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Republic of Lebanon

Located on the eastern coast of the


Mediterranean

Sea
Located on the eastern coast of the
Mediterranean Sea

Total Area: 10,452 sq. km




Total Area: 10,452 sq. km
Population: over 4 million inhabitants
• Capital: Beirut

Population: over 4 million


• Shoreline extends 210 kilometers from north
to south

inhabitants
• Bordered
– North and East by Syria
– South by Occupied Territories/
Palestine
Capital: Beirut – West by the Mediterranean Sea

Shoreline extends 210 kilometers


from north to south
Bordered
North and East by Syria
South by Occupied Territories/
Palestine
West by the Mediterranean Sea
Image retrieved from http://www.lebanon-exploration.com/
Petroleum Exploration 1930-2012

Onshore Offshore

1930s: Dubertret extensively 1990s: Geological seismic


described the geology of surveys were conducted
Lebanon strongly suggesting the
presence of oil and gas
deposit.
1940s: Onshore Exploration
started
2012: Expected first licensing
round for offshore oil and
1975: exploration Licenses
gas exploration
canceled by government
Onshore Exploration
1947 – 1963: Seven exploratory wells have been drilled

1947 Iraq Petroleum Company (IPC) drilled a well in Terbol (depth: 3065 m)

1953 Well in Yuhmor (depth: 2672 m)

1960 Well in Al-Qaa (depth: 2557 m), Adloun (depth: 2150 m) & Yuhmor

1963 Well drilled in Tell-Znoub (depth: 1421 m) & Sohmor (Depth:1423 m)

1967 Aabrine (depth: 620 m)

1975 Exploration Licenses cancelled by the government


Refineries : Tripoli & Zahrani
Tripoli Refinery
Tripoli Oil Installations (TOI) Refinery operations stopped
First refining activity

First pipeline built 33 storage tanks destroyed


Crude oil transport from Iraq to
Lebanon through the Iraq

{
Petroleum Company (IPC) 1934 1940 1983-1985 1989

Present: storage purposes only

Zahrani Refinery Refinery activities stopped


Mediterranean Refining Company
First refining activity The Government took
Crude oil transport from Saudi
over the facilities
Arabia to Zahrani through Tapeline
Company
Caltex & Mobile-agreement
with Lebanese Government Refinery damaged and closed

Present: storage area for petroleum


products
1945 1952 1975 1982 1986 1989
Offshore Exploration
1993 GecoPrakla Performs a 2-D seismic survey to gather data Offshore Tripoli

2000 Spectrum performs a 2-D seismic survey to gather data of the Lebanese offshore

2006- PGS performs 2-D and 3-D seismic survey data of the Lebanese offshore

2012- Spectrum performs a 3-D seismic survey to gather data of the Lebanese offshore

2010 Offshore Petroleum Resources Law

Delineation of the boundaries of the exclusive economic zone of Lebanon


2011 sent to the United Nations

2012 Lebanon's Cabinet Approves Petroleum Administration Decrees

2012? Expected first licensing round for offshore gas exploration


‫‪Public Policy‬‬

‫قانون الموارد البترولية في المياه البحرية‬


‫قانون رقم ‪ - 132‬صادر في ‪24/8/2010‬‬
‫تم نشره في الجريدة الرسمية العدد ‪ - 41‬الصادرة بتاريخ ‪ 2‬أيلول ‪2010‬‬

‫األحكام العامة للتعاقد مع الشركات من أجل البحث والتنقيب عن النفط والغاز‬


‫مرسوم رقم ‪ - 5039‬صادر في ‪9/4/1994‬‬

‫مرسوم هيئة إدارة قطاع البترول‪ 64 :‬مادة تحدد المهام والمسؤوليات‬


‫جريدة السفير‪ 30 ,‬آذار ‪2012‬‬
Governance Issues
Lebanese policy makers should examine lessons from the success and
failure of other countries

Policy threats Corruption prevention


• Corruption • Public Extraction contracts
• Poor implementation • Monitor and disclose
• Unequal distribution of oil extraction figures
revenues • Ratify international standards
• Volatility of oil prices or treaties
• Non-diversification of the • Implement anti-bribery codes
economy (implementation of the regulations in
the home countries of oil company
• Environmental risk operating in Lebanon)
Maritime Border Disputes

Levant Basin located in the East


Mediterranean region involve
different countries including

• Gaza,
• Occupied Territories/Israel,
• Lebanon,
• Egypt,
• Cyprus,
• Syria, and
• Turkey

Maritime boundary disputes will


prevent Lebanon from exploring
part of its oil and gas resources
Lebanese Israeli Disputes
Both countries are at war
• No Direct negotiation
• No joint development agreement

Israel has not signed the UN Law of


the Sea
• Lebanon can not force Israel to
resolve maritime dispute through
an international tribunal

Remaining Option: Third Party mediation e.g. The United Nations

Lebanon developed it own


‘Delineation of the boundaries of the exclusive economic zone of Lebanon’
and sent it to The United Nations on October 2011
Maritime Legal Frameworks
Cyprus

Feb. 2011 - Ratified the delimitation of the EEZ with Israel by Law
Dec. 2010 - Delimitation agreement of the EEZ with Israel
Jan. 2007 - Delimitation agreement of the EEZ with Lebanon
Mar. 2003 - Ratified the delimitation of the EEZ with Arab Republic of Egypt by Law
Feb. 2003 - Delimitation agreement of the EEZ with Arab Republic of Egypt

Lebanon

Oct. 2011
Delineation of the boundaries of the exclusive economic zone of Lebanon
Exploration and Licensing
Lebanon Exploration: Lebanon International Petroleum
Ministry of Energy and Water - Lebanon Exploration Forum (LIPE)
Lebanon 1st License Round
• LIPE 2012 (3/4/5 July 2012)
• Legal and Fiscal Documents:
For details, check
– Offshore Petroleum Law
brochure and flyer

• Data: Data Room

• LIPE 2011 (29/30 July 2011)


– Technical data – Companies attending the Forum
– Post show summary for a briefing
– Booklet for details
• Flyer: Description and Letter of – Presentations available for
invitation for exploration companies download
Events 2011-2012

• Lebanon Oil, Gas & Energy Conference 2012: Organized by Arabcom Group. An
annual meeting place for International and regional oil, gas, and energy industry
• Role of natural gas in Lebanon’s future energy mix: The Third International
Workshop organized by Munib and Angela Masri Institute of Energy and Natural Resources
at the American University of Beirut. (April 2012)
• Geopolitics of oil and gas in Lebanon in the Near East a conference held at the
Holy Spirit University of Kaslik (USEK). (March 2011)

• Lebanon International Petroleum Exploration Forum (LIPE)


• LIPE 2012 (3/4/5 July 2012)
For details, check brochure and flyer

• LIPE 2011 (29/30 July 2011)


Read the Post show summary for a briefing, check the booklet for details, and click on
presentations to download documents

– 2011 ‫طاقة لبنان النفطية مؤتمر في الجامعة االمريكية للعلوم و التكنولوجيا حول الطاقة النفطية في لبنان‬
“Oil and Gas in Lebanon” Guide

• This PPT is just a brief presentation on Lebanese petroleum exploration


and related issues.

• Check the “Oil and Gas in Lebanon” guide* for more on exploration
history, prospective offshore exploration, geo-petroleum issues, petroleum
law, licensing, maritime laws and disputes, and other issues.

* Use the tabs at the top of the guide to navigate through the different pages of this guide.
References

“Lebanon 1st Licensing Round.” Lebanon International Petroleum Exploration Forum. Ministry of
Water and Energy. 2012.

Lebanon Exploration. Lebanon International Petroleum Exploration Forum. Ministry of Water and
Energy. 2011.

Sassine, Georges P. “Resolving Lebanon’s Maritime Border Disputes.” A New Vision for Lebanon.
George Sassine. 12 Dec. 2011.

Sulayman, Walid F. “Demand and Supply Prospects for Major Petroleum Products in Lebanon.” Master
Thesis. American University of Beirut. 1972.

Wählisch, Martin. “Israel-Lebanon Offshore Oil & Gas Dispute – Rules of International Maritime Law.”
ASIL Insights 15.31 2011: n. pages

2012 ‫ نيسان‬21 ‫هل يكسب لبنان حقوله؟ السفير‬.‫ الصراع على النفط والغاز‬.‫ عصام‬,‫خليفة‬
Thank You

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