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Mrs. Elsa Rangel de Zambrano


Chinese Proverb

Los maestros abren la puerta, pero eres tú quien debe atravesarla.

Proverbio Chino

San Cristóbal, Febrero de 2020


The texts for this chapter are about different kind of food. Try to read them and find a new
vocabulary. It’s easy if you practice every day. These readings are designed with easy
words to introduce you in different aspects of your career.







Canning Food


1. _______ Kefir, Whipped Cream and Ice

cream are desserts.

2. _______There aren`t all six food groups


3._______You can see different types of


4._______ Noodles is an exotic food.

5._______Croissant, Donuts and pretzel are

different kinds of bread.

6.______There are fruits such as raspberries,

passion fruits and carrots.

7.______Coffe milkshake is a hot drink.

8.______ Both, chicken and milk don’t belong

to the carbohydrates group.

9._____ Tacos and Muffins are fast food.

10.____Piramid food shows different oil


11. ____ there is canning food.

12.____ pop cake and three milk belong to the

food group do not recommended.

13._____ Brussels sprouts, radishes and

zucchini can be used in salads.

14.____ Red Chilies are used in Venezuelan


15. ____ Onion and garlic don’t used with hallacas because of their strong flavor.


1. A: Do you know what the principal food groups are?

B: Yes, I do. They are:

2. A: What are dairy products?

B: They are products made from milk like cheese, yogurt, and butter.
3. A: Why do you think a good nutrition is necessary for us?
B. Because if you don’t eat healthy food and consume portions of each food group you
won’t be giving to your body the necessary nutrients, and you can’t have enough energy to
do your daily activities.

4. A: What was the cause of her illness?

B: She was sick because she ate junk foods and rarely consumes water.
A: What did the doctor say her?
B: He said her that she had to consume more vegetables and fruits if she wants to be
A: She should observe the food pyramid. Shouldn’t she?
B: No. she didn’t know. It is very important what you say, because we can find a good
guide for a healthy nutrition.

5. A: Will you come to eat with us tomorrow?

B: Yes, I will come to eat with you but I want to ask you if you will prepare your
delicious apple cake.


John: Did you know what the principal

nutrients in food are?

Therese: Yeah! They are carbohydrates, fats,

proteins, minerals and vitamins.

John: Where do I find them?

Therese: You can find them in dairy products,

fruits, vegetables and meat.

John: What do they supply for our body?

Therese: let’s see…..They provide us with

vitamin C, -carotene, B- complex vitamins,
minerals dietary fiber, calcium, and

John: Have you ever thought how it will be our

nutrition in the future?
About the Conversation
Therese: Maybe, it will be with pills.
Answer true or false.
John: wow! Can you imagine eating a chicken
pill? 1.____They know what are principal nutrients
in food.
Therese: It sounds terrible; I prefer to taste a
delicious barbecue, or delicious, chicken 2.____Jhon knows that -carotene is in
rice.…… vegetables and fruits.

John: I do too. Talking about food... would you 3.____They want to prove the food in the
like having lunch with me? future.

Therese: Of course! It sounds great! 4.___They have a relationship.

5._____ Pills aren’t the food future

6. ______Therese and john are neighbors.

Pre-reading task

Look at the reading

1. What do you observe?

2. What is the information offered by the pictures?

3. What kind of information do you have about food technology?

Food Industry: An Introduction
Matthew N. O. Sadiku1, Sarhan M. Musa1, Tolulope J. Ashaolu2
1Roy G. Perry College of Engineering, Prairie View A&M University, Prairie View, Texas, United States
2College of Food Science Southwest University, Tiansheng Road Beibei, Chongqing, China

Food is an essential part of our lives. The food industry is the
basic and important to every nation. It is one of the seventeen
national critical sectors of US economy. It plays a crucial role
in public health, food safety, food security, social
development, and nutrition. Product quality, health, and
sanitation issues are major concerns in the food industry.
Figure 1 shows the double pyramid which suggests a
virtuous model to promote sustainable food choices for health
and the environment [1].

The food industry covers diverse activities including food

supply, production, harvesting, processing, packaging,
transportation, distribution, consumption, and disposal. The
development of the food industry began in the early 1900s.
The most lucrative areas of food industry are meat
numerous parts. Figure 2 shows how local foods can
processing, vegetable and fruit processing, confectionery,
reduce transportation distances [3]. A wholesaler
dairy, sausages, wine, and bakery. The food industry is
would purchase local produce and distribute it to a
dominated by multinational corporations such as Krafts
range of customers and clients.
Foods, Cadbury, Heinz, Nestlé, Food World, DuPont,
McDonalds, Pizza Hut, and KFC.  Regulation: There are regulations on food production
and distribution to ensure quality and safety. These are
restrictions imposed by government authority. There
The food industry in its entirety is not one industry but a
are some regulatory requirements that a food business
collection of several types of industry producing a diverse
must meet in order to operate. FDA is responsible for
range of food products. It covers farming, food production,
enforcing food laws and regulations.
food processing, preservation, packaging, distribution, retail,
and catering. The food industry comprises comprise of the  Financial Services: These include insurance and credit
following components [2]. to facilitate food production and distribution. Insurance
 Agriculture: This is the process of producing food, feed, policies cover costly business disruptions commonly
fiber ,and other desired products. It includes crop seen in the industry. Food accounting professionals
farming, livestock raising, and fish farming. It also work closely with all aspects of food industry to evaluate
entails manufacturing of farm equipment, fertilizers, ideas and opportunities.
farm machinery and hybrid seeds to facilitate
agricultural production.  Research & Development: Research on any aspect of
food industry produces relevant information about that
 Food Processing: The majority of agricultural products sector. The food serving sector has the largest potential
is seasonal and perishable. Food processing is used to of research and development. Research reflections may
transform raw ingredients into marketable food be on factors influencing consumer behavior, customers’
products. It makes some food available all year round. buying choices, formation of attitude, and opinions.
Packaging protects food from the surrounding, extends Companies need to have a deep understanding of how
food shelf life, and increases the quality of food. consumers behave [4].
 Food Distribution: This includes transporting, storing,  Marketing: Marketing is the primary vehicle for
and marketing food products to consumers. The food promoting information about food. Food marketing
industry needs a transportation network to connect its describes any form of advertising used to promote the
purchase and/or consumption of a food or beverage. It
can influence food behaviors by moderating socio natural resources are forcing every country to create a more
cultural elements of the food environment sustainable food system.
FOOD INDUSTRY TECHNOLOGIES The food industry needs to deal with new legislation and
Modern food industry uses a wide variety of sophisticated increased regulation on environmental issues. The excessive
technologies. Agricultural machinery (such as tractor) has use of fertilizers, pesticides, and food additives may
practically eliminated human labor in many areas of adversely affect the environment and human health.
production. Robots have the potential to transform food Compliance with regulatory standards is an issue for many
processing, food handling, food packaging, and food serving. food manufacturers. As public shifts toward a greener planet,
They have incredibly increased the productivity as the food industry should implement green policies.
compared to the manual production [5]. A typical example
Bringing to market new products in a timely manner is
of how automation is used in food industry is shown in
difficult for many food companies. The process of creating
Figure 3 [6]. Block chain can be used to see where delays
new, relevant products and moving them through, testing
and waste occur in the supply chain for food products.
Microwave heating or infra-red energy from a hot surface is and marketing to retail takes time. Consumers' tastes are
widely used in food preparation. Evaporators are used in a fickle and targeting them is increasingly more crucial. [9]. A
number of food processing industries. big challenge facing the food is transparency. Consumers
are reading the back of packages now more ever. They want
Metabolic engineering has been used for the production of to know what ingredients are going into their products.
carotenoids by different yeast cells. Ultrasound is another Their interest for transparency continues to hold food
technique which offers the potential of non-invasive, companies accountable. They are becoming more educated
hygienic measurement for the food industry. on the benefits of healthier choices [10].
Nanotechnology has been used in food processing, food
packaging, and food preservation. It has the potential to Enterprises in the food industry are operating in a highly
revolutionize agriculture and food systems [7]. Ozone has competitive, global environment and they must constantly
been used to disinfect water for various purposes such as engage in product development. They are in a state of
drinking and swimming pools. Enzymes, the natural catalysts change driven by cost of operations. This change is heading
for chemical reactions, are produced by all living cells. They for automation solutions that can enable the industry to
are used in food processing and the food industry, become more lean and agile [11].
Computer simulation is used in R&D in the food industry. It
The food industry is widely known as having strong
plays a key role in solving complex operational problems.
economic and political power. It is creative in both its
For example, through the use of simulation, production and
technological innovation and desire to satisfy the
service aspects of Pizza Hut restaurant and delivery unit
requirements of consumers, health professionals, and its
operations can be examined [8]. Computer networks (such
critics. It is striving to economically and efficiently produce
as the Internet) provide the support infrastructure to allow
high quality products. It has also begun to take responsibility
global movement of food. The food industry is getting into
for healthy eating issues.
the e-commerce game slowly. As consumers are shifting to a
preference for online shopping, the food industry is finding CONCLUSION
ways to adopt e-commerce as part of their marketing Food industry plays an important role in providing food for
strategies. human consumption. It satisfies community needs with
CHALLENGES respect to availability, distribution and quality of food.
The food industry faces several challenges. Various areas of
the industry have been criticized and the food industry It is one of the world’s most dynamic economic sectors as it
works hard to discredit its critics. Challenges associated changes rapidly. Most problems in the food industry can be
with the current food system such as climate change, solved with technology. More information about food
pollution, manure disposal, soil and water damage, industry can be obtained from the books in [12-15] and also
deforestation, environmental degradation, and strain on from the journal: British Food Journal and Food Industry

REFERENCES [5]. J. Iqbal, Z. H. Khan, and A. Khalid, “Prospects of

[1]. A. A. Alsaffar, “Sustainable diets: The interaction robotics in food industry, ”Food Science and
between food industry, nutrition, health and the Technology, vol. 37, no. 2, Apr.-June 2017, pp. 159-165.
environment,” Food Science and Technology
International, vol. 22, no. 2, 2016, pp. 102–111. [6]. R. Addy, “UK food industry gets automated to cut
[2]. “Food industry, food Sector, food trade,” June 2010,
[3]. Mayor’s Office of Sustainability, “Chapter 3. Food ite&utm_campaign=copyright
distribution and processing,”
[7]. L. Rashidi and K. Khosravi-Darani, “The applications of
http://oaklandfoodsystem.pbworks.com/f/OFSA_Distr nanotechnology in food industry, Critical Reviews in
ibProcess.pdf Food Science and Nutrition, vol. 51, no. 8, 2011, pp. 723-
[4]. G. B. P. Recordati, “The food industry: History, 730.
evolution and current trend,” [8]. A. K. Kharwat, “Computer simulation: An important
https://tesi.luiss.it/15698/1/177941.pdf tool in the fast-food industry, ”Proceedings of the 1991
winter Simulation Conference, 1991, pp. 811-816.
[9]. C. Heneghan, “8 major challenges facing the food and beverage industry in 2016 ,”
https://www.fooddive.com/news/8-major-challenges- facing-the-food-and-beverage-industry-in-
[10]. J. B. Olayanju, “Top trends driving change in the food industry,”
https://www.forbes.com/sites/juliabolayanju/2019/0 2/16/top-trends-driving-change-in-the-food-
[11]. N. P. Mahalik and R. Michal, “Retrofitting field bus technology in food industry,” Proceedings of 2008 World
Automation Congress, Sept;-Oct. 2008.
[12]. M. Nestle, Food Politics: How the Food Industry Influences Nutrition and Health. Berkeley, CA: University of
California Press, 2013.
[13]. C. J. Baldwin (ed.), Sustainability in the Food Industry.
Wiley-Blackwell, 2009
[14]. C. Baldwin, The 10 Principles of Food Industry Sustainability. Wiley-Blackwell, 2015.
[15]. N. K. V. Alfen (ed.), Encyclopedia of Agriculture and Food Systems. Academic Press, 2nd Edition, 2014.
Welliver Fellow.

Figure 1 The double pyramid suggest a virtuous Figure2. Distribution Matrix [3].
model to promote sustainable food choices for
health and the environment [1].

Figure 3 Automation in food industry [6].

El diccionario es una de las más útiles herramientas que tú tienes. Te dará la ortografía, la
pronunciación, silabeo, y definiciones de una palabra. Abajo tú puedes ver una muestra de un
diccionario. La función clasificatoria o etiqueta funcional es una abreviatura de la parte o partes
del discurso por la que el diccionario comienza.
La s. en la entrada para la palabra TOP comienza con un sustantivo, allí observas que una misma
palabra puede tener diferentes funciones gramaticales.
De acuerdo a lo anteriormente dicho lee con atención estas indicaciones que te serán de utilidad en
el manejo de tu diccionario:

Todas las entradas del diccionario están ordenadas alfabéticamente. Usted debe saber el
orden correcto de las letras en inglés. Las palabras son ordenadas de acuerdo a la primera
letra. Cuando la palabra comienza con la misma letra, ellas son ordenadas de acuerdo a la
segunda letra. Si la primera y segunda letra son la misma ordenadas de acuerdo a la tercera
letra y así sucesivamente.


Cada diccionario tiene una guía de palabras para encontrar rápidamente.

Mire la parte superior de la página de su diccionario
Dos palabras están en negritas.
La palabra de la izquierda es la misma que la primera palabra de la página.
La palabra a la derecha es la misma que está al final de la página.
broccoli. brown 106

broccoli bronchitis
brochette bronchus
brochure bronco
brogan brontosaurus
brogue bronx cheer
broider bronzed
broil brooch
broke brood
brokenhearted brook
brokerage broth
bromide brothel
bromine brother
bronchial Brown


1.- ORTOGRAFÍA (spelling)

Un diccionario muestra la ortografía aceptada de cada palabra así como también la

ortografía de un verbo irregular y el plural de un sustantivo irregular.

2.-PRONUNCIACIÓN (pronunciation)

Cada diccionario tiene una especial forma de mostrar como las palabras son pronunciadas
incluyendo su acentuación.

3.- DIVISIÓN SILÁBICA (syllable division)

Esto ayuda en el deletreo y pronunciación de las palabras e indica donde la palabra debe
ser dividida al final de la línea.
4.- SIGNIFICADO (meaning)

Casi todas las palabras tienen más de un significado. Diferentes significados son dados,
frecuentemente con oraciones ilustrativas, definiciones técnicas y especiales. También son
dadas con oraciones ilustrativas y las definiciones técnicas y especiales son listadas también.


(parts of speech)

Estas son determinadas por el uso actual en una oración. Un diccionario indica sin
embargo, si la palabra es comúnmente usada como:
Sustantivo (noun)
Pronombre (pronoun)
Adjetivo (adjective)
Adverbio (adverb)
Verbo (verb)
Conjunción (conjuction)
Propocisión (proposition)
Interjección (interjection)
Pre reading tasks

1. What do you know about beer?

2. What are the most popular beers in your country?

3. What kind are they?

4. Do you know what the process to elaborate them is?

Beer \bi(ə)r\ n 1: an alcoholic beverage usually made from malted

cereal grain (as barley), flavored with hops, and brewed by slow
fermentation. Synonyms: ale, brew, brewski, brown bottle, cold one,
pint, hops, lager, malt, malt liquor, oil, stout, suds, liquid bread. As
defined by Webster’s Ninth New Collegiate Dictionary and

At one time the words beer and ale were not synonymous. In the days
before hops became ubiquitous, beer referred specifically to a fermented
cereal beverage brewed with hops, while ale was brewed without hops.
Today the most commonly used designations are ale and lager, referring
to beverages brewed with differing strains of yeast. But both ale and
lager are beer.
What is beer made of?

The Bavarian Reinheitsgebot (purity law) of 1516 stated that beer could only be made from
three ingredients, water, barley and hops. Yeast was added in the 19th century after Louis
Pasteur identified it as the agent of fermentation. For the most part beer is still made from only
those four ingredients. But that list is not now and has never been complete. Prior to the
widespread adoption of hops in the fifteenth
century, beer was bittered with an herbal mixture
often called gruit. Besides gruit, a host of other
ingredients have long been a part of the
brewmaster’s toolkit, including other grains, sugars,
fruits and vegetables, and spices.
The Big Four Beer Ingredients

Water – Beer is up to 97% water. It only makes sense then that the quality of the water
would have a significant impact on the quality
of the beer. In fact, because of the chemical processes involved, the mineral content of the
brewing water is important to the brewing process. Certain historical beer styles evolved
in the places they did in large part because of the water. The hard water of Dublin
necessitated the acidity of dark-roasted grains to maintain proper ph, thus the area
produced stouts. It is a good bet that wherever darker beers were brewed, the water was at
least moderately hard. The nearly mineral free water in Plzen, Czechoslovakia allowed
brewers to use very lightly kilned malts to create Pilsner. Today brewers treat their
brewing water to get the specific mineral profile they desire for the beer they are brewing
Grains – Malted Grains are the meat and potatoes of beer. They provide the sugars that
are fermented by yeast to produce alcohol and CO2. They also provide the essential
nutrients yeast need to reproduce. They are the primary source of color and body in beer.
Malted grains are a major contributor to the flavor and aroma profiles of
beer. The malting process is simply a controlled sprouting
and kilning of the grain. The sprouting begins to break
down starches contained in the grain making them
accessible to the brewer and the kilning provides color
and flavor. Grains kilned at higher temperatures or longer
periods of time are darker. Malted barley is by far the
most widely used grain in beer making, but it is not the
only one. Other malted grains commonly used in brewing
include wheat, rye and oats.

Hops – Hops are the spice of beer. They provide bitterness to balance
the sweetness of the malt, as well as flavors and aromas ranging from
citrus and pine to earthy and spicy. Hops are the cone-like flower of a
rapidly growing vine (a bine actually) in the cannabis family. Waxy
yellow lupulin glands hidden within the leaves of the flower contain
the acids and essential oils that give hops their character. Bitterness
comes from alpha acids that must be chemically altered through
boiling in order to be utilized. Hops more than any other brewing
ingredient are subject to the phenomenon of terroir, as different
growing regions produce hops with different flavor and aroma
characteristics. The chief hop growing regions are the Northwestern
US, Southern England, Germany, Czech Republic, and China.

Yeast – It is said that brewers make wort (the word for unfermented beer) and yeast makes
beer. Yeast metabolizes the sugars from the grains and produces alcohol and CO 2. Yeast
also produces an assortment of other fermentation by-products such as phenols and esters
that add significant flavor and aroma character to beer ranging from delectable fruitiness to
peppery spice. There are two main types of yeast, typically called ale and lager. Ale yeast
ferment at higher temperatures between 65° F and 75°F. Higher fermentation temperatures
encourage the production of greater amounts of esters and phenols, resulting in beers with
more yeast derived flavor and aroma. Lager yeasts ferment colder, between 45° F and 55°
F. Colder temperatures inhibit the production of the various fermentation by-products
resulting in beers with a “clean” yeast profile. Certain beer styles are fermented with an
assortment of wild yeasts and bacteria that produce a range of funky flavors from sour to
Other Common Beer Ingredients

Unmalted Grains – In addition to the malted grains listed above there are a number of
unmalted adjunct grains that are commonly used in beer. These grains are used to add
flavor, improve mouthfeel, lighten body and color, and to make gluten free beers. The
adjunct grains include corn, rice, wheat, rye, oats, and some lesser used grains like
sorghum. Perhaps the most common example of the use of these grains is the International
Lager style that typically contains up to 30% rice or corn. Others include Oatmeal Stout
(oats) and Belgian Witbier (wheat).

Other sugars – The use of non-grain sugars in beer is probably as old as brewing itself.
While yeast cannot ferment all sugars derived from grain, these other sugars are often fully
fermentable. For this reason they can improve drinkability in very strong beers by
lightening the body without sacrificing the desired alcohol content. This is a common
practice in Strong Belgian Ales and English Barleywines which can become thick and
cloying when made entirely from grain sugars. Non-grain sugars are also used to enhance
beer flavor and color. Common
brewing sugars include brown sugar, cane sugar,
molasses, honey, and the caramelized sugar syrups
employed by Belgian brewers. Some American
craft brewers are experimenting with more exotic
sugars like Thai palm sugar.

Spices – The use of spices in beer goes back to the

days before hops. As mentioned above, before hops
became the preferred bittering agent for beer,
brewers used a mix of herbs and spices
called gruit. Using herbs and spices to add flavor and aromatic qualities continues to be
popular today. Possibly every spice in existence has found its way into beer at some point.
Common spices used in brewing include cinnamon, nutmeg, allspice, coriander, grains of
paradise, ginger, orange peel, heather and anise, just to name a few. Use of spices is
common in holiday ales and winter warmers. Belgian brewers are known for their subtle
use of spice in beers such as Saison and Belgian Witbier which is flavored with coriander
and bitter orange peel.
Fruits and Vegetables – Fruits and vegetables are used in beer to provide flavor, aroma,
color, and fermentable sugars. Fruits like berries, apricots, and cherries are most commonly
used in wheat beers and Belgian sour Lambic beers. However they are sometimes also
used in other styles including porters and stouts. American craft brewers have been
experimenting with a wide variety of vegetables in beer, including pumpkins, sweet
potatoes, beets, and chili peppers.
The Brewing Process

Beer is an industrial product. A brewery is literally a beer factory in which the brewer takes
advantage of and manipulates natural processes to create the perfect growth medium for yeast.
On the surface the brewing process is simple. But it you look a little deeper you find that there
is a complex set of chemical reactions at work in the creation of beer.

Milling – The first step of the process is crushing the malt. This breaks apart the grains,
exposing the starchy ball inside and making it accessible to the brewer. The grains are only
lightly crushed, leaving the hulls intact to serve as a filter bed for the lautering process later

Mashing – Mashing is the process by which the brewer extracts fermentable sugars from
the grain. Basically it consists of steeping the grains in water at temperatures between 140°
and 160° Fahrenheit for a period of sixty to ninety minutes at a thickness similar to
porridge. This activates naturally occurring enzymes in the grain that convert the grain
starches into sugars, like maltose, that yeast can metabolize. This process occurs in a vessel
called a mash tun.

Lautering – During lautering the fermentable sugars are rinsed from the grains. As the
sugary liquor from the mash, now called wort, is slowly drained from the bottom of the mash
tun, heated water is pumped in from the top at the same slow rate. As the water flows
through the grains, it raises the temperature to about 170° Fahrenheit, making the sugars
more soluble and easier to remove. As mentioned above, the intact grain hulls form a natural
filter, removing bits of grain and proteins from the wort. In some brewing systems lautering
occurs in the mash tun. In others the entire mash is pumped to a special lauter tun.

Boiling – From the lautering stage, the wort is pumped to the kettle where it is boiled. A
vigorous boil is maintained for sixty minutes or more. During the boil the wort is sterilized
and concentrated to the proper sugar density, haze causing proteins are removed (hot break),
and light caramelization occurs that deepens the flavor and color of the beer. One of the
most important things to occur during the boil is the addition of hops. Hops for bittering are
added early in the boil, while those for flavor and aroma are added later.

Cooling – Following the boil, the wort is pumped through a heat exchanger to cool it as
quickly as possible to fermentation temperature. Rapid cooling minimizes the danger of
bacterial contamination and causes more haze causing proteins to precipitate out of the wort
(cold break).

Fermentation – Yeast is added once the wort has reached the

desired temperature for fermentation. Brewers call the addition of
yeast pitching. Once the yeast has been pitched the wort can
properly be called beer. Fermentation can last a few days or a few
weeks depending of the strain of yeast and the strength of the
beer. During the process the yeast reproduce and then metabolize
the sugars, making C02, alcohol, and a host of other flavorful and
aromatic compounds that add complexity to the beer. During the
height of fermentation the beer is capped by a thick creamy foam
called kreusen. Once the available sugars have been consumed the
yeast cells clump together or floc and fall to the bottom of the

Conditioning – With fermentation complete, the beer is

removed from the yeast and pumped to a conditioning or
bright tank where it is stored at near freezing temperatures that cause most of the remaining
yeast to drop out of suspension. Hops can be added at this point as well, a step known as dry
hopping that lends the beer additional hop flavor and aroma. Once the beer is clear it is ready
to filter and package.

Making beer is easy. Using the proper ingredients and following the steps outlined above will
result in beer. Making good beer is hard. Brewers make choices at every step of the process,
from ingredient selection to determining mash and fermentation temperatures, that all have
significant effects on the quality of the end product. It takes skill, scientific knowledge, and a
certain amount if intuition to put all the pieces together in the production of great lagers and
ales. Brewing really is a craft.




Mrs. Elsa Rangel de Zambrano

SAN CRISTÒBAL, ______, _______, ______


1. Read the following Reading and write about the topic.


2. Look at the reading about BEER and observe the underlined words with the
help of your dictionary classify them in different groups of words that exist and
gives the equivalent in Spanish.
3. Write unfamiliar vocabulary found in the fragments of the following reading
given with its equivalent in Spanish.

______________________________ ________________________________
________________________________ ________________________________
________________________________ ________________________________
________________________________ ________________________________
________________________________ ________________________________
________________________________ ________________________________
________________________________ ________________________________
________________________________ ________________________________

4. Write a summary about the reading with your own words. In English and


Full name I.C. Signature


Son muchos los recursos que un estudiante puede utilizar para la adquisición de nuevos
vocablos en inglés. Un uso frecuente es tomar nota y consultar en el diccionario lo cual
es fundamental en el inicio, pero hay mejores formas: las lecciones anteriores presentaban
técnicas muy útiles para el fin que se persigue, el cual es inferir el significado de nuevos

Ahora bien, la utilización de sinónimos es otro recurso valioso, en el momento de aclarar

dudas con relación a significados de palabras. En una determinada lectura por ejemplo, el
escritor utiliza diferentes términos para sustituir otro del que ha hecho referencia
anteriormente. En este caso el uso de términos sustitutos, un recurso normal en la escritura
y la conversación, puede desviar al lector de la comprensión de las ideas que realmente
quiere transmitir, la persona que habla o escribe, pero este mismo medio lo puede llevar a
la comprensión clara y exacta de la lectura.

Muchas palabras tienen sinónimos ( otras palabras que significan lo mismo) y

antónimos ( palabras que significan lo opuesto).
Por ejemplo:

Sinónimo: Reduce Diminish / Black Dark

Antónimo: Reduce Increase / Black White
Remain Stay / Beautiful Pretty
Remain Leave / Beautiful Ugly


Look at these words from the reading; can you give a synonyms and antonyms for these

Different _____________________ Favorable

Frequently____________________ Acid
Low ____________________ High-energy
Similar _____________________Primarily
Common ____________________ Significant
Healthful ____________________ Ordinary
Preserved ____________________Harmful
High ____________________ Fresh

Look at these words: They are synonyms of the words in A, can you match them?

Constantly___________________ Full-energy
Short ___________________ Propitious
Distinct ___________________ Sour
Usual ___________________ Mainly
Resembling__________________ Symbolical
Wholesome _________________ Regular
Elevated _________________ Damaging
Conserved. _________________ Recent

Look at these words: They are antonyms; in the first exercise can you match them

Similar __________________Low-energy
Infrequently __________________ Sweet
High __________________ Unfavorable
Different __________________ Finally
Uncommon _________________ Insignificant
Unhealthful __________________ Sporadic
Unpreserved__________________ Beneficial
Low __________________ Faded

Many region of the earth lack a food industry capable of providing and adequate
food supply for the inhabitants.
a. mitigated
b. manufacturing
c. application
The Concern of this chapter will be with the technology of food manufacture with
only collateral mention of agriculture and the factors involved in good
a. Parallel
b. Equal
c. Mended
Most microorganisms if actively growing are readily eliminated by exposure to
temperatures, near boiling point of water
a. commodity, bread making quantity.
b. Bacteria, Killed, 110º c,
c. Product, sun drying, meat products.

Lea el siguiente texto y seleccione los sinónimos de las palabras subrayadas.

Mainly, prevailing, type, principal, fluctuation, dehydrate, rank, models.

Chiefly significant from the nutritional standpoint, we find the sugars in the imitation fruit
juice beverages to be prime source of energy. The kind and concentration of sugars in
imitation fruit juice drinks vary. In general, the sugar content of these drinks has a range of
10 to 14%. Sucrose is used as the natural sweetener in most juice type beverages. Sucrose
in both dry and liquid form is suitable. Assuming the quality meets the N.S.D.A.
standards, the sucrose can be from cane or beets.
Liquid invert sugar, 50-50 glucose and fructose, is available and can be used in juice
type beverages. Also, a blend of dextrose and sucrose liquid sugar is acceptable as a
sweetener for some type beverages, that is, if the sweet taste character does not have to
be predominant. Liquid sugar, produced from corn starch to yield a blend of glucose
and fructose up to 90% is suitable for many fruit juice beverages.


Sustituya los términos remarcados en las siguientes oraciones por los términos a

Commonly, numerous, blending, experimental, strange, cloth, contiguously,

Large users of liquid sugar install stationary storage tanks of suitable size, depending on
the quantities used, with permanent piping and pumps for pumping the liquid sugar from
the point of delivery to the storage tank and from the storage tank to the flavor or finished
syrup mixing tanks. 2-The storage tanks are generally provided with ultraviolet lights, fans
and screened air vents to prevent growth and reproduction of yeast and other
microorganisms in the liquid sugar.
3-The storage tanks are designed to give ideal storage conditions for both the 67° Brix
liquid sucrose and 76° Brix liquid invert liquid sugar, or blend of liquid sucrose and
dextrose. 4-The tanks are constructed of mild steel or other suitable materials which will
not contaminate the liquid sugar with any foreign taste, odor, or mineral. 5-The tentative
standards which follow apply to dry granulated sugar only, and are not applicable to liquid
sugars. 6-Furthermore, these standards apply to sugar as produced, immediately prior to

Containers.—For protection of the product, “Bottlers” sugar shall not be packed in
cotton or fabric bags but shall be packed in multi-wall paper bags or equivalent
sanitary package or bulk containers.
Container Identification.—Each container shall be marked or coded to make it
possible for the sugar producer to identify the place of production and date of
Designation of Type.—Each container shall be marked “Bottlers”.
Ash.—The ash content of “Bottlers” sugar shall not be more than 0.015%.
Color.—The solution color of “Bottlers” sugar shall not be more than 35 reference
basis units.
Sediment.—The sediment content of “Bottlers” sugar shall not be more than shown
on prepared sediment disc available from American Bottlers of Carbonated
Beverages, 1128 Sixteenth Street, N.W., Washington, D.C. upon request.
Taste and Odor.—"Bottlers" sugar shall have no obviously objectionable taste or
odor in either dry form or in ten per cent sugar solution prepared with tasteless,
odorless water.
Bacteriological.—Bottlers sugar shall not contain more than:
200 mesophilic bacteria per 10 gm
10 yeast per 10 gm
10 mold perlOgm

Sampling.— Bottlers" sugar shall be adequately sampled by the
producer immediately prior to packing to assure compliance with
these standards. There are two other aspects of quality which are
of extreme importance to the soft drink industry, namely: (1)
turbidity and (2) producing substances.

Lea el siguiente texto y sustituya las palabras subrayadas por el término más


1) Production of imitation fruit juice beverages requires the closest attention to quality
control at every step of the process. This includes incoming raw materials, proper water
treatment, clean and sterile packages, good manufacturing practices, and in-plant quality
control tests. In these days of high volume and high speed manufacturing, the primary
objective of a production manager must be to produce a high quality product.

For the purposes of discussion on the subject of quality control of imitation fruit juice
beverages, let us consider three aspects of quality control; (1) advantages of quality control;
(2) requirements for a quality control program; and (3) guidelines on the operation of a
quality control program in a fruit juice drink manufacturing plant.
Managers of fruit juice plants know and are firmly convinced that there are many
advantages in establishing and maintaining an effective quality control program. They
realize and have experienced the functions of a well-balanced quality control system. For
instance, they know that good quality control program in the plant will: (1) protect
production costs by preventing and detecting defects in products packed; (2) protect the
consumer and assure that he gets a quality product with good "eye appeal”, (3) maintain
plant requirements in order to meet local, state and federal good manufacturing practices;
(4) protect and control the use of quality raw materials as water, sugar, acids, preservatives,
flavors, and packages; (5) generate pride and increase morale of production personnel; (6)
assist in product liability problems; (7) improve production efficiency; (8)assist in plant
layout, design and space requirements; (9) improve waste control, (10) aid in plant safety;
(11) minimize company criticism; and (12) assure sales department that produces are what
customers want to buy.

Pre-reading task

1. What do you know about organic food?

2. What do you know about organic food in your city?
3. Do you believe that organic food is more healthy than other kind of food?

Look at the reading:

Are organic foods really more nutritious than non-organic foods? Read about this issue in
the reading practice exercise below. You can find the meaning of the words in bold in the
vocabulary list under the text, and you can check your understanding by doing the Organic
Foods Comprehension Quiz.
Organic food is very popular these days. It can also be very expensive. Some organic food
costs twice as much as non-organic food. Parents of young children, and even some pet
owners, will pay high prices for organic food if they think it's healthier. But many others
think organic food is just a waste of money.
There is one main difference between organic and non-organic food. Organic farms do not
use agricultural chemicals such as pesticides that stop insects from damaging crops. In
many countries foods that claim to be organic must have special labels that guarantee
they're grown organically.
Some people think organic also means "locally grown", and originally this was true. But
over time organic farming has become big business, with many organic foods now being

grown by large agricultural companies that sell their products far from where they're
grown. Processed food made with organic ingredients has also become more popular. At
first, only small companies produced these products. But as demand overtook supply, big
food companies that had been selling non-organic products for many years also began
selling organic products. Small organic food companies found it difficult to compete with
these big companies, and many didn't stay in business much longer.

Is organic food safer and more nutritious? This is an important part of the debate. Many
farmers and consumers believe it is. They think agricultural chemicals can cause serious
illnesses like cancer, but there isn't much evidence proving this is true. However recent
studies have shown that eating organically-grown produce reduces your chances of
developing heart disease. Many doctors think it's more important to stop dangerous bacteria
from contaminating foods. These bacteria can contaminate both organic and non-organic
fruit and vegetables, and doctors recommend washing produce carefully before eating it.
Meat, fish and chicken can also become contaminated, so washing your hands
before handling these foods is also very important. Many doctors also believe we should
reduce the amount of sugar in our diets, and there is a lot of evidence to support this idea.
They recommend carefully checking the list of ingredients on processed food and drinks for
all the words that really mean sugar, like glucose, sucrose and fructose. And they remind us
that the aim of most big food companies is to make lots of money, even if they damage our
health while doing so. This means processed foods that are called "organic" can also be
very unhealthy if they contain lots of sugar.

Most people agree that naturally grown food tastes better. Is tastier food worth the extra
money? That's a matter of opinion. Whether organic food is healthier or not is still not
clear, so more research is needed. However, consumers of organic food often say "better
safe than sorry" when it comes to what we eat.




Mrs. Elsa Rangel de Zambrano

SAN CRISTÒBAL, ______, _______, _____


a. Use the dictionary to help you find synonyms /Antonyms for each of these words
taken of your reading:
Actually, accepted, attentiveness, trust, approve, named, dangerous
Fictitiously, unpopular , remiss, reject, discrediting, good

b. Look up the words printed in bold in the following sentences. They are in cereals text .Try
to replace them with other single words, without changing the meaning of the sentences:
1. Are organic foods _______ more nutritious than non-organic foods?
Are organic foods _______ more nutritious than non-organic foods?
2. Processed food made with organic ingredients has also become more _______.
Processed food made with organic ingredients has also become more _______.
3. They recommend ________checking the list of ingredients on processed food and drinks for all
the words that really mean sugar, like glucose, sucrose and fructose.
They recommend ________checking the list of ingredients on processed food and drinks for all
the words that really mean sugar, like glucose, sucrose and fructose.

4. Many doctors also ________we should reduce the amount of sugar in our diets, and there is a lot
of evidence to ________ this idea.

.Many doctors also ________we should reduce the amount of sugar in our diets, and there is a
lot of evidence to ________ this idea.

5. This means processed foods that are _______ "organic" can also be very ________ if they
contain lots of sugar.
This means processed foods that are _______ "organic" can also be very ________ if they
contain lots of sugar.

b. Observe these words taken from the reading and try to get the synonym and
antonyms for them

Word Synonyms Antonyms
lots of
Organic Foods Comprehension Quiz
What is the main difference between organic and non-organic food?
use of pesticides
size of the company
location of the farm
2. Which is usually more expensive?
pet food
organic food
non-organic food
3. Many small organic food companies found it difficult to _______ .
waste money
stay in business
find cheap pesticides
4. Recent studies show that eating organic produce can _______ your chances of having heart
5. Dangerous bacteria can contaminate
organic food only
non-organic food only
organic and non-organic food
6. All processed foods should have a label listing the product's

7. Many doctors now believe eating too much _______ food is bad for our health.
8. Processed organic foods can also be unhealthy if they contain lots of
nutritious ingredients
organic produce
9. The aim of most big food companies is to make the healthiest _______ they can.
10. Most people agree that naturally grown food tastes


Fullname I.C. Signature


Una estrategia para identificar el significado de una palabra es analizando sus
partes y observando cómo está formada. En este objetivo se obtendrán
conocimientos sobre cómo se forman las palabras a través de prefijos y sufijos.
Con la finalidad de conocer los más importantes lo cual permite inferir el significado
de ellas sin el uso del diccionario.

Una base o raíz es la parte de la cual se pueden derivar varias palabras

relacionadas entre sí.
El afijo UN- se le antepone a la palabra y se denomina y PREFIJO cambia
el significado de la palabra pero no la función gramatical.
Por ejemplo: la palabra


NO Justo Injusto


Prefijo Base palabra derivada

El afijo –AGE que se le coloca al final de la palabra se denomina SUFIJO el cual cambia
el significado y la función gramatical.

La palabra DRAINAGE está formada por DRAIN, que significa drenar y –AGE que
indica actividad o resultado de una actividad.
Por ejemplo: la palabra

Drenar Actividad Drenaje

+ =
Base sufijo Palabra derivada
Prefijo Base palabra derivada
Las palabras FAIR y DRAIN se denominan base o raíz.
UN- y –AGE se les llama afijos, es decir las partes de palabras que se anexan a las
bases o raíces para formar nuevas palabras.
Observa las siguientes tablas que contienen ejemplos sobre los prefijos:

Observa estas otras tablas y recuerda que:

Los sufijos derivacionales determinan siempre una categoría gramatical, así

vemos que hay sustantivos que se derivan de verbos, de adjetivos o de otros sustantivos,
sustantivos que dan origen a adjetivos, verbos y adverbios, así como también adjetivos que
dan origen a adverbios.




Work- -ER (Agente) Worker Trabajador
Boil- Boiler Caldera
*Observe Observer Observador
React -OR Reactor Reactor
Serv -ANT Servant Sirviente, servidor.
Adher- -ENT
Employ- -EE ( receptor) Employee Empleado
Train- Trainee Aprendiz
Refug- Refugee Refugiado
Act- -ION ( Resultado) Action Acción
Transmis- -SION Transmission Transmisión
Expedi- -TION Expedition Expedición
Fix- -ATION Fixation Fijación
-MENT Payment Pago
-AL Refusal Rechazo
Read- -ING Reading Lectura
Cover- -AGE Coverage Cobertura. Alcance
Signific- -ANCE Significance Significación.
Exist -TENCE Existence Existencia.
Compos- -ITE (que Composite Compositivo
Defect demuestra) Defective Defectuoso



Soft- -NESS (Cualidad) Softness Suavidad
Activ- -ITY Activity Actividad
Difficult- -TY Difficulty Dificultad
Accura- -CY Accuracy Exactitud, precisión.
Convenien- -CE Convenience Comodidad, ventaja.
Wid -TH Width Ancho, anchura



Chem- -IST (Agente, Chemist Químico
Engine- Persona) Engineer Ingeniero
Statistic- -EER Statistician Estadístico
Lectur- -IAN Lecturer Conferencista
Book- -LET (Diminutivo) Booklet Folleto, libretín
Child- -HOOD (Condición) Childhood Niñez
Friend- -SHIP Friendship Amistad
King -DOM Kingdom Reinado
Crock- -ERY Crockery Loza
Rocket -TRY Rocketry Cohetería
Mouth -FUL (Medida) Mouthful Bocado
Chin- -ESE (Nacionalidad) Chinese Chino
Ideal- -ISM (Doctrina, Idea, Idealism Idealismo
Ideal- -IST (hacer práctica Idealist Idealista
de,ocuparse con)
Eco- -LOGY (Ciencia) Ecology Ecología



Use- -FUL (lleno de) Useful Útil
Sand- -Y Sandy Arenoso
Danger- -OUS Dangerous Peligroso
Brother- -LY ( parecido en n) Brotherly Fraternal
Child- -LIKE Childlike Infantil
Self- -ISH Selfish Egoísta
Wood -EN Wooden De Madera
Age -ED Aged Añejo
Volcan- -IC Volcanic Volcánico
Music- -AL Musical Musical
Europe- -AN European Europeo
-TILE Infantile Infantil
-ABLE Valuable Valioso
-IBLE Visible Visible

Harm- -LESS (sin) Harmless Inofensivo



Convert- -IBLE ( Capacidad) Convertible Convertible
Product -IVE (Tendencia a) Productive Productivo
Interest- -ING Interesting Interesante
Favor- -ITE Favorite Favorito
Suffici- -ENT (Cualidad) Sufficient Suficiente
Observ- -ANT Observant Observador,


Simple -FY Simplify Simplificar
Quick -EN (Ponerse mas) Quicken Acelerar
Hospital -IZE Hospitalize Hospitalizar



(curso) Eastwards Hacia el este
East - -WARDS
Wind- Winwards Hacia el viento
Preposición base On-
Onwards Hacia adelante

Leisure - -LY Leisurely Despacio, cómodamente

Week- Weekly Semanalmente
Adjetivo base +
Easi- Easily Fácilmente
Necessary Necessarily Necesariamente

Adaptado de: Inglés (Universidad Nacional Abierta) 1988

What Happens to Your Body When You Eat Fruit and Vegetables

Most mothers aim to get as much good food into their children as they can. Of course what
you consider as good food largely depends upon what you have been taught, and where
your information has come from.
My mother was interested in health and nutrition. Every single day of the year, rain or shine
or snow, we had a salad at lunchtime. This used to greatly surprise my school friends, for
whom salads belonged to Summer time only.
However, in our mid-teens these same friends were asking why I didn't have any spots,
with more than a hint of envy. Your diet will always display itself on your skin!

Multi nutrients packaged by nature

Fruit and vegetables contain a wide range of vitamins, minerals, essential fatty acids and
antioxidants. Provided that the fruit and vegetables you eat are grown in organic conditions
you can obtain a range of these vitamins and minerals from them.
Nature presents these in single foods where they work together for the best possible result.
You will never find that a fruit or vegetable only has one beneficial vitamin or mineral,

they may have more of one, but will also contain others. Instead of generalizing about this,
two actual examples are:
Bananas: these are high in potassium but they also contain 10 other minerals, and 14
Sweet potatoes: these are high in beta carotene or vitamin A, and vitamin C, yet also have
some B vitamins and the minerals calcium and potassium.
Eating a variety of fruit and vegetables will give you a selection of these nutrients.

Fruit and vegetables quench thirst

The 'water' that we obtain from fruit and vegetables is life giving. Why? Because it cleanses
our bodies inside in a way that normal water does not. Harvey Diamond writes of this in his
book, 'Fit for Life,' which was written as a way to lose weight.
Yet it is far more than a weight loss plan, because it offers the way to balance your body
internally, using the principles of healthy living, Harvey explains that high water content
foods are the only ones that will cleanse and feed you. Only fruit and vegetables fall into
this category – any other food is a concentrated food, for example grains, meat, dairy and
Just consider how important this is to the healthy function of your body. When you take in
plenty of natural water in fruit and vegetables, it is having an effect on your cells. It is
passing on all the information your cells need to reproduce perfectly, and to keep your body
in top condition. This is not to say that you do not need to drink water, but rather, that this
alone will not cleanse and nourish in the way that fruit and vegetables do.

How to eat more fruit and vegetables

Of course to keep the most life giving nutrients, it is important to not cook your vegetables
or fruit to death! The more of these that can be eaten raw (or steamed) the better it is.
Nature gives them to us as a complete food, as often some of the most important nutrients
are just under the skin, so by peeling vegetables that only need scrubbing clean, you lose
If they are to be cooked, use coconut oil, as this is the only oil that does not spoil at high

Eating seasonally and locally also means that you are getting the best quality, as the foods
will not have been transported far. The closer to the vegetable garden your plate is, the
fresher your food will be.
Fruit must be eaten ripe, not over or under ripe for the most benefit. If you have even tried
to catch a pear like this, you will know it is not as simple as it sounds!
Also it is best to eat fruit before and not after other foods.
Two of the easiest ways to get plenty of fruit and vegetables in your diet is to juice them
and /or make smoothies – dairy free for best health giving results. Rather than looking to
common standard recommendations of 5 per day, your daily consumption needs to be at
least 50% of your complete food intake, leaning towards more vegetables than fruit.
Your body will thank you for eating more fruit and vegetables, and as it adjusts to this you
will thank your body – for all the energy and vitality you have.





Mrs. Elsa Rangel de Zambrano

SAN CRISTÒBAL, ______, _______, ______





1. In the following sentences try to determine the root of these underlined words
taken from the reading.

Of course what you consider as good food largely depends upon what you have
been taught, and where your information has come from.

Fruit and vegetables contain a wide range of vitamins, minerals, essential fatty
acids and antioxidants

It is passing on all the information your cells need to reproduce perfectly, and to
keep your body in top condition.

Two of the easiest ways to get plenty of fruit and vegetables in your diet is to juice
them and /or make smoothies – dairy free for best health giving results.

The 'water' that we obtain from fruit and vegetables is life giving. Why? Because it
cleanses our bodies inside in a way that normal water does not.

2. Without using the dictionary tries to infer the meaning of the words that are
underlined in the sentence. Translate the sentences

The marketing of milk, surplus to family and farm needs, improves farm income,
creates employment in processing, marketing and distribution, adds value and
contributes to food security in rural communities.

Definition: ______________________________
Prefix: _________________________________
Root: __________________________________
Part of speech: _________________________

The logistics of moving small quantities of a perishable commodity are covered in

collection but the marketing aspects require organizational and technical skills and
an understanding of quality and safety issues.

Definition: ______________________________
Prefix: _________________________________
Root: __________________________________
Part of speech: _________________________

Collaborative programns for training informal market operators have been carried
out and guidelines for organizing producer marketing groups and improving
quality and packaging are being developed and disseminated.
Definition: ______________________________
Prefix: _________________________________
Root: __________________________________
Part of speech: _________________________

The aim is to ensure that milk and dairy products marketed by small traders are
wholesome as well as affordable.

Definition: ______________________________
Prefix: _________________________________
Root: __________________________________
Part of speech: _________________________
Fresh raw milk is easily deteriorated to become unsuitable for processing and
human consumption.
Definition: ______________________________
Prefix: _________________________________
Root: __________________________________
Suffix: _________________________________
Part of speech: _________________________


Fullname I.C. Signature



Las siguientes son algunas de las reglas que se deben aprender porque se aplican a
muchas palabras y no se consiguen en el diccionario.
Cuando una palabra de una sola silaba termina en consonante presidida de una vocal,
doble la consonante y agregue el sufijo Por ejemplo:

Run + ing = Running

Sad + est = saddest
Fat + er = fatter
Cut + able = cuttable
Bat + ed = batted

Cuando una palabra es multisílaba y termina en consonante presidida por una vocal, y es
acentuada fonéticamente en la silaba final, se duplica la consonante y se agrega el
sufijo.Por ejemplo:

Begin + ing = beginning

Ocuur + ence = occurrence
Prefer + ed = preferred

A. Si una palabra termina en “e” silenciosa, es decir, no se pronuncia, elimine la “e” y
agregue el sufijo que empieza con una vocal. Por ejemplo:

Take + ing = taking
Write + ing = writing
Desire + able = desirable
Relieve + able = beliable

B. Cuando una palabra termina en “e” muda, es decir no se pronuncia, no elimine la “e”
cuando el sufijo empieza con consonante. Por ejemplo:
State + ment = statement
Like + ness = likeness
Use + full = usefull

C. Cuando una palabra termina “ce” o “ge” no se elimina para mantener el sonido suave
de “c” o “g” antes de sufijos que empiezan con “a”, “e” u “o”. Por ejemplo:

Charge + able = chargeable

Noticce + able = noticeable
courage + ous = courageous

A. Las palabra que terminan en “y” presidida por una consonante, cambie la “y” por “i”
antes de agregar el sufijo, excepto aquellas que empiezan con “e”. Por ejemplo:
Happy + est = happiest
Beauty + full = beautifull
Hurry + ed = hurried
Sky + es = skies
Carry + ed = carried
Theory + es = theories

B. Las palabras que terminan en “y” presidida por una vocal, mantenga la “y” antes de
agregar un sufijo.Por ejemplo:

Gay + est = gayest
boy + ish = boyish
enjoy + ing = enjoying
play + s = plays


Day + ly= daily

Pay + ed = paid
Say + ed = said
Lay + ed = laid

In a live animal, these protein filaments make
muscles contract and relax. Both actions require
enormous amounts of energy, which they get from
the energy-carrying molecule ATP (adenosine
triphosphate). The most efficient generation of
ATP requires oxygen, which muscles get from
circulating blood.

Muscle fibers, or cells

ATP powers muscle contraction
After an animal is slaughtered, blood circulation
stops, and muscles exhaust their oxygen supply.
Meat is mostly the muscle tissue of an animal. Muscle can no longer use oxygen to generate ATP
Most animal muscle is roughly 75% water, and turn to anaerobic glycolysis, a process that
20% protein, and 5% fat, carbohydrates, and breaks down sugar without oxygen, to generate
assorted proteins. Muscles are made of bundles ATP from glycogen, a sugar stored in muscle.
of cells called fibers.Each cell is crammed with
filaments made of two proteins: actin and The breakdown of glycogen produces enough
myosin energy to contract the muscles, and also produces
lactic acid. With no blood flow to carry the lactic
acid away, the acid builds up in the muscle tissue.
If the acid content is too high, the meat loses its
water-binding ability and becomes pale and
watery. If the acid is too low, the meat will be
tough and dry.

Lactic acid buildup also releases calcium, which causes
muscle contraction. As glycogen supplies are depleted,
ATP regeneration stops, and the actin and myosin
remain locked in a permanent contraction called rigor
Freezing the carcass too soon after death keeps the
proteins all bunched together, resulting in very tough
Beef muscle fibers with blowup of
a coiled protein Aging allows enzymes in the muscle cells to break
down the overlapping proteins, which makes the meat
, before cooking tender.
Individual protein molecules in raw meat are wound-up
in coils, which are formed and held together by bonds.
When meat is heated, the bonds break and the protein
molecule unwinds. Heat also shrinks the muscle fibers
both in diameter and in length as water is squeezed out
and the protein molecules recombine, or coagulate.
Because the natural structure of the protein changes,
this process of breaking, unwinding, and coagulating is
Alanine, a simple amino acid
called denaturing.

Most of meat's flavor develops when it is cooked. The

amount of fat in meat influences its flavor, as does a
process called the Maillard reaction. Flavor can also
be added to meat through brining and marinating.

The Maillard reaction occurs when the denatured

proteins on the surface of the meat recombine with the
sugars present. The combination creates the "meaty"
flavor and changes the color. For this reason, it is also
called the browning reaction. The Maillard reaction
occurs most readily at around 300° F to 500° F. When
meat is cooked, the outside reaches a higher
A glucose molecule
temperature than the inside, triggering the Maillard
reaction and creating the strongest flavors on the
surface. In the early twentieth century, Louis-Camille
Maillard happened upon what came to be known as
the Maillard reaction when he was trying to figure out
how amino acids linked up to form proteins. He
discovered that when he heated sugars and amino
Osmosis occurs when water flows from acids together, the mixture slowly turned brown.
a lower concentration of a solution to
a higher concentration through a semi
permeable membrane.

Fat, an energy source stored in animal muscles, also contributes to the flavor of meat.
Water is the most prevalent component of meat, and most of the flavor-carrying, or aroma,
molecules are hydrophobic (repelled by water). These molecules dissolve in fat. Meat's fat
content varies from animal to animal, and within each animal, it varies from part to part.
Muscles that are used often consume the stored-up fat, and so the meat from these areas
doesn’t have much fat.

Areas that aren't used as much don't use as much energy, so there is fatter in these cuts. The
animal's age also plays a role in how much fat is in the meat. The older the animal, the
more time it has had to build up fat-pocket energy reserves in its muscles.

Marinades are usually made up of three components: acid, oil, and herbs. The acid helps to
partially denature the meat's proteins, opening up "tunnels" in the meat structure where
flavor can seep in. But marinades mostly penetrate only the surface. Marinades work best
on meats such as chicken breast and fish, because the muscle structure is not as dense as it
is in steak. For denser meat, marinades work best when the meat is cut into smaller pieces
so the marinade can penetrate a larger surface area. However, if marinades are left on too
long, the acids can "cook" the surface, causing the meat to dry out. Some meats, such as
pork and steak, can marinate for hours. Other less dense cuts of meat, such as chicken
breast and most fish, only need to stay in a marinade for a short time.

Brining meat (that is, putting meat into a salt-water solution) adds moisture to the meat
through osmosis. Osmosis happens when water flows from a lower concentration of a
solution to a higher concentration through a semi permeable membrane. In meat, this
membrane is the plasma membrane that surrounds the individual cells. When meat is placed
in brine, the meat's cell fluids are less concentrated than the salt water in the brining
solution. Water flows out of the cells in the meat and salt flows in. The salt then dissolves
some of the fiber proteins, and the meat's cell fluids become more concentrated, thus
drawing water back in. Brining adds salt and water to the cells so that when the meat is
cooked and water is squeezed out, there is still water left in the cells because water was
added before cooking.

Cattle that are bred for consumption are often fed large amounts of food in
order to increase the amount of fat that normally occurs. The fatter in a piece
of beef, the more "marbled" its appearance; that is, the more white streaks of
fat there are. Marbled steaks are considered to be some of the most flavorful
beef cuts.

As a result of the health risks that may be associated with consuming too
much red meat, pork is now a popular alternative to beef. Pigs that are
slaughtered are, for the most part, fairly young, and their muscles haven't
built up energy reserves. There are some pork cuts that are naturally fatty, such as bacon,
but breeders are now using techniques to produce leaner pork. The result is that many pork
cuts now have about the same amount of fat as the white meat in chicken.

With fish, it's a different story. The fat in fish comes from the oils distributed throughout
their flesh; it isn't stored in pockets as it is in beef and pork. These oils have subtle flavors
in and of themselves, and they contribute to the flavor of the fish.

There are basically two types of meat: dark and white.

Red or dark meat is made up of muscles with fibers
Beef that are called slow-twitch. These muscles are used for
extended periods of activity, such as standing or
walking, and need a consistent energy source. The
protein myoglobin stores oxygen in muscle cells,
which use oxygen to extract the energy needed for
constant activity. Myoglobin is a richly pigmented
protein. The more myoglobin there is in the cells, the
redder, or darker, the meat.

When dark meat is cooked, myoglobin's color changes
depending on what the meat's interior temperature is.
Rare beef is cooked to 140° F, and myoglobin's red
color remains unchanged. Above 140° F, myoglobin
loses its ability to bind oxygen, and the iron atom at
the center of its molecular structure loses an electron.
This process forms a tan-colored compound called
hemichrome, which gives medium-done meat its color.
When the interior of the meat reaches 170° F,
hemichrome levels rise, and the myoglobin becomes
metmyoglobin, which gives well-done meat its brown-
gray shade.

White meat is made up of muscles with fibers that are

called fast-twitch. Fast-twitch muscles are used for
quick bursts of activity, such as fleeing from danger.
These muscles get energy from glycogen, which is
Adapted from: Cell illustrations By also stored in the muscles. White meat has a
David Goodsell Micrograph images translucent "glassy"
courtesy Nutrition and Food
Management, Oregon State University

quality when it is raw. When it's cooked, the proteins denature and recombine, or
coagulate, and the meat becomes opaque and whitish.

Cows and pigs are both sources of dark meat, though pig is often called "the other white
meat." Pigs' muscles do contain myoglobin, but the concentration is not as heavy as it is in
beef. Chickens have a mixture of both dark and white meat, and fish is mainly white meat.
Different types of meat require different cooking times. The best way to determine if meat
is done is to use a meat thermometer to check the internal temperature. Beef can be cooked

to a variety of temperatures: rare (140° F), medium (160° F), and well-done (170° F). Pork,
chicken, and fish have less leeway. It's recommended that pork be cooked to 170° F,
chicken to 180° F, and fish to 165° F.





Mrs. Elsa Rangel de Zambrano

SAN CRISTÒBAL, ______, _______, ______

Vegetables, cereals and milk products are important in our nutrition
because they provide us important nutrients for our body like proteins,
carbohydrates and vitamins. Also, there are other important products as
necessary as the others. They are fruits, meat, sugar, drinks.
All of them are necessary for the normal functioning of our organism
and we must include them every day in our meals.

As in the model, write a composition about what do you think about the importance of
a good nutrition in our health.


Acorn: bellota Cantaloupe: melon Cucumber: pepino
Afternoon tea: Caper: alcaparra Cumin/cummin: comino
merienda Capsicum: pimiento morròn Cured meat: tasajo
Ale: cerveza ligera. Cardoon: cardo Currant: grosella
Almond: Almendra. Carrot: zanahoria Curry: cari
Anchovy: anchoa. Cauliflower: coliflor Cutlet: chuleta
Appetite: apetito Caviare/caviare: caviar Dairy products: productos
Appetizer: tapas. Celery: apio làcteos.
Apple: manzana Cereal: cereal Damson: ciruela
Apricot: albaricoque Champagne: champaña damascena
Artichoque: alcachofa. Chard: acelga Dandelion: diente de leòn
Asparagus: espàrrasgo Cheese: queso Date: Dátil
Avocado: aguacate Cherry: cereza Dessert: postre
Bacon: tocino Chervil: perifollo Diet: dieta
Banana: plátano. Chew: masticar Dill: eneldo
Banquet: banquete Chicken: pollo Dinner: cena
Barley: cebada Chickpea: garbanzo Dish: plato, platillo
Basil: albahaca Chicory: achicoria Dogfish: cazòn
Bean: frìjol Chili pepper: chile Doughnut: dona, rosquilla
Beef : carne de vaca Chips: papas fritas Dress: adobo, relleno,salsa.
Beefsteak: bistec Chive: cebolleta Dried legumes: legumbres
Beer: cerveza Chocolate: chocolate secas.
Beet: remolacha Chop: chuleta Drink: beber, bebida, trago
Beetroot: remolacha Cinnamon: canela Duck: pato
Beverage: bebida Citron: cidra Eat: comer
Bilberry: arándano Claret: clarete Eel: anguila
Biscuits: panecillos Clove: clavo Egg: huevo
Black currant: grosella Cocktail: coctel Eggplant: berenjena
Blood pudding:morcilla Cocoa: cacao Endive: endivia, escarola
Blood sausage: morcilla Coconut. Coco Entree: entrada
Blue berry: mora azul Coconut jam: cocada Escarole: escarola
Boiled eggs: huevos Cod-liver oil: aceite de Fast food: comida rápida
pasados por agua. higado de bacalao. Fasting: ayuno,
Bread: pan Coffee: café abstinencia
Breakfast: desayuno Cold cuts: carnes frías, Feed: nutrir, alimentar
Broad bean: haba fiambres Feeding : alimentación
Broccoli: Brocoli Cold meats: fiambre, carne Fennel: hinojo
Broth: caldo frìa Fig:Higo
Brunch: Almuerzo Compote: compota Fillet: filete de pescado.
Brussels sprouts: col de Consomme: consomé Fish: pescado
Bruselas. Cook: guisar Food: alimento, comida
Buckwheat: alforfon Cookies: galletitas Food, stuff: producto
Bun: bollo Corn: maìz alimenticio
Butter: mantequilla Cos lettuce: lechuga romana French bean: judia verde
Cabbage: repollo Cottage cheese: queso French fries: papas fritas
Cactus: cacto, nopal cottage Fried egg: huevo frito
Cake: pastel, torta Crab: Cangrejo Fruit: fruta
Camomile tea: Te de Crackers: galletas saladas Fudge: dulce de chocolate
manzanilla Cream: crema Garlic: ajo
Canned food: comida Cress: berro Gherkin: pepinillo
enlatada. Crumb: miga Gluttony: glotoneria
Crust: corteza Goose barnacle: percebe

Gourmet: gastrónomo Lunch: comida, almuerzo Papaya: papaya,
Grape: uva Lupine: lupino, altramus lechosa
Grapefruit: toronja Macaroni. Macarrón Paprika: pimiento
Greed: gula Main course: plato fuerte picante molido
Green bean: judìa Maintain: mantener, Parsley: perejil
verde sustentar. Parsnip: pastinaca,
Groundnut oil: aceite Mandarine: mandarina chirivia
de cacahuate. Mangoe: mango Partridge: perdiz
Guava: guayaba Manioc: mandioca Pasta: pastas
Hake: merluza Margarine: margarina Pastries:
Ham: jamòn Marinate: marinar, Pastas,pastelillos
Hamburger: escabechar Pastry: reposterìa
hamburguesa Marinated raw fish: Pea: guisante
Hard-boiled eggs: cebiche Peach: melocotòn
huevos duros , Marmalade: mermelada Peanut: manì,
cocidos Marrow: mèdula. cacahuate.
Hare: liebre Tuétano Peanut oil: aceite de
Hazelnut: avellana Marshmallow: cacahuate.
Helping: porciòn, malvavisco, melcocha Pear: pera
raciòn Mashed potatoes: pure Pepper: pimienta
Herring: arenque de papas. Peppermint: esencia de
High tea: merienda, Mayonnaise: mayonesa menta, pastilla de
cena Meal: comida menta
Honey: miel Meat: carne Persimmon : caqui
Horseradish: ràbano Medlar: nìspero Pheasant: faisán
picante. Menu: menu Pick: picar
Hot cake: panquè Meringue: merengue Pickle: encurtido
Hot dog: perro Milk: leche Pie: tarta
caliente, Milk and syrup sweet: Pimiento: pimiento
Emparedado con chongo Pineapple: piña
salchicha Mineral water: agua Piquant sauce: ajilimoje
Hunger: hambre mineral Pizza: pizza
Ice cream: helado Mint: menta Plate: plato, platillo
Jam: mermelada Mulberry: mora Plum: ciruela
Jerked meat: cecina. Mushroom: champiñones Poached eggs: huevos
Jerusalem Artichoque: Mustard: mostaza escalfados.
alcahofa Nectarine: nectarina Pomegranate: granada
Juice: jugo Nibble: picar Popcorn: rosetas de
Kale: Col rizada Noodles; fideos tallarines maìz.
Ketchup: salsa de Nourish: alimentar, nutrir Pork : puerco, cerdo
tomate Nutmeg: nuez moscada Portion : porciòn, ración
Kohlrabi: colinabo Oatmeal: hojuelas de Poultry: aves de corral
Lamb: cordero avena Praline: semilla
Lamb stew: cordero Oats: avena garapiñada
guisado Octopus: pulpo Preserves: mermelada
Laurel: laurel Oil: aceite Prickly pear: tuna
Leek: puerro Olive: oliva, aceituna Prune: ciruela pasa
Legumes: legumbres Olive oil: aceite de oliva Pudding: pudín
Lemon: limòn Omelet: tortilla de Pumpkin. Calabaza
Lemonade: limonada huevos Punch: ponche
Lentil: lenteja Onion: cebolla Quail: codorniz
Lettuce: lechuga Orange: naranja Quince: membrillo
Lime: lima Orangeade: naranjada Rabbit: conejo
Liqueur: licor, crema Orégano: orégano Radish: rábano
Liquor: licor, vino 41
Overfeeding: Raisin: pasa
Litchi: litchi sobrealimentación Rasp berry: frambuesa
Lobster: langosta Oyster: ostra Red pepper: picante.
Loin: lomo Pancake: panquè pimiento ro0jo
Red wine: vino tinto Subsistence: subsistencia
Rhubarb: ruibarbo Sugar: azúcar
Rice: arroz Sugar cane: caña de azúcar
Roast: asado Sunny-side up: huevo frito
Roll. Rosca, rosquilla Supper: cena
Romaine lettuce: Swallow: tragar, deglutir
lechuga romana. Swedish turnip: colinabo
Root beer: cerveza de Sweet: postre
raìz Sweet potato: batata
Rose wine: Vino rosado Tangerine: mandarina
Runner bean: ejote Tarragon: estragón
Salad: ensalada Tart: tarta
Salmon. Salmón Tea: té
Salsify: salsify Thirst: sed
Salt: sal Thyme: tomillo
Sandwich: emparedado Toast: pan tostado
Sauce: salsa Tomato: tomate
Sausage: salchicha Truffle; trufa
Scrambled eggs: huevos Tuna: atún
revueltos Tuna. Higo chumbo, tuna,
Season: adobar. atún
Seasoning: adobo, aliño, Tunny/ tuna: atún
condimento Turkey: pavo
Sherbet: nieve Turnip: nabo
Shrimp: camaròn Turtle: tortuga
Sirloin: solomillo Vanilla: vainilla
Slice of bread: rebanada Veal: ternera
de pan Vegetables: vegetales
Smoked pork sausage: Vegetarian: vegetariano
chorizo Viniegra: vinagre
Snack: bocado Walnut: nuez
Snail: caracol Watercress: berro
Soft drink: refresco Wheat: trigo
Sorghum: sorgo White wine: vino blanco
Sorrel: acedera Wine: vino de mesa
Soup: sopa Zucchini: calabacín-
Sour cream: crema agria.
Soursop: guanàbana
Soybean. Grano de soya
Spaghetti: espaguetis
Spices: especies
Spinach: espinaca
Sponge cake: bizcocho
Squash: chayote,
Steak. Bistec
Stew: guisado, estofado
Stewed: guisado,
Strawberry: fresa
Sttufed olive: aceituna

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