your career. Notice the following:
I'm really into the health industry, and I would like to get some work experience in that field.
She says that she is really into the music industry.
Give it a go - The financing industry, and so probably I might give it a go.
When you 'give something a go,' it means that you try it. Notice the following:
I have never done it before but I will give it a go.
Why don't you give it a go? You never know; you might like it.
[Adapted from: www.ello.org]

Ex. 10. A) Read the quotation below. That’s what one American university teacher
thinks.
Students do not have enough time to be interested in their classes. They
are busy with activities and jobs. They try to learn only as much as they
have to.
Do you agree? How are things where you live? Are students interested in classes? Do they
have free time? Why or why not? Discuss this with a partner. After three minutes, report
your opinions to the group.
B) Study the following vocabulary notes.
A freshman is a first-year student. Some institutions prefer the term “first-year student”
because it avoids the sexist language of freshman. Informally, you’ll hear frosh too. The
plural is freshmen.
A sophomore is a second-year student. The Greek roots are rather telling: sophos means
wise, and moros means fool. A sophomore is a little wiser than a freshman, but still might

129
carry remnants of foolishness.
Juniors and seniors are third- and fourth-year students, respectively.
C) Listen to a Short Take. Answer the following comprehension questions.
1. What is to be discussed and debated?
2. What’s the book called?
3. How old is the writer?
4. What did the professor want to know about her students?
5. What’s a university ethics committee?
D) Read and listen to the article and discuss the questions after the text.
Professor Wanted to Learn About Students, So She Became One
Written by Nancy Steinbach
Education Report, Voice of America
A new book is sure to be discussed, and debated, at colleges this fall. The book is
called My Freshman Year: What a Professor Learned by Becoming a Student. The writer is
Rebekah Nathan. That is not her real name. She is in her fifties. She is a professor of
anthropology at a university in the United States. Her name for it is “AnyU.”
The professor wanted to know why many of her students did not complete their work
or ask for help. She decided to do a research project. She got the approval of the university
ethics committee. Such groups consider moral and legal issues in studies.
In the spring of two thousand two, she applied to her own university under the name
“Rebekah Nathan” and was admitted. [Correction: she applied under her own name.] She lived
in student housing. She took five classes during her first term and two in the second
semester. She did pretty well, although she got one C, a mark of average. She also played
sports.
In My Freshman Year, she does not identify any students by name. But she does
discuss what they told her about their lives.
Rebekah Nathan writes that students do not have enough time to be interested in their
classes. They are busy with activities and jobs. They try to learn only as much as they have
to. But she says they will read the material if it is directly linked to what is being discussed in
class.
The professor says her year as a student changed the way she teaches. She gives less
reading now. She asks questions designed to get students to speak more. She offers
help. And she says she is no longer offended if a student falls asleep.
Other professors and research experts, however, criticize the experiment. They say she was
spying. They say she could have gotten the same information without dishonesty. There have
been a lot of angry comments on the Internet. But some people say she tells the real story of
student life.
Rebekah Nathan says she did not interview any students without written permission on
a statement. It said she was doing research that would be published, but it did not say she was
a professor.
She says she decided to tell the truth if someone asked. But very few young people
asked her about herself. She heard that students avoided the subject because they thought
there might be trouble in her life.
1. Rebekah Nathan is in her fifties, yet she was able to fit in as a student at an American
university. Do older people attend Russian universities? Why or why not? Do you think it’s
a good thing to return to study at an older age?
2. Nathan says that most students didn’t ask for help from teachers. Why do you think this is?
Why would a student not ask for the teacher’s help?

130
3. Was Nathan a spy or not? How would you feel if a teacher—perhaps a younger teacher—
entered your university to do what Nathan did?
4. Can spying have positive benefits? When?
5. Would it be possible for a teacher to pose as a student in your institution? Why or why
not?
6. Are your teachers in touch with the problems their students face? In what ways?
7. Do students fail to understand the problems that teachers face? Why? How?

Ex. 11. A) Learning abroad. Pre-view. Would you like to study abroad. Why/why not?
Listen to the interview with Jana. What countries is she talking about?
B) Listen to the interview again and answer the questions.
1) In Prague, the social events happen in ___.
a) community centers b) classrooms
c) dormitories d) private houses
2) When did Jana eat with her host family?
a) Every day b) Once a week
c) At lunch time d) On Sundays
3) Australia has a lot of _____.
a) big companies b) beautiful beaches
c) international students d) intelligent students
4) To study in Australia you need to pay for ____.
a) health insurance b) a student visa
c) tuition fees d) special dormitories
5) Who shares apartments in Sydney?
a) Jana's friends b) Students
c) Families d) Working adults
C) Learn the vocabulary from the listening.
Dorms - Did they eat at home or in dorms, or did they go out?
A 'dorm' or 'dormitory' is a place where university students live, which has shared bedrooms,
bathrooms and dining areas. Notice the following:
Do you have a gym and cafeteria in your dorm?
The dorms are completely full, so some of the students will have to stay in hotels.
Lectures/seminars - I was living with my parents, but obviously I would go to the university
for my lectures and seminars.
A 'lecture' is a class with a large number of students where the teacher speaks and the students
take notes. A 'seminar' is a smaller group with a discussion style. Notice the following:
Seminars are much more fun, because you get to be involved.
I slept late and missed my 8 o'clock lecture.
Apart from that - Every Sunday we had a really nice meal, but apart from that I would eat in
the cafeteria.
'Apart from that' is the same as 'other than that.' Jana ate with her host family on Sundays, but
the rest of the time she ate at the cafeteria. Notice the following:
I jog a few times a week, but apart from that I have no real time for exercise.
She eats fish, but apart from that she doesn't eat any meat.
Heat it up - I would often bring my own lunch and heat it up in the microwave.
When you 'heat something up,' you make it warm, usually to eat it. Notice the following:
Don't eat that soup cold. You have to heat it up.
This coffee is a bit cold. Could you heat it up a little?
Tuition - You have to pay the tuition fees depending where you come from.
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Your 'tuition' is the money that you pay for classes, and it does not include money for housing.
Notice the following:
There has been a lot of discussion about tuition costs going up again.
The money for your tuition is due next week.
Funding - One of the requirements is that you need to show that you have enough funding for
the whole course.
'Funding' is a supply of money that will be used for a specific purpose. Notice the following:
We don't have enough funding to hire anyone else to help with this work.
Where does the funding come from for these events?
Juggle - There isn't much time for part-time work, but you need to try and juggle it somehow.
When you 'juggle' different things, you try to organize your time so you have enough time to
do all that you need to do. Notice the following:
You should take a vacation. You've been juggling a lot lately.
It's been very difficult for her to juggle 3 kids and a full time job.
D) Listen again and fill in the gaps.
Peter: So, Jana, we were talking about academic life in different countries but how about daily
life for students? Did students also have part time jobs and where did they eat? Did they eat at
home or in dorms or did they _________?
Jana: Right. So my life in Prague was quite different because I was living with my parents but
obviously I would go to university for the lectures or seminars and yeah, I think most of my
classmates had part time jobs or even ________ jobs and they would study sort of in their free
time and in the Czech Republic usually students go to university in their city so they stay at
home with their parents but if they choose to go to a different city then they would stay at
dormitory. So some of my classmates who were staying, who were living in dormitory, I felt
like they had more __________ life than I do because that's where all their social events
happen.
Peter: Right.
Jana: I have actually never lived in a dormitory so I don't know what it's like.
Peter: How about student life in Sydney?
Jana: Yeah, in Sydney...
Todd: Actually can we have Spain.
Peter: So how about student life in Spain?
Jana: Yeah, I suppose again it depends on the students. Maybe local students and
international students might have different _______ but I was living with a host family and
they cooked for me once a week. That was really nice. Every Sunday we had a really nice
meal but apart from that I would eat at the __________or cook at home and I didn't have a
part time job but I think a lot of my classmates did. It wasn't so easy for international students
to find work so...
Peter: Really? So what was the typical lunch in Spain for you?
Jana: Well, there weren't that many options at the university so ________ what you can buy
at the cafeteria is like a sandwich, kind of _______ food so I would often bring my own lunch
and heat it up in the microwave so that's what a lot of students did to _______ money too.
Peter: OK. So you could actually cook at home and bring the lunch?
Jana: Yes. They had a _________ and like a diner where you can bring your own food as
well.
Peter: Oh, OK.
Jana: So I thought that was quite convenient.
Peter: Yeah, yeah. And then you moved to Sydney? How did that change things for you?

132
Jana: Well, Sydney was a lot of ______. There are so many international students, so many
different cultures and it's a big part of education actually. International education in Australia
is a huge business as well.
Peter: Really?
Jana: So there are so many international students. In fact, in my class I think there were
maybe two Australians.
Peter: Wow.
Jana: And the ________ were from all over the world.
Peter: Hm. I also had a friend who studied as an international student at, in Sydney and he
told me it's quite expensive for international students to live there. Is that true?
Jana: That's right. One, you have to pay the tuition fees but also, depending on where you
come from, you need to __________ for a student visa and often one of the requirements is
you need to show that you have enough funding for the whole course.
Peter: Right.
Jana: And the ______________ costs might not be that high. It depends where you live. A lot
of students share houses.
Peter: Right.
Jana: Or work part time as well.
Peter: So part time work is allowed then?
Jana: Yes. You can work up to twenty hours per week.
Peter: OK.
Jana: While on a student visa.
Peter: Right. So you can have some _________ at least to support yourself?
Jana: That's right, yeah, but a lot of the students study really hard so there isn't really much
time for part time work but yeah you need to try to juggle it somehow.
Peter: Where did you live in Sydney and did you have a share _______ or somewhere like
that?
Jana: Yeah, I lived in a share house with other students. It's a really common thing to do in
Sydney because the _______ is so expensive.
Peter: Oh, really?
Jana: So not only students but even working adults often share apartments. Yeah, I actually
moved maybe five times while I was there.
Peter: It sounds pretty hard actually.
Jana: It was fun to try living in different areas and with different people.
Peter: Great.

What problems of student life do the guys discuss? Are they similar to the ones that
Russian students face? Make up a dialogue discussing these issues.

Ex. 12. Choose the most suitable word or phrase to complete each sentence.
a) Helen's parents were very pleased when they read her school ____.
A) report B) papers C) diploma D) account
b) Martin has quite a good _____ of physics.
A) result B) pass C) understanding D) head
c) In Britain, children start ________ school at the age of five.
A) kindergarten B) secondary C) nursery D) primary
d) Edward has a _______ in French from Leeds University.
A) certificate B) degree C) mark D) paper
e) My favourite ________at school was history.

133
A) topic B) class C) theme D) subject
f) It's time for a break. The bell has________
A) gone off B) struck C) rung D) sounded
g) Our English teacher __________us some difficult exercises for homework.
A) set B) put C) obliged D) made
h) Before you begin the exam paper, always read the _________carefully.
A) orders B) instructions C) rules D) answers
i) If you want to pass the examination, you must study _________
A) hard B) enough C) thoroughly D) rather
j) Most students have quite a good sense of their own __________
A) grasp B) ability C) idea D) information

Ex. 13. Choose the correct option.


LEARNING HOW TO LEARN
There is usually one important (1) missing from most school (2) Very few students are (3)
how to organize their learning, and how to (4) the best use of their time. Let's take some
simple (5) Do you know how to (6) up words in a dictionary, and do you understand all the (7)
the dictionary contains? Can you (8) notes quickly, and can you understand them (9)? For
some reason, many schools give learners no (10) with these matters. Teachers ask students to
(11) pages from books, or tell them to write ten pages, but don't explain (12) to do it. Learning
by (13) can be useful, but it is important to have a genuine (14) of a subject. You can (15) a lot
of time memorizing books, without understanding anything about the subject!
1 A theme B book C subject D mark
2 A agendas B timetables C terms D organizations
3 A taught B learnt C educated D graduated
4 A take B give C get D make
5 A sentences B results C rules D examples
6 A find B look C research D get
7 A information B advise C subjects D themes
8 A do B send C make D revise
9 A after B afterwards C lastly D at last
10 A teaching B ability C instruction D help
11 A concentrate B remind C forget D memorize
12 A how B what C why D it
13 A the way B heart C now D law
14 A information B success C understanding D attention
15 A pass B waste C tell D use

Ex. 14. Pre-listening task.


Below you’ll find pairs of sentences. Put the word in the far left column into the proper blank
so that the two sentences are roughly synonymous.
by heart 1. She presented his writing as her own. She ____________.
cheated
cheat sheets 2. There is a lot at risk. ____________.
copying
cum laude 3. She violated the rules. She ____________.
expulsion
plagiarized 4. She graduated with honors. She graduated _________.
the stakes are high

134
suspended 5. They memorized the poem. They learned the poem ________.

6. They hid notes up their sleeves. They used ____________.

7. She was kicked out of the school. She earned an ____________ from
the school.

8. He was looking at someone’s answers. He was ____________.

9. He barred from school for a period. He was ____________.

Ex. 16. Interview a partner. Each of you should answer the following questions. Be
prepared to report the results to the entire class.

1. What would you consider a form of academic cheating?


2. What is plagiarism? Describe it in your own words, or find out what it
means.
3. In Russia, what will happen if a teacher sees you looking at someone else’s test?
4. In America, what will happen if a teacher sees you looking at someone else’s test?
5. If, during a quiz, a neighbor in class looks at your paper, will you cover your answers?
Will you show that person willingly?
6. If a neighbor asks you for an answer, will you give it to him/her? Why or why not?
7. What will the teacher do if he/she sees two students whispering to one another during a
test? What do you think an American teacher would do?
8. What do you think of the American student who reveals to the teacher that someone
else in the class is cheating?
9. Have you ever taken some text from the Internet and presented it to the teacher as your
own? Do you consider that cheating?
10. Have you ever used cheat sheets (shpargalki)? Why or why not? Do you think it’s
okay to use cheat sheets? When and why?

Ex. 17. Listen to two views on cheating and make notes in the table below
about causes and consequences of cheating.
Russian view American view

Answer the questions below:


1. In what way the above article changed the way you think about the subject of cheating?
2. When we judge another culture from our own values, it is easy to look harshly on it. The
idea of cheating is an example. One can’t judge “cheating” in Russia from the American
perspective. Neither can one judge American “selfishness” in denying help to fellow students
clearly through the Russian lens.
3. Can you think of any other deep-rooted cultural perceptions that can make us judge a person
from another culture harshly? Describe.
4. Choose any statement from Dima and Kevin’s article and write whether you agree or
disagree. Make sure you state why.

135
5. If you are writing a paper for class, a novel, or a dissertation, is it important to credit ideas
that you get from other people? To what degree? How do a paper for class, a novel, and a
dissertation differ in this regard?
[Adapted from http://kevinmccaughey.com/e-textbook/101-cheating-two-perspectives]

Ex. 18. Complete the text below with the correct form of these verbs. Use each verb only
once.
do fail give pass take retake revise study
I'm 16 now, and I'm (1) ______ some important exams in a few weeks' time. They're called
GCSEs, and my teachers have entered me for nine subjects, which is what most pupils at my
school do. I'm going to go through all my notes to (2) ______thoroughly for these exams,
because I don't want to have to (3) ______any of them next year. I've always thought it's better
to (4) _____all exams the first time you (5) _______them. I'm certainly hoping I won't (6)
______ my maths exam. I've never been very good at maths, and I want to (7) ______ it up at
the end of the year and spend more time (8) _______history, geography and two foreign
languages. I'm much better at those!

Ex. 19. Reading. Read the text below and decide which section mentions:
 the view that students have always tended to lose attention in university lectures?
 the idea that expecting students to provide their own technology may lead to a form
of discrimination?
 the increase in the number of students learning in other ways apart from listening to
lectures?
 technical problems reducing the amount of teaching which takes place?
 the advantages for students of using technology they are accustomed to?
 a lack of progress in adapting study materials to make best use of students' technology?
 the disadvantage of students having access during lectures to material unconnected to
their studies?
 the economic advantage for universities if students use their own devices?
 university studies requiring the kind of concentration which is hard to find nowadays?
 universities being unable to impose restrictions on what students look at during
lectures?
Students bring their own technology to lectures
A. A trend known as Bring Your Own Device (BYOD) has swept across countless universities
and institutions. The idea is that technology can allow students to access online learning tools
and interactive resources: students will no longer sit passively in the lecture hall, but instead
will be engaging with complementary material online. While supplying (and routinely
upgrading) enough technology so that all students can access virtual learning environments is
too costly, building a network that allows them to use online resources via their personal
devices is less of a financial burden. The practice also allows students to use technology that
they're familiar with, according to Jason Lodge, lecturer in higher education in learning futures
at Griffith University in Brisbane. 'BYOD eliminates quite a bit of the cognitive load
associated with learning. For example, any activity requires multiple levels of understanding
in order for students to engage effectively. By using devices they are already familiar with,
they have more resources available to understand what they are being asked to do and what the
actual content of the task is.
B. Lodge admits that the BYOD trend does have a number of problems. His biggest concern?
It encourages students to use technology during teaching time: The major downside of BYOD
is the potential for distraction. Students' own devices are likely to include all the applications

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they use on a regular basis. This cannot be controlled like it can be with computers provided
by the institution.' Tim Cappelli, a senior project manager at Manchester Medical School,
disagrees. He explained: '93% of our students said they use their Pads for accessing social
networks. I'm surprised it's not higher. Are they doing this in lectures? Probably. But is this
any different from me reading a novel at the back of the lecture theatre, or doodling on my
notepad, when I was a student?' However, of course the difference is that iPads offer a
multitude of distractions far exceeding those of a novel or a biro.
C You don't have to look far to find studies warning that constant access to technology can
damage an individual's concentration. A study by Professor Lany Rosen, California State
University, found that people could only focus on a given task for six minutes before utilising
some form of technology. This of course is particularly problematic at universities, where
deep, analytical thinking is highly valued. The other aspect which can waste time is the issue
of compatibility. Students utilise a multitude of laptops, mobiles and tablets, all of which may
have different operating systems. Consequently, lectures and seminars can be dominated by
struggles to make everything work properly. Not only does this take up valuable time to sort
out, but most professors lack the specialised knowledge to resolve these issues.
D. While technology is undoubtedly changing the way students learn, there's still some way to
go before students' mobiles and tablets are seamlessly interwoven into the classroom
environment, says Lodge. The emphasis of BYOD thus far has been more on infrastructure,
i.e. making sure there is sufficient wireless bandwidth, rather than incorporating students' own
devices into the learning activities they do. Teaching practice is notoriously slow to change in
a university setting. To my knowledge, designing effective courses, subjects and activities that
incorporate the students' devices happens very seldom at the moment.' Professor Steven
Furnell, head of Plymouth University's school of computing and mathematics, points out
another possible obstacle to universal access. Relying on students to buy their own devices
could 'result in a situation of the "haves" and "have nots" amongst the student population'.
[23]
Ex. 20. HOMEWORK. Choose the right answer.
1.Suddenly I understood perfectly and everything fell ….place.
a) down b) for c) into d) out
2.Judging by the….. Sean has put into his essay, he should do well.
a) exercise b) effort c) labour d) toil
3. In writing the account of his summer adventures, Neville chose not to… his experiences in
the order in which they happened.
a) arrange b) classify c) compare d) compose
4. I must know where these quotations….. Please indicate their source.
a) began b) come from c) invent d) start
5.If you want to learn you will, no ……. who teaches you.
a) consideration b) matter c) question d) way
6.Will you ....... …..this essay, please, and see if I have made any mistakes?
a) look through b) look up c) see through d) see to
7. My teacher never ….. my mistakes to me.
a) explains b) exposes c) marks d) reveals
8.There are a lot of mistakes in your homework, I'll have to….it again with you.
a) come through b) go over c) instruct d) pass
9.When I was at school we had to learn a poem ….. every fortnight.
a) by ear b) by eye c) by heart d) by mouth
10. I can't make anything ….. his writing.
a) from b) in c) of d) out

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11.The instructor ….. me what my mistake was.
a) clarified b) demonstrated c) explained d) showed
12. It's no good ... …… me of giving the wrong answer!
a) accusing b) blaming c) criticising d) scolding
13. Isn't it ...... time you started your homework, Gilbert?
a) about b) good c) past d) the
14.I have been working since this morning, and I am absolutely …..
a) destroyed b) down c) exhausted d) tired
15. Turn the book round, you've got it …….
a) downside up b) inside out c) upside-down d) outside in

Ex. 22. STUDENTS. Choose the correct answer.


1.Andy was ........ …from school because of his bad behaviour.
a) evicted b) expelled c) left d) resigned
2.I'm not sure why he didn't go to the college, but I ….he failed the entrance test.
a) deduce b) estimate c) predict d) suspect
3. The study of ... …. .can be very interesting.
a) a history b) histories c) history d) the history
4. You can learn as much theory as you like, but you only master a skill by……it.
a) doing b) exercising c) practising d) training
5. Mabel's school report last term was most …
a) fortunate b) fulfilling c) satisfactory d) satisfied
6. Most of the students agreed to the plan, but a few … it.
a) argued b) differed c) failed d) opposed
7. Mr Genius was so … at maths at school that he became the youngest student ever to
be accepted by a college.
a) brilliant b) hopeful c) keen d) proud
8. Miss Lazy has hardly done any …….. this week!
a) effort b) job c) labour d) work
9. When I told him my opinion, he his head …… in disagreement.
a) hooked b) knocked c) rocked d) shook
10. Please reply .... …… as I have no time to lose.
a) hastily b) promptly c) rapid d) swift

Ex. 23. Reading.


WHAT KIND OF STUDENT ARE YOU?
Would you like to know your strong and weak points in the classroom? Find your
sign of the zodiac below and read the text.
FIRE (Aries, Sagittarius, Leo)
Fire signs usually make optimistic students. However, you are to concentrate on one
thing. You have lots of energy but sometimes you have your head in the clouds and don't
know or care what is going on around you. To make good progress you should try to
con¬centrate on what you are doing today and not on what you want to do tomorrow.
EARTH (Capricorn, Virgo, Taurus)
Earth signs usually make serious and hard-working students. Exams are very important to you
because you want to have a good job one day. You always check your homework. You like
everything in its place and demand clear explanations of what is going on. You don't like
change. Other students like you because you are practical and helpful and see everything so
clearly. Try to let your hair down from time to time.
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WATER (Cancer, Pisces, Scorpio)
You live in a world of your own and often dream, even in class. You often lose things and
forget the time. You seem to learn without effort and usually do well if your teachers
encourage you. You are very resourceful and artistic which makes your work very
interesting though not always very accurate! Try to combine your imagination with the
practical side of studying. And remember to do your homework.
AIR ( Gemini, Libra, Aquarius)
You are a popular student and a good talker. You easily make friends and are happy to be part
of a team. You are a flatterer which means you are probably popular with your teacher! But
sometimes you are lazy. You have all the qualities to make success of your studies, so get on
and do it! By the way air signs are good at learning foreign languages.

Ex. 24. Find the phrases in box A in the article. Without checking in your dictionary, try to
guess from the context what each one means. If necessary, use the definitions in box В to help
you.
A В
1to sail through an exam a to make it difficult for smb to do something
2 to gear yourself up for exams b to go for a walk, especially after sitting for a long time
3 to stretch your legs с to make a determined effort to do something difficult
4 to hinder your performance d to succeed very easily in a difficult challenge
5 to wind down e to rest or relax after a lot of hard work or excitement
6 snatched f to do an exam again
7 the trickier (questions) g to do something at a controlled, steady speed
8 to tackle a question h to prepare yourself for something you have to do
9 to pace yourself i taken quickly
10 to retake an exam j difficult, complicated, needing great care to do well

[7]

Ex. 24. Read and translate the text. Do you think that the given tips are helpful? Retell
the text.
HOW TO PASS EXAMS
There is a technique to just sailing through, so make sure you don't just count on good
luck. It's that time of year again when students across the country are gearing themselves up
for exams. If you feel you've left your revision too late, don't despair. Follow our guide and
start today.
Before you start
Get organised: draw up a revision timetable of topics to cover. Stick to it and let friends
and family know that you are serious, so they don't interrupt your studies.
If you find it difficult to concentrate, don't study at home where you will be easily
distracted; go to your library instead. If motivation is a problem, arrange to meet a friend and
study together. But don't let it turn into an excuse for a social chat or a moaning session!
Remember what you are studying for. Why do you need these exams? Keeping your long-term
goal in mind will help maintain your motivation.
Studying tactics
Go with your body clock: if you're slow in the morning, use that time to do some
background reading. Do the weightier work in the afternoon. Don't study for more man thirty
to forty minutes at a time. Take regular breaks to get enough fresh air and stretch your legs.

139
Don't study too late, especially the night before your exam. Tiredness will hinder your
performance the next day. Always make sure you wind down before you go to bed.
It's important to maintain a happy, positive frame of mind, so don't let revising take
over your whole life. Give yourself something to look forward to after a day's studying: meet
friends for a drink, or relax in a warm bath. Eat well; have a proper meal rather than snacks
snatched at your desk.
On the day
Allow plenty of time to get to the exam, but don't arrive too early or you'll sit around
getting nervous. Resist the temptation to compare what you've revised with other students
while-waiting. Do read the paper thoroughly before starting. It's time well spent. It’s very easy
to misunderstand simple instructions, when you are under a lot of pressure. On multiple-choice
exam papers, go through and do all the easy questions first then go back to the beginning and
try the trickier ones.
On essay papers, tackle the questions you feel happiest about first, so you can build up
your confidence. Work out how much time you have for each question and pace yourself
accordingly. You have nothing to gain from finishing early. Always keep things in proportion.
The worst thing that can happen is that you'll fail. If necessary, you can usually retake an
exam.

Ex. 25. Fill in the suitable word.


EXAM SUCCESS
There are many ways of making sure you ____do (0) well in the examinations, both before
and during the exam. If you don’t ______ (1) much experience of examinations, read the
following notes carefully. First of all, if you are ______ ( 2) the exam the next day, make
sure you ______ (3) a good night’s rest. Check that you know exactly where the exam is going
to ______ (4) place. You should not sit the exam on an empty stomach so ______ (5) a good
breakfast – but don’t overdo it. Don’t forget to ______ (6) with you a pen, pencil and eraser.
Try and get to the examination centre in good time so you ______ (7) enough time to find the
right room. As soon as you ______ (8) your answer sheet, ______ (9) a deep breath, check
your name and number and ______ (10) any errors to the attention of the supervisor
immediately. Read the instructions carefully and ______ (11) your time answering before the
invigilator ______ (12) the exam to a close.
CHEATING
You are doing a Grammar test. Your friend, who’s sitting next to you, really wants to succeed
(1) _____ the test. There is a question (2) _____ the use of the Present Perfect Tense, which
you have been learning (3) _____ recently. You know a lot (4) _____ it, but your friend isn’t
really capable (5) _____ answering the question properly. Your friend whispers “Help me!” to
you. What should you do? Should you help your friend (6) _____ the question, or just
continue (7) _____ your own test?
Every student has to cope (8) _____ this difficult situation at some point. What’s your opinion
(9) _____ cheating? Should you help your friend cheat (10)______ the test or not?
(From Macmillan Exam Tests for Russia. Grammar and Vocabulary)
Exam and essay topics
1. Life on campus vs living with parents
2. Challenges and opportunities of college life
3. Cheating at exams

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MОDULE 3
DOING THE CHORES
Ex. 1. Read the following text and answer these questions.
1. Why is it especially hard for housewives to manage a house? 2. Who is the hardest-
working member of the household? 3. What do the men do about the house?
A REALLY GOOD CLEAN
It is no easy matter to manage a house. It is especially hard when one works too. That’s
why a second day off is of great help to housewives. They may do the housecleaning on
Saturday and Sunday may be their day of rest. The Browns have a real housecleaning on
Saturday. Here are a few words about the way they fix up their flat.
Ann and her mother are up early in the morning. To begin with, they change the
bedclothes, make the beds, collect the dirty linen (sheets, pillow-cases, dish-cloths, thick
towels, etc.) and put it into the basket for dirty linen. After that they open the windows to let in
the fresh air and start tidying up the rooms. They dust and polish the walnut furniture, mop the
floor (and wax it once a month), clean the carpets with a vacuum-cleaner, shake out the
doormat and bed rugs in the yard and arrange them on the floor. Then Ann and her mother
brush the clothes, polish the shoes and get down to tidying up the kitchen. While Mrs Brown
scrubs the gas-stove and the kitchen table clean, Ann washes the sink and the bath-tub with
cleansing (scouring) powders. Last of all they vacuum clean the floor and wash it. Now that
everything looks shining and spotless Ann and her mother feel quite happy about it.
Ann is always ready to help her mother to do the cleaning. As far as Ann’s father and
brother are concerned, they don’t do much about the house. Ann’s brother, Jack, is too small
to help, he is only four. Small as he is, he never throws his toys around the room, but puts
them away himself. He never comes home in torn clothes and thus saves his mother the
trouble of doing them up.
Ann’s father’s only household chore is to fix electrical appliances (the vacuum-cleaner,
the washing-machine, the sewing-machine, the floorwaxer, the iron) when they go wrong
(which doesn’t happen very often).
You don’t think the household chores are shared equally in the family, do you? But
nobody minds it as everybody attends to the duties in earnest and the house is always nicely
kept.

Ex. 2. Choose the right word. Explain its meaning.


a) manage, run, go, go wrong, fix, fix up
1. She knows how to ... the house. 2. Pat ... to catch up with the group very quickly. 3. Who is
... the dancing club this August? 4. The TV set ... but the repairman ... it in no time. 5. I came
home earlier and helped my mother to ... the flat. 6. Charles got a bad mark for the exposition,
but he didn’t know where he ... . 7. My father’s chore is to ... electrical appliances when they
...

Ex. 3. Write English equivalents of the following words and phrases. Use them in
sentences of your own.
1. вести домашнее хозяйство; 2. заниматься уборкой квартиры; 3. чистить газовую
плиту; 4. сменить постельное белье; 5. проветривать комнаты; 6. вытереть пыль с
мебели; 7. натирать пол; 8. моющие средства; 9. швабра; 10. обязанности по дому; 11.
трясти ковры; 12. пылесос; 13. чинить электроприборы;

141
Ex. 4. Choose the words or word combinations you can correctly use in these sentences.
(See the list below.)
1. They say she is a good housewife and ... the house nicely. 2. In the kitchen we ... the sink
and the gas-range with ... . 3. The ... are shared equally in Peter’s family. 4. Aunt Rose ... the
floor with ... every day and ... it once a month. 5. They have ... every Saturday and ... the
carpets and rugs in the yard. 6. After a turn-out our room looked ... . 7. Mr Smith is very
experienced in ... electrical appliances. 8. We usually ... the bedclothes every week. 9. Lena
often oversleeps in the morning and has no time left to ... the bed. 10. My little brother ... the
clothes and ... the shoes himself.
a real housecleaning, to fix, to make, to shake out, to scrub, cleansing powders, household
chores, to run, to mop, a broom, to wax, neat and tidy, to brush, to polish, to change

Ex. 5. Make up questions using a verb with any suitable noun. Let other students answer
your questions.
to mop shoes to manage furniture
to polish chores to beat out house
to clean windows to come out of order floor
to share rugs to fix up carpet
to seal up bath-tub

Ex. 6. A) Listen to the dialogue and fill in the gaps. Write out all the expressions
related to household chores and explain what they mean.
Rebecca: OK, Diego, so now that I've moved in, what chores do we have to do? Like
are we going to _________ the chores or yeah?
Diego: I think we're both very independent so as long as we _________ our own areas clean it
should be enough. There are some things that have to be cleaned like the shower the dishes the
balcony and the toilet of course. So we don't have a very strict policy about _________ chores
which is cleanest it goes, so your room is your own responsibility as well as my room is my
own responsibility, but the common area we'll just split it.
Rebecca: OK, so do you have a ________ cleaner or do we need to go and buy one?
Diego: I have a_________ cleaner. It's very small but it does the work.
Rebecca: OK, so we have to vacuum. What about the rubbish _____? Does that go out once a
week or...?
Diego: We have a trash shed so we can take it out every _____ night but we have a big
recycling policy, so we have three different _______ bags. We have a green one, that it's for
burnables and then we have a pink one, that it's for ______ and plastic, and we have a silver
one, that it's for everything else.
Rebecca: Maybe I need to print out this list so I know what to ________ out.
Diego: It's _______ on the fridge so you can just take a quick look at it before throwing away
anything.
Rebecca: OK. OK. So, shower and toilets: how often do you clean them?
Diego: The toilet, as it goes, I don't know. Every time it gets ________. And the shower,
maybe once every two weeks.
Rebecca: OK. Clean shower.
Diego: Yeah, very clean shower.
Rebecca: Cool. So do you want to do it so that I clean it first and then you clean it next?

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Diego: I cleaned it yesterday so it should be OK for the next two weeks, but one thing about
the shower is you have to turn the hot water on every time you take a shower.
Rebecca: Good to _______.
Diego: Yeah, so you have to____ the little button that it's next to the kitchen, and yeah, just
______it and that's it. You're good to take a shower.
Rebecca: OK, so I need to remember that.
Diego: Yes.
Rebecca: What else is there? Oh, the balcony. There's no grass so we don't need mow the
_________. There's just a balcony. Do you have any plants that we need water?
Diego: I have a cactus. Yes. So we water that once every month.
Rebecca: Yeah, cactuses don't need...
Diego: Yeah, they don't need a lot of water, so it should be OK.
Rebecca: OK.
Diego: And for the balcony, yeah, I don't know, just dust it once in a while.
Rebecca: OK. Great. Alright, so we've _______ that out.
Diego: Yes.
Rebecca: That'll be good. So I will wash the bathroom next time around in two weeks, and
then our bedrooms we'll do ourselves, and everything else, yeah.
Diego: Do you want go get _________ right now?
Rebecca: Yeah, I'm starving.
Diego: Yeah. me too. Let's cook some dinner. OK, great.
B) Learn the vocabulary from the listening. Make your own examples.
split - Are we going to split the chores?
When you split something, you share it or divide it. Notice the following:
1. Let's split the dinner bill. We'll both pay half.
2. We split the chores. I do the dishes and he does the bathrooms.
strict policy - We don't have a very strict policy about dividing chores.
A strict policy is rules, usually written down, that everyone must follow. Notice the following:
1. We have a very strict policy agaist smoking at work.
2. Our school has a strict policy against wearing jewelry.
common area - But the common area, we'll just split it.
A 'common area' is a space shared by people in an apartment or dormitory. Notice the
following:
1. The TV is in the common area.
2. It is hard to study in the common area because everyone ends up talking.
once in a while - Just dust it once in a while.
The phrase 'once in a while' means not that often, or less than sometimes. Notice the
following:
1. I play soccer once in a while, about once every two months.
2. I have parties once in a while, but not that often.
starving - Yeah, I'm starving.
This means you are very hungry. Notice the following:
1. I'm starving. Let's have lunch.
2. You skipped breakfast. You must be starving.
[Adapted from: ww.ello.org]

Ex. 7. Read the text below (After A. Moravia). Make a list of the facts a) proving that
Alfredo was a man of order; b) describing the way he treated his wife.

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DON’T DELVE TOO DEEPLY
Agnes could surely have given me some warning instead of going away like
that, without telling me. And even now, six months after she left me, I don’t
understand why it was.
That morning after doing the household shopping I had gone out again to buy a yard
and a half of fringe to sew on to the curtain in the dining-room. It was about twenty past
eleven when I got home, I went into the dining-room to compare the colour of the fringe with
the colour of the curtain, and I at once saw, on the table, the inkstand and the pen and a letter.
To tell the truth, what struck me most of all was an ink-stain on the table-cloth. “Why in the
world,” I thought, “does she have to be so clumsy? She’s made a stain on the table-cloth.” I
took up the table-cloth, went with it into the kitchen, and there, by rubbing it hard with a
lemon, managed to take out the stain. Then I went back into the dining-room and replaced the
table-cloth, and only then I did remember the letter. I opened it and read: “Alfredo, I’ve done
the housework. You can cook the lunch yourself, you are quite accustomed to it. Good-bye.
I’m going back to Mother’s. Agnes.”
For a moment I understood nothing, then it dawned upon me: Agnes had left me after
two years of married life. From force of habit I put the letter into the drawer of the sideboard,
where I keep receipts and correspondence, and sat down on a chair beside the window. I did
not know what to think, I was quite unprepared. As I sat reflecting this, I saw a little white
feather which must have come off the feather-brush when Agnes was doing the dusting. I
picked it up and threw it out. Then I took my hat and went out of the house. As I walked along
I began to ask myself what I could have done to Agnes that she should leave me.
“Let us see,” I thought, “whether Agnes could find fault with me.” I at once answered
myself: none whatever. I’ve never been crazy about women, I don’t understand them and they
don’t understand me. With regard to money it is true that I never gave her any, but then what
need had she of money? I myself was always at hand, ready to pay. As for the way I treated
her, there was nothing unkind about that: the cinema twice a week, twice a week to a cafe, and
it did not matter whether she had an ice or just a cup of coffee every day. So much for
amusements. When Agnes needed something in clothes whether it was a pair of stockings or a
handkerchief, I was always ready: I went with her to the shops, I helped her choose the article,
I paid without any press. It was the same with dressmakers and milliners. So it had nothing to
do with affairs of the heart or money.
Agnes never contradicted me, in fact, she never spoke. During some of the evenings
she hardly opened her mouth. It was I who did the talking. I like talking and hearing myself
speak. And the subjects I prefer are domestic ones: about the prices of things and special
offers, about arrangements of the furniture, about the cooking and the heating, really, I should
never get tired of talking about these things. And what would one talk about with a woman?
Once she said to me - just a joke: “You made a mistake in being born a man. You’re really a
woman – a housewife, in fact.” There was some truth in that remark: I like cooking, washing,
ironing, sewing and even embroidering handkerchiefs in my leisure moments.
I reflected that the only person who could explain to me the mystery of her departure
was Agnes herself, so I went there. I ran upstairs and met her mother. She said cordially: “Oh
Alfredo, what are you doing here?” “You know why I’ve come,” I answered. “My dear boy,”
she said calmly, “these are things that just happen. Don’t delve too deeply.” “But why is it
she’s left me?” I exclaimed. “What have I done to her?”
While I was speaking, my eye fell on the table. It was covered with a cloth and on the
cloth was an embroidered centre-piece and on it stood a vase of flowers. But the centre-piece
was crooked. Automatically I lifted the vase and put the centre-piece in place. Then she said:
“Well done, I hadn’t noticed it but you saw it at once ... and now you had better go, dear boy.”

144
From that day to this I’ve never seen my wife. Some day, perhaps, she’ll come back.
But she is not going to cross the threshold of my house unless she first explains to me why it
was that she left me.

Ex. 8. What Do You Think? Work in pairs and compare the lists you made while you
were reading.
1. Was Alfredo a man of order? 2. Did he treat his wife in a proper way? 3. Should a
man interfere that much with domestic affairs? 4. Should a man accompany his wife
everywhere, including dressmakers and milliners? 5. Was Agnes right leaving her husband? 6.
Had she spoken with her husband about the things she was not satisfied with before? 7. Would
Agnes come back?
Translate the text.

Ex. 9. Imagine
a) what Alfredo might tell his friend about the mystery of Agnes’ leaving;
b) what Agnes might tell the mother about her decision.

Ex. 10. Imagine that Agnes came back to her husband in the long run. Make up the
conversation between her and Alfredo. While speaking you may like to use the following.
What about discussing...? Will you please...?
Why not speak about...? I’d like you to tell me
Let’s talk about...

Ex. 11. HOUSEHOLD CHORES. Choose the right answer.


1. Granny is coming for lunch. Please … the room before she arrives.
a) arrange b) order c) polish d) tidy
2. The attic was thick with … as no one had cleaned it for years.
a) dust b) powder c) rust d) sediment
3. Will you … the beds at once! Our guests are at the door.
a) clean b) cover c) make d) smooth
4. The house felt cold and … after weeks of bad weather.
a) damp b) moist c) watery d) wet
5. I must go to the laundry and … my washing
a) bring b) carry c) clean d) collect
6. Mrs. Helpful has cleaned our house from … to bottom.
a) attic b) first floor c) roof d) top
7. The only way to clean the box is to … it in soap and warm water
a) brush b) polish c) wash d) wipe
8. Don’t forget to put the … back on the toothpaste when you have finished with it.
a) cap b) cover c) hat d) lid
9. She has to work hard to keep the house … and tidy with such a big family.
a) arranged b) neat c) ordered d) smooth
10. “… your feet before you come into the house,” cried Mrs. Tidy.
a) Clean b) Polish c) Rub d) Wipe
11. Your … for today is to do the washing up.
a) duty b) homework c) labour d) task
12. Ask your sister if she could give me … with the washing up.
a) an aid b) a help c) a hand d) an assistance
13. They managed to get … all their unwanted things at the jumble sale.

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a) away with b) even with c) out of d) rid of
14. When you’ve washed up, … the plates before you put them away.
a) clean b) dry c) dust d) sweep
15. … the tube gently, so as not to waste the toothpaste.
a) Hit b) Lick c) Press d) Squeeze
16. Don’t leave your coat lying on the sofa like that! Hang it up by the … at the back of the
collar.
a) band b) hole c) hook d) loop
17. Please close the window; there’s a terrible … .
a) breeze b) current c) draught d) headwind
18. Her mother had asked her to do several … before she went out.
a) jobs b) labours c) studies d) works
19. We had a (an) … on the attic last weekend, and cleared out fifteen years’ accumulation of
odds and ends.
a) attack b) blitz c) invasion d) raid
20. There was a … of rubbish in the corner of the bedroom.
a) dump b) mass c) pile d) stack
21. Do straighten that picture over the fireplace, it looks … from here.
a) bent b) crooked c) inclined d) uneven
22. It was cold enough for a fire so Mr. Obedient went off to … some wood.
a) chip b) chop c) crumble d) splinter
23. The drunken couple did nothing to keep the flat clean and tidy and lived in the utter … .
a) contamination b) decay c) pollution d) squalor
24. I just have a few household … to cope with and then I’ll be able to rest.
a) assignments b) charges c) chores d) works
25. He has a(n) … habit of emptying ashtrays out of his window on to our doorstep.
a) disgusting b) offending c) uneducated d) uncultivated

Ex. 12. Working in pairs, speak on the following:


1. what you begin the housecleaning with;
2. what is to be done in the kitchen and in the bathroom;
3. how you participate in the housecleaning;
4. what other members of the family do during the housecleaning.

Ex. 13. Read the conversation between John and Mary, who are husband and wife, and
their friend Helen. Then talk over the following questions with your classmate.
1. What is the conversation about? 2. Why does the housework keep Mary busy? 3. What do
the children do about the house? 4. Is John of great help? 5. What labour-saving devices are
used in their family?
Housekeeping
Helen: How do you manage to do all the work by yourself, Mary, with a family of four?
Mary: Well, the housework keeps me busy, you know. As soon as one job is finished there is
another waiting to be done. The children are too small to help.
John: Don’t forget to say that I do my share. I’m always willing to lend a hand.
Helen: Oh, John, I haven’t seen you doing much housework.
John: Oh, haven’t you? Who helps with the washing up? Who mends anything that gets
broken? And when the electric lights go out who changes the bulbs and mends the fuses?
Yesterday, for example, the iron went wrong and I’d been fixing it for half an hour before
Mary could use it again.

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Mary: Yes, he’s very helpful, Helen. Besides, he helps with the children.
John: And I must admit that housekeeping is much easier nowadays than it used to be. Times
have changed. Now we don’t think what a blessing electricity is. We soon become accustomed
to new things and take them for granted. Nobody thinks of electricity as a luxury now.
Yesterday’s luxury is today’s necessity.
Mary: I don’t know what I should do without my vacuum-cleaner, washing-machine or
refrigerator to say nothing of radio, television and the telephone.
Helen: Right. All these things are very helpful indeed.

Ex. 14. Translate the following into Russian:


1. The shabbiness, the emptiness of the house depressed her. The house was very old; the
plaster flaked constantly from ceiling and walls.
2. The club had only that day re-opened after its annual cleaning,.
3. He noticed the overflowing garbage pail by the door. Somebody had thrown peanut shells
all over the stairs.
4. He swept the strewn litter into a heap, then dropped it into a box.
5. She was disastrously lazy. She would lie about the house, reading magazines and spilling
ash on the floor, while the dirt piled up in the corners and the milk went sour in the musty
larder.
6. He came into the room: the bed had not been tidied up for a week, odds and ends of clothing
decorated improbable places. But if he felt better there would be a general cleaning.
7. That evening he carefully cleared up the kitchen and the medicine cabinet and closets and
bookcases. Then he had a big house-cleaning and aired everything out in the sun.
8. The apartment was in its familiar state of disorder, with the bed unmade and Eric's clothes
draped over chairs.
10. Ten minutes later equipped with dusting cloths, pail, mop and broom Joseph was attacking
two weeks' accumulation of dirt.
12. He was vacuuming the rug and apologized for the unmade bed.
13. She straightened the sheets on the bed.
14. It was left to Granny to clear and wash the breakfast things, make her own bed, dust and
sweep a little, go to the shops. Once a week she went to the launderette. She made breakfast
and put the kitchen to rights.

15. Translate into English.


(1) Вы можете быстро постирать в прачечной самообслуживания.
(2)Почему в квартире такой беспорядок? Возьми пылесос и почисть ковер в гостиной,
затем вытри пыль с мебели и полей цветы.
(3) Если у тебя будет время, вымой посуду, вытри ее и поставь в шкаф.
(4) Как часто вы делаете генеральную уборку? - Раз в три месяца. После генеральной
уборки все блестит. После такой уборки приятно посидеть в уютном кресле и
отдохнуть.
(5) Что вы имеете в виду под «отдохнуть»? - Я имею в виду посмотреть хорошую
развлекательную телепрограмму, повязать, пошить что-нибудь или почитать
увлекательный детектив.
(6) Вы любите выходить куда-нибудь по вечерам? - Это зависит от моего настроения и
планов.
(7) Я предпочитаю заниматься йогой или другими видами спорта. Это помогает мне
поддерживать хорошую форму.

147
(8) У нашей бабушки много работы по дому: она убирает и моет посуду после еды,
подметает в кухне, вытирает пыль с мебели, ходит по магазинам; в общем, вся
домашняя работа лежит на ней. Вы ведь помогаете ей? - Конечно, у каждого из нас есть
свои обязанности по дому.
(9) Как часто ты убираешь свою комнату? - Через день. Сколько времени нужно тебе,
чтобы комната выглядела как с иголочки? Ну, на это уходит слишком много времени. Я
предпочитаю просто почистить ковер пылесосом, затолкать разбросанные вещи по
местам и потом немного отдохнуть.
(10) Я считаю, что дома построены для людей. Не стоит слишком расстраиваться, если в
комнате беспорядок. - Ну, не все так думают, хотя, конечно, о вкусах не спорят.

Ex. 16. Talk it over with your classmates.


A. 1. Is running a house an easy matter? Why? 2. Who does the housework in your
family? 3. Do other members of the family help? How are household chores split in your
family? 4. How often do you have a real housecleaning? 5. What do you like to do about the
house? 6. What do you do in the kitchen when having a turn-out? 7. Are there any things
about the house you usually try to avoid doing?
B. 1. Do you think that the whole family should participate in housecleaning? Why? 2.
What can children do to help about the house? 3. Should a man know how to cook? 4. Should
a woman know how to use tools? 5. Should a man interfere much in the kitchen?
C. 1. Is it hard to wash the linen nowadays if you have no washing machine? 2. Do you
like to iron starched cuffs and collars? 3. What should one remember about while washing
white and coloured things?
D. 1. Do you like the washing up? Why? 2. What do you start the washing up with? 3.
Who usually does the washing up in your family? 4. Is it necessary to wash the dishes after
every meal? 5. Which do you prefer: to wipe the dishes or to put them on the plate-rack to
dry? 6. Do you ever use any cleansing powders while washing up?

Section 3. Vocabulary
DAILY ROUTINE
I. Morning Activities
1. (not) to get enough sleep 15. to get up on time/ late/ 25. to make the bed
2. To adjust to the day early 26. on one’s way out the door
3. alarm goes off 16. to go for a run 27. to put on make-up
4. at the crack of dawn 17. to go jogging 28. to rush out of the house
5. to be (wide) awake 18. to go on foot 29. to set off to (university)
6. to be an early riser 19. to go to school (university, 30. to skip breakfast
7. to bounce out of bed work) by bus/ tram/ 31. to take a shower (a bath)
8. to catch a bus trolleybus/; 32. to take off one's clothes
9. to clean (brush) one's teeth 20. to go to the bathroom (pajamas, night dress, night
10. to comb (brush) one's hair 21. to feel refreshed gown)
11. to do one's hair 22. to have a hasty bite 33. to rise with the lark
12. to feel groggy (in the 23. to have a light (continental, 34. to wake up
morning) substantial, leisury) 35. to wind two alarm-clocks
13. to get dressed breakfast
14. to get out of bed 24. to have a warm-up

II. Evening Activities


1. to be a couch potato 6. to burn the midnight oil tomorrow.
2. to be a night- bird (an owl) 7. to feel sleepy 11. to lie (down) in bed
3. to be a TV addict 8. to feel dog tired 12. to listen to music
4. to be pooped (inf.) 9. to go to bed 13. Let's call it a day
5. to be/stay in 10. to leave smth till 14. to put on one's dressing

148
gown (bath robe, slippers) 15. to sit up late at night 16. to stay in bed

III. Sleep
1. changing sleep cycles 11. to have a regular sleep 18. to oversleep
2. to disrupt your own sleep pattern 19. pattern of sleep and
3. to doze off (inf) 12. to have an early night wakefulness
4. to drop asleep 13. to have/get a good night's 20. to sleep like a log
5. effects of sleep deprivation rest 21. to sleep on it
6. to feel sleepy 14. to keep late hours 22. to snore
7. to get enough sleep 15. to lie awake all night 23. to suffer from insomnia
8. to go / be out like a light 16. not lose sleep over 24. to take a nap
9. to go to bed early something
10. to have a good night's rest 17. not to slept a wink

IV. Lifestyles
1. a society of nine–to–fivers. 12. to be in tune with our 23. to minimise the
2. body’s natural rhythms natural environment disturbance
3. business before pleasure 13. to be like sardines 24. to organize one's time
4. fatigue 14. to deprive ourselves of 25. to outsmart our body
5. in the long run much needed rest clocks
6. patterns of sleeping and 15. to feel at your lowest ebb 26. to plan one's week
walking 16. to get wound up 27. to play havoc
7. physical and psychological 17. to hassle (inf.) 28. to run the risk of
well-being 18. to have a profound effect 29. to squeeze
8. pressures of 24-seven 19. to have a very tight 30. to start a new life.
society schedule 31. to think straight
9. round-the-clock lifestyle 20. to have sedentary lifestyle 32. to walk one’s feet into the
10. to be accident prone 21. to ignore our body clocks ground
11. to be at your sharpest 22. to juggle 33. to work like a slave/ horse

V. Leisure Activities
1. to appreciate life 13. to cope with stress 28. to keep fit
2. to arrange a party 14. To do smth enjoyable 29. to keeps off streets/ out of
3. to attend classes of 15. to eat out gangs
aerobics 16. to enjoy the day off 30. to practise yoga
4. to be addicted to/engrossed 17. to feel positive 31. to provide entertainment
in smth 18. to go clubbing 32. to put our feet up
5. to be beneficial to my 19. to go on a computer 33. to put smb in a good mood
overall life 20. to go out 34. to receive guests
6. to be a compulsive shopper 21. to go to keep-fit classes 35. to relax
7. to be fussy about 22. To go to see relatives 36. to stay occupied
8. to be in a good mood 23. to hang out with friends 37. to surf the Internet
9. to be sporty (to go in for 24. to have a takeaway 38. to take a rest
sport) 25. to have fun 39. to take smb out
10. to bond with my family. 26. to have some friends round 40. to use to the full
11. to chill out 27. to increase time spent 41. to watch the box (inf.)
12. to cope with anxiety outdoors

VI. College life


1. a bookwarm 11. a sophomore 20. Bachelor of Arts
2. a final exam 12. a student/undergraduate (Sciences)
3. a full-time student 13. a term/semester (Am.) 21. dean (dean’s office)
4. a graduate 14. a tricky (question) 22. department
5. a hostel/dormitory 15. a tutor 23. diploma
6. a junior (student)/freshman 16. an applicant 24. dissertation/thesis (pl.
7. a lecturer 17. an examiner theses)
8. a part-time student 18. assistant professor 25. examination card/paper
9. a post-graduate student 19. associate professor 26. exams/examination period
10. a senior (student) /session

149
27. faculty (faculty office) 64. to do well 98. to lack smth.
28. free tuition 65. to do/conduct/carry out 99. to lag behind the group
29. graduate with honours/cum research / a research 100. to learn by heart/to
laude project memorize
30. graduation dissertation 66. to do/give/prepare a 101. to live in a hall of
31. head of department lecture/talk residence
32. home assignment 67. to do/study a subject 102. to live on campus
33. It goes in one ear and out 68. to do/take a course 103. to major in smth. (Am.)
the other 69. to do/take/sit an exam 104. to make progress (in smth.)
34. Master of Arts (Sciences) 70. to educate 105. to master
35. professor 71. to examine 106. to miss classes on a
36. rector 72. to fail an exam in (English) plausible excuse/ for a
37. scholarship/grant (to apply 73. to gear yourself up for good reason
for ~) exams 107. to neglect
38. senior lecturer 74. to get a grade 108. to pace yourself
39. students’ council 75. to get a mark/grade (Am.) 109. to pass an exam
40. students’ membership card 76. To get Bachelor’s degree 110. to pass in (Latin)
41. students’ record book 77. to get down to homework 111. to pay tuition fee
42. students’ society 78. to get higher/tertiary 112. to pick up (coll.) a foreign
43. subdean education language
44. synopsis (pl. synopses) 79. To get Master’s degree 113. to play truant
45. test period 80. to get on well in/at smth. 114. to provide training
46. to be expelled - expulsion 81. to get/obtain a 115. to put my homework off
47. to attend the lectures degree/diploma 116. to read for seminars
48. to be absorbed in smth 82. to get/obtain a qualification 117. to read up for exams
49. to be good at smth./to have 83. to give a lecture 118. to recognize foreign
a good command of smth. 84. to give a pass/credit qualifications
50. to be smth. by training 85. to graduate from the 119. to retake exam
51. to be suspended university 120. to revise for exam
52. to carry on scientific/ 86. to grind away (for/at) 121. to sail through an exam
research work 87. to have 8 hours of English 122. to stretch your legs
53. to catch up on my studies a week 123. to study at university
54. to cheat 88. to have classes 124. to tackle a question
55. to coach smb. for an exam 89. to have classes in smth. 125. to take a degree
56. to cram 90. to have continuous 126. to take an exam
57. to crib (a crib) assessment 127. to take notes
58. to devote much time to 91. To have enough funding 128. to train
studies 92. to have lectures and 129. to tutor smb. in English
59. to disrupt classes seminars 130. to wind down
60. to distract - distraction 93. to have vacation/holidays 131. tutorial
61. to do an essay/assignment 94. to hinder your performance 132. vice-rector
62. to do postgraduate work 95. to improve 133. yearly essay
63. to do the first draft/final 96. to instruct
draft 97. to keep in one’s head

VII. Domestic Chores


1. a broom 11. floor-cloth 21. to buy groceries
2. a clothes line 12. household refuse 22. to clean/to do/to tidy
3. a mop 13. housekeeping up
4. a real housecleaning 14. labor-saving devices 23. to clear up the mess
5. accumulation / heap / 15. litter 24. to do household
pile of rubbish 16. neat and tidy chores
6. bed linen 17. not to be much of a 25. to do one's laundry
7. cleansing powders housewife 26. to do the cleaning
8. darks (dark things to be 18. to be an old hand at 27. to do the dishes
washed) and lights smth 28. to do the ironing
9. drudgery 19. to be of great help 29. to do the mending
10. dustbin 20. to be thick with dust 30. to do the repairs,

150
31. to do the washing 42. to leave things around 55. to shake out
32. to do up a room 43. to live in the utter 56. to share the chores
33. to dry up plates/ dishes squalor 57. to split the chores
34. to dust the furniture 44. to look spick and span 58. to take things to the
35. to empty the dustbin 45. to mop laundry
36. to fix 46. to polish the floor 59. to tidy up the room
37. to get out of order 47. to put dishes on the 60. to turn a blind eye to
38. to give smb a hand plate-rack to dry smth
with smth 48. to put smth in its place 61. to turn out a room/the
39. to hang out one's 49. to put things right kitchen
washing 50. to put up the curtains 62. to wash by hand
40. to help smb about the 51. to rinse 63. to wax
house 52. to roll up one's sleeves 64. to wipe one’s feet
41. to keep house (to run 53. to scrub floors
the house) 54. to sew (sewed, sewn)

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