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Japan attacks
I. US-Japanese relations
a. WWI Allies
b. Asian and Pacific power struggle
c. Americans in Guam and Philippines posed threat to Japan’s power
d. US aided China
e. Remained trade partners
II. Pacific involvement grows
a. Japanese Empire growing into China and Indochina
b. Roosevelt embargoed important supplies
c. Extended after the Tripartite Pact with Germany and Italy
d. Prime Minister Hideki Tojo focus military expansion while the US remained neutral
e. November 1941 the US rejected Japanese demands
f. Tojo decided to attack the US
III. Attack on Pearl Harbor
a. Site of main US Pacific base
b. Surprise attack to cripple US Pacific forces
c. Heavy losses- 2,500 killed and many implements damaged and destroyed
d. Aircraft carriers survived
IV. Roosevelt declares war
a. American desire for neutrality quickly faded
b. Roosevelt declares war the day after the attack on Pearl Harbor, Dec. 8 1941
2. Patriotism inspires rapid mobilization
I. Military enrolment
a. Draft already in place
b. Many volunteered to serve
c. General George Marshall directed
d. Over 16 million Americans served from all ethnic groups
II. Women join the fight
a. Congresswoman Edith Nourse Rogers created the Women’s Army Corps
b. Received same benefits as men
III. FDR leads domestic industry’s rapid mobilization
a. High production of war materials
b. Factories converted to make planes, tanks, and bombs
c. Materials allocated into proper industries
d. Businessmen paid little or nothing to help with the war
IV. Production miracle
a. Defense spending ended the Great Depression
b. Employment dropped to 1.2%
3. Early War in the Pacific
I. Losses in the Philippines
a. General MacArthur struggled to hold US positions in Pacific
b. Japan took Guam, Wake Island, and Hong Kong
c. MacArthur left, but troops remained until surrender
d. Disheveled prisoners forced to march 60 miles
e. Broken Geneva Conventions
II. Japan advances
a. Japan secured oil and rubber across the Pacific
b. SE Asia and Western Pacific under Japanese control
c. Allies needed regrouping
d. US bombs Tokyo for minimal gain but a boost in morale
III. Battle of Coral Sea halts advance
a. US airplanes attacked Japanese ships and vice versa
b. Technically a draw
c. Forced Japanese to call off attack on New Guinea
d. US proved to have a marked advantage in its productive capacity