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Nomadic Turns: Epistemology, Experience, and Women University Band Directors

Author(s): Elizabeth Gould

Source: Philosophy of Music Education Review, Vol. 13, No. 2 (Fall, 2005), pp. 147-164
Published by: Indiana University Press
Stable URL: https://www.jstor.org/stable/40495509
Accessed: 14-04-2020 01:38 UTC

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University of Toronto, Canada

Music education occupations in the U.S. have been segregated by gender an

race for decades. While women are most likely to teach young students in class-
room settings, men are most likely to teach older students in all settings, but most
particularly in wind/percussion ensembles.1 Despite gender-affirmative employ
ment practices, men constitute a large majority among band directors at all
levels.2 At the postsecondary level in the U.S., women constitute less than 10%.3
In all cases and all levels, the vast majority of band directors are white. Occupa-
tional segregation inhibits the development of individuals' careers as well as the
development of the profession as individuals choose or are hired for positions
based on their gender and/or race rather than their abilities.
In terms of women university band directors, researchers have investigated
employment trends,4 personal and occupational characteristics,5 occupational
role models, and professional identity.6 Their findings generally have supported
the hypotheses that historical precedent, traditional socialization, discrimination
segregation, and lack of role models contribute to their persistently low percent
age as band directors. Longitudinal studies7 demonstrate that the percentage o
women band directors has not increased significantly, and may be actuall

© Philosophy of Music Education Review, B, no. 2 (Fall 2005)

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declining after thirty years of enforcing affirmative action laws, w

gest that these interventions have not provided the basis for en
the profession. Further, change does not seem possible if membe
sion do not understand what causes the situation to persist. For
the College Band Directors National Association has support
Hartley and Deborah A. Sheldon study,8 their concern seems to
tifying the extent of the situation with the intention of increasi
women and non-white individuals who are band directors with
as it currently is constructed. This empirical approach is inadeq
addresses neither the values held by members of the profession,
which as previous research indicates, is poorly understood and
make possible meaningful increases in the number of women a
The profession of conducting university bands exists within the profession of
music education in general, which, of course, exists within the profession of
music. Clearly, one cannot be adequately understood without placing it in the
context of the others. What is needed, then, are richer, more substantive, and
meaningful understandings of the professions in general and of specific ques-
tions within them in particular, as they may provide the basis on which change
can be possible. In addition to addressing the issue of persistent occupational
gender and racial segregation, questions that may be addressed include position-
alities9 of bands in the music education profession, the relationship of
performance/conducting to the music profession, and the role of the musician in
society in general. In order to accomplish this, I propose an analytical method
that is both postmodern and feminist, and in which the philosophical figuration
of the nomad, as explicated by Rosi Braidotti,10 is central.


Described variously as a "philosophical perspective,"11 a "sensibility,"12 and

torical moment,13 postmodernism resists definition. It may be understo
way of perceiving the world that accepts and even embraces contradictio
uncertainties while rejecting commonly accepted cultural beliefs and pra
including humanist understandings of identity, representation, and the su
This is a "postmodernism of resistance"14 that interrogates cultural prac
focusing on what is unexpected, marginalized, and silenced, opening spac
change. In contrast, analysis based on modernism is constrained by binary
sitions that inscribe the positionalities of social groups. These oppositions
exemplified by Subject/Other (for example, male/female, reason/emotion
consist of asymmetrical power relations in which the former is privileg
the latter, and the latter is defined in terms of not-the former. Postmodern

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sis reveals what these dualisms exclude, distort, or obscure, and provides flexibil
ity for research from a variety of perspectives. Braidotti describes it as a "new kin
of theoretical style"15 in terms of thinking, design, and analysis of research, a sty
that is postmodern and, in an academic context, fundamentally expressive: at
once poetic and corporeal. Beginning locally and autobiographically, this type of
theoretical style uses a situated feminism of difference that takes into accoun
power relations and embodied subjectivity as it crosses disciplines and mixes
expressive modes.
Feminism,16 as it is understood here, represents a philosophical perspective
and social phenomenon articulated in terms of bell hooks' inclusive definition:

Feminism is the struggle to end sexist oppression. Its aim is not to benefit
solely any specific group of women, any particular race or class of women.
It does not privilege women over men. It has the power to transform in a
meaningful way all our lives. Most importantly, feminism is neither a
lifestyle nor a ready-made identity or role one can step into.17

Hooks' argument that the goal of feminist movement to transform the lives of a
individuals necessitates that the work of feminism to end sexist oppression is
inextricably linked to dismantling all sources of difference resulting in oppres-
sion. She notes, "Feminism as a movement to end sexist oppression directs our
attention to systems of domination and the interrelatedness of sex, race, and clas
oppression."18 To work against sexism, according to hooks, is to work against
racism. To work for gay and lesbian rights is to work for rights of differently-able
individuals. Confronting these issues separately puts them in competition wit
each other and, consequently, none of them is interrogated adequately. It is not
that they are subsumed by considerations of sexism- but that sexism is the start
ing point from which feminism addresses all sources of difference resulting in
asymmetrical social relations, even as it interrogates its own beliefs and practice
Hooks, however, leaves difference largely undefined and analyzes it only in
terms of how it is embodied in the everyday lives of those who experience it.19
would argue that her perspective is not philosophically naïve, but rather, pro-
foundly pragmatic and reflects an approach that Braidotti would describe as
nomadic. Although she writes as an academic, hooks does not write academically
in a traditional sense. Her prose is clean, free of jargon. She weaves personal nar
ratives into her arguments and, although she includes bibliographies, she cites
references without page numbers, a practice that can be frustrating for the aca
demic who wishes to retrieve them quickly and easily. Grounded as it is in th
embodied everyday lives of actual people, her philosophy reflects a reality of th
orizing about feminism in a way that fulfills its political project.
By insisting that feminism is not an identity that may be acquired, hooks

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argues that it is problematic to declare that one is a feminist.20 I

fying as feminists she suggests that individuals should aver th
feminism, enabling them to support other political movements
definition, avoiding the ideological dualism of feminist/non-fem
ing space for multiple identities. I agree with hooks when the w
used as a noun, as in, "I am a feminist." Because defining femini
is an ontological exercise,21 the practice of merely advocating fe
ontological problems in that it separates the concept of feminism
als who embody its practices. I suggest that feminist ontology is
the word as an adjective, as in, "I am feminist." Defining femini
ontological terms necessitates that those who advocate feminism
how embodied in it as feminist. They are feminist (adjectiv
feminists (noun). Feminism is embedded in their lived experienc
ical aspect of their lives; it is how people who are feminist are i
Feminism and postmodernism have not been consistently see
ble.22 Among other criticisms, feminist theorists are suspiciou
discourse that decenters the subject at a time when women and
ized groups are coming to voice and redefining their subjectivity
note that postmodern discourse ignores feminism even as it ap
feminist analytical techniques.23 Many feminist theorists, like Br
have found useful ways of combining feminism and postmoder
argue that postmodernism expands analytical possibilities for fem
making it more flexible and better able to account for differenc


While Braidotti claims the nomad as her own figuration,25 she places it in rela-
tionship to the work of Gilles Deleuze and Félix Guattari.26 Of their many
writings, the most relevant is A Thousand Plateaus, which is the second and final
volume of their work, Capitalism and Schizophrenia. Written after the social and
political upheaval associated with Europe and Paris in Spring 1968, their work
addresses issues of multiplicity in terms of identity and subjectivity, and focuses
on the violence of nomadic groups external to the state. Many feminist theorists
in addition to Braidotti have found Deleuze and Guattari's alternatives to binary
logic useful in their own work.27
Braidotti describes the nomad as a device for thinking in alternative ways
about the subject and subjectivity. This search for destabilized feminist subjec-
tivities is the nomad s epistemological project. The nomadic subject is located as
feminist and is understood to be postmodern, situated, and culturally differenti-
ated. As a figuration, that is, as metaphor, it is an analytical and epistemological
device that transgresses boundaries and subverts conventions, resisting the need

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for stasis, in which identity is not stable but "transgressive."28 Nomadism, th

includes a figuration that is at once metaphorical and embodied in an intelle
tual style and consciousness that suggests alternative subjectivities, mak
possible political agency within the context of fluid identities.
Embodied as a multilingual, multicultural human/non-human, wha
Braidotti describes as "post-human,"29 the nomad provides a model for the po
modem subject who makes multiple connections with people and places while
constantly moving. In addition to mobility, the nomad is characterized by v
lence that is both experienced by nomads and is committed by them as a form
resistance against obstacles to their mobility. Most notable among poten
obstacles are cities or urban densities. These two aspects of the nomad, mobili
and violence, are perhaps the most salient in a study investigating women univ
sity band directors in relationship to the profession of conducting universit
bands. Mobility may be used as a metaphor for women university band directo
moving through and occupying space in the profession of conducting univers
bands, and violence may be used as a metaphor for both the presence of wom
in the profession and the ways in which women enact the role of university ba
director. The profession itself may be understood metaphorically as a collectio
of cities, what Braidotti refers to as sedentary structures or urban densities. T
accommodate those who reside within but are hostile to those (nomads) outs
their walls. Segregation, discrimination, socialization, historical precedent, a
lack of role models are weapons used by city-dwellers to both keep nomads ou
side (the profession), and to manage and co-opt them should they manage to g
entry. Nomads, however, are able to use these weapons as lines of flight in ord
to survive and escape. I will first address Braidotti's distinctions between the c
cepts of nomad, migrant, and exile, and then focus my discussion of her noma
subject specifically in terms of its characteristics of mobility and violence.


In defining her terms, Braidotti is careful to distinguish the nomad from

migrant and the exile.30 She describes the migrant as someone who is usual
economically disadvantaged, and who typically moves from one specific place
another with a clear purpose in mind -that of finding employment. The ex
by contrast, is not necessarily economically disadvantaged, and typically mov
for political reasons to an unspecified destination. Similarly, she characteri
the migrant as longing for the past, while suggesting that the exile experien
"an acute sense of foreignness"31 and a sense of loss of home. The nomad, wh
Braidotti claims to exist outside of economic designations, is privileged as a f
uration that "does not stand for homelessness, or compulsive displacement;
[but] as a subject who has relinquished all idea, desire, or nostalgia for fixity/

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It should be noted that using metaphors such as the nomad as p

sophical theorizing is not without problems. Indeed, using nomads
and exiles as metaphors has been described as potentially "insensit
sitic/'33 While Braidotti notes that feminist theorizing must take in
lives of embodied women, her concept of nomad, whether or not
guished from exile and metaphor, fails to take into account th
materially displaced persons. Similarly, she does not address the ma
rounding the concepts of homelessness, transnationalism, and dias
which are beyond the scope of this discussion- and arguably her d
well.34 Eva C. Karpinski argues, however, that avoiding the
metaphors may be a way of projecting our own guilt, causing disp
to become even more remote in our consciousnesses. Metaphors th
placed peoples may be viable when they are "evoked out of id
empathy, and love."35 In this spirit, using the metaphor of nomad i
to women university band directors is not necessarily precluded.
Nomads exist as outsiders in established societies. They travel wit
ety as necessary, avoiding areas (neighborhoods) that are not comp
their survival. The effects of segregation, discrimination, socializat
precedent, and lack of role models have placed women in a similar
vasive nomadic relationship with the profession of university ban
They continue typically to teach at smaller colleges and universities
which they travel within the profession giving performances and p
professional organizations. Their passage, however, is shaped daily
frontations with the obstacles identified in the research literature.


Mobility is crucial for the nomad- both literally and metaphorically. I

of the means for traversing deserts and avoiding urban densities. The
knows the desert intimately: the best routes for locating water and oases
rest, and renew between journeys. This is crucial for women universit
directors, who enact mobility through embodying the position of univer
director. Mobility is particularly risky for women, however, as it also m
in loss of identity, place, and safety. Consequently, Braidotti is careful t
within the context of locatedness. While not typically associated with n
the situatedness that Braidotti is describing for the nomad is based on
Haraway's "situated knowledges,"36 or what Braidotti refers to as "posit
modern situated epistemology"37 and on Adrienne Rich's "politics of loc
Indeed, Braidotti invokes Haraway in arguing that in order to be a speak
ject, the nomad "must be located somewhere,"39 a location from which
known only partially. The subject is both embodied and materially loc

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Braidotti interprets Rich's "geopolitical" notion of location as "embodiment

positionality."40 The positionalities within which one is embodied or situated
imbued with the experience of the material conditions of race, class, age, an
sexuality, in addition to gender, among others. These variables, then, constitu
fluid boundaries transgressed by the nomad in relationship to identity
Not unlike hooks,41 Braidotti understands difference primarily in terms of
sexual difference that is ontologically based in "the specificity of female subjec-
tivity, sexuality, and experience."42 Instead of viewing it as Other in terms of
oppositional dualisms (male/female), again similar to hooks, Braidotti suggests
that difference articulated by the variables of race, class, and age in addition to
gender, may be seen as a positivity in terms of using women's difference as a posi-
tionality from which alternatives may be explored. Based on her interpretation
of Delueze,43 this sexual difference exists as "the affirmation of difference in
terms of a multiplicity of possible differences; difference as the positivity of dif-
ferences."44 While privileging sexual difference in a way that hooks does not,
Braidotti accounts for other sources of difference represented by these and other
variables through a cartography consisting of three levels. At the first level, differ-
ence is described in terms of differences between women and men. At the
second level, it is described in terms of differences among women. It is at this
level where differences such as race, age, or sexual orientation, for example, are
addressed. At the third level, it is described in terms of differences within each
woman. Braidotti stresses that the levels "occur simultaneously" and that the car-
tography itself may be "entered at any level and at any moment" (emphasis in
original).45 Further, she notes that in everyday life, the levels are difficult to
Nomadic mobility, then, holds promise for women in terms of freedom that
previously has been denied- literally, intellectually, and creatively- in spite of
inevitable homelessness that may result. The movement that Braidotti describes
is coherent and cyclical, occurring along predictable routes.46 It may be consid-
ered both metaphorically and literally in terms of physical and conceptual
movement. As a style of thinking, it is not based on hierarchical structures. It
does, however, borrow concepts from other disciplines, blurring boundaries and
suggesting the mobility of ideas. While Braidotti claims "all that counts is the
going,"47 she is talking in the context of "nomadic shifts" concerning levels of
women's subjectivity. This is not literal movement, although Braidotti valorizes
transitory aspects of the nomad even as she stresses the metaphorical aspect of
her figuration. The nomadic state, she suggests, "refers to the kind of critical con-
sciousness that resists settling into socially coded modes of thought and
behavior. . . . [It] is the subversion of set conventions . . . [and] not the literal act

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of traveling/'48 More than physical movement, as well, mobility

stood in the sense delineated by Deleuze and Guatarri: a dif
occupying space, providing opportunities for making multiple co
people and places that transgress identities and inform agency.
account location in terms of all relevant variables, nomadic move
situate and free the nomad.
For women university band directors, mobility is essential- de
tial perils- as they traverse the desert approaching and then mo
cities of the profession of cpnducting university bands. Making
profession is a necessity50 but can be difficult for women as th
take them outside of the influence of generative conductors an
sequently, they must be noticed and in order to survive leave be
evidence of their passage, such as performances, recordings, an
the purpose of which is to draw attention from powerful insider
these contacts will then provide recommendations and other co
tunities. This is risky, however, as increased visibility for wome
profession creates a delicate balance by which they are noticed,
scrutinized in terms of their difference.51 Consequently, heigh
ance pressures occur, as well as isolation and restriction to roles i
that are stereotypical of their social group,52 all of which is even
atic for non-white women, who constitute the most under-repre
the profession. Further, women who are located in small or iso
must travel (literally and metaphorically) longer, more treache
become visible. While the desert presents varying levels of risk,
where women university band directors must shift their identit
their subjectivity as band directors while confronting the urban
crimination, segregation, traditional socialization, historical prec
of role models. The necessary result of these confrontatio


Nomadic violence occurs against what Braidotti describes as sedentar

tures: cities and their weapons. These structures obscure open
constitute obstructions to nomadic mobility. Further, cities repr
authority: state sponsored violence. Nomads are the object of tha
which they actively resist. "Nomadic violence and state violence a
images of each other, divided by an antithetical hostility."53 Nomads,
"war machines"54 whose effectiveness relies on their somehow acting i
ship with the communities they inhabit and with which they are co
This is a violence of resistance carried out against sources of oppressio

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trast to oppressors (people), and includes resistive acts that are materially n
violent and may be expressed joyfully in the context of solidarity.
The very presence of women in the profession of conducting university ba
commits violence against the modern power relations (state violence) that h
defined their subjectivity in ways that would preclude them from becoming
persisting as university band directors. They are objects of this state violen
because they carry the mark of difference; that is, they are not men and can ne
become men- even as some may be determined to act socially as males. Simi
larly, and by extension, those who are not white cannot become white, those
are lesbian cannot become heterosexual. The goal of nomadic violence, thoug
is to "liberate difference . . . from the grip of state machines,"56 which also c
stitutes the feminist project of resistance, and is inhered in the subjectivit
women university band directors. Performances of women conducting band
then, also may be considered acts of resistance (nomadic violence), as t
undermine the foundations on which the profession is enacted and underst
In order to be effective in terms of resistance and making connections, howev
these performances must be seen.
Seeing is the basis on which women university band directors are known
the profession. In Western culture, seeing is literally synonymous with kn
ing-to see is to know. What is seen, in the case of women university b
directors, is the body- specifically, when they conduct on a podium. As a vis
image, this body is at the very least gendered, raced, sexualized, and ab
Braidotti refers to the body as a visual surface that has become transpa
through biotechnology, reducing it "to pure surface, exteriority without depth
Images generated by biotechnology, MRTs, and echocardiograms, for instan
are frozen. They are dislocated in time and disrupt time. Further, they dislo
and disrupt space. What was within the body is now outside. Braidotti argues
this indicates the "the triumph of the image,"58 in which representation takes p
ority over the object. The epistemological implications of this are relate
questions of power and control of the body in which the invisible is made vi
and, thus, capable of indicating what is true, what may be known. Refuting
notion, Braidotti argues, "There is no adequate simulacrum; no image is a rep
sentation of the truth."59
The female body is both controlled by and beyond control of (mode
power relations in which "to see is the primary act of knowledge and the gaze
basis of all epistemic awareness."60 Control is enacted through disproportio
pressure to diet and exercise in order to conform to various (unrealistic) vi
images. Rape and other forms of terrorist activity also control it by appropria
the female body "as a boundary marker of national, racial, religious, and eth
communities."61 In addition, Braidotti argues that the female body is further

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trolled through its association with monstrosity related to differ

abnormality or inferiority represented in (modern) oppositional
ity to change its visual form as the result of pregnancy and chil
also places the female body beyond these sources of power.
Visual difference is certainly a salient factor in the situation
versity band directors- both in terms of bodily subjectivity and
their work. This difference must be analyzed not only in terms of
in terms of race, age, and all other sources of visible difference
and affirming difference in the way that Braidotti suggests, in
cial to the success of women in the profession. Clearly, women w
the same as men, non-white people will never appear white
podium. Their success depends on using their difference as a sou
tainly, not just their being women or non-white people i
dominated by white men, but their embodying the profession in
into account all sources of difference in which women and/or n
as a group constitute the catalyst for the profession to become
growth and relevant to the material conditions of women's and
ized groups' lives.


Braidottfs concept of the nomad is not without weaknesses as a ph

argument. For instance, while the distinctions between migran
nomad may be useful in her philosophical argument, they lead to fu
lems of definition. The nuances of meaning overlapping the concept
and exile in addition to nomad may be as significant as those d
them.62 Post-colonial feminists argue that Braidotti's valorization of
ethnocentric as it emanates from a position of privilege as a white
feminist and does not take into account the realities of actual displa
many of whom are non-white.63 In addition, Braidotti does not addr
ilar terms related to displacement, such as refugee, immigrant, an
The concept of exile, however, has been developed and used by ma
writers,64 beginning with Virginia Woolf who declared in 1938 (not
Braidotti's objection that Woolf s statement represents a positiona
lege), "In fact, as a woman, I have no country. As a woman I want n
a woman my country is the whole world."65 Applying the metaphor
women university band directors, however, would be less usefu
imply purposefulness to segregation, discrimination, socializati
precedent, and lack of role models, as well as a search for the orig
phenomena that would be both impossible and inappropriate to det
Similarly, Braidotti's interpretation of feminist theory, in additio

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tography, creates problems. Braidotti argues that feminist theory is either a

sexual difference or it is about gender theory,66 the former she identifies w
French theorists, the latter with English-speakers.67 Within this over-genera
and unnecessarily narrow perspective of feminist theorizing, she privileges s
ual difference above all other sources of difference, arguing for "feminist th
as the philosophy of sexual difference/'68 This both places her theory in a lim
and arguably dated interpretation of feminism, particularly when considered
relationship to the work of post-colonial theorists who, in the 1990's, bega
examining the ways in which race interacts with gender, as well as class and
uality.69 In addition, it subjects her theory to problems associated w
reductionism, which Braidotti deflects by embracing the essentialism associa
with sexual difference.70 As a result of relying on a narrow view of sexual di
ence theories, Braidotti creates a cartography that is inadequate for addres
other sources of difference.71 Being "raced" for women has as strong an onto
ical basis as being "sexed," and further, race and ethnicity influence how s
women are embodied in relationship to men in specific cultures.72 Similar
Rich's description of how her birth in the white section of a segregated hosp
defined her by her race before her gender,73 the excruciatingly small numbe
non-white university band directors- women or men- demonstrates
salience of race among band directors- indeed, in music education in gener
These problems may be addressed, however, by implementing a broa
understanding of difference. Avtar Brah argues for greater clarity in concep
izing difference and suggests four approaches for doing this: "differen
experience, difference as social relation, difference as subjectivity, and differ
as identity."74 These conceptions are based on ways in which sources of dif
ence articulate with each other in contingent relationships. Because
ontological basis may be claimed for all sources of difference, sexual differe
is not inherently privileged above others, but considered when it is most sal
Any given analysis can reasonably address only the most salient sources of di
ence, which would be determined by those individuals participating in
research process. Strategies for adequately addressing salient sources of dif
ence conceptualize women and other oppressed groups in terms of th
identities as they are embodied within and outside of a variety of communiti
This relies, then, on a feminism based on a broad understanding of differen
the context of resistance to interrelated sources of oppression. For women un
sity band directors, sexual difference is universal and salient in relationsh
urban weapons (segregation, discrimination socialization, historical precede
and lack of role models), but in some situations (neighborhoods), it may no
as pervasive as racial difference, or age difference. In all cases, the def
aspect(s) of difference is locally situated and identified by the women themse

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While these, and other issues, need to be addressed more com

believe that the nomadic subject provides a basis for interrogating th
cation profession that may reveal aspects that have been hidden by
obstructions and geographical formations within the profession. A
project, it may enable researchers and music educators to enact chan
benefit the profession and all individuals teaching and learning with
ning with women university band directors, it may be used to ana
questions of musicians and music in society. Indeed it may be used
of analysis for studying any situation in which individuals working
are sanctioned as a function of their presence; for instance, the situ
white or homosexual music educators. This does not include add
situations of those who, although in the minority in any given occ
rewarded for their status, as in the case of male elementary and ear
music educators. Nomadic analysis is viable only in the situations o
and professions that may be described as nomads: objects of state v
oppression as a result of their minority status.
Professions and institutions change slowly and previous research
gender in music education, including segregation of occupations, in
preference, gendered music, and pedagogical materials seems to hav
impact in accelerating it.76 As a consequence, students and teacher
tinue to be limited in their choice of occupations and instruments;
continue to sing and play music and use teaching materials that eras
jectivity. Perhaps most significantly, the profession will continue to
the loss of their contributions. Developing ways of understanding an
these issues is imperative and will benefit the profession and indiv
ing and learning in it by making possible opportunities for it and th
their full musical and educational potential.
For women and other marginalized groups who are university ban
the necessity for this is related to the nomadic characteristics of mob
lence. As the violence caused by their presence becomes more obvio
and others may be moved out of the profession of conducting unive
as some longitudinal research in the case of women seems to indica
may be destroyed, connections may be severed, communications m
rupted. This impacts all of music education by closing off fo
alternatives that previously were made possible through the quiet
embodied practice described in terms of nomadic analysis. Alt
oppose entrenched discourses and practices, nomads do not des
because they do not wish entry in traditional urban configurations. I
carve fresh traces in the sand, scrapings on the rock; indeed, they d
multiple ways of being and becoming in the oases of shirting landsc

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'Adrienne F. Block, "The Status of Women in College Music, 1986-1987: A Sta

cal Report" in Nancy B. Reich, ed., Women's Studies/Women's Status (Boulder, C
College Music Society, 1988): 79-158; Judith K. Delzell, 'Variables Affecting the
der-Role Stereotyping of High School Band Teaching Positions," The Quarterly Jour
Music Teaching and Learning 4/5, no 4-1 (1994): 77-84; Elizabeth S. Gould, Oc
tional Sex Segregation: Wyoming High School Band Directors, 1 973- J 988, unpub
master's thesis (University of Wyoming: Laramie, 1988); Barbara Blessing Greaves
geon, Women High School Band Directors in Georgia, unpublished doctoral disser
(University of Georgia: Athens, 1998); Barbara P. McLain, 'Teaching Music in the
ican University: A Gender Analysis," poster session presented at the biennial meetin
MENC: The National Association for Music Education, Washington, D.C. (20
March); Carol Neuls-Bates, ed., The Status of Women in College Music: Preliminary
ies (Manhattan, KS: Ag Press, 1976); Evelyn Ploumis-Devick, Career Developm
Patterns of Male and Female Music Education Majors at the Florida State Univer
unpublished doctoral dissertation (The Florida State University: Tallahassee,
Teaching Music, "Gender Trends among MENC Music Educators," Teaching Mu
no. 6, (2001): 52-53.
2I am referring here to traditional band programs, typically started during the u
elementary grades or middle school years.
3Block, "The Status of Women in College Music", Linda A. Hartley and Debor
Sheldon, 'The Current and Future Trends of the Participation of Gender and Racial/
nic Minorities in Band Conducting," poster session presented at the biennial mee
MENC: The National Association for Music Education: Nashville, TN (2002)
McElroy, The Status of Women Orchestra and Band Conductors in North Americ
leges and Universities: J 984- J 996, unpublished doctoral dissertation (Univers
Missouri: Kansas City, 1996); McLain, 'Teaching Music in the American Universi
Gender Analysis."
4McElroy, The Status of Women Orchestra and Band Conductors in North Am
Colleges and Universities: 1984-1996; Hartley and Sheldon, "The Current and
Trends of the Participation of Gender and Racial/Ethnic Minorities in Band Conduc
5Carol A. Feather, Women Band Directors in Higher Education, unpublished doct
dissertation (University of Mississippi: University, MS, 1980); Hartley, "A Prelim
Study of Gender Imbalance among College Band Directors: An Investigation o
Female Population," paper presented at the Women's Music Symposium, Boulde
(1995, August); Cheryl A. Jackson, The Relationship between the Imbalance of N
of Women and Men College Band Conductors and the Various issues that Influen
Career Aspirations of Women Instrumental Musicians, unpublished doctoral disse
(Michigan State University: East Lansing, 1996).
6Gould, initial Involvements and Continuity of Women College Band Director
Presence of Gender-Specific Occupational Role Models, unpublished doctoral disse
(University of Oregon: Eugene, 1996); Denise E. Grant, The Impact of Mentorin
Gender-Specific Role Models on Women College Band Directors at Four Different
Stages, unpublished doctoral dissertation (University of Minnesota: Minneapolis, 20

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7Block, "The Status of Women in College Music, 1986-1987: A Sta

McElroy, The Status of Women Orchestra and Band Conductors in No
leges and Universities: 1 984-1 996; McLain, "Teaching Music in the Ame
A Gender Analysis."
8Hartley and Sheldon, "The Current and Future Trends of the Part
der and Racial/Ethnic Minorities in Band Conducting."
9An epistemological device from which groups socially construct kno
some degree partial and fragmented, depending on each group's persp
10Rosi Braidotti, Nomadic Subjects: Embodiment and Sexual Differen
rary Feminist Theory (New York: Columbia University Press, 1994).
"Pauline M. Rosenau, Post-Modemism and the Social Sciences: Insig
Intrusions (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1992), 17
12Laurel Richardson, "Postmodern social theory: Presentational pra
cal Theory 9, no. 2 (1991): 173.
1 'Braidotti, Nomadic Subjects: Embodiment and Sexual Difference
Feminist Theory.
14Hal Foster, ed., The Anti-Aesthetic: Essays on Postmodern Culture
WA: Bay Press, 1983): xii.
15Braidotti, Nomadic Subjects: Embodiment and Sexual Difference
Feminist Theory, 36.
16It should be noted that speaking of feminism as singular is somethi
as feminist theorists interpret it in a variety of ways. For ease in gram
the singular term "feminism" interchangeably with "feminist move
hooks (2000) uses instead of "the feminist movement" in order to accou
ties in feminism.

17bell hooks, Feminist Theory: From Margin to Center, 2nd ed. (

South End Press, 2000), 28.
18Ibid, 33. Hooks addresses this specifically in terms of previous fai
demic feminist theorists to address race and class issues in the context
wave feminism.


2 Roberta Lamb, Lori-Anne Dolloff, and Sondra W. Howe, "Feminism, Feminist

Research, and Gender Research in Music Education" in Richard. Colwell and Carol
Richardson, eds., The New Handbook of Research on Music Teaching and Learning
(Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2002), 648-674.
22See, for example, DiStefano, 1990; Hartsock, 1990; Lovibond, 1989; Waugh, 1992.
23In music, an example of the former is Lawrence Kramer, Classical Music and Post-
modern Knowledge, (Berkeley, Los Angeles, and London: University of California Press,
24See, for example, Jane Flax, "Postmodernism and Gender Relations in Feminist
Theory" in Linda J. Nicholson, ed., Feminism/Postmodernism (New York and London:

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Routledge, 1990), 39-62; Nancy Fraser, and Linda J. Nicholson, "Social Criticism wi
out Philosophy: An Encounter between Feminism and Postmodernism" in Nicholson
ed., Feminism/postmodernism, 19-38; Lamb, "Arid senza accompagnamento: A Wom
Behind the Theory," The Quarterly Journal of Music Teaching and Learning IV/V no. 4
(1993-1994): 5-20; Sally Macarthur, Feminist Aesthetics in Music (Westport, CT Gree
wood Press, 2002).
25Braidotti, Nomadic Subjects: Embodiment and Sexual Difference in Contempora
Feminist Theory.
26Braidotti consistently refers only to Deleuze, whether she is discussing his writin
or those he published with Guatarri. Deleuze, and Guattari, Anti-Oedipus: Capitalis
and Schizophrenia, Robert Hurley, Mark Seem, and H elen R. Lane, trans. (Minneap
lis: University of Minnesota Press, 1984). (Original work published 1972); Deleuze, a
Guattari, Kafka: Toward a Minor Literaturef Dana Polan, trans. (Minneapolis: Univers
of Minnesota Press, 1986) (Original work published 1975); Deleuze and Guattari,
Thousand Plateaus: Capitalism and Schizophrenia, Brian Massumi, trans. (London: Th
Athlone Press, 1988) (Original work published 1980).
27For example, Irene Gedalof, I "Identity in Transit: Nomads, Cyborgs, and Women,
European Journal of Women's Studies 7, no. 3 (2000): 337-354; Caren Kaplan, "Deter
torializations: The Rewriting of Home and Exile in Western Feminist Discourse
Cultural Critique 6 (Spring, 1987): 187-198; Sadie Plant, "Nomads and Revolutionarie
Journal of the British Society for Phenomenology 24, no. 1 (1993): 88-101; Elizabeth A.
Pierre, Arts of Existence: The Construction of Subjectivity in Older White Souther
Women, unpublished doctoral dissertation (The Ohio State University: Columbus, 199
28Braidotti, Nomadic Subjects: Embodiment and Sexual Difference in Contempora
Feminist Theory , 35.
29Ibid., 36.
30Ibid., 21-24.
31Ibid., 24.
32Ibid., 22.

33Eva C. Karpinski, "Choosing Feminism, Choosing Exile: Towards the Development

of a Transnational Feminist Consciousness," in Alena Heitlinger, ed., Émigré Feminism:
Transnational Perspectives YI -29 (Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1999): 27, n3.
34For relevant and insightful discussions of this, Gedalof (2000) suggests Brah's (1996)
concept of "'diaspora space/ . . . Gloria Anzaldua's (1987) 'borderlands/ Trinh T. Minh-
ha's (1989) 'in/appropriated others' or bell hooks's (1991) rethinking of 'homeplace'" (p.
"Karpinski, "Choosing Feminism, Choosing Exile: Towards the Development of a
Transnational Feminist Consciousness," 27, n3.
36Donna Haraway, "Situated Knowledges: The Science Question in Feminism and
the Privilege of Partial Perspective" in Simians, Cyborgs, and Women: The Reinvention of
Nature (New York: Routledge, 1991), 183-201.
37Braidotti, Nomadic Subjects: Embodiment and Sexual Difference in Contemporary
Feminist Theory, 102.

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38Adrienne Rich, "Notes Toward a Politics of Location" in Blood, B

Selected Prose 1979-1985 (New York and London: W. W. Norton, 198
39Braidotti, Nomadic Subjects: Embodiment and Sexual Difference
Feminist Theory, 36.
"Ibid., 199.
41hooks, Feminist Theory: From Margin to Center.
42Braidotti, Nomadic Subjects: Embodiment and Sexual Difference in Contemporary
Feminist Theory, 131.
43Deleuze, The Logic of Sense, Constantin V. Boundas, ed., Mark Lester with Charles
Stivale, trans. (New York: Columbia University Press, 1990). (Original work published in
^Braidotti, Nomadic Subjects: Embodiment and Sexual Difference in Contemporary
Feminist Theory, 100.
45Ibid., 159.
46Ibid., 23.
47Ibid., 170.
48Ibid., 5. Plant, "Nomads and Revolutionaries," 88-101 echoes this in her interpreta-
tion of Deleuze and Guattari when she notes that nomadic mobility is more about
"refusal to settle within established codes and conventions" (p. 92) than physical

49Deleuze, and Guattari, A Thousand Plateaus: Capitalism and Schizophrenia.

50Denise E. Grant, The Impact of Mentoring and Gender-Specific Role Models on
Women College Band Directors at Four Different Career Stages, unpublished doctoral dis-
sertation (University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, 2000).
51 See Lucy Green, Music, Gender, Education (Cambridge, England: University Press,
1997) for how this plays out in music and music education.
"Rosabeth M. Kanter, Men and Women of the Corporation (New York: Basic Books,
1977); Judith D. Yoder and Linda M. Sinnett, "Is it All in the Numbers? A Case Study of
Tokenism," Psychology of Women Quarterly 9 (1985): 413-418.
53Braidotti, Nomadic Subjects: Embodiment and Sexual Difference in Contemporary
Feminist Theory, 27.
54Deleuze and Guattari, A Thousand Plateaus: Capitalism and Schizophrenia.
"Gedalof, "Identity in Transit: Nomads, Cyborgs, and Women."
56Steven Best and Douglas Kellner, Postmodern Theory: Critical Interrogations (New
York: The Guilford Press, 1991), 103.
57Braidotti, Nomadic Subjects: Embodiment and Sexual Difference in Contemporary
Feminist Theory, 50.
58Ibid., 49.

59Ibid., 69, emphasis in original.

^Ibid., 80; emphasis in original.
61Gedalof, "Identity in Transit: Nomads, Cyborgs, and Women," 338.

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62Avtar Brah, Cartographies of Diaspora: Contesting Identities (London and New Yor
Routledge, 1996).
63For instance, Gedalof, "Can Nomads Learn to Count to Four? Braidotti and th
Space for Difference in Feminist Theory," Women: A Cultural Review 7, no. 2 (199
189-201; and Karpinski, "Choosing Feminism, Choosing Exile: Towards the Devel
ment of a Transnational Feminist Consciousness" in Alena Heitlinger, ed., Émi
feminism: Transnational perspectives (Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1999), 17-
^For instance, Seyla Benhabib, Situating the Self (Cambridge, England: Polity Pre
1992); Hélène Cixous, "The Laugh of the Medusa," in Elaine Marks and Isabelle
Courtivron, eds., New French Feminisms: An Anthology, Keith Cohen and Paula Coh
trans. (New York: Shocken, 1980), 245-264; Luce Irigaray, Je, tu, nous: Toward a Cultur
of Difference, Alison Martin, trans. (New York: Routledge, 1993); Kaplan, "Deterritoria
izations: The Rewriting of Home and Exile in Western Feminist Discourse," Cult
Critique 6 (Spring, 1987), 187-198; Karpinski, "Choosing Feminism, Choosing Ex
Towards the Development of a Transnational Feminist Consciousness; Julia Kristev
Strangers to Ourselves, Leon S. Roudiez, trans. (New York: Columbia University Pr
1991); Geradine Meaney, (Un)like Subjects: Women, Theory, Fiction, (London: Ro
ledge, 1993).
65Virginia Woolf, Three Guineas (New York: Penguin Books, [1938] 1977), 125.
^Braidotti, Nomadic Subjects: Embodiment and Sexual Difference in Contemporar
Feminist Theory, 153.
Ô/Ibid., ¿58.

68Ibid., 164, emphasis in original.

69Brah, Cartographies of Diaspora: Contesting Identities.
70Braidotti, Nomadic Subjects: Embodiment and Sexual Difference in Contempora
Feminist Theory, 177.
71Gedalof, "Can Nomads Learn to Count to Four? Rosi Braidotti and the Space f
Difference in Feminist Theory"; P. Goulimari, "A Minoritarian Feminism? Things to
with Deleuze and Guattari," Hypatia: A Journal of Feminist Philosophy 14, no. 2 (19

72For instance, Dipesh Chakrabarty, "Postcoloniality and the Artifice of History," Rep-
resentations 37 (1992); 1-26; Amrita Chhachhi, "Forced Identities: The State,
Communalism, Fundamentalism and Women in India," in Deniz Kandiyoti, ed.,
Women, Islam, and the State (London: MacMillan, 1991), 144-175; Ania Loomba,
"Overworlding the Third World," Oxford Literary Review 3, no. 1-2 (1991): 164-191.;
Lata Mani, "Contentious Traditions: The Debate on Sati in Colonial India" in Kumkum
Sangari and Sudesh Vaid, eds., Recasting Women: Essays in Colonial History (New Delhi:
Kali for Women, 1989) , 88-126.
73Rich, "Notes Toward a Politics of Location."
74Brah, Cartographies of Diaspora: Contesting Identities, 115.
75Gedalof, "Can Nomads Learn to Count to Four? Rosi Braidotti and the Space tor
Difference in Feminist Theory."
76For an extensive review of this literature, see Lamb, Dolloff, and Howe, "Feminism,

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Feminist Research, and Gender Research in Music Education," in Colwell

son, eds., The New Handbook of Research on Music Teaching and Learn
Oxford University Press, 2002), 648-674.

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