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‫ﻧﺳﺧﺔ ﺇﻟﻛﺗﺭﻭﻧﻳﺔ ﻓﻘﻁ‬ ‫ﺍﻟــــﻌـﺩﺩ ‪26‬‬


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‫ﻣﺎﺫﺍ ﻧﺗﻌﻠﻡ ﻣﻥ ﺍﻟﻧﻣﺎﺫﺝ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻣﻳﺔ ﻟﻠﺗﻣﻳﺯ ﻭﺍﻹﺑﺩﺍﻉ؟‬
‫ﺗﺄﻟﻳﻑ‪ :‬ﻓﻳﻔﻳﺎﻥ ﺳﺗﻳﻭﺍﺭﺕ‬

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‫ﺍﻟﻣﺗﺯﺍﻳﺩ ﻓﻲ ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﺗﻐﻳﻳﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺗﻲ ﺗﻁﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻌﻣﻠﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺗﻌﻠﻳﻣﻳﺔ‪،‬‬ ‫’ ‪!πeÉc º«∏©J Ωɶf óLƒj‬‬
‫ﺣﺗﻰ ﻟﻭ ﻣﺭﺕ ﻋﻘﻭﺩ ﺳﺎﺭ ﻓﻳﻬﺎ ﺃﺩﺍء ﺍﻟﺗﺭﺑﻭﻳﻳﻥ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻧﻔﺱ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻣﻧﻭﺍﻝ‪ .‬ﻟﻡ ﻳﻛﻥ ﻧﺟﺎﺡ ﺗﻠﻙ ﺍﻟﺩﻭﻝ ﻣﺣﺽ ﻣﺻﺎﺩﻓﺔ‪ ،‬ﺑﻝ ﻭﻟﻳﺩ‬ ‫ﺗﺣﺩﻳﺎﺕ ﻣﻥ ﻧﻭﻉ ﺃﻭ ﺁﺧﺭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺟﻣﻳﻊ‪ .‬ﺣﺗﻰ‬
‫ٍ‬ ‫ﺗﻔﺭﺽ ﺍﻟﻌﻭﻟﻣﺔ‬
‫ﺍﺧﺗﻳﺎﺭﻫﺎ ﻟﻠﺳﻳﺎﺳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺻﺣﻳﺣﺔ ﺑﻌﻧﺎﻳﺔ ﻭﺗﻁﺑﻳﻘﻬﺎ ﺑﻔﻌﺎﻟﻳﺔ‪ .‬ﻓﻣﻥ‬ ‫ﺃﻧﻅﻣﺔ ﺍﻟﺗﻌﻠﻳﻡ ﺣﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻡ ﻟﻡ ﺗﺳﻠﻡ ﻣﻥ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻟﺗﺣﺩﻳﺎﺕ؛ ﻓﻛﻝ‬
‫ﺧﻼﻝ ﺍﻟﺟﻣﻊ ﺑﻳﻥ ﺍﺳﺗﺭﺍﺗﻳﺟﻳﺎﺕ ﻭﺃﺳﺎﻟﻳﺏ ﺍﻟﻘﻳﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﻧﺎﺟﺣﺔ ﻣﻊ‬ ‫ﻣﻧﻬﺎ ﻳﻛﺎﻓﺢ ﺑﺩﺭﺟ ٍﺔ ﻣﺎ ﻟﻛﻲ ﻳﻭﺍﻛﺏ ﺍﻹﻳﻘﺎﻉ ﺍﻟﺳﺭﻳﻊ ﻟﻠﺗﻐﻳﻳﺭ‬
‫ﻭﺟﻭﺩ ﺍﻟﻘﺩﺭﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺑﻧﺎء ﺍﻟﻣﻬﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺳﺗﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﻣﺩﺭﺳﺔ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺫﻱ ﻁﺎﻝ ﻛﻝ ﺷﻲء ﻓﻲ ﺣﻳﺎﺗﻧﺎ‪ .‬ﻭﺍﻟﺩﻭﻝ ً‬
‫ﺃﻳﺿﺎ ﺗﻭﺍﺟﻪ ﺍﻟﻌﺩﻳﺩ‬
‫ﺗﻣﻛﻧﺕ ﺗﻠﻙ ﺍﻟﺩﻭﻝ ﻣﻥ ﺇﺣﺭﺍﺯ ﺍﻟﺗﻣﻳﺯ ﻓﻲ ﺃﺩﺍء ﻁﻼﺑﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻣﻥ ﺍﻟﺗﺣﺩﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻣﻣﺎﺛﻠﺔ‪ .‬ﻓﻌﻠﻰ ﺳﺑﻳﻝ ﺍﻟﻣﺛﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﺗﺳﺑﺑﺕ ﺍﻟﻣﻌﺩﻻﺕ‬
‫ﻭﺇﻧﺟﺎﺯﺍﺗﻬﻡ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﻘﻠﻳﺹ ﻣﻌﺩﻝ ﺗﻐﻳﻳﺭﻫﻡ ﻟﻣﺩﺍﺭﺳﻬﻡ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻌﺎﻣﻠﺗﻬﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻣﺗﺯﺍﻳﺩﺓ ﻟﻠﻬﺟﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺩﺍﺧﻠﻳﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺧﺎﺭﺟﻳﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻅﻬﻭﺭ ﺍﻟﻛﺛﻳﺭ ﻣﻥ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﻗﺩﻡ ﺍﻟﻣﺳﺎﻭﺍﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﺳﺎﻋﺩﺗﻬﻡ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺗﻔﻭﻕ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﻝ ﻫﺫﺍ ﻳﺗﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻣﺟﺗﻣﻌﺎﺕ ﻏﻳﺭ ﺍﻟﻣﺗﺟﺎﻧﺳﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻛﻝ ﻣﻛﺎﻥ‪ ،‬ﺍﻷﻣﺭ ﺍﻟﺫﻱ ﻳﻠﻘﻲ‬
‫ﺑﺗﻛﻠﻔﺔ ﺃﻗﻝ ﻣﻥ ﺍﻟﺩﻭﻝ ﺍﻷﺧﺭﻯ‪ .‬ﻗﺩ ﻳﺟﺎﺩﻝ ﺍﻟﺑﻌﺽ ﻗﺎﺋﻠﻳﻥ ﺇﻥ‬ ‫ﺑﻣﺳﺅﻭﻟﻳﺎﺕ ﺟﺩﻳﺩﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻋﺎﺗﻕ ﺍﻟﺗﺭﺑﻭﻳﻳﻥ ﺍﻟﺫﻳﻥ ﻳﺿﻁﺭﻭﻥ‬
‫ﺗﺟﺎﺭﺏ ﺍﻟﺩﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﺻﻐﻳﺭﺓ ﻧﺳﺑﻳًﺎ ﻻ ﺗﻼﺋﻡ ﺩﻭﻟﺔ ﺑﺣﺟﻡ ”ﺍﻟﻭﻻﻳﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﺗﻌﺎﻣﻝ ﻣﻊ ﻁﻼﺏ ﻭﻋﺎﺋﻼﺕ ﻣﻥ ﺧﻠﻔﻳﺎﺕ ﺛﻘﺎﻓﻳﺔ ﻭﻟﻐﻭﻳﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻣﺗﺣﺩﺓ“ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺳﺑﻳﻝ ﺍﻟﻣﺛﺎﻝ‪ ،‬ﻟﻛﻥ ﺣﺟﻡ ﺍﻟﻌﺩﻳﺩ ﻣﻥ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻟﺩﻭﻝ‬ ‫ﻣﺗﺑﺎﻳﻧﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﺑﺎﻹﺿﺎﻓﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﺗﺣﺩﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺗﻲ ﺗﻭﺍﺟﻬﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻣﺩﺍﺭﺱ‬
‫ﻟﺗﺗﺄﻗﻠﻡ ﻣﻊ ﺗﻠﻙ ﺍﻟﻣﺟﺗﻣﻌﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺟﺩﻳﺩﺓ‪ ،‬ﺗﻁﺭﺡ ﺍﻟﻌﻭﻟﻣﺔ ً‬
‫ﺃﻳﺿﺎ‬
‫– ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺣﻘﻳﻘﺔ – ﻳﻭﺍﺯﻱ ﺣﺟﻡ ﻭﻻﻳﺔ ﺃﻣﺭﻳﻛﻳﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺑﺎﻟﺗﺎﻟﻲ ﻳﻣﻛﻥ‬
‫ﺃﺳﺋﻠﺔ ﺟﻭﻫﺭﻳﺔ ﻋﻥ ﺍﻟﻣﻌﺭﻓﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻣﻬﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺗﻲ ﻳﺟﺏ ﺃﻥ ﺗﻘﺩﻣﻬﺎ‬
‫ﺍﺳﺗﺧﺩﺍﻣﻬﺎ ﻛﻧﻣﻭﺫﺝ ﻟﺗﻁﻭﻳﺭ ﻧﻅﺎﻡ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻣﺩﺍﺭﺱ ﻟﻠﺧﺭﻳﺟﻳﻥ ﺍﻟﻳﻭﻡ ﻭﺍﻟﺗﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺗﻌﻠﻳﻡ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺳﺗﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﻭﻻﻳﺔ‪ .‬ﻋﻼﻭﺓ‬
‫‘ ‪á°UÓÿG √òg‬‬ ‫ﺍﺧﺗﻠﻔﺕ ﺗﻣﺎﻣًﺎ ﻋﻥ ﺗﻠﻙ ﺍﻟﺗﻲ ﻛﺎﻧﺕ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺫﻟﻙ‪ ،‬ﻳﻣﻛﻧﻧﺎ ﺃﻥ ﻧﺗﻌﻠﻡ ﻣﻥ ﺩﻭﻝ‬
‫ﺗﻘﺩﻣﻬﺎ ﻟﻠﺧﺭﻳﺟﻳﻥ ﺑﺎﻷﻣﺱ‪.‬‬
‫ﺃﻛﺑﺭ ﻣﻥ ﺍﻟﻭﻻﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻣﺗﺣﺩﺓ ﺑﻛﺛﻳﺭ‬ ‫▼ ﺍﻟﻌﻧﺎﺻﺭ ﺍﻟﻣﺷﺗﺭﻛﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻧﻅﻡ ﺍﻟﺗﻌﻠﻳﻣﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻧﺎﺟﺣﺔ‬

‫ﻟﻛﻧﻬﺎ ﺗﺧﻁﻭ ﺧﻁﻭﺍﺕ ﻭﺍﺳﻌﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻫﺫﺍ‬ ‫▼ ﺩﺭﻭﺱ ﻳﺳﺗﻔﻳﺩ ﻣﻧﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺗﺭﺑﻭﻳﻭﻥ ﻓﻲ ﺟﻣﻳﻊ ﺃﻧﺣﺎء ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻡ‬
‫ﻣﻊ ﺫﻟﻙ‪ ،‬ﻫﻧﺎﻙ ﺑﻌﺽ ﺩﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻡ‬
‫▼ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﻧﻅﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺻﺣﻳﺢ ﻟﻠﻣﺳﺎءﻟﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺻﺩﺩ‪ ،‬ﻣﺛﻝ ”ﺍﻟﻬﻧﺩ“ ﻭ”ﺍﻟﺻﻳﻥ“‪.‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺗﻲ ﺃﺛﺑﺗﺕ ﺇﻣﻛﺎﻧﻳﺔ ﻣﻭﺍﻛﺑﺔ ﺍﻟﺗﺳﺎﺭﻉ‬

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‫ﺍﻟﺳﻧـﺔ ﺍﻟﺛﺎﻟﺛﺔ ‪ -‬ﺍﻟـﻌـﺩﺩ ﺍﻟﺛﺎﻧﻲ ‪) -‬ﻓﺑﺭﺍﻳﺭ ‪26 - (2013‬‬ ‫ﺟﻬﻭﺩ ﺗﻠﻙ ﺍﻟﺩﻭﻝ ﺛﻣﺎﺭﻫﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺯﻳﺎﺩﺓ ﻣﻌﺩﻻﺕ ﺍﻟﺗﺧﺭﺝ‪ ،‬ﻭﺭﻓﻊ‬ ‫ﺗﺻﺏ ﺍﻟﺩﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﺗﻲ ﺗﺗﻣﺗﻊ ﺑﺄﺩﺍء ﺗﻌﻠﻳﻣﻲ ﻣﺗﻣﻳﺯ – ﺃﻭ ﺳﺭﻳﻊ‬
‫ﻣﺳﺗﻭﻯ ﺃﺩﺍء ﺍﻟﻁﻼﺏ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﻘﻠﻳﻝ ﺍﻟﻔﺟﻭﺓ ﺑﻳﻥ ﺍﻟﺟﻬﻭﺩ ﺍﻟﻣﺑﺫﻭﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺗﻁﻭﺭ – ﺟﻝ ﺍﻫﺗﻣﺎﻣﻬﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﻁﺑﻳﻕ ﺍﻷﻧﻅﻣﺔ ﺍﻟﺗﻌﻠﻳﻣﻳﺔ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﻧﺗﺎﺋﺞ ﺍﻟﻣﺄﻣﻭﻟﺔ؟ ﺗﺟﻳﺏ ﺍﻟﻧﻘﺎﻁ ﺍﻟﺛﻣﺎﻧﻲ ﺍﻟﺗﺎﻟﻳﺔ ﻋﻥ ﻫﺫﺍ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻣﻧﺎﺳﺑﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﺣﺩﻳﺙ ﻁﺭﻳﻘﺔ ﺗﻘﻳﻳﻣﻬﺎ ﻟﺗﻠﻙ ﺍﻷﻧﻅﻣﺔ ﻟﻣﻌﺭﻓﺔ ﻣﺎ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺳﺅﺍﻝ‪ ،‬ﻛﻣﺎ ﺗﺳﺗﻌﺭﺽ ﺃﻫﻡ ﺍﻟﺩﺭﻭﺱ ﺍﻟﺗﻲ ﻳﻣﻛﻥ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺳﺗﻔﻳﺩ‬ ‫ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻧﺕ ﺗﺅﻫﻝ ﺍﻟﻁﻼﺏ ﺑﺎﻟﻔﻌﻝ ﻟﻼﻧﺧﺭﺍﻁ ﻓﻲ ﻋﺎﻟﻡ ﻳﺗﻐﻳﺭ‬
‫ﻣﻧﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺗﺭﺑﻭﻳﻭﻥ ﻓﻲ ﺟﻣﻳﻊ ﺃﻧﺣﺎء ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻡ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻋﻧﺩﻣﺎ ﻳﻼﺣﻅ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﻣﺧﺯﻭﻧﻪ ﺍﻟﻣﻌﺭﻓﻲ ﺑﺳﺭﻋﺔ ﻓﺎﺋﻘﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺗﻐﻳﻳﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺗﻲ ﺗﻁﺭﺃ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺳﻳﺎﺳﺎﺕ ﺃﻭ ﻣﻣﺎﺭﺳﺎﺕ ﺗﻌﻠﻳﻣﻳﺔ‬
‫‪IOÉ«≤dGh ájDhôdG -1‬‬ ‫ﺑﻌﻳﻧﻬﺎ – ﺳﻭﺍء ﺃﻛﺎﻧﺕ ﻣﺗﻌﻠﻘﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻌﻠﻭﻡ ﻭﺍﻟﺭﻳﺎﺿﻳﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﺃﻡ‬
‫ﺑﺗﻁﻭﻳﺭ ﺃﺳﺎﻟﻳﺏ ﺍﻟﺗﻌﻠﻳﻡ ﻭﺍﻟﻘﻳﺎﺩﺓ‪ ،‬ﺃﻡ ﺑﺎﻟﺗﺩﺧﻝ ﺍﻟﻣﺑﻛﺭ ﻟﺣﻝ‬
‫ﺃﺻﺑﺢ ﺍﻟﺩﻭﺭ ﺍﻟﺫﻱ ﺗﻠﻌﺑﻪ ﺍﻟﻣﻭﺍﻫﺏ ﻭﺍﻟﻣﻭﺍﺭﺩ ﺍﻟﺑﺷﺭﻳﺔ ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻣﺷﻛﻠﺔ ﻣﺎ ﻗﺑﻝ ﺃﻥ ﺗﺗﻔﺎﻗﻡ – ﻓﺈﻧﻬﻡ ﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﻣﺎ ﻳﻘﺎﺭﻧﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﻭﺳﺎﺋﻝ‬
‫ﺍﻗﺗﺻﺎﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺻﺭ ﺍﻟﺣﺩﻳﺙ ﻣﺣﻭﺭﻳًﺎ ﺃﻛﺛﺭ ﻣﻥ ﺫﻱ ﻗﺑﻝ‪ ،‬ﻣﻣﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺗﻲ ﺗﺗﺑﻌﻬﺎ ﺩﻭﻟﻬﻡ ﺑﺄﻓﺿﻝ ﺍﻟﻣﻣﺎﺭﺳﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﻣﻧﻬﺟﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻣﺗﺑﻌﺔ‬
‫ﺯﺍﺩ ﻣﻥ ﻋﺩﺩ ﺍﻟﻣﺟﺗﻣﻌﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺗﻲ ﺗﻌﻲ ﺃﻫﻣﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺗﻌﻠﻳﻡ ﻟﺗﺣﻘﻳﻕ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ ﺟﻣﻳﻊ ﺩﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻡ ﺑﻣﺎ ﻓﻳﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻭﻻﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻣﺗﺣﺩﺓ‪ .‬ﻳﻁﻠﻕ ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺭﺧﺎء ﺍﻻﻗﺗﺻﺎﺩﻱ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻣﺳﺗﻘﺑﻝ‪ .‬ﻟﺫﻟﻙ ﺃﺻﺑﺢ ﺍﻟﻛﺛﻳﺭ ﻣﻥ‬ ‫ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻻﺳﺗﺭﺍﺗﻳﺟﻳﺔ ﺍﺳﻡ ”ﺍﻟﻣﺭﺟﻌﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻣﻳﺔ؛“ ﻭﻗﺩ ﺃﺻﺑﺣﺕ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺩﻭﻝ ﻳﻬﺗﻡ ﺑﺈﺩﺧﺎﻝ ﺇﺻﻼﺣﺎﺕ ﺷﺎﻣﻠﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺗﻌﻠﻳﻡ ﺑﻬﺩﻑ‬ ‫ﻣﻥ ﺃﻫﻡ ﺍﻷﺩﻭﺍﺕ ﻟﺩﻯ ﺍﻟﺣﻛﻭﻣﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﺗﺭﺑﻭﻳﻳﻥ ﺍﻟﺫﻳﻥ ﻳﺳﻌﻭﻥ‬
‫ﺗﺣﺳﻳﻥ ﺃﺩﺍء ﺍﻟﻁﻼﺏ‪ .‬ﻳﺯﺩﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﻁﻠﺏ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﻁﻭﻳﺭ ﺍﻟﺗﻌﻠﻳﻡ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻰ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺃﻧﻅﻣﺔ ﺗﻌﻠﻳﻣﻳﺔ ﻋﺎﻟﻣﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻣﺳﺗﻭﻯ‪ .‬ﻭﺳﻧﺗﻌﺭﻑ‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﺟﻣﻳﻊ ﺃﺭﺟﺎء ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻡ ﻳﻭﻣًﺎ ﺑﻌﺩ ﻳﻭﻡ‪ ،‬ﻭﻏﺎﻟﺑًﺎ ﻣﺎ ﺗﺑﺩﺃ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺳﻁﻭﺭ ﺍﻟﺗﺎﻟﻳﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻌﻧﺎﺻﺭ ﺍﻟﻣﺷﺗﺭﻛﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻷﻧﻅﻣﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻹﺻﻼﺣﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺗﻲ ﺗﻬﺩﻑ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺗﺣﻘﻳﻕ ﺫﻟﻙ ﺍﻟﺗﻁﻭﻳﺭ ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻧﺎﺟﺣﺔ ﺍﻟﺗﻲ ﻭﺿﻌﺗﻬﺎ ﺩﻭﻝ ﻣﺧﺗﻠﻔﺔ ﺣﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻡ ﺑﺩءًﺍ ﻣﻥ‬
‫ﻳﺩ ﻗﺎﺋﺩ ﻭﺍﺣﺩ ﻗﻭﻱ‪ .‬ﻟﻬﺫﺍ ﺍﻟﺳﺑﺏ‪ ،‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺗﻐﻳﻳﺭ ﺍﻟﻘﻳﺎﺩﺍﺕ‬ ‫ً‬
‫ﻭﺻﻭﻻ ﺇﻟﻰ ”ﻛﻧﺩﺍ“ ﻭﻣﺭﻭﺭً ﺍ ﺑـ”ﺍﻟﺻﻳﻥ“‪،‬‬ ‫”ﺃﺳﺗﺭﺍﻟﻳﺎ“‬
‫ﺍﻟﺳﻳﺎﺳﻳﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺃﻱ ﻣﻛﺎﻥ – ﺳﻭﺍء ﺃﻛﺎﻥ ﺩﻭﻟﺔ ﺃﻡ ﻭﻻﻳﺔ ﺃﻡ ﻣﺩﻳﻧﺔ‬ ‫ﻭ”ﺳﻧﻐﺎﻓﻭﺭﺓ“‪ ،‬ﻭ”ﻓﻧﻠﻧﺩﺍ“‪.‬‬
‫– ﻳﺗﻡ ﺑﺻﻭﺭﺓ ﺳﺭﻳﻌﺔ ﻭﻣﺗﻛﺭﺭﺓ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﺫﻟﻙ ﻳﺟﻌﻝ ﻣﻥ ﺗﻁﺑﻳﻕ‬
‫ﺧﻁﻁ ﺍﻹﺻﻼﺡ ﻁﻭﻳﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﻣﺩﻯ )ﺍﻟﺗﻲ ﻳُﻧﺗﻅﺭ ﺃﻥ ﺗﺅﺗﻲ ﺛﻣﺎﺭﻫﺎ‬ ‫‪º¶f ‘ ácΰûŸG öUÉæ©dG‬‬
‫ﺑﻳﻥ ﺧﻣﺱ ﻭﻋﺷﺭ ﺳﻧﻭﺍﺕ( ﺃﻣﺭً ﺍ ﺑﺎﻟﻎ ﺍﻟﺻﻌﻭﺑﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﻣﻥ ﺃﻫﻡ‬ ‫‪áëLÉædG º«∏©àdG‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺩﺭﻭﺱ ﺍﻟﻣﺳﺗﻔﺎﺩﺓ ﻣﻥ ﺗﻠﻙ ﺍﻟﺩﻭﻝ ﻫﻭ ﺃﻫﻣﻳﺔ ﺗﻛﺎﺗﻑ ﺃﺻﺣﺎﺏ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻣﺻﻠﺣﺔ ﻟﻭﺿﻊ ﺧﻁﺔ ﻟﻺﺻﻼﺣﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺗﻲ ﺗﺣﻘﻕ ﺃﻗﺻﻰ‬ ‫ﺗﻁﻭﻳﺭ ﺍﻟﻣﺩﺍﺭﺱ ﻟﻳﺱ ﺑﺎﻷﻣﺭ ﺍﻟﺳﻬﻝ‪ .‬ﻓﻛﻝ ﻋﺎﻡ‪ ،‬ﺗُﺩﺧﻝ‬
‫ﺍﺳﺗﻔﺎﺩﺓ ﻟﻠﻣﺩﺭﺳﻳﻥ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻭﻟﻳﺎء ﺍﻷﻣﻭﺭ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻣﻧﺎﻁﻕ ﻭﺍﻟﻣﺅﺳﺳﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻣﺩﺍﺭﺱ ﻓﻲ ﻛﻝ ﻣﻛﺎﻥ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻡ ﺗﻘﺭﻳﺑًﺎ ﺗﻌﺩﻳﻼﺕ ﻻ ﺣﺻﺭ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺗﻌﻠﻳﻣﻳﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺫﻟﻙ ﻟﻣﻭﺍﺟﻬﺔ ﺍﻟﺗﺣﺩﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺗﻲ ﻗﺩ ﺗﻁﺭﺃ ﻧﺗﻳﺟﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻬﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻣﻧﺎﻫﺞ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﻁﺭﻕ ﺍﻟﺗﺩﺭﻳﺱ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻧﻅﺎﻡ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﺓ‪،‬‬
‫ﻟﺗﻐﻳﻳﺭ ﺍﻟﻘﻳﺎﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺳﻳﺎﺳﻳﺔ‪ .‬ﻳﺗﻣﺛﻝ ﺫﻟﻙ ﺍﻟﺗﻛﺎﺗﻑ ﻓﻲ ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺗﻛﻧﻭﻟﻭﺟﻳﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﺎ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺫﻟﻙ‪ ،‬ﻟﻛﻥ ﻣﻌﻅﻡ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻟﺗﻌﺩﻳﻼﺕ‬
‫ﻳﺟﺗﻣﻊ ﺃﺻﺣﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﻣﺻﻠﺣﺔ ﺍﻟﺭﺋﻳﺳﻳﻭﻥ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻁﺎﻭﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﻧﻘﺎﺵ‬ ‫ﻳﻔﺷﻝ ﻓﻲ ﺗﺣﻘﻳﻕ ﺍﻟﺗﻐﻳﻳﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺟﻭﻫﺭﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻣﻧﺷﻭﺩﺓ‪ .‬ﻭﺑﻔﺿﻝ‬
‫ﺑﺻﻔﺔ ﻣﻧﺗﻅﻣﺔ ﻟﻣﺭﺍﻗﺑﺔ ﺍﻟﺗﻘﺩﻡ ﺍﻟﺫﻱ ﺗﺣﺭﺯﻩ ﺧﻁﺔ ﺍﻹﺻﻼﺡ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺑﺣﺎﺙ ﺍﻟﻣﺩﺭﺳﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺟﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺗﻲ ﺑﺩﺃﺕ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺛﻣﺎﻧﻳﻧﻳﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﻋﺭﻓﻧﺎ‬
‫ﻭﺗﻌﺩﻳﻠﻬﺎ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻟﺯﻡ ﺍﻷﻣﺭ ﻟﻠﺣﻔﺎﻅ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻌﺩﻝ ﺗﻘﺩﻣﻬﺎ‪ .‬ﻓﻔﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻛﺛﻳﺭ ﻋﻥ ﺃﻫﻡ ﺍﻟﻌﻧﺎﺻﺭ ﻟﺻﻧﻊ ﺍﻟﻣﺩﺍﺭﺱ ﺍﻟﻧﺎﺟﺣﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻔﻌﻝ‪.‬‬
‫”ﻓﻧﻠﻧﺩﺍ“‪ ،‬ﺗﻡ ﺍﻟﻘﻳﺎﻡ ﺑﺟﻬﻭﺩ ﺣﺛﻳﺛﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺩﺍﺭ ﺳﻧﻭﺍﺕ ﻹﻳﺟﺎﺩ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺗﺣﺩﻱ ﺍﻵﻥ ﻫﻭ ﺃﻥ ﻧﺻﻧﻊ ﺃﻧﻅﻣﺔ ﺗﻌﻠﻳﻣﻳﺔ ﻧﺎﺟﺣﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺫﻟﻙ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺗﻭﺍﻓﻕ ﺑﻳﻥ ﺍﻟﻘﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺳﻳﺎﺳﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﻧﻠﻧﺩﻳﺔ ﺑﻬﺩﻑ ﺿﻣﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﺗﻘﺩﻡ‬ ‫ﺃﻻ ﻧﻬﺩﻑ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺗﺄﺳﻳﺱ ﻋﺩﺩ ﻣﻌﻘﻭﻝ ﻣﻥ ﺍﻟﻣﺩﺍﺭﺱ‬ ‫ﻳﻘﺗﺿﻲ ّ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺛﺎﺑﺕ ﻟﺧﻁﺔ ﺍﻹﺻﻼﺡ ﻟﻣﺩﺓ ﻋﺷﺭﻳﻥ ﻋﺎﻣًﺎ ﻗﺎﺩﻣﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺩ ﺧﺭﺝ‬ ‫ً‬
‫ﺃﻳﺿﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﻁﻭﻳﺭ ﺁﻻﻑ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺟﻳﺩﺓ ﻓﺣﺳﺏ‪ ،‬ﺑﻝ ﺃﻥ ﻧﻌﻣﻝ‬
‫ﺧﻼﺻــــﺎﺕ ﻛﺗﺏ ﺍﻟﺗﺭﺑﻳــــﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺗﻌﻠﻳﻡ‬

‫ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻟﺗﻭﺍﻓﻕ ﺑﺎﻟﻔﻌﻝ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺣﻳﺯ ﺍﻟﻭﺟﻭﺩ ﺑﻌﺩ ﺃﻥ ﺃﺛﺑﺗﺕ ”ﻓﻧﻠﻧﺩﺍ“‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻣﺩﺍﺭﺱ ﺍﻟﻣﻭﺟﻭﺩﺓ ﺑﺎﻟﻔﻌﻝ‪ .‬ﻭﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻟﻧﻭﻉ ﻣﻥ ﺍﻟﻧﺟﺎﺡ ﻫﻭ ﻣﺎ‬
‫ﻧﺟﺎﺣﻬﺎ ً‬
‫ﻭﻓﻘﺎ ﻟﻠﻣﻌﺎﻳﻳﺭ ﺍﻟﺩﻭﻟﻳﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺗﻣﻛﻧﺕ ﺍﻟﺩﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﻣﺫﻛﻭﺭﺓ ﻣﻥ ﺗﺣﻘﻳﻘﻪ‪ ،‬ﻟﺫﻟﻙ ﻗﺩﻣﺕ ﺗﻌﻠﻳﻣًﺎ ﻋﺎﻟﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺟﻭﺩﺓ ﻟﻣﺋﺎﺕ ﺍﻵﻻﻑ ﻣﻥ ﺍﻟﻁﻼﺏ‪.‬‬
‫ً‬
‫ﺃﻳﺿﺎ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺃﻥ ﺗﺗﺳﻊ ﻟﺗﺷﻣﻝ ﻧﻅﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺗﻌﻠﻳﻡ‬ ‫ﺗﺣﺗﺎﺝ ﺍﻟﺭﺅﻳﺔ‬
‫ﺑﺄﻛﻣﻠﻪ‪ .‬ﻭﺭﻏﻡ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻷﻧﻅﻣﺔ ﺍﻟﺗﻌﻠﻳﻣﻳﺔ ﺗﺳﺗﻁﻳﻊ ﺃﻥ ﺗﻭﺍﻛﺏ‬ ‫ﺭﺣﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺗﻌﻠﻳﻡ ﻓﻲ ﻛﻝ ﺑﻠﺩ ﻫﻲ ﺭﺣﻠﺔ ﻓﺭﻳﺩﺓ ﻭﻣﺳﺗﻣﺭﺓ‪ ،‬ﻓﻛﻝ‬
‫ﻋﺩ ًﺩﺍ ﻣﺣﺩﻭ ًﺩﺍ ﻣﻥ ﺍﻟﺗﻐﻳﻳﺭﺍﺕ ﻓﻲ ﻧﻔﺱ ﺍﻟﻭﻗﺕ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻧﻪ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﻠﺩ ﻟﻪ ﻣﺎ ﻳﻣﻳﺯﻩ ﻣﻥ ﺗﻘﺎﻟﻳﺩ ﺛﻘﺎﻓﻳﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﺭﻛﻳﺑﺔ ﺳﻛﺎﻧﻳﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻧﻅﻣﺔ‬
‫ﺗﻐﻳﻳﺭ ﺃﺣﺩ ﺃﺟﺯﺍء ﻧﻅﺎﻡ ﻣﺎ ﻭﺑﻘﺎء ﺍﻷﺟﺯﺍء ﺍﻷﺧﺭﻯ ﻛﻣﺎ ﻫﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﻛﻝ ﻫﺫﺍ ﻳﺅﺛﺭ ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺳﻳﺎﺳﻳﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﻁﻭﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻗﺗﺻﺎﺩﻳﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺩﻭﻥ ﺗﻐﻳﻳﺭ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﺟﻬﻭﺩ ﺍﻹﺻﻼﺡ ﺗﺑﻭء ﺑﺎﻟﻔﺷﻝ‪ .‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﺳﺑﻳﻝ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻭﻟﻭﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺗﻲ ﻳﻣﻧﺣﻬﺎ ﺫﻟﻙ ﺍﻟﺑﻠﺩ ﻟﺗﻁﻭﻳﺭ ﻣﺟﺎﻻﺕ ﻣﻌﻳﻧﺔ ﺩﻭﻥ‬
‫‪2‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻣﺛﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﺗﻡ ﺑﺫﻝ ﺟﻬﺩ ﻓﻲ ﺗﻌﻳﻳﻥ ﻣﺩﺭﺳﻳﻥ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺩﺭﺟﺔ‬ ‫ﻏﻳﺭﻫﺎ‪ .‬ﻓﻣﺎ ﺍﻟﻌﻭﺍﻣﻝ ﺍﻟﻣﺷﺗﺭﻛﺔ ﺍﻟﺗﻲ ﺳﺎﻫﻣﺕ ﻓﻲ ﺃﻥ ﺗﺅﺗﻲ‬

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‫ﻳﻣﻛﻥ‬ ‫ﻋﺎﻟﻳﺔ ﻣﻥ ﺍﻟﻛﻔﺎءﺓ‪ ،‬ﻟﻛﻥ ﻟﻡ ﻳﺗﻡ ﺇﺣﺩﺍﺙ ﺃﻱ ﺗﻁﻭﻳﺭ ﻓﻲ ﻗﻳﺎﺩﺍﺕ‬

‫ﺍﻟﺳﻧـﺔ ﺍﻟﺛﺎﻟﺛﺔ ‪ -‬ﺍﻟـﻌـﺩﺩ ﺍﻟﺛﺎﻧﻲ ‪) -‬ﻓﺑﺭﺍﻳﺭ ‪26 - (2013‬‬


‫ﺍﻟﻁﻼﺏ ﻣﻥ ﺍﺳﺗﻳﻌﺎﺏ ﻛﻝ ﺷﻲء ﺑﺻﻭﺭﺓ ﺟﻳﺩﺓ ﻗﺑﻝ ﺍﻻﻧﺗﻘﺎﻝ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻣﺩﺭﺳﺔ ﻭﻧﻅﺎﻣﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﺳﻳﻐﺎﺩﺭ ﺍﻟﻣﺩﺭﺳﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﺟﺩﺩ! ﻭﻟﻬﺫﺍ ﺍﻟﺳﺑﺏ‬
‫ﺇﻟﻰ ﻣﺣﺗﻭﻯ ﺁﺧﺭ ﺃﻛﺛﺭ ﺻﻌﻭﺑﺔ‪ .‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻧﻘﻳﺽ ﻣﻥ ﺫﻟﻙ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥ‬ ‫ﻳﻔﺷﻝ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺫﻳﻥ ﻳﻌﺗﻣﺩﻭﻥ ﻋﻠﻰ ”ﺣﻝ ﺳﺣﺭﻱ“ ﻭﺍﺣﺩ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻣﻌﺎﻳﻳﺭ ﻓﻲ ﺃﻱ ﻣﻛﺎﻥ ﺁﺧﺭ ﻣﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻡ ﺗﻐﻁﻲ ﻋﺩ ًﺩﺍ ﺃﻛﺑﺭ ﻣﻥ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻣﻭﺿﻭﻋﺎﺕ ﻓﻲ ﻛﻝ ﻣﺭﺣﻠﺔ ﺩﺭﺍﺳﻳﺔ ﻓﻳﻧﺗﺞ ﻋﻥ ﺫﻟﻙ ﻣﻧﺎﻫﺞ‬ ‫ﻏﺎﻟﺑًﺎ ﻣﺎ ﺗﺗﺳﺑﺏ ﺍﻷﺯﻣﺎﺕ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻹﺳﺭﺍﻉ ﺑﺗﺣﺭﻳﻙ ﻋﺟﻠﺔ‬
‫ﻳﻣﻛﻥ ﺃﻥ ﻧﺻﻔﻬﺎ – ﻣﻥ ﻓﺭﻁ ﺳﻁﺣﻳﺗﻬﺎ – ﺑﺄﻥ ﻋﺭﺿﻬﺎ ﻣﻳﻝ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺗﻐﻳﻳﺭﺍﺕ ﻓﻲ ﻣﺟﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺗﻌﻠﻳﻡ‪ .‬ﻭﺑﻁﺑﻳﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﺣﺎﻝ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﻟﺗﻐﻳﻳﺭﺍﺕ‬
‫ﻭﻋﻣﻘﻬﺎ ﺑﻭﺻﺔ!‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺗﺣﻭﻳﻠﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺗﻲ ﺣﺩﺛﺕ ﻧﺗﻳﺟﺔ ﻟﻌﻭﻟﻣﺔ ﺍﻻﻗﺗﺻﺎﺩ ﻭﺍﺭﺗﻔﺎﻉ‬
‫ﻣﺳﺗﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺗﻌﻠﻳﻡ ﻓﻲ ﻋﺩﺓ ﻣﻧﺎﻁﻕ ﻣﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻡ ﻗﺩ ﻛﺎﻧﺕ ﺑﻣﺛﺎﺑﺔ‬
‫ﻛﻣﺎ ﺗﺗﻣﻳﺯ ﺍﻟﻣﻌﺎﻳﻳﺭ ﻋﺎﻟﻣﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻣﺳﺗﻭﻯ ﺑﺻﺭﺍﻣﺔ ﺍﻟﺗﻁﺑﻳﻕ‪،‬‬ ‫”ﻧﺩﺍء ﺇﻳﻘﺎﻅ“ ﺑﺎﻟﻧﺳﺑﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ ”ﺍﻟﻭﻻﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻣﺗﺣﺩﺓ“‪ .‬ﺣﻘﻳﻘﺔ ﺃﻥ‬
‫ﻓﻣﻧﺎﻫﺞ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻭﻡ ﻭﺍﻟﺭﻳﺎﺿﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺗﻲ ﺗُﺩﺭﱠ ﺱ ﻋﺎﺩ ًﺓ ﻟﻁﻼﺏ‬ ‫ﻫﻧﺎﻙ ﻧﻣﻭًﺍ ﺍﻗﺗﺻﺎﺩﻳًﺎ ﻋﺎﻟﻣﻳًﺎ ﻣﻬﻣًﺎ ﻳﺣﺩﺙ ﺧﺎﺭﺝ ”ﺍﻟﻭﻻﻳﺎﺕ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻣﺭﺣﻠﺔ ﺍﻹﻋﺩﺍﺩﻳﺔ )ﺍﻟﻣﺗﻭﺳﻁﺔ( ﺣﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻡ ﻣﺗﺄﺧﺭﺓ ﻋﺎﻣﻳﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻣﺗﺣﺩﺓ“‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻥ ﻫﻧﺎﻙ ﻣﻧﺎﻓﺳﺔ ﻣﺗﺯﺍﻳﺩﺓ ﻣﻥ ﺍﻟﻧﺧﺑﺔ ﺍﻟﻣﺛﻘﻔﺔ ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﻋﻥ ﺍﻟﻣﻧﺎﻫﺞ ﺍﻟﺗﻲ ﺗُﺩﺭﱠ ﺱ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺩﻭﻝ ﺫﺍﺕ ﺍﻷﺩﺍء ﺍﻟﺗﻌﻠﻳﻣﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﺗﻲ ﻟﻡ ﺗﻛﻥ ﺗﺗﻣﺗﻊ ﺑﻘﺩﺭ ﻣﻥ ﺍﻟﺗﻘﺩﻡ‪ ،‬ﻓﺭﺿﺕ ﺗﺣﺩﻳًﺎ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻣﺗﻣﻳﺯ‪ .‬ﻭﺃﺧﻳﺭً ﺍ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﻣﻌﺎﻳﻳﺭ ﻣﻧﺎﻫﺞ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻭﻡ ﻭﺍﻟﺭﻳﺎﺿﻳﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻘﻳﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻷﻣﺭﻳﻛﻳﺔ‪ .‬ﻟﺫﻟﻙ ﻭﺿﻊ ”ﺃﻭﺑﺎﻣﺎ“ ﺭﺅﻳﺔ ﻟﺯﻳﺎﺩﺓ‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺩﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﻣﺗﻣﻳﺯﺓ ﺗﺗﻣﺗﻊ ﺑﺗﻣﺎﺳﻙ ﺃﻛﺑﺭ ﻷﻥ ﺍﻟﻣﻭﺿﻭﻋﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻣﻌﺩﻻﺕ ﺍﻟﺗﺧﺭﺝ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻣﺩﺍﺭﺱ ﺍﻟﺛﺎﻧﻭﻳﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻛﻠﻳﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﻭﺟﻌْﻝ‬
‫ﺗﺗﺑﻊ ﺍﻟﺗﺳﻠﺳﻝ ﺍﻟﻣﻧﻁﻘﻲ ﻟﻛﻝ ﻓﺭﻉ ﻣﻥ ﻓﺭﻭﻉ ﺍﻟﻣﻌﺭﻓﺔ‪ ،‬ﻣﻘﺎﺭﻧﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺗﻌﻠﻳﻡ ﻓﻲ ”ﺍﻟﻭﻻﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻣﺗﺣﺩﺓ“ ﺗﻌﻠﻳﻣًﺎ ﺫﺍ ﻣﺳﺗﻭﻯ ﻋﺎﻟﻣﻲ‪.‬‬
‫ﺑﻌﺷﻭﺍﺋﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻣﻭﺿﻭﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻣﻭﺟﻭﺩﺓ ﻓﻲ ﻣﻌﻅﻡ ﻭﺛﺎﺋﻕ ﺍﻟﻣﻌﺎﻳﻳﺭ‬
‫ﺍﻷﻣﺭﻳﻛﻳﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺗﻲ ﺗﻠﻘﻰ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺳﺎﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻁﻼﺏ ﻣﺭﺍﺭً ﺍ ﻭﺗﻛﺭﺍﺭً ﺍ‬ ‫ﻟﻛﻥ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺃﺧﺫﻧﺎ ﻓﻲ ﻋﻳﻥ ﺍﻻﻋﺗﺑﺎﺭ ﻧﻅﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺗﻌﻠﻳﻡ ﺍﻷﻣﺭﻳﻛﻲ‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻛﺛﻳﺭ ﻣﻥ ﺍﻟﻣﻭﺍﺩ ﻓﻲ ﻣﺧﺗﻠﻑ ﺍﻟﻣﺭﺍﺣﻝ ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺳﻳﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻣﺗﻌﺩﺩ ﺍﻟﺳﻧﻭﺍﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﻣﺳﺗﻭﻳﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﻟﺭﺅﻳﺔ ﺗﺣﺗﺎﺝ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺃﻥ‬
‫ﻳﺻﻭﻏﻬﺎ ﻗﺎﺩﺓ ﻋﻧﺩ ﻛﻝ ﻣﺳﺗﻭﻯ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﺟﺏ ﺃﻥ ﺗﻭﻟﻲ ﺍﻫﺗﻣﺎﻣًﺎ‬
‫ﻣﻥ ﺍﻷﻫﻣﻳﺔ ﺑﻣﻛﺎﻥ ﺃﻥ ﺗﺗﻣﻳﺯ ﺍﻟﻣﻌﺎﻳﻳﺭ ﺍﻟﻁﻣﻭﺣﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﺷﻔﺎﻓﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﺧﺎﺻﺎ ﻟﺗﻁﻭﻳﺭ ﺍﻟﻁﻼﺏ ﺿﻌﺎﻑ ﺍﻷﺩﺍء‪ ،‬ﺣﻳﺙ ﺇﻥ ﺃﺣﺩ‬
‫ً‬
‫ﻭﺃﻥ ﺗﺻﻠﺢ ﻟﻛﻝ ﺑﻠﺩﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻡ ﺑﺣﻳﺙ ﻳﻔﻬﻡ ﺍﻟﺟﻣﻳﻊ ﻣﺎ ﻳُﻧﺗﻅﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻭﺍﻣﻝ ﺍﻟﺭﺋﻳﺳﻳﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺿﻌﻑ ﺍﻷﺩﺍء ﺍﻷﻣﺭﻳﻛﻲ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺗﻘﻳﻳﻣﺎﺕ‬
‫ﻣﻥ ﺍﻟﻁﻼﺏ ﺗﺣﻘﻳﻘﻪ‪ .‬ﻣﻥ ﺃﺣﺩ ﺃﺳﺑﺎﺏ ﺍﻧﺧﻔﺎﺽ ﺃﺩﺍء ﺍﻟﻌﺩﻳﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﻭﻟﻳﺔ ﻫﻭ ﺍﻟﻧﺳﺑﺔ ﺍﻟﻛﺑﻳﺭﺓ ﻣﻥ ﺍﻟﻁﻼﺏ ﺍﻟﺫﻳﻥ ﻻ ﻳﺣﺭﺯﻭﻥ‬
‫ﻣﻥ ﺍﻟﺩﻭﻝ ﻣﻘﺎﺭﻧﺔ ﺑﻐﻳﺭﻫﺎ ﻫﻭ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻣﻌﺎﻳﻳﺭ ﻭﺍﻟﺗﻭﻗﻌﺎﺕ ﺗﺗﺑﺎﻳﻥ‬ ‫ﺣﺗﻰ ﺩﺭﺟﺔ ﺍﻟﻧﺟﺎﺡ‪ .‬ﻭﻳﺟﺏ ﺃﻥ ﺗﻭﻟﻲ ﺍﻟﺭﺅﻳﺔ ً‬
‫ﺃﻳﺿﺎ ﺍﻫﺗﻣﺎﻣًﺎ‬
‫ﺑﺷﺩﺓ ﻣﻥ ﻣﻛﺎﻥ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺁﺧﺭ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺑﻠﺩ ﺍﻟﻭﺍﺣﺩ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻥ ﺑﻌﺽ ﺍﻟﻭﻻﻳﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻟﺫﻭﻱ ﺍﻷﺩﺍء ﺍﻟﻣﺗﻣﻳﺯ‪ ،‬ﺣﻳﺙ ﺇﻥ ﻧﺳﺑﺔ ﺍﻟﻁﻼﺏ ﺍﻷﻣﺭﻳﻛﻳﻳﻥ‬
‫ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻣﻘﺎﻁﻌﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻣﺣﻠﻳﺔ ﺗﺿﻊ ﺗﻭﻗﻌﺎﺕ ﻋﺎﻟﻳﺔ ﻟﻁﻼﺑﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﺑﻳﻧﻣﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺫﻳﻥ ﻳﺣﺭﺯﻭﻥ ﺩﺭﺟﺎﺕ ﻋﺎﻟﻳﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺗﻘﻳﻳﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺩﻭﻟﻳﺔ‬
‫ﺗﺿﻊ ﻭﻻﻳﺎﺕ ﺃﺧﺭﻯ ﻣﻌﺎﻳﻳﺭ ﺃﻗﻝ ﺑﻛﺛﻳﺭ‪ .‬ﻳﺅﺩﻱ ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻟﺗﺣﻠﻳﻝ‬ ‫ً‬
‫ﻓﺑﺩﻻ ﻣﻥ‬ ‫ﻣﻧﺧﻔﺿﺔ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻣﺎ ﻗﻭﺭﻧﺕ ﺑﻁﻼﺏ ﺍﻟﺩﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﻣﺗﻘﺩﻣﺔ‪.‬‬
‫– ﺍﻟﻧﺎﺗﺞ ﻣﻥ ﺍﻷﺑﺣﺎﺙ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻣﻳﺔ ﺣﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﺣﺎﺟﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻣﻌﺎﻳﻳﺭ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ ﻳﻠﻘﻲ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺩﺓ ﺑﺎﻟﻠﻭﻡ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻣﺩﺭﺳﻳﻥ ﻭﺍﻵﺑﺎء‪ ،‬ﻋﻠﻳﻬﻡ ﺃﻥ‬
‫ﻣﻣﻳﺯﺓ – ﺇﻟﻰ ﺣﺩﻭﺙ ﺗﻐﻳﻳﺭﺍﺕ ﺣﻳﻭﻳﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻋﺩﺩ ﻣﻥ ﺍﻟﺩﻭﻝ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻳﻌﻣﻠﻭﺍ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺟﻣﻊ ﺃﺻﺣﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﻣﺻﻠﺣﺔ ﻣﻥ ﺫﻭﻱ ﺍﻟﺧﻠﻔﻳﺎﺕ‬
‫ﻓﻔﻲ ”ﺃﻟﻣﺎﻧﻳﺎ“ – ﺣﻳﺙ ﻛﺎﻧﺕ ﺍﻟﻣﻌﺎﻳﻳﺭ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻣﺎﺿﻲ ﺗﻭﺿﻊ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻣﺗﺑﺎﻳﻧﺔ – ﺑﻣﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺫﻟﻙ ﺭﺟﺎﻝ ﺍﻷﻋﻣﺎﻝ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻁﻼﺏ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻭﻟﻳﺎء‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺳﺗﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﻭﻻﻳﺔ – ﺍﺟﺗﻣﻌﺕ ﺍﻟﻭﻻﻳﺎﺕ ﻣﻌًﺎ ﻟﻭﺿﻊ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻣﻭﺭ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺗﺭﺑﻭﻳﻳﻥ – ﻟﻳﺿﻌﻭﺍ ﺭﺅﻳﺗﻬﻡ ﻟﻣﺎ ﻳﺟﺏ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻛﻭﻥ‬
‫ﻣﻌﺎﻳﻳﺭ ﻣﺷﺗﺭﻛﺔ ﺗﺗﻡ ﻣﺭﺍﻗﺑﺗﻬﺎ ﻣﺣﻠﻳًﺎ ﻟﻛﻥ ﻟﻳﺱ ﻓﻳﺩﺭﺍﻟﻳًﺎ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻳﻪ ﺍﻹﻧﺳﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻣﺗﻌﻠﻡ ﻓﻲ ﻋﺎﻡ ‪ ،2030‬ﻭﺍﻟﺧﻁﻭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻭﺍﺟﺏ‬
‫ﺍﺗﺧﺎﺫﻫﺎ ﻟﺗﺣﻭﻳﻝ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻟﺭﺅﻳﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻭﺍﻗﻊ ﻣﻠﻣﻭﺱ‪.‬‬
‫ﺧﻼﺻــــﺎﺕ ﻛﺗﺏ ﺍﻟﺗﺭﺑﻳــــﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺗﻌﻠﻳﻡ‬

‫ﻭﻓﻲ ”ﺃﺳﺗﺭﺍﻟﻳﺎ“‪ ،‬ﻳﻭﺟﺩ ﻧﻅﺎﻡ ﻓﻳﺩﺭﺍﻟﻲ ﺁﺧﺭ ﻻ ﻳﺿﻊ ﻣﻌﺎﻳﻳﺭ‬


‫ﻭﻁﻧﻳﺔ ﻓﺣﺳﺏ‪ ،‬ﺑﻝ ﻣﻧﺎﻫﺞ ﻭﻁﻧﻳﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﺗﻌﺎﻭﻥ ﺑﻳﻥ ﺍﻟﻭﻻﻳﺎﺕ‬ ‫‪áMƒª£dG ÒjÉ©ŸG -2‬‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﺣﻛﻭﻣﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﻳﺩﺭﺍﻟﻳﺔ‪ .‬ﻳﻌﻛﺱ ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻟﺗﻁﻭﺭ ﺍﻟﻣﻠﺣﻭﻅ ﻓﻬﻣًﺎ‬
‫ﻟﻔﻛﺭﺓ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻓﻲ ﻋﺻﺭ ﺍﻟﻌﻭﻟﻣﺔ‪ ،‬ﺗﻘﻝ ﺃﻫﻣﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﺭﻭﻕ ﺑﻳﻥ‬ ‫ﺗﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﺩﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﻣﺗﻣﻳﺯﺓ ﻓﻲ ﻣﺟﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺗﻌﻠﻳﻡ ﻣﻌﺎﻳﻳﺭ ﻁﻣﻭﺣﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻭﻻﻳﺎﺕ ﺑﻳﻧﻣﺎ ﺗﺑﺭﺯ ﺃﻫﻣﻳﺔ ﺃﻻ ﻳﺣﺻﻝ ﺃﻱ ﻁﺎﻟﺏ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻘﺩﺍﺭ‬ ‫ﻟﻁﻼﺑﻬﺎ ﺳﻭﺍء ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺳﺗﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺩﻭﻟﺔ ﺃﻡ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺳﺗﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﻭﻻﻳﺔ‬
‫ﻣﻥ ﺍﻟﺗﻌﻠﻳﻡ ﺃﻗﻝ ﻣﻣﺎ ﻳﺣﺻﻝ ﻋﻠﻳﻪ ﺑﺎﻗﻲ ﺍﻟﻁﻼﺏ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻭﻻﻳﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺃﻅﻬﺭﺕ ﺍﻷﺑﺣﺎﺙ ﺗﺷﺎﺑﻪ ﺍﻟﻣﻌﺎﻳﻳﺭ ﺍﻟﺗﻲ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻣﻘﺎﻁﻌﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺩﻭﻝ ﺍﻷﺧﺭﻯ‪ .‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺟﺎﻧﺏ ﺍﻵﺧﺭ ﻓﻲ ”ﻛﻧﺩﺍ“ – ﻭﻫﻲ‬ ‫ﺗﺿﻌﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺩﻭﻝ ﺫﺍﺕ ﺍﻷﺩﺍء ﺍﻟﺑﺎﺭﺯ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﺧﺗﻼﻓﻬﺎ ﻋﻥ ﻏﻳﺭﻫﺎ ﻣﻥ‬
‫ﺩﻭﻟﺔ ﺃﺧﺭﻯ ﺫﺍﺕ ﺃﺩﺍء ﺗﻌﻠﻳﻣﻲ ﻣﺗﻘﺩﻡ – ﻻ ﺗﻠﻌﺏ ﺍﻟﺣﻛﻭﻣﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻣﻌﺎﻳﻳﺭ ﺑﺷﻛﻝ ﺃﻭ ﺑﺂﺧﺭ‪ .‬ﺗﺗﻣﺗﻊ ﺍﻟﻣﻌﺎﻳﻳﺭ ﺍﻟﺗﻲ ﺗﻣﻳﺯ ﺍﻟﻣﺣﺗﻭﻯ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﻳﺩﺭﺍﻟﻳﺔ ﺃﻱ ﺩﻭﺭ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺗﻌﻠﻳﻡ؛ ﻟﺫﻟﻙ ﻳﺗﻡ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﻣﻌﺎﻳﻳﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺗﻌﻠﻳﻣﻲ ﻋﺎﻟﻣﻲ ﺍﻟﻣﺳﺗﻭﻯ ﺑﺗﺭﻛﻳﺯ ﺃﻛﺛﺭ ﻣﻥ ﻏﻳﺭﻫﺎ‪ ،‬ﻓﻬﻲ‬ ‫‪3‬‬
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‫ﺍﻟﺳﻧـﺔ ﺍﻟﺛﺎﻟﺛﺔ ‪ -‬ﺍﻟـﻌـﺩﺩ ﺍﻟﺛﺎﻧﻲ ‪) -‬ﻓﺑﺭﺍﻳﺭ ‪26 - (2013‬‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺳﺗﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﺻﻑ ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺳﻲ‪ ،‬ﻅﻬﺭ ﺍﻟﻛﺛﻳﺭ ﻣﻥ ﺍﻟﻣﺣﺎﻭﻻﺕ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺳﺗﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﻣﻘﺎﻁﻌﺔ )ﺭﻏﻡ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻣﻌﻠﻭﻣﺎﺕ ﻋﻥ ﻣﻌﺎﻳﻳﺭ ﻛﻝ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻻﺳﺗﺭﺍﺗﻳﺟﻳﺎﺕ ﻟﺗﺣﺳﻳﻥ ﺍﻹﻧﺟﺎﺯ ﺍﻷﻛﺎﺩﻳﻣﻲ ﻟﻠﻁﻼﺏ‬ ‫ﻣﻘﺎﻁﻌﺔ ﺗﺗﻡ ﻣﺷﺎﺭﻛﺗﻬﺎ ﻋﻥ ﻁﺭﻳﻕ ﻣﺟﻠﺱ ﻭﺯﺭﺍء ﺍﻟﺩﻭﻟﺔ(‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﺧﺻﻭﺻﺎ ﻓﻲ ﻣﺟﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻘﺭﺍءﺓ ﻷﻧﻪ‬
‫ً‬ ‫ﻣﺣﺩﻭﺩﻱ ﺍﻟﺩﺧﻝ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﻫﻛﺫﺍ ﻳﺑﺩﻭ ﺃﻥ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﻣﻌﺎﻳﻳﺭ ﻣﺣﻠﻳًﺎ – ﺭﻏﻡ ﻛﻭﻧﻪ ﻣﻼﺋﻣًﺎ‬
‫ﺃﻛﺛﺭ ﺟﺎﻧﺏ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻣﻧﺎﻫﺞ ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺳﻳﺔ ﺗﻡ ﺇﺟﺭﺍء ﺃﺑﺣﺎﺙ ﻋﻠﻳﻪ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻟﻔﺗﺭﺓ ﺳﺎﺑﻘﺔ – ﻳﺅﺩﻱ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺧﻠﻕ ﻓﺭﺹ ﻏﻳﺭ ﻣﺗﻛﺎﻓﺋﺔ ﻭﺇﻧﺟﺎﺯﺍﺕ‬
‫ﺯﺍﺩﺕ ﻣﻘﺎﻁﻌﺔ ”ﺃﻭﻧﺗﺎﺭﻳﻭ“ ﺍﻟﻛﻧﺩﻳﺔ ﺑﺩﺭﺟﺔ ﻛﺑﻳﺭﺓ ﻣﻥ ﻧﺳﺑﺔ‬ ‫ﺿﻌﻳﻔﺔ ﻣﻘﺎﺭﻧﺔ ﺑﻣﻌﺎﻳﻳﺭ ﺍﻟﻭﻻﻳﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺩﻭﻟﺔ‪ .‬ﻟﺫﻟﻙ ﻓﺈﻧﻪ ﺑﻣﺟﺭﺩ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻁﻼﺏ ﺍﻟﺫﻳﻥ ﻳﻭﺍﻓﻕ ﺃﺩﺍﺅﻫﻡ ﻣﻌﺎﻳﻳﺭ ﺍﻟﺻﻑ ﺍﻟﺳﺎﺩﺱ ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ ﻳﺗﻡ ﺗﺣﺩﻳﺩ ﺍﻟﻣﻌﺎﻳﻳﺭ‪ ،‬ﻳﺟﺏ ﺃﻻ ﺗﻭﺿﻊ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺭﻑ‪ ،‬ﺑﻝ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻘﺭﺍءﺓ ﺑﺗﻁﺑﻳﻕ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻻﺳﺗﺭﺍﺗﻳﺟﻳﺎﺕ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻛﻝ ﻣﺩﺭﺳﺔ ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ ﺗﺗﻡ ﻣﺷﺎﺭﻛﺗﻬﺎ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﺗﺭﺑﻭﻳﻳﻥ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻁﻼﺏ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻭﻟﻳﺎء ﺍﻷﻣﻭﺭ‬
‫ً‬
‫ﺑﺩﻻ ﻣﻥ ﺗﻁﺑﻳﻘﻬﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻘﻠﻳﻝ ﻣﻥ ﺍﻟﻣﺩﺍﺭﺱ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻣﻘﺎﻁﻌﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺣﺩ ﺳﻭﺍء‪.‬‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺳﺑﻳﻝ ﺍﻟﺗﺟﺭﺑﺔ‪ ،‬ﻛﻣﺎ ﻳﺣﺩﺙ ﻏﺎﻟﺑًﺎ ﻓﻲ ﻛﻝ ﻣﻛﺎﻥ‪ .‬ﺃﻣﺎ‬
‫”ﻓﻧﻠﻧﺩﺍ“‪ ،‬ﻓﻠﺩﻳﻬﺎ ﺍﺳﺗﺭﺍﺗﻳﺟﻳﺎﺕ ﻣﻧﻅﻣﺔ ﻳﺗﻡ ﺗﻁﺑﻳﻘﻬﺎ ﻣﺑﻛﺭً ﺍ‪،‬‬ ‫‪¢UôØdG DƒaÉμJ CGóÑÃ ΩGõàd’G -3‬‬
‫ﻓﻛﻝ ﺍﻟﻣﺩﺭﺳﻳﻥ ﻣﺩﺭﺑﻭﻥ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺗﺩﺭﻳﺱ ﺑﻁﺭﻕ ﻣﺧﺗﻠﻔﺔ ﺣﺳﺏ‬
‫ﻣﺳﺗﻭﻯ ﻣﻬﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻁﻼﺏ‪ .‬ﻋﻼﻭﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺫﻟﻙ‪ ،‬ﻛﻝ ﻣﺩﺭﺳﺔ‬
‫ﻳﺗﻛﺑﺩ ﺍﻷﻓﺭﺍﺩ ﻭﺍﻟﻣﺟﺗﻣﻌﺎﺕ ﺗﻛﺎﻟﻳﻑ ﺑﺎﻫﻅﺔ ﻁﻭﻳﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﻣﺩﻯ‬
‫ﺑﻬﺎ ﻣﺩﺭﺱ ﻟﻠﻁﻼﺏ ﺫﻭﻱ ﺍﻻﺣﺗﻳﺎﺟﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺧﺎﺻﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻓﺭﻳﻕ ﺩﻋﻡ‬
‫ﻟﻔﺷﻝ ﺍﻟﺗﻌﻠﻳﻡ‪ ،‬ﻓﻧﻅﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺗﻌﻠﻳﻡ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺩﻝ ﻭﺍﻟﺷﺎﻣﻝ ﻫﻭ ﺇﺣﺩﻯ‬
‫ﻣﻥ ﺍﻟﻁﻼﺏ ﺃﻧﻔﺳﻬﻡ ﻟﻣﺳﺎﻋﺩﺓ ﻣﺩﺭﺱ ﺍﻟﻔﺻﻝ ﻭﺍﻛﺗﺷﺎﻑ ﺃﻱ‬
‫ﺃﻗﻭﻯ ﺍﻷﺩﻭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺗﻲ ﻳﻣﻛﻥ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺳﺗﺧﺩﻣﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻣﺟﺗﻣﻊ ﻟﺗﺣﻘﻳﻕ‬
‫ﻁﺎﻟﺏ ﻣﺗﻌﺛﺭ ﻗﺑﻝ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺗﺭﺍﺟﻊ ﻣﺳﺗﻭﺍﻩ ﻛﺛﻳﺭً ﺍ‪ .‬ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻷﺳﻠﻭﺏ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﺩﺍﻟﺔ ﺍﻻﺟﺗﻣﺎﻋﻳﺔ‪ .‬ﻳﺯﻋﻡ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺩﺓ ﻓﻲ ﻣﻌﻅﻡ ﺍﻟﺩﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﺗﺯﺍﻣﻬﻡ‬
‫ﻟﻠﺗﺄﻛﺩ ﻣﻥ ﺃﻥ ﺟﻣﻳﻊ ﺍﻟﻁﻼﺏ ﻳﺻﻠﻭﻥ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺃﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻣﻌﺎﻳﻳﺭ‬
‫ﺑﺗﻭﻓﻳﺭ ﻓﺭﺹ ﻣﺗﻛﺎﻓﺋﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺣﺻﻭﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺗﻌﻠﻳﻡ‪ ،‬ﻟﻛﻥ‬
‫ﻫﻭ ﺳﺑﺏ ﺭﺋﻳﺳﻲ ﻓﻲ ﺻﻐﺭ ﺣﺟﻡ ﺍﻟﻔﺟﻭﺓ ﺑﻳﻥ ﺍﻟﻁﻼﺏ ﺫﻭﻱ‬
‫ﺍﻷﻧﻅﻣﺔ ﺍﻟﺗﻌﻠﻳﻣﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻧﺎﺟﺣﺔ ﺗﺭﻛﺯ ﺑﺎﻟﻔﻌﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﺣﻘﻳﻕ ﻣﺑﺩﺃ‬
‫ﺍﻷﺩﺍء ﺍﻟﻣﺗﻣﻳﺯ ﻭﺍﻟﻁﻼﺏ ﺫﻭﻱ ﺍﻷﺩﺍء ﺍﻟﻣﻧﺧﻔﺽ ﻓﻲ ”ﻓﻧﻠﻧﺩﺍ“‪.‬‬
‫ﺗﻛﺎﻓﺅ ﺍﻟﻔﺭﺹ ﺑﻁﺭﻳﻘﺔ ﻗﻭﻳﺔ ﻭﻣﺧﻁﻁﺔ‪” .‬ﺍﻟﻭﻻﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻣﺗﺣﺩﺓ“‬
‫ﺃﻣﺎ ”ﺳﻧﻐﺎﻓﻭﺭﺓ“ – ﺍﻟﺗﻲ ﺗﺗﻣﺗﻊ ﺑﺧﻠﻳﻁ ﺳﻛﺎﻧﻲ ﻣﺗﻌﺩﺩ ﺍﻟﺛﻘﺎﻓﺎﺕ‬
‫ﺃﺩﺍﺅﻫﺎ ﺿﻌﻳﻑ ﻟﻠﻐﺎﻳﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺗﻘﻳﻳﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺩﻭﻟﻳﺔ ﻣﻘﺎﺭﻧﺔ ﺑﺩﻭﻝ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﻠﻐﺎﺕ – ﻓﺑﻬﺎ ﻣﺟﻣﻭﻋﺎﺕ ﺗﻘﻭﻳﺔ ﺻﻐﻳﺭﺓ ﻭﻣﻧﻅﻣﺔ ﺗﻘﺩﻡ‬
‫ﺃﺧﺭﻯ ﺑﻭﺟﻪ ﻋﺎﻡ ﻷﻥ ﺑﻬﺎ ﻧﺳﺑﺔ ﻛﺑﻳﺭﺓ ﻣﻥ ﺍﻟﻁﻼﺏ ﺍﻟﺫﻳﻥ‬
‫ﺩﺭﻭﺳً ﺎ ﻳﻭﻣﻳﺔ ﻟﻛﻝ ﺍﻷﻁﻔﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺫﻳﻥ ﻳﺣﺗﺎﺟﻭﻥ ﺩﻋﻣًﺎ ﺇﺿﺎﻓﻳًﺎ‬
‫ﻳﺣﺭﺯﻭﻥ ﺩﺭﺟﺎﺕ ﺗﻘﻊ ﻓﻲ ﺃﺩﻧﻰ ﺭﺑﻊ ﻣﻥ ﺗﻭﺯﻳﻊ ﺍﻷﺩﺍء‪ .‬ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﺗﻌﻠﻡ ﺍﻟﻘﺭﺍءﺓ ﺃﻭ ﺣﻝ ﺍﻟﻣﺳﺎﺋﻝ ﺍﻟﺣﺳﺎﺑﻳﺔ‪ ،‬ﺑﺩءًﺍ ﻣﻥ ﺍﻟﺻﻑ‬
‫ﺍﻷﻭﻝ‪ .‬ﻭﻳﺷﻣﻝ ﺫﻟﻙ ﺗﻘﻭﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ ﺍﻹﻧﺟﻠﻳﺯﻳﺔ ﻟﺩﻯ ﺍﻟﻁﻼﺏ‬ ‫ﻛﻝ ﺩﻭﻟﺔ‪ ،‬ﻳﻛﻭﻥ ﺃﺩﺍء ﺍﻷﻁﻔﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺫﻳﻥ ﻳﻧﺗﻣﻭﻥ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺃﺳﺭ ﻏﻧﻳﺔ‬

‫ﻷﻥ ﺍﻟﻛﺛﻳﺭﻳﻥ ﻣﻧﻬﻡ ﻻ ﻳﺗﺣﺩﺛﻭﻥ ﺍﻹﻧﺟﻠﻳﺯﻳﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻣﻧﺯﻝ ﺭﻏﻡ‬ ‫ﻭﻣﺛﻘﻔﺔ ﺃﻓﺿﻝ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﺏ ﻣﻥ ﺃﺩﺍء ﺍﻷﻁﻔﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﺭﺍء ﺍﻟﺫﻳﻥ ﻟﻡ‬
‫ﺃﻧﻬﺎ ﻟﻐﺔ ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﻓﻲ ”ﺳﻧﻐﺎﻓﻭﺭﺓ“‪.‬‬ ‫ﻳﺣﺻﻝ ﺁﺑﺎﺅﻫﻡ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻗﺩﺭ ﻛﺑﻳﺭ ﻣﻥ ﺍﻟﺗﻌﻠﻳﻡ‪ ،‬ﻟﻛﻥ ﺍﻟﺩﻭﻝ ﺫﺍﺕ‬
‫ﺍﻷﻧﻅﻣﺔ ﺍﻟﺗﻌﻠﻳﻣﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻣﺗﻣﻳﺯﺓ ﺗﺳﺗﺧﺩﻡ ﻋﺩ ًﺩﺍ ﻣﻥ ﺍﻟﻭﺳﺎﺋﻝ ﻟﻠﺣﺩ‬
‫ﺇﺻﻼﺡ ﺑﻧﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻣﺩﺭﺳﺔ ﻳﻣﻛﻧﻪ ً‬
‫ﺃﻳﺿﺎ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻌﺯﺯ ﻣﻥ ﺗﻛﺎﻓﺅ‬ ‫ﻣﻥ ﺗﺄﺛﻳﺭ ﺍﻟﺧﻠﻔﻳﺔ ﺍﻻﺟﺗﻣﺎﻋﻳﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﺩﺍء ﺍﻟﻁﻼﺏ‪ ،‬ﻣﻣﺎ ﻳﺧﻠﻕ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﺭﺹ‪ .‬ﻓﻌﻠﻰ ﺳﺑﻳﻝ ﺍﻟﻣﺛﺎﻝ‪ :‬ﻳﺧﻠﻕ ﺍﻟﻔﺻﻝ ﺍﻟﻣﺑﻛﺭ ﺑﻳﻥ‬ ‫ﻣﺟﺗﻣﻌًﺎ ﻣﻔﺗﻭﺣً ﺎ ﻟﻠﻣﻭﺍﻫﺏ ﺃﻳًﺎ ﻛﺎﻧﺕ ﺍﻟﺑﻳﺋﺔ ﺍﻟﺗﻲ ﺃﺧﺭﺟﺗﻬﺎ‪.‬‬

‫‪AGOC’G á°†Øîæeh AGOC’G á«dÉY ∫hódG ‘ ¢ùjQóàdG ᪶fCG øjÉÑJ‬‬


‫ﻓﻲ ”ﺳﻧﻐﺎﻓﻭﺭﺓ“ – ﻋﻠﻰ ﺳﺑﻳﻝ ﺍﻟﻣﺛﺎﻝ – ﻳﻭﺟﺩ ﻧﻅﺎﻡ ﺛﻧﺎﺋﻲ ﺻﺎﺭﻡ ﺗﺗﺿﺎﻓﺭ ﻓﻳﻪ ﺟﻬﻭﺩ ﻭﺯﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺗﻌﻠﻳﻡ ﻭﻣﺭﻛﺯ ﺗﺩﺭﻳﺏ ﺍﻟﻣﻌﻠﻣﻳﻥ‬
‫ﺧﻼﺻــــﺎﺕ ﻛﺗﺏ ﺍﻟﺗﺭﺑﻳــــﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺗﻌﻠﻳﻡ‬

‫)ﺍﻟﻣﺳﻣﻰ ﺑﺎﻟﻣﻌﻬﺩ ﺍﻟﻭﻁﻧﻲ ﻟﻠﺗﻌﻠﻳﻡ( ﻟﺟﻌﻝ ﺍﻟﻣﺷﺭﻓﻳﻥ ﻭﺍﻟﻣﺩﻳﺭﻳﻥ ﻭﺍﻟﻣﺩﺭﺳﻳﻥ ﻳﻌﻣﻠﻭﻥ ﻣﻌًﺎ ﻟﺗﺣﻭﻳﻝ ﺍﻟﺗﻐﻳﻳﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻣﻧﺷﻭﺩﺓ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻭﺍﻗﻊ‬
‫ﻣﻠﻣﻭﺱ‪ .‬ﺃﻣﺎ ﺍﻟﻧﻅﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻔﻧﻠﻧﺩﻱ – ﺍﻟﻣﺧﺗﻠﻑ ﺗﻣﺎﻣًﺎ – ﻓﻳﻌﺗﻣﺩ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻣﻘﺎﻡ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺟﻬﻭﺩ ﺍﻟﻔﺭﺩﻳﺔ ﻟﻛﻧﻪ ﻳﺣﺭﺹ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﺣﻘﻳﻕ ﺍﻟﺗﻭﺍﻓﻕ‬
‫ﺑﻳﻥ ﺃﺳﺎﻟﻳﺏ ﺍﻟﺗﺩﺭﻳﺱ ﻭﻣﻣﺎﺭﺳﺎﺗﻪ ﻋﻥ ﻁﺭﻳﻕ ﺑﺭﺍﻣﺞ ﺟﺎﻣﻌﻳﺔ ﻋﻠﻳﺎ ﻹﻋﺩﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﻣﻌﻠﻣﻳﻥ ﺍﻟﺗﻲ ﺗﻣﻭﻟﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺣﻛﻭﻣﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺟﻣﻳﻌﻬﺎ ﺗﺷﺗﺭﻙ ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﻓﻠﺳﻔﺔ ﻭﺍﺣﺩﺓ ﻭﺃﺳﻠﻭﺏ ﻭﺍﺣﺩ ﻟﻠﺗﻌﻠﻳﻡ ﻭﻫﻭ ﺗﻭﻓﻳﺭ ﻣﺩﺭﺳﻳﻥ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺩﺭﺟﺔ ﻋﺎﻟﻳﺔ ﻣﻥ ﺍﻟﻛﻔﺎءﺓ ﻭﻭﺟﻭﺩ ﺷﺑﻛﺔ ﺗﻭﺍﺻﻝ ﺑﻳﻥ ﺍﻟﻣﺩﺍﺭﺱ‬
‫ﻟﻣﺷﺎﺭﻛﺔ ﺃﻓﺿﻝ ﺍﻟﻣﻣﺎﺭﺳﺎﺕ‪ .‬ﺍﻟﻛﺛﻳﺭ ﻣﻥ ﺍﻟﺩﻭﻝ ﻋﺎﻟﻳﺔ ﺍﻷﺩﺍء ﻟﺩﻳﻬﺎ ﺃﻧﻅﻣﺔ ﺗﺩﺭﻳﺱ ﻭﺍﺧﺗﺑﺎﺭ ﻣﺗﺭﺍﺑﻁﺔ ﻭﻣﺗﺳﻘﺔ ﺗﺗﻁﻭﺭ ﻓﻳﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻣﻌﺎﻳﻳﺭ‬
‫ﺃﻳﺿﺎ ﺗﻌﺗﺑﺭ ﺃﺳﺎﺱ ﺇﻋﺩﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﻣﺩﺭﺱ ﻭﺗﻁﻭﻳﺭﻩ ﻣﻬﻧﻳًﺎ‪ .‬ﻓﻲ ﺍﻷﻧﻅﻣﺔ‬‫ﺇﻟﻰ ﻣﻧﺎﻫﺞ ﻭﺍﺧﺗﺑﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﻗﺎﺋﻣﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺣﺗﻭﻯ ﺗﻠﻙ ﺍﻟﻣﻧﺎﻫﺞ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻲ ً‬
‫ﺍﻟﺷﺭﻕ ﺁﺳﻳﻭﻳﺔ‪ ،‬ﻳﺟﺗﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻣﺩﺭﺳﻭﻥ ﻣﻌًﺎ ﻛﻝ ﺃﺳﺑﻭﻉ ﻟﻣﻧﺎﻗﺷﺔ ﺳﺑﻝ ﺗﻁﻭﻳﺭ ﺃﺩﺍﺋﻬﻡ‪ ،‬ﻛﻣﺎ ﻳﻔﺗﺣﻭﻥ ﻓﺻﻭﻟﻬﻡ ﺑﺻﻔﺔ ﺭﻭﺗﻳﻧﻳﺔ ﻟﻠﻣﺩﺭﺳﻳﻥ‬
‫ﺍﻵﺧﺭﻳﻥ ﻟﺗﺑﺎﺩﻝ ﺍﻟﺧﺑﺭﺍﺕ‪ .‬ﻳﻧﺗﺞ ﻋﻥ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻟﻣﻣﺎﺭﺳﺎﺕ ﻧﻅﺎﻡ ﺗﻌﻠﻳﻣﻲ ﻣﺗﻧﺎﺳﻕ ﻭﻁﺭﻳﻘﺔ ﻟﺗﻭﺯﻳﻊ ﺍﻟﻣﻧﺎﻫﺞ ﺍﻟﺟﺩﻳﺩﺓ ﺑﻣﺎ ﻳﺿﻣﻥ ﻭﺟﻭﺩ‬
‫ﻣﻣﺎﺭﺳﺎﺕ ﻣﺗﺳﻘﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻋﺩﺩ ﻛﺑﻳﺭ ﻣﻥ ﺍﻟﻣﺩﺍﺭﺱ‪.‬‬
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‫ﻣﻬﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺗﻔﻛﻳﺭ ﺍﻟﻣﻧﻅﻡ‪ ،‬ﻭﺑﻣﻘﺩﻭﺭﻫﻡ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺳﺎﻋﺩﻭﺍ ﻛﻝ ﻁﻔﻝ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻁﻼﺏ – ﺑﺩءًﺍ ﻣﻥ ﺍﻟﻣﺭﺣﻠﺗﻳﻥ ﺍﻻﺑﺗﺩﺍﺋﻳﺔ ﻭﺍﻹﻋﺩﺍﺩﻳﺔ –‬

‫ﺍﻟﺳﻧـﺔ ﺍﻟﺛﺎﻟﺛﺔ ‪ -‬ﺍﻟـﻌـﺩﺩ ﺍﻟﺛﺎﻧﻲ ‪) -‬ﻓﺑﺭﺍﻳﺭ ‪26 - (2013‬‬


‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻧﺟﺎﺡ ﻭﻟﻳﺱ ﻓﻘﻁ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻭﺻﻠﻭﺍ ﺍﻟﻣﻌﻠﻭﻣﺔ ﺑﺳﻬﻭﻟﺔ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﻭﺗﻘﺳﻳﻣﻬﻡ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻓﺻﻭﻝ ﻟﻠﻁﻼﺏ ﺍﻟﻣﺗﻔﻭﻗﻳﻥ ﻭﺃﺧﺭﻯ ﻟﻠﻁﻼﺏ‬
‫ﻳﺗﻌﺎﻣﻠﻭﺍ ﺑﺻﻭﺭﺓ ﺟﻳﺩﺓ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻁﻼﺏ ﺫﻭﻱ ﺍﻟﺧﻠﻔﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻣﺗﺑﺎﻳﻧﺔ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺩ ﺗﻭﻗﻔﺕ ”ﻓﻧﻠﻧﺩﺍ“‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺩﻳﻳﻥ ﺍﻟﻛﺛﻳﺭ ﻣﻥ ﻋﺩﻡ ﺍﻟﺗﻛﺎﻓﺅ‪.‬‬
‫ﺃﻭ ﻳﺳﺗﺧﺩﻣﻭﺍ ﺍﻟﺗﻘﻧﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺣﺩﻳﺛﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﻳﺑﺩﻭ ﺃﻥ ﻫﻧﺎﻙ ﺇﺟﻣﺎﻋً ﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﻣﻌﻅﻡ ﺃﻧﻅﻣﺔ ﺍﻟﻣﺩﺍﺭﺱ ﺍﻷﻭﺭﻭﺑﻳﺔ ﺍﻷﺧﺭﻯ ﻋﻥ ﻣﻣﺎﺭﺳﺔ‬
‫ً‬
‫ﻛﺎﻣﻼ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻧﻪ ﺃﻳًﺎ ﻛﺎﻧﺕ ﺍﺳﺗﺭﺍﺗﻳﺟﻳﺔ ﺍﻹﺻﻼﺡ ﺍﻟﻣﺳﺗﺧﺩﻣﺔ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﺻﻝ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻣﺭﺣﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺛﺎﻧﻭﻳﺔ ﺑﻳﻥ ﻣﺩﺍﺭﺱ ﺍﻟﺗﻌﻠﻳﻡ ﺍﻷﻛﺎﺩﻳﻣﻲ‬
‫ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﻟﺟﻭﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﺔ ﻷﻱ ﻧﻅﺎﻡ ﻣﺩﺭﺳﻲ ﺗﻌﺗﻣﺩ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺟﻭﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﻭﻣﺩﺍﺭﺱ ﺍﻟﺗﻌﻠﻳﻡ ﺍﻟﻣﻬﻧﻲ‪ ،‬ﻭﺫﻟﻙ ﻷﻧﻬﺎ ﺍﻛﺗﺷﻔﺕ ﺃﻥ ﻫﺫﻩ‬
‫ﻣﺩﺭﺳﻳﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺟﻭﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﻣﺩﺭﺳﻳﻥ ﺗﻌﺗﻣﺩ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻧﻅﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻣﺗﺑﻊ ﻟﺗﻭﻓﻳﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻣﻣﺎﺭﺳﺔ ﺍﻟﺗﻘﻠﻳﺩﻳﺔ ﺗﺗﺳﺑﺏ ﺑﺷﻛﻝ ﺭﺋﻳﺳﻲ ﻓﻲ ﺗﻛﺭﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﺑﻧﻳﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺩﻋﻡ ﻟﻬﻡ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺍﻻﻗﺗﺻﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﺍﻻﺟﺗﻣﺎﻋﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻣﻭﺟﻭﺩﺓ ﺣﺎﻟﻳًﺎ‪ .‬ﻭﻋﻧﺩﻣﺎ ﺗﻭﻗﻔﺕ‬
‫”ﺑﻭﻟﻧﺩﺍ“ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺗﺳﻌﻳﻧﻳﺎﺕ ﻋﻥ ﺍﻟﻔﺻﻝ ﺑﻳﻥ ﻣﺩﺍﺭﺱ ﺍﻟﺛﺎﻧﻭﻳﺔ‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﻣﺧﺗﻠﻑ ﺍﻷﻧﻅﻣﺔ ﺍﻻﻗﺗﺻﺎﺩﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺣﺩﻳﺛﺔ‪ ،‬ﻳﺟﺏ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻧﺎﻓﺱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺛﺎﻧﻭﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻣﻬﻧﻳﺔ ﺑﻌﺩ ﻧﻬﺎﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺣﻛﻡ ﺍﻟﺷﻳﻭﻋﻲ‪ ،‬ﺷﻬﺩﺕ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺗﺩﺭﻳﺱ ﺍﻟﻘﻁﺎﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﺧﺭﻯ ﺍﻟﻣﻌﺗﻣﺩﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻣﻭﻫﺑﺔ‪ .‬ﻟﺫﻟﻙ‬ ‫ً‬
‫ﻣﻠﺣﻭﻅﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺃﺩﺍء ﻁﻼﺑﻬﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺗﻘﻳﻳﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺩﻭﻟﻳﺔ ﺑﻳﻥ‬ ‫ﺗﺣﺳ ًﻧﺎ‬
‫ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﻟﺩﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﻧﺎﺟﺣﺔ ﺗﻭﻟﻲ ﺍﻫﺗﻣﺎﻣًﺎ ﻛﺑﻳﺭً ﺍ ﻟﺗﻭﻅﻳﻑ ﺍﻟﻣﺩﺭﺳﻳﻥ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻋﺎﻣﻲ ‪ 2000‬ﻭ‪ ،2003‬ﻭﺑﺧﺎﺻﺔ ﻓﻳﻣﺎ ﻳﺗﻌﻠﻕ ﺑﺎﻟﻁﻼﺏ‬
‫ﻭﺇﻋﺩﺍﺩﻫﻡ‪ ،‬ﻭﺩﻋﻣﻬﻡ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﻭﺯﻳﻌﻬﻡ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻛﺎﻓﺄﺗﻬﻡ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﻘﻳﻳﻣﻬﻡ‬ ‫ﻣﻧﺧﻔﺿﻲ ﺍﻷﺩﺍء‪ .‬ﻟﻛﻥ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺟﺎﻧﺏ ﺍﻵﺧﺭ ﻓﻲ ”ﺍﻟﻭﻻﻳﺎﺕ‬
‫ﺑﺎﻋﺗﺑﺎﺭﻫﻡ ﻳﺣﺎﺭﺑﻭﻥ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺟﺑﻬﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﻣﻠﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺗﻌﻠﻳﻣﻳﺔ‪ ،‬ﻟﻛﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻣﺗﺣﺩﺓ“‪ ،‬ﺗﻣﺎﺭﺱ ﺍﻟﻣﺩﺍﺭﺱ ﺍﻟﺛﺎﻧﻭﻳﺔ ﻏﺎﻟﺑًﺎ ﻧﻅﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻔﺻﻝ ﺑﻳﻥ‬
‫ﺗﺣﻘﻳﻕ ﺍﻻﺳﺗﻔﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﻘﺻﻭﻯ ﻣﻥ ﺍﻟﻣﺩﺭﺳﻳﻥ ﺍﻷﻛﻔﺎء ﻳﻘﺗﺿﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻁﻼﺏ ﺣﺳﺏ ﻣﻌﺩﻻﺕ ﺃﺩﺍﺋﻬﻡ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﻘﺩﻡ ﺗﻌﻠﻳﻣًﺎ ﺩﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﻣﺳﺗﻭﻯ‬
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‫ﺃﻳﺿﺎ ﻭﺟﻭﺩ ﺃﻧﺎﺱ ﻣﺅﻫﻠﻳﻥ ﻹﺩﺍﺭﺗﻬﻡ‪ .‬ﻓﻛﻣﺎ ﺗﻠﻘﻲ ﺍﻷﻧﻅﻣﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻁﻼﺏ ﺍﻟﻔﺻﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﻣﺧﺻﺻﺔ ﻟﺿﻌﺎﻑ ﺍﻷﺩﺍء ﺍﻟﺫﻳﻥ ﺗﺗﺿﺎءﻝ‬
‫ﻣﺗﻣﻳﺯﺓ ﺍﻷﺩﺍء ﺑﻣﺳﺅﻭﻟﻳﺔ ﺃﻛﺑﺭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻣﺩﺭﺳﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻧﻬﺎ ً‬
‫ﺃﻳﺿﺎ‬ ‫ﻓﺭﺻﻬﻡ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻻﻧﺗﻘﺎﻝ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻓﺻﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﻣﺗﻔﻭﻗﻳﻥ‪.‬‬
‫ﺗﻌﻳﺩ ﺍﻟﻧﻅﺭ ﻓﻲ ﺳﻳﺎﺳﺎﺕ ﺗﻌﻳﻳﻥ ﻣﺩﻳﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﻣﺩﺍﺭﺱ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﺩﺭﻳﺑﻬﻡ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﺩﻭﺭ ﺍﻟﺫﻱ ﻳﻠﻌﺑﻭﻧﻪ‪ .‬ﻻ ﻳﻣﻛﻥ ﺃﻥ ﺗﺗﻐﻳﺭ ﺍﻟﻣﺩﺍﺭﺱ ﺃﻭ ﺗﺗﺟﻪ‬ ‫ﺗﺗﺿﺎﻓﺭ ﺑﻌﺽ ﺍﻟﻌﻭﺍﻣﻝ ﻣﻥ ﺧﺎﺭﺝ ﺍﻟﻣﺩﺭﺳﺔ ً‬
‫ﺃﻳﺿﺎ ﻟﺯﻳﺎﺩﺓ‬
‫ﻧﺣﻭ ﺇﻧﺟﺎﺯﺍﺕ ﺃﻓﺿﻝ ﺇﻥ ﻟﻡ ﻳﻛﻥ ﺑﻬﺎ ﻗﻳﺎﺩﺓ ﻗﻭﻳﺔ ﻭﻓﻌﺎﻟﺔ ﺗﺭﻛﺯ‬ ‫ﺗﻛﺎﻓﺅ ﺍﻟﻔﺭﺹ‪ .‬ﻓﻘﺩ ﺃﻅﻬﺭﺕ ﺍﻷﺑﺣﺎﺙ ﺣﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻡ ﺃﻫﻣﻳﺔ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻧﺗﺎﺋﺞ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺗﻧﻣﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻣﻌﺭﻓﻳﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﺎﻁﻔﻳﺔ ﻟﺩﻯ ﺍﻟﻁﻔﻝ ﻓﻲ ﺳﻧﻭﺍﺕ ﻣﺎ ﻗﺑﻝ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻣﺩﺭﺳﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻓﻭﺍﺋﺩ ﺗﻠﻘﻲ ﺗﻌﻠﻳﻡ ﺭﻓﻳﻊ ﺍﻟﻣﺳﺗﻭﻯ ﻓﻲ ﻣﺭﺣﻠﺔ‬
‫ﻭﺑﻌﺩ ﺍﻟﻘﻳﺎﺩﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺳﺗﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﻣﺩﺭﺳﺔ‪ ،‬ﻫﻧﺎﻙ ﺍﻟﻘﻳﺎﺩﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻁﻔﻭﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﻣﺑﻛﺭﺓ ﻟﺿﻣﺎﻥ ﺗﺣﻘﻳﻕ ﺍﻟﻧﺟﺎﺡ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻣﺩﺭﺳﺔ ﻓﻳﻣﺎ‬
‫ﻣﺳﺗﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﻣﺩﻳﻧﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻭﻻﻳﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻣﺅﺳﺳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺗﻌﻠﻳﻣﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻣﺣﻠﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﻌﺩ‪ .‬ﻟﺫﻟﻙ ﺗﺗﻭﺳﻊ ﻣﻌﻅﻡ ﺍﻟﺩﻭﻝ ﻓﻲ ﺗﻘﺩﻳﻡ ﺧﺩﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻁﻔﻭﻟﺔ‬
‫ﻭﻛﻠﻬﺎ ﻳﺟﺏ ﺃﻥ ﺗﻛﻭﻥ ﻗﻭﻳﺔ ً‬
‫ﺃﻳﺿﺎ‪ .‬ﻓﻲ ”ﺳﻧﻐﺎﻓﻭﺭﺓ“‪ ،‬ﻳُﻌﺗﺑﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻣﺑﻛﺭﺓ ﺇﻣﺎ ﻟﻛﻝ ﻓﺋﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻣﺟﺗﻣﻊ ﺃﻭ ﻟﻸﺳﺭ ﻣﺣﺩﻭﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺩﺧﻝ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺩﺓ ﺫﻭﻭ ﺍﻟﺧﺑﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻳﺔ ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻓﺣﺳﺏ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﺯﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺗﻌﻠﻳﻡ ﺍﻟﻣﻛﻭﻥ ﺍﻷﺳﺎﺳﻲ ﻓﻲ‬ ‫‪!IQõ÷Gh É°ü©dG á°SÉ«°S‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺗﺧﻁﻳﻁ ﺍﻟﺟﻳﺩ ﻟﻌﻣﻠﻳﺎﺕ ﺗﻁﻭﻳﺭ ﺍﻟﺗﻌﻠﻳﻡ‬ ‫‪IOÉ≤dG -4‬‬
‫ﺗﺣﺗﺎﺝ ﻋﻣﻠﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺗﻐﻳﻳﺭ ﺩﺍﺋﻣًﺎ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻣﺯﻳﺞ ﻣﻥ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻧﺎﺟﺣﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﻧﻔﻳﺫﻫﺎ ﺑﻌﻧﺎﻳﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﻘﻳﻳﻣﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺳﻳﺎﺳ َﺗﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﺻﺎ ﻭﺍﻟﺟﺯﺭﺓ‪ ،‬ﻓﺎﻻﻋﺗﻣﺎﺩ ﺍﻟﻣﻔﺭﻁ‬ ‫‪AÉØcC’G ¿ƒ°SQóŸGh‬‬
‫ﺑﺩﻗﺔ‪ .‬ﻳﻣﺗﻠﻙ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺩﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻭﺯﺍﺭﺓ –‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﺳﻠﻭﺏ ﻣﺳﺎءﻟﺔ ﺑﺳﻳﻁ ﻗﺎﺋﻡ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻻﻣﺗﺣﺎﻧﺎﺕ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﺫﻳﻥ ﺗﻠﻘﻭﺍ ﺗﻌﻠﻳﻣﻬﻡ ﻓﻲ ﺃﻓﺿﻝ‬ ‫ﻓﻘﻁ ﻻ ﻳﺣﻔﺯ ﺍﻟﻣﺩﺍﺭﺱ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻻﻟﺗﺯﺍﻡ ﺑﻣﻌﺎﻳﻳﺭ‬ ‫ﻋﻧﺩﻣﺎ ﺗﺑﺩﺃ ﺍﻟﺩﻭﻝ ﻓﻲ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻷﻧﻅﻣﺔ‬
‫ﺟﺎﻣﻌﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻡ ﻭﻟﺩﻳﻬﻡ ﺧﺑﺭﺓ ﻁﻭﻳﻠﺔ‬ ‫”ﺑﻥ ﻟﻳﻔﻳﻥ“ ﻧﺎﺋﺏ ﻭﺯﻳﺭ ﺍﻟﺗﻌﻠﻳﻡ‬‫ﻋﺎﻟﻳﺔ‪ .‬ﻳﻘﻭﻝ ِ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺗﻌﻠﻳﻣﻳﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻧﻬﺎ ﺗﺭﻛﺯ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻣﻘﺎﻡ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ‬
‫ﺧﻼﺻــــﺎﺕ ﻛﺗﺏ ﺍﻟﺗﺭﺑﻳــــﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺗﻌﻠﻳﻡ‬

‫ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻣﻣﺎﺭﺳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻣﺩﺭﺳﻳﺔ – ﻣﻌﺭﻓﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺳﺑﻕ ﻓﻲ ”ﺃﻭﻧﺗﺎﺭﻳﻭ“‪” :‬ﻻ ﻳﻣﻛﻥ ﺇﺟﺑﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻧﺎﺱ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﻠﻘﻳﻥ ﺍﻟﻣﻬﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻷﺳﺎﺳﻳﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ‬
‫ﺑﺎﻟﻘﻭﺓ ﻟﻳﻛﻭﻧﻭﺍ ﻋﻅﻣﺎء‪ “.‬ﻟﻛﻥ ﺍﻹﺩﻻء ﺑﺎﻵﺭﺍء‬
‫ﺑﺎﺳﺗﺭﺍﺗﻳﺟﻳﺎﺕ ﻭﺳﻳﺎﺳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺗﻌﻠﻳﻡ ﺃﻛﺛﺭ‬ ‫ً‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻣﻬﻧﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺗﻲ ﻻ ﺃﺳﺎﺱ ﻟﻬﺎ ﻟﻳﺱ ً‬ ‫ﺗﻬﺗﻡ ﺑﺷﻛﻝ ﻛﺑﻳﺭ ﺑﻛﻔﺎءﺓ ﺍﻟﻣﻌﻠﻣﻳﻥ‪ ،‬ﺑﻝ‬
‫ﻓﻌﺎﻻ ً‬
‫ﺃﻳﺿﺎ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺣﻼ‬
‫ﻣﻥ ﺃﻱ ﺷﺧﺹ ﺁﺧﺭ‪ .‬ﻓﻲ ”ﻛﻧﺩﺍ“‪،‬‬ ‫ﻛﺎﻑ ﻣﻧﻬﻡ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻣﺩﺍﺭﺱ‪.‬‬
‫ﺑﻭﺟﻭﺩ ﻋﺩﺩ ٍ‬
‫ﻣﺎ ﺗﻔﻌﻠﻪ ﺍﻷﻧﻅﻣﺔ ﻋﺎﻟﻳﺔ ﺍﻷﺩﺍء ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺗﻲ ﺗﺗﻁﻭﺭ‬
‫ﻛﺎﻧﺕ ﻣﺑﺎﺩﺭﺍﺕ ﺗﻌﻠﻳﻡ ﺍﻟﻘﺭﺍءﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﻛﺗﺎﺑﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﺷﻛﻝ ﻣﻠﺣﻭﻅ ﻫﻭ ﺃﻧﻬﺎ ﺗﺟﻣﻊ ﺑﻳﻥ ﺍﻟﻣﺳﺎءﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻛﻥ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺩﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﺗﻲ ﺗﻧﺷﺩ ﺍﻟﺗﻣﻳﺯ ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﺣﺳﺎﺏ ﻓﻲ ﻣﻘﺎﻁﻌﺔ ”ﺃﻭﻧﺗﺎﺭﻳﻭ“‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺫﻛﻳﺔ ﻣﺗﻌﺩﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺟﻭﺍﻧﺏ – ﻭﺍﻟﺗﻲ ﺗﺗﻣﺗﻊ ﺑﺎﻟﺷﻔﺎﻓﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻗﺗﺻﺎﺩ ﺍﻟﻣﻌﺭﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻣﻲ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﻷﺩﻭﺍﺭ‬
‫ﺗﺩﺍﺭ ﺑﻣﻌﺭﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﺧﺑﺭﺍء ﻓﻲ ﻭﺣﺩﺓ ﺟﺩﻳﺩﺓ‬ ‫– ﻭﺑﻳﻥ ﺍﻟﻣﺑﺎﺩﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺗﻲ ﺗﺑﻧﻲ ﺍﻟﻣﻌﺭﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﻣﻬﻧﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻣﺳﺅﻭﻟﻳﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻣﻌﻠﻣﻳﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻣﺣﺩﺩﺓ‬
‫ﺑﻭﺯﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺗﺭﺑﻳﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺗﻌﻠﻳﻡ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻣﻘﺎﻁﻌﺔ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻘﺩﺭﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﻧﻔﻳﺫ ﻭﺗﻘﻳﻳﻡ ﺃﻓﺿﻝ ﺍﻟﻣﻣﺎﺭﺳﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻣﻠﻘﺎﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻋﺎﺗﻘﻬﻡ ﺗﺗﻐﻳﺭ ﺑﺳﺭﻋﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﺃﻳﺿﺎ ﺑﻭﺍﺳﻁﺔ ﺗﻛﻭﻳﻥ ﻓﺭﻕ ﻟﺗﻌﻠﻳﻡ‬ ‫ً‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺳﺗﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﻣﺩﺭﺳﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﺫﺍ ﻳﺧﻠﻕ ﺛﻘﺎﻓﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﺣﺗﺎﺝ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻟﺩﻭﻝ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻣﺩﺭﺳﻳﻥ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺗﻁﻭﻳﺭ ﺍﻟﻣﺳﺗﻣﺭ ﻭﻳﺭﻓﻊ ﺳﻘﻑ ﺍﻟﺗﻭﻗﻌﺎﺕ ﺩﺍﺋﻣًﺎ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻘﺭﺍءﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﻛﺗﺎﺑﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺣﺳﺎﺏ‪ ،‬ﻭﺟﻬﻭﺩ‬ ‫ﻳﻣﻛﻧﻬﻡ ﺗﻌﻠﻳﻡ ﺍﻟﻁﻼﺏ ﺃﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻧﻭﺍﻉ‬ ‫‪5‬‬
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‫ﺍﻟﺳﻧـﺔ ﺍﻟﺛﺎﻟﺛﺔ ‪ -‬ﺍﻟـﻌـﺩﺩ ﺍﻟﺛﺎﻧﻲ ‪) -‬ﻓﺑﺭﺍﻳﺭ ‪26 - (2013‬‬ ‫ﻭﺿﻊ ﻧﻅﺎﻡ ﺻﺣﻳﺢ ﻟﻠﻣﺳﺎءﻟﺔ ﻫﻭ ﺃﻣﺭ ﻓﻲ ﻏﺎﻳﺔ ﺍﻷﻫﻣﻳﺔ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺃﻓﺭﺍﺩ ﻣﺗﺧﺻﺻﻳﻥ ﻓﻲ ﺗﺣﺳﻳﻥ ﺃﺩﺍء ﺍﻟﻁﻼﺏ ﻓﻲ ﻣﺧﺗﻠﻑ‬
‫ً‬
‫ﻓﻣﺛﻼ ﺍﻟﻣﺣﺎﺳﺑﺔ ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﻫﻧﺎﻙ ﺃﺷﻛﺎﻝ ﻋﺩﻳﺩﺓ ﻟﺗﺣﻘﻳﻕ ﺫﻟﻙ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻭﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻧﻘﻳﺽ ﻣﻥ ﺫﻟﻙ‪ ،‬ﺗﺧﺳﺭ ”ﺍﻟﻭﻻﻳﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻣﻧﺎﻁﻕ‪.‬‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻣﺩﺍﺭﺱ ﺗﺷﺑﻪ ﺗﻠﻙ ﺍﻟﻣﻭﺟﻭﺩﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺷﺭﻛﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﺣﻳﺙ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻣﺗﺣﺩﺓ“ ﻣﻧﺫ ﺃﻋﻭﺍﻡ ﻋﺩﻳﺩﺓ ﺧﺑﺭﺍﺕ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻣﺅﺳﺳﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﻣﻛﺎﺗﺏ‬
‫ﺗﺑﺣﺙ ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻳﺎ ﻋﻥ ﻣﺅﺷﺭﺍﺕ ﺗﺩﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺳﺗﻭﻯ ﺃﺩﺍء‬ ‫ً‬
‫ﻭﺃﻳﺿﺎ ﻓﻲ ﻭﺯﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺗﻌﻠﻳﻣﻳﺔ ﺑﻣﺧﺗﻠﻑ ﺍﻟﻭﻻﻳﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﻣﻧﺎﻁﻕ‪،‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻣﺩﺭﺳﻳﻥ ﻭﺗﺣﺻﻝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﻠﻙ ﺍﻟﻣﺅﺷﺭﺍﺕ ﻋﻥ ﻁﺭﻳﻕ ﺇﺭﺳﺎﻝ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺗﻌﻠﻳﻡ ﺍﻷﻣﺭﻳﻛﻳﺔ‪ ،‬ﺣﻳﺙ ﺃﺻﺑﺢ ﺩﻭﺭ ﻣﻌﻅﻡ ﺍﻟﻣﻭﻅﻔﻳﻥ ﻓﻲ‬

‫ﺍﻟﻣﺷﺭﻓﻳﻥ ﺃﻭ ﻓﺣﺹ ﻧﺗﺎﺋﺞ ﺍﻻﻣﺗﺣﺎﻧﺎﺕ‪ .‬ﻳﺭﻛﺯ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻧﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻟﻣﺅﺳﺳﺎﺕ ﻳﻧﺻﺏ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺭﺍﻗﺑﺔ ﺍﻻﻟﺗﺯﺍﻡ ﺑﺎﻟﻠﻭﺍﺋﺢ ﺃﻛﺛﺭ‬
‫ﻣﻥ ﺗﻭﻓﻳﺭ ﺍﻟﺧﺑﺭﺍﺕ ﻭﻣﺳﺎﻋﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﻣﺩﺍﺭﺱ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻘﻳﺎﻡ ﺑﺎﻟﺟﻬﻭﺩ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺗﺭﺑﻭﻱ ﺍﻟﻔﻳﺩﺭﺍﻟﻲ ﺍﻟﻣﺳﻣﻰ ﺑـ”ﻻ ﻁﻔﻝ ﻳﺗﺧﻠﻑ“ – ﻭﻫﻭ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻼﺯﻣﺔ ﻟﻠﺗﻁﻭﻳﺭ‪.‬‬
‫ﻗﺎﻧﻭﻥ ﺃﻣﺭﻳﻛﻲ ﻳﻬﺩﻑ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺗﻭﻓﻳﺭ ﻓﺭﺹ ﺍﻟﺗﻌﻠﻡ ﻭﺍﻟﻧﺟﺎﺡ‬
‫ﻟﺟﻣﻳﻊ ﺍﻷﻁﻔﺎﻝ – ﻋﻠﻰ ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻟﻧﻭﻉ ﻣﻥ ﺍﻟﻣﺳﺎءﻟﺔ ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﻳﺔ‬
‫‪¥É°ùJ’Gh áeAGƒŸG -5‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺋﻣﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻻﺧﺗﺑﺎﺭ‪ .‬ﻓﺑﻳﻧﻣﺎ ﺟﺫﺏ ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻟﻧﻭﻉ ﻣﻥ ﺍﻟﻣﺳﺎءﻟﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻻﻧﺗﺑﺎﻩ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻣﺟﻣﻭﻋﺎﺕ ﻛﺎﻧﺕ ﻣﻬ َﻣﻠﺔ ﻓﻳﻣﺎ ﻣﺿﻰ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺩ ﺃﺩﻯ‬
‫ﻣﻥ ﺃﻛﺑﺭ ﺍﻻﺧﺗﻼﻓﺎﺕ ﺑﻳﻥ ﺍﻟﺩﻭﻝ ﻋﺎﻟﻳﺔ ﺍﻷﺩﺍء ﻭﺍﻟﺩﻭﻝ‬
‫ً‬
‫ﺃﻳﺿﺎ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺗﺷﻭﻳﻪ ﺍﻟﻣﻧﺎﻫﺞ ﻭﺗﻘﻠﻳﺻﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻡ ﻳﻘﻡ ﺑﺷﻲء ﻳﺫﻛﺭ‬
‫ﻣﻧﺧﻔﺿﺔ ﺍﻷﺩﺍء ﻫﻭ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻷﺧﻳﺭﺓ ﺗﻔﺗﻘﺭ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﻣﻭﺍءﻣﺔ ﺑﻳﻥ‬
‫ﻣﻥ ﺃﺟﻝ ﺗﻁﻭﻳﺭ ﻗﺩﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻣﺩﺍﺭﺱ ﻣﻧﺧﻔﺿﺔ ﺍﻷﺩﺍء ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺗﻘﺩﻡ‬
‫ﺃﻫﺩﺍﻑ ﺍﻟﻧﻅﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺗﻌﻠﻳﻣﻲ )ﺍﻟﺗﻲ ﻳﺗﻡ ﻭﺿﻌﻬﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺳﺗﻭﻯ‬
‫ﻭﺇﺣﺭﺍﺯ ﻧﺗﺎﺋﺞ ﺃﻓﺿﻝ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺩﻭﻟﺔ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻭﻻﻳﺔ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻣﻘﺎﻁﻌﺔ( ﻭﺍﻟﻣﻣﺎﺭﺳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﻌﻠﻳﺔ ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻣﺩﺍﺭﺱ ﻭﺍﻟﻔﺻﻭﻝ‪ .‬ﺃﻣﺎ ﺍﻟﺩﻭﻝ ﻋﺎﻟﻳﺔ ﺍﻷﺩﺍء ﻓﺗﺛﺑﺕ ﺃﻥ ﻫﻧﺎﻙ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻧﻘﻳﺽ ﺗﻣﺎﻣًﺎ ﻓﻲ ”ﻓﻧﻠﻧﺩﺍ“ – ﻭﻫﻲ ﺃﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺩﻭﻝ‬ ‫ﻋﺩﺓ ﻁﺭﻕ ﻟﺗﺣﻘﻳﻕ ﺍﻟﻣﻭﺍءﻣﺔ ﻭﺍﻻﺗﺳﺎﻕ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻷﻭﺭﻭﺑﻳﺔ ﺃﺩﺍ ًء – ﻻ ﻳﻭﺟﺩ ﺇﺷﺭﺍﻑ ﺧﺎﺭﺟﻲ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻣﺩﺍﺭﺱ‬
‫ﺃﻭ ﺍﺧﺗﺑﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺧﺎﺭﺟﻳﺔ ﻗﺑﻝ ﺍﺧﺗﺑﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺗﺧﺭﺝ ﻣﻥ ﺍﻟﻣﺭﺣﻠﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺛﺎﻧﻭﻳﺔ‪ ،‬ﺣﻳﺙ ﺗﻌﺗﻣﺩ ﺍﻟﻣﺳﺎءﻟﺔ ﻓﻲ ”ﻓﻧﻠﻧﺩﺍ“ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺛﻘﺔ‬ ‫‪ádAÉ°ùŸGh IQGOE’G -6‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺗﻲ ﺗﻭﻟﻳﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺋﻼﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﺣﻛﻭﻣﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺣﺩ ﺳﻭﺍء ﻟﻣﻬﺎﺭﺍﺕ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻣﺩﺭﺳﻳﻥ ﺍﻟﻣﻬﻧﻳﺔ ﻭﻛﻔﺎءﺗﻬﻡ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻳﺔ‪ .‬ﺃﻣﺎ ”ﺳﻧﻐﺎﻓﻭﺭﺓ“ ﻓﻠﺩﻳﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺗﻌﺎﻧﻲ ﺟﻣﻳﻊ ﺍﻷﻧﻅﻣﺔ ﺍﻟﺗﻌﻠﻳﻣﻳﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺳﺑﻳﻝ ﺗﺣﻘﻳﻕ ﺍﻟﺗﻭﺍﺯﻥ‬
‫ﻧﻅﺎﻡ ﻳﻔﻌﱢﻝ ﻋﺩﺓ ﺃﻧﻣﺎﻁ ﻣﻥ ﺍﻟﻣﺳﺎءﻟﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﻬﻧﺎﻙ ﻧﻅﺎﻡ ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺑﻳﻥ ﺍﻟﻣﺭﻛﺯﻳﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻼﻣﺭﻛﺯﻳﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺑﻳﻥ ﺍﻟﺗﻭﺟﻳﻬﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺗﻲ ﺗﺄﺗﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻷﺩﺍء ﻟﻠﻣﺩﺭﺳﻳﻥ ﻭﺍﻟﻣﺩﻳﺭﻳﻥ ﻭﺍﻟﺫﻱ ﻳﻌﺗﻣﺩ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻌﺩﻳﺩ ﻣﻥ‬ ‫ﻣﻥ ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻳﺎ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺳﻔﻠﻰ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻣﺳﺅﻭﻟﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺗﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻣﺅﺷﺭﺍﺕ ﻣﺛﻝ ﺇﺳﻬﺎﻣﺎﺗﻬﻡ ﻓﻲ ﺗﻁﻭﻳﺭ ﺍﻟﻣﺩﺭﺳﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻣﺟﺗﻣﻊ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺗﺗﺯﺍﻳﺩ ﻣﻥ ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺳﻔﻠﻰ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻳﺎ‪ .‬ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺳﻧﻭﺍﺕ‬

‫ﻭﻣﺳﺗﻭﻯ ﺃﺩﺍء ﻁﻼﺑﻬﻡ‪ ،‬ﻭﻋﻼﻗﺗﻬﻡ ﻣﻊ ﺃﻭﻟﻳﺎء ﺍﻷﻣﻭﺭ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺧﻳﺭﺓ‪ ،‬ﺃﺻﺑﺣﺕ ﺍﻷﻧﻅﻣﺔ ﺍﻟﺗﻲ ﺗﻣﻳﻝ ﻏﺎﻟﺑًﺎ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﻣﺭﻛﺯﻳﺔ –‬
‫ﻭﺇﻛﻣﺎﻟﻬﻡ ﻟﺩﺭﺍﺳﺎﺗﻬﻡ ﺍﻟﻣﻬﻧﻳﺔ ﺑﻧﺟﺎﺡ‪ .‬ﻭﻫﻧﺎﻙ ً‬ ‫ﻣﺛﻝ ”ﺍﻟﺻﻳﻥ“ ﻭ”ﺳﻧﻐﺎﻓﻭﺭﺓ“ – ﺗﻠﻘﻲ ﺑﻣﺳﺅﻭﻟﻳﺎﺕ ﺃﻛﺑﺭ ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫ﺃﻳﺿﺎ ﻧﻅﺎﻡ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻣﺩﺭﺳﺔ‪ ،‬ﺑﻳﻧﻣﺎ ﺍﻷﻧﻅﻣﺔ ﺍﻷﺧﺭﻯ – ﻣﺛﻝ ”ﺇﻧﺟﻠﺗﺭﺍ“ ﻋﻧﺩﻣﺎ‬
‫ﺍﺳﺗﺛﻣﺎﺭ ﻣﻭﺍﺭﺩ ﻋﺩﻳﺩﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺗﻁﻭﻳﺭ ﺇﻣﻛﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻣﺩﺍﺭﺱ ﻋﻥ‬
‫ﻛﺎﻥ ”ﺗﻭﻧﻲ ﺑﻠﻳﺭ“ ﻳﺭﺃﺱ ﻭﺯﺍﺭﺗﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭ”ﺃﺳﺗﺭﺍﻟﻳﺎ“ ﻭ”ﺍﻟﻭﻻﻳﺎﺕ‬
‫ﻁﺭﻳﻕ ﺟﺫﺏ ﺍﻟﻣﺩﺭﺳﻳﻥ ﺍﻷﻛﻔﺎء‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻻﺣﺗﻔﺎﻅ ﺑﻬﻡ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺳﻣﺎﺡ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻣﺗﺣﺩﺓ“ ﻋﻥ ﻁﺭﻳﻕ ﺍﻟﺗﺷﺭﻳﻌﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﻳﺩﺭﺍﻟﻳﺔ – ﺗﺅﻛﺩ ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫ﻟﻬﻡ ﺑﺎﻹﺩﻻء ﺑﺂﺭﺍﺋﻬﻡ ﺍﻟﻣﻬﻧﻳﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺗﺣﻛﻡ ﺃﻛﺛﺭ ﻣﺭﻛﺯﻳﺔ ﻟﻣﺣﺎﻭﻟﺔ ﺗﺣﺳﻳﻥ ﺍﻷﺩﺍء ﻭﺯﻳﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﻣﺳﺎءﻟﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺧﻼﺻــــﺎﺕ ﻛﺗﺏ ﺍﻟﺗﺭﺑﻳــــﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺗﻌﻠﻳﻡ‬

‫‪?ÜÓ£dG πc õ«Ø– Ö©°üj GPÉŸ‬‬


‫ﻫﻧﺎﻙ ﺃﺭﺑﻌﺔ ﺃﺷﻳﺎء ﻧﺣﺗﺎﺝ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﻘﻳﺎﻡ ﺑﻬﺎ ﻟﺯﻳﺎﺩﺓ ﺗﺣﻔﻳﺯ ﺍﻟﻁﻼﺏ ﻭﺩﻓﻌﻬﻡ ﻧﺣﻭ ﺍﻟﻣﺷﺎﺭﻛﺔ‪:‬‬
‫❂ ﺗﻐﻳﻳﺭ ﻣﻌﺗﻘﺩﺍﺗﻧﺎ ﻓﻳﻣﺎ ﻳﺗﻌﻠﻕ ﺑﺄﻫﻣﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻣﺟﻬﻭﺩﺍﺕ ﻣﻘﺎﺭﻧﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻘﺩﺭﺍﺕ؛‬
‫❂ ﺍﻹﻛﺛﺎﺭ ﻣﻥ ﺗﻭﺯﻳﻊ ﺍﻟﺟﻭﺍﺋﺯ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻱ ﻁﺎﻟﺏ ﻳﻘﻭﻡ ﺑﺈﻧﺟﺎﺯ ﺃﻛﺎﺩﻳﻣﻲ ﻣﺎ‪ ،‬ﺑﺣﻳﺙ ﻻ ﺗﻘﺗﺻﺭ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻟﺟﻭﺍﺋﺯ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻁﻼﺏ ﺍﻟﻣﺗﻔﻭﻗﻳﻥ‬
‫ﻓﺣﺳﺏ؛‬
‫❂ ﺍﻟﺗﺄﻛﺩ ﻣﻥ ﺇﻟﻣﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻣﺩﺭﺳﻳﻥ ﺑﺄﻓﺿﻝ ﺍﻟﻣﻣﺎﺭﺳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺻﻔﻳﺔ ﻟﺗﻭﺻﻳﻝ ﺍﻟﻣﻌﻠﻭﻣﺔ ﻭﺗﺷﺟﻳﻊ ﺍﻟﻁﻼﺏ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻣﺷﺎﺭﻛﺔ؛‬
‫❂ ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺗﻧﻅﻳﻡ ﺍﻟﻭﻗﺕ ﺍﻟﻣﺧﺻﺹ ﻟﻣﺗﻁﻠﺑﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻁﻼﺏ ﺍﻟﺗﻲ ﺗﻧﺎﻓﺱ ﺍﻟﻣﺫﺍﻛﺭﺓ ﻣﺛﻝ ﻣﺷﺎﻫﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺗﻠﻔﺎﺯ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﻣﻣﺎﺭﺳﺔ ﺍﻷﻧﺷﻁﺔ‬

‫‪6‬‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺟﺗﻣﺎﻋﻳﺔ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻌﻣﻝ ﺑﻌﺩ ﺍﻟﻣﺩﺭﺳﺔ‪.‬‬

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‫‪»ŸÉ©dG Qƒ¶æŸG -8‬‬ ‫‪ÜÓ£dG õ«Ø– -7‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﺳﻧـﺔ ﺍﻟﺛﺎﻟﺛﺔ ‪ -‬ﺍﻟـﻌـﺩﺩ ﺍﻟﺛﺎﻧﻲ ‪) -‬ﻓﺑﺭﺍﻳﺭ ‪26 - (2013‬‬


‫‪á«∏Ñ≤à°ùŸG ájDhôdGh‬‬
‫ﺗﻠﺟﺄ ﺍﻟﺩﻭﻝ ﺫﺍﺕ ﺍﻷﺩﺍء ﺍﻟﻣﺭﺗﻔﻊ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺗﻘﺩﻳﻡ ﻣﻛﺎﻓﺂﺕ ﺩﺍﺧﻠﻳﺔ‬
‫ﺗﺩﺭﻙ ﺍﻟﺩﻭﻝ ﻣﺭﺗﻔﻌﺔ ﺍﻷﺩﺍء ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻡ ﺍﻟﺫﻱ ﻧﻌﻳﺵ ﻓﻳﻪ ﻫﻭ‬ ‫ﻭﺧﺎﺭﺟﻳﺔ ﻟﺗﺣﻔﻳﺯ ﺍﻟﻁﻼﺏ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﺿﻊ ﻟﻛﻝ ﻣﻬﻣﺔ ً‬
‫ﻭﻗﺗﺎ ﻣﺗﻭﻗﻌًﺎ‬
‫ً‬
‫ﺍﺗﺟﺎﻫﺎ ﻋﺎﻟﻣﻳًﺎ ﻓﻳﻣﺎ‬ ‫ﻋﺎﻟﻡ ﻣﺗﺭﺍﺑﻁ‪ ،‬ﻟﺫﻟﻙ ﺗﺣﺎﻭﻝ ﺃﻥ ﺗﺗﺑﻧﻰ‬ ‫ﻹﻧﺟﺎﺯﻫﺎ ﺃﻁﻭﻝ ﻣﻥ ﺍﻟﻭﻗﺕ ﺍﻟﻣﻌﺗﺎﺩ ﻓﻲ ﻣﺩﺍﺭﺱ ﻛﺛﻳﺭﺓ ﺣﻭﻝ‬
‫ﻳﺗﻌﻠﻕ ﺑﻣﺩﺭﺳﻳﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺎﺩﺓ ﻣﺩﺍﺭﺳﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﻁﻼﺑﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻧﺎﻫﺟﻬﺎ‪،‬‬ ‫ً‬
‫ﻓﺻﻼ ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻡ‪ .‬ﻻ ﻳﺳﺗﻁﻳﻊ ﺃﻱ ﺷﺧﺹ ﺳﺑﻕ ﻟﻪ ﺃﻥ ﺯﺍﺭ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﺗﺑﺎﺩﻻﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﺷﺭﺍﻛﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺳﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻣﻳﺔ‪ .‬ﺍﺳﺗﺧﺩﻣﺕ‬ ‫ً‬
‫ﻣﺛﻼ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻣﻧﻊ ﻧﻔﺳﻪ ﻣﻥ ﺍﻻﻧﺑﻬﺎﺭ‬ ‫”ﺳﻧﻐﺎﻓﻭﺭﺓ“ ﺃﻭ ”ﺍﻟﺻﻳﻥ“‬
‫ﺟﻣﻳﻊ ﺍﻟﺩﻭﻝ ﺫﺍﺕ ﺍﻷﻧﻅﻣﺔ ﺍﻟﺗﻌﻠﻳﻣﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻧﺎﺟﺣﺔ ﺩﺭﺍﺳﺎﺕ ﺗﻌﺗﻣﺩ‬ ‫ﺑﻣﺷﺎﺭﻛﺔ ﺍﻟﻁﻼﺏ ﺍﻟﻔﻌﺎﻟﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺃﺛﻧﺎء ﺍﻟﺣﺻﺹ‪ ،‬ﻭﺑﺈﺟﻣﺎﻟﻲ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ ”ﺍﻟﻘﻳﺎﺱ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻣﻲ“ ﻛﻭﺳﻳﻠﺔ ﻟﺗﻁﻭﻳﺭ ﺃﻧﻅﻣﺗﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﺑﺎﻟﺗﺎﻟﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻭﻗﺕ ﺍﻟﺫﻱ ﻳﺳﺗﻐﺭﻗﻪ ﺍﻟﻁﻼﺏ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﺧﺎﺭﺝ ﺍﻟﻣﺩﺭﺳﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺗﺣﺭﻙ ﻗﺩﻣًﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺳﻠﺳﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺟﻭﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺗﻌﻠﻳﻣﻳﺔ‪ .‬ﻟﻛﻥ ﻛﻳﻑ ﺗﺗﻌﻠﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺗﻧﺯﻩ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﺷﺎﻫﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﺗﻠﻔﺎﺯ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻣﺎﺭﺳﺔ ﺍﻟﺭﻳﺎﺿﺔ ﻛﻠﻬﺎ ﺗﺳﺗﻐﺭﻕ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺩﻭﻝ؟‬ ‫ً‬
‫ﻭﻗﺗﺎ ﺃﻗﻝ ﻣﻥ ﺍﻟﺩﺭﺍﺳﺔ‪ .‬ﺍﻹﻳﻣﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻘﻭﻱ ﺑﺎﻟﺟﺩﺍﺭﺓ – ﻓﻛﺭﺓ‬
‫ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻣﺟﻬﻭﺩ ﻭﻟﻳﺱ ﺍﻟﻘﺩﺭﺍﺕ ﻫﻭ ﺍﻟﻣﺣﺩﺩ ﺍﻟﺭﺋﻳﺳﻲ ﻟﻠﻧﺟﺎﺡ‬
‫ﺗﻣﺗﻠﻙ ﺍﻟﻣﺅﺳﺳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺗﻌﻠﻳﻣﻳﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺑﻌﺽ ﺍﻟﺩﻭﻝ ﻣﺗﺧﺻﺻﻳﻥ‬ ‫ً‬
‫ﺑﺎﻋﺛﺎ ﻛﺑﻳﺭً ﺍ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻌﻣﻝ‬ ‫ً‬
‫ﻣﺿﺎﻓﺎ ﺇﻟﻳﻪ ﻧﻅﺎﻡ ﺍﺧﺗﺑﺎﺭ ﻳﺧﻠﻕ‬ ‫–‬
‫ﻭﻅﻳﻔﺗﻬﻡ ﻓﻬﻡ ﻭﻣﺗﺎﺑﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﺗﻁﻭﺭﺍﺕ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺩﻭﻝ ﺍﻷﺧﺭﻯ ﻭﺗﻘﻳﻳﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺟﺎﺩ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻘﻳﻣﺔ ﺍﻟﺗﻲ ﺗﺿﻔﻳﻬﺎ ﺍﻷﺳﺭﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺗﻌﻠﻳﻡ ﺑﻭﺻﻔﻪ‬
‫ﺇﻣﻛﺎﻧﻳﺔ ﺗﻁﺑﻳﻕ ﺗﻠﻙ ﺍﻟﺗﻁﻭﺭﺍﺕ ﻣﺣﻠﻳًﺎ‪ .‬ﺑﻳﻧﻣﺎ ﺗﻘﻭﻡ ﺩﻭﻝ‬ ‫ﻭﺳﻳﻠﺔ ﻟﻠﺗﻁﻭﺭ ﺍﻻﺟﺗﻣﺎﻋﻲ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻣﺟﺗﻣﻌﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺗﻲ ﺗﻌﺎﻧﻲ ﻓﻘﺭً ﺍ‬
‫ﺃﺧﺭﻯ ﺑﺈﺭﺳﺎﻝ ﻓﺭﻕ ﺣﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻡ ﻟﺩﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﺃﻧﻅﻣﺔ ﺍﻟﺩﻭﻝ‬ ‫ً‬
‫ﺗﺣﻔﻳﺯﺍ ﻗﻭﻳًﺎ ﻟﻠﺩﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﺑﺎﺟﺗﻬﺎﺩ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺣﻘﻳﻘﻳًﺎ‪ ،‬ﻛﻝ ﺫﻟﻙ ﻳﻣﺛﻝ‬
‫ﻋﺎﻟﻳﺔ ﺍﻷﺩﺍء ﺃﻭ ﺗﺣﻠﻳﻝ ﺍﺗﺟﺎﻫﺎﺕ ﻭﺧﺑﺭﺍﺕ ﻣﺧﺗﻠﻔﺔ ﻓﻳﻣﺎ ﻳﺗﻌﻠﻕ‬
‫ﺑﻣﺳﺄﻟﺔ ﺗﻌﻠﻳﻣﻳﺔ ﻣﺣﺩﺩﺓ‪ .‬ﺃﺭﺳﻠﺕ ”ﺍﻟﺻﻳﻥ“ – ﻋﻠﻰ ﺳﺑﻳﻝ‬
‫ﻭﻣﻊ ﺫﻟﻙ‪ ،‬ﻳﻭﺟﺩ ﻓﻲ ﻛﻝ ﺍﻟﺩﻭﻝ ﻁﻼﺏ ﻟﺩﻳﻬﻡ ﺩﺭﺟﺎﺕ ﻣﺗﻔﺎﻭﺗﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻣﺛﺎﻝ – ِﻓ ً‬
‫ﺭﻗﺎ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺛﻼﺛﻳﻥ ﺩﻭﻟﺔ ﻟﺩﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﻣﻧﺎﻫﺟﻬﺎ ﻗﺑﻝ ﺇﺩﺧﺎﻝ‬
‫ﻣﻥ ﺍﻟﺗﺣﻔﻳﺯ‪ .‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﺃﺣﺩ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺩﺓ ﻓﻲ ﻣﺟﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺗﻌﻠﻳﻡ ﻓﻲ ”ﺷﻧﻐﻬﺎﻱ“‬
‫ﺗﻠﻙ ﺍﻟﻣﻧﺎﻫﺞ ﻓﻲ ﺧﻁﺔ ﺗﻁﻭﻳﺭ ﺍﻟﺗﻌﻠﻳﻡ ﺑـ”ﺍﻟﺻﻳﻥ“‪ .‬ﻭﺯﺍﺭ‬
‫ﺇﻥ ﻟﺩﻳﻪ ﻧﻭﻋﻳﻥ ﻣﻥ ﺃﻭﻟﻳﺎء ﺍﻷﻣﻭﺭ‪” :‬ﺍﻟﻣﺳﻳﻁﺭﻭﻥ‪ ،‬ﻭﻏﻳﺭ‬
‫ﺭﺋﻳﺱ ﻭﺯﺭﺍء ”ﺃﻭﻧﺗﺎﺭﻳﻭ“ ”ﺇﻧﺟﻠﺗﺭﺍ“ ﻟﻳﺗﻌﺭﻑ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺗﻘﻧﻳﺎﺕ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻣﻬﺗﻣﻳﻥ‪ “.‬ﻭﻅﻳﻔﺔ ﺍﻟﻣﺩﺭﺳﺔ ﺃﻥ ﺗﺩﻋﻡ ﺍﻟﻁﻼﺏ ﻭﺗﺷﺟﻌﻬﻡ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻻﺳﺗﺭﺍﺗﻳﺟﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺗﻲ ﺗﺳﺗﺧﺩﻣﻬﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺗﻌﻠﻳﻡ ﺍﻟﻘﺭﺍءﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﻛﺗﺎﺑﺔ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻣﺷﺎﺭﻛﺔ ﺣﺗﻰ ﻟﻭ ﻟﻡ ﻳﻛﻥ ﻟﺩﻳﻬﻡ ﺣﺎﻓﺯ ﻟﻠﻧﺟﺎﺡ ﻣﻧﺫ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﺣﺳﺎﺏ‪ .‬ﻭﺑﻌﺩ ﺫﻟﻙ‪ ،‬ﺃﺧﺫﺕ ﻭﺯﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺗﻌﻠﻳﻡ ﻓﻲ ”ﺃﻭﻧﺗﺎﺭﻳﻭ“‬
‫ﺍﻟﺑﺩﺍﻳﺔ‪ .‬ﻓﻲ ”ﺳﻧﻐﺎﻓﻭﺭﺓ“ – ﻋﻠﻰ ﺳﺑﻳﻝ ﺍﻟﻣﺛﺎﻝ – ﺗﻭﻓﺭ‬
‫ﺃﻭﺟﻪ ﺍﻟﻘﺻﻭﺭ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺧﺑﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻹﻧﺟﻠﻳﺯﻳﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻋﻳﻥ ﺍﻻﻋﺗﺑﺎﺭ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺣﻛﻭﻣﺔ ﺍﻟﺩﻋﻡ ﻟﻠﺟﻣﻌﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺗﻌﺎﻭﻧﻳﺔ ﻟﻛﻲ ﺗﺳﺎﻋﺩ ﺍﻷﻁﻔﺎﻝ‬
‫ﻋﻧﺩ ﺗﺻﻣﻳﻡ ﺃﺳﻠﻭﺏ ”ﺃﻭﻧﺗﺎﺭﻳﻭ“ ﻓﻲ ﺗﻌﻠﻳﻡ ﺍﻟﻘﺭﺍءﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﻛﺗﺎﺑﺔ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﻌﺎﺋﻼﺕ ﺍﻟﺗﻲ ﻻ ﺗﺷﺎﺭﻙ ﺑﻧﺟﺎﺡ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻣﺩﺭﺳﺔ‪ ،‬ﻛﻣﺎ ﺃﻥ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﺣﺳﺎﺏ‪ .‬ﻭﺗﻌﻠﻣﺕ ”ﺳﻧﻐﺎﻓﻭﺭﺓ“ ﻣﻥ ﺃﻧﻅﻣﺔ ﺍﻟﺗﻘﻳﻳﻡ ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﺗﻘﻳﻳﻣﺎﺕ ﻛﻝ ﺍﻟﻣﺩﺭﺳﻳﻥ ﺍﻟﺳﻧﻐﺎﻓﻭﺭﻳﻳﻥ ﺗﺗﻧﺎﻭﻝ ﺗﻌﺎﻭﻧﻬﻡ ﻣﻊ ﺁﺑﺎء‬
‫”ﺃﺳﺗﺭﺍﻟﻳﺎ“‪ ،‬ﻭ”ﻫﻭﻧﺞ ﻛﻭﻧﺞ“‪ ،‬ﻭ”ﺍﺳﻛﺗﻠﻧﺩﺍ“‪ .‬ﺗﻠﺟﺄ ﻛﻝ ﺍﻟﺩﻭﻝ‬
‫ﻁﻼﺑﻬﻡ ﻭﻋﻼﻗﺗﻬﻡ ﺑﻬﻡ‪ .‬ﻭﻟﺗﺷﺟﻳﻊ ﺍﻟﻁﻼﺏ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻣﺷﺎﺭﻛﺔ‪،‬‬
‫ﻣﺗﻣﻳﺯﺓ ﺍﻷﺩﺍء ﺇﻟﻰ ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻟﻧﻭﻉ ﻣﻥ ﺍﻟﻣﻣﺎﺭﺳﺎﺕ ﻭﺗﺣﻘﻕ ﻣﻧﻪ‬
‫ﺗﻡ ﺍﺑﺗﻛﺎﺭ ﻁﺭﻕ ﻋﺩﻳﺩﺓ ﺗﺳﺎﻋﺩﻫﻡ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺇﺣﺭﺍﺯ ﺍﻟﻧﺟﺎﺡ‪ ،‬ﻋﻼﻭﺓ‬
‫ﺃﻗﺻﻰ ﺍﺳﺗﻔﺎﺩﺓ‪ ،‬ﻛﻣﺎ ﻳﻘﻭﻡ ﺑﻌﺿﻬﺎ ﺑﺎﺳﺗﻘﺩﺍﻡ ﺧﺑﺭﺍء ﻣﻥ ﺩﻭﻝ‬
‫ً‬
‫ﻓﻣﺛﻼ ﻧﻅﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺗﻌﻠﻳﻡ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺇﻧﺷﺎء ﻣﺩﺍﺭﺱ ﻣﺧﺗﻠﻔﺔ ﺍﻟﺗﺧﺻﺻﺎﺕ‪،‬‬
‫ﺃﺧﺭﻯ ﻟﻳﻛﻭﻧﻭﺍ ﺑﻣﺛﺎﺑﺔ ﻧﻭﻉ ﻣﻥ ”ﺍﻟﻠﺟﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﺯﺍﺋﺭﺓ“ ﻣﻬﻣﺗﻬﺎ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻣﻬﻧﻲ ﺍﻟﻘﻭﻱ ﻭﺍﻟﻣﻣﻭﱠﻝ ﺟﻳ ًﺩﺍ ﻳﻌﺯﺯ ﻣﻥ ﺍﻟﻣﺷﺎﺭﻛﺔ ﺍﻟﻣﺩﺭﺳﻳﺔ‬
‫ﺗﻘﺩﻳﻡ ﻣﻘﺗﺭﺣﺎﺕ ﻋﻥ ﺍﻹﺻﻼﺣﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻣﻁﻠﻭﺑﺔ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺑﺗﻭﻅﻳﻑ‬
‫ﱢ‬
‫ﻭﻳﻣﻛﻥ ﺑﻌﺿﻬﻡ‬ ‫ً‬
‫ﻣﻳﻼ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﺗﻌﻠﻳﻡ ﺍﻷﻛﺎﺩﻳﻣﻲ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻁﻼﺏ ﺍﻷﻗﻝ‬
‫ﻣﺳﺗﺷﺎﺭﻳﻥ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻣﺩﻯ ﺍﻟﻘﺻﻳﺭ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻁﻭﻳﻝ ﻋﻧﺩ ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ‬
‫ﻣﻥ ﺍﻻﻟﺗﺣﺎﻕ ﺑﺎﻟﺟﺎﻣﻌﺔ ﻓﻳﻣﺎ ﺑﻌﺩ‪ .‬ﻓﻲ ”ﺃﻭﻧﺗﺎﺭﻳﻭ‪ “،‬ﻳﻭﺟﺩ ﻧﻅﺎﻡ‬
‫ﺧﻼﺻــــﺎﺕ ﻛﺗﺏ ﺍﻟﺗﺭﺑﻳــــﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺗﻌﻠﻳﻡ‬

‫ﺗﺻﻣﻳﻡ ﺑﻌﺽ ﺟﻭﺍﻧﺏ ﺃﻧﻅﻣﺗﻬﺎ‪.‬‬


‫ﻳﻣﻛﻥ ﺍﻟﻣﺩﺭﺳﺔ ﻣﻥ ﺍﻛﺗﺷﺎﻑ ﺍﻟﻁﻼﺏ‬ ‫ﺟﺩﻳﺩ ﻟﺟﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﺑﻳﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﱢ‬

‫ﻭﺃﺧﻳﺭً ﺍ‪ ،‬ﺗﺗﺟﻪ ﺍﻟﺩﻭﻝ ﺫﺍﺕ ﺍﻷﺩﺍء ﺍﻟﻣﺗﻣﻳﺯ ﻧﺣﻭ ﺍﻟﻣﺳﺗﻘﺑﻝ ﺃﻛﺛﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻣﻌﺭﺿﻳﻥ ﻟﺧﻁﺭ ﺍﻟﺗﺳﺭﺏ ﻣﻥ ﺍﻟﺗﻌﻠﻳﻡ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﻌﻳﻳﻥ ﻣﻭﻅﻔﻳﻥ‬
‫ﻣﻥ ﺍﻟﻣﺎﺿﻲ‪” .‬ﺳﻧﻐﺎﻓﻭﺭﺓ“ – ﻋﻠﻰ ﺳﺑﻳﻝ ﺍﻟﻣﺛﺎﻝ – ﺗﺭﺍﻗﺏ‬ ‫ﻣﺗﺧﺻﺻﻳﻥ ﻓﻲ ﻣﺟﺎﻝ ﻧﺟﺎﺡ ﺍﻟﻁﻼﺏ ﻟﻳﻌﻣﻠﻭﺍ ﻣﻊ ﻛﻝ ﻁﺎﻟﺏ‬
‫ﻭﺗﺗﺎﺑﻊ ﺑﺎﻧﺗﻅﺎﻡ ﻣﺎ ﻳﺣﺩﺙ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻷﻓﻕ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻣﻲ ﺑﻬﺩﻑ ﻭﺿﻊ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺣﺩﺓ ﻭﻳﺳﺎﻋﺩﻭﻩ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺇﻛﻣﺎﻝ ﻣﺳﻳﺭﺗﻪ ﺍﻟﺗﻌﻠﻳﻣﻳﺔ ﺣﺗﻰ‬
‫ﺗﺻﻣﻳﻣﺎﺕ ﻟﻣﺩﺍﺭﺱ ﺍﻟﻣﺳﺗﻘﺑﻝ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﺷﺗﺭﻛﺕ ﻣﻘﺎﻁﻌﺔ ”ﺃﻟﺑﺭﺗﺎ“‬ ‫ﻳﺗﺧﺭﺝ‪ .‬ﻛﻣﺎ ﺍﺳﺗﺣﺩﺛﺕ ﺍﻟﻣﻘﺎﻁﻌﺔ ﺗﺧﺻﺻﺎﺕ ﺟﺩﻳﺩﺓ ﻟﺫﻭﻱ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻛﻧﺩﻳﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺣﻭﺍﺭ ﻋﺎﻡ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺳﺗﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﻣﻘﺎﻁﻌﺔ ﻟﺗﺻﻝ ﺇﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻣﻬﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻣﻣﻳﺯﺓ‪ .‬ﻭﻫﻛﺫﺍ‪ ،‬ﺗﺳﻌﻰ ﺍﻟﺩﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﻧﺎﺟﺣﺔ ﺑﺷﺗﻰ‬
‫ﻣﺎ ﻳﺟﺏ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻛﻭﻥ ﻋﻠﻳﻪ ﺍﻟﻣﻭﺍﻁﻥ ”ﺍﻷﻟﺑﺭﺗﻲ“ ﺍﻟﻣﺗﻌﻠﻡ ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺳﺑﻝ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻣﺳﺎﻋﺩﺓ ﺟﻣﻳﻊ ﺍﻟﻁﻼﺏ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺗﺧﺭﺝ ﻭﺗﺣﻘﻳﻕ‬
‫ﺳﻧﺔ ‪ ،2039‬ﻭﻛﺎﻥ ﺫﻟﻙ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺧﻠﻔﻳﺔ ﻣﻧﺎﻗﺷﺔ ﺃﻫﺩﺍﻑ ﺍﻟﺗﻌﻠﻳﻡ‬ ‫ﺃﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻣﻌﺎﻳﻳﺭ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﻣﺑﺎﺩﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺗﺷﺭﻳﻌﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻣﻌﺩﻟﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫‪7‬‬
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26 - (2013 ‫ )ﻓﺑﺭﺍﻳﺭ‬- ‫ ﺍﻟـﻌـﺩﺩ ﺍﻟﺛﺎﻧﻲ‬- ‫ﺍﻟﺳﻧـﺔ ﺍﻟﺛﺎﻟﺛﺔ‬ iƒà°ùŸG »ŸÉY º«∏©J

‫ﻻ ﺳﺑﻳﻝ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺗﻔﻌﻳﻝ ﻧﻅﺎﻡ ﺗﻌﻠﻳﻣﻲ ﻭﺍﺣﺩ ﺩﻭﻥ ﻏﻳﺭﻩ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺳﺗﻭﻯ‬
‫ ﻛﻝ ﺍﻷﻧﻅﻣﺔ ﻳﺟﺏ ﺃﻥ ﺗﺳﻌﻰ ﺟﺎﻫﺩﺓ ﻹﻳﺟﺎﺩ‬.‫ﺍﻟﺩﻭﻟﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻭﻻﻳﺔ‬
‫ ﺑﻳﻥ‬،‫ﺍﻟﺗﻭﺍﺯﻥ ﺍﻟﺻﺣﻳﺢ ﺑﻳﻥ ﺍﻟﻣﺳﺗﻭﻳﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﻣﺳﺅﻭﻟﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﻹﺩﺍﺭﻳﺔ‬
.‫ ﺑﻳﻥ ﺍﻟﺗﺣﻛﻡ ﺍﻟﻣﺭﻛﺯﻱ ﻭﺍﻻﺳﺗﻘﻼﻝ ﺍﻟﻣﺣﻠﻲ‬،‫ﺍﻟﺗﻭﺣﺩ ﻭﺍﻟﺗﻧﻭﻉ‬
‫ ﻋﻧﺩﻣﺎ ﻳﻛﻭﻥ ﻣﺳﺗﻭﻯ ﺍﻹﻧﺟﺎﺯ ﺍﻟﺗﻌﻠﻳﻣﻲ ﻣﺗﺩﻧﻳًﺎ ﺃﻭ‬،‫ﺑﻭﺟﻪ ﻋﺎﻡ‬
ájõ«∏‚E’Gh á«Hô©dG Úà¨∏dÉH Iôaƒàe á°UÓÿG √òg ‫ ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﻟﺗﺩﺧﻝ ﺍﻟﻘﻭﻱ ﻣﻥ ﺟﺎﻧﺏ ﺍﻟﺣﻛﻭﻣﺔ ﻳﺻﻳﺭ‬،‫ﻏﻳﺭ ﻣﺗﻛﺎﻓﺊ‬
This publication is available in both Arabic & English
‫ ﻟﻛﻥ ﺗﻐﻳﻳﺭ ﻧﻅﺎﻡ ﻣﺎ ﻣﻥ ﺟﻳﺩ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺭﺍﺋﻊ – ﺃﻭ‬،‫ﺃﻣﺭً ﺍ ﻣﻁﻠﻭﺑًﺎ‬
:øY Qó°üJ ájô¡°T ∞°üf Iöûf ‫ﺟﻌﻝ ﺍﻟﻣﺩﺍﺭﺱ ﻛﻠﻬﺎ ﻋﻅﻳﻣﺔ – ﻳﻘﺗﺿﻲ ﺍﻟﻘﻳﺎﻡ ﺑﻣﺎ ﻫﻭ ﺃﻛﺛﺭ ﻣﻥ‬
‫ ﻭﺧﻠﻕ ﺛﻘﺎﻓﺔ‬،‫ ﻭﺍﻟﺗﺭﻛﻳﺯ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﻁﻭﻳﺭ ﺇﻣﻛﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻣﺩﺍﺭﺱ‬،‫ﺫﻟﻙ‬
z´É©°T{ »ª∏©dG ΩÓYEÓd á«Hô©dG ácöûdG
‫ ﻭﻣﻥ‬.‫ﻣﻥ ﺍﻟﻣﻌﺭﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﻣﻬﻧﻳﺔ ﺗﺗﻡ ﻓﻳﻬﺎ ﻣﺷﺎﺭﻛﺔ ﺃﻓﺿﻝ ﺍﻟﻣﻣﺎﺭﺳﺎﺕ‬
‫ﺍﻷﻫﻣﻳﺔ ﺑﻣﻛﺎﻥ ﺃﻥ ﺗﺿﻊ ﺳﻳﺎﺳﺎﺕ ﻭﻗﻭﺍﻋﺩ ﻟﻠﺗﻌﺎﻣﻝ ﻣﻊ ﺃﻭﺟﻪ‬
‫ ﻭﺗﻧﻣﻳﺔ‬،‫ﺍﻟﻘﺻﻭﺭ ﻓﻲ ﺃﺩﺍء ﺃﻁﻔﺎﻝ ﺍﻷﻗﻠﻳﺎﺕ ﻭﻣﺣﺩﻭﺩﻱ ﺍﻟﺩﺧﻝ‬
(äÉ°UÓN) ‘ ∑GΰTÓd ‫ ﻭﻭﺿﻊ ﺍﻟﻣﻧﺎﻫﺞ‬،‫ﻣﻬﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺗﻔﻛﻳﺭ ﺍﻟﻣﻧﻅﻡ ﻟﺩﻯ ﻛﻝ ﺍﻷﻁﻔﺎﻝ‬
¢ShDhô``e hCG ¢ù«Fôd É¡FGógE’ hCG ºμà°ù°SDƒŸ hCG ºμd ‫ﺍﻟﺷﺎﻣﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﻼﺯﻣﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻋﺻﺭ ﺍﻻﻗﺗﺻﺎﺩ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻣﻲ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺋﻡ ﻋﻠﻰ‬
.‫ﺍﻟﻣﻌﺭﻓﺔ‬
º```μæμÁ ;π```«ªY hCG π``«eõd É`¡Áó≤àd hCG
.ø`«cΰûŸG äÉeóN IQGOEÉH ∫É``°üJ’G
‫ﻭﻫﻛﺫﺍ ﻧﺭﻯ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻟﻧﺟﺎﺡ ﻓﻲ ﺗﻁﺑﻳﻕ ﻧﻅﺎﻡ ﺗﻌﻠﻳﻣﻲ ﻋﺎﻟﻣﻲ ﺍﻟﻣﺳﺗﻭﻯ‬
IôgÉ≤dG :á«Hô©dG öüe ájQƒ¡ªL ،‫ ﻭﺍﺳﺗﻘﺭﺍﺭً ﺍ ﺳﻳﺎﺳﻳًﺎ‬،‫ ﻭﺣﺳً ﺎ ﺃﺧﻼﻗﻳًﺎ‬،‫ﻳﺗﻁﻠﺏ ﺭﺅﻳﺔ ﻭﺍﺿﺣﺔ‬
+ 2 02 24025324 - 24036657 - 22633897 : ∞JÉg ‫ ﻭﻗﻳﺎﺩﺓ ﻓﻌﺎﻟﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺟﻣﻳﻊ‬،‫ ﻭﺍﻟﺗﺯﺍﻣًﺎ ﺑﺎﻟﺟﻭﺩﺓ‬،‫ﻭﻣﻌﺎﻳﻳﺭ ﻁﻣﻭﺣﺔ‬
+2 02 22612521 : ¢ùcÉa ً
‫ﻭﺗﺭﻛﻳﺯﺍ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﻧﻣﻳﺔ ﻗﺩﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻣﺩﺭﺳﻳﻥ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗﻔﻌﻳﻝ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﻣﺳﺗﻭﻳﺎﺕ‬
‘ ÉæÑJÉμe øe …CÉH ∫É°üJÓd ‫ ﻭﺗﻘﺩﻳﻡ‬،‫ ﻭﺗﺷﺟﻳﻊ ﺍﻟﻁﻼﺏ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻣﺷﺎﺭﻛﺔ‬،‫ﺍﻟﺗﻐﻳﻳﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻣﻁﻠﻭﺑﺔ‬
âjƒμdGh øª«dGh ¿OQC’Gh äGQÉeE’Gh ájOƒ©°ùdGh ÉjQƒ°S .‫ﺩﻋﻡ ﺃﻛﺑﺭ ﻣﻥ ِﻗﺑﻝ ﺍﻟﻣﺟﺗﻣﻊ‬
,á«Hô©dG ∫hódG »bÉHh
:Éæ©bƒe IQÉjõH ΩôμàdG AÉLôdG
www.edara.com áØ``dDƒ```ª`dG
k G “´É©°T” øY Qó°üJ
:äÉjQhO É°†jC ‫ﻓﻳﻔﻳﺎﻥ ﺳﺗﻳﻭﺍﺭﺕ‬
∫ɪYC’G πLQh ôjóŸG Öàc äÉ°UÓN
äÉ`````bÓY
…QGOE’G QÉàîŸG
ً
‫ ﻭﻛﺎﻧﺕ‬،‫ﺳﺎﺑﻘﺎ‬ “‫ﻣﻥ ﻛﺑﺎﺭ ﻣﺳﺗﺷﺎﺭﻱ ﺍﻟﺗﻌﻠﻳﻡ ﻭﻧﺎﺋﺏ ﺭﺋﻳﺱ ﺟﻣﻌﻳﺔ ”ﺁﺳﻳﺎ‬
ΩÉ©dG QGóe ≈∏Y ΩÉ¡dEG ‫ﺗﻘﻭﺩ ﺍﻟﺟﻬﻭﺩ ﺍﻟﻭﻁﻧﻳﺔ ﻹﻋﺩﺍﺩ ﺍﻟﻁﻼﺏ ﻭﺍﻟﺗﺭﺑﻭﻳﻳﻥ ﺍﻷﻣﺭﻳﻛﻳﻳﻥ ﻟﻣﻭﺍﺟﻬﺔ‬
IQÉ«°ùdG ‘ IQGOE’G :á«Jƒ°üdG á∏°ù∏°ùdG
.‫ﺗﺣﺩﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻘﺭﻥ ﺍﻟﺣﺎﺩﻱ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﺷﺭﻳﻥ‬

™aódGh ∑GΰT’G ɪFGO


k ºμæμÁ
:Éæ©bƒe ≈∏Y É«k fhÎμdEG
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‫ﺧﻼﺻــــﺎﺕ ﻛﺗﺏ ﺍﻟﺗﺭﺑﻳــــﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺗﻌﻠﻳﻡ‬

ÜÉ`````àμ`dG
Author: Vivien Stewart
(äÉ°UÓN) Qó°üJ
Title: A World-Class Education: Learning From
á`«ŸÉ©dG ÖàμdG π°†aCG ,á«Hô©dG á¨∏dÉH ¢üî∏Jh 1993 ΩÉY ™∏£e òæe International Models of Excellence and Innovation
ÖàμdG ≈∏Y õ````«cÎdG ™``e ,∫É```ªYC’G ∫É````LQh ø````jôjóª∏d á`¡LƒŸG
±ó``¡`J .…QGOE’G ô`μ``Ø∏d G kójó`L ∞`«`°†J »`à`dGh É`©``«``Ñ`e
k Ì``cC’G Publisher: Association for Supervision & Curriculum
Development (February 13, 2012)
ájQGOE’G äÉjô¶ædGh äÉ°SQɪŸG ÚH Iƒ```éØdG ó°S ≈dEG (äÉ``°UÓN)
ô``aƒJ å«M ;á```«Hô©dG IQGOE’G á```Ä«Hh ,á````eó≤àŸG ∫hódG ‘ á``ãjó◊G ISBN: 978-1-4166-1374-9
.≥````«Ñ£à∏d á```∏HÉbh á```Hô›
q á````jQGOEG áaô©e º```¡d Pages: 121
ÖcôŸG åëÑdG ∑ôfi ∫ÓN øe É¡JÉjƒàfi πc ‘ åëÑdG øμÁh
.Éæ©bƒe ≈∏Y
6454 : ´GójE’G ºbQ To read more about this book, use this link:
ISSN: 110/2357 http://www.amazon.com

8
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‫‪C‬‬
‫‪á«μ∏ŸG ¥ƒ≤M‬‬
‫‪»ª∏©dG ΩÓYEÓd á«Hô©dG ácöû∏d áXƒØfi‬‬

‫ﺣﻘﻮق اﻟﻤﻠﻜﻴﺔ اﻟﻔﻜﺮﻳﺔ ﻟﻬﺬا اﻟﻌﺪد وﻟﻜﻞ اﻋﺪاد واﻟﻜﺘﺐ اﻟﻜﺘﺮوﻧﻴﺔ واﻟﺼﻮﺗﻴﺔ اﻟﻤﻨﺸﻮرة‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻮﻗﻌﻨﺎ ‪ www.edara.com‬ﺗﻌﻮد ﻟﻠﺸﺮﻛﺔ اﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﻟ‪+‬ﻋﻼم اﻟﻌﻠﻤﻲ »ﺷﻌﺎع«‪ .‬وﻋﻠﻴﻪ‬
‫ﻓﺈﻧﻨﺎ ﻧﺘﻮﻗﻊ ﻣﻨﻜﻢ اﻻﻟﺘﺰام ﺑﺎﻟﻤﺤﺎﻓﻈﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺣﻘﻮﻗﻨﺎ ﻛﺎﻣﻠﺔ وذﻟﻚ ﺑﻌﺪم ﻧﺴﺦ أو رﻓﻊ أو‬
‫إرﺳﺎل أﻋﺪادﻧﺎ ﺧﺎرج ﺣﺪود اﺳﺘﺨﺪاﻣﻜﻢ اﻟﺸﺨﺼﻲ واﻟﻤﻬﻨﻲ واﻟﻤﺆﺳﺴﻲ دون ﻣﻮاﻓﻘﺔ‬
‫ﺧﻄﻴﺔ ﻣﻨﺎ‪ .‬ﻋﻠﻰ أﻧﻨﺎ ﻧﺴﻤﺢ ﻟﻠﻤﺸﺘﺮﻛﻴﻦ ﺑﺤﻔﻆ وﻃﺒﺎﻋﺔ اﻋﺪاد ﻟﻼﺳﺘﺨﺪام اﻟﺪاﺧﻠﻲ ﻓﻘﻂ‪.‬‬
‫وﻋﻠﻴﻪ‪ ،‬ﻧﺮﺟﻮ أن ﻳﺘﻌﻬﺪ اﻟﺠﻤﻴﻊ ﺑﻌﺪم ﻧﻘﻞ أو ﺗﻤﺮﻳﺮ أو ﻣﺸﺎرﻛﺔ ا‪P‬ﺧﺮﻳﻦ ﻓﻲ ﺣﻘﻮﻗﻨﺎ ﻫﺬه‪.‬‬
‫ً‬
‫وﻓﻘﺎ ﻟﻘﻮاﻧﻴﻦ اﻟﻤﻠﻜﻴﺔ اﻟﻔﻜﺮﻳﺔ اﻟﻤﺤﻠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻤﺎ ﺑﺄﻧﻨﺎ ﺳﻨﻘﺎﺿﻲ ﻛﻞ ﻣﻦ ﻻ ﻳﺤﺘﺮم ﻫﺬا اﻟﺘﻌﻬﺪ‬
‫ً‬
‫واﻗﻠﻴﻤﻴﺔ واﻟﺪوﻟﻴﺔ‪.‬‬

‫ﺃﻋﺪﺍﺩ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺸﻬﺮ‬


‫‪äÉ°UÓN‬‬

‫‪“º«∏©àdGh á«HÎdG Öàc” á°UÓN‬‬ ‫‪“ôjóŸG Öàc” á°UÓN‬‬ ‫‪“ôjóŸG Öàc” á°UÓN‬‬
‫‪26 :ºbQ‬‬ ‫‪501 :ºbQ‬‬ ‫‪502 :ºbQ‬‬

‫‪iƒà°ùŸG »ŸÉY º«∏©J‬‬ ‫‪Iójó÷G áÑîæ∏d ™«ÑdG‬‬ ‫‪º«≤dG Qɪãà°SG øa‬‬

‫‪äQGƒ«à°S ¿É«Ø«a :∞«dCÉJ‬‬ ‫‪êhO ¿ƒ°ùjQÉgh ¢ShGôc øØ«à°Sh ô∏«J º«L :∞«dCÉJ‬‬ ‫‪ôÁôc …QÉg :∞«dCÉJ‬‬

‫‪ô¡°ûdG Gòg “äÉ`````bÓY” ä’É≤e øe‬‬ ‫‪ô¡°ûdG Gòg “…QGOE’G QÉàîŸG” ä’É≤e‬‬

‫❂ ﻧﺰاﻫﺘﻚ اﻹﻋﺠﺎﺑﻴﺔ‬ ‫❂ اﻟﻌﻨﴫﻳﺔ اﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎدﻳﺔ‬

‫❂ اﻟﺘﻮﻗﻌﺎت اﻟﺘﻜﻨﻮﻟﻮﺟﻴﺔ ﻟﻌﺎم ‪2013‬‬ ‫❂ ﺧﺪﻣﺔ اﻟﻌﻤﻼء‬

‫❂ أﻗﻮال وأﻓﻌﺎل ﰲ اﻟﻌﻼﻗﺎت‬ ‫❂ ﻫﻞ ﻳﻌﺘﻤﺪون ﻋﻠﻴﻚ ﰲ ﻛﻞ ﳾء؟!‬

‫❂ ﻛﻴﻒ ﺗﻜﺘﺸﻒ اﻟﻜﺎذب؟‬ ‫❂ أﺳﺎﺳﻴﺎت ﺗﺤﻠﻴﻞ اﻟﺒﻴﺎﻧﺎت‬


‫‪74 Oó©dG‬‬ ‫❂ ﻫﻞ أﻧﺖ ﻣﺪﻣﻦ إﻧﱰﻧﺖ؟‬ ‫‪134 Oó©dG‬‬ ‫❂ ﻣﻘــــﻮﻻت اﻟﻘﻴـــــﺎدة‬

‫❂ ﻣﻮاﺻﻔﺎت اﳌﻮﻗﻊ اﻹﻟﻜﱰوين اﻷﻛرث ﻣﺼﺪاﻗﻴﺔ‬ ‫❂ ﻓﻴﻠﻴﻜﺲ ﺑﻮﻣﺠﺎرﺗرن ﺻﺎﺣﺐ اﻟﻘﻔﺰة اﻟﺘﺎرﻳﺨﻴﺔ‬
‫❂ ﻛﻴﻒ ﺗﺒﻴﻊ ﻟﻌﻤﻼء ﻻ ﻳﺤﺘــﺎﺟــﻮن إﻟــﻰ ﺑﺎﺋﻌـني‬
‫❂ ﻣﻮاﺻﻔﺎت أﻋﻀﺎء ﻓﺮﻳﻖ اﻟﻌﻤﻞ اﻟﻨﺎﺟﺢ‬
‫❂ ﴍﻛﺘﻚ‪ ..‬ﻣﺴﺘﺪاﻣﺔ‬
‫❂ أﺧﻄﺎء اﻟﺘﺪوﻳﻦ اﻹﻟﻜﱰوين‬
‫❂ ﻃﺒﻴﺐ دوت ﻛﻮم‬
‫❂ ﺣﻘﻖ اﻻﻧﺘﺸﺎر ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼل ﻳﻮﺗﻴﻮب‬

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