Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 158

MAANAS

Human Body: The Gross


and the Subtle

Dr. Gulab Kothari

Translated by

Dr. S.L. Gandhi


ISBN: 978-1-937192-07-5
MAANAS 1
Published by: Patrika Publication About the Author 4

2
Preface 5
E-mail: patrikapublication@epatrika.Com
SWADHYAYA 9

Website: www.patrika.com SILENCE - I 10

SILENCE - II 12
Marketed By: Rapid Publication, New York
TALKING TO ONESELF 14

www-rapid-ny.com MASTERING THE BODY 16

AWARENESS 18
Copyright: @ Author’s
PUNCTUALITY 19

Edition (Fifth): January, 2011 YOGIC POSTURES - I 21

YOGIC POSTURES - II 23

SVAR - Inhalation and Exhalation 25

WORD POWER 27

CHANTING OR JAPA - I 29

CHANTING OR JAPA - II 31

ANGER 33

LAUGHTER 35

CRYING OR SHEDDING TEARS 37

VOWS 39

STRESS 41

DISEASES 43

THE IMPORTANCE OF - THE FOOD WE EAT 45

EVOLUTION OF LIFE 46

DEATH - I 48

DEATH - II 50

PANCHKOSHA - I 52

3
PANCHKOSHA - II 54

PANCHGUHA (The Five Caves) 55

SHATCHAKRA 57

COLORS 60

PRACTICE 62

NYASA 64

BREATHING 66

WATCH YOUR BREATH 68

TAPA (Penance) 69

THE HUMAN BODY - IS A RAINBOW 71

OUR BODY 73

ATMANUSHASAN 75

THE NIGHT 77

POISON 79

REACTION - I 81

REACTION - II 83

CONFLICT 85

THE SEARCH FOR HAPPINESS 87

GENEROSITY 89

DARSHAN 91

I AM ONE : I AM MANY 93

GIVE AND TAKE 95

EDUCATION OF MOTHERHOOD 97

GOD 99

SANKALP (Resolve) - I 101

4
SANKALP (Resolve) - II 103

BONDAGE AND LIBERATION 104

ANIMAL SACRIFICE 106

KRAMAN (Moving Forward) 108

EMANCIPATION FROM FEAR 110

FORGING BONDS OF - NEW RELATIONSHIP 112

MIND AND INCURABLE - DISEASES 114

GLOSSARY 137

END 149

About the Author

Dr. Gulab Kothari, Chief Editor Rajasthan Patrika Group, is a highly committed
journalist and a sensitive writer. His writings reflect agony of change and
transformation and provide new insights for a balanced life. They are an excellent
example of positive outlook on life and holistic thinking.

He was awarded D.Litt. in philosophy by the Intercultural Open University, the


Netherlands in 2002 and his thesis has already been published with the title : Body
Mind Intellect. In view of his contribution to social excellence a special honor in the
form of Doctor of Philosophy was conferred on him in 2008 by OkiDo Global
Research Institute, ITALY. He continues to delve deep into the ocean of Vedic
literature and the series of articles he has contributed provide a new direction of life.

He has authored more than two dozen books in Hindi and English on various aspects
of human life and journalistic communication from a Vedic perspective. He is
prominently known for his classic ‘MAANAS’, four volumes of which have already

5
been published. It inspires the young and old to live the good and balanced life.

He is international advisor, IOU the Netherlands and OkiDo Global Research Institute
Italy. Dr. Kothari has been honored with many awards which include Bhartendu
Harish-chandra Puraskar for journalistic writing (1995-96), Bhaskar Puraskar (2003)
for dynamic leadership by Bharat Nirman, Swami Shri Vishnu Tirth Samman (2004)
for his classic MAANAS by Swami Vishnu Tirth Seva Sansthan, Ujjain, Rashtra
Gaurav Award (Pride of the Nation) (2007) by His Holiness Guru Ji Acharya
Guruvanand Ji of Shree Bhramarshi Ashram in Tirupati (Andhra Pradesh – India) and
IOU Peace Award for the year 2011. He has been appointed honorary president of
Libera Universita di OkiDo Mikkyo Yoga, ITALY.

He is the President of Pt. Madhusudan Ojha Institute of Vedic Studies and Research
and Chairman, Jan Mangal Charitable Trust.

Preface

The mind is the basis of our life. If there is mind, there is desire. If there is desire, we
have activity, aim, work and life itself. What is the mind? How are its nature, function
and environment created? Do creatures other than human beings also have mind? A
human being has the faculty of thinking. Other creatures also possess this faculty. Can
they think like human beings? Do they understand the functioning of the mind? A
human being is careful about dharma and the goal of his life. All the holy scriptures
have been written for him. All have a common aim i.e. understanding the mind.

After all, what is there in the mind that it makes it imperative for us to understand?
The mind we perceive and experience is not the pure mind but it is its mere reflection.
The real mind is obscured by the veils of our nature and karma. What we grasp as the
mind is very different from the original mind. On account of this difference alone, we
are not able to escape the tangles of our lives and experience happiness. We struggle
all our life, but fail to achieve peace of mind.

The creation means creating something new. What is produced is an integral part of
the creation only when it has in it all the basic elements of the creation. For this
reason, every unit of creation is termed as a unit endowed with sixteen elements.
Vedas elaborate in detail the appearance of Shaudshi Purusha (the purusha having
sixteen kalas ). ‘purusha’ stands for the living spirit existing in the ‘Pur’. ‘Pur’ is that
which has a center as well as circumference. Man is also a ‘Shaudshi Purusha’. The
indestructible constituent of the creation is ‘purusha ’, which creates the destructible
or ‘kshar’ as well as the indestructible ‘akshara’ sections of the creation. The

6
imperishable or ‘avyaya purusha’ has five ‘kalas ’ (attributes) named ‘ananda’ (bliss),
‘vigyan’ (science), ‘maanas’ (mind), ‘prana’ (vital force), and ‘vaak’ (matter). They
are pure forms in themselves. Pure bliss in itself is Brahm. Pure special knowledge is
intellect. The reflections of this intellect are our individual skills. When this special
knowledge-permeated intellect seeks to expand creation in some way, it inches
towards the intermediary form of ‘maanas’ . Keeping ‘mana’ or mind in the center,
pranas or vital forces bring ‘vaakroop’ creation or a form of matter into existence
which is known by the sequence of ‘namroop’ or the intermediary form and name.

This single universal mind pervades the entire creation in the intermediary form of the
Avyaya or the imperishable. It is this very entity that is known as the soul. When it
expands itself retaining its indestructibility, it assumes a novel form hemmed in by
nature or Prakriti (sattva, rajas, tamas or truth, passion and darkness). Then is born
ego or ‘aham’ (awareness of ‘I’ as a separate entity) , which distinguishes jiva -the
individual from God. We are introduced to this very reflection of the mind endowed
with the three gunas or characteristics. The pure mind which is known as
‘shvovasiyas’ mind cannot be grasped by ordinary people. When Lord Krishna says in
the Bhaghavad Gita that the imperishable component or ‘ Avyaya’ is the foundation of
the creation, he is referring to the original mind or ‘maanas’ without attributes. It is
this alone that remains present in all as the soul. ‘That which is within you is also
within me.’

It is the mind which is the basis of our roles in life. Brahma, Vishnu and Indra of the
indestructible (Akshara) creation are also integrated with this mind in the form of
prana or vital force. Brahma creates as well as expands. Vishnu nourishes and Indra
destroys or purges. This divine trinity joins the five kalas to create a world known as
agni-somatmak, which has the nature of fire and water. The destructible creation is
developed. Vital force is at the core of it. The mind continues to be pressured at the
centre and its veils increase.

It is why the mind does not figure in the five kalas of kshar purusha (the
indestructible) (prana, appa, vaak, anna, and annad or vital force, water, matter, food
and fire). The mind of the imperishable or Avyaya is reflecting itself in the kshara,
which is always eclipsed by the combined effect of triguna, i.e. truth, passion and
darkness.

Like mind, our intellect is also shrouded by triguna. It can be realized in the form of
‘pragya ’ or wisdom by practice or strong will. As it progresses further, it emerges as
something great and joins the bliss in the form of Vigyan Buddhi (higher form of
intellect). The mind has been described as fickle and unsteady. The reason for this is
that our senses are ever engrossed in their favorite objects every moment. Control over
the senses symbolizes valor or heroic courage and it alone can make a person like
Mahavira or a great warrior. It is the layers or coverings or veils that cause many kinds
of fears in one’s mind. In order to conquer the mind, people embrace asceticism. When
Vyasa’s son Sukdeo sought his permission for being initiated, Vyas told him that one
could live the life of an ascetic even as a householder. He sent Sukdeo to visit King

7
Janaka who himself was a great seer of his age. When Sukdeo visited Janaka, he found
the latter frolicking in the company of his damsels. Sukdeo was amazed at his conduct.
What sort of seer is he?- thought Sukdeo I came here hoping to see an entirely
different scene.

He couldn’t help asking King Janaka, “Does it not contradict what you stand for in
life?” Janaka said, “First have your meal and rest.” After having rested, Sukdeo came
again to Janak. Janak asked him how he enjoyed the meal. Sukdeo replied that the
meal was lavish but there was a sword hung by a thread above his head. He could not
enjoy the meal as his attention was diverted towards it all the time, and the same
happened when he was taking rest. Janaka responded with a smile, “Here is the answer
to your question. I always carry the sword of Yama, the god of death, over my head
and my eyes are fixed on it. I am not aware of any other sensual delight.” It is a
strange role that the mind plays. It engages itself in certain activities, but it keeps
wandering off. That is why it has been considered extremely difficult to know, realize
and restrain it. It is imperative that we exercise control over it since it is the key to
bondage and liberation. It is only through its regulation that we can fathom the original
mind. There is no other way. Forms of infinite pranas (vital forces) and infinite vaak
(matter) remain linked with it. As a result of which it appears multi-faceted.

The mind establishes our identity and is the breeding ground of desires. It adds to our
luster and is the source of our emotions. No work of ours will succeed unless we do it
single-mindedly.

It is the prime necessity for us to focus our mind on one point and attain concentration.
It naturally paves the way for dhyana (meditation), dharana (concentration), and
samadhi (state of superconsciousness). We can even reach the state of avyaya
(imperishable) mind, which is immune to fickleness.

Mind, vital force and vaak are inseparable. That explains the functioning of our gross,
subtle and inner bodies. The mind having emerged from the imperishable or avyay
keeps struggling to return to its blissful origin. Elsewhere it fails to find peace and
bliss. It is only bliss which can bless the mind. In moments of bliss it attains a new
form. It becomes oblivious of everything. The blissful mind sheds tears and vanishes
into a new world.

Desires are born in the mind. Nobody knows how they are born. One cannot create
them either. We have an option either to fulfill them or suppress them. We are
forbidden to suppress them. We are advised to sublimate them. Nobody knows when
and how the suppressed urges will sprout forth. Mind draws its sustenance from
‘anna’. It is ‘anna’ that binds the mind to triguna-bhava or desires associated with
sattva, rajas and tamas. ‘anna ’ stands for food and objects of pleasure. What we eat is
important but comfort and convenience or the discomfort which we also experience
nourishes our minds. Our environment, kith and kin and friends also nourish our
minds. The spiritual pursuits, ascetic practices, introspection and contemplation also
help in the understanding of the mind.

8
Food builds our physical frames. It generates the seven dhatus (minerals) or essential
ingredients in the human body i.e. juices, blood, flesh, fat, bone, cartilage and semen.
Semen is the cause of our vigor and mental activity. Similarly, the system of six
‘chakras’ or vortexes in our bodies collects prana, disposes of it and rears both the
gross and the causal bodies by means of the subtle body. The path leading to the inner
rudiment of the body is also gross. We can reach karana-sharira after passing through
the gross and the subtle.

To understand the mind and keep it filled with positive thoughts alone is the way to
spiritual elevation. Attachment and aversion are also thoughts that grow in the mind.
The individual as well as the cosmic attitude defines our lives. Cosmic attitude is the
path to world friendship.

It is only through karmas that the influence of the triguna (three attributes) increases
and wrappings multiply and again it is only through karmas that the layers can be
removed. A new mind is born with every new desire and it vanishes as soon as the
desire is fulfilled. Where the mind is assertive, the vital and expressible aspects of it -
prana and vaak are motivated. ‘prana ’ is a divine characteristic. The attribute of a
deva or god includes frolicking, the urge to win, interactivity, glory, submissive
encomium, brightness and dynamism. prana or vital force also means energy, glorious
force, activity and deed. The combination of ‘sattva’ (that which is true) and ‘tamas’
(that which is dark) becomes instrumental in transformation. While sattva illuminates
the faculties of knowledge, tamas gives rise to anger, sloth, ignorance, indolence,
discord and addiction. Rajas (passion) also breeds greed and anger. It also creates a
combination of sattva and tamas.

The five vital forces or nerve energies in our bodies known as ‘prana’ ‘apana’,
‘udana’, ‘vyana’ and ‘samana’ , function on account of the mind only. We can
regulate the body by regulating the vital forces. Knowledge and action conduce to a
wide perspective. The ego widens its periphery. Desire and deeds are at our disposal,
while the fruits are reaped by the grace of the Lord. This concept connects our minds
wrapped in obscurity to the blissful mind again. The inhibitory bonds are cut.

According to the Jain philosophy the mind is a level of consciousness as well as a


level of the development of the soul. The sense-oriented mind is self-centered. It
assimilates taste, beauty and smell by means of the senses. The senses and mind in
their primordial form are pure. Attachment and envy cause ripples in the mind, which
generate our activities. Spiritual pursuit is aimed at preventing the cause of these
ripples and exercising control over the mind. Where there is activity, there will also be
memory and imagination.

They also contribute to restiveness. The functions of the mind are gathering, scattering
and desiring. They are joined by activity, memory and imagination. Since natural
tendencies are also both righteous and unrighteous, they affect the condition and the
state of the mind. The aim of the spiritual practice is to move towards truth from
untruth. It means making constant practice to enter the realm of eternity with full

9
knowledge despite living in the transient world and enfeeble the future growth of evil.
This world means minimization of passion and unrightenousness. In terms of the
competence of knowledge it is called emancipation from the layers of triguna. It leads
a person to a state of equanimity and transcendence. He only sees and knows. Though
he is involved in activities, he remains detached from them. He becomes emancipated.

The subject matter of MAANAS revolves round the human mind which is the cause of
both man’s happiness and unhappiness and is also the origin of all his problems. I have
tried to analyze these problems from a Vedic perspective to enable individuals to cope
with them, overcome despair and diffidence and live a balanced life. Earlier
MAANAS had been published in a series of four volumes under the titles - Maanas :
Patterns of Human Mind, Maanas : Individual and Society, Maanas : Human Body -
The Gross and the Subtle and Maanas : Spirituality and Human Values.

It has now been decided to organize and publish these four volumes in a single
comprehensive treatise (grantha ) so that those who are interested in reading them
together may find it convenient.

I am thankful to Dr. S.L. Gandhi for its English rendering which was a challenging
task. I also seize the opportunity to express my grateful thanks to Prof. R.P. Bhatnagar
for his valuable guidance and academic support and to Dr. J.C. Chaudhary for his
significant contribution to the English translation. I also thankfully acknowledge Mr.
Mahendra Jain’s perseverance in the production of Maanas.

I am sure the publication of Maanas in the English language will enable the English
readers to gain new insights into the Vedic philosophy.

Dr. Gulab Kothari

gulabkothari@rajasthanpatrika.com

SWADHYAYA

There are many dimensions of the development of one’s personality. The most
important of them is thinking and analyzing. Thinking is a natural and spontaneous
process.

It is a person’s own duty to study and analyze things. Thinking and analyzing can be
made useful for society or for an individual only on the basis of the study of formative
literature.

It means that we should think and analyze things not only about ourselves but also
about society, the members of our family, our friends and our work. This process is
called swadhyaya or self-study.

10
The first pre-requisite of self-study or the study of sacred texts is its regularity. It needs
resolute determination. Without it one cannot achieve regularity. Its time should also
be set apart so that swadhyaya may become an integral part of our life. Like food,
sleeping etc swadhyaya too will also bestow on us several pleasing results. The Vedas
say, “Never be remiss in studying sacred texts.”

You may choose to undertake swadhyaya just for ten minutes. Take a book and read it.
After some days you will begin to feel that the time you have set apart for reading is
less.

Concentrate your studies just on one subject and be regular in it. In one year you will
have read so much that you yourself will be astonished at the capacity of your work.
This regular process will enable you to gain a new insight into your subject.

Your subject will expand itself. Gradually your own curiosity will increase. You will
also realize that now you need another category of friends. Your contact with those
who are knowledgable in your area of study will also increase.

If you are fond of writing, then see the result after making writing a regular routine. If
you write just two pages a day in a year you will have written 700 pages. Just see how
you feel. This too is a regular swadhyaya . Also assess the impact by thinking merely
about yourself. First examine your weak points and then repeat your resolve to remove
them. Pledge yourself to imbibe new traits. Assess your conduct yourself. Inculcate
self-awakening in the direction of the development of your personality, go on
repeating your pledge and just watch the results. What is needed is the regularity in
swadhyaya . Also bear in mind that remissness is an antithesis of swadhyaya .

SILENCE - I

There are three dimensions of our day-to-day dealings in life: mind, word, and body.
We may also say, body, intellect, and mind. Words are the main means of our self-
expression. Our conduct may be viewed in the context of our expression in the form of
words.

When we talk of speech, we naturally think of language. It is also necessary that the
person standing before us also knows that language. The two should interpret the
words in the same manner.

The age we live in is the age of speaking. Each of us appears keen to speak. The
people are eager to hear words of praise. People desire others to admire them.
Speaking is now regarded as synonymous with knowledge. Speech is merely a means,
it is not knowledge.

Everyone knows that the work done without speaking has in it greater element of

11
sweetness. We feel a sense of inner happiness. When we are told not to speak in regard
to the relationships of mother-children, husband-wife, it means we should try to
understand the mode of the language of the mind without speaking. Words are bereft
of the power inherent in the language of the mind. Overt speech can hardly give
expression to the feelings of the mind. All languages appear short of expression. The
evil consequences of wrong words can also not be overlooked.

It is this very habit, which is responsible for driving a person to futile discussion. We
are taught that when the man opposite us does not agree even after persuading him a
number of times, it is advisable that we keep mum. Our mutual behavior also calls for
it. Superfluous discussion generates undesirable arguments. It leads to bitterness in
relations and gives rise to acrimony. Relations go on deteriorating. Mutual faith is
eroded. Our joy vanishes soon. If a person grasps the situation by keeping mum, the
dispute can be avoided.

The issue is not confined to the words that have been used. It is, in fact, a clash of two
egos through words. Debate leads to an ever-increasing vanity. It enhances ego. The
resultant speech grows more negative. Prolific verbosity and the gift of gab may also
lead to a substantially large ego.

Escape from argument, disputes, ego and bitterness is possible through silence. This
means it is unfailing and also a facilitator of greater opportunity for contemplation. It
is not necessary that the process of thinking goes on simultaneously along with the
process of speaking. The energy that we squander in speaking could be canalized into
introspection. Introspection draws us nearer our goal.

Speaking is synonymous with restiveness. Prior to uttering something, there arises a


chain of thoughts. We prepare a series of topics related to the subjects followed by
word order and the like. While we speak, the reaction interposes itself in the chain.
The process that follows speech is a lengthy one. All this deprives the mind of its
calmness. Patient and profound persons choose silence.

When there is a state of silence, the subjects cease to exist. The chain of thoughts
becomes limited. Superfluous matters fail to engage us. Our inner powers escalate.
Our mind is relieved of encumbrances. We shall not indulge in a speech shorn of
thought content. Our energy is put to constructive use. Another advantage of silence is
that we are spared from the exigency of telling lies. Many a time we face difficulties in
speaking the truth. We are spared that difficulty if we resort to silence, and thus we are
also able to preserve the truth.

We have to speak in our everyday life. However unnecessary speaking can be avoided.
The emotional potential of our mind develops further. It will strengthen the capacity of
our mind. We come across many incidents in our country involving people who can
converse with the individuals sitting thousands of miles away. It only shows the
strength of mind. It doesn’t necessitate speaking. We also use the language of signs in
our daily life. We send and receive messages.

12
Today, though education has expanded, development of knowledge is diminishing.
Man’s mental faculties are weakening. The level of intellect is widening and is being
nourished. This very imbalance in life creates the need for expression, they fail to
express views completely. Man remains worried. It appears no one has understood it
properly.

The only way to overcome all these problems is silence, which on the one hand, saves
an individual from engaging him in unnecessary debates and paves the way for
thinking on the other hand. A unique stepping-stone to peaceful life is accomplished. It
also keeps the balance between mundane activity and release from it.

Silence is of two types, negative as well positive. For our adored deity, this austerity-
oriented silence will prove certainly helpful in our endeavor for constructive work.

SILENCE - II

Life is based on speaking, which regulates our social interactions. We can convey what
we have in our minds to others only by way of speaking. We have a mouth and a
tongue.

They help us in eating and speaking. Old people say that we should speak half of what
we hear and see. We should eat less too because we have two ears and two eyes but
only one mouth. It is the meaning of seeing and knowing that constitutes philosophy
and knowledge.

Speaking is both one’s nature and one’s choice. Lack of knowledge inspires a man to
speak more. He also tries to speak in different ways whose mind and ability to
communicate are weak.

As a person becomes intellectually mature, his habit of speaking gets reduced


automatically. Then comes a stage. When one doesn’t need to speak at all. A man can
then communicate without speaking. Having developed the power of the mind one’s
ideas can be passed on to a person sitting at a remote place. This kind of
communication is called ‘telepathy’.

Can those who are unable to speak not convey their thoughts? Mind can communicate
without speaking, even children can convey their feelings but intellect
cannot.Thoughts cannot be communicated. Of course it too is true that thinking is
reduced while speaking. A lonely person does not speak. One who talks to one’s own
mind rarely feels the need to talk to others. Language and deliberation are opposites.
They cannot go together. If we want to proceed in the direction of inner knowledge,
we have to resort to silence. Speaking creates a stir. The stir begins before speaking.
What to speak, why speak etc. occupy the mind. The stir continues up to the time of

13
speaking. With speaking, hearing is inevitable. The echoes of the sounds continue to
be there for a long time. It creates a barrier on our mental base. The mental power and
concentration are reduced.

Speaking also creates a barrier in our steadiness. Language has its own errors. Silence
has one great advantage thoughtlessness. The way to life’s achievements, to close the
door on unessential stir is silence. In life’s philosophy also, silence is interpreted as
liberation from controversy. It is such a big weapon. Speaking adds to the controversy,
and it increases reason and unreason. Speaking can become the door to ill-will. Silence
puts an end to everything.

Silence does not mean not speaking at all. The fruit of silence or the progress into
silence is maintained even while speaking. Indian preceptors have said, “Speak the
Truth, speak pleasant truth, do not speak unpleasant and offensive truth.” “Do not
speak the pleasant untruth too.” If we speak the truth, we will not speak much. All
your actions should be full of efforts. That which Sri Krishna has said in the Gita is
borne out in “Speak the Truth”. Whenever you speak, speak sweet, sweet untruth
should also be avoided. This will ensure less speaking.

It has already been said that life cannot continue without speaking. Restraint of speech
leads to silence.

Speaking is an art too. Sermons, speeches and discourses are other names of the same
art. Effectiveness is an art. Knowledge of language is a separate art. Knowledge of
different languages is another art. Having all these arts, the more a man speaks, the
more egoist he becomes. See the great saints, they are generally quiet. People may
come and go. Those who come, too return after sitting at a distance. They remain
unaware of the fact that they didn’t get anything. They go back fully contented.
Thoughts and feelings are conveyed and answers to questions are received too.

Silence is a blessing in itself. Speaking means a loss of energy. Silence is also the way
to collect physical strength. Many vibrations are created by speaking. Silence is the
way to collect physical strength. Many vibrations are created by speaking.

Silence is the way to peace and steadiness. Silence many a time saves one from
terrible happenings. It is preferable to keep quiet when speaking does not save the
truth and in fact harms others. The exposition of truth sometimes leads to terrible
conditions. For, the truth is many times bitter and even undesirable.

Acharya Mahapragya has, while maintaining that silence preserves the truth, written
that many elements have in our philosophy been called indescribable. For example,
Brahma is indescribable. According to him Brahma can have different appearances
and functions. We can never describe them as a whole. Once only one function is
describable. A thing can be multifunctional. The commentary you will give may be
one-sided and incomplete. Hence, the truth has been preserved by terming it as

14
indescribable. Silence has wonderful power of preserving the truth. In daily behavior it
can be seen that those who speak less are more thoughtful. Those who speak more
have to think again afterwards. They can even be egoists. Greatness goes away from
them and they often are one-sided thinkers.

Silence is that power of life, which enshrines man in peace and happiness; hence it is a
part of religion.

When one speaks, new problems arise. The tongue slips and the individual keeps
suffering because of it. If speaking is accompanied by impulsive impetuosity, be sure
the doom is not far. Speaking may only add to your problems. No one’s ego permits
him to be silent. Hence the controversy rages.

There is a limit to speaking too. The speaker should always bear in mind what not to
speak and when not to speak. But what happens is just the opposite. Controlled speech
is equal to silence. Restraint in speech enhances the esteem of a person. Speaking a
word by itself converts into speaking a meaning. Therefore disciplined speech has a
great influence on human life.

TALKING TO ONESELF

The most important aspect of the personality development is the importance you attach
to yourself and others. This is not a matter of discussion but should be an integral part
of one’s nature. This approach determines your status in life and society.

Usually a person indulges in self-praise. He takes credit for good deeds and lays blame
at the door of others for his faults. It simply means that when you are not honest to
yourself, how can you be honest to others? To be sincere and truthful to one’s own-self
is the prime necessity of human character. It enables him to keep his dealings open and
transparent. He is prone to admit his lapse at once and keeps the door open for
improvement. Hence there is always a possibility of his making amends. Telling a lie
will mean that the person has put an end to the possibility of improving. It also applies
to one’s habit of self-praise. It adds to a person’s vanity. He is unable to realize his real
image. It leads to a gradual escalation of irritability and petulance in his nature. People
too do not speak the truth before such person. Truthfulness is reflected neither in his
words nor in his actions. If a person occupying a high position behaves like this, it will
lead to all the more detrimental consequences.

One simple way to escape such an immoral situation is to talk about the person you are
talking to rather than about yourself. It will have two-fold benefits: you will be free
from egoistic feelings and the person before you will be touched by your solicitude for
him and will be happy. You will be considered his well-wisher. He will begin to
admire you. It matters if someone else speaks highly of you. To indulge in self-praise

15
creates a negative impact on others. You will realize that many new friends have
joined you in a very short span of time.

Everyone is frantically busy, day and night or so does one appear. He runs helter-
skelter the whole day and remains tense and worried. His entire life is spent in a state
of tension. Which type of happiness is he seeking and why is he so miserable? He has
no time to ponder over this question. How will the world know whether he has really
achieved happiness. We have got to solve this riddle at all costs. We have got to assess
what we have actually achieved in our life. This is the only way to achieve our goal.
There is only one way, which we call introspection. Different sects have endeavored to
name this path of contemplation variously. For the benefit of the general public we
may term it as ‘talking to oneself’.

‘Talking to oneself’ is a great endeavor, but it is not truly difficult either. It is the
simplest way to know the reality of life. It is a source of joy and the development of
the personality of an individual. In its absence one will lose both. We spend the whole
day in talking about others or knowing of the merits and the demerits of world trade.
We hardly get an opportunity to examine the self. We remain worried as to what others
are saying. We seldom think of what we should do. The first aim of speaking to
oneself is to be aware of one’s duties.

In order to accomplish it you need to make a small resolve. After the day’s hard work
when you lie in your bed, you must review all your actions and events of the day. You
must assess what you did and what you couldn’t do and how you did. Was what you
did right? Are you to blame for what has been left behind incomplete? What were the
moral contours of your performance? Were the deeds dictated by the natural contours
of your persona?

Are you satisfied with what you have done? What were the aspects of your deeds that
you would like to radically change in the future? You are supposed to question
yourself on these issues. You have to seek the answers to these questions from within.
You may dupe the world but not your own self. You can never escape the gaze of your
conscience. You are not to be alarmed by truth that is revealed to you. This incessant
process of self-reflection will bring about a change in your identity. You have simply
to resolve that you are to change.

When your eyes open in the morning, instead of getting up, close your eyes again.
Repeat what you resolved before you slept. Repeat your resolution and pray to God to
give you strength to accomplish your resolve and inspire you to move ahead towards
your goal. See how your day passes when you resolve like this before rising from your
bed. In the evening you will discover something new in your assessment. You will
clearly see its magical impact on you. In a few days your personality will grow
radiant. You will begin to be sensitive to the feelings of the people and creatures
around you. Your outlook will widen. Regular dialogue with the self will prove to be a
great boon.

16
MASTERING THE BODY

The body is the basis of all our activities. Hence, first of all it is necessary that it
remains fit and healthy. The greatest obstacle in the fulfillment of our heart’s wish
begins from here. A desire may be intense and it may also be useful to accomplish
according to our intellect but if our body is not healthy, it will be impossible for us to
fulfill our desire, therefore, our healthy body has been regarded as the first component
of our happiness.

The second reason is that our bodily suffering cannot be shared. We, however, can
share our mental agony, can minimize it, but a man has himself to suffer the bodily
pain. In order to avoid obstacles in the path of the happiness of our life it is very
necessary that we remain physically healthy.

Another factor is that when a person observes austerities or worships or chants a


mantra the first stumbling block he encounters is that of the body. An ailing and
undisciplined body remains restless. It doesn’t remain steady. That is why in all yogic
postures utmost attention is paid to steadiness. The first austerity lies in disciplining or
taming the body.

The same feeling that in the course of a prolonged period of spiritual practice the
supply of bodily needs remains uninterrupted lies hidden behind fasting, eating once a
day etc.. Conquest over hunger and thirst has been considered significant in practicing
meditation.

It is this very practice that helps us in overcoming the restlessness of the mind. If one
feels upset by hunger or thirst while meditating, it will, undoubtedly, disturb the
process of meditation.

Meditation occupies a pride of place in the Indian philosophical system. It is because


of this very factor that the system of studying sacred literature has also been regarded
as a suitable technique. Even without any formal education one may become a
knowledgeable person, live a disciplined and temperate life and may achieve
happiness and contentment. Therefore, the first pre-requisite of life is that a person is
able to exercise control over his body and the body may not enslave him. Today we
attach no significance to our food, daily routine, age, seasons and the daily needs like
eating, sleeping etc. This negligence might result in something dangerous. It is this
bodily discipline that Lord Krishna has named as yog :

“yuktaharviharasya yuktachestasya karmsu,

yuktasvapanabodhasya yogobhavati dukhaha.”

17

These activities are related only to one’s body. Moderate diet, moderate movement,
effort to moderate all over actions i.e. regularity in sleeping and waking up have been
described as yog by the Lord for common men. This yog has in it the potential to put
an end to all forms of our suffering. Only if a person treats the body as an integral part
of nature he may be connected with healthy practices. It is only through a disciplined
life regulated by seasonal changes, suitable diet and daily routine that one can ensure a
healthy body. Man made chemical and synthetic substances have become a part of our
food. Tinned food inevitably contains chemical colors, fragrance, preservatives which
our body cannot digest. In the long run such substances might develop into tumors. It
is vitally important that we are able to digest what we eat similarly.

Similarly regular exercise, pranayan (breathing exercises) and yogic postures etc. are
beneficial. They not only keep the system of the body fit but also ensure the fitness of
our system of excretion. We have to pay as much attention to our excreting system as
we pay to our digestive system. We generally ignore this factor.

Since we owe our mental fitness to our meals and conduct, we have also to make sure
that they are pure. Purity of means leads to purity of thoughts and wholesomeness of
the body and gradual progress in life.

AWARENESS

Life is a land of work. It is an uninterrupted activity that leads us to our goal. Hence
the first need is that we always keep in mind the goal that we have set for ourselves.
We should never lose sight of it.

For the sake of the awareness of our goal we will have to be aware of our own self. It
is we who have to achieve the goal. We will have to see the obstacles that prevent us
from achieving it. As soon as we become aware of our nature, perversities, thoughts,
addictions and the environment that envelops us, we shall find ourselves fully focused
upon the target also. We should evaluate each factor one by one. We should,
accordingly, try to rectify our faults. We may seek guidance from the experienced also
if there is need in this regard. We are not likely to comprehend all this straightaway in
one go. Very few people know about the self. It is not easy to know where to begin and
how to realize the self?

One device can be to examine the opinions that our close associates happen to hold
about us. What appears to be reasonable to us should be reviewed. But usually it
happens that if someone talks ill of us, we are hurt. We begin to oppose him. We prefer
to hide our flaws rather than disclose them. This only deepens the fault that is the
cause of blame. What is proper is that we eliminate our faults and weaknesses. The

18
prime step towards elimination of our weaknesses is to admit them.

If we accept a weakness or flaw, we will be fully vigilant about it. We should resolve
to avoid it in the future. We must set apart some fixed time in our daily routine for
such self-introspection. We should repeat such resolutions during our hour of
introspection. It will have an impact on our thoughts and sentiments. The task of
altering one’s mindset is a lengthy process. It is fairly onerous too. It is a test of our
perseverance. Emotions are riveted to our mental plane. Thoughts are a part of our
reason. We have to delve deep into our conscience. Reason alone may not carry us far.
Nature represents our thinking process. We have to resort to full awareness and strong
resolution to achieve it.

Another equally important factor is our mental determination. We can fathom the
depth of the mind’s unsteadiness in the process. To concentrate is possible only by
means of this methodology. To think deeply over a subject is possible through
concentration only. One should be so absorbed in thinking that one is able to reach the
level of one’s inner emotions, observe the layers that cover one’s mind, discover a way
to remove them and maintain the continuity of one’s practice. Awareness is the key to
this continuity. There is no movement in a state of slumber. If we are aware, we shall
be able to strengthen our resolve. If we are vigilant, we shall be able to repeat our
resolve. This very image of memory will remain fresh in our mind and will bring
about the desired change in our career. Hence, let us remain awake.

PUNCTUALITY

Our life span is limited. Our capabilities are also limited. To regulate the limited life in
an organized way has been regarded as a good practice. We should know what we are
making of the hours of our life and how we are using them. To be awake of every
moment has been considered an important aspect of life.

For these reasons limits of time are important. Today, the least attention is paid to this
aspect. How to spend time has come to be given more attention. Unimportant actions
occupy the day and it hardly occurs to us that we have lost a precious day of our life’s
journey.

Go to any ceremony and you will find that it does not start on time. Go to a wedding
and you will find that the groom’s party does not come punctually. So much so that
even trains, buses and airplanes have become unpunctual. All these things cause a lot
of wastage of time, which no body thinks of. If we want to waste our life, we may do
so but what right do we have to waste other’s life?

Disciplined life first of all means punctuality. One who cannot be punctual cannot be
disciplined. That is why punctuality has been added to our eating, sleeping, studying

19
etc.

Is punctuality a social need or is it some thing else too? Is it capable of controlling


time? Can we do what we want to do? My Guru, while initiating me had said, “The
first principle of swadhyaya is punctuality.” Self-study should be done daily in a fixed
period of time only. Without it you will neither get a congenial mental environment
nor will you find your body ready for it. This is the first way through which you will
be one with Nature and then only disciplining time you can think of becoming
timeless.

Who will not be astounded at such an answer to a small question? Time means result.
Right from the time the seed is planted up to the fruit is derived, only time manages
the things. Nature by itself is dependent on time. Our future comes closer and becomes
present and recedes into the past.

What is time? Every minute makes the sequence of time. Time is a fluid, the moment
is a truth. Whatever happens, happens in a moment. In a particular moment many
things happen. The sequence of time is called development.

Moment is a unit of time. An indivisible unit. Its vibration makes a sequence of time,
therefore, it is important to understand it. Since our mind is governed by times, it is
not capable of capturing a moment. Timelessness is Great Time, without any result.

A seed develops secretly, according to a sequence. The aim of a seed is the perfection
of fruit. Guru also gives beejmantra (the essential mantra for propitiating the deity)
with the same aim.

Because time is made up of the commutation of moments, therefore, for seizing a


moment we catch hold of the union of time. In our daily life the rule of Sandhya
(prayer in the twilight hour) is made only to catch that union. In the process of
creation, steadiness and destruction lies their eternal sequence of this unity. Catching
this moment of eternity takes a person into a state of timelessness. There no change
takes place.

It clarifies the importance of our daily routine. At a fixed time does one feel hungry,
sleepy. The body is ready to steady itself in self-study. Those who meditate have their
Ida and Pingala equally balanced.

The total movement of our body seems to create a balance with nature. The sequence
of life goes on undeterred and without any ill health. The mind is cast according to the
end in view. This practice of time management after a certain time proves a blessing.

India is blindly imitating the west, but it does not want to imitate even partly the
planned way in which the west is managing time.

YOGIC POSTURES - I
20

In Ashtanga Yoga of Patanjali even asan (posture) has been recognized as Yoga.
Today’s postures are like physical exercises. From the common point of view asan
means sitting down. This sitting down is the basic ground of worship. It is a part of
spiritual worship. Mobilizing resources or means is itself sadhana (Spiritual Worship).
yama, niyam, asan etc. are all means and their practice is itself the way to spiritual
worship.

Man’s life is difficult to get. Yoga has been preached merely because the journey of
life may keep the highest standards. It is not enough to get human life. Life becomes
meaningful only when adverse feelings are controlled. Favorable feelings are included
and the journey of life is not beset with hindrances. Under yama-niyam come truth,
forgiveness, courage, non-stealing, self-restraint, penance, patience etc., they are the
inner parts of Yama, whose rigorous compliance is essential. Whereas the scriptures
allow the relaxation in rules relating to external bath, charity, eating under special
circumstances. The Yama and the Niyam together regulate our life. ‘ni’ means control.
After removing ‘ni’ from niyam it remains yama , which in worldly language has been
regarded as indicative of death too. The five mahavratas of Jain Philosophy are also
known as Yama. They are : non-violence, truth, non-stealing, brahmacharya and non-
possession. They control the outward behavior of men. They have been conceded as
necessary restraints of life too. In the same way five regulations – purity, contentment,
penance, recitation and worship etc. have been enunciated. They facilitate the
purification of the body, the mind and the denial of senses. They prevent the going
astray of the mind and create concentration and peace.

Asan is a basic facilitator of yama-niyam . Sitting down in one way without shaking or
jerking is called asan . You can sit down for some time as well as for some days. The
basis of asan is to control the body.

If five minutes after you sit down in an asan you feel thirsty, the body will become
restless. The possibility of urinating or of discharging feces also disturbs the steadiness
of an asan . Some times hunger too proves a hindrance. The notion behind bodily
purity or penance is that you do not feel disturbed by hunger and thirst. You should go
on doing what you want unhindered. The body will be under your control, you will not
be under the control of the body.

Worship has a special place for yogic postures . We do want to sit down near God, but
our propensities lead us astray. In the mind many pictures of physical pleasures go on
forming. The body does not therefore remain constant. We have no control over our
breath. Therefore, practicing asanas has been considered the root of worship.

Pranayam is also not an exercise of breathing; on the contrary, it is a way of stopping


the mental dispositions going astray. It keeps a balance between the speed of breathing
and mental dispositions. The higher the dispositions, the faster the breath. If the mind
is peaceful, breathing automatically becomes slow. Therefore, reducing the speed of
breathing through pranayam is taught only to expel the mental dispositions. Sit down

21
and watch your breathing. In some time you will be able to experience the slowing of
the speed of breathing. Even the mind will appear to be getting more peaceful. The
question is how long we can keep this posture. For this we have to again look at yama,
niyam and asan.

There was a time when one had to undergo the practice of asanas for quite a few days.
For the sake of experimentation, even wheat grass was grown in the lap. One who
remained steady, his wheat grass also remained straight. It was considered a good
quality of the asan. It is only after this that the way to a state of inner immersion,
contemplation and meditation opens up. Without it, it will not open.

We may join any field of life; if we can steady the body, if we practice asans, we can
reach very near concentration. Pranayam can be a means and even our thinking of
special field can broaden considerably. Together with that, we can control our mental
dispositions too. Only then shall we understand the true meaning of practicing asan. Its
greatest meaning is forgetting the body. The body will not act as a hindrance to your
ruminating. You will be able to concentrate on your field with calm mind and you will
be able to put your creativity to proper use. Holding views becomes the leader of your
thinking. It decides the way of your thinking, and thinking progresses on the same
path. In the spiritual field, thinking turns towards the mind, the soul. The soul being a
part of God, it contemplates God and eventually it wants to merge with it too.

YOGIC POSTURES - II

The first and the important basis of our karmas (actions) is our body. The pleasures
and sorrows are also related to it. All our experiences are made through it. Whether
our life would opt for attachments or for detachment and whether it will undertake
penance and spiritual devotion are too dependent on our body. Therefore, a healthy
body is regarded as the first source of happiness.

The body by itself is incapable of doing anything. Action is possible only when the
body combines with wisdom. In every atom of the body the mind inheres; therefore
whenever one talks of the body, along with it goes the mention of spirituality also. For
understanding this spirituality again the body is needed. Therefore, our first need is to
understand and control the body.

Our diet, pastime, sleep etc. form a sequence, which keeps the body fit. Timely
purgation is also necessary. Exercise and yogic postures also keep the body active and
healthy. All these things are done at fixed times. Of these an asan is a special part of
our daily routine. We sit in various postures considering it to be merely a physical
feature. On the other hand it deserves our careful consideration.

The basis of our body is our spine. All healthy and unhealthy activities are conducted

22
by the life-force of the spine. So much so that even our breathing flows out of it. Both
the nostrils are connected with the nerves called Ida and Pingala , which are situated
on either side of the sushumna nerve in the spine.

In fact there are other nerves like brahmini, chitra , which are the carriers of the life-
force and which are contained in the sushumna . Subtle life-force courses through
them only. The four chakras of the lower end of the body are also present in the spine.
Therefore, for our proper breathing, from the point of view of the flow of the life-
force, it is necessary to keep the spine erect. This constitutes the important element of
an asan.

Our spine should be erect under all circumstances. Try to tilt a little, and you will
notice the obstruction in your breathing. The flow of the breath is hindered. Therefore,
the first thing is to sit erect. Even the neck should be straight. From the neck
downwards to muladhar , the tail of the back, everything should be straight.

It is necessary not only for those who practice spirituality but also for everyone if he
wants to stay healthy. If the spine is not kept straight, there is bound to be some or the
other ailment in some part of the body. The other thing is that if we learn to sit
peacefully in an erect position, slowly our mind and intellect will get purified. We can
become thoughtless for a few moments. The thoughtless state has the advantage of
getting out and understanding repressed ideas. New ideas find a way in. The individual
witnesses his own self. New energy is produced, new dimensions open up.

For it for some time one should sit down peacefully and alone. One can sit cross-
legged as in Padmasan, Ardhapadmasan, Vajrasan or Sukhasan . What one has to
watch is the length of time one can sit quietly. It is a true spiritual practice. Even
fasting teaches us not to be disturbed by appetite and thirst. There should be no
obstacle to purgation.

As soon as we want to be calm, a storm of ideas rises in the mind. We see many things
and many scenes. We see ideas translating into pictures and very often we get
horrified. We don’t have to do anything in this state. Let the clouds of ideas come and
go, we must sit without stirring like a mountain. You will soon begin to experience a
myriad of wonderful things.

There is one more way of making this procedure easy and dynamic. Start watching
your inhaling and exhaling. You will feel a new awareness and shall avoid sleepiness.
You will not attend to yourself. Of course you will not forget yourself, but at the same
time you will see a way of witnessing your real self. You will come to know that you
are a part of the creation, not someone alone. It is this fact which ultimately makes a
man realize that within him pervades a divine power. He is merely an instrument. And
the first step to that ultimate experience is a yogic asan , with innate faith in it.

SVAR - Inhalation and Exhalation


23

Our body has been composed of the five mahabhutas (the earth, water, air, fire and
ether). Our daily life is sustained by a acquiring and relinquishing them. The basis of
life is breathing and inhalation and exhalation are called svar or breath.

The centre of breathing is the throat and its way is the nose. Normally we appear to be
breathing through our nose. Likewise, the word originates from the throat. The throat
is the center of vishuddhi chakra . Not only do sounds emanate from here but our
activities are also regulated from the throat. Breathing in and breathing out can prove
to be a wonderful experiment. It is quite an easy practice.

By putting the finger on the throat, one has to simply experience that air goes in and
comes out by touching the throat. A daily practice of ten minutes one can reap the
reward.

Our nose is a very important center of the body. On the one hand breathing takes place
through it, on the other it is the smelting organ. If we want to practice concentration,
quick results can be had by concentrating on the tip of the nose. Gradually we become
acquainted with our breath, which goes on becoming slow. We become quiet. Our
passions are pacified, because it is the growth of the passions that causes the breathing
to be faster.

Knowledge of svar (breath) is nothing but the physical knowledge of our breathing.
Meditation on svar paves the way to our internal trip. Svar is an invaluable treasure.
You should gradually reduce the breaths, experiment with it, practice to go inside with
it and then come outside.

The left nostril is related to ida and the right is related to pingala . Between the two is
sushumna . Breathing through the left nostril brings coolness and it is called the
chandra-svar . Breathing through the right nostril brings warmth, and it is called the
surya-svar. When you feel very thirsty, try to use the left nostril by closing the right.
You will find how easily you can do without water.

Breath is related to our mind also. We can reach there easily. The practice of svar
brings about a balance between ida and pingala, between the mind and our activities.
It balances our nerves with our nervous system. Breathing sometimes takes place more
from one or the other nostril. When it is more from the right nostril, it is called surya-
svar and from the left is called chandra- svar . When both are equally involved, it is
called sushumna svar . It is the law of nature that on the first day of the moonlit night
at the day-break it is the chandra-svar which is active and on the first day of the
moonless night it is the surya svar which is active. After every five ghadis (One ghadi
=24 minutes) the svara changes. After three days at the time of day-break the svar
changes. A healthy man should not have both the svaras at the time of the day-break.
If you want to have a particular svar turn your lying to the other side. For the right
svar and left svar one should lie on the left and right sides respectively.

24
We should create awareness about the svaras . Let us be conscious of the breathing
and let us practice long and deep breathing. Let us breath in from one nostril and
breath out from another. Taking it as an exercise let’s do it for five to ten minutes.

We will find that the balance between heat and cold in the body has improved. We
should breath in from the right and breath out from one left nostril alternatively. The
balance between the mind and the activities will improve. We should experience the
breath while inhaling and exhaling. In between different ideas will come as an
obstacle. Let them come and go. Let us be doing our main work with a feeling of
awareness. We will definitely be healthy. Long practice will rule out grave diseases.

Similarly, our svaras are indicative of the five elements (the same as panch bhutas ).
Every breath runs for five ghadis (One ghadi =24 minutes). Out of these every tatva or
bhuta runs for one ghadi . In the first ghadi it is air, then fire, earth, water and ether.
The air runs each ghadi , other tatvas get added to it.

These tatvas can be recognized by their colors. They are recognized by their taste and
direction also. The ether is black, bitter and can be seen within the nostril itself. The
air is green, sour, round and its direction is oblique. The fire is red, piquant, triangular
and it appears to go upwards. The earth is yellow, sweet, square and appears to go
straight on. Likewise water is white, sweet, moon-like and appears to go downwards.

The fire comes out four fingers, air eight fingers, the earth twelve fingers and water
sixteen fingers. For understanding the shape, if we forcefully blow out the nose on to a
mirror, we see a shape.

One can recognize the proper element by looking at the shape. In the days and nights
of twenty four hours there are sixty ghadis . In them every element changes twelve
times.

Because the master of the svar is chandra (the Moon). Svar has its relation with the
day of the week, constellation and the zodiac sign too. Every svar has its own day,
constellation and the zodiac sign. For this reason svar is used for determining the
omen as well as for predictions. Even today old people do not forget to notice the svar
before doing some thing or before stepping out of the home. While physically the svar
is related to our daily chores, spiritually it strengthens our mind in the form of
pranayam (breath). It keeps the body fit and becomes the formula of Yoga.

WORD POWER

The word is an essential part of our life and conduct. Its absence poses serious
constraints on human dealings and interactions. The question that arises is whether
communication is the only function of the word? Is it useful only in our daily

25
dealings? If scholars have extolled the virtues of the word, they have also attached
great importance to silence. Do words merge into silence? Every country has its own
language and every language has its own alphabet. Is the objective of alphabet only to
determine the form of the language? In life the word is worshipped as mantra. What is
the principle that works behind these things?

Our universe is nothings but vaak-srishti . It has its origin in the eternal vaak . Shri
Krishna is the ruler of the eternal Go-Loka . The mind of avyaya–shvovasiyas mana is
at its centre, which pervades everything. It may be remembered that in Vedas the word
mana gets mentioned only in the five kalas of avyaya purusha. Mana is not mentioned
in the kalas of akshar or akshar purusha. In both of these purush bhavas only the
mana of avyaya purush is reflected. Mana, prana and vaak go together. Vaak has two
forms; one of them is arthavaak , its governing deity is ‘Mahalaxmi.’ The other is
shabda-vaak whose governing deity is Maha-Saraswati. It has been repeatedly stressed
in our puranas that with the help of vedic mantras one can get the desired things
through yajna . Even today mantra siddhi is a popular method of fulfilling one’s
desires. It can be seen everywhere. One can lead to the attainment of the other or one
can be transformed into another. But in reality both are one and the same.

Naad has been considered to be the basis of the word since the beginning of the
universe. It is also believed to be the form of Brahm. Para, pashyanti , madhyama and
vaikhri – these four are the states or forms of vaak . Our language – the language of
our daily use is called vaikhri . Vaikhari is the outward form of the word, which is the
medium of our worldly dealings. The forms of the outward word have been divided
into various categories. The pronunciation of the word has been divided into seven
svaras on the basis of high, low and sharp tones.

The word of pure satvik bhava is known as mantra . That word is also called mantra
whose contemplation gives you protection or deliverance. The practice of mantra
absolves one of the sins caused by viciousness and leads to satvik bhava . In
accordance with the chanting of the mantra , it has been divided into three categories –
vachik, upanshu and maanas . The loud audible chanting of the mantra is called
vachik. Where there is a visible movement of the lips but no word is heard, it is called
upanshu. The japa ( chanting) done silently in one’s mind with full knowledge of the
meaning of the sacred text in called maanas.

All things as they exist in the universe are present in our body. Accordingly, all the
four forms of vaak – para, pashyanti, madhyama and vaikhari are present in our body
also. Para vaak is located at muladhar. All our-expressions arise from the muladhar .
All our experiences are imprinted in our memory through muladhar . Words originate
from varnas . According to some people there are 63 varnas while others say there are
64 varnas originate from naad . Naad is unexpressed while varnas are expressed. It is
naad that generates light. It is knows as sphota , that is, opening or expansion. Atma
has the desire to speak out words in consonance with the mind which are given
meaning by the intellect (para-vaak ). The mind blasts fire in the body. This blast
inspires the air (pashyanti ), which generates sound in the region of the chest

26
(madhyama ) and the vaikhari word comes out of the throat.

If we look at it in the reverse order, we find that vachik, upanshu and the maanas
chanting seem to be moving from the throat to the region of the chest and from there
to the navel. This practice enables one to enter the mooladhar where paravaak is
seated. This is called kundalini . One can reach this height through any of the means of
knowledge, bhakti or japa , etc. The word seems to be the easiest way. This can be
practiced through mantra only. In this case, one need not go into the labyrinth of
knowledge. All that one needs is faith. One can develop para-vaak through mantras .
As one reaches the subtle stage of vaak, it becomes naad. This very naad in its gross
form becomes word. In this very order, paravaak also gets repeated and the proportion
of maya or lack of knowledge increases.

Just as the words ghat, kalash and kumbha (pitcher) are synonymous; similarly ,
devata, mantra and guru are also synonymous. They are also said to be
indistinguishable as well as eternal. Before pronouncing the mantras, rishi, chhand
and the deity of the mantra are invoked in apportionment. It is also considered natural
that mistakes can result in some harm. In this way only the satvik mantras are
considered to be appropriate for practice or for the growth of life. Though rajas and
tamas mantras are practiced for the fulfillment of special desire in certain situations,
they are not considered to be proper. But there is a provision for penance after the
chanting of such mantras.

How important is the word can be known very well from the mantra-shastra . It also
shows the importance of frugality in speech. Frugal speech forms the basis of truth.
The word also leads to the erosion of infinite energy. This erosion can be avoided
through frugal speech. We find six features in the basic form of a mantra –the
pronunciation of the mantra depends on the chhand, the inventor of the mantra can be
known through the rishi and the knowledge about the deity that would grant the
desired result can be acquired through the mantra and contemplation. The main theme
of the mantra lies in its beej (seed) in a condensed form. Keelak is used to restrain the
opposite effects. So chhand, rishi, devata, beej, keelak and power accompany the
mantra . Only a mantra that has been transformed into a dynamic consciousness can
bring you into the presence of a devata.

The knowledge of the power of the word provides power to the user. The word is
considered to be an indicator of knowledge. The word is related to meaning and the
meaning is related to knowledge. Knowledge leads to desire, desire to prana and the
force of action performed by prana causes ananda bhava in the form of spoken word.
That is why our alphabet is totally scientific and in harmony with the universe. From
naad to letter, word and mantra and from mantra to naad and naad to rhythm, it is
only the word that acts.

CHANTING OR JAPA - I

27

In Indian philosophy ‘upasana ’ or worship is highly significant for an individual as


well as for society. Worship plays an important role in exercising restraint over our
lives and in helping us to live peacefully and happily. There are various kinds of
spiritual practices. The easiest and most prevalent way of worshipping, which can be
followed even by an ordinary person is ‘japa’ or what we call chanting a ‘mantra’
over and over again. Seldom do we come across an Indian who has not seen a person
doing ‘japa’ or chanting ‘mantras’ . One can chant either a full ‘mantra’ or a ‘beej
mantra ’ i.e. an abbreviated basic form. It can be done for a specific purpose or just for
self–purification as a religious practice. There are many ‘mantras’ like Gayatri,
Navkar, etc., which are popular at different places and in different sections of society.
Of these, the ‘beej mantra’ is given by a Guru at the time of initiating a person which
grows with the passage of time and proves rewarding in the end.

Japa or chanting implies reciting a word aloud. The sound or word originates in the
air. The air directs our bodily functions.The universe was also created on the basis of
the alphabet. The alphabetic sounds are afloat on in the air. Our minds are engrossed in
several alternatives and are vibrated. These vibrations are also generated by the air or
‘vayu.’ That explains the restiveness of our minds. Chanting contains words. Words
are comprised of alphabets or letters. The letters contain sounds. These sounds contain
‘naad ’ or resonance. There are four planes of ‘vaak’ i.e. para, pashyanti, madhyama
and vaikhari. The sound that we can hear is called ‘vaikhari’ in an ordinary language.
The sound that leaves the tongue steady, the lips unmoved and the mouth quiet is
called madhyama. In it, it is the mind that experiences the formation of sound or
graphic shapes. In japa when a mantra is chanted, it is called verbal japa. When only
the lips move, but there is no audible sound, it is called upanshu japa or subdued
chanting. After this stage, when the mind attains concentration, and the gross phase of
the sound chanted pales into insignificance, the japa becomes mental. The verbal japa
carries the maximum effect of air. In upanshu , it is lessened. There is an added
concentration level. In mental chanting, the effect of the external air is eliminated. It is
marked by intense concentration. Japa begins verbally. But with an increase in its
practice, inhalation and exhalation become slow and japa itself rises to the level of
upanshu . When breathing becomes very slow and the sound ceases, upanshu japa
automatically changes into mental japa. During the earlier two stages of chanting,
breathing functions through the two nerve systems, viz. ida and pingala. As the
chanting enters the periphery of the mind, inhalation and exhalation begin through
Sushumna. The air works in Madhyama. It means that the mantra continues to be
recited within. While in the external japa, we have to strain ourselves for reciting
aloud, recitation gains momentum automatically at the subtle level of the mind. It is
the practice and deep concentration that contribute to the accomplishment of japa and
gradually the vibration of japa continues thereafter without any effort. It is called
unchanted japa.

In Vaikhari or verbal chanting, the words and the meanings appear distinct. In
Madhyama , the word becomes resonance or naad and the sound comes to an end.

28
Something like a flash of light appears. As the mental japa progresses both the word
and meaning merge in Pashyanti. The light of consciousness emerges. Pashyanti is the
realm of the accomplishment of a mantra and the vision of God. In the long run one
enters Para from Pashyanti. Here the sound dissolves in a bindu (dot). It means the
naad that originates in a bindu (dot) dissolves itself into a bindu again. Kaviraj writes:
“In the course of the alphabetic gross word, once the echoing word of consciousness is
recognized and all doshas (demerits) come to an end, it is consciousness that rules the
roost. It is these phenomena that can be called the characteristics of concentration. In
this state of the mind the vibration of vakra vayu (evasive air) are absent, only simple
motion persists. It is the playfulness of the power of consciousness which continues
with the support of Mahamaya (Goddess Durga).”

There are two ways of achieving concentration. The venerable power or deity that you
adore and worship may be pictured in your inner consciousness. Offer the chanting to
that power only. Gradually, the picture itself will appear clearly on the inner screen.
The other way is that you listen to the words of the mantra . Try to fix the mind on
words and see that you are cheerful, your feelings are gentle and chaste, and that you
are fully dedicated to the deity. You are offering your good and evil, all your urges to
Him. You are only a tool. No japa can yield the desired results unless the mind is
cleansed of its evil thoughts.

As we focus our attention on the words and their meaning, our concentration will grow
intenser. We will also realize that our pronunciation is correct. With any alteration in
the pronunciation, the effect will also change. After some time, we will also feel that
the chant of our japa is becoming slow. Let us keep on hearing the words as the sound
slows down, we will be ushered into the world of upanshu japa . The speed of our
breathing will also correspondingly diminish in intensity. This practice will, in due
course, pave the way for our psychic elevation. We will experience ecstasy.

The maximum ecstatic result accrues from the beej mantra (the root mantra ). Each
deity owns a beej mantra. The beej mantra awarded by the Guru changes it into
mental chanting, if it is practiced with reverence and doggedness. Chanting is a simple
mode of spiritual pursuit. One hardly needs any supplementary knowledge to practice
it. This is an open sesame to everybody to achieve the desired heights. What is needed
is an ardent longing and faith.

To gauge the effect of japa, the only thing to be realized is that the pause between one
utterance and another diminishes through gradual practice. Slowly with the pause, the
sound and the word will also merge. Only the resonance or naad remains. This naad
also merges into the bindu or bright dot whence it originated. The individual remains a
mere witness to the occurrence. He is illumined. It is also referred to as the awakening
of the kundalini power.

The japa leaves the main effect on the stream of the vital breath and the sadhak
remains wholly unaware of it. His knowledge remains confined merely to the sound
and the word. The vibration of the vital force means the playfulness of nature. In our

29
body pran, apan, vyan i.e all the five gross elements act as the vital breath. ida and
pingala carry out their activities. Through the practice of japa an individual attains the
level of the subtle forms of vital breath. Only the subtle vital force enters sushumna.
Ida and pingala are relaxed automatically. All the activities of the body are relaxed.
The individual enters the subtle body from the gross one. Sushumna has three subtle
nerves _ Vajrini , Chitrini and Brahm. They achieve concentration as soon as japa
activates subtle forces, and the individual is immersed into the self. He moves forward
towards the casual body.

Japa is also a way of accomplishment even for ordinary persons. It is a way of


achieving knowledge. Strong realm of emotions, regularity and faith do yield the
desired results.

CHANTING OR JAPA - II

An individual passes through numerous adverse situations in life. His mind is hemmed
in by scarcities and influences. It continues to be shrouded by one or the other layer of
impressions and experiences. In a life dominated by a plethora of mundane activities it
is also imperative that we also follow the path of nivriti (gradual emancipation from
activities) so that we may lead a balanced life to some extent. For it our rishis have
propounded the principles of mantrayoga, hathyoga, layayoga and rajayoga. Of them
mantrayoga is easily available as well as convenient. It may become a part of every
one’s life.

That which acts as a shield for a person who thinks deeply or meditates against any
onslaught is called a mantra . The very contemplation of mantras is called tantra and
the use of mantras in a definite form creates a yantra. A mantra makes us aware of the
pure and righteous thoughts. It means that it removes the veil and purifies the intellect
and mind. It transports a man to a state of bliss. In our country there are numerous
religions, castes and sects. We can see that all these groups subscribe to specific
mantras . We also see the effect of these mantras on them. Certain sects rely on
specifically potent mantras . Harnessing these mantras is a countrywide practice.
Witchcraft and black art are dependent on mantras and so are the beliefs pertaining to
spirits and ghosts. Due to them both diagnosis and treatment are also based on
mantras. They are said to give quick results. In sharp contrast to them the vedic
mantras are considered useful for purifying the soul. Nama and Beej mantras are
believed to be more important among the Vaishnava, Shaiva and Shakt mantras .

Mantras are based on words. Every mantra has its vowel sound, meaning, meter and
rhythm. Besides it also contains thoughts. On the one hand the chanting of a mantra
gives momentum, on the other hand the meaning has an encounter with the thought
contained in it. It is also commonly believed that the wrong pronunciation of a mantra
can cause havoc.

30
There are three types of japas. When the pronunciation of words in a mantra is clearly
audible, it is called vachik japa or verbal japa . The mantra in which voice is not
audible, only lips move and the throat is used is called upanshu japa. The japa in
which the knowledge of the meaning flows only in mind is called mental japa.
According to the classifications of mantras upanshu japa is considered superior to
verbal japa and mental japa is considered superior to upanshu japa.

Tantric literature gives a special place to the beej mantra . According to the eight main
activities of God, there are eight kinds of beej mantras (seed mantra ). Of these ‘Om’
is called the Absolute sound or shabda brahma . In a beej mantra , aing, hring, shring,
kling, kring, dring, striing hrung, etc. indicate guru, shakti, rama, kam, yoga, tejo beej
i.e. master, power, female divine principle, material gains, yoga and glory.

Beej mantras cannot be interpreted through the meanings of their words. They reveal
their meanings through chanting. For it the knowledge of the correct recitation and
complementary mantras proves useful.

There is no distinction between the mantra and the deity. The vibration of the mantra
and that of the deity in the shape of vital force are one. The pronounced word has four
planes, para, pashyanti, madhyama and vaikhari . The origin of the universe is also
attributed to echo or alphabet or word. Here the word exists in a subtle form. It is also
considered to be the source of the development of seed and mantras . When utterance
and light proceed towards a gross phase, it is called naad or resonance. As creation
becomes gross, the word also becomes so. It moves from Para to Pashyanti , then to
Madhyama and at last to Vaikhari .

Maharshi Panini writes, “Due to ideological differences the sixty-three or sixty-four


letters were generated by the self-born God. The soul tries to express itself through the
meanings with the help of intellect. The mind gives percussion to the bodily agni or
thermal energy. The resultant inspiring power generates a profound sound in the
thorax. A form of sound known as Vaikhari is produced. We should interpret it as the
Para, Pashyanti, Madhyama and Vaikhari modes of the word.”

Our scriptures give a detailed analysis of its etymology. The bold, the moderate and
the accelerated modes of the pronunciation have been represented as Shadaj, Gandhar,
Madhyam, Sanchaya, Dhaiwat and Nishad (The levels in the musical octave). They
indicate the levels of the Naad, Bindu and Kala. The mode of pronunciation of the
mantra is revealed by the meter, and the knowledge about its inventor by the name of
the seer. Each mantra has a deity that rules it. It has a seed of its own. There is the
Keelak and the power of the Mantra. The inhibiting obstacle is removed by means of
the Keelak.

The mantra gives power to the chanter. There are instances galore to prove it. The
method is to watch it with the depth of its thought, stabilize it there and thus stick to its
profundity. It is the means by which the desired effect of success and development is
achieved. One has to glide over from the uttered to the semi-uttered and the mute
modes. In addition, one ought to visualize the mantra with the accompanying chaste

31
feelings. One is supposed to suggest to oneself that one is growing healthier, nearing
the primordial spiritual form and enhancing self-discipline. Cheer and purity add to
our exhilaration. The top-level austerity is to surrender in the very inception of the
practice to the venerable entity and at the end of the practice offer everything to the
same power. If we are free from any urge to obtain something, the practice does not
result in any bondage whatsoever. It, on the other hand, frees us from bondage. Of
course, we may not win what we aspire to have. The giver knows what the practitioner
deserves. He may, as well, give much more than what is asked for. There is always a
limitation of our asking for something.

Viewed from a scientific standpoint vibrations are the basis of our creation. These
alone create different forms and modes and are responsible for our development. With
the help of japa we try to add vibrations as per our wishes to this very process and are
thus able to make progress in the desired direction.

ANGER

It is natural for all of us to be swayed by the drive of anger. If we glimpse through the
pages of our history, we will realize that anger plays an important role. On many an
occasion anger or wrath gave a new turn to history. Anger has been associated with
physical prowess as well as with ego. It has had a role in generating fear also. It is the
anger that drove many great saints to the negative activity of cursing people. The
personalities of Durvasa and Laxman have become synonymous with anger.

No one on this earth is immune to anger. Anger becomes an instrument for various
irrepressible drives and propensities. It is also the cause of various crimes. That is why
anger is decried even though it is associated with an unfathomable energy. All the
scriptures are unanimous regarding its suppression. Undoubtedly every man seeks to
subdue his anger. He seeks to be described as a man of peace and quietude. Anger is
not worthy of respect in any form in society.

Energy and vitality give us the capacity to live. It is pranic energy that drives the
mind, reason and human body. We are earthly beings; hence our main source of energy
happens to be the earth. Gravity binds us to the centre of the earth. We obtain our main
energy from it. It is the space from where we receive the vital force (pranas)
associated with reshis, pitra (ancestors) and devas (Gods).

It is the individuality that defines the kind of the forces of energy that the man
manifests or reflects. Anger is also a reflection. Since the muladhar, one of the six
mystical energy circles in the body, is the expression of the physical powers, the
energies that converge there are associated with the feelings of anger, sensual pleasure,
art, power, etc. If you attempt to suppress one of the feelings, another one will erupt.
Anger is nothing in itself as such. It is just an expression but it is not considered good

32
on account of its negative role. You should assess what you will do when anger grips
you. If you can visualize a series of things you are likely to indulge in when you are
angry, you will also realize its consequences.

You can change the direction of the impulsive state of your anger by transforming the
emotion. You may have also experienced several times that after thinking something
when your anger appears to calm down, a desire for a different way of expressing it
begins to arise in the mind.

This expression also appears to be a vital force. It also has as much energy as the drive
of anger itself. Thus, anger is also a life-force full of vitality. It needs only to be
channelized. Use it else it will be wasted. If it is used positively, it may lead you to
progress.

So long as the energy remains active in muladhar , man can also be active. His body
can remain healthy. Its pacification means death. If we view it positively, anger is the
mark of life. It keeps the muladhar active. Anger is instrumental in removing many
obstructions related to muladhar also. One has to be active on the emotional plane.

Contrary to it what happens is that anger is viewed as a social evil. An individual


seeks to suppress it. The results can be more dreadful. The first effect is that it will
prevent the vital force from being developed. It means that it will prevent its
ventilation and subsequent transformation. You are neither able to watch your anger
nor are you in a position to channelize it in other direction for constructive use. It
means that you are promoting its negative direction.

To make the vital force flow upwards from muladhar is the means by which it is given
a positive turn. The moment this energy links itself with the emotions, it transforms
itself. Its source is ‘swadhisthan’ which lies above muladhar.

To suppress anger is to channelize its vitality downwards. The greatest effect of it is


upon the lower organs. In a fit of anger, your body trembles. Pain in the joints is its
first indication, which may gradually turn into arthritis and take the form of an
incurable ailment.

As the muladhar weakens, arthritis is aggravated. This malady caused by the lack of
vital force cannot be cured. The body may struggle to rid itself of the malady, but the
result is invariably negative.

Inflammation indicates that the body does attempt to send energy to that location, but
this is not adequate. The real centre of energy is the muladhar itself.

You are advised to focus on the energies related to muladhar again. Activate them and
make them flow upwards. Anger will come, let it come. It will be a good omen. The
pain will begin to subside. You may have noticed that those who spend a long period
in pilgrimage are cured of incurable diseases naturally.

33
Dr. Bruyen of the United States of America has done many experiments in this
direction. According to him, “Disease stems from anger. Fear is caused by disease.
Fear is the originator of various diseases. This is the cycle that is ineradicable. As you
sit in quietude, pursue the feeling of innate fearlessness or cast aside the factors that
cause fear. You will recover from the disease gradually. Just think where you will pour
out your anger.

LAUGHTER

To laugh is a sign of development, and to weep is, a sign of regression. Laughter


indicates wholeness, and weeping, emptiness. In actuality, laughter and crying are the
two sides of a coin. We can see that at times tears come to one’s eyes and we don’t
want anyone to know, so we try to suppress the feelings. Suddenly, we try to divert our
mind and change our expression to that of laughter. The pattern of our thoughts
changes even though the feelings remain the same. There seems to be a contradiction.
These patterns of laughter and crying are an integral part of life. Laughter is an
experience of joy, and is an attribute of the soul; therefore laughter has a universal
appeal.

Laughter is pervasive. Usually, it is considered to be a form of entertainment, but this


is a narrow point of view. In a wider sense, laughter is an indication of a man’s
emotional state. It adds zest to life, it is a driving force. These days life has become so
stressed and burdensome that laughter does not move us anymore. People are always
seen in a serious mood. Even the atmosphere around him fails to bring cheer to his
face. All of a sudden he realizes that others are laughing at something and he has been
absentminded, and he tries to look cheerful with an artificial laugh. He broadens his
lips but there is a void in his eyes. His thoughts are somewhere else. He cannot laugh
freely and spontaneously.

The open laughter of a child is symbolic of life giving laughter. His mind is free from
stress and he remains in a detached and blissful state. He lives in a world of sweetness
and charm. The stress caused by thoughts and emotional issues does not restrain his
laughter. Our rishis and wise men tried to retain their childlike qualities throughout
their lives. Quite a few sects worship God in the form of a child. Everyone in this
country knows the lila of Krishna as a child. The real message that comes out is that
life should be lived as a game. The chief characteristic of Krishna is that he appears to
be happy in every situation.

Every man wants to live a life of happiness. All his efforts are directed towards
achieving this objective. But his efforts are so full of negative thoughts that he is
unable to experience happiness. His efforts begin to act as barriers. There is a belief
among Buddhists that if you want self-realization, you should stop all efforts and sit
quietly. Observe whatever comes to your sight. You cannot realize yourself because

34
you make an effort to realize yourself. An inner feeling of joy is of great help in self-
realization. It is an indication of purity of mind and wide perspective. Great men (who
sometimes laugh at themselves) are spontaneous and unrestrained in their laughter.
Their smile is also natural and reflects the greatness of their personality.

Free laughter increases longevity and makes life meaningful. It is, therefore, quite
important to life. Without laughter life can never be interesting. How can a dull life be
happy? If we think a little deeper, we will find that joy is at the core of the universe.
Without joy there can be no creation. Laughter reflects joy. Joy is an attribute of the
human soul. Soul is always looking forward to its union with God. This union is not
possible with the partial concept of bhakti alone. Joy must be an equally integral part
of it, as is bhakti . Laughter is the first step to this joy. You cannot have a sense of
laughter without the purity of mind and artificial laughter has no meaning in life. It
sounds narrow and empty. Laughter is the measuring rod of life.

Laughter pertains to our feelings; it travels in the world of mind. It is an indicator of a


sense of happiness and joy. There are occasions in life when we shed tears out of joy.
It is nothing but exultation, a state above laughter. It is the culmination of the
expression of our being. When it gets united with bhakti , it becomes the culmination
of life. Both together turn a man into a god. When one is able to generate a feeling of
friendliness, that is, the urge to cooperate with others and have a feeling of compassion
sharing the sorrows and joys of others, only then will he be able to appreciate laughter
in its purest form. He will learn to live and laugh freely. With it he will begin to look
into the self and infuse life into the society. He will be able to do his duty towards the
society and feel emancipated.

Everyone loves laughter; it is an attribute of the human mind but at the same time it is
a rare phenomenon. These days laughter is taught and practiced through laughter
exercises. A lot of research is also being conducted in this field. Serious literature is
being produced highlighting its importance. But all this cannot generate true laughter.
There is only one way to do it – have a pure mind and try constantly to avoid narrow
thoughts.

CRYING OR SHEDDING TEARS


One has to lose something in exchange for some gain. One has to shed tears if one has
to gain something.

To lose, to weep and to win something are an integral part of human life. The question
is: what do we want to lose to get something in return? What is it that which we can
get by crying and what is it that we cannot get.

We see youngsters and elders crying. Even in old age, this crying continues. We

35
may quote an instance :

“Why are you annoyed?”

“Why should I be annoyed?”

“Have I committed some mistake?”

“None of your mistakes, it is I who am the cause of all the problems.”

“Your voice shows that you are crying.”

“Before whom should I cry?”

“Am I not there, your beloved?”

“If it were so, why would I cry and wail at all?”

Even a mother would not breastfeed her child unless he cries and cries. Our
philosophy says that without shedding tears even the Lord cannot be won over. One
has to cry a great deal to please Him so that the deity may be merciful. The thrill of
devotion is the culmination of joy. It is also the highest stage of shedding tears.

Gopinath Kaviraj has dealt with the theme of wailing at various places in his writings.
He has dwelt upon this state of the human psyche, giving it immense importance.

He says, “Natural wholesomeness lies in shedding devotional tears. When you are
weeping within, your eyes overflow with tears after you have entered the periphery of
perfection. This state of human mind makes even the greatest man appear too small.”

It is the harmony of the intensity of emotions that changes into love. In due course,
this love itself changes into a rasa or passion . Emotions may stem from the states of
servitude, friendship or sweetness but they never transform themselves into rasas. One
just feels a shadow. One never weeps when in the company of the beloved: it happens
only when one departs from one’s love. However, when a person’s eyes overflow with
tears at the sudden appearance of one’s lover or beloved after a long separation, it is an
expression of joy.

The basis of devotion is also a form of the power of joy. Ecstasy may also be regarded
as the culmination of devotion. An infant cries when he is helpless or left alone. He
does so just for help. He recognizes only his mother. The world is yet an unknown
entity to him. He knows his mother and weeps for her. This cry is a call from a
helpless infant for his mother. It is just an effort to get his mother. He is unaware
whether someone knows him.

During this stage of learning many options appear before the child. He recognizes
none so he goes on crying. No temptation can please him. How can he be satisfied in
the absence of his mother? His crying continues.

36
Emotions ripe only through the training of emotions. When the child cries relentlessly,
none but his mother realizes the pain. She says, “Let him cry a bit more. Let him grow
strong thereby. The fragrance which remains hidden in a seed diffuses only when it
sprouts.” Repeated exposition to such situations brings ripeness in emotions. It is the
emotion or what we call the intensity of the state of restlessness alone that determines
the time factor.

The root of various spiritual practices is also the emotion. Leaving apart the desires for
the fulfillment of one’s worldly longings only the true love for one’s deity is called the
realistic devotional sadhana.

The more intense is the absence, the more intense is the emotion of separation, the
greater possibility of reunion will be there. The mother will immediately lift the child
in her arms, the moment she perceives his irresistible urge as if she had met him for
the first time after ages. The moment the infant finds the arms of his mother, he
becomes oblivious of his weariness. He is full of joy. Nothing else does he need now.
Here the devotee and the Lord seem to become one at this stage. One has only to learn
how to cry for Him.

“He will Himself rush to you, once tears stream down your cheeks.”

VOWS

A vow is the determination to follow a principle. It restrains a man from exercising his
free will. Every atom of a vow is related to resoluteness. Today a vow is an ideology
based on religious rituals, but a vow is a man’s life in all ages and religions. Without it,
it is impossible to develop life. “I have to get through this exam.,” even this is a vow,
for even that requires regular practice. The work has to be properly organized. It
becomes a person’s duty by itself, just as the duty of a student is to study. Even vows
have different stages, different aims, because an individual lives on various levels.
Vows are indicative of one’s faith in achieving one’s task. Some vows are made on the
basis of one’s luck. Here one seems to have faith in one’s luck. Vows relating to
human efforts are the basis of the development of society. Spiritual vows are aimed at
performing the spiritual journey.

Waves rise in the sea and get lost in the seawaters. The sea is not affected in any way,
it is a part of its nature and it keeps watching it, even as an old man keeps watching the
young one play. Likewise our ideas too raise the waves, which get lost. What would
happen if we kept watching them? Or else, a lot of unnecessary things will keep
happening. Ideas are the kith and kin of our minds and feelings of our hearts. We have
to be surrounded by them forever, but we should know their nature. Feelings do come,
but they would disappear, if they are kept watching. If you stop them – if you think
about them or if you try to connect them with memories and imagination, they will

37
seize you. Where they will take you, is not predictable.

A vow is a practice – a practice done in a definite direction keeping in mind a definite


aim. You undertake a vow only after taking into account the waves of your body, mind
and ideas. You undertake it to cling to the essential and to relinquish the inessential,
you will keep watching non-essential ideas and feelings, you will let them dissolve by
not stopping them. If you undertake the above vow, you will not go astray.

Eating less is a big vow for the body. It is the main principle of good health, the cause
of giving up and penance and strengthener of will power. If the vow is performed with
complete faith, the body feels light. But it has been observed that those who undertake
the vow keep eating every thing except the cereals the whole day. How will any
benefit accrue then? In fact a physical vow strengthens the capacity for doing mental
and spiritual penance also.

A vow is taken mentally for the organs of speech, sight etc. Likewise, on the plane of
thinking also vows are taken for positive or negative thinking. Regular self-study too
is a vow of the mind, thought and the soul. Every individual tests his own
temperament, aim and feelings. He does it always, and gets on developing in a new
shape. He goes on relinquishing the nonessential and keeps getting free from worries.
A resolution to keep a vow itself gives an opportunity to tarry a while in a life of
speed. Out of it alone a new attitude to life develops. New inspiration and zest are born
in the mind. He thinks of distinguishing between the good and the bad, the right and
the wrong. If the life has been full of struggles, it becomes still. Man comes to realize
the essence of life. In fact it is the struggle of life which makes him liberal. One who
does not love scarcity, can not become liberal. One who leads a life of comfort, gets
perturbed by small things. He appears to be naturally upset.

The vow to deliberate mentally brings about a speedy change in life. It reduces the
nonessential activity of the sense organs and lays open the path to positive thinking. It
acquaints a person with his potential and inspires him to finalize the direction of
utilizing his potentialities. It is for this reason that a vow for spiritual thinking fills a
man with new energy. It lays open the path of compassion and friendliness. It enables
a man to find out the way to peace and happiness in his own potentialities. Regular
enchanting, worshipping and self-deliberation etc. alone constitute a spiritual vow.

The biggest thing is that if the vow is performed with discretion and regularly, faith in
oneself gets growing. A man’s self-confidence is roused, his fears become increasingly
nonexistent and he can easily handle the struggles of life on the basis of faith in
himself and in actions. He learns to use his knowledge according to the circumstances
and keeps marching on the path to development. A vow is not any kind of religion, nor
is it a mask to hide some crime. As a matter of fact, it is not possible to stop the results
of mistakes. A vow mainly aims at stopping the mistake so that no bad result may
accrue. Its main aim is to deliver oneself from bondage. A life without vows is bound
to be subordinate to someone.

38
STRESS

All our efforts in life are directed towards avoiding sorrow. All our visions and plans
aim at emancipating us from suffering. But this is a negative way of thinking. Our eyes
are always riveted on suffering. We keep analyzing the various forms of suffering. The
concept of happiness becomes secondary. Whereas the positive way of thinking is that
we keep our mind focussed on happiness. Though the two sentences, “I have to remain
happy” and “I don’t have to be unhappy” are similar in meaning, yet their semantic
connotations are opposite. This can be illustrated by these two sentences: “He is my
son” and “I am his father”; the concept behind these two sentences leads you to
behave in an opposite manner in the two situations. The important thing for us to know
is that it is the point of our focus– happiness or suffering that makes all the difference.
It is an individual’s outlook that determines his joyness or sorrow in life.

The same thing can please one person but send another into frenzy. Such a fit or frenzy
causes great stress. It makes a man unhappy. A man’s ego is also at the root of it. It
increases his expectations and decreases his power of tolerance. One takes recourse to
arguments and false reasoning, stubbornness shows its ugly face and one comes under
stress. Under these circumstances one is liable to take wrong decisions, becomes
irritable and suffers erosion of power.

Stress disturbs the balance of life. It increases the surges of emotions and makes the
body sick. It is the emotions that are responsible for the functioning of our body. Our
vital body is impacted by our feelings which also affect the quantity of secretions from
our different glands. The imbalance in these secretions can affect the growth of one
body and cause several diseases. For example, when you are angry, your body
becomes tense, the heart rate increases, there is breathlessness and the blood flow also
increases. This is nothing but impairment.

The more agitated you are, the more stressed, angry, deceptive and greedy you feel.
The Jain philosophy terms it as kashaya or passions. Kashayas also increase the level
of stress. All our physical and mental sufferings have their origin in stress. A stressful
mind is always restless. Basically it is nothing else but a man’s ignorance.

In certain ways, even food and lifestyle can be a source of stress as well. Wrong food
can cause all sorts of diseases, therefore our habits regarding eating and sleeping are
very important in this respect. We can control several diseases by making changes in
our food habits and lifestyle.

Thus we see that our life is full of contradictions. These contradictions also cause
stress. We invite problems if we fail to grasp the ground reality. By making fun of
others we harbor and nurture all types of feelings while we never evaluate our own
thoughts.

39
One’s disposition can also cause various types of stress. Work and your attitude
towards it and its result are also factors which cause stress. Some sort of work is
necessary for meeting your needs. You should be able to work and still remain free of

stress. For this, you have to inculcate a feeling of detachment. Detaching yourself from
your mind frees you from stress. One can then live one’s life peacefully and with ease.

Unnecessary work also increases stress–whether it is a needless activity, talking, eating


and drinking, accumulation or any other thing – it is stressful. Impatience also causes
stress. Negative feelings also lead to stress. There is stress before you start a thing,
there is a stress while you are doing it and there is also stress after it is over.
Apprehension that comes with negative thoughts and deeds creates stress as well.

The key to a stress-free life lies in the contemplation of happiness. The focus on
happiness implies that you know the meaning of happiness in the true sense. You will
know which action, thing or individual gives you happiness and you will be able to
connect yourself with them. Whatsoever diminishes your happiness should be
abandoned. Happiness depends on the results of something we do. A thing that ensures
a happy result is worthy of being done. A thing, which results in suffering, should be
avoided.

The experience of happiness will be reflected first in the physical happiness and then
in mental happiness. When we talk of mental happiness, physical happiness becomes
meaningless. An inner feeling of happiness, a feeling of joy in life and a pure mind
will blow up all worries and tensions. Thoughts of happiness will lead to discipline
and simplicity. Even if there is no simplicity, discipline is required. It is essential to get
rid of the unwanted. We must let go of arrogance. We need to undertake a spiritual
journey, With the purity of feelings, our behavior will undergo a change. Our body will
also be purified. There will be no surges or impulsive impetuosity of strong feelings.
We will rise above the smallness which usually characterizes our lives.

Today’s lifestyle is full of stress. In every sphere, in everything one does, one
encounters various types of stress. We have adopted a new lifestyle and a new culture;
there is no clear objective before us in life; we have become self-centered – all these
have trapped us into great stress. Let us spare a few moments everyday for
contemplation. Let us look for the causes behind our stress and see how we can get rid
of them. Let us be resolute. Anything, which detracts you from the goal, drop it.
Gradually, this kind of thinking makes life blissful and saves you from being stressful.

DISEASES

The most important comfort is a healthy body, because a healthy mind dwells only in a
healthy body. Many wishes of the mind remain unfulfilled because of the diseased

40
body. Nature has given the body enough strength to keep itself healthy in all respects
to automatically develop immunity. If life is led naturally, nothing much is needed to
be done. The energy spent during the day is restored at night. Of course there are
energies, which diminish with age, but they too can be restored through practices like
rhythmic breathing (pranayam).

But today’s problem is not only this. The body cannot treat any thing if a person does a
grievous wrong deliberately, does injustice to the body by eating unnatural things.
Increasing pollution and irregularity in things we eat, also cause diseases.

Because man lives at different levels, diseases also appear in various forms on those
levels. They keep coming from one level to another. The body, the mind, the intellect
and the soul have their own diseases with their own causes, but all diseases make
themselves felt only through the body. It will be a mistake to regard all diseases
physical. Because in practice all levels are interlinked, all kinds of diseases can change
their nature and level according to the time and circumstances.

Incurable diseases of the body affect the mind, intellect and spirit also and the diseases
of the mind, intellect and the soul are oriented towards the body. Fear gives birth to
many diseases.

In fact fear aggravates many diseases, for fear does not belong to the body, it does to
the mind. Fear can cause lack of memory too and it can also invite old age, so much so
that fear can turn a man even mad. Therefore, the basis of the health of the mind,
intellect and the soul is the body only. Deliberation and self-study are preparations for
avoiding the diseases.

It does not take long for mental illnesses to grow if the mind becomes licentious losing
control of the intellect. In western medicine, the mind has no place at all. There,
psychology is confined to the intellect only. The mind has not been accepted as a
subject. That explains why mental diseases cannot be treated adequately there.

The first necessity of a healthy mind is to accept the mind, to get to know it and to
deliberate over its various states and reasons. There are many states of the mind, which
keep changing. Basically it has four forms or differences: stupid, distracted, confused
and lazy. The desire stimulates the mind, makes it active. With every desire is related
an attachment, and with attachment come love and disgust.

After activating remains its memory and before next desire imagination takes hold of
the mind. It causes the mind to stray and stops its concentration. More than one sense
organs hold out new attractions before the mind. It produces many alternative scenes.
It is only the control by a healthy intellect of the mind which expands the path of the
mind.

The mind and the intellect have their own limitations, whereas the soul is limitless. It
is only the cover of sat, raj, tam (the three dispositions of the human mind,
benevolence, sensual enjoyment and vindictive passion) that restrains the soul.

41
A pure soul stands for observation, knowledge and a steady body i.e. steadying the
mind, sense organs and the body. If the body is unsteady, the mind will be fickle too. It
is important that nothing should be done while the mind is fickle. Any effort means
fickleness, and fickleness is the cause of a disease. Mental diseases begin with the
fickleness of the mind only.

Likewise our environment is also the cause of many mental diseases. Our body takes
energy from the sun, the earth and its surrounding environment. This is our basic
environment.

All things related to individuals, animals, birds, goods, forests and all things connected
with our daily chores fall within it. If you sit under a tree, its energy will affect you.

You will pick-up the energy, feelings etc. of the company you keep. If somebody sits
with a strong person, he may lose his energy too. Today there are many therapies
based on the interchange of energy. New dimensions are being added to these subjects
as we understand the structure of the body more and as we understand the way
energies work.

Energy derived from the environment touches our subtle body through the chakras
(the seven basic circles visualized in the body by Yogis). It pollutes our halo which
gives us luster and splendor. Then it enters that nerve and nervous system which go
from the life-organs to the mind and pollutes them too. It pollutes our feelings. This
sequence goes on. Our will power is polluted, our sight is polluted, behavior is
polluted and the breath joining the mind with the sense organs and the outer world is
also polluted. Attachment and disgust are created. Memory and imagination are
formed. All these natural happenings create many obstacles in our body. It is the
breath, which manifests itself as a diseased body. It means that the disease is first born
within the body and with the passage of time appears in the body outside. It is quite
late by the time we come to know of it.

Steadiness and happiness of the mind are the only symptoms of its health. Through it
both the body and the intellect can also be kept fit. The good and the bad condition of
the intellect lies in distinguishing between the right and the wrong, but defects like
passions and egoism make the intellect unbalanced. Even selfishness creates
narrowness in the mind. Going into the refuge of God is good precisely for the reason
that man may give up selfishness, may dedicate himself, may have a quiet and happy
mind. It is a good basis for living a healthy life. Eating, moving about and the purity of
the means are included in it.

THE IMPORTANCE OF - THE FOOD


WE EAT

42
In life the exchange of energy continues incessantly. In this cycle of metabolism, there
is an exchange of one with the other and the remnant attains a new shape. We can
witness this process of creation in our own body itself. There is a proverb: “Your mind
will be the selfsame archetype of the food you eat.”

That the type of food we eat shapes our physical body is endorsed even by the modern
medicine, but the Indian ancient wisdom goes a step further. Emotions that dominate
our mind at the time of eating are important. Food satisfies our mind. It is also
significant as to with what feelings the food was cooked and with what feelings and
affections it was served and with what feelings it was eaten. All these things affect our
mind directly.

A man works in order to fulfill the desires of his mind. However, desires do not arise
at our sweet will. To fulfill them or to abandon them, of course, depends on the sweet
will of an individual. When our desires owe their existence to an extraneous source
and propel us accordingly, we can be nothing but instruments in the hands of that
power. It is our intellect that dictates things and plans the course of action. It instructs
the body accordingly.

Thereafter comes into play our physical frame. It implies that it is our mind that is
sovereign and the intellect and the body are instruments or servants in its hands. This
means that the mind, which lends identity to us, must be made strong so that our
selfsame identity is established. It should be our first duty.

The simplest and the best way leading to the goal is the type of food that we consume.
In Indian culture, it is by means of feasting that we express our joy. The only
expectation of people on the eve of births and marriages in a family is an invitation to
dinners and parties. Our inherited exuberance knows no other way of expressing it but
by means of feasts at the slightest excuse. This alone gives us the delight of the highest
order. The environment around us also contributes to it greatly.

Food is converted to juicy vitality in the body. This juice or ‘Rasa’ creates blood, flesh,
fat, marrow, bone and the semen. What is left comes out in the form of feces. That is
the be-all and end-all of the physical phenomenon of metabolism.

The semen ultimately turns into vitality and energy. It is conducive to the formation of
the mind of the individual. The glow that one’s face emits is the result of the semen
that has got accumulated. It gives the peculiar identity to the man concerned.

We should consider the significance of celibacy in this very context. The three gunas
or characteristics of food, i.e. satva (virtuous and truthful), raj (that which is sinful or
passionate) and tam (that which is dark or evil) become an integral part of an
individual nature; hence food is the most important factor of our life.

EVOLUTION OF LIFE
43

Human body is both gross and physical. We are of the view that we can see each of its
limbs as well as its functions and can also evaluate them. But the fact is that it is
directed by our intellect and emotions which we can neither see nor understand. The
body in itself can perform only natural actions, it cannot do anything else.

Nobody can live without bhavas (feelings or emotions). Our joys and sorrows, friends
and foes, happiness and despair, all are dependent on bhavas . Our reactions are based
on them. Our attitude towards life determines what kind of bhavas we will have.
Where do bhavas come from?

Bhavas can be said to be a blending of our experiences and attitude. Our experiences
are located in our consciousness. Just as our desires originate in our mind
automatically, in the same way, our bhavas arise spontaneously. The only difference is
that a desire has an independent identity whereas bhavas are moulded by our
personality.

Feelings are linked with our subtle and causal bodies because they are themselves
subtle. Our aura is its reflection. We can call it our emotional body. Our aura keeps
changing along with our bhavas throughout the day. Today, many organizations are
involved all over the world in the study of aura. Two types of changes occur in the
aura – at the level of colors and vibrations. By analyzing these a man’s bhavas can be
evaluated. Today scientists believe that all natural processes are based on the principle
of conversion of matter into energy and vice versa. Our bhavas also fall into the
category of energy, it is possible to see, understand and measure them. If feelings
direct various actions of our body, it means there is some kind of energy there.

All the energy in the universe is related to matter; therefore, bhavas cannot be beyond
the structure of matter. It is also true that this energy is very subtle. That is why it is
also a part of cosmic universal energy and works in unison with it. Both types of
energy are governed by the same principles. Therefore, it implies that we are directly
connected with nature and our activities are also regulated by it. Since our aura is
directly related to the aura of the earth, we are called earthlings. Thus our life is
dependent on the earth and the earth is dependent on the sun and the moon, etc.

Just as the vibrations of our bhavas have an aura, similarly the vibrations of our
intellect too have an aura. Both the auras are independent but keep impacting each
other continuously. They are also linked to the body. In this way, our aura exists at
several levels and has many forms and colors.

All things in the world, whether living or non-living, possess an aura . The aura in the
inanimate seems to be still for lack of activity. On the contrary, in the living beings the
aura appears to be changing. All the conscious beings, though having independent
existences, remain within the boundaries of the earth. All these have life, soul or
causal body at their nucleus. Without it there cannot be any action or expression. Our
body, our form is the glory, soma or expression of our egoistic being and our

44
disposition reflects its personality. It provides meanings to our existence.

Our thoughts and feelings keep coming and going, but this centre of the self or “I” is
unchanging. It is this that is responsible for faith in the body. This is at the base of all
our knowledge and experience of life. This experience-based knowledge becomes the
basis of evolution of the universe. Who learns and who uses this knowledge – the
answer to it lies in the final outcome. Only knowledge and experience prepare the
ground for bhavas . These functions are performed at the level of the mind. The
process of experiencing goes on non-stop. Bhavas also do not stop. The changes in our
aura occur on the one side due to the impact of our personality and on the other side
due to the impact caused by the aura of the universe. Thus, the universe and the body
are governed by the same principle. ‘yatha ande tatha pinde’ also expresses the same
meanings, that is, ‘As is the universe, so is the body.’

Whatever happens in our life remains recorded in the form of feelings in our aura. At
the subtle level, our aura remains unchanged. The changes in the gross form are
reflected in due course of time because their pace is quite slow. The change at the
subtle level is dynamic and constant and gets extended to the subtle most level. The
aura of every being and all matter is linked to the universe. It permeates the entire
atmosphere in the subtlest form, therefore every being is impacted by the other even
though the other may exist or an inert form near it. The exchange of energy keeps
taking place in that situation also. The process of impacting feelings goes on
continuously. The Chinese scholar philosopher Tao writes that change is the law of
nature. This principle of the universal nature cannot be negated. In this lies the seed of
the evolution of the universe.

We all join hands together to bring about this change. The main cause of this change is
the exchange of our energies amongst us. We may think of emotions as our personal
assets but in fact they are impacted by the entire atmosphere consisting of living and
non-living beings. Since we bring about a change in one another by joining hands
together, it is imperative for us to know the real meaning of the belief that the whole
world is one family (vasudhaiva-kutumbakam).

We get life from the sun and food from the moon. Soma is also provided by the moon.
Our mind has descended from “Parmeshthi Loka”. That means our life is constantly in
link with all these and is impacted by them. Our desires, cravings and feelings – all are
a part of it. As we look at the higher levels, it gets more and more subtle and dynamic.

The vibrations of our bhavas exist in the space. Since the vibrations of all beings are
there in the space, it turns into a sea of vibrations. There mixed vibrations impact all
and all together impact these vibrations. This fact can explain the importance of the
culture of a certain country. The anger of one person can increase the vibrations of the
anger of another person, which decides the nature of their relationship. The vibrations
emanating from good behavior leave the right impact. We can understand why every
one seems to be calm and peaceful when they are around rishis and sages. This also
explains why patients are advised to go to beautiful natural resorts to improve their

45
health. The amazing healing capacity of these natural resorts lies in their subtle bhava-
vibrations. The vibrations emanating from the forest life, animals, birds, hills, rivers,
streams, trees and vegetation all together keep us healthy and happy.

DEATH - I

Countdown to death begins the day one is born. Death is inevitable. It leads to a new
birth and becomes a rung in the ladder of the continuity of the universal system. Indian
philosophy believes in the principle of rebirth, therefore a great deal has been written
about death. The life after death has also been specially delineated. There are almost
an endless number of descriptions of life after death. We come across voluminous
descriptions of a few moments of life after death. We hear of numerous stories of the
people who were said to have died for a few moments, but they rose again from their
pyres soon after. They also had to tell a lot about their experiences of this brief period
of their afterlife.

There is no fear bigger than death. No one wants to die even if one is living a life of
great suffering. In our country we have evolved some great practices related to death
such as death at will, santhara, samadhi etc. We Indians are quite familiar with certain
other concepts about the worlds after death, the empire of death, yamaloka , heaven,
hell, etc. We know that famous story of our country, which tells us about how the
virtuous Savitri went to hell and how she brought her husbands Satyawan back to
earth.

Today death is a subject for research even in foreign countries. A new stream of
thought has led to the creation of a body of literature on near-death experiences.

Many scientists have come to accept the theory of rebirth. The Indian lifestyle takes
rebirth into account to determine the order of life and moksha, that is, freedom from
the cycle of birth and death is said to be at the base of all principles of our life. Our
religious leaders have woven a web of falsehood around this concept and they do not
talk about the present life. In fact, this kind of blind belief is common to the people of
all religions.

Our scriptures mention many signs of the approaching death. Astrological calculations
can predict the moment of dying. Palmistry, science of voice, omens etc., also provide
portents of death. Sometimes a person may have a premonition about his own death.

It is said that a man sees all the events of his life in a flashback immediately before his
death. He looks at the moving scene with wide eyes. On this occasion he is able to
evaluate his entire life as to what was the purpose of his life and what he has achieved.

All this indicates that death is a preordained program. Sometimes, it gives prior

46
warnings about its arrival while at other times, it comes suddenly. People who are
sensitive by nature get an inkling as to when it is coming, but men of strong will
would not be frightened of it.

The cycle of life and death is a part of the creational system; therefore it is certain that
it is not a mere coincidence. There is some power that controls this system. We may or
may not acknowledge it as God. You may give it the name you want. But it is not for a
human being to decide as to when and where he will be born or when or where he will
die. No one is immortal, though we accept the existence of a soul as an essential
element in every being in this universe. Our philosophical thought considers the body
to be mortal and the soul to be immortal and that provides the rational behind the
concept of rebirth.

The truth is that in practical life we can neither see the soul nor understand anything
about its existence. A man may listen to sermons, read scriptures and still may not be
able to know anything about it. And now, in kaliyuga , when everything is dominated
by evil, you can’t have even a glimpse of it. If someone sets out with determination to
seek it, he will be neither here nor there, and he will not find anyone who can guide
him in his search for the soul.

In this life there are only two alternatives before him. One is to eat, drink and be
merry. God has given us this life and ability to enjoy it, then why should we be sad?
Wouldn’t this sadness amount to disrespect to God? The other line of thinking is that
one should live a life of temperance and seek peace and happiness.

One should be careful lest today’s mistakes should spoil his tomorrow, lest perversions
and diseases should ruin his old age, therefore, I have to spend my life in harmony
with nature. I have to concentrate on this life. If I have got peace in this life, I will not
miss it in my next life for it will become a part of my nature and it will remain with
me.

Renunciation is simply an escape from karma (action). Can a sannyasi refrain from
karmic actions? A bondage will continue to be a bondage whether it is the bondage of
a householder, life or that of a sect or religion. A discerning man can keep himself free
from bondage in every situation. Otherwise, even sannyasa (asceticism) cannot lead
him to moksha . These days, people remain connected to their relatives even after
renouncing the world. They enjoy the new comforts provided by science. How can
moksha be possible under these circumstances?

In ordinary routine of life death also means an ordinary event. It sounds quite natural.
It does not create the stress of unnecessary worries and the present also doesn’t
become worse on account of the apprehensions of the future. What really happens is
that the basis of what we do in the present is not the present but it is linked with the
next life.

Doing away with the fear of death from one’s mind is the real moksha . This fear is the
greatest obstacle in the way of peace. Usually, this fear is created in us by others.

47
Determination to live in the present can set us free from this fear. Fear originates in the
mind. It is a negative feeling, which is associated with the evil part of our nature.
When someone lives his own life, his fears, passions, aversions, etc. are also very
insignificant. By enhancing our sense of positivity to some extent or inculcating a
fellow feeling we can free ourselves from fears and suffering. The fear of death also
disappears. But the difficulty is that modern medical science has blown up the fear of
death to such an extent that one does not even get a chance to die in peace. The belief
that ‘vasudhaiva-kutumbakam ,’ that is, the whole world is my family- can be a good
alternative for the idea of death and to get out of the darkness of the fear of death. This
is moksha.

DEATH - II

The greatest fear in a man’s mind is that of death. Perhaps other creatures do not
experience the fear of death. Our scriptures consider death a gateway to new birth. Just
as a man changes his clothes, the soul changes the body. It is difficult to acquire the
human form, therefore, there is a fear that one may be reborn in some other form.
Because of this fear, one does not want to lose the human body so easily.

The process of death begins with the birth itself. The countdown starts at that very
moment. We say that we are grown up but in fact many years of life have already
elapsed. As soon as this idea occurs to our mind, we feel startled for a moment but
soon we become oblivious of it. It is also a truth that the man who has a goal before
him and who works for its fulfillment does not suffer from the fear of death. Those
who aim high and work sincerely for the achievement of their aims are also not afraid
of death. Fear is the greatest cause of suffering in life. In the Gita Lord Krishna has
cited fear and worry as the most damaging factors in human life.

It is said that when Prajapati created Death and assigned to it the task of destruction, it
declined saying that this task would yield to it nothing but curses from all sides. For a
long time, he did not take up the job. Prajapati asked him a second time to do it, and
the third time but Death’s response was negative. At this Prajapati told him that there
was no need to be afraid of the curses because the people themselves would die of
diseases and sorrow. Death would only be a sign. As far as curses are concerned, there
is another side also, because Death will receive blessings from those who die at the
banks of the Ganga and other holy rivers.

Thus, so far we have talked about the nature and fear of death, which is common to
every creature, but the death we are talking about is only the terminal point of physical
life. Even in thousands of days of our life before the final moment we face death
everyday. For example, a man has made a tremendous effort to achieve his goal, but he
ultimately fails. It is for him a moment more difficult than that of death. We face such
occasions hundreds of times in our life. Fear overtakes human beings before death, but

48
when someone fails in his task, fear overtakes him. Final death is inevitable, for which
Sri Krishna has used the term ‘dhruvam mrityu’ (Death is certain). But the other death,
which occurs daily in our life, should be our main concern and we should learn to
tackle it effectively in order to be free from its fear.

Death is also known as the gateway to new life. The soul abandons one body and
enters into another. The foundation of the new body is laid by the actions of the past
life. It is the body that dies and not the soul. In other words, the gross body dies and
not the subtle and causative bodies. Whatever is imprinted on the subtle body is
carried forward to the next birth. The soul retains the memory of the old life till it is in
the womb, but forgets it at birth. Two types of air, aavah and pravah are operative at
that time. One of them, pravah , is so forceful that the soul, when in the womb, forgets
everything under its impact. Immediately before death memories of one’s whole life
pass before one’s eyes in a flashback and this makes one fearful. But this kind of thing
is not possible in the case of sudden death.

When a person who has been declared dead comes back to life after a while, his
experiences corroborate many beliefs about rebirth. These days a lot of literature is
available on this subject in the west. Several research projects are also going on.

A man’s life is also afflicted by a feeling of insecurity. This is also a cause of our daily
death. It keeps a man constantly under stress and weakens his spirit. He does not
realize that death is certain and the process begins with birth itself. Even otherwise, the
brave are always ready to face death at any moment. But only an enlightened man can
be brave. A man of action is not afraid of death; he does not cross the limits of
propriety also. He rises above selfish ends and lives a noble life.

In our country we have a different belief relating to death. The soul does not die, it
simply changes the body. Srimad Bhagvad Gita says, “Na jayate mriyate va
kadachita.” (The soul neither dies nor is born.) In other words, a body takes birth and
dies only to experience the fruits of the karmas . The soul is neither born nor does it
die. The confusion about the soul taking birth or dying has been caused because of its
association with the body. We have a belief that we receive our life span from the sun.
Everyday it takes back a day out of our life. It is the creator and sustainer of the
universe. Whether you worship it or not, it does its job regularly everyday.

We think death comes without fixing a date. According to our culture, someone who
comes without fixing a date is a guest. We may think so but in the registers of the
creation, that date is fixed, whether it is sudden or natural. It is a different matter that
we are not able to know about it. But there is always an excuse. It is also said that
death cannot be averted. There, nothing can be of avail. Death carries away the
targeted person. There are some people who do get a premonition of death. Such
people are fully prepared when death comes. The knowledge of svaras also helps you
to get a signal about the arrival of death.

Men are so absorbed in the routine activities of life that they do not remember the
word ‘death’. They remain entangled in a web of activities. Only occasionally a

49
thought of renunciation arises in a person’s mind at a cremation ground, but the very
next moment he is again lost in the wilderness of his own thoughts. The reason for this
is the attachment to the world. The man who is aware of the coming death, lives a life
of discipline tries to achieve the goals of life. He knows the value of time. He lives a
regular and disciplined life.

On the other hand, people with a weak mind seem to be seeking an escape from life.
They find life to be so difficult that they have a constant longing for death. Sometimes
one goes to the extent of attempting a suicide. Such people do not know how to face
the challenges of life, they lack practical knowledge.

It is our ignorance that gives birth to our passions and aversion. We are constantly
making efforts to attain the desirable and avoid the undesirable. The idea of union and
separation continues to create confusion within us. We need to live a fully awakened
life. We cannot know the reality without it. The concepts of birth and death cannot be
understood in its absence. Man will have to ponder over the fact that when he cannot
take birth or die by his will, nothing is under his control. But still he possesses the key
to knowledge, which enables him to see and understand everything clearly and decide
which path he has to take in life. The chance to attain knowledge has also been made
available to him through this rare human form. No other creature is blessed with this
privilege.

PANCHKOSHA - I

An aphorism says, “As is the universe, so is the human body,” that is, whatever there
is in the universe, is also there in the body, The body is the exact copy of the universe.
If we know the principles regulating the body accordingly, we will automatically
understand several facts about the universe. Mind, intellect and ego are linked with the
body. A formula that explains this constitution of the body is known as the principle of
panchkosha . According to it, the body is divided into five cells. In them lies
everything ranging from jiva to brahm. The outer cover is the gross body which is
known as annamaya kosha where, it is said, jiva and God reside. Between these two
are the other koshas: pranamaya, manomaya and vigyanmaya.

The prime kosha is the anandamaya kosha , which though remains in an abstract form,
yet sustains all the other koshas . It is called the sustainer of all others because if it is
disrupted at any stage, other koshas will not be able to function. Therefore, it is at the
base of other koshas. Vedas have also declared, “anandadevsarvametadbhavata.”
Ananda is the source of the origin of the world and the entire creation. If the element
of ananda is missing, everything will be in a state of lifelessness.

Then comes the vigyanmaya kosha, which combines with trigunas and manifests itself
in the form of intellect. All the worship, the practice of yoga, all the karma yoga , gyan

50
yoga, bhakti yoga, budhi yoga in this world, in nut-shell, all the shastras are structured
towards the attainment of the essence of ananda. Even then true bliss is attained by
one in a million. Otherwise people get only happiness blended with sorrow. Ananda,
which consists of this kind of combination of happiness and sorrow is a common
experience while the highest objective of life is considered to be the pure form of
ananda without any tinge of sorrow. As it is, with the joining of the three gunas –
satvaguna, rajoguna and tamoguna with vigyanmaya kosha the intellect comes to the
fore. If by regular practice, rajoguna and tamoguna are suppressed to such an extent
that their presence does not agitate the mind, it will lead to a state of complete satvik
purity. Only in that state one can strike a relationship with vigyan-atma . In this way in
its intense form, vigyan also reaches the state of kosha.

History bears a witness to the fact that it is this vigyan kosha , which is directly, or
indirectly the origin of all and is responsible for new creations. A man who could
master the vigyanmaya kosha had complete control over mantra-tantra , was
knowledgeable about the use of arms and was capable of creating a benign world.
Vishwamitra is a well-known example of this kind of siddha-purusha . The entire
philosophy of intellect was based on this vigyanmaya kosha . The philosophers of this
school of thought followed this very course, but they mistook intellect for vigyan and
were thus deprived of the true ananda because vigyanmaya kosha is only a means, the
end is ananda.

The third is the manomaya kosha. It has two distinctions – the first is the practical
mind which includes the three virtues of satvik, rajas and tamas with which we are not
familiar but we think we know them. The second is the deeper mind which is
connected with ananda vigyan . It is very deep and intense, that is why it is termed as
manomaya kosha .

This deeper mind is known as avyaya purush among three purushas. It has been
described in the Gita in these words: ‘ishwar sarvabhutanam hriddeshe.’ Whereas the
mind linked with the three virtues is at times unhappy and at other times happy, the
deeper mind is always in a state of ananda in pure vigyan bhava . If this mental state
can be somehow achieved through practice, it leads to the attainment of the highest
state of completeness in life because this oneness with this blissful deeper mind
imparts so much of power that the prana, taking inspiration from it, is able to perform
all worldly functions efficiently and with determination. With its eye on the
vigyanmaya mana it remains free from the bondage caused by the process of actions.
Being a middle element, this manomaya kosha is quite intense and serious in nature.

Vigyanmaya kosha exists inside this manomaya kosha . This is the place where
intellect resides. Our five senses – eyes, nose, ears, mind and skin are all connected to
koshabuddhi . This is the sphere of knowledge. It is knowledge that enables us to
comprehend our subtle, gross and causative or casual body. It is knowledge that leads
us to the soul. When one crosses the stages of annamaya, pranamaya and manomaya
kosha, he gains authentic knowledge. This knowledge acquaints him with
anandamaya kosha that is available in vigyanmaya kosha . This is the abode of the

51
soul, jiva and God. This is where the ‘I’ originates from. The concept ‘aham
brahmasmi’, that is, ‘I am the Brahm’ comes from here. Here lies the origin of the
entire creation and its manifestation. Ananda is the main motive behind the whole
expanse of the creation. The universe and the rhythm of creation have their source in
ananda.

The fourth is the manomaya kosha. This kosha is the foundation of the body, but it
exists both at the subtle and gross levels and makes the element of prana quite
complex. Countless distinctions of prana have been given at different places in our
shastras , but according to Ved Vigyan the vital force of prana , that moves the
universe lies in rishi, pitar, deva, asura, gandharva and mana (mind).

Out of these, pitar, deva etc. are known as pranas that are attached, they cannot
function in isolation, therefore, they always go together. Only the rishi prana , which
is the form of gyana, is unattached. The form of knowledge, which we find in
expressions like, ‘we have understood’ or we have expression like, ‘we have
experienced it’ does not need to be attached to any other form. It is unattached and
complete in itself because it is a part of our experience. This is the deepest form of
rishi prana .

All pranas can be authenticated by experience. This intense form of prana vigyan is
called pranamaya kosha . The very subtle chief prana remains hidden in the depth,
which when struck results in immediate loss of life or a state of unconsciousness for a
long period. But even after such an incident, what still saves life is pranamaya kosha.

PANCHKOSHA - II

Our body is composed of five elements: air, water, earth, fire and space. It is sustained
by food, that is why, it is known as annamaya kosha . It is food that produces juice,
blood, flesh, the fat, bones, bone marrow and semen. The shape and nature of our body
is formed in consonance with the soul. Body is the medium through which the desires
of the mind are fulfilled. Hence it is important that the body remains healthy so that no
desire remains unfulfilled – the importance of the body is limited to that extent only.
On the other hand, it is the main medium both of the extension of the universe and
self-introspection. Family, society and the universe are grossly connected to the body.
When one visualizes that one supreme power is pervading all created things and
beings, then he becomes introvert.

It is the pranamaya kosha that directs and develops the body and connects it to the
mind. There are five prime life forces and five secondary life forces, which perform
the gross functions in the body. They are known as prana, apaan, udaan, samaan ,
vyaan, and naag, koorm, krikal, devdutt and dhananjay. The chief pranas of the
universe like rishi, pitra, deva, etc. are the transformed forms of the pranas . An

52
individual is born with a debt to the pranas of rishi, pitra and deva and wants to repay
it before death. It is the prana –the life force that sustains the mind.

Pranas give an indication of the subtle body. Our instincts are also directed by pranas.
This is symbolic of the war between devas and demon prana draw a person in
different directions. The subtle body creates the bondage of samskaras in the inner
mind. It is to train this prana -body that ‘pranayam’ is practiced. Jagadguru
Shankaracharya writes in apeksanubhut i – “Reinforcement of the conviction that God
is all - pervading and gaining control over life forces is called pranayam.” “aham
brahmasmi”, that is, “I am Brahm ”– practicing this belief is poorak and that the
world is an illusion is rechak. The constant belief that “I am Brahm ” is, in fact,
kumbhak. In practice, the world is not an illusion. It is just a feeling. Worshipping the
world is worshipping the self. The world is also the consecration of truth.

With the help of pranamaya kosha we can unravel the deepest mysteries of life, we
can understand our mind, we can see the outer shield and can make plans to remove it.
Our manomaya kosha resides in this pranamaya kosha . Our five functional organs –
hands, feet, anus, urinary organs and mouth are linked to manomaya kosha . Our mind
is the world of desires. Our prarabdh karmas ( karmas ordained by destiny) get
accumulated in the mind. They fall off only when we have undergone the suffering
meant for the period ordained by them. There is another way also. As Krishna has said
in the Gita, “O Arjuna! the fire of knowledge burns all the karmas. ” Prarabdh is said
to be the last bondage of a human being.

Annamaya kosha is the fifth kosha . It is the main supporting base of life. Indra has
termed Vishvarath as his own form of prana and food as the closest friend of prana.
Vishvarath became Vishwamitra when he comprehended this spirit of friendship. For
this anna (food) in panchdashi it has been said, “annam brahmah”, that is, the word
‘Brahm’ is derived from ‘brahm’ which refers to sustenance implying that food is
brahm . The bhavas created by the power of Maya , such as sleep, hunger, craving,
endurance, travesty, shame, peace, reverence, splendor, wealth, instinct, memory,
compassion, satisfaction, illusion etc. are all forms of atman (soul).

When one gets to know these and the power of God, only then he can say with
conviction that jiva is Brahm. He then installs himself in the element of intellect and
imbibes the self-lit power of knowledge and experiences the practical power that lies
behind all visible things.

PANCHGUHA (The Five Caves)


Body is the holder, carrier as well as the representative of the soul. It is the proof of
our existence. It is the medium for the fulfillment of our desires. The body in itself is
also a complex organism.

53
The philosophy of healthy living alone cannot provide a complete insight into it. On
the one hand, it comprises five great elements and on the other hand, it functions like a
living organism.

It is enveloped in trigunas (raj – passion, sattva – truth or goodness and tama –


darkness). The jiva and God reside in it. All these elements function at their own level.
Our rishis have tried to get an insight into it. From among the body, mind, intellect and
soul, it is the body that forms the first entrance to spirituality.

There are several ways through which we can understand the composition of the
human body. The principle of ‘panchkosha’ is one of them which analyzes both body
and soul.

The system of the six chakras explains the functions of living organism and the
upward movement of energy. Ayurveda shows the way to a lifestyle in harmony with
nature. An ordinary man does not require special knowledge. One needs knowledge
that is befitting to his lifestyle. Neither more nor less will do.

This fact is corroborated by the difference in theory and practice. In practice, we use
several principles, but we need not know their meaning. The new changes that have
occurred in education have linked the simple process of meaning to orthodoxy.

According to scriptures, the body is best understood in the same order in which it is
made and it functions. There are three ways to understand it : sat, a form of power that
has a centre as well as a circumference: asat, that which has no centre and no
circumference. The third form is sadsat , that is mixed one. In all these forms – mana ,
prana , vaak , though always together, keep changing and taking new forms. This is a
fixed process and it is this factor that carries forward the extension program of
adhibhautik , adhidaivik and spiritual universe.

In life we see them in the forms of knowledge, action and matter. Out of these, the
source of knowledge is the mind, that of action is prana and that of matter is vaak.

Living things are called ‘sat.’ Since prana does not contain any other prana , it is
called ‘asat.’ The collective form of different pranas is called ‘deva.’ The prana group
of the same category is known as ‘rishi.’

The pranas that function in our body, work in a group of seven pranas . According to
this principle, we have four caves in our body. In every cave seven pranas function in
seven parts.

Three of them function in couples and the seventh, the mouth prana works alone.
Couples are composed of one negative and one positive prana. In siroguha, there are
two ears, two eyes and two nostrils which form the seats of six pranas . The seventh
seat is the mouth which is single. These are all organs of sense. The seventh, the
mouth prana gives them power and is known as ‘indra.’ It is seated in brahmrandhra .
It gives the power of knowledge.

54
The second cave is known as uroguha. It contain two hands, two lungs, two breasts in
the form of a couple and the seventh one is the heart which is single. The main source
of power for them is the throat.

It provides valorous power. Similarly, in the third cave udarguha , there are liver and
spleen forming a couple, stomach and digestive system forming another couple and
two kidneys. The seventh prana is located in the navel. Their central prana is seated in
the heart, which is located in Uroguha. It provides the power to eat food and digest it.

The fourth cave is known as the vastiguha. It has two feet, two openings for
discharging urine and semen, two testicles and one anus. Their centre of power or
‘Indraprana’ is located in the navel, which is the last part of udarguha. Vastiguha is a
means that provides power for excretion and pouring out.

It is clear from the above description that our body is also divided in four categories
like the four varnas, siroguha is ‘brahmin’ for it is a seat of knowledge. Uroguha with
its valorous power is ‘kshatriya’ with its tendency to accumulate and distribute,
udarguha is vaishya and vastiguha, which is given to service, and art is ‘shudra’ . In
every part of the body different pranas are located. The forms and functions of these
pranas differ.

The mind is known as Bhardwaj rishi (prana). The mind is made of food and food is
termed as ‘waj’ . That which fills with ‘waj’ is Bhardwaj, that is, the one for whom
food is provided. Eyes have been called ‘jamadagni ,’ that is, through which you know
the world and which is also fire because of the light in them. The ear is vishvamitra
which creates vishvamitra rishi . The world is made of vaak , therefore, vaak is known
as vishvakarma , that whose job is to make the world.

The chief pranas that function in our body are called rishi, pitra, deva or asura pranas
. They are further divided into Vasu (8), Rudra (11) and Aditya (12). When Indra and
Prajapati are added to them, they make 33 devatas (pranas) . It is said that these get
expanded into thirty-three thousand devatas.

SHATCHAKRA
The Six Mystical Circles of the Body

Our body is made of the five basic elements (earth, water, air, fire and space). It is
sustained by them alone and in the end it becomes one with them. This truth can easily
be explained by means of shatchakra . The chakras are our main centers of energy. It
is these chakras that carry out the function of regulating the movement of energy in
the body, particularly in the pranic body. They are called chakras because almost all
the objects of the universe are in circular form.

55
Similar to the modus operandi of our body, there is a system of chakras at every level
in the universe too. The surya-lok (the solar region) as well as the lokakash that lies
beyond the sphere of the sun comes also within the word ‘brahmand’ (universe). The
Indian sacred texts indicate that devas (gods), rakshas (ghosts) and yagyas (gods of
sacrificial rites) etc., also have bodies and even without bodies they regulate the
functions of nature in the form of elements. We will have to concede the existence of
the systems of shatchakras among all the bodied creatures. Every human being makes
use of this system since it has been said that he alone has the right to karma . All other
devas, yagyas etc. have the right to bhogbhumi (the land of enjoyment i.e. heaven,
paradise etc.) but not to karma. Our body has three levels – the gross, the subtle and
the causal. The causal body is the soul and the gross body is its manifestation. The
subtle body acts as a bridge between the two. The gross body has its own system of
shatchakra and the presiding deities of these chakras possess the subtle bodies. The
subtle bodies are governed by pranas and they in turn rule the senses of perception. It
means that the six chakras of the pranic body are bound with the senses of perception.

In the agamas it has been analyzed after dividing it into two categories. The first path
which is based on the five basic elements including akash is considered to be the
culmination of the gross form of sensual pleasures. It is believed that there is no
possibility of a jiva being emancipated from the cycle of birth and death through this
path. Discriminatory practices continue to prevail. The second path aims at making the
conquest of worldly desires based on word, touch, form, taste and smell as the goal of
spiritual practice (sadhana ). It is believed that through this path a jiva can soon
complete the process of entering the subtle world, emancipate himself from
transmigratory cycle and attain the ultimate state of bliss. In the system of shatchakra
of the gross body the first chakra is muladhar , which is situated in the bottom of the
backbone. According to agamas or tantra shastra (mystical formulae) it is believed
that there are two centers of muladhar – the first is agya-chakra and the last one is
guha-chakra . It is the judicious and prudent combination of the two that all the
sciences of yoga aim at. It is only after a yogi has achieved success in it that he may
enter sahasrar ’s ocean of bliss. The earth is the element of muladhar , which alone is
the grossest manifestation. Creation is also the gross representation. The earth is also
created at the last end of the five basic elements.

The basis of the creation is shunya (emptiness or void) which means akash (space). In
accordance with the vedic definition, the real shunya is other than the one we regard as
shunya . In an ordinary definition shunya means a desolate and quiet place where no
one lives. But in the vedas one of the names of Indra is also ‘shun’ . He is present
even at the place where there is nothing. Akash (space) also means emptiness or void.
It is pervaded only by the unmanifested sound, which is its tanmatra (subtle form).
Here the difference between akash and vyom has also been explained. The gross form
of the space where a worldly habitat is present is called vyom . The region of the space
devoid of such habitat is called akash . There is a reference to the existence of a param
vyom (a beautiful world) in the last vyahriti (a mystic syllable) out of the seven
vyahritis beginning with bhoo, bhuvah etc. It is the subtlest element, which can neither
be seen nor touched. It is the sound that first permeates akash (space), then comes the

56
word. The vaak blended with words dwells in our throat in the form of vishuddhi
chakra (carotid plexus or center of purity).

This gross akash is the realm of elements. It creates vayu (air). The characteristic of
vayu is ‘touch.’ It is the subtle touch of vayu that perpetuates creation. There are ten
kinds of vayus that are active in our body. They are known as prana (vital breath),
apan (windiness), vyan (air) etc. Vayu carries out the function of circulation and
contraction. The main center of this vayu is anahat chakra (cardiac plexus), which is
located in the region of the heart where palpitation in itself is a form of anahat and
breath is also inhaled and exhaled in an anahat way. Anahat means ‘unstruck’–
throbbing in a natural way. The heart is the regulator of our vayu.

The subtle form of vayu, which has in it the characteristic of touch, creates a
widespread impact. Though we have limited this form of tangible contact to mere
touching a limb of the body, the activity of the eye cannot take place till it sees the
objects that lie close by or at a distant place. In such situations we are able to perceive
things with the help of the touch of vayu only. The ear will also not be able to carry out
its function of hearing till the sweetest or bitterest word of the world collides with it.

The same principle applies to nose and tongue. Hence we have to admit that it is
mainly the subtle form of the touch of the air that helps all sense organs. On account of
being born of akash its subtle form as a word or sound remains hidden in the air. It is
on account of its inspiration that a stream of words flows from human mouth.

The expansion of creation too doesn’t happen merely with the help of anahat. It also
needs a form, a name and karma. In order to enable us to see the form we need light.
Nothing is visible without light. Form (swaroop) means creating something gross. The
very act of seeing by a seer is called sight or vision. We need light to be able to see.
Vayu descends from anahat and manifests itself in the navel-manipur chakra in the
form of effulgence or luster. The realm of the element of fire or light is manipur
chakra. Light radiates all the ten directions.

Can the creation go on by our mere act of seeing? The answer is ‘No’. For it we need
rasas or tastes in our life. They are six in all. Water is the presiding deity or the
regulator of all the rasas. In this process of creation swadhishthan chakra, which lies
below the navel, is the periphery of the element of water and shatdal lotus is its
manifestation.

Water cannot stay at a place without support. It needs a ground or surface. Hence in
creation as we proceed, the element of earth in the form of ground or surface manifests
itself in muladhar . According to agamas there are two levels of muladhar in the body.
The subtle touch of vayu plays a dominant role in circulation and contraction. Its
centre is the nose in which ida, pingala and sushumna are active. It is the first
muladhar and the last muladhar situated in the rear region. In sadhana it is imperative
that both meet.

This is what the Vedas describe as the system of gross creation. An individual can

57
perceive this system only by means of meditation and japa . There is no other way.
Both the processes are independent in themselves. At a later stage both even become
one. Every chakra can be awakened and activated by the medium of japa. One by one
all chakras i.e. all the basic elements are activated so that a way may be paved for a
new creation (prati-srishti) by merging one with the other.

Here there is only one thing for us to understand that chakras are a part of the subtle
institution. Hence our eyes cannot see it and we cannot experience its touch. We are
able to discern its activities only when we undertake an internal trip and move further
from the gross to the subtle. With the help of our ordinary common sense we can at
least realize that our sense-organs are governed by our vital force (prana). It means
that they are connected with the subtle world. If we have to travel from the gross to the
subtle, we will have to follow this very path. Else it may happen that we reach
nowhere.

One of the characteristics of the earth is smell. In muladhar the smell remains beyond
our perception. For it, we will have to go up to the nose. With the help of the efforts
made by the nose we shall soon be able to reach the subtle smell, the element of earth.
It also applies to the basic elements connected with other chakras . The element of
water is associated with our taste or flavor. It is located in the tongue. The chief
characteristic of the element of fire is light. It is the basis of visualizing the form. This
very form is the basis of perception. Hence, the eye occupies the second place.

The state of anahat is basically inherent in akash . Both sound and akash are
connected with the word hence where there is an element of akash in the body, anahat
is also there. It means that sarvanga or the entire body is intertwined with anahat.
Vayu (air) is its component and sparsh (touch) is its characteristic. Vishuddhi chakra is
nothing but the periphery of akash . Since it is accompanied by word, it dwells in the
ear.

The meditation and japa concentrated on these parts of the body create vibrations in
the stream of our vital breath which soon makes a man introvert (immersed in one’s
own thoughts or self). The movement of prana makes our senses rise towards the
mind and the mind towards the soul. If the system of shatchakra exists in our body, a
similar system must be prevailing in brahamand (universe) also, and it must also be
connected with our system of chakras. Both of them must be governed by the same
principle. Each layer of this five-layered universe consisting of svayambhu, parmesthi,
sun, moon, and earth must also have a system of six chakras . It means that if we can
get connected with this system of subtle chakras , we will automatically be linked with
the systems of chakras that prevail in other worlds. The gross chakras dissolve with
the dissolution of the body itself.

COLORS

58
Our life has all the colors of the rainbow. Our body is also a sort of rainbow. The
sunlight has in it all seven colors. These colors and forms are basically the subjects of
our eyes.

Not only this, even sound, touch and smell have colors. If examined carefully one will
find that our very life and acts are based on them. Every moment they affect our life.
Every moment the color of our choice changes. If it becomes imperative to wear the
same shirt the next day, how many of us will be willing to do so?

We are a part of the solar system of our creation. Our body is created with the help of
the pranas (vital breaths) of the orb of the sun. Even the planets of the sun have their
own colors. Their effects can be perceived through our horoscope.

Every moment we are affected by their colors. We try to remove their adverse effects
with the help of gems, mantras (incantations) and medicines. A gem also radiates
colors which percolate through the body. It is a mystery how its colors dissolve in the
body and how they affect our intellect and mind.

In our body too there are seven constituent elements (dhatus) – they are juices (rasa),
blood (rakta) , flesh (mansa), fat (meda), marrow (majja), bone (asthi) and semen
(shukra) .

Each one of them is governed by a planet and it is the color of the planet concerned
that affects the dhatu it is connected with. Each gem is also ruled by a particular
planet. You may have now realized which disease an irate planet can cause and what
type of gem may prove useful in its treatment. Thus we find that colors play an
important role in our life.

The basis of surya-kiran-chikitsa or sunray-treatment is also colors but it excludes the


planetary influence. The very basis of colors is important. The effect of a color is
caused either by our eyes or by vital breaths. The connection that our eyes establish
with colors is gross while that which exists between vital breath and colors is subtle. It
cannot be seen with our eyes. It is certain that our body is regulated by vital breath
which is also a medium between the gross and the casual bodies.

Every individual has his own aura or aureole (a bright circle of light halo). Every
inanimate object or animate object carries with it a bright circle of light or halo (aura)
around it.

All jivas , whether they are in the form of humans or animals or birds inevitably carry
their aureoles with them. A human’s aura has seven layers which have different colors.
They draw in the energy from the environment around them and transmit it inwardly.

All the seven layers of the aura are connected with the seven chakras (seven mystical
circles of the human body considered to be the centers of energy). The colors of these
chakras are also in the same order as those of a rainbow. The color of the muladhar
(pelvic plexus) which is located downward in the lowest part of the body is red. The

59
colors of the remaining chakras are as follows:

‘Swadhishthan (hypogastric plexus) is orange, manipur (solar plexus) is yellow,


anahat (cardiac plexus) is green, vishuddh i (carotid plexus) is blue, agya-chakra
(madula plexus) is indigo and sahasrar is violet.’

These chakras imbibe the energy in the form of colors from the layers of the aura and
transmit it for the use of the body. At the end of this process the remnants of the
energy are transmitted back by chakras which pass through the aura again and
dissolve in the environment.

Similarly another gateway to energy is our breathing system i.e. inhalation and
exhalation. It passes through ida, pingla, or sushumna. Its forms are pran, apan,
saman, udan and vyan etc. The energy acquired by chakras flows through the subtle
nerves called brahma and chitra which dwell in sushumna . It is a pathway to upward
journey. Ordinarily these energies remain confined to the limbs connected with
chakras and subside gradually.

The practitioners of meditation are aware that the colors of chakras appear changed if
they (chakras) are mixed. A similar effect is created in the body. The entire process of
purification is carried out by means of the colors of the chakras. The state of the mind
of an individual can be diagnosed merely by observing these colors. Today some
mechanical tools and equipment have also appeared in the market with the help of
which we can see the colors of the chakras and those of the aura. Thus a thorough
medical check up of an individual is possible without any medical tests. If there is
anything wrong, it can be remedied either by supplementing the colors needed or by
coordinating them.

Colors vary in accordance with the development of an individual which shine on one’s
face. This refulgence is called auz (luster). We can perceive all the activities of the
vibrations of the atoms in the body with the help of colors but it is only the seven
constituent elements of the body that are affected by them. The basic chakras remain
unaffected. The natural colors of the chakras remain static.

PRACTICE

“O! Kaunteya,” says Krishna to Arjuna, “Through practice the state of vairagya (a
state of detachment) can be attained. This statement from the Gita presents in a
nutshell the crux of life. Life is a combination of happiness and sorrow. Man desires
only happiness. The feeling of happiness or that of sorrow is experienced by the mind
of man. The mind is the lord of all the sense-organs. The sense-organs establish the
mind’s connection with the external things/subjects. Through this connection the mind
experiences the feeling of happiness or sorrow.

60
Our chitta (psyche) is constituted of the mind, intellect and the ego. Both the intellect
and the ego keep the mind excited. Experiences gained through the sense-organs like
kama (passion), anger, greed, attachment, pride and matsarya (envy) also keep the
mind in a state of restiveness. It is said that avidya (ignorance) is bigger than vidya
(knowledge) and is the mother of all quarrels. One need not make any effort for
avidya. Vidya (knowledge) takes the form of avidya , if it is not put into practice. It is
because of avidya that we come to regard the mind as the soul and are puffed up with
pride at our intellect. As a result undefinable kinds of experiences always cloud our
mind.

Raga (attachment) is the root of all our grief. The false feelings of happiness and
expectation also arise from raga. Raga and dwesha (enmity) join hands together to
give a direction to our desires. The desire that arises in our mind cannot be awakened
by force of will. It arises automatically, naturally. It is not in our hands to generate
desires. We can either fulfill it or reject it. Pride and intellect are able to create false
feelings on account of our desire only. Their circle of influence goes on increasing
incessantly.

When we undertake a responsibility we are assailed by many kinds of thoughts and


counter thoughts. Fears and apprehensions begin to arise and disturb our thinking. The
feelings of happiness and sorrow keep fluctuating every day. In such situation, the only
way to give a concrete shape to our resolute will to accomplish our goal is regular
practice.

Through practice one can overcome the situations that cause fluctuations and deviation
from our goal. Since the root cause of going astray is the raga (attachment), through
practice vairagya (detachment) can be created. It is a state of one’s mind when it is
completely free from the feelings of attachment. The simple interpretation of vairagya
is that our path is not blocked by undesirable and unnecessary obstacles that prevent us
from fulfilling our objective. If we have to go to Delhi, the desire for any other place
should not disturb us. What are the other routes?

Where do they lead to? We do not have to be drawn into questions like these. For this
it is necessary to have a strong willpower, disciplined senses and a calm and
equanimous mind. This can be attained only through practice. So it has been said that
practice makes a man perfect.

It should be borne in mind that there is a difference between a daily ritual (nitya-
niyam) and practice. A ritual is merely a custom, it is not practice (riaz ). In the
observance of a ritual one doesn’t move forward. One derives satisfaction from having
performed a ritual. But in practice one goes on moving forward attaining new light of
knowledge. This kind of practice helps one to reach the goal.

The observance of a ritual also gives us a new energy but in a very small measure, just
for preserving a feeling of permanence. One can discipline the restive mind through
practice. One can make it calm and solemn. We can also make our intellect discreet.
The cover of avidya can be removed by awakening one’s mind. One begins to

61
understand not only the literal meaning of the subject but also its real meaning. The
definition of happiness and sorrow begins to change. Thinking is deepened.

All this depends on the strength, momentum and concentration of practice. For this
one needs devotion, continuity, time and resolute determination. An awareness
towards the goal is also essential. The aim of practice is to create awareness towards
the goal in all the three states i.e. the states of dream, sleep and wakefulness.
Equanimity and enlightened attitude result from this state of mind only. When a person
works with a sense of dedication, his feeling of expectation from others also comes to
an end. His mind becomes stable and he becomes free from conflicts. Deluded sensual
pleasures cannot grip him. For this an ideal environment of eternal bliss prevails.

NYASA
A Pathway to Spiritual Fulfillment

These days we read a lot about the ceremonies of laying foundation stones. The word
nyasa means foundation, preservation, trust. The form of nyasa is different in different
contexts. In upasana (spiritual practice) nyasa has a different meaning.

Like yam -niyam-pratyahar (restraint of passion, rule and withdrawal from external
objects) the nyas is a stage of upasana (worship) when a sadhaka tries to concentrate
on his favorite deity or to establish his deity within himself. Our scriptures say, “The
varna-matrika (mother of letters) dwells in every part of the body. The establishment
of the beejakshar (seed letter) arouses the power of the varnas . Therefore, one begins
to realize what is present.”

Our ashram system is so well-organized that it helps us to mould one’s life according
to the needs of age and time automatically. One only needs to remain awakened about
it.

After the stages of brahmcharya (celibacy or chastity), grihastha (household) and the
vanprastha (dwelling in forest), when a person retires from all the concerns of life, he
enters the sanyas ashram (stage of asceticism). The very meaning of sanyas indicates
that every individual should try to establish communion with ishwara or God during
this period. If we consider the role of nyasa as the uppermost thing in life, every
individual, then, is a sanyasi.

The grihasthashram (the second stage of life spent as a householder in a Hindu


family) has been described as the best ashram (period) of life. During this period an
individual not only nurses his family but also the communities of all the four varnas
(classes).

He himself eats but after feeding others, he enjoys the fruits of life through sharing

62
with others, and fulfills the responsibility of giving birth to offsprings. Thus, he frees
himself from the debt of his parents.

In vanaprastha he assumes responsibility for social concerns and moves ahead in the
process of upasana (worship). He embarks on the path of devotion along with that of
the acquisition of knowledge. Devotion creates a cooling effect on heat of knowledge.
A period of in-depth analysis of the self and of self-improvement begins.

The individual develops his capacity of analyzing his own merits and demerits. He
begins to think of the inner self apart from his external concerns. From a practical
point of view yam-niyam (self-control) etc., enter the individual life at this point. The
individual begins to accord importance to the observance of discipline and free himself
from the responsibilities of the grihasthashram gradually. The responsibility of the
gristhadharma (the duties of a household) devolves on their offsprings.

In a true sense the vanaprastha (dwelling in a forest) is a major period of change, a


period of reflection, of setting new goals and of analyzing life. This is an important
period of change in the daily pattern of life. The round of permanent changes for the
sake of sanyas begins during this very period.

The process of nyasa can be seen in many systems of upasana . In the various parts of
the body consciousness is established through seed letters. The specific consciousness
of each part is awakened through seed letters. The favourite deity is installed. An
armor of mantras is prepared so that evil elements may not harm the body during
upasana . It is the gross nyasa that has been reduced to mere tradition.

In sanyas the only goal is to connect the mind with the favourite deity. There are two
ways of doing this: one is the path of knowledge and the other, for ordinary people, is
the path of devotion (bhakti). The path of knowledge is dominated by thinking while
the path of devotion is dominated by emotion (love). The path of knowledge is replete
with energy while that of devotion is filled with coolness.

The path of bhakti indicates singing, dancing and engaging oneself in conversation
with one’s favourite deity. It is a way of living by surrendering everything to him with
utmost piousness and by considering God the doer of all things. When one begins to
realize the presence of God within oneself, he is seen in every artifact of the creation.
Kirtan (recitation of hymns) is, in fact, an inner call for help in difficulty.

Draupadi, gopis and the elephant are its examples. The plaintive call not only signifies
the total surrender of the self but also purifies the environment. Kirtan (singing of
devotional hymns) is performed for the purpose of removing the veils that cover the
mind as also for the wiping of karmic bondage generated by past karmas . The mind,
then, begins to live in a satvik (right) environment and this environment influences the
daily routine of an individual. This kind of environment becomes the definition of
‘vasudhaiva kutumbakam’ . This alone is the form of sanyas for an individual.

The path of knowledge is a bit complex. It also has many forms. Different religious

63
sects and faiths describe it in different ways. The tantric scriptures associate it with the
power of Lord Shiva and with the awakening of kundalini. “First be God and then
worship Him.” According to it first of all trust in God must firmly be established in
one’s mind, only then will it be possible for one to tread this path. The path leading
further will open up automatically. ‘I am a part of God, God is within me’. It means
that I am myself God, there is no God outside of me. Surely He is within me. It is
precisely our goal to gain proximity to God. The aim of sanyas (renunciation of the
world) is to establish the kingdom of God avowedly within one’s heart. It is not
possible to change the propensities of life into nivriti (a state of freedom from
activities) unless we regard a karma as a karma.

In the truest sense of the word this kind of sanyas is synonymous with moksa
(liberation). Elucidating it, it has been said, “Any karma performed with a desire will
cause bondage. A karma performed as a duty without any desire doesn’t cause
bondage. The state of mind sans bondage is moksa.

BREATHING

It is said that every man is born with a limited number of breaths and the moment
these breaths are over, he dies. Does it not mean that a man who breathes fast actually
reduces the span of his life while the other who breathes slowly can actually increase
the span of his life? The issue may seem mathematical but the fact is that a man who
breathes at a slower rate attains long life.

The child begins the process of breathing right in the womb of the mother. His pace of
breathing will be like that of his mother. In the womb the breathing of a child is
regulated by the navel. He does not breathe fresh air. When he grows older breathes
from the same place (the navel) but now the route changes. He now breathes air
through his nose or mouth or the windpipe. Sit silently and watch your process of
breathing. You will feel your belly expanding and shrinking. As you become more
concentrated and composed, you will feel that your breathing has become slower. The
more you are concentrated, the greater is the possibility that you become oblivious of
your breath.

That means our breath is not only associated with our body but also with our mind and
age. The system of our breathing also determines our personality. There is no other
method simpler than this to develop our personality.

The best way of staying healthy is to regulate breath. But the problem is that man
doesn’t pay attention to it in terms of its utility nor is such kind of knowledge is made
available in a systematic way. Breath is the ornament of life, it is in fact the beauty and
the power of life. It is the way of being energetic and the first step towards being
strong-willed. The breath is the identity of our life.

64
If the restraint is needed in life, it is the restraint of our breath. For developing a
rhythmic sequence of activities, our breath must be rhythmic. If we need concentration
in thinking and freedom from obstacles, even than the medium of breath is an effective
and powerful means. The way to harmony and bliss can be paved through breath
control.

One of the functions of breathing is to make pranas (energy) available for bodily
activities. This is done through the intake of oxygen. Prana, apan, saman, udan and the
vyana are created through breath. Digestion and excretion depend upon this. The
temperature and the pulse of the body are also regulated by breath.

It is the breath which nourishes our subtle body. The subtle body acts as a bridge
between the gross body and the causal body. The subtle body also breathes and
receives energy. It circulates this energy through the whole body. It is only through
practice in breathing that can help us understand it better. The subtle body influences
our mind directly.

Food and water convert themselves into different metabolites through several
processes. This takes time. But there is a direct relationship between the breath and the
mind. If the mind is upset, the breath becomes restless immediately. We can see the
signs of a restive or wrathful mind through the movement of the breath. The feelings
that affect the mind also immediately affect our breath. Sickness or tiredness of the
body also affects the breath. Thus, the breath can be analyzed and evaluated from
moment to moment.

Let us begin a new life. Let us begin by observing our breath, just observing. Thoughts
may arise and disappear; they need not be stopped or controlled. Breathe deeply and
slowly and observe the same. Watch your breath going in; it is cool; the front portion
of the belly is swelling. Feel the smell of the breath. After taking a complete breath
pause a little and then release it slowly. One should always bear in mind that the
exhaling should take a little longer than inhaling.

Observe the process of breathing out. The warm air is coming out and the stomach is
shrinking, emptying itself. You will feel that it never emptied itself so much before.
There is no need to exert pressure on the stomach. The focus of attention should
always be on the breath. Now note the time taken in inhaling and in exhaling. The time
taken in breathing in and breathing out is to be increased. You can increase this time
by adding five seconds more to both the processes of inhaling and exhaling in your
daily exercise or every third or fourth day you can add five seconds to both the
processes of breathing. Without practice a man breathes in and breathes out fifteen
times per minute. Through practice one can reduce the frequency of breathing to three
or four times per minute. One should practice it at least twenty to twenty five times a
day.

In the beginning one should not attempt to hold or retain one’s breath. The task should
be undertaken under the supervision of an expert. One can start anulom-vilom
(inhaling and exhaling) after a short session of practice. One should breathe in through

65
the left nostril and breathe out through the right one. Then, the same process should be
followed in the reverse order: breathing in through the right nostril and breathing out
through the left nostril. Repeatedly breathing in through the left nostril brings in
coolness. The use of the right nostril causes warmth. The purak (inhalation) brings in
energy. Rechan (exhalation) is useful in stomach disorders. Thereafter the exercise of
making the prana subtle will be beneficial. Sitting peacefully one should observe the
breath. After some time you will feel that the breath is slowing down, the mind is
becoming calm and the breath is also becoming long. Keep on observing the breath,
the mind will be completely relaxed. Here join samkalpa (a vow) with the mind. Keep
on repeating the samkalpa. Feel the effect of the samkalpa. All the sense organs and
energies will engage themselves in achieving the samkalpa . While regular practice of
pranayam builds a healthier body, a regular practice of sukshma pranayam (slow
breathing) will render the mind peaceful and strong. You will be able to build your
new personality easily.

WATCH YOUR BREATH


Without food and water we can live for several days, but cannot survive without
breath. The moment we are born we start breathing and continue doing so till death. To
us this is a natural process. So we have never tried to think of its importance.

Apart from survival, it plays a vital role in keeping our body hale and hearty. By a
proper regulation of breath we can get rid of many diseases and disorders. It helps in
the transformation of the subtlest thoughts and inklings. The ascent of energy is due to
the vital force and it has the capacity to encompass the entire creation.

The vital force is the basis of human life. It motivates and influences our sense organs.
These vital forces deal with all the functions and activities in the integration of body
and soul. They receive energy from the environment. We are a part of the creation
which is also the basis of our life. A sensible understanding of this fact can enable a
man to live without food and water.

Have you ever concentrated your mind on the respiratory process? If not, try it. You
will find that in different conditions the rate of breathing is different. It is steady and
regular in a shorter state of mind. But under exciting conditions it becomes longer and
irregular. It becomes slow when one is engrossed in meditation and self introspection.

Some people carry out breathing exercises in the name of pranayama . They count the
number of breaths. One can hold breath for sometime. Very rarely one is attentive to
his breath.

Watch your breath while inhaling and exhaling. You will find that the rate of breathing
increases gradually. The concentration of the mind increases and soon the warmth and

66
coolness of the breath are felt. Moreover its smell and color will be experienced. The
difference between the breathing by nostrils and by mouth will also be discerned.

An intimate relation exists between breathing and the state of mind. If the mind is
flickering the breathing will be irregular. If the mind is concentrated, it will be steady
and regular. By regulating the breathing process one can acquire stability of mind.

We inhale and exhale through our nostrils – ida and pingala. The nadis transport the
breath into our body. But there is a cyclic change in the inhaling and exhaling process.
In other words when inhaling is through ida, exhaling will be through pingala and the
vice versa . Normally such changes occur intermittently after an hour or so.
Sometimes we find that both are working simultaneously. This implies that sushumna
is active. At this moment, the concentration of mind becomes deeper and easier. If this
practice is continued and the breath is held for some time, one experiences subtle
vibrations. The breath activates, nourishes and nurtures these centers of energy, the
chakras, and takes back the waste. Thus deep concentration and rhythmic breathing
enable one to experience these centers and their specific activities.

Through breathing we can change, purge and purify our thoughts and feelings.
Breathing along with positive thinking will nullify the negative thoughts and feelings
and thereby can bring out a drastic change in the personality.

Breath motivates our positive thoughts and energizes the centre of consciousness. It
strengthens the mind and keeps it under control also.

TAPA (Penance)

Tapa is resorted to in when one wants to please one’s ishtadeva (favourite deity) or
wishes to attain special powers. The ishtadeva , after being pleased, gives us boons
and fulfills our desires. At the age of six, when most children only eat and play,
Dhruva did tapa and shook the throne of his ishta . Lord Krishna, who blessed others
with boons, had to undergo tapa. Rama had to do tapa by spending fourteen years in
the forests. Even today every religion holds tapa in the highest regard. Vrat (vow),
upwas (fasting) japa (chanting of sacred text) and dhyana (meditation) come under the
definition of tapa. “Tapa santape ”, the austerity of the mind and its mortification
increase and one is required to renounce something. The mortification of the senses is
the suffering they are subjected to and the disorganization of the mind is the suffering
of the mind. The suffering of the senses is associated with desires that are born out of
rajoguna (the passion of love and pleasure).One who marches ahead on the path of
penance unmindful of its suffering achieves a wonderful tatva (truth) in the end.
Suffering ensures when the mind is required to relinquish whatever it is attached to or
a part their of. To relinquish something for the sake of someone is tapa. For example
observing silence or observing fast in the name of some god is tapa. The aim is to

67
empty oneself so that something can be purified something new can be achieved.

Tapa (penance), sangatikaran (keeping a good company) and charity are parts of
yagya (sacrifice). The yagya is a continuous process in the creation. It is the creator,
regulator and destroyer of creation. Therefore, tapa is equally important. There are
many kinds of tapa. The tapa that engages the body and the soul of man is the tapa of
the body, mind, intellect and of the soul. Another tapa is that of creation, of nature. On
the other hand there is the tapa of the prana , mind as well as that of the body. The
soul is our causal body from where the prana arises. Where there is a movement of the
pranas it is our celestial part. Our body, being composed of the five elements, is
pashupranmay -bhut-pind a (filled with the breastly pranas and bhutpinda ).

Activity always takes place in the yaju. Rik and sam are always stable. Rik is the
foundation and the sam is the limit of our body. The movement of the prana , invested
by the light of the soul, is subtle. Activities are influenced by these pranas. The yagya,
in essence, continues in the prana . The body is only the result. The body is used for
labour. It is the pranas that undergo penance. Tapa, fasting etc. are done in the name of
a cause. It is because of these that the quantity of bhutas is reduced, animal instinct is
lessened and the void of the soul is filled with new sannivesh . It is a new celestial
ground, a part full of prana , which is incomparable.The advent of the new pranas is
the result of tapa. From this one achieves extra ordinary qualities.

The penance of the pranas is of also two types. When a new prana emerges out of the
combination of the two different pranas , when the two old pranas lose their entity
and unite with a new prana , it is known as ‘yaga ’. Where a new prana emerges and
the old pranas retain their entity and where two bhutas are entertained, it is called
‘yoga’. Where the first devtas (divine beings) have not lost their power and where they
unite with a new devta, it is called yoga . The word yoga has also been used to denote
the union of the two bhutas . Both these activities take place under “yaga.” Yagya is
that incomparable result which is obtained through yaga . This yagya is completed
when soma is given in offering to the agni. Our thinking is the result of the
mortification of the pranas where by ever new thought is created. The birth of the
offsprings and the continuation of the parents are a form of the natural yagya. When
javan (rennet) is added to the milk, it becomes curd. Milk and javan disappear. It is the
result of intermixing known as ‘yaga’.

Our mortal creation is based on beastly prana (pashu-prana) . These pashu-pranas are
our bonds. We inherit ignorance (agyan), pride (asmita), attachment (raga), enmity
(dvesa) and abhinivesh (perseverance) from birth itself. Because of these qualities we
are known as animals. That is why our presiding deity is known as pashupati (Lord of
animals). Ignorance is known as avidhya. Our child-like ignorance, which continues
because of lack of knowledge, is known as asmita (vanity). Abhinivesh (perseverance)
is known as insistence (hatha). Tapa helps to reduce these animal instincts.

The sun continuously burns. Because of this seasons are formed. The sun also remains
in existence. This also is yagya. Sweating is the result of excessive heat. This is like

68
the soma . Soma is born out of manthan (churning). Hence tapa is also yagya.
Donation is also yagya . Through this the pranas are rejuvenated They receive new
energy. One of the forms of tapa is controlling the needs of the body. For developing
practice in swadhyaya (self-study) and in upasana (worship) one has to control
(sadhana) the body. Hunger, thirst and urge for creation are very difficult to control.
These can be controlled only gradually through intensive practice.Vrat (observing
vows) and fasting play an important role in achieving such control. Exercising control
over hunger and thirst is indeed difficult. But after having achieved it, one can sit
calmly at one place for hours together. Observing silence is tapa (penance) and so is
japa (recitation of sacred text). But silence (not being on speaking terms) which is
observed due to enmity or ill-feelings for others, is, in fact, wrong. As against this if
one observes ‘maun’ on a particular day for one’s ishtadeva, it gives great strength to
the soul.

Controlling of the senses is tapa . The asanas (yogic postures) and the pranayam
(breath control) are also the means of preparing the body for sadhana . In sadhana
these are very important. Breath cannot be controlled without first establishing control
over the body. Without perfecting the breath, it is not possible to control the mind and
thoughts. Only through this the mind can become concentrated and self-directed. That
is why the first step is the tapa for controlling the body, next is the controlling of the
pranas and lastly, the tapa of the mind which means blocking desires. From here the
mind advances towards the joy of the self. There is continuity in tapa from here.
Without tapa new energies cannot be felt. Yes, vrat and fasting can make one feel that
one’s body is light. But in the tapa of the pranas controlling and readying the body for
sadhana is important.

The struggle for life is also tapa. If we are a form of God, the creator and holder of the
universe, we will have to undergo mortification. It is tapa that enlarges us. Tapa is
necessary for reaching the top. Tapa is equally necessary for understanding one’s
energies and for making use of those energies. In the true sense tapa is the movement
of life. The rik of our body is pratistha , the limit of our body is the sama , all the
activities of the middle are yaju (which is also called yajurved ). Tapa energizes the
prana and gives them momentum. Therefore, the awakening of the yaju is the
awakening of fortune. That is the result of tapa . Human life will be fruitful, if on our
middle of life which is moving and stationary, we exercise adequate control and do not
become a prey to the temptations of the flow of time and space.That is what the
Acharyas have said. In fact that is the tapa.

69
THE HUMAN BODY - IS A RAINBOW

The charming scene of the rainy season doesn’t fill our hearts with joy unless we see a
rainbow in the sky. What is so attractive about a rainbow? Can’t we have a glimpse of
colors better than this elsewhere? If we travel by air, many times we come across the
scenes of such rainbows, which are not in the form of a semi-circle, but are in the form
a full circle having seven colored auras in the form of a valley in the middle. The
reason is that the sun is father of the world; the origin of this mortal creation. That is
why all the colors of the sunlight are present in animate and inanimate objects,
although they may not be visible.

The analysis of the Indian scriptures in detail may not be available to us in India but
Indian scriptures and principles have been researched and studied all over the world
and this research is continuing still. The fact that has emerged is that the human body
consists of all the colors as reflected in the sunlight. The sequence of the colors is the
same as is visible in the rainbow. Ample literature on the science of colors is available
today. The important thing to note is that the same facts, which were problematic to us,
have now become crystal clear; such as the system of the kundalini and the shatchakra
in our body, the principle of the system of colors in our aura and the generation of the
gross form from the colors etcetera.

It is important to study the system of the shatchakra in our body on the basis of colors.
The chakras act as the main center of energy in our body. Every chakra has a fixed
place like that of the heart, lever and spleen. The chakras spin in a fixed direction. In
keeping with the colors the sound waves operate in particular areas of the chakras .
Accordingly, the letters of our alphabet are linked with these chakras . By chanting the
mantras according to this principle these sound waves are influenced. These chakras
function like a mill of energy.

To receive energy from the auric circle and to distribute the same to other parts of the
body is their function. Although all the chakras work independently, they are
connected with each other at various levels. The chakras with even numbers generate
negative energy and those with odd numbers generate positive energy. The positive
chakras supply energy whereas the negative chakras consume energy. Working in
combination with each other these chakras feed the body, mind and intellect and after
their use they throw away the waste. This throwing away of the waste is also done in
the form of energy through the medium of the auric circle.

The smallest of the chakras is at the base of the spinal cord, which is known as the
‘muladhar chakra.’ It is red in color. It is the base of our body and keeps us linked
with the earth’s center. It receives all its energies from the earth’s center. All the
experiences of a man’s life are recorded through the medium of this center. Our bodily

70
health also depends on the balance of this centre. A little above the muladhar, in the
region of the groin, is the second chakra known as the ‘swadhisthan chakra.’ It is
orange in color. It regulates the emotional life of man. It also appears as rose-colored
in keeping with the spirit of emotions like love, pity and kindness.

Behind the navel in the spinal cord is the ‘manipur chakra ’ which acts as a battery of
the body. The color of the energy here is yellow. It plays an important role man’s
intellectual development. In the womb the development of a fetus takes place through
the navel. That is why the navel acts as the distribution center of the body. Within the
navel is our pool of nectar which means thereby that within the manipur chakra many
other agencies are at work. Their work is important from the viewpoint of ‘matri-rin-
shodhan’ (refinement of our debt towards mother). One begins to understand this very
late in life.

‘The hridaya chakra ’ can be understood by its name itself. It is also called ‘the anahat
chakra .’ It is the area of all the accumulated samskaras of life. The hriday chakra is
green in color. Undoing the bonds caused by samskaras is known as the vishnu granthi
. Between the hriday and the nabhi chakra is the surya chakra .

In the throat lies the vishuddhi chakra . It is blue in color. It is the controlling center of
the tendencies of life. Human tendencies can also be improved upon here. In the gross
form it is the place of our breathing.

In the center of the brow is the ‘agya chakra .’ Its color is light purple. It is an
important center on many counts. It is the goal of the energy of awakened kundalini.
This is the place where supernatural powers are also experienced. Having reached
here, man comes face to face with his soul, his vision becomes equanimous and all
conflicts come to an end.

Beyond the agya chakra , at the top of the head is the ‘sahastrar chakra .’ Colors here
are all mixed up. This is considered to be the center of all kinds of energies and
experiences. The visible rays of the rainbow come to an end here. Whatever is seen
there is beyond the gross and the material.

All the chakras of the body are located in the spinal cord and are linked with all the
seven layers of the aura. These seven colors of the rainbow regulate our life.

OUR BODY

Our body makes us aware of our existence. It is the vehicle of our spirit, our sensory
organs, our mind and that of our pranas. In fact, it is the medium through which we
express ourselves. But at the same time it is equally true that we are not body alone.
The body is ours but we are something different from the body. Many questions arise

71
before us as to what is the body? What is its role? How can it be used properly? How
do intellect and soul inhabit the body etcetera? The breath moves in the body, the pulse
also moves, dreams occur, many other activities go on in our body over which we have
no control. We do not know why our body has come into existence? How has it come
into existence? How long will the body continue in its existence? We do not know any
of these things.

This gross body of ours is made up of seven dhatus (elements). Five pranas are
operating within it. It is working on the system of the five koshas . The shatchakras
keep it linked with nature. It is continuously influenced by the sun and its planets. Our
body is a small part of the vast creation and our life depends on the solar system. The
seven dhatus of our body are governed by different planetary rulers. These parts can
be seen in the twelve houses of the horoscope. Similarly, the seven colors that we
receive from the sunlight also influence our body. Our auric circle is full of many
colors. The shatchakras have their different colors. This is the basis of color therapy.
Every color has its own frequency. Every letter has its own frequency. Our alphabet is
based on this system of frequency. Not only this, gems etc., influence our body on the
basis of their colors. The auric circle of another individual, sitting close to us, also
influences our body. This is known as the mruja (shadow).

Our body is made of earth because it is joined with the earth or one should say that it
is bound with the earth. It is animal (instinctive) because it is bound with the
panchpash . Because of the gravity of the earth it is bound with the earth center. It
gathers its energies from the earth and the sun. The gravitational force of the earth
always influences the body. Our body is nourished through food and air but the
nourishment and regulation of the activities of the body are governed by the laws of
creation. This body is the home of our soul and that is why it is known as the causal
body. The causal body makes us perceive our existence in the form of ‘I’. That is why
the gross body is known as ‘our body.’ The gross body is never called ‘I.’ Our subtle
body, which moves in the form of the prana , acts as a bridge between the gross body
and the causal body. Thus, our existence is split in the form of the gross, the subtle and
the causal. From the spiritual point of view we have four levels- body, mind, intellect
and soul. Our personality is formed as a result of the synthesis of these four. Of these it
is the body which is the measure of the mind, intellect and the soul. From the
viewpoint of bodily activities the prana sharira or the subtle body is the most vigorous
and active. To receive energy from the solar system and the environment, to convert
the same into different categories for use by the body and to distribute the same within
the body are its functions. To carry the experiences of our gross and physical acts to
the soul and to give expression through the medium of the body to the samskaras
stored in the soul is the function of the subtle body.

The sense of touch created by the functions of the senses is called avagrah
(discernment). These impressions reach the mind through the sensory organs; the
intellect through the mind; and the soul through intellect. After receiving these
impressions the decision that the soul gives is known as avgam. The auric circle and
the chakra system located in the body are important in the area of the prana sarira.

72
These govern and regulate our nervous system and the muscle system. The chakras are
centers of energy (the prana ) which receive new energy and release the same after its
use. Our seven chakras are linked with the seven layers of the auric circle. These
continue to spin. All seven colors of the sunlight function within the centers of these
chakras.

Just as we take care of the health of the gross body, so also there are processes of
taking care of the health of the subtle body. For this there are daily exercises. There are
processes of the use and the development of these energies. This system is known as
the yoga . The Indian philosophy emphasizes the purification of these energies so that
the impressions, that are carried to the soul, become purified. The disease that has
germinated in the soul and is likely to emerge in the body, can be terminated by the
use of the subtle body. It is appropriate to mention here that the disease or pain first
manifests itself in the prana sarira . Its manifestation in the gross body occurs only
subsequently. Even the western scientists have now come to understand this.

We have the concept of “thirty-three crores of gods.” It is they who work in the subtle
body in the form of prana . The prana is considered to be god. The asura pranas
(demonic pranas ) are three times of the dev prana . On this basis our body is always
connected with the earth and the sun. Our life is regulated by prakrati through the
system of sat, raj and tam . We live our life by being a part of that system. The basis of
life and death is also the same.

Our causal body is the creation of pride. Linked with this are the akrati (figure) and
prakrati (nature). These three become visible in the form of our personality. The goal
of our life is to experience the soul. Both the gross and the subtle body should be used
to experience the soul. Our sensory organs are directed by the prana . One can
understand many things if one doesn’t allow the inner world to disappear while living
in the external world. One can easily live one’s life by performing all actions and by
enjoying it, if one follows the precept embodied in the oft-quoted sloka of the Gita
karmanyevadhikaraste ma faleshu kadachan ” (do your duty unmindful of the result).
One can wipe out the ill-effects of the past samskaras and stop the creation of new
ones. This can help not only in keeping the causal body clean and healthy but also the
gross body and the subtle body.

ATMANUSHASAN
Disciplining the Self

Acharya Mahapragya has said that ‘shree’, ‘hree’, and ‘dhee’,- these three words
express the totality and wholeness of life. Poverty is a curse while being full of shree
is a boon. Being undisciplined is a curse while discipline is a boon. Lacking in
intellect is a curse while being gifted with intellect is a boon. The word ‘hree’ comes

73
between ‘shree’ and ‘dhee’ and represents the discipline of the soul. Shree and dhee
become a gift and boon only after the development of hree.

The quartet of religion, i.e., gyan (knowledge), vairagya (detachment), aishwarya


(prosperity) and anushashan (discipline) expresses the same. Without atmanushasan
(self discipline) it is not possible to follow this path. Dharma leads to aishwarya
(prosperity). That which a person holds dear to his heart and follows its principles is
his dharma. First, an individual vows to follow dharma , then the dharma becomes his
identity. In Indian philosophy dharma has ten characteristics: truth, forgiveness,
suppression of sensual passion, abstinence from theft, inner and outer purity, charity,
penance and endurance. It is beyond doubt that society can safeguard itself by
following these principles. It is, therefore, expected that the path of dharma may not
be forsaken till the goal is reached. But, the reality is that most people go astray before
they attain gyan (knowledge) because of pride or spiritual lethargy.

Life is an area of testing. One cannot be promoted to the next class without passing the
present one. One may have to spend year-after-year in the same class and there is a
provision for being relegated to the lower class. The more you advance towards the
higher classes, the more difficult the tests become. The indication of your success is
that you are marching ahead.

Learning and knowledge alone are not sufficient to pass these tests of life.
Atmanushasan (self-discipline) is the first and the foremost requirement. There is no
other alternative than to go through this phase of ordeal. It is not necessary that gyan
and learning become helpful without discipline. They may prove to be harmful as
well. Discipline is necessary for the maintenance of both learning and knowledge.

Upasana (devotion to God) is also one of the ways of moving ahead in life. Many
people follow this path. One can move toward upasana . This can also be dynamic but
is also not possible without atmanushasan (self-discipline). Whatever god we worship,
we always ask for something or the other. We worship a god to gain something. But
that god might also feel uncomfortable in parting with what has been asked for. He,
too, might not be willing to part with his possession. He, too, will wish that he who is
asking for something may go astray so that he may not have to give him anything. The
same situations are created in our life by our ordeals. If you are successful in an
ordeal, gods are pleased. You are also pleased.

As you reach the next phase of your life, your prosperity grows. Your power and fame
increase. All these attract you and you become possessive. You do not want to lose
them. Some of people may get lost in them and may remain confined to the world of
glamour. But, if you possess your atmanushasan (self-discipline), you can make use of
these very things to pass the next test/examination. You can retain your vairagya even
utilizing the things of prosperity. Vairagya has also been considered one of the forms
of aishwarya . King Janak is one of the finest examples of the combination of
vairagya (detachment) and aishwarya (affluence).

Aishwarrya is also one of the characteristics of God. How can it be insignificant?

74
Aishwarya carries with it the eight siddhis (supernatural powers) and the nine nidhis
(divine treasures). To hold onto them is not something easy. An individual without
discipline or without self-control cannot even think of reaching this state. Many
executives lose their self-control when they reach the pinnacle of life. A person will
fall the moment he loses control over knowledge and/or discipline. His position will
continue to fall and we never know when it will stop.

That is why self-discipline or atmanushasan is inherent in all the systems of upasana.


Great emphasis is laid on the observance of discipline. That is why people are afraid to
set foot on this path. They do not want to curb their freedom with their own hands. By
nature a human being loves unrestrained, free life. How can he, then, obtain aishwarya
? The middle path is that you move a little, we also move a little.

THE NIGHT

The invention of electricity has changed night into day. It has also changed the
definition of the utility and importance of night. The day has been elongated and the
basic structure of life itself, as created by nature, has been changed. Not only
industries run at night but keeping awake at night has become a part of life. All day
long people’s conversation revolves around the issue as to when they had slept at night
and what they were doing.

All the creatures of creation begin to take rest with the setting of the sun, though some
like the owls do keep awake at night. We were also taught in our childhood to eat early
in the evening, go to bed early at night and get up early in the morning.

The time before the sunrise is one of the best periods of the day. In English, too, there
is a proverb, “Early to bed and early to rise, makes a man healthy, wealthy and wise.”
But in today’s situation the meaning of these sayings has changed or one can say that
they are not needed. Ask a child to go to bed early, he feels that he has been abused.

What are the reasons for such a great change in human mentality? Within the life span
of a single generation such a large nation has changed so much. What kind of activities
are those that require their completion as the mode for keeping awake at night?

Are these activities so essential? Can these activities not be conducted during the day?
How is the new practice of rising late in the morning affecting life? What is the price
that man is paying for it?

The movement of the day is governed by the sun. The day begins with the rising of the
sun. The sun is a fiery ball, is our father, rears and sustains life on the earth. It is the
lord of our prana-kshetra (pranic area). It gives us a long life of one hundred years.
Everyday it takes back one day from our lives. At the end of every day we lose one

75
day from our lives. By evening every man is tired. Man is fit for the next day only
when this tiredness is gone.

The night is dominated by the soma . During the night soma instead of fire descends
from the sky. This soma replenishes our energies and gives us new powers. Those who
sleep under the open sky recuperate their powers easily. A man, sleeping in a closed
room, is unable to recuperate and feels tired during the next day. His soma is not
replenished. He lives in a state which is cut off from the vital processes of creation.
Such a state of tiredness and restlessness can be seen among those people who are
used to living in air-conditioned spaces.

Another fact is also related to this sequence of day and night. After sunset most of the
processes of the body slow down. Digestion and excretion also slow down. That is
why we do not consider eating at night a healthy practice in our country. During night
the digestion of food is never completed. That is why the taking of food should be
over before the setting of the sun. Taking of one or two glasses of water is equally
essential before sleeping. Because of this sequencing one sleeps well in time. Those
who take their meals late keep awake till late drink water or go to sleep without
drinking water. Both these practices are not good for our health. You can verify this
conclusion by observing the schedules of both kinds of individuals.

Those who keep awake till late live under the impression that they can work a lot. This
is not true. Generally the body goes along with the mind. So long as one’s mind is
engaged in work, one doesn’t feel tired. But every day keeping awake during night or
till late hours reduces the capabilities of the body. The body is a natural product in
itself. It can remain healthy only if our daily routine is in keeping with the routine of
our nature. Taking timely rest maintains the capabilities of the body.

The most important reason behind keeping awake till late night is lack of time for
planning. During the day we waste much of our time without work or in useless
activities. Discussions also take a lot of our time. We pay the price for the same by
working at night. The disorganized system of living at home is also one of its reasons.
It is not fixed as to who will reach home at what time and when he will eat food. If we
all make it a practice to sit together and eat, the time after dinner can be utilized in
significant discussions. Some people like to keep awake till late at night. They do so
on account of their nature. They keep on talking, watching TV or doing something
unnecessary. Studying at night has become common for students. All day long these
students keep on moving purposelessly. No one can say that after getting so tired how
much they might able to retain of what they had read at night. This explains as to why
there is no teaching-learning in the colleges. Good results will immediately be visible,
if one studies in the brahm-muhurta.

Scriptures are full of the importance of the brahm-muhurta (the period of time at about
4 a.m ). This period before the sunrise is known as the Gayatri (a form of the goddess
Durga). The Colors of the rays of the sun change five times during this period. That is
why it is known as the Gayatri with five mouths. Just as the morning sunlight is

76
considered good for health, similarly this period of Gayatri is considered the best for
bringing about complete changes in one’s personality. This can be considered as the
golden period for studies, upasana, and self-study. It is our misfortune that in our zest
for keeping awake till late at night, we lose many golden opportunities in our life. On
the other hand, those people are really fortunate who can get up early in the morning
and benefit from it. Just look at the faces of such people and you will realize that they
are early risers. Their faces retain the glow of cheerfulness in the evening instead of
the traces of tiredness.

POISON

We do taste nectar and poison everyday churned out from the samudra-manthan
(struggle) of life. Because both of them originate from the same source, both
invariably stay together. Both are the faces of the same coin. At different levels their
meaning may be different but in essence, both are the same.

Our life moves on the basis of the three qualities: sat (virtues), raj (passion for
pleasure) and tam (darkness). Among the trigunas the sat and the tam are synonymous
with the gods and the demons respectively. Raj is the causative of actions through the
medium of our sensory organs and the subjects that attract them. Through these the raj
feeds both the sat and the tam . Because the subjects of the sensory organs are illusory
in nature, they are also known as poisonous. They are called the ‘vishay ’ (something
that carries poison with it) because they spring from the word ‘vish’ (the poison).
Through the medium of vivek one converts tam into sat or sat into tam . That is, a
nectar can be turned into poison and poison into nectar. In practical life many of the
poisons act as nectar in many of the serious diseases.

The vishayas are also known as poisonous because they give momentary pleasure but
cause long time suffering. Like nectar they do not cause eternal joy. Many times an
individual is so immersed in these momentary pleasures that he forgets himself. When
the pleasure is no longer available, he suffers from depression. This poison is the form
of illusion (maya). Nectar has also been designated as Shiva. Shiva has been said to be
competent to digest the poison. An individual is able to attain eternal life only when
illusion (maya) merges into Shiva.

In our life, poison can be thought of and understood in many forms. Where there is
illusion, there is poison. All the religious texts talk of removing the veil of maya . But
so long as we are under the sway of senses, so long as we do not conquer the senses,
we cannot save ourselves from maya.

Today our food has become poisonous. Many poisonous chemicals go into the making
of our food. These chemicals affect the secretions of many of our glands. They also
influence the unconscious and the conscious mind and tendencies thereof and add

77
poison to them. The mind, then, cannot think of nectar. Our unconscious mind is
affected by the pleasures of the senses on the one hand and, on the other, by food.
Food in reality has become poisonous. This is what we mean by purity of the food.
The simplicity of food affects our mind more than our body. In fact, the unconscious is
the conscious because it directs our life That which we consider as the conscious
moves without direction. Therefore, the simplicity, purity, sweetness, and the feeling
of love are all important. The concept of calorie doesn’t count much in life. Otherwise,
the body is the means and not the goal. Today air, water and food have all become
polluted and these alone nurture us. The food is the most important because it enters
the body and nourishes it. Scriptures insist upon the purity of food and asks us to
forget about the pleasures, the pleasures of the taste. One should establish control over
the organs of taste, life would, then, be saved from becoming poisonous.

Through practice man tries to free himself from the poisons. He understands the sat,
raj and the tam and tries to find the causes for them. He tries to change the tam into
the sat . This is the realm of nature. The rasas (juices) are linked with the element of
water. We are also bound with earth and are mortal. The muladhar chakra is linked
with the gravity of the earth. One by one man begins to change and he raises his
powers above the muladhar . He raises the maya above and merges it with the shiva.
The poison becomes the nectar. Thereafter he doesn’t need to go into the vishayas
(lustful passions).

REACTION - I

Most of the eternal principles are experienced by us in our lifetime. Among these
everyone experiences the reaction arising out of action. Action is linked with the
karma but reaction is linked with our pride. In fact, pride is the real source of reaction.

The word is the biggest medium of the expression of reaction. At times reaction is
necessary. When someone propounds wrong facts, one has to oppose it in the form of
one’s reaction. If a person doesn’t do so and keeps calm even in the face of wrong-
doing, he becomes a partner in crime. Similarly one has to react in the face of
atrocities committed by a perpetrator otherwise the feeling of disaffection turns into
social revolution. In such a reaction one needs strong confidence and intense faith. ‘Do
or die’ becomes the goal because this kind of reaction is linked up with social harmony
or disharmony.

Because of pride a man doesn’t take into consideration his qualities or faults and
considers the other as guilty. The process of reaction lasts long or is made to last long.
It doesn’t remain confined to the level of speech alone but comes out in the form of
deliberate acts. This process is long and endless. The problem overwhelms the man
and he is not able to free himself from it. One can easily imagine how complex the
reaction to reaction can be. Man does attempt to check himself from reacting but that

78
is seldom successful. Close relationships are torn asunder because of reactions. Man is
overpowered by tensions of many kinds and is caught in the net of ambiguity. Intellect
stands defeated.

In order to control reaction one will have to understand one’s self, also the level of
expression. You will have to know as to how much you respect the other. One can
think on this aspect in many ways: whatever is happening is happening because of the
will of God; it is self-determined; we are all offspring of the same God, hence
everyone should be respected. By exercising control over speech, we can change the
form of reaction. The word is the chief medium of expression. Word is not created out
of intellect, it is self-generated. Intellect joins it later.That is why exercising control of
the use of words is one of the best ways of resisting reaction.

Every letter of our alphabet is a bij-mantra (seed mantra ). It has the divine power of
some or the other god. Through japa we can make that form materialize. By
connecting it with consciousness the divine power can be developed in any part of the
body.

The form of the word has been divided into four categories: para, pashyanti,
madhyama and the vaikhari. Our conversation is largely carried on in vaikhari. The
tongue is used in its expression. It destroys the power of the word. When the
pronunciation is mental and, therefore, silent, it immediately enters the madhyama . In
other words we can say that the para which arises from the kundalini (the muladhar )
is stopped in the madhyama before it reaches the vaikhri. Madhyama is considered to
be mental conversation. In madhyama the limitless power of the word is retained. The
moment it comes out in the form of sound, its power is destroyed. Therefore, this kind
of practice is very necessary. One is able to escape the limitless flow of thoughts and
open new ways to act.

When any of samkalp (resolute will) is not working, we can, at least, recite aloud the
japa of a mantra every day for twenty to twenty-five minutes. Slowly, we can turn that
japa into upanshu (silent) japa. In upanshu japa there is the recitation of the sacred
text but that is meant for the self. This process strengthens the mental form and makes
it possible to enter and stay in the madhyama for a long time. One should always think
in his mind that he is becoming peaceful, his feelings are being purified, his pride is
receding, etcetera. The japa can be directed towards the form of a God whose qualities
you wish to imbibe or whose mantra you are chanting. Slowly, your nature will appear
to be changing. Words will, then, be replaced by silence. Whenever you do not want to
speak, begin the internal japa . Other things will not be able to distract you.

One more experiment can be useful to save oneself from reaction. Whenever you talk
with someone, don’t talk about yourself. Talk only about the other who is before you.
Praise him, or talk on the topic that is of interest to him. There will be no time for
reaction. Even if there is some reaction, it would be positive. The conflict of action
and reaction begins at the level of thought. Words pass through the realm of thought.
The moment there is a connection between the word and the thought, reaction starts.

79
No matter what we do, thoughts do not leave us. The attempt to internalize the word
opens up a new path in our life. It gives us depth and meaning.

REACTION - II

Happiness and sorrow do not come from outside, they are within us. Our attitude
towards life determines happiness or sorrow for us. Sometimes we feel that there is
happiness in means of comforts. Sometimes we feel that there is happiness in money.
At times we consider the body as the cause of happiness while at the other times it
appears to be intellect. In fact, these are all means. We become unhappy because we
are not clear about our goals. In the absence of the ends the means replace them. As a
result of this we become reactionary.

Although a reaction is a natural response to an action, control over reaction is equally


essential because it arouses in us many passions and impulsive tendencies. It
influences our sensitivity and makes us pessimistic. All through my life it has been my
experience that reaction can never make us happy. Reaction in itself is indicative of
want, lack of something. It may be a scarcity in and of the past or that of the present.
The experience of lacking in something gives rise to insistence and insistence gives
rise to new reactions. If a reaction is natural, it is sometimes welcome. In such a
situation it doesn’t contain negative feelings. It is a normal and natural reaction. But
the reaction born out of insistence and lack of something continues for a long time.
The reaction then becomes strong, creates tension, conflict and enmity.

In women, because of hesitation, reaction is always strong and bitter. I am not pretty
and if someone praises another pretty woman, I can come up with ten faults in that
woman. At times a whole sequence of reaction starts at seeing someone or the mention
of someone’s name and one begins to talk no end. At home these things are more
important though they are the trivialities of household life. These are the main culprits
behind the breaking down of peace at home. Then, who can put a brake on the
speaking of women? They immediately feel that their self-respect has been threatened.
Pride also has its own reactions. The pride of one’s intellect is even more dangerous. A
man, then, never considers any one else as wise. In practice we never call a blind
blind. In the name of openness we do not know what we are saying about whom it is
making derogatory remarks and who are throwing thorns in our path. This way we
may not make any friends but we certainly are able to make many enemies. We do not
know which person may be helpful to us in our life. If one is able to control one’s
passions for sometime, it becomes clear that keeping quiet is most beneficial.

It has been said about a good sadhak that he eats little, speaks little and is always
courteous. In such a situation there is no place for reaction. A wise man would always
like to remain silent. Reaction may not affect the other but it always harms the one
who reacts. He appears to be shallow. His image is spoiled by his reaction and he is

80
condemned by others behind his back.

Behind reaction there is an excess of both the raga (attachment) and the dwesha
(jealousy). Sometimes a man appears to be excessively bad while the other appears to
be without any blemish. The attitude becomes one-sided. Though illusions tend to
disappear gradually, man doesn’t learn anything from it. Reaction of a single instance
leaves its imprint on the mind and man carries its load all through his life. Reaction
strengthens the misconception. Just as the echo of a tiny sound continues for long, so
also the process of reaction continues for long. One doesn’t even get a chance to
sweep the thorns out of one’s life. Reaction gives rise to a chain of reactions and the
opponent also goes on reacting.

Most relations are dominated by reaction. The secret of the happiness of a family lies
in the observance of temperance in the behavior of every member. It means that one
should refrain from using harsh and bitter words. You do not like someone’s behavior,
but by keeping it within yourself, you may overcome it. Reaction takes away our
freedom. It hands over our happiness to another. We alone offer the other an
opportunity to disrespect us or to speak ill of us. A conflict generated for the defense
of the nation may also be born out of reaction. But since the reaction is motivated by
national consideration, it is acceptable to all. There it is not the interest of the
individual that creates reaction.

The solution to the problem of reaction lies in adopting a neutral and natural attitude.
Let whatever is happening happen. If you can act in a normal way, do something
otherwise just wait. It is not necessary to interfere in and express anger. If one doesn’t
succumb to impulsive impetuosity, one’s health and self respect will remain in tact.

CONFLICT

A dispute between two parties is known as conflict. Conflict ensues because both the
contestants are in opposition to each other. Each tries to establish his hegemony over
the other. One of the best examples of conflict is the mythical war between gods and
demons. The devas (gods) and the asuras (demons) are nothing but categories of our
prana . The pranas are intimately linked with every emotion and feeling. Positive
thoughts are associated with deva-prana (divine prana ) and negative thoughts with
demonic prana . Every individual is, therefore, the eternal battleground of the divine
and the demonic forces within him. Whatever a person achieves comes to him from
this very churning. He acquires nothing from the external world. External material
becomes the beneficial cause of this churning. Basically devas (gods) and asuras
(demons) remain intertwined with the samaskaras of the individual.

Let us understand the processes that lead to such a conflict. A human mind is full of
wishes and desire. Intellect seeks the ways and means through which one can fulfill

81
one’s desires. It accepts and rejects options while keeping in view the possibility of the
fulfillment of its desire. Thereafter the body endeavors for the fulfillment of desires.
All this happens in the external world though it is directed from within. All this is
done by the medium of prana . It is the pranas that make the mind fickle and
wavering. The pranas make intellect dynamic. Intellect follows the mind and
determines its course of action in accordance with the divine or demonic thoughts that
dwell in the mind. In this process the ego of intellect also plays its part. Most of the
conflict in man’n life takes place between the mind and intellect. It is the intellect that
controls it.

It is the function of the mind to create desires. Sometimes desires arise autonomically.
When they do so, man is unable to check them. These are, then, known as desires
ordained by God. The basis of such desires is the sum total of all the acts of previous
lives. Such desires get fulfilled on their own without any conflict. Intellect is unable to
stop the course of events leading to the fulfillment of such desires. We often hear that
such and such a person was called by yama, the Lord of death. Such a course is
ordained by God.

But the mind also engages in creating desires. Mind is the lord and master of the
senses and has the right to do as it pleases. Senses keep the mind in a state of
fickleness. Every moment one sense or another excites the mind with one or another
desire. The moment one desire is fulfilled by making use of intellect, the mind begins
to crave for the same in greater measure. It wants to repeat the experience. If we like
someone, we would like to be with him again and again. If we like particular music,
we like to listen to it again and again. If something is tasty we like to eat it again and
again, regardless of the state of our health. Thus, the mind entwines itself in a complex
net of wishes and desires and, finally, loses its freedom.

Many times it happens that the mind wants to do something and intellect wants to
check it. This is the basic conflict. Part of the conflict is caused by the samskaras that
the individual carries with him by birth, and part of it is caused by the excitement that
the mind seeks.The mind comes under pressure from both directions. Intellect is also
shrouded by sattva, rajas and tamas , the three kinds of gunas that eclipse the mind.
The tension that the mind faces varies according to the state in which the intellect
functions, that of sattva, rajas or tamas . Intellect is usually influenced by external
things. It is constantly engaged in acquiring knowledge and in dealing with the
environment. Thoughts continuously float in the form of a chain and the mind never
remains free of thoughts. The senses contribute to this state of the mind. Its intellect is
tamasic, it will be easily tempted and will immediately succumb to sensual pleasures.
This individual would never think of exercising control over his mind. The demonic
feelings and emotions will predominate and take him to the depths of the nether world.

This process of falling down is called hell. Intellect, infused with the satoguna, on the
other hand, seeks to catch hold of the inexpressible. The saying, “satva laghu
prakasham”. --Truth is immanent in the invisible, the small, motivates someone to
control the tamasic feelings. If divine imprints are strong in the individual, he comes

82
out of the struggle victoriously. His divine qualities begin to flower. Because of this,
intelligence changes itself into ‘pragya’. ‘Pragya is always in consonance with rit’.
Pragya follows rit and rejuvenates prana . In such a conflict with prana , life gains an
upward flow. Mind becomes very much balanced and learns to live in a disciplined
way. Having understood the nature of subjectivity, its excitements die down and it
becomes restful and tranquil.

Desires still arise, and what is in their fate comes to fruition. But the mind, being full
of satoguna , gives a new direction. The environment of the mind is important in
generating desires and then this environment emerges out of conflict. When life gains
direction. conflict ends or becomes marginal. Further, conflict depends upon the will
of God. Hence one can understand the meaning of ‘tapasya’ . How does a man change
whatever has been imprinted on his mind or how does he free himself from the
influence of these imprints? How does he enable himself to reach a state which is
beyond conflict? This state is known as moksha. That is why man is known as the
maker of his own destiny. No other creature in the world has this capacity of attaining
moksha. That is why human life has been considered to be the best. He reaches beyond
conflict even while retaining this body. Who knows whether he will be able to take
birth in the human species in the next birth? Therefore, conflict is the tapasya of life. It
is a matter of reflection. Nectar will flow on this way.

THE SEARCH FOR HAPPINESS


It is said that the mind is the master of the senses. Every Indian knows that
unsteadiness of the mind is caused by the senses. When these things were recorded in
the ancient texts, it was a time of peace. The sayings are still true today, but the times
have changed. With changes in the configuration of time and space, the explanations
offered by the ancient texts should also change. This, in fact, is the function of
religious masters. They study the ancient texts. It is sad that in today’s education there
is no provision for gaining knowledge of the functions of the mind and the sensory
organs.

An individual is a soul. Mind, body and intellect are the instruments of the soul.
Because education is intellect-centered, life is also becoming intellect-dominated.
Intellect in itself is neither good nor bad. Only its use can be labeled as good or bad.

Intellect always follows the mind and is engaged in devising ways and means through
which the desires of the mind can be fulfilled. It can engage itself in routine activities
of everyday life and it can do so in the complex activities of scientific research. Mind,
prana and speech go together. When mind is predominant, prana becomes
subordinate. When prana is predominant, the mind becomes subordinate.

Life is a balancing of knowledge and activity. Activity is the function of the body and

83
knowledge that of intellect. Peace is the goal of both. Happiness is the goal, but both
the body and intellect are not equipped to feel happiness. Only the mind can feel
happiness and sorrow. Deep within is the mind. Since the mind is deep within, one has
to go deep within in order to understand the mind. In today’s education all attempts are
focused on the external. A man prides himself on being considered intelligent.

If an intelligent man goes within, he can certainly move ahead of others. He can
awaken pragya through the yoga of the heart. He can become full of pragya and
establish the truth of ‘ritambhara tatra pragya’ . Such an individual can acquire the
capacity to understand the microcosmic and find the home of the soul. But the
intelligent cannot have faith in God. For that one needs a heart full of feelings and
devotion.

It is easy to understand that man is living his life by diverting his heart under the
dominance of intellect. The more he develops his intellect, the greater will be the
separation from his heart. Today’s intelligentsia is an example of that. They are
replacing the relationships of the heart with the relationships of the mind. Though love
is not the subject of the mind, they engage in love through the mind. Love is not
something which one engages in after due deliberation or proper calculation. Love is
devotion.

Because of the dominance of intellect, love has also become commercial. Commerce
is known as the exchange of giving and taking. But love cannot remain commercial.
Where there is any kind of exchange there cannot be any kind of love. It becomes
calculated. I have done this. In response you have not done that. A complete list of
expectations operates. Because of pride, two people, though living in the bond of love,
cannot become one. How, then, can one be happy?

The individual explores his mind when he begins the search for happiness. But
intellect overshadows the heart all the time. So much so that till his death, the
individual is not able to think about his essential self. He dies by living a superfluous
life which is divorced from the heart. Many people never realize this fact, nor can they
utilize human life for its proper purpose. For happiness one needs the emotional
capacity to feel love, honor, tenderness etc., and for that one needs an open heart. The
knowledge that helps an individual to reach the age of retirement is of no use to him
after that. Exactly the opposite happens.

One has to discard all knowledge, false beliefs and philosophies in order to break the
barriers created by intellect. The heart can be reached only by putting the mind at rest,
by normalizing the flow of thoughts, by replacing thinking with reflection, by putting
a stop to words and language and by entering into the flow of emotions and feelings.
Without this the excitement of the sensory organs cannot inform the mind, though the
mind may be the ruler of the sensory organs. Intellect immediately crushes all feelings.
The heart remains parched and dry. Most men fall under this category.

Woman, in comparison to man, is more heart-oriented. She has in her a predominance


of emotions and feelings. She easily enters into a state of devotion. She loves others

84
and wants that others should love her. Guided by intellect when a man decides to love
after weighing pros and cons, love loses it naturalness. Nor does his attitude satisfy
women. It is because of their emotional strength that women are able to pass through
the most difficult situations in life. One cannot observe much cheer on the faces of
men. When they laugh, it appears to be artificial. It is altogether a different issue that
one of the aims of education today is to make women also intellect-dominated. If that
happens, whatever happiness there is in their life, will soon disappear. They will
become as dry as men. Today men and women are complimentary. If one is mind-
dominated, the other is dominated by the heart. In the future both of them will be
dominated by the mind.

The joy of life is in keeping intellect restricted to its area of operations. One of the best
ways to do it is to put intellect to rest before entering one’s home. It should be used for
commerce. Intellect should be used for external interactions alone. Nearer home one
should live by the heart. This doesn’t happen all of a sudden. It has to be practiced
right from the beginning.

GENEROSITY

Generosity flowers in an environment free of fear. Fear is intimately linked with the
imprints on the psyche. Because of fear one is unable to come out of oneself into the
objective world. Such a person is always engaged in attempts to self-protection.

The word udarata in sanskrit is formed by the root ‘ud’ and carries with it the prefix
‘ud’ which means rise. The prefix is used in such words as, uttisthita (rise), uparjit
(acquired), uchcharati (pronounced), udgata (exponent), utfulla (blossomed), uddhist
(aimed), utsah (zeal)” etcetera. Generosity is used for the act of giving, particularly for
that voluntary act of giving in which nothing is desired in recompense.

Such a quality raises the status of man to that of gods. The quality also contains within
it the feelings of kindness and pity. Generosity is a feeling which is full of tenderness
and sweetness and is causative of human welfare. It fills a person with devotion and
faith towards humankind.

One who gives has always been considered great. One who receives is always
regarded as poor, though he might be very rich. The act of receiving makes one so.
Ishvara (God) is one who gives. He never asks for anything, hence great.

Only a generous person can give something. The heart can be large or small. In
generosity the focus is on the other, whereas in miserliness the focus is on the self.
Selfish attitude is, in fact, an example of narrowness. Narrowness is one of the chief
causes of violence. A selfish individual never bothers about others.

85
Generosity is the language of love. In love one always gives without asking for
anything in return. Exchange is only commerce. Love cannot be commerce in any
form. It is a divine feeling. Acquisitiveness is an attribute if a jiva which creates a
feeling of selfishness in him. Love and generosity flow in the heart. There is no need
of mind here. Feeling, caring for the well-being of others, is indicative of spiritual
progress.

Generosity is constituted of satoguna (the quality of purity). Hence, it is a feeling that


makes one feel like a human being, a human being without any partiality, or without
feeling of good or bad towards anyone. It is a devotional feeling towards human
beings.

Such a man observes one’s own soul in the soul of others and is continuously engaged
in the service of others. Since feelings determine the direction of the mind; tenderness,
sweetness, kindness and pity flow all around. Generosity fills others with happiness
and pleasure.

Fear paves the way for selfishness. It has many forms. Sometimes fear is expressed in
a form which is exactly opposite to the feeling of fear. Some people, when they begin
to apprehend fear, try to show themselves courageous. This courage, then, appears in
the form of rashness, generally in the form of anger. Man wants to show himself as
someone who is large and powerful. He can appear to be aggressive. This attempt to
cover one’s weaknesses and faults doesn’t allow a man to become generous.

In fact, because of fear man doesn’t know himself. He feels afraid and undertakes
counter measures. Where do intimations of fear arise from? Why do they arise creating
feelings of insecurity within the mind?

For example, fear of death, that of disease, of losing one’s job and the fear of
impending loss assails everyone. Infamy is one of the biggest fears and a score of
other kinds of fears are there. The reason behind feeling fear is the lack of
determination to combat the situation. This weakness is the main cause of fear. If the
individual has the capacity to carry on the struggle and also the determination, then
there is no fear. With proper motivation and positive feelings, man begins to treat
others respectfully. He adopts a generous attitude. All the tensions of the mind
evaporate, and one feels light. Most of the problems of life appear to be temporary and
the inner journey of reflection and meditation begins.

DARSHAN

Darshan means seeing. The meaning of philosophy is also to see from different angles
to see through the eyes, to see through the mind’s eye and to see through the heart’s
eye. All these things constitute darshan. In the real sense of the term eyes do not see

86
by themselves. They are merely the tools of seeing. Seeing or perceiving is, as a matter
of fact, a function of the soul. The soul remains unattached. The soul is only a witness
and is a part of God. The divine element in the form of ‘dva-suparna’ is merely a
witness of the acts of the jiva.

The function of the soul is to witness, to observe the soul with the soul, to observe the
self with the self. The objective of all our ancient texts, efforts and rituals of worship is
to see, to have darshan . It points to the fact that whatever covers the soul has to be
removed. Without this the soul will not be visible. A whole life-time may be spent in
achieving this end and, yet, it cannot be guaranteed that one would have darshan.

The function of the soul is to witness. Even if the eyes are open, and the mind is
engaged elsewhere, nothing will be seen. It is not so with the acts of smelling,
touching, tasting etc. The act of knowing pertains to the intellect. One understands as
per the workings of the intellect. We recite in the gayatri mantra -“dhiyoyomahi
prachodyat” simply for the purpose of having a clear understanding of the factual, the
real. We ask for the gift of pragya from the sun-god. All the activities within our body
function as per the dictates of prana, and prana is considered as god. The sun is called
Indra, the king of gods. All the activities taking place in the soul, the mind and the
intellect have prana as their driving force. To be able to observe the soul it is
necessary to understand them. One, therefore, prays for the gift of pragya. Only
through pragya can one understand the rit (truth). That which is formless is called the
rit . Prana is also rit . To understand prana is one of the important requirements of
darshan .

We go for the darshan of the almighty God and also for those of the saints and great
men. The purpose is to purify the heart so that we are able to observe ourselves and
make necessary improvements within ourselves. The act remains vitiated when we go
to the temple of the lord for darshan while our mind becomes engaged in something
else. Sometimes we are lost in the ritual of arati , sometimes in offering flowers,
sometimes in and getting prasad, and sometimes in making sandalwood paste. So
much so that we do not feel God’s presence so long as we are there in the temple. We
do not bother to establish communion with Him nor do we ever try to seek the level
where we can feel His presence. If we care to establish communion with Him, He will
be visible within us. In due course of time we will be able to have His darshan. But for
lack of determination we are lost in rituals without ever attaining our purpose.

There is only one goal in life, if we keep in mind the dictum, “aham brahmosmi.” (I
am Brahma ) then we will be able to observe ourselves in the many. The rest of life
depends on the realization of God. The meaning of sanyasa after having lived the
grihastha and the vanaprastha stages of life is realization, self-reflection. The only
difference is that in this kind of realization the eyes are closed rather than open. We
have to obliterate whatever we see through the open eyes or whatever is imprinted in
our memory because these are obstacles to the realization of God. Life is natural and
smooth-flowing only when the mind is calm and feelings are pure. Only then does the
light within appear. The real goal of life along with basic characteristics appears. The

87
powers within are apprehended and the process of self- realization begins. Whatever is
unnecessary is left behind. The meaning of the eternal and the mortal becomes clear.
This understanding, then, becomes the philosophy of life and introduces oneself to the
self.

The main factor in the process of self-realization is gyana . In Indian tradition


knowledge and gyana are considered to be separate. Knowledge cannot be
synonymous with gyana . Gyana has only one definition-“eko gyanam gyanam”- that
which makes one realize the one alone is gyana. How the one manifests itself in the
many is the subject matter of science. The discovery of soul is possible only through
the gyana. Gyana shapes the behavior and the personality of man. Together both gyana
and conduct pave the way for self- realization (darshan).

I AM ONE : I AM MANY

In the beginning of creation there was nothing, the only element that was there was
called brahm . The whole creation proceeded from him. In the beginning the power of
the brahm , known as maya , was inoperative. Therefore, nothing came into creation.
The moment the power awoke, brahm had the feeling, “ekoham bahusyam” -- I am
one, I have to become many. This feeling of the brahm was the cause of creation. That
the basis of the entire creation is so, there is nothing new because brahm is our
repository. The entire creation is creation through the union of opposites. The creation
of the sun or celestial bodies beyond the sun is known as the creation through the
union of fire and water (soma ). Two opposite feelings create a new feeling. The pair
of opposites disappears after its time.

Our sages saw, studied and felt this circularity very deeply and thus fixed four kinds of
goals as essential for life. These were dharma (righteousness), artha (wealth), kama
(desire) and moksha (liberation). Out of these, dharma and artha have become
synonymous with life. Kama can be understood in terms of feeling, wish, desire
etcetera. Moksha means freedom of the soul from the compulsions of rebirth. This
means life consists of two major goals; desire and moksha . Desire, in itself, is a very
complex subject. It includes within itself the will of ishvara as well as the will of the
jiva.

The will is the seed of the mind (kamastdagre maanaso retah). There are many levels
of desire in the mind. The external world is nothing but the projection of desire. Our
senses are all the time joined with the external world. Our eyes light up when we see
something beautiful. The mind craves the same sight again and again. Through the
ears we hear something melodious. The mind craves the melody again and again. The
tongue favors a particular taste and the mind seeks it again and again. The senses
influence the mind and the mind generates every moment a new desire. No sooner a
desire is fulfilled, than the other desire takes birth. These desires multiply with the

88
passage of time. In due course of time the meaning of ‘kama’ came to be dissociated
from desire in general and became connected with sexual desire as meant in the
kamasutra. The media have also been using the word in the same sense. That signifies
that even dharma and artha should also be used for the satisfaction of the sexual
impulse. In that case the word moksha should be deleted from the dictionary because it
serves no purpose as a guiding principle of life. Today, the environment all over the
world is in favor of seeking satisfaction of the sexual impulse. All the tensions of life
are sought to be released in the same way. In fact, it is an attempt to extract oil from
sand.

Even if we accord primacy to this meaning of ‘kama’ - the satisfaction of the passion
or sexual impulse - and think about ‘ekoham bahusyam ’ along those lines, it becomes
apparent that this meaning does not take us anywhere. Nature itself puts a stop to these
kinds of activities after the age of 50. Thereafter, kama must link itself with the
vanaprastha and stages of life. If we fail to do so, we will be creating a society
without restraint. Self-reflection is no longer an activity that engages us. We have
become impatient to live the life of the senses to the full, which is the external life. But
the meaning of external life is clear: that which is not mine, is a loan to me. How can
the external be of any use to me? Whatever is within me that alone is mine. That has to
be analyzed. That which is within, has to be expanded, put to use. It can be put to use
for the welfare of others. Such questions will, then, assail us. In searching for the
answers, we will be able to find the inner world.

The soul is the purusha , and prakriti motivates it. The mind is for all times covered
by multiple layers of prakriti. All the three characteristics of nature (sattva, rajas and
tamas ), continue to influence the mind. In accord with the influence of these
characteristics the mind functions. When the mind accepts or rejects something, it
creates vibrations. Commands are, then, issued to the brain, planning is done and the
body engages in limbic movements. Efforts for satisfying the desire are made.

One of the grounds of the mind is attachment, i.e., affection or love. Attachment,
enmity, possessiveness, self-allurement and jealousy attach themselves to the desire in
various ways. Self-allurement is one of the most powerful passions which catches hold
of the individual. Self-allurement is the original form of maya. It increases our
attachment to things. The mind clings to these different forms of desire. The more it
clings, the more the mind is covered with layers of passion. Desires multiply in the
form of a complex web. Memory and imagination, then, create a new world of desires.

As long as one’s desires are fulfilled one feels happy. The mind is unable to accept any
kind of obstacles in the fulfillment of its desires. Pride, then, comes out in the form of
anger. Anger is another name for venting one’s frustrations. When a man finds himself
unsuccessful in some enterprise, he wants to cover his failure. He wants to appear
courageous, though within he is wounded. Every negative reaction is indicative of
some kind of fear. In order to conceal his fear, man undergoes a whole series of
reactions. Therefore, understanding fear is to understand oneself. The moment one
comes to understand one’s fear, one comes to know one’s weakness. It, then, becomes

89
easy to remove such weakness.

Behind every kind of intoxication and habit, which a man subjects himself to, is
always some kind of fear. One should check one’s reactions whenever they become
overpowering and try to go deeper within oneself in order to find the source of these
reactions. He will come face to face with his weaknesses and the injury caused by
them. He can, then, remove the weaknesses through determination. Attachment to
needless things is the root of all fear. One by one such fears can be removed, the veils
can be removed. Having thus arrived, man realizes himself. This is the real freedom,
moksha. Man will then be free from all the bondage. Dharma and artha , which were
supportive of this kind of inner journey, are no longer required because desire itself
has been eliminated. A body without desire is known as a corpse.

Therefore, all thinking should be focused on the transitoriness of things. The mind
should at all times be focused on the eternal rather than on the transitory. In transitory
one focusing mind runs after the other, once it is fed up with the current occupation.
Nothing is going to be achieved out of this tendency. Boredom itself should be used as
a ladder to attain a state of desirelessness. To be in absolute control of one’s desires at
all times is moksha . If you have been able to become many out of one, the next stage
of development has also to be achieved this way.

GIVE AND TAKE


To give and take means to exchange and share. To give something, and in place of it
receive something is what we call interactive human behavior. It has these two
fundamental features - the giver and the receiver. Both of them are human beings.

All the activities of business and its future are dependent on the giver and the receiver.
Viewed from this point of view the whole of our life is business. Sometimes it may be
the exchange of cash, while at other times it may be an exchange of commodities or of
services.

Even where there appears to be no exchange, expectations are certainly there. A


mother doesn’t demand anything from her child, but she certainly expects that the
child would respect and obey her.

Since business is concerned with individuals, it brings into consideration the issue of
values, traditions and faith. All these add to the reputation of the businessman. There
is no reputation in the absence of these. The business, then, slows down and ultimately
fails.

Today marketing is given such importance that it has pushed the importance of man
himself to the background. Today’s mantra is that man can be lured and trapped into

90
buying things, though as a result he may not wish to visit that business-place again.

The lure of money has turned work into something valueless and irreligious. The
definition of enterprise stands changed. The aims and objectives of business have also
changed. Money has to be earned, but no one understands what is to be done with the
money thus earned. Earning more and more money and becoming richer by the day
has become the sole motto of business.

Someone, who doesn’t know what he will do with his money, can hardly be expected
to know what he will do with his life. His life, in that case, can have no direction, no
purpose. He will complete perhaps 100 years of his life on the place where he was
born. Can this be called a successful enterprise?

Wealth is available in three forms. It can be donated, it can be used and it can be kept
in such a way that no one is able to use it. The aim of business can be to donate or to
enjoy, but it can never be to destroy. Even donation and enjoyment are possible only to
the extent in which there is respect for the individual forms of life.

Since money breeds pride, forms of life become negligible. The demonic feelings push
oneself into the business of making more and more of money. In this process values
and traditions are passed by. The same demonic feeling that motivates a person to
make money also goes into the nurturing of the family. Those kinds of imprints or
samskaras , characteristics and feelings enter the minds of the members of the family.
Only good and eternal values can help in conserving wealth.

It is also true that fate plays its part in making someone rich. But it is not necessary
that a rich man would necessarily be happy although he may well be unhappy. The
goal of life is happiness. Money isn’t everything. It is just a means to happiness.

The feeling of happiness is not a physical feeling. Both happiness and grief are linked
with the mind. Even wealth is of no importance here. Too much of pain accompanies
material pleasures.

The pleasures are not permanent. The goal of business should be the attainment of
happiness. Only then can there be a sense of satisfaction. Only then can business
become a source of joy.

That means that the individual has to be pushed center-stage. Business has to be
regarded as service to humankind. Each and every person will have to be given equal
importance because the customer is God. Instead of superfluous relationships, those
based on the heart will have to be inculcated. One will have to learn to love the
customer. Where there is love, there is no expectation. There are only duties, no rights.
The goal should be to accord the customer proper respect, to win his affection and to
earn his confidence. If that is the attitude, business will be successful.

In today’s lifestyle even love has become a commodity. The price of love is demanded
immediately. A whole web of expectations is built. Quarrels do not arise because of

91
love but because of the expectations. The whole of life is now being guided by
material considerations. More and more people are becoming heartless. If there is no
sensitivity the moment an individual loses his consideration, business becomes a
mechanical process. One would, then, not be able to know a customer and his family
even after having dealt with him in business for a long time.

Business is not only important for an individual or a family, it is the mainstay of a


society and a country. Any change in the form and practices of business brings about
corresponding changes in society. Rules of conduct and behavior change, heralding the
beginning of a change in culture. In fact even religion is dependent on society. Money
has become dominant on both society and on religion.That is why many religious
leaders have opened trusts and are engaged in commercial activities.What form this
change will assume in the future will also be determined by trends in business.

EDUCATION OF MOTHERHOOD

Human body is always in a state of homeostasis, but it moves out of it is to perform


certain functions. Many of the functions of the body are reflex activities, but many are
goal-directed activities. The body follows intellect which, in turn, follows the mind.
Though they appear to be separated, they are interdependent. The soul is the master of
all. The body is a reflection of the soul, the mind and intellect. The functioning of
these three can be understood only through the working of the body.

The body is regulated by nature. Sun, moon, air and water regulate it. Similarly, nature
in all its three forms - sattva, rajas and tamas - regulates our behavior. Our life, to a
certain extent, is predetermined by nature and it remains so from birth to death. The
soul doesn’t act. The motion of the soul can be apprehended through the mind, prana
and the speech. Mind is the center of emotions and feelings. Wishes and desires
originate from it. Through the sensory organs the mind interacts with the external
world. On the other hand, the mind is also a part of the spiritual domain. When
connected with the senses, the mind is caught by external attractions. Thus the mind
creates attachments. The inner world is linked with science or pragya . It appears that
man has six sensory organs rather than five. The use of this sixth sense makes man the
best among all the creatures of the world.

The greater influence of the moon makes an individual heart-oriented. Where the
influence of the moon is counter-balanced by that of the sun, a man becomes
intelligent. Women are heart-oriented and men are mind-oriented. Exceptions to this
generalization are always there. But it can be safely stated that by nature men and
women are different.

The guiding principle of heart-oriented beings is predominantly love. An


effervescence of feeling is their strength. Their mind is restive. If there is less control

92
of the senses, the mind cannot be stable. For the heart-oriented beings, thinking and
reflecting are difficult. They are not interested in activities of knowledge and science
which require the use of intellect. Their field is love, joy and consummation. They can,
therefore, easily adopt the path of devotion. In the devotional way of living, feelings
can be easily and profusely expressed. The heart can enter into states of ecstasy. These
intense feelings become helpful in balancing the mind. Man loses himself in these
intense feelings. The house, in which women with intense feelings live, becomes a
temple. Children automatically become devoted and disciplined. The entire household
follows them and all their activities are carried out under their directions. Osho has
written somewhere, ‘Women are able to attain the state of dhyana through the path of
love and devotion. Man attains love through dhyana. ’ That is why these are
complementary.

This means that both the sexes should be given different kinds of education. In today’s
educational system women are being put to harm. They are also being reared to
become intellect- oriented. That is why a great change is now visible in the behavior of
women. They are becoming eager to live a life like men. An urge towards intellect-
dominated behavior is clearly visible among them. There is nothing objectionable in
an urge like this because it points to a desire to live with totality of life. But the issue is
whether it is necessary to abandon womanly behavior? Should she not rely on her
heart? These are vital issues which need to be addressed. It can be seen as to how
education has bereaved itself of softness and affection. The newer generation of
women is already a hard and dry generation.

How can a mother without feeling create affection? If a woman behaves like a man,
she loses all attractiveness. In fact, she becomes repulsive. When a woman is available
without serious effort, she loses her importance. Soon man will lose interest in her. She
will lose her identity. That is why the condition of women is deteriorating all over the
world in spite of education and prosperity. It is the worst in the advanced countries.
Woman has become a focus of consumption. Equality in education doesn’t mean that
women should not be given the knowledge of mothering. Probably mothering is not
considered a part of life. Because of ignorance in this vital area, they have become
dependent on others and dependence is subjugation. The subject of mothering is no
part of the curriculum in any of the colleges. Even such a minor activity like that of
changing of sanitary napkins is not included in the course. No one pays any attention
to the difference between male and female students. Though directors of the colleges
and the teachers are female, no one pays any attention to urgent issues related to
women. This lack of awareness concerning issues related to women is the result of
today’s education.

By including the education of motherhood in the curriculum, we would be promoting


affection, love and a caring attitude. Women will have adequate knowledge of their
physiology. They will be conscious of their womanhood. The guarantee of their rights
is connected with their state of being - which is womanhood. If they go on aping man,
there is nothing in store for them except exploitation. In copying others one becomes
forgetful of developing oneself. Mind and intellect remain in a state of perpetual

93
conflict which cannot be solved in one’s whole life. One may blame the other but there
remains no happiness in such a household. Wealth or material prosperity cannot fulfill
the need for affection and love. One advances so far on the path of conflict that a
return is almost impossible. One has to live by wearing masks.

The basis of happiness is to live naturally in consonance with one’s emotions and
feelings. The slightest diversion from the above course ignites a conflict. Man or
woman, both are same within the body. But the differences that nature has created
have to be respected. How can one live in harmony with nature by disregarding the
differences that nature itself has created. It is difficult to be in conflict with nature.

Our policy makers are both cruel and selfish. They are good at pandering illusions but
have not been able to provide the kind of education that could create an environment
of peace and happiness. There is no sage among them who could understand the
importance of human values and Indian culture. The policies that are framed are
policies that have been borrowed from foreign countries. Our values and our way of
life remain neglected. Whatever culture and values the parents are able to transmit
through living together, is also forgotten under the influence of school education.

The reason for this is that life is constantly moving. The knowledge that is stored
through intellect is stale. Such a knowledge can never promote dynamism. The
dynamism of life is in the heart, in desire. In knowledge there is pride and because of
that one is not able to listen to the musings of the heart. That is why whenever a man
has to meditate, he has to empty his mind of thoughts. Only then is he able to establish
a link with his inner self. He, then, disengages with the external knowledge and returns
home. Study and analysis of family tradition and knowledge of the conventions of the
society makes reflection possible. Copying others is bondage. One should carve one’s
own way in consonance with the traditions of family and society.

GOD

God and ishwara are not one. They are different. God takes birth in the form of a
human being or as a creature in the world. Ishwara is a part of the creation. In the
development and annihilation of the creation, ishwara plays an important role.

He is the lord of the creation. Above the ishwara are the powers of the mahaishwara
(great soul) and parmeshwara (super soul). These hierarchies are the styles of the
functioning of nature. The word ishwara makes us aware of godliness. The word
bhagwan (God) comes from the root ‘bhag’ or ‘yoni.’ The group of the six attributes
i.e., prosperity, religion, fame, intellect, knowledge and renunciation is known as
‘bhag’ . One who exercises complete control over these six attributes is known as
God. One who has complete mastery over even one of the attributes is also called god
but such gods are known as ‘anshavatara’ (partial incarnations).

94
In ancient texts only lord Krishna has been regarded as the complete being, the
incarnation of God.

The remaining nine (up to now only eight) are considered only partial incarnations.
According to different philosophies there are different definitions of God. One of them
says that God is one who has complete mastery over creation and annihilation, motion
and motionlessness and knowledge and ignorance.

The word bhag is also used for yoni. There are eighty-four lakhs (8.4 millions) of
yonis (forms of existence). The lord of all these yonis is also called God. This may be
so because of the popular perception, otherwise their lord is ishwara . In popular
parlance there is no difference between God and ishwara . But the implication is that it
is necessary to take birth for becoming God. But in him there is a preponderance of the
qualities of ishwara . That is why he is accepted as the representative of ishwara. The
word grandeur also signifies the qualities of ishwara .

Grandeur is of eight types-anima, mahima, garima, laghima, prapti, prakamya, ishitva


and vashitva. The ability to become as microscopic as an atom is known as anima .

In ancient texts the atom has been defined from a practical point of view: the sixtieth
part of dust particle visible in the sunlight is an atom. It cannot be seen with the naked
eye. The sudden disappearance of lord Krishna from among the gopis is an example of
anima . The demon king Ravana also knew how to disappear, but he could disappear
along with his body only and that too with the help of a particular vidya .

He could not turn himself into the form of an atom. Lord Rama also did not know how
to disappear. Similarly Krishna appeared in a colossal form. That is the example of his
mahima . When the demon Vrittasura came to assassinate Krishna in the form of a
whirlwind, the lord became as light as the air riding the crest of the whirlwind.

Then, he became so heavy that Vrittasur couldn’t bear the load and died as a result.
These examples speak volumes of lord Krishna’s miraculous powers of attaining
laghima (weightlessness) and garima (heaviness) at all.

Prapti means the capability of reaching the desired destination. The moment Draupdi
remembered the lord, he appeared. Devaki desired that she would like to see her dead
sons which she had lost. Krishna brought all her sons back from Varuna, the lord of
water.

Similarly, prakamya means the ability to acquire what one desires. This ability
includes the qualities of gratitude and surprise. Krishna’s lila (illusory acts performed
by God in the world as an incarnation) is full of them. Krishna has been the
fountainhead of all the nine ‘rasas.’ To rescue the unborn child of a woman from the
demon he creates the feeling of surprise.

Ishitva (greatness) is reflected in adorning himself with the mountain Govardhana.


Vashitva (bewitching) is exemplified in many activities. The raslila is full of instances

95
of hypnosis of the gopis . Here, it is important to note that playing the flute hypnotized
only the gopis and not the cowherds. In fact, the cowherds were trying to stop the
gopis from going to Krishna. The reason for the reincarnation of Krishna has been
well stated in the Gita: ‘yadayadahidharmasya glanirbhavati bharatah’ - whenever
there is decadence in dharma and ethical values, I incarnate as a human to redeem the
world. His fame has been eternal.

From him have issued forth immortal classics such as the gyana yoga , the karma
yoga, the bhakti yoga and the buddhi yoga . It has been said for Krishna that he was
the infallible god. He was always adorned with the six characteristics that constitute
godhead. The eight siddhis (super natural powers) of perfection were always a part of
his personality.

The joy of the eight siddhis can be experienced only in an atomic or minute sense.
This feeling of joy resides in the yoni. How can creation take place without joy? Of the
five arts of the avyaya the first is joy. In married life the birth of progeny is the bhag
feeling. Bhag is followed by the suffix mat . This mat becomes vat in bhagwat or
bhagwan or God. One gains fame with the birth of progeny.

With the growth of buddhi grandeur increases. If husband and wife have the
equanimity of buddhi , this is grandeur. If only one of them has it, then, it is the feeling
of consumption. It is only a household feeling and has to be carried willingly or
unwillingly.

Only joy characterizes the true consumption. With the birth of children fame spreads.
After marriage both husband and wife gain in beauty. It is noteworthy that after
consumption beauty begins to fade. The knowledge of marriage as a worldly
institution begins from here. Renunciation also starts after one has had excessive
sensual enjoyment. That is why after the birth of children sexual indulgence should
come to an end. This feeling is known as vairagya. Thus, the yoni (vagina), being
impregnated with all the six meanings of the word bhagwat , is called bhag .

From a practical point of view a man can be called bhagwan (God) who has attained
freedom from attachment and enmity, one who has been able to become Narayan
(great man) through transformation after being born as nara (man). This would require
refining rajas and tamas within oneself and establishing oneself in the sattva . Such
men have been observed as having propounded dharma or being in continuous
struggle with evil forces. They are the embodiments of special powers and special
characteristics. One wishes to bow before them because of the aura on their faces.
Saints and men with extraordinary attitudes can also be put into the category of gods.

SANKALP (Resolve) - I

96
Life is an unfathomable ocean of alternatives. Living amidst innumerable desires man
tries to express himself through the medium of these alternatives. He searches for his
identity through them. Just as truth is one but exists in many forms, these possibilities
appear in multiple forms as well. To give it a single form a person makes a resolve.
Alternatives cease the moment a person resolves to do a thing. From now the course of
his life stands decided.

There are two kinds of people, intellectual and emotional or compassionate.


Intellectuals make decisions on the basis of logic and emotional people on the basis of
their feelings. Generally, men fall into the category of intellectuals and women into the
category of emotional persons. Thinking, reflection and meditation are easy for a man,
but for a woman these are very difficult. However, a woman finds devotion quite
suitable whereas for a man this is quite difficult. Family life is a kind of school for
knowledge and devotion. It creates an environment for balancing knowledge and
action. When the question of a resolve arises, intellectual and the emotional persons
react differently. Resoluteness does not affect them in the same manner. The
intellectual is lost in the web of logic. An emotional person is lost in the flow of his or
her feelings.

The intellectual is lost in the options available to him, and consequently the changes
that should have taken place in his mind as a result of his resolve remain ineffective.
Resoluteness does not affect his heart. It remains confined to his mind. It creates such
big obstacles in his mind that he is probably unable to concentrate.

This habit creates opposition to the desire, or he tries to suppress some expressions of
his heart. The feeling that often arises is this: “Now I don’t have to do this.” Although
the desire is there the mind refuses to act and thus a conflict arises.

Time and again the desire forces itself on the consciousness, and time and again the
mind tries to push it back into the unconscious. Life becomes a struggle. Though
desire is very much there, one’s inability to fulfill it produces guilt. One feels unhappy.
Intellect is unaware of the feeling of repentance. It exults only in pride. No one knows
how these suppressed desires will express themselves.

Resoluteness backed by intellect makes life a hell. The moment the object of
resoluteness comes into focus, one is drawn into a conflict. One tries to forget the
desire and this excludes all feelings. Such a person resists participation and
strengthens his resolution. Thoughts and feelings become scattered.

Similarly, the resolve of an emotional person is not easily fortified. The senses excite
his or her mind and the resolve weakens. He or she is inclined to say, “Let me indulge
in pleasure today. Come tomorrow, I will not do it anymore.” These kinds of thoughts
assail one’s mind. It becomes difficult to control it. Conversations of women and the
subjects they talk about can be considered in this category. They are unable to control
their thoughts on beauty and consumption.

Resoluteness cannot be arrived at merely by reflection and deliberation. Only those

97
resolves are strengthened which are taken after having made mistakes, after having
expiated the guilt, or which we have arrived at as a result of individual experience.
Such resolves are true to life. They are born out of knowledge and have a direction.
They testify that man has undergone suffering through lack of resoluteness.

Another reason for the strength of resolve is the blessing of the guru or God. But the
person who aspires for God’s blessing needs to be worthy of it. The more one’s
worthiness increases, the more one’s resolve is strengthened. One receives the energy
for doing so directly from the spiritual domain.

Krishna says in the Gita, “We should never resort to resolves.” The moment one
makes a resolve, the mind begins to search for alternatives. A whole new web of
thoughts is built and the man begins to lose anchor. For strengthening the resolve one
needs an environment which is not easily available. Man lives in the midst of desires.
A resolve becomes effective only when there is a congenial environment and it
remains favorable and nourished by inspiration. The availability of a guru can be
understood only in this context. Very few are fortunate enough to get the company of a
guru.

A resolve also becomes a cause of the bondage of the mind. No action, which has been
committed without desire, becomes a cause of bondage for an individual. It remains
only an act.

One has to undergo repentance if one engages in acts that are in opposition to one’s
determination. Therefore, instead of engaging in a resolve, one should engage in acts
on behalf of God. In such a way of living the old imprints (samskars ) will slowly be
dissolved since there is no desire, but only a devotional feeling towards God..

An example of the above is the vow of celibacy. Having a desire is natural. It cannot
be stopped. The moment a vow is undertaken, an attempt to suppress the desire begins.
A conflict ensues and the man gets involved in a conflict. The desire also disappears.

As a result of this suppression the body becomes sick and the mind tries to free itself
from the bondage of the vow. It may happen that a man immediately takes to crime to
satisfy his desire. Engaging with conflict in one’s mind all through one’s life cannot be
the way to peace. Most of the vows are taken under the influence of intellect. Hence,
they constitute a kind of pride. Society becomes corrupt when a vow of celibacy is
undertaken for social prestige while the heart craves for it. Many sanyasins have
become prey to the erotic impulses. Fornication becomes compulsive. The vow for
celibacy becomes a cancerous growth. Mind is the home of desires. It needs to be
given proper direction on the basis of knowledge. One has to understand a desire itself
rather than to engage in conflict with it. Choice always has its alternatives. The
moment one understands, the necessity of choice and vow is no longer there.

The first step towards celibacy is to understand the erotic and voluptuous desires, the
meaning of ‘I am one, shall be many.’ When one has attained the objective of being
many, one can always come back to the source of being one. The energy will be the

98
same, only it needs to be redirected. Only the knowledge of the one alone can give this
direction. In life only those vows are effective that are undertaken as a result of having
made a mistake. Such vows are the result of repentance. These are the results of
individual experience and, hence, true to life.

SANKALP (Resolve) - II

Life is a course of choices and alternatives, of knowledge and ignorance. A person


wants to make progress. He makes a resolve. He wants to achieve something, so he
vows to succeed in his resoluteness. A resolve is a decision to work in a particular
direction.

Nothing big can be achieved without it. It is on the basis of his resolution that a man is
able to undertake tasks which are beyond his capacity. In a popular parlance taking a
vow is making a resolve. It may be in the following form: “ Hereafter I will do this, or,
Hereafter I will not do this.”

The meaning of ‘kalpa’ in ‘samkalpa’ is ‘feasible’, that which is right. It also means
‘being capable.’ In the Jain philosophy a period of time is also called ‘ kalpa’. To
commit oneself to what is right with a resolute will is a resolution. Sometimes out of
pride, a man may make a resolve for a wrong purpose as well. In that case he will not
realize that what he is going to do is evil.

His mind brims with evil tendencies when he is scared, indecisive or hesitant. Lack of
knowledge is also one of the main causes why evil tendencies arise. Wherever there is
a possibility of choice, one should not pay attention to alternatives, though searching
for choices is also a state of indecision and incompetence. A resolve means a vow; it
does not consist in aberrations.

Resoluteness focuses its attention on the objective. One who thinks in many languages
cannot utilize the knowledge which is contained in his own language. It is unfortunate
that a man considers himself knowledgeable on the basis of his borrowed knowledge.

He is not able to be one with his own soul, It is only through his own language,
through his mother tongue that he becomes one with his same. Thus, he spends his life
in a false pursuit. An invaluable human life is wasted and he is not able to make any
resolve.

The first step is the acceptance of the desire when it arises in the mind. This is
followed by avagraha, iha and avagama . The mind must first decide whether to fulfill
the desire or not. The appropriateness of the desire becomes important here. At this
stage the mind begins to be assailed by options of sensual pleasures, immediate
benefits and hesitation, with the result his mind will drift towards a state of indecision.

99
If one accepts a vow under pressure or out of respect for someone, its results are
devastating. A man who does so will indulge in false behavior. Though in his heart he
longs for pleasures feigns that he is opposed to it. It is not possible for us to suppress
our innate desires in this way. They will never die. Nevertheless, a person’s outward
behavior becomes artificial. It leads to corruption and heralds the beginning of his
ultimate fall.

BONDAGE AND LIBERATION


Life is considered a bondage resulting from one’s acts. Every act puts us in some kind
of bondage, whether it be a good act or a bad one. Sins as well as virtues are a cause of
bondage. Uniting two people or objects in itself is bondage. It can be of many forms,
but the result is always bondage. In social parlance a good relationship, which keeps in
view the traditions and social limitations, is called balanced bondage. But still it is
bondage. The main aim of life is to seek liberation, to obtain moksa.

The Indian concept underlying the four fold pursuits of life i.e. dharma
(righteousness), artha (wealth), kama (desire or passion) and moksa (liberation) is also
more or less the same. The righteous conduct has been made the basis so that one may
attain moksa even when one is engaged in the pursuits of wealth and passion. In our
religious tradition it has been pointed out that dharma has ten characteristics. In the
Bible we find their counterpart in the form of ten commandments. These very
commandments later became the principles of our ethical conduct.

Why is it that there is bondage at all? If something is regarded as good or desirable, it


arouses feelings of attachment in us. This attachment is strengthened when a person
does a thing again and again, which may be that of eating peanuts, drinking cold water
or eating pickles. It happens so when one listens to a sweet voice or comes across
affectionate behavior, with touch, smell and with form. Whatever the mind desires
causes attachment. Each of the sensory organs operates in a very broad field. The field
of intellect as well as that of the heart is still wider. Attachment to physical pleasures
has become the main purpose of the day.

The opposite of attachment is revulsion. Attachment is born of desirability while


revulsion stems from hatred and jealousy. When emotions increase, bondage becomes
stronger. The power of demonic forces is greater than that of a god. Thus, man gets
caught in a web of his own making. The aim of religion is to set the jiva free so that he
may pay for the sins of his previous life, but not to generate new forms of bondage in
this life. Bondage is the cause of rebirth and is known as repaying the debt. What is
happening today in the name of religion actually negated religion and makes it
perverse. Fundamentalism is putting religion to shame. How can this kind of religion
liberate anyone? Man moves ahead with the help of religion, but he becomes

100
disillusioned long before he reaches his destination. Religion is abandoned. Today no
one renounces religion up to the end of his life. He may join paradise but cannot be
free from the compulsion of rebirth.

Whence do feelings like love and hate, good or bad feelings come into the mind? They
originate in our formative influences (samskaras ). Secondly, they are the result of our
education and environment. A man learns the language of good and the bad here
solely. The moment he evaluates things this way, love, attachment, hate, revulsion and
other feelings arise in him. His objective vision disappears. He either likes or dislikes
something. Accordingly reactions arise in his mind in the form of a chain because a
man misuses his powers of evaluation and decision-making frequently. The moment
he feels something is good, he becomes impervious to the faults. If he likes someone,
he takes all decisions under the influence of his thinking, though later he may come to
regret his decisions. Similarly, the moment he feels someone is bad, he becomes his
opponent. Thus, the formulation of good or bad makes him take subjective decisions.
His mind goes on constituting categories of good and bad and his bondage with an
individual or an object becomes progressively stronger. He begins to float in a stream
of his own making. Such decisions are taken on the basis of pride. When pride grows,
pragya (wisdom) disappears. Pride is of dark hue, and when it increases, intellect is
covered by tamas (darkness). He feels that his decisions are correct. He considers
others responsible for his troubles. His samskaras and pride together begin to
determine the aims of the activities he undertakes. The samskara s determine the
direction of emotions and pride gives them a momentum.

If the samskaras are impregnated with sattva (truth), pride surrenders and in its place
pragya develops. Man moves away from the discrimination between good and bad and
accepts the real and the objective. That means to observe what is neither good nor bad,
and to accept black as black and white as white, none of them being good or bad.

The moment a realistic attitude develops, the function of the sensory organs changes.
His recognition of good or bad in form, smell, touch and taste remains no longer a
viable goal. Reality becomes the goal. That is the secret of non-attachment and man
becomes free from the influence of results. The concept that one should not be
motivated by the end product is achieved and man is freed from the bondage. When
the result is not there in the form of the fruit, nothing attracts one for enjoyment. Why
would one, then, be required to undergo the process of rebirth.

One more beneficial effect would be that our memory would be emptied of all its
content. The experiences that kept us riveted to the past and to its history will
automatically be wiped clean. The present will, then, be readily available and under
control. Neither the past nor the brightness of future will be able to assail you because
both the past and the future are linked up with the pleasures derived from the senses.
With the disappearance of the distinction of the good and the bad, the experiencing of
happiness and grief would undergo a transformation. One would always be in a state
of joy, no matter what the circumstances are. Heaviness of the heart disappears the
moment intellect is divested of pride. Body becomes light and one experiences

101
liberation. This means that with the birth of awareness, the seer appears in man, the
pride of being the doer of things goes away. Perhaps, this is known as the state of
moksa, the liberation.

ANIMAL SACRIFICE

An offering means a gift offered to please someone or seek his favor. It is believed that
creation subsists on the yagya and in it there are two kinds of offerings: offerings in
the form of material things and offerings in someone’s life. These offerings are
accepted by gods, demons and humans. Since gods and demons are bodiless and have
no flesh, no blood, it is difficult to understand how the tradition of sacrificing living
animals or even humans has arisen. Surely, it is the result of the ingenuity of the
human intellect.

Man has been carnivorous since the day he was created. Agriculture developed after
millions of years. Grains and vegetables were unheard of. There may have been fruits
and other food items available. The form of gods, of temples and mosques, and the
form of the yagyas might also have undergone many changes. Similarly, the forms of
offerings also changed. The sacrifice of an animal was natural in the carnivorous age.
But with the development of agriculture, the form of sacrificial offerings also changed.
Rice, milk and other things became acceptable as offerings.

But one section of society remained steadfast in its tradition of sacrificing of living
animals. This undoubtedly is the manifestation of a demonic feeling. Only an
individual without faith in life will support an animal sacrifice. The faithless are
known as demons. One with faith is known as a god. Today the five practices of the
vama-marga have also been turned into demonic practices. Vam means beautiful.

In the past it might have been so, but today it accepts flesh, wine, sexual promiscuity
and fish. It has come to symbolize dark practices. Naturally, tamas is synonymous
with selfishness and violence. Animal sacrifice is offered because gods, who do not
possess physical bodies of flesh and blood are pleased to have such an offering. By
doing this, one becomes the master of mysterious powers. But such practices have evil
consequences.

The purpose of sadhana is to move towards sattva (purith and sootness). With the
passage of time human beings have also developed. Intellect has also developed.
Hence, the practice of animal sacrifice has been vociferously opposed. Some people
have begun to believe that the animals, which are offered as sacrifice, will avenge
themselves on their killers after their death.

Adherents of animal sacrifice quote the Vedas which say, “A living being is the food of
another living being.” If everything is possible in the creation, then ahimsa has no

102
meaning. Without violence life cannot be sustained. The belief that only the killing of
a prasuta jiva will be considered violence has been disputed. The felling of a tree is
thus not considered violence. Life should be lived by understanding the meaning of
bahu-jivatva and alp-jivatva (greater number of jivas and small number of jivas).
Another definition is that violence is not violence against such phenomena which can
be carried by others or which are not autonomous. The entire concept of violence has
developed along with the development of agriculture.

The law of nature appears to be different. Some reptiles eat their own offspring, as do
some spiders. Probably this is part of the evolutionary process. The process of life and
new kinds of activities continue. The process of rebirth continues. Probably, the effort
of human-will, as directed by dharma, artha and kama, will not be able to change this
cyclic process. One will be born again and again in order to suffer the results of one’s
actions. If the entire world becomes non-violent, the process of evolution may come to
an end. Earth would become a heaven. This is not possible.

Since man is always in search of peace and happiness, it is necessary to accommodate


feelings of peace and tranquility in life. The sacrifice of an animal violates our feelings
of peace and quietude and brings about cruelty. Kindness and pity belong to the nature
of sattva. An example of this is the rishi Jajli. He was immersed in deep meditation
and birds built nests on his head. When he came out of meditation, he was in a
dilemma as to what to do. Gods advised to remain motionless and he followed their
advice. The rishi came out of his samadhi only when chicks had come out of their
shells and had flown away. Another example is that of the rishi Tirkari. The rishi
became angry with his wife and he ordered his son to cut his mother’s head off. So
saying, he went away. But the son was caught in a conflict. He decided that disobeying
the orders of his father was the best course. On his return from bathing in the river the
rishi thought over what he had done. “I have issued a wrong order to my son.” He
hastened home and found the son and the mother sitting together with the sword lying
at the feet of the other. Seeing them safe, the rishi became happy. He said, “In
governance there is a provision for punishment. Such acts cannot be considered
violent. But ahimsa is nothing but faith and faith is ahimsa .” The presence of
tamoguna (darkness) is necessary in punishment. Punishment cannot be implemented
without it.

The establishment of shraddha is an option out of violence. Krishna has propounded


the principle of buddhi yoga for the same because it is considered nonviolent. It says,
“arambhe karmanam, sannyase karma sangyo.” This should be practiced daily. This
will reduce the pride born of rajas . This will also minimize selfishness and violence
born out of tamas . You can live a life of action.

Offerings in the form of gifts promote generosity. The concept of panchbali also
supports this. Guests, animals, fire, the monks and the sick should be offered grain.
They are synonymous with peace and ahimsa. They are free of expectations and full of
shraddha . They are the yagya in themselves.

103
KRAMAN (Moving Forward)

Kraman means moving forward. Attack means moving ahead in all directions.
Aggression means moving ahead disregarding all traditions and conventions. The
meaning of pratikraman is moving in the reverse direction or reviewing and scanning
one’s actions. Our life is constituted of these movements characterized by aggression
and reversal, and maintaining a balance between the two is the goal of our life.
Aggression signifies the domination of pride, while moving within signifies the
dominance of inner power. Pratikraman , reviewing one’s actions done during the day,
is the route to awareness. Similarly emulating good examples is known as sankraman.
In the field of sadhana the principle of modeling of excellence is in vogue. In upasana
the individual sits close to the lord and imbibes the spirit of his godliness.

Life is synonymous with kraman . As long as there is life, there is movement. This
process continues till the end of one’s life. The journey of this life moves on the basis
of nature. We have within us the purusa . Various coverings of sattva, rajas and tamas
create various forms of life. Pride is bound with them in the form of intellect. It is the
biggest contributory factor in creating tamas – darkness. This drives the individual to
aggression and flagrant violation of traditions and conventions. Others’ rights are
trampled upon because of this. All the wars of the world are the result of pride or
arrogance. Millions die as a result of the demonic feeling created by tamas . Rajas
works in the form of pride. It will be appropriate to mention here that both the sattva
and the tamas are activated by rajas. It is the same way as ‘yaju’ activates ‘rik’ and
‘sama’ or prana activates the mind and the speech.

The purpose of aggression is atikraman or intrusion into or encroachment on others’


areas. In fact aggression is planned in view of the atikraman . Atikraman is prohibited
in a social system and that is why it has been said that excess of it is bad. This applies
to individual behavior as well. Atikraman can also be an individual as in the case of a
shopkeeper acquiring the space in front of his shop. It can be a group or community
activity as can be seen in encroaching on government-owned lands. It can be in the
form of one country attacking another, as in the case of America attacking Afghanistan
and Iraq.

Reversal from atikraman is pratikraman (reviewing one’s actions). Moving in the


reverse direction is the real meaning as reflected in sound and echo, image and
reflection and action and reaction. The Hindus do trikal sandhya (offering prayer
thrice). This is nothing but pratikraman. Knowingly or unknowingly if some limits
have been crossed, then, one repents of it. Followers of the Jain religion also do
pratikraman in the evening. The aim is to expiate the guilt and seek forgiveness.
Pratikraman gives life a certain direction. It is possible that in different religions the
same practice is known by different names. In Christianity the practice of confession -
recognizing one’s misdeeds - is another form of pratikraman.

104
One of the forms of kraman is sankraman . To emulate someone’s good example is
known as sankraman of qualities. Sometimes bad examples are also thus followed. A
man begins to behave according to the environment in which he lives. Catching some
disease this way is also known as sankraman . Some diseases are thus known as
contagious diseases. Whoever happens to come into contact with it runs a risk of being
infected by it. Devotion is also infectious. Upasana is a form of bhakti which means
sitting close by. One thus draws in the qualities of someone with whom one sits in
closeness. In bhakti one imbibes divinity. This is known as being infected with virtues.
The guru moulds his disciple in his own image. He considers him the guru and sees in
him his own image. This is the process of taking in what is virtuous qualities.
Likewise a god has the power to transform a devotee into his own image.

Kraman is a necessary process of life. Aggression and withdrawal or atikraman and


pratikraman are the acts. On the basis of these acts one can either ascend the heaven
or descend to the depths of hell.

EMANCIPATION FROM FEAR


The proverb that ‘love or affection doesn’t take root unless it is accompanied by fear’
is a decisive testimony of human behavior. He has been allowed another convenience
too i.e. it is natural for a human being to make mistakes.

This human trait has been beautifully articulated in the oft-quoted line of Alexander
Pope’s poetry i.e. ‘to err is human, to forgive divine’. Fear accompanies a person from
the day he is born. As he grows old, the area of fear also goes on increasing. But, in
addition, if it is propounded that love or affection cannot take root unless it is
accompanied by fear, it will certainly be regarded as an excess.

Then, can any one remain fearless in his life or can he ever get assurance for
protection and safety? In his day-to-day dealings if a particular type of fear enters his
mind each time he meets an individual, we can imagine the magnitude of the
phenomena of fear thus accumulated and stored in a corner of his mind during his life
time. Will he ever be able to live happily?

The other aspect of this phenomenon is that it is the cowards who fear. Is every person
born a coward or should one deal with him taking it for granted that he is a coward?
Then for whom shall we use the words like ‘courageous’ and ‘fearless’? How will the
world be blessed with the birth of brave and heroic persons? At present we find that
mostly rash persons are being born. Is every jiva born with cowardice? We will also
have to find answers to such questions as to why fear closes in on man.

Both fear and anger are intimately connected. Anger has a tendency to ventilate itself.
The reason is that it has an emotional level. When emotions are hurt, an agonized

105
feeling arises in our mind which in turn appears in the form of anger. There are
different reasons due to which emotions are hurt. If something is not done according to
my wish, it will hurt my heart. If someone is opposing my line of thinking and I do not
have any answer, then also it causes injury to my heart. If I do not wish to do a thing
but I have to do it out of compulsion, then also my heart is hurt. Thus there might be
thousands of varying situations when a person finds himself helpless and gives vent to
his frustration in the form of anger. He thus only adds agony to his heart. This feeling
of frustration alone creates fear.

Anger is also indicative of the fact that the person who easily develops a fit of anger
lacks such natural qualities as love, affection and tolerance. It has been discovered that
most of the intellectuals are excessively ill-tempered by nature. Their mind remains in-
satiated. It is this state of a person’s mind which is responsible for its restiveness. An
ill-tempered man has no friends and is compelled to lead a lonely life. He is always
haunted by fear. When a person is engrossed in sensual pleasures or is lost in the
materialistic world or happens to regard the false glory as the basis of his life, fear
grips him easily. The extrinsic subjects are perishable, they remain changing, hence the
highs and lows are a continuous process in them. The subjects related to mind,
particularly the ones connected with peace and contentment become secondary in his
life. A particular type of ego remains dominant in his personality. As a result he feels
hurt at every step. There is no respite from the sequence of intrinsic agony and
extrinsic indignation.

Nature is entwined with the soul. It wants to live a natural life. If a person lives a
natural life, natural forces too become instrumental in the development of his life. The
soul carries with it the streams of God and Jiva. One wants to flow towards nature, the
other towards the external world. Nature pulls a person towards moksha (liberation)-
the inner world, while life gravitates towards bondage- the external world.

He who runs towards the external world will always drift away from the goal of life.
The restlessness of his mind will increase. He will not be able to use any occasion for
his peace of mind. The inner state of his mind will continue to remain under the
shadow of fear.

In order to suppress fear it has to be covered, hidden. To conceal the truth one has to
take recourse to falsehood again and again. Then one remains perpetually
apprehensive lest his lie should be exposed one day. If a person has done anything in
violation of ethical norms, first of all he has to suppress his fear. Mind is aware of the
fact that the deed I am going to indulge in is wrong. What a person is going to do is
pleasing and there is also a lot of temptation for him to indulge in sensual pleasures
but fear stalks him at every step. Fear is deeply imprinted on the screen of his mind.
But when the temptation of sensual pleasures becomes uncontrollable, he acts rashly
and walks into the trap. He derives momentary satisfaction from it which adds fuel to
the fire of insatiability.

Thus man goes on seeking happiness in transitory pleasures. He goes on regressing the

106
basic causes of fear. He also remains dissatisfied. Tremendous suffering is created on
account of fear, dissatisfaction and disgust. It is only through anger that we come to
know of it. The surge and frenzy of anger indicate its intensity. If the feelings of an
individual are hurt deeply then he is also likely to raise his fist. In order to free us from
fear we will have to trail along the path of anger and go deeper into the inner self. We
will have to delve deep to find out the basic cause of the wound. If the causes are
temporary it is easy to remove them. If the causes are permanent one will have to
undergo some spiritual practice. But a person can be emancipated from fear even by
swadhyaya (study of sacred texts). External causes will automatically be pacified.
Freed from fear life will blossom in an environment of joy. A new feeling of
fearlessness with new energies will emerge.

FORGING BONDS OF - NEW


RELATIONSHIP

An individual achieves success in life only when he develops a close relationship with
a subject. The source of success in it lies in a relationship. No definition of its own is
of any avail even though every word, every relationship has been defined in literature.
For example, there is a specific relationship between a son and a mother. It has also
been defined but no two mothers and sons appear behaving similarly. Every mother
looks at her son from a different angle of vision and every son too looks at his mother
from a different standpoint. A person’s behavior is patterned in consonance with his
attitudinal vision. It will be developed in that very direction and the results will also be
the same. The behavior of a woman towards a child with whom she has no relationship
will also be different. It is likely that she may not talk with him at all. No rules or
principles can be applied there. In devotional worship too we come across a similar
situation. An individual worships a deity assuming that he is his son or a friend or does
so merely for getting an immediate solution of his problem. Similar thoughts will
mingle with his devotional worship. Without any relationship it is not possible that the
fruit of a person’s devotion to a deity or god will take him somewhere. First of all he
will have to develop a relationship in his mind. It is this aspect alone that determines
the directions of the results.

After her marriage a girl goes to her father-in-law’s house. Her future is determined on
the basis of the situation in which she establishes herself there. The relationship that
she nurtures there is the most important precept of life. Relationship with whom? It is
with this new house. ‘It is my house from today. Every brick of this house also belongs
to me. The remaining part of my life will also be spent here. When this house is mine
and my parents’ house no longer belongs to me (it now belongs to the wives of my
brothers), then every member of this house has become a part of my life. Now no one
is another or different here. The distance between me and my house has been
abolished here. ‘Me’ and ‘my house’ have become one with each other. We will not be

107
one with this house so long as this sort of relationship is not developed. Our dreams
will also not be intertwined with it or they will imbibe the spirit only partially. We will
discover an element of alienation or otherness in our interaction and exchange of
things in exact proportion to our lack of emotional attachment. This alienation or
otherness will also be a matter of discussion and it will also reduce our influence in the
family proportionately. In the same proportion we will have emptiness in our mind. In
order to fill this void one may have to seek the assistance of one’s parents or circle of
friends. It is from here that new woes of life emanate. It is difficult to guess what will
happen with you in the new house that belongs to you and of which you are going to
be the mistress. It is possible that you are asked to live separately even before the
appropriate time comes and you may not even be considered fit to live with your in-
laws.

It is also a fact that the new house is not going to change for a particular individual. If
at all someone has to change, then it is the new individual who has to change first.
Orthodox people also try to impose their identity forcibly on the person who has just
joined their family. One may have to unlearn many things which one has already
learnt. It is vitally important to adjust oneself to the new situation. The other thing one
requires is patience. One can remain happy in every new situation. When there is a gap
between a daughter-in-law’s thinking and her new house, she is not able to forget her
parents’ house as well. To follow the course of divided loyalties or embark on the two
opposite courses is an uphill task. Her own house becomes her father-in-law’s house. It
is no longer her own. All relationships appear more in the garb of social definitions.
The mindset of children is also developed on a different mode. Basically they seem to
follow their mother’s bent of mind.

In this phase of the modern times the girls are taught to take up the reins and lead the
chariot of their life themselves in critical moments. This training has strengthened
their self-confidence and has also created in them a sense of security. As a result of
this self-confidence they are less inclined to compromise with the circumstances. They
do not have to think twice over the question of quitting the house if they are compelled
to do so. In this new environment a village woman had once remarked, “The women of
today are not at all afraid to become widows”. The in-laws also do not regret the
departure of the goddess Laxmi (daughter-in-law) from their house. It also bears
testimony to the fact that both the girl and her husband were never emotionally
integrated. The partial alienation never allowed the seed of attachment or
belongingness to sprout in them. Neither of them accepted each other from the core of
their hearts. The secret of inner being was lost in the tumult of life.

For a girl the first and foremost objective of her life is only to win her husband’s heart.
No girl might ever be dreaming of being separated from him. At least in India no one
might do so. Why is it then that the number of divorces is increasing? Is it so on
account of the right of equality or quest of freedom? More than that it is her ego of
self-confidence that doesn’t allow her to bow down. She doesn’t feel insecure even
when she lives singly. She comes prepared for it from her parents’ house itself.
Education in life is used as a tool for seeking happiness and peace. Let us try to find

108
the area of contradiction in the modern system of education since most of the divorces
are taking place in the educated families only.

It appears that it is the highly educated women who are falling a prey to this malady.
This stigma which was earlier confined to villages has now spread to urban areas. Is
this increasing weakness of women connected with their education or is it a result of
their upbringing?

109
MIND AND INCURABLE - DISEASES

It is believed that both hell and heaven are situated on this very earth. The individual
undergoes the suffering caused by his actions on this planet itself. We have also to
undertake a journey of life in order to suffer the consequences of some of the deeds of
our past lives. The type of life we live in this world is also determined by our own
actions. It is also due to the effect of the old karmas that we indulge in the new karmas
and suffer till the old karmas ripen and fall off.

We come to know of our life through our body, speech and actions.The basis of all
these components of our life is the soul which lies beyond the mind. The body, speech
and intellect are mere media of expression, or we can say that they are the means of
carrying out our activities. We are not able to conceal any of the thoughts that arise in
our mind. It expresses itself in some or the other form. We give vent to some thoughts
and hide others. But the truth is that the thoughts that we conceal are incessantly active
in some way or another. They will find a way to express themselves. We are hardly
aware of this phenomenon. The incurable diseases that develop in our bodies are
nothing but a manifestation of our hidden thoughts.

Our body is sustained by the food we consume. It is a gross fact. Food produces body
fluids, blood and all the seven constituent elements of the body. Mind occupies the last
place. It is nourished by the vital substance of the body. It is just like the rule of a
laboratory. If the digestive power is weak and fluids are not formed, all the seven
dhatus (seven constituent elements of the body) are weakened. If the fluids are
formed, but at the same time there is a lack of blood, even the dhatus that are formed
later will become weak. Since mind is formed last of all, it is inevitably affected by the
defect of each dhatu . As a result our vitality is also affected. Why is it that the
physiques of all those persons who eat the same type of food at home appear so
different? Why do they fall prey to different diseases? The change in the quantity of
food is not expected to make such a big difference that one member of a family
remains healthy, while the other suffers from peptic ulcers and the other from heart
disease.

All the chemical processes of our body are entwined with our digestive system. All
these chemical substances are secreted from our endocrinal glands. Their balance and
control are based on our emotional activities. That is why we lose our appetite when
we become angry. Our blood pressure is increased and everyone feels the impact of
fear and joy. Hence, it has been said that we should eat our food in a state of
cheerfulness and tranquility so that we are able to produce balanced hormones.

Endocrine Glands

110
There are many glands in our body and each gland has its own area of operation as
well as chemical substances. These glands release hormones in accordance with the
need of each organ. They also maintain the balance of the bodily chemicals and keep
the body healthy. These are called endocrine glands and are controlled by our mind.

We can understand the glands as well as the chemical substances emitted by them, but
still we do not understand their process of exchange with the mind. As a matter of fact,
even the mind is controlled by various energies. We acquire these energies from our
mind as well from the thoughts that arise in our mind. The sentiments of our mind
change our thoughts. Our desires, memories and fantasies also create an impact on our
mind which affects our ideas and thoughts. This entire field is the realm of the subtle
energies and the subtle body. It is the field of pranic activities.

The pranas that our body has i.e., prana (vital force), apan (fatulence) , saman (a vital
air) are all the gross pranas . But they are also created by the subtle pranas. These
subtle pranas direct the activities of our mind and brain. These pranas are the products
of our experience. With the help of the instruments devised by scientists we are now in
a position to photograph them, but their chemical analysis has not been accomplished
so far. The activities of these very pranas control the secretions of the endocrine
glands.

There are several ups and downs in our emotions. As a result the quantity of hormonal
secretions also changes. Rarely do they remain balanced for a long period. With each
mental perversion the imbalance in our hormonal secretion begins. It is the first
symptom of our disease.

Emotional imbalance is also of many kinds. It may be an immediate and momentary


imbalance or the imbalance rooted in the very nature of the individual. It also includes
several intermediate circumstances. In addition the imbalance caused by our social
activities also results in the deterioration of our physical activities and competence.
They are also affected by our addictions, our environment and our samskaras
(formative influences). They continue to be hit by excessive indulgence. We are
affected by the excess of food, excess of sleep, excess of speech, excess of sex and
excess of tension.

Our immediate symptoms create a momentary impact but our happiness, anger and
distress appear and disappear during the whole day in different forms. Sometimes we
are mentally upset, sometimes we lose our appetite, and sometimes we may not sleep.
But the very next day we become normal.

Prolonged ideological and emotional imbalance creates a deep impact on us. Just as
layers after layers of dust cover the surface of a room which is not in use, similarly the
symptoms of ailments in different limbs of the body continue to increase. Since these
changes are very subtle, they remain beyond the comprehension of our gross thinking.
It is already too late when we are able to diagnose them. Even after we have succeeded
in finding out what the ailments are, we take them for organic diseases and start
treating them accordingly. As a matter of fact, they are mere symptoms. A malady too

111
is a sort of manifestation, it is not the cause of the ailment. The causes are never taken
into consideration in the real sense of the term.

What actually happens is that when a particular type of emotional balance persists for
years, the hormonal imbalance of endocrine glands too continues for years along with
it. These hormones make our fluids, blood etc., unbalanced, and change our
physiology into a particular direction of the ailment. This perversion takes the form of
an incurable disease.

Our body which has many glands has three forms: the gross, the subtle and the causal.
Each of these types of bodies has its own independent glands. Whatever occurs in the
causal body is manifested in the gross body. Whatever we experience by the medium
of our gross body and sensory organs is accumulated in our subtle body. The ground
for our emotional activities is the causal body which is the main controller of our gross
life.

These glands in our body serve as the centers for regulating energies as well as for
controlling hormones. They act as regional centers in various parts of the body and
also act collectively. In the modern language we call them endocrine glands. In the
Indian science of physiology the doctrine of sapt guha (seven caves) throws light on
their areas, and on the subtle plane the different chakras of the yogic philosophy seem
to be associated with the glands of energies. A substance endowed with prana is called
sat (true). Since a prana in itself doesn’t have another prana , it is called asat (untrue).
The word ‘ rishi ’ is called prana because it is dynamic. Both prana (vital force) and gati
(dynamism) have the same meaning. Since these rishi pranas incarnate in the pranas of
devas (gods), assuras (demons), gandharvas (semi-gods) all of them are also called
pranas . Therefore, the vedic philosophy recognizes prana and deva as modes.

The knowledge and science-oriented pranic group of the same category is called rishi .
The pranas that are active in this body are also active in the form of sapt pranas (seven
vital forces). In accordance with this very doctrine there are four guhas (caves) in our
body. In each cave the seven vital forces ( sapt pranas ) work in the seven organs of the
body. Three of them are in pairs while one of them is single.

In one pair of two organs, there are two electrodes. One of them is positive and the
other is negative. The topmost part of the body is the head or siroguha which has a pair
of two eyes, a pair of two ears, a pair of two nostrils but the mouth is just one. The
main prana lends strength to them. They inhabit the area of brahm-randhra (an aperture
in the crown of the head through which the soul is said to escape on its leaving the
body). It is here that the region of knowledge is located.

In the second uroguha which we call thoracic cave there are two hands, two lungs, two
breasts and one heart. Their center lies in the throat. It is the field of one’s valor. The
third udarguha contains liver and spleen, stomach and abdomen, two kidneys and one
navel. Its central prana lies in the heart. It is the center of the strength of assimilating
and distributing food. The fourth vastuguha or cave of the organs of excretion has two
feet, urethra, two testicles and one anus. Their subordinated vital force is located in the

112
navel. It is the region of disposal and excretion. The entire description given above
throws light on the gross body. The reality is that all our regulating centers are
propelled by energies at the subtle level. All the hormones produced by our glands or
the ones that are secreted by them are a part of the energy regulatory system. Viewed
from this standpoint if we think it over, we will discover that the concept of the glands
in modern medicine and the concept of the various chakras in our body appear to be
parallel to each other. The actions of both of them are affected by our emotions. Both
of them have the same field of action. Hence in the science of yoga too, it has been
mentioned that the endocrine glands can be balanced by means of chakras alone. It is
the confluence of both the gross and the subtle.

Table-A : Scriptural Paths


Chakra Color Element Group Gods Goddesses Seed Mantra

Table-
B :

7 Sahasrar purple V - 972 - -


6 Agya blue I - 96 Shakti Hiking Om

light-
5 Vishuddhi B sky 16 Sadashiva Shakini Ham
blue

4 Anahat green G air 12 Iish Kamini Yam

3 Manipur yellow Y fire 10 Rudra Lakini Ram

2 Swadhisthan orange O water 6 Vishnu Rakini Vam

1 Muladhar red R earth 4 Brahma Dakini Lam

Physiological Paths

113
Chakra Gland System Place Part

In his
book ‘The
Upper Brain, Chakras
7 Sahasrar Pineal - Brow or Skull
Right Eye and the
Human
Energy
Middle of Fields’
6 Agva Pituitary Sensory lower brain, Nervous System Dr.
the scow Doravan
Gelder
has made
5 Vishuddhi Thyroid Breathing Throat ENT a mention
of several

Heart,lung, arms,
Heart blood,blood
4 Anahat Thymus Blood
circulation circulation
system

Digestive
System, liver,
3 Manipur Pancreas Digestive Abdomen
Spleen, nervous
system, intestines

Organs of
excrement and
The lower
2 Swadhishtan Gonads Procreative Urine, Kidneys
belly
and Procreative
glands

The last edge


Spinal chord,
1 Muladhar Adrenal Excremental of the spinal
Kidneys and feet
chord

experiments which are related to glands. He has made sufficient research material
available relating to the effects chakras have on the glands. At one place he has stated
that even after the excision of a gland, the disease shows no signs of abatement. He
has also cited the examples of many patients. These examples cover almost all kinds
of glands. He clearly believes that the root cause of a disease can be discovered at the
emotional level. As long as there is no change at this level, it is not possible to cure a
person of his ailment.

114
A man lives at many levels, i.e., physical, mental, intellectual and spiritual. That is
why the diseases also manifest themselves at different levels. They also keep moving
from one level to the other but it is only through the medium of the body that the
diseases appear. It is only the body that can be apprehended. It will be a grave error if
we presume that all diseases emanate from the body. In practice all levels are
interconnected. Hence all kinds of diseases change their nature and levels according to
the situations. The incurable diseases of the body affect the mind, intellect, soul and
ego and on the other hand the diseases of the mind, intellect and soul make a move
towards the body only. Tendencies like fear, anxiety, anger, greed etc., are instrumental
in causing many diseases. They are not the attributes of the body but they also result
from perversion and old age.

“ Karmaja doshaja karmnadoshajashcharujastridha, shyamanti naushadhe


dharmenaiva shyamanti karmaja”.

It means that diseases are caused by one’s karmas (actions), doshas (disorders of the
humors in the body) or by the combination of the two. The diseases caused by the
disorders of humors in the body can be treated and cured but the diseases caused by
one’s karmas can be cured only through spiritual tools like expiation, mantras etcetera.

Energy Centers and Emotions

An unbridled mind which is not reined in by intellect may soon give rise to many
mental perversions. We cannot measure the moments within which such perversions
can appear. For sound mental health it is imperative that we recognize the complexity
of the nature of our mind, pacify it and ponder over its varying states and causes.
Usually a person doesn’t admit his mental weaknesses. His ego prevents him from
doing so. He tries to justify his stand in many ways and continues to hide the truth. His
hypocritical mask only gratifies his ego. He belies the truth by means of falsehood,
stealth, artificiality etc.

Mind and intellect too have limitations but the soul is limitless, infinite. The attribute
of a pure soul is to observe, to know and attain the state of bliss. First of all let the
mind, senses and body be steady. If the body is wobbly, the mind will inevitably be
unsteady. The senses will naturally be narrow mindedness.

The perversion of the mind begins with its fickleness. It is the steadiness and
joyousness of the mind that determine whether one is healthy or sick. It is these two
conditions of the mind that can keep the body and intellect healthy. It is the intellect
that has to distinguish the right from the wrong and has to judge whether something is
harmful or beneficial. It is the mental perversions like impulsiveness, fit of anger and
arrogance that make the intellect unbalanced. Selfishness creates narrow mindedness.
Devotion has been described as the best state of the mind because it is expected that in
the name of the Lord a person might be inspired to give up selfishness, dedicate
himself to the feet of the Lord and may live a happy and peaceful life by extricating
himself from the web of ego. It is only in such devotional state of mind that the
emotions begin to be purified and the glandular hormones start changing. Hormones

115
cannot be transformed by any medicines. They only affect the external manifestation
and show signs of immediate relief.

Our gross body is surrounded by an aura or halo. Every animate or inanimate being
has its own aura. Each of us has three bodies and all three of them have their
independent auric structures. Every aura has seven layers. Every chakra also has seven
levels. The levels of chakras as well as those of aura are interconnected. The aura
sucks in energy from its environment, which after having been transformed by the
medium of chakras, enters the body.

Leaving apart muladhar and sahasra, all chakras , are paired. It means that one chakra
remains in the front and the other towards the back. Normally all chakras revolve
clockwise. Every chakra has its own velocity and a frequency of its vibrations. The
color of a chakra is akin to its frequency.

According to the Indian school of thought every chakra resembles the petal of a lotus.
The letter of the alphabet is connected with the chakra on every leaf of the petal . The
pair of chakras is found in the middle of the spinal cord. The front of a chakra is
considered to be associated with its characteristics while the rear with abundance of its
qualities, level and quantity. Ida and Pingala also meet at this very confluence of
chakras. This very center is related to endocrine glands.It also makes it clear that we
are covered with many layers of energy. The energies emanating from infinite space
and the sun, enter our gross body percolating through the auric fields and chakras.

An American researcher, Barbara Brannen, has written in her book entitled ‘Hands of
Light’ that every layer of our aura acts like an independent body. Like our gross body
every auric layer has its own independent consciousness. While explaining chakras
Barbara writes that every leaf of the petals of the lotus revolves independently like a
vortex. It has a very high speed and carries out the task of transforming the vibrations
of the energy connected with its frequency.

In addition to its relationship with endocrinal glands the center of chakras is also
associated with a principal network of nerves called plexus. A chakra’ s function is to
derive energy from the environment, divide it among its units, transmit its flow into
the nerves and carry it to the endocrinal glands whence the energy mixes with the
blood and nourishes the body.

Discussing diseases Barbara Brannen writes that they arise from our spiritual plane.
Hence it is possible that our belief systems of the present life or the past lives lie at
their root. Whenever our beliefs drift away from the natural course, our life force is
split into pieces.

Barbara has elucidated the flow of emotions in the following table:

Table - C

116
7 Ketheric Level Higher Concepts I know I am Our

6 Celestial Level Higher experiences I love universally

5 Etheric Template Higher Will I will do

4 Astral Level Emotions I love humanity

3 Mental Level Thinking I think

2 Emotional Level Personal Emotions I feel emotionally

1 Etheric Level Physical Sensation I feel physically

Physical
0 Physical Level I exist, I am becoming
Functioning

spiritual distortions are related to belief systems acquired in this lifetime, or in the
other lifetimes. The life force splits into two directly opposing currents and the person
falls a prey to this dualistic split. The example of this conflict is, “I can’t do it” yet “I
can do it.” Thus it creates a mental impasse in the mental body. It is manifested in
energy and vibrations. If the above impasse is not solved by the individual, it may
become a dissociated thought form and may find its way into the unconscious. It will
result in an adverse impact on the emotional body through inducted vibration. It will
cause fear in the mind of the person because he cannot solve the problem. Since this
fear is unreal and baseless, it is unacceptable to him. Hence a terrible barrier appears
before him which enters his unconscious mind.

The emotional body is deprived of a free flow of feelings. This situation results in the
reduction of the energy of the emotional current. This weak current flows in just four
lines very slowly through the etheric body. Parallel to these lines or the grid structure
meant for the flow of energy the cells of the physical body grow. Hence the problems
of the etheric body are transmitted into the physical body. The result is the
manifestation of a disease in the physical body. Barbara Brennan says further, “I see
karma simply as life experience created from belief systems that have been carried
from one lifetime to the next until they are cleared and realigned with the greater
reality.”

Two opposite streams of thought spring forth. The person gets entangled in a conflict.

117
The energies and vibrations of this conflict affect our mind deeply. They also pervert
our thoughts and reach as far as the unconscious. This situation impacts our emotional
plane through vibrations and an unknown fear originates in the mind. As this fear is
not based on reality, an individual is not willing to accept it. This state of mind begins
to obstruct the flow of energy.

On account of this disruption our emotional energies begin to fade. In the form of the
distorted lines of light this very energy penetrates into the etheric body. On these very
lines of energy grow the cells of the body. This disease of the etheric body begins to
appear in the gross body. According to Barbara, it is this very principle of karma which
continues with each individual throughout his transmigratory cycle of births and
deaths. We may be cured of our diseases or be liberated from our karmic bondage only
if we attain a balance by following the path of purification.

The environment that surrounds us is the field of energy. It is from this very space that
the universe is created, and again it is this very space into which it vanishes. It is the
realm of consciousness. Our process of inhaling and exhaling is also a function of this
consciousness. It is this very process that enables our senses to function and we get
their experiences. The eye sees, an image of a form appears, the image metabolizes
into energy, it reaches the brain through the nervous system and transforms itself into a
new energy there. Then it is imprinted in the mind as an image. The entire system is so
subtle that science has not yet been able to grasp it. The stream of consciousness flows
with such subtle energy and with such intense velocity that we become hardly aware
of this phenomenon.

Our thread of faith which keeps us aligned with all the constituents of the creation is
extremely subtle. It is these subtle energies that are transmitted into our aura. As a
result the auric form changes according to the level of energies which are exchanged,
developed, abandoned and also accumulated. An experienced auric scientist can
discern distortions and read the samskars of one’s past life in it.

Today a new level of development has been prepared. The aura and energy fields can
be photographed. It has been made possible through the Kirlian photography. The
change that occurs according to the states of our emotions can be seen. It is also
possible to assess the subtle levels of an individual.

We have begun to concede the fact that our mind is the repository of subtle energies. It
is, undoubtedly, the center of all our activities but it has so far been viewed as a
physical unit only. The subtle function being carried by it is still a debatable point.
Knowledge, intellect, wisdom, priest and God etc., are the subjects which are
connected with its work but still the scientists do not give credence to them. An
individual is composed of many layers of energy and consciousness. The aura is the
medium through which the reactive energies imbued with higher form of truth and
reality permeate the physical body. It is also possible to make use of the auric field to
transmit the layers of consciousness into the truth of the level of a divine soul or that
of God.

118
Every plane or layer appears just as our gross body does and it is vivacious and active.
As a matter of fact every layer stated above is present as a conscious physical reality.
The field of energy that surrounds us is energy-consciousness. Since it is associated
with consciousness, our senses are able to feel the sensations. We are able to
understand the exchange in this form. We take in energy, transmute it into
consciousness and are thus able to make use of it. Along with it the cosmic
consciousness also keeps penetrating us.

The function of energy fields is to preserve the vitality or life force in the body, keep
the energies of their particular region balanced, develop them and carry them from one
layer to another. The petals of the energy fields are extremely subtle swift whirling
particles. Every petal of energy assimilates the vibrated energy according to the
revolution of its spinning velocity. Each revolution has a varna (letter of alphabet).
Each chakra is connected with an independent gland as well as with the main cluster
of nerves. A chakra absorbs the universal pranic energy and scatters it in segments and
transmits it into the nervous system through the veins.

A man has two options before him: a life of enjoyment and gratification and a life of a
yogi (ascetic). Both begin at an emotional level. The emotional ailments which we call
upadhi are also the cause of adhi (mental agony) and vyadhi (physical ailment). Positive
thoughts are indicative of yogic life and they pave the way for the state of
superconsciousness.

In both these situations it is the emotional plane that is important. In order to recover
from a disease too purging thoughts of impurity is a prerequisite. It is imperative that
one’s heart is purified from hatred, envy, greed and delusion. It gives rise to mental
peace, alleviates peacelessness and pacifies diseases. What is important is that we
focus our attention on emotions in stead of the body. It is only then that we can free
ourselves from adhi , vyadhi . If upadhi (emotional disorder) persists, it is not possible
for a person to be fully cured of vyadhi (physical ailment).

Mental Disorders and Adhi-Vyadhi (Mental Agony and Physical Ailment)

Acharya Mahapragya has stated in his book ‘Jain Yoga’, “If an ailment appears in the
body, first of all a person should think where he has gone wrong. Where and how did a
perverse thought creep into his mind? What type of mental disorder or moral lapse
was it that caused him to suffer from a physical ailment? When the mind is sound and
healthy, it naturally cures all the parts of the body of their ailments. It controls both
motor and sensory nerves. When a perverse thought enters the mind, it causes tension
in the brain. The entire system of the body is permeated with some or the other
malady.”

“ Cause and effect are interrelated. The effect is visible whereas the cause is invisible.
The main cause of mental disorders is the impure state of a person’s mind. The sweat
of perversion or delusion that flows from the knots of attachment and hatred defiles the
mind. It gives rise to evil thoughts in one’s mind and breeds distortions. If the delusion
becomes dense, one’s psyche becomes stupefied. It means that the energy is densified

119
and changed into matter.”

The main cause of this situation is that our life is inundated with strong currents. We
just go on dragging the burden of life. We have no time to stand a while and think. We
can talk no end about hundreds of things but we have no time to talk to ourselves or
about ourselves. We do not think over as to what we are doing and where it will lead
us to. I do want to earn one crore (ten million) rupees but do not know what I will do
with it. That is why we are being hemmed in on all sides by a blockade of ‘mine-
mine’. This web goes on covering the self. Such situations create distortions in the
long run. As a result they build an impregnable fort of such evil propensities as
attachment, hatred, greed and delusion. It is here that the seeds of arrogance sprout.
These perversions keep a person away from his own self. New distortions arise from
these perversions.

The solution lies in creating an awakening towards life, an awakening towards oneself.
We need to reflect on it and do something constructive. We need to direct our life
towards a particular goal and cultivate a resolute will to achieve it. The resolute will
blocks the entry of contradictory elements into our mind. It is only in the mind that a
strong resolve develops, the intellect and body cannot be a source of this will.

Once we have determined the goal as to why we want to live for one hundred years,
what we want to achieve and what we want to contribute to society, we need to
concentrate our mind on it. After we have embarked on this course of life, we need to
strengthen our feelings and desires. We need to cultivate a strong will to visualize
ourselves moving determinedly towards the goal. One has to repeatedly think that one
is nearing the goal. The characteristic of a feeling is that it teaches a person to live in
the present. It makes every moment of life precious and valuable. It also stops the
deviation of memories and fancies. It is the root of self-restraint. It alone awakens the
dormant faculties and develops the awakened faculties.

Resolute determination is the first step towards self-restraint. It is the gateway to


controlling the mind. It is not possible to restrain the desires that arise in our mind
without strong determination. If we have to move ahead towards our goal, we will
have to neutralize other desires. We are helped in this objective by the environment
that the feelings directed towards the goal create. In stead of suppressing desires it
brings about a change in their direction. A suppressed desire may erupt anytime in the
future.

If a person begins to live in the present, every moment of his life becomes meaningful.
He can live with ease in an air of freedom. If he remains engrossed in memories and
phantasies, he will certainly fall a victim to attachment and hatred. A new trap is laid.
So long as he remains lost in the past and future, that part of his present will be
wasted.

There is only one cause of all the problems i.e. the possessive feeling of ‘me’ – ‘mine’
whether it is towards one’s body, one’s friend, one’s house or one’s assets. This feeling
of possessiveness and attachment to oneself also becomes the cause of many ailments.

120
It is also true that the feelings of possessiveness will continue to dominate our life.
However, if one understands its true nature and uses this trait of one’s life accordingly,
one can escape the fetters of attachment. In the Gita Lord Krishna says, “The root
cause of human suffering is man’s attachment and the cause of attachment is also one’s
feeling of ‘me’ and mine.” It is also at the root of both karma and its fruit. Any karma
performed with a sense of duty and purpose emancipates a person from attachment.

What is needed is swadhyaya – the study of sacred literature. One needs to be free from
ego. The way lies in one’s surrender to God. Man’s ego does not allow him to bow
before anyone; hence we have a tradition, which enjoins a person to surrender himself
to God. We have a tradition of devotion. It is this very feeling of devotion, which is
considered to be a pathway to purity – the purity of the body, mind and intellect.

This state of devoutness is also another way to stay healthy and free from diseases. A
profound sense of faith and devotion has in it the ability to elevate a human being to
the state of Godhood.

All the internal activities of our gross body depend on our pranas . As they are
extremely subtle, they are not visible to us. That is why this part of the body is called
the subtle body.

All the basic activities of life go on at this subtle level only. The soul or consciousness
is subtle. Intellect is subtle. All the forms of energy are subtle. Mind, emotions and
desires are all subtle. The pranas are the subtlest. Our subtle plane is very extensive.
The body is their vehicle. Since everything happens in the body, it has been said that
the first means to attain dharma is the body.

The activities of the pranas are directed both by nature i.e. sat (righteousness), raj
(passions) and tam (darkness) and by the mind. The desires that arise in the mind
motivate pranas .

The bodily effort which the pranas generate after being motivated by the mind may be
embedded in any one of the trigunas – sat , raj and tam . It is this very phenomenon
which is the motivational force of nature. It is imperative. It is the pranas that become
instrumental in generating activities in the body.

Sometimes it so happens that desires arise in our mind and the process goes on
incessantly but it becomes difficult for a person to fulfill them. On account of many
factors, incomplete desires affect many pranas intrinsically. One visualizes several
dreams and all of them do not come true.

Dreams never cease. The body continues to experience pranic vibrations. Many times a
person has to do a thing he hates. Deep in his mind he feels the pangs of distress. A
different current of the pranic stream emerges. Similarly the evil tendencies like envy,
jealousy, obstinacy, greed etc. also keep the pranas spinning. We remain totally
unaware of this phenomenon. Many kinds of experiences are also imprinted on our
mind by these forces. Our nature goes on changing.

121
In India plenty of literature is available on all these subjects but they are only in the
form of formulae. Very little, if any, is available for the level of understanding of the
common man.

Because of the master-disciple tradition these aspects of knowledge were not known to
the people. In the meanwhile society itself underwent changes to so great an extent
that the usefulness of these very scriptures began to be questioned.

The practical aspects of these scriptures were not analyzed. Even if such an analysis
was carried out, it was not widely accepted for lack of absence of scientific proof. This
knowledge is not a part of the present system of education. Even the small proportion
that figured in this system has now been deleted.

But a ray of hope has now been generated in view of the work being carried out in
foreign countries in this direction. Many scholars in India and the eastern countries,
particularly in China, have gathered facts on these subjects and carried out researches.

Much research work had been carried out by the Theosophical Society during the
period of Lady Anne Besant. Among others the work of Dr. C.W. Leadbeater is
considered important.

During the second and the third decade of the century he had explained the atomic and
the sub-atomic activities taking place in the chakras . He also wrote books like the
Occult Chemistry which describes in detail the management of energy in these
chakras.

Today a large number of books relating to these subjects are being published with the
help of China and Tibet. Research work on these aspects has gained momentum and
scientists have also become interested.

Facts and results are being documented in experimental laboratories. It is apparent that
this kind of work will decisively determine the future medical practices. New
dimensions for the eradication of diseases will be developed.

Incurable Diseases and Chakras

In the area of incurable diseases a good deal of research has been carried out into the
chakras of the body. Modern technology has helped us to obtain photographic prints of
the distorted chakras and this has enabled us to suggest as to how the system of the
chakras can be regulated in the treatment of incurable diseases.

The shape of the chakras changes correspondingly in relation to the changes in the
feelings and emotions of man. The continuity of negative feelings causes distortions in
the chakras and in the due course of time such perverted forms of chakras become
permanent. The colors of the chakras are sullied. They may shrink in size and also
burst.

122
Just as diseases are associated with the gross body so are the chakras with the subtle
body. Every chakra is also related to the endocrine glands of the gross body. On the
one hand the gross and the casual bodies are conjoined with these chakras , while on
the other hand, the chakras receive energy from the immediate environment and the
space and release the same. Thus, they become instrumental in transforming the
endocrine glands.

These chakras also remain bound with all the seven layers of our aura. The minutest of
the emotions and feelings present in our immediate environment influence the chakras
and the chakras also, in turn, influence the environment.

This reciprocity of interaction is responsible for pleasurable or painful experiences that


an individual undergoes at a new place or in a new group. These original chakras of
ours are always in motion. Every chakra has its own color and its own field of
operations. Each of the three bodies that we have – the gross, the subtle and the causal
– is accompanied by a particular chakra and the seven layered aura system.

Man is easily able to get rid of the external diseases caused by infection or of the
agony of the accidents but he remains unaware of the diseases caused by some
invisible factors for years.

All that he comes to know of is its gross form which is merely its gross manifestation.
The disease cannot be cured by treating its manifestation alone. That is why none of
the incurable diseases appears to have been successfully treated. The modern medical
science has not been able to claim any significant breakthrough because of the absence
of any role of the mind in its treatment system. It has, of course, succeeded in
amputating or transplanting limbs of the body through surgery but such surgery
doesn’t prove fruitful even in amputation because the root cause of the disease still
persists.

One will have to understand the functioning of the human mind in order to understand
the genesis of incurable diseases. We will have to accept the fact that diseases emanate
from within and manifest themselves externally.

The spinal cord is the main centre of the transmission of energy in our body. The ida,
the pingla and the shusumna nerves pass through it. Within shusumna too flow the
subtle nerves like chitra, vajra and brahma which are the pathways of pranas . Their
bottom part begins at the muladhar and reaches upto the brahmrandhra at the top. The
spinal cord is, thus, the carrier of our pranas .

Ida and pingla rise from the muladhar and reach upto the nose intertwining with each
other at every centre within the body. Out of the five pranas (vital breaths) in the body,
only the vyana pervades the entire body. The apan operates in the parts below the navel;
the saman around the navel; the udan in the upper parts of the throat; and the prana
operates in the throat and the respiratory system and helps in the functioning of the
heart.

123
All the sukshma (subtle) pranas flow through chitra, vajra and brahma nerves inside
sushumna . Just as our original mind comes from the avyaya , so also our original prana
(the rishi prana ) rises from the avyaya . The five elements together with pitra, deva,
asura and gandharva pranas go into the making and maintaining of the system of our
body.

In due course these elements and pranas dissolve themselves at the time of the
dissolution of the body and return to their original state.

They are directly linked with the muscular system and the nervous system of the body.
The main centers of energy also function within the spinal cord.

These centers are linked directly with the space through our auric system. These
centers of energy are known by the names of the chakras and they remain in direct
contact with endocrine glands of our body.

From the viewpoint of its structure every chakra is divided into two parts: the anterior
and the posterior. In design both the parts appear to be the same like a kuppi (a small
flask).

Both the parts unite in the spinal cord. The anterior is known as the resultant part
while the posterior is known as the quantity part. The chakra at the bottom is the
smallest. The chakras become larger as we move up along the spinal cord. With the
increase in size, there is acceleration in the momentum of chakras .

In order to understand any chakra the lotus is the correct form. In its centre there are
petals. Every chakra resembles the shape of a lotus but in place of petals there are the
nuclei in longitudinal shape. The number of such nuclei goes on increasing in chakras
at the upper level. In the Indian system of tantra they are known as the kamal-dal
(petals of lotus). The entire body of rules relating to the letters of our alphabet has
been created on the basis of these Kamal-dals (Petals of lotus)

The Role of Chakras in Prevention of Diseases

Every chakra represents some basic element. In the Indian tradition we come across an
analysis of the colors of the chakras on the basis of these very elements whereas in the
western tradition these colors are described in consonance with the colors of the
rainbow.

They have also made the pictures of these chakras available. The shape, the size and
the regulation of the energy of these chakras remain parallel to the chemicals of the
endocrine glands.

Since the movements of the activities of the mind, intellect and body vary, the function
of changing the movement from one level to the other is also carried out with the help
of these chakras .

124
Below the spinal cord, as the name itself suggests, the muladhar chakra is the bedrock
of our body. It is the original source of the life force. The earthly creatures get this life
force from the earth and all the time we remain connected with it.

The muladhar chakra is connected with the adrenal gland and influences the lower
parts of the body. Feelings like fear, insecurity and courage influence it the most. Its
influence is directly reflected in the fatigue or alacrity of the body. If muladhar is
distorted, it is reflected in the form of pain in the knee-joints, back, fatness, addiction,
and mental degeneration.

Above the muladhar lies the swadhisthan chakra . It is associated with gonad. It is the
element of water that regulates it. The area that comes under its influence performs
excretory functions. Its energies influence the excretion of urine and stool, the
reproductory centre and the reproductory organs, kidney etc. All these organs are
dominated by the element of water. The moon influences the mind and water.
Therefore, all the activities of this chakra are related with our feelings. A subtle form
of water is the ras (the juice). The ras is related with the tongue.

The activities that are both dreary and full of interest influence this centre. Being
related to the feelings, this centre is extra-sensitive. Sexuality also influences it the
most. All the organs of utility including the breast come under the influence of the
element of water. Therefore, the slightest degree of carelessness at this centre may turn
an individual into a sexual pervert. Individuals, engaged in yoga for years together, lose
self-control when they come under its influence. Since the element of water is heavily
under the influence of the moon, it affects the menstrual cycle of women. The
counting of the menstrual cycle corresponds to the cycle of the moon which is of
twenty eight days.

The phases of the crescent moon create varying impacts every day. There are many
ups and downs between the dark night of the amavasya (the last day of the dark
fortnight of a lunar month) and the full moon light of the purnima (the last day of the
bright fortnight of lunar). Changes in the degree of tension, fear or anger take place
according to the changes in the phases of the crescent moon. In other words, major
changes in our feelings and emotions occur according to the variations in the phases of
the crescent moon. The importance of swadhishthan chakra in the body can be gauged
in terms of its qualities.

This is a centre that establishes the self and its secret remains under the control of the
mind. Brahmcharya (celibacy) is the basic quality that helps the flowering of the
personality. Both procreation and brahmcharya (celibacy) are indicative of the rule of
the self. Of the two yoga and bhoga - an individual has to choose one.

The inner part of swadhisthan chakra teaches an individual to love himself and, thus,
establishes a link with the inner self. It is a plane of all the spiritual thoughts like self-
confidence and self-respect. This center plays an important role in understanding one’s
own importance, in developing it and in nurturing one’s creativity.

125
A man begins to respect others only when he begins to know himself. Reactive
actions, which are the main source of tension, disappear automatically. An
environment of equanimity begins to develop and the man begins to rise beyond the
self.

Perversion in this chakra gives rise to negative feelings. Feelings of fear and repulsion
increase. One begins to detest oneself. The functions of the organs that come under its
periphery are obstructed. This centre is also affected by any blow to one’s self-
confidence.

The manipur centre is our navel centre. According to the Indian tradition all our nerves
originate from the navel and go to different parts of our body. During pregnancy the
fetus is fed and developed through the navel. This is our fire centre. It is influenced by
the sun and, hence, it is related with the tejas or light. It is linked with pancreas.

It is the storage and distribution centre of energy and life force. It regulates the
digestive system because the digestion is carried out with the help of agni (fire).
Perversion of this centre leads to diseases relating to digestive process. Deteriorations
begin to occur in the functions of lever, spleen and the intestines. Normally it is
thought that only food is digested but apart from food all things that we make use of,
like thoughts, feelings and emotions also come under the definition of food. Hence,
these are also digested.

Muladhar, swadhisthan and manipur - all the three centers pertain to the physical
development of man. These are the centers that regulate a person’s behavior. In
manipur the forces that inspire us are developed. They adorn our life like jewels. It is
the centre of enthusiasm, affection, motivation, conscience, warmth etc. Enmity, anger,
hate, unhappiness and other emotions stem from the perverse state of manipur.

Manipur is linked with the colic plexus. It also exercises control on sukshma agni
(subtle fire). Our negative feelings affect our digestive system adversely. Negative
feelings like the excessive use of liquor or medicines affect the lever by sucking in the
nourishing elements stored there. Then many of our experiences are also forgotten.

Our feelings and emotions highly affect our digestive system. The inner part of the
manipur digests the activities of our feelings. The feelings that escape this digestion
remain stuck within the digestive system and manifest themselves in the form of one
or the other kind of disease at a later stage. In some men such feelings remain hidden
for years together and contribute to the progressive proliferation of the disease. Such
men gradually lose their life force and are not able to make full use of their capacities.

Just as our digestive system transforms food into ras (juices), in the same way our
feelings and emotions are also digested and turned into ras . That is why the cooking of
food and serving it with affection are considered important in the Indian tradition. The
positive feelings of large-heartedness and of affection integrate with the food. When
the food is turned into ras , the ras of the feelings helps maintain its vigor. In principle
food or grain carries with it the effect of the feelings of a farmer who grows it, the

126
businessman who sells it and the cook who cooks it.

The energies of the manipur form the basis of the growth of our life. The same energies
give us the willpower and determination, perception and clarity of perception. Rup or
appearance is the tanmatra (subtle form) of agni or tej and is mainly reflected in the
eyes. All the feelings and emotions of the individual are reflected through the eyes.
With eyes he looks within and without.

Manipur is the abode of pride as well as that of affection and warmth. Pride never
allows us to be grateful to God for the fact that He has given us so much. The
existence or otherwise of pride indicates whether we deserve to receive more or not.

The velocity of the manipur chakra is higher than those of the lower two chakras . The
velocity of the inner chakras and the chakras of the causal body in comparison with the
outer and the gross chakras is always in the ratio of 1:2:4. Therefore, the movement of
energies in the manipur is very fast. It receives the energies from the environment at a
very fast pace, distributes the same within the body at the same speed and releases the
energies at the same speed out of the body. When the food spoils the manipur chakra
also gates distorted along with its digestive process. The same kind of malfunctioning
in the manipur and the digestive system occurs when emotions are perverted.

Above the manipur , closer to the heart lies the anahat kendra . It is related to the
thymus gland.This field is also known as the cardiac plexus. Basically it influences the
heart, the lungs and the arms. This is the center of the air. The subtle form of the air is
touch. It is expressed through the skin. One’s desire to touch is linked with one’s
feeling to experience pleasure. The function of the anahat is to lift one above the
materialistic world.

The meaning of the air is inhalation and exhalation in our journey into the pranas . Our
thoughts and feelings move with them. Changes in them occur at different levels on
account of the transmission of the pranas . Prana is the progenitor of change as well as
the centre of the basic transformation of one’s personality. One can see how our
breathing is affected due to fear or anger. Our breath becomes both faster and shorter.
We can also feel how deep and long breathing refreshes us. We receive oxygen in
greater quantity, feel comfortable in the heart and lungs and energy gushes in. It is said
that a person who has realized pranas has realized life. To know pranas and to refine
them is to build the basis of a natural life. It is our negative thoughts that cause the
greatest pollution. Food and bad company are other kinds of pollutants. All of them
cause diseases. That is why people take recourse to pranayam (art of breathing),
purification of nerves ( nadi shodhan ) for prevention of diseases.

Touch implies giving and taking and maintaining a balance between the two. Our
propensity for greed always keeps us ready for receiving though affection and
tenderness can also be given. The heart is the centre of kindness, compassion and
affection. The positive touch of these very feelings strengthens the heart and helps us
come out of our narrow confines. An individual enlarges his area. Everyone wants to
give and receive affection. This is not possible if our heart is narrow. This kind of

127
narrowness injures our heart, breaks our security cover and leaves us alone.

Our vishuddhi chakra is in the centre of the throat. It is associated with the thyroid
gland. Ear, nose, throat and the mouth are its gross fields. Its main role is to
communicate. At the highest level it connects an individual with the soul or God. Its
element is the space. Its tanmatra (subtle form) is nad - sound. It is the vibrations that
keep the creation moving both within and without. That is why mantras are important.
The vibrations from within rise above and influence the vibrations of the space too and
are also influenced by them.

The vishuddhi kendra also influences all the centers below it and also gets connected
with the vibrations of other individuals. At a higher level these vibrations create an
environment of “vasudhaiv kutumbakam” (the whole world is a family) and start
functioning at the level of cosmic consciousness. They give concrete shape to an
action. Sound and vibrations constitute the quintessence of life. Our aim is to
understand, refine and develop them. All vibrations occur in the space. Their quality
will depend on the type of the thoughts that generate them.

Addiction is one of the biggest enemies of these vibrations. Intoxicants weaken them,
reduce their power of communication and create hurdles in many of the experiences of
an individual.

Sonorous sound or music is in itself a joyous experience. It bestows generosity on an


individual, transports him to the level of the mind and transmits new energies. Every
part of the body carries with it one or the other kind of vibration. It is, therefore,
influenced by the sound or music of some mantra . That is why it has been said that our
body is composed of mantras . In the petals of the lotus of the chakras our entire
alphabet is inscribed. Music has that power which makes a person oblivious to himself
for a few seconds. His merits and demerits fall off one by one. Music in itself is
dominated by emotion. The energy of the sound or music lights up the mind of man
and helps in self-development.

Sound has four levels – para (subtle level where a desire is created), pashyanti
(expressing a scene only in mind), madhyama (humming sound in mind without
moving tongue and lips) and vaikhar i (words spoken with sound). Our gross speech is
vaikhari . Perversion of the vishuddhi centre disturbs the relationship between the body
and the mind and creates hiatus in expression. Man feels lack of completeness in his
life. He experiences a sense of void as if he has lost a near and dear one. To fill this
void a man may become very serious and sometimes loquacious too.

The vishuddhi centre is also affected by the regularity in our food habits. Hormones are
generated and balanced here. It is this chakra that exercises control on the consumption
and utilization of energy in our body. Our weight is also dependent on the functioning
of this centre. Our place in our environment is also one psychological reason for our
weight.

The agya kendra located in the middle of our brow is also known as the third eye. It is

128
associated with the functioning of the mind, the nervous system and the inner vision.
Ida and pingla meet here. This is also the central point that enables one to establish
contact with one’s subconscious mind. A man can scale the heights of knowledge from
here and can know of the real plane of life from a close angle.

The agya kendra also influences the ground of our thoughts. At mental level lies the
gateway to the search of peace and happiness. It is an area of light that lies beyond that
of the sound. The functions of acquisition of the energies of light, their storage and
distribution are all carried out from here. Subjects relating to parapsychology and
consciousness are edited here.

That is why from the viewpoint of sadhana too this kendra is very important. It is from
here that the vibrations of the subtle body are also influenced. This centre is connected
with the pineal gland. Defilement of this centre causes migraine and mental fatigue.

At the top of the head is the sahasrar . In size this is the largest centre and in speed the
fastest. Though located in the body, it is the gateway to the immortal world and keeps
the body linked with it. It receives energy from the environment. It is a level beyond
conflict, the level of the soul where one can come in contact with the pure spirit. It is
the home of sat-chitananda (eternal bliss). It regulates the subtle body and energizes it.

The distortion of the sahasrar chakrs causes diseases of the nervous system like
paralysis and sclerosis.

One can conclude that our gross body is formed by the subtle body which is regulated
by the subconscious mind. The movement of the pranas is very fast in the subtle body
but this movement slows down by the time it reaches the gross body. Basically
changes take place only inside and that, too, through the vibrations of the pranas .

The body is only the medium of their expressions. The causes of the diseases that
appear in the body are basically subtle and emotional and are not directly visible.

Nor can they be fathomed with the help of instruments. The treatment of the
symptoms can never be a cure for a disease. Many times the disease goes on
increasing even while the treatment is continued. In fact a disease occurs in the body
because of the distortions in the glands. This perversion of the glands is caused by the
subtle factors. Therefore, excising a gland is not a proper treatment of the disease. Dr.
Von Dora Kunj has given many proofs of the same in his experiments.

Purification of Body, Pranas and Emotions

It is true that the combination of treatment and regulation of food does bring some
immediate relief. But for a permanent solution purification of the body, pranas and
emotions seems to be the only option. For this too positive emotions, feelings for the
welfare of the people, faith and dedication fortified with resolute determination are
prerequisites.

129
Since activities continue incessantly both in the gross and the subtle bodies which
influence mutually, they are also affected by the fruits of the present and past karmas
continuously. Changes occur in them at every moment.

In the gross body endocrine glands regulate hormones. These glands are influenced by
the pranas of the subtle body. These pranas are influenced by our emotions and
feelings. The whole activity takes place in the form of a series. In this process the
nodes of the nervous system are located outside the spinal cord whereas the chakras of
the subtle body pierce the spinal cord and come out of it. Our aura which is enter-
twined with the chakras remains outside of our body.

This acts as a bridge between the body and the space. Thus, every part of the body has
its own aura. One can know of the state of the health of a person’s body or any of its
parts by just looking at his auric circle. In a healthy body all these levels function in a
balanced way.

The cause of a disease may be the persistence of the same environment for a long time
which creates its impact in the span of a long period through the medium of a person’s
aura or it may be the emotional plane which comes out with the help of chakras ,
pierces the endocrine glands and affects the body.

But since only the gross body is visible, the causes of incurable diseases are subtle.
They manifest themselves in the gross body only. So long as the diseases are not
treated at the subtle level, one cannot be cured of a disease completely.

The basic thing is that all the energies are the transformed state of consciousness. All
our sensory organs give and take this energy in the form of consciousness. If this
interaction of energy takes place freely or naturally, we grow and develop.

Through practice we can learn the process of imbibing more and more energy and can
become more vivacious. Balance of this energy is the secret of health; imbalance of
the same means disease. When this energy is blocked, it gives rise to a disease.

Change in emotions and feelings occurs at the spiritual level. Desires are also formed
here. When the soul dwells in the gross body, it works with it. The energies of the
subtle body operate in the form of our feelings and emotional experiences.

The energies of the causal body constitute our vision. Being energized by different
kinds of pranas these systems function unitedly. Various centers of energies ( chakras )
act as bridges between the gross body and the subtle body or the causal body and
regulate, distribute and release these energies. They also transform the energies
according to the needs of the body.

For this we will have to concentrate ourselves at the emotional level and purify our
emotions through swadhyaya (study of sacred literature), upasana (spiritual practice)
and devotion. A natural life always keeps a man away from perversions. The mind,
then, remains in a state of cheerfulness, happiness and peace. It also keeps the

130
hormones of the endocrine glands balanced. Then all the diseases become curable.

The human body is in itself a sort of space. It is governed by all the laws of nature. It
lives in their midst. In this life too a healthy body is considered to be the main source
of happiness. But the body in itself is not merely the gross body, intelligence, mind
and pride also dwell in it. It is also the abode of the senses whose lord is the Indra.
Indra also depends on the sensory organs for his gratification. All these are also very
subtle. Only their external form is visible. The element of power that acquires things
through the ear, eyes and the nose is not visible. Though invisible, they are integral
parts of our personality. They also manifest themselves through the body. If any one of
them is afflicted with a disease, the entire body becomes diseased.

Most of our experiences are acquired through senses and intellect. The mind is the lord
of the senses. Desires also originate here. It is also here that one feels the contentment
of fulfillment. Many kinds of desires, both right and wrong, arise in our mind.

The notions of right and wrong are decided on the basis of social values, education and
environment. The country and the age in which one lives also decide the notions of
things being right and wrong. We think that we are very wise and commit mistakes,
tell lies and live a deluded life under the impression that others are not aware of it. But
we know it and we are part of nature.

In nature there is always justice. There isn’t any injustice. We, in fact, try to live a life
opposed to nature. But when we cross the limits, we have to reap the consequences of
all our evil deeds. We are invaded by incurable diseases. When a person falls from his
position and slides into degradation, we call it hell. We begin to experience hell in this
very life and are unable to come out of it. It is our demonic propensities such as
attachment, enmity etc. that cause conditions of hell. The feelings of arrogance, evil
thoughts and jealousy etc. that remain buried in our mind open the gates of this hell for
us.

All the religions and sects of the world follow a common tradition. If a person has
made a mistake or committed a crime, he should confess it before his guru so that his
heart, which has become heavy as a result of the act, becomes light again.

In Christianity this practice is called confession. In our philosophy repentance is


scientifically defined. It is scientific in the sense that our aura distorted by a feeling of
repulsion for a guilt is repaired and restored to health.

If we do not confess our guilt, the evil thoughts that get imprinted in our mind cannot
be wiped. They continue to create obstacles in our mind and and corrode the vitality of
our spirit.

Our memory is infected with these feelings and we are unable to live in the present.
These ill-feelings continue to build their trap. When an individual is overtaken by an
incurable disease, his pride is shattered. Such diseases reveal his hidden ill-feelings. It
is not easy to get rid either of guilt or of a sense of shame.

131
In order to keep our mind healthy the slogan of “vasudhaiv kutumbkam” has been
coined. So long as a man lives only for himself, he remains self-centered, possessive
and greedy. He continues to act under the influence of these evil tendencies. The
moment he begins to think of others, he gets rid of these ill-feelings. His heart is, then,
filled with kindness, compassion, tenderness, honor and prestige. The balance of
energies lifts him upwards. He begins to move away from the mundane world to the
world of God. With the awakening of a feeling of dedication, the path of devotion
opens up.

The way the blockade of tensions is increasing in our life today, the web of
materialistic thinking is widening and man’s efforts are directed towards fulfilling his
selfish ends, a plethora of diseases are being born every day. In this era of suffering, he
finds himself utterly lonely. There is no one to share his woes.

Dedication and pride are each other’s foes. Whereas pride causes diseases, dedication
eradicates them. The foundation of knowledge acts as a fuel for pride. Mere
knowledge sans duty (karma) is self-destructive and has been described as poison.
Gyan yoga (yoga of knowledge) and karma yoga (yoga of karma ) also cannot always
keep a person healthy. The very basis of bhakti yoga (yoga of devotion) is dedication,
satoguna (quality of goodness).

Therefore, one by one everything is surrendered to the lord ( ista ), even the disease is
surrendered to Him. Simplicity and naturalness of life keep the internal secretions of
the glands in a state of balance. Slowly the disease begins to disappear; one’s nature
and body become pure.

Food and Mind, Mind and Desires

We have a saying, “That which you eat goes into the making of your mind.” Here
eating is not restricted to food alone. Whatever we consume comes within the
definition of food. Even fame is also our food. We, too, are food to one another. The
quality of this kind of food cannot be gross. Because, then, those who lead a regulated
and disciplined life will never fall sick whereas it has been observed that such people
also fall sick. It has been found that even monks and saints also fall a prey to incurable
diseases despite the fact that their food is extremely simple. The state of mind
associated with our food is the root cause of such diseases.

Ravana had all the demonic qualities but he was able to please lord Shiva through his
devotion. His devotion couldn’t be influenced merely by food. In a life of demonic
emotions, attainment of this level of bhakti is possible only at mental level. It was his
pride of knowledge that concealed his bhakti and caused his ultimate fall.

The mind is fickle by nature. It will remain so till it is educated. Mind is a path to
enlightenment. It is only through practice and contemplation that the mind can be
refined. The goal of the mind can be determined by keeping in view the goal of life.
The mind has limitless capacities and can reach anywhere. It can understand
everything even without language. Its speed is faster than that of light.

132
This mind is associated with the causal body. All of our experiences, old impressions
and previous karmas remain stored in it. It is because of this association only that
desires arise in a person’s mind. It is the pranas that transmit what is imbibed by the
senses to the mind. They, then, carry the desire to the body and transform it into
actions. If the intellect is satvik (good and virtuous), the desires can be channelized into
the right direction. The route of fulfilling the desires can also be changed.

This kind of transformation of energies goes into the making of one’s future life. That
is why man has been described as the maker of his own destiny. Desires are also
caused by the environment around us. Our desires are formulated in accordance with
the environment of our mind. That is why a man learns to commit crime in the
company of criminals and acquires good qualities in the company of good men. The
company a person keeps, the literature he reads and the environment around him in
which he lives play an important role in shaping his mind. Every individual’s ego,
nature and figure are all alike. That is why the figure of an individual is a mirror of his
mind, intellect and his soul. Similarly, the mind, prana and speech cannot be separated
from one another. The actions of the pranas are carried out according to the dictates of
the mind. In fact, the entire creation carries out its work in this way. For an upward
movement towards liberation a person will have to be yoked together with pure
knowledge. He will have to learn the art of perceiving and knowing. He will have to
cast off his external self and remain neutral. The path to buddhi yoga (yoga of intellect)
lies in balancing knowledge and karma . It is also a ladder to pure bliss.

The question that arises before us is that all through our life we have been listening to
these kinds of discourses, reading formative literature too and nevertheless why is it
that we do not understand them. It is also similar to the truth that all of us already
know that we will die one day, but while carrying out the worldly tasks we tend to
forget this bitter truth.

Every man knows the capacities of his body as also the limitations of his intellect. But
none feels the limits of the mind. Everyone finds the speed of the mind the same. If
there is a possibility of similarity between any two persons, it is that of the mind and
of the creation beyond the mind. The speed of intellect is less than that of the mind,
and the speed of the body is less than that of intellect. The body doesn’t act with the
speed with which the desires arise in the mind, nor can intellect function with the same
speed. The senses are under the control of the mind and they, too, have their own
speed. It is not easy to reduce the speed of the mind to that of the body in a moment
and connect the speed of the senses with that of the mind. One function is to join, the
other is to change the speed. Both the functions are similar to the functions of a big
industry. For running this factory, physical energy doesn’t suffice. For it we get energy
from breathing, environment, chakras , auric circle as well as from the upasana
(worship).

Only the pranas can grasp the speed of the mind. He who has succeeded in mastering
the pranas will also be able to master the mind. Prana alone is an endeavor. The effort
of the causal body reaches the subtle and from the subtle it reaches the gross. In

133
between the speed slows down.

An action doesn’t take place the moment a feeling enters the mind or a desire takes
birth. It is only when a person decides to fulfill his desire, prana s begins to act. These
pranas , then, begin their endeavor through the medium of chakras . Through chakras
the energy reaches the endocrine glands. Chemicals are secreted in accordance with a
person’s feelings. Changes in the body are visible, we notice changes in blood pressure
and heart beatings and the body in itself begins to act. The speed slows down
progressively. Just as the body perishes and is reborn, similarly the mind, intellect and
ego also dissolve and reappear. It is a mere difference of the speed.

Many times the people argue that since the desire is created by God, why should we
strive to fulfill it. Since our mind is fickle, we have to restrain it with a goad of
wisdom and discreet thinking. The desire will naturally appear to be divine. The
reason is that a desire is affected most by environment. Both the environment and
pride together change the form of a desire. What the mind says is either not heard or
suppressed. Individual desire dominates the godly desire. Otherwise, the mind never
tells a lie. It gets an inkling of everything in advance. Even without any language it is
able to assess any situation, if it is given a chance. Wherever we pervert a godly or
natural desire, our body is also afflicted with perversion. The body is merely a vehicle
like a car, a reflection of our mind, an expression of our feelings. Whatever we have
within us will be reflected in the body and the senses. All the diseases are the
reflections of the perverse state of the mind. Our difficulty is that we do not know our
mind. How can, then, we know the perversions of the mind and remove them.

Faith

Because our mind has the highest speed, the first thing that we require is
concentration. We should forget the body and intellect and concentrate all our energies
on understanding the mind and determining the goal of emotions and feelings. It is the
combination of manoyoga and niyat (concentration and emotion) that paves our way.
We will also be required to mould the mind towards the soul. Then, the mind will
become a means. We have to free ourselves from the means and march forward
towards the goal. The history of India tells us that it has always been goal-oriented and
has been accepting the means as means only. Our country today is facing a rebellion
since it has become dependent on others for means. When a person moves forward to
please his mind or fulfill his desire and is checked and prevented from doing so by
someone, his frustration becomes a part of his unconscious mind. His dreams of
happiness are mixed with experiences of sadness. His desire for happiness is
suppressed. He who puts a brake on his desires also becomes a part of his memories.

Similarly, familial and social traditions also play an important role in the suppression
of the natural desires of a human being. All through his life he has to hear that he
cannot do things as he wishes. Most of his desires motivate him to cross the limits and
every time he has to suppress them. We are not able to express our original nature
freely. Our bitter experiences pile up. Desires continue to arise and we go on

134
suppressing them. This, then, becomes a pattern of our behavior.

This kind of environment creates fear in the mind. We begin to hide the truth. Thus,
the mind is covered by layers after layers. Love and affection are substituted by hatred,
frustration or a sort of lie. When a man says that he wanted to do a certain thing but
was stopped, it is also a kind of lie. The man knows in his heart that it is a lie but he
resorts to it for the sake of his convenience. Thus a man continues to cover his lies. He
resorts to another lie to cover his earlier lie and thus lying becomes his weakness :

“ Satya vai deva, anrita vai manushya.”

The word anrit has been in use for a lie. It is an inborn tendency of man. One is not
required to undergo any training to learn speaking untruth but the same is needed
when one wants to refrain from it. One has to practice vidya (knowledge) but for avidya
(ignorance) no practice is required.

We formulate many vague notions about life in our mind. Most of them are based on
the deluded worldview. These notions pertain to our lifestyle, social and individual
beliefs and are associated with own outlook on life. They begin to separate man from
reality. The emotions that stem from this state of separation are permeated with fear
and on account of fear new lies are told. This very lie gives rise to fear. It creates an
environment of hatred. Thus everything is based on untruth. One begins to avoid
people on account of this very false fear. It is necessary to assess this type of fear.
Where there is fear, love cannot last long. The body is afflicted with several ailments.
One or the other part of the body keeps aching. These ailments are created by the
environment of fear and falsehood. In order to understand them as well one is required
to accept the reality. It is not necessary to lay the blame on somebody.

The affliction of the body with a disease also means that you are not affectionate
towards your own body. You are not making any effort for what you want to become
or want to do. If you love yourself, circumstances can’t make you unhappy nor can a
disease come near you. You can decide the journey of your life out of your own will.
For this one will have to understand what affection is. It is nothing but nectar of life. It
is nothing but happiness. It consists in giving, not taking, in dedication, not pride.
Love has hundreds of meanings. The easiest of all is to give, to make available to
others what they need. If one finds it difficult to give something to others, one can, at
least, bestow honor on them. Just as God has created me, He has created others as
well. Hence it is our duty to show respect towards God. In loving and respecting
others, we, in truth, express our respect for God. It means that we have to first learn to
love ourselves. Without it, it will not be possible for us to love others. When a feeling
of affection towards oneself is awakened, a new energy is unleashed. What one is
needed to do is to make a resolve. One will see that a feeling of love for oneself will
sprout. One’s worldview will also imbibe an element of excellence. We shall be able to
establish ourselves within us. In bhakti marg (the path of devotion), it is precisely for
this reason that we worship God. Then both the worshipper and the worshipped
become one.

135
In Preksha Dhyan a sadhak (practitioner) is required to learn the art of observing and
perceiving his body. He is instructed to perceive each of his limbs concentratedly and
experience the sensations occurring therein. Then one is trained to go deeper into a
particular kind of agony. A person is able to reach the depth of the form of those
feelings, the transformation of which was responsible for his being afflicted with the
ailment. The sadhak is now taught to concentrate energies on the afflicted part and thus
rid himself of it. Today in countries like USA there are institutions which are running
regular educational courses in this area and are awarding degrees too. Its need is felt
there. People are worried on account of the rapidly spreading depression and gloom
among people.

As a person’s practice increases, his self-confidence also develops. His power of


forbearance and patience also gains strength. Patience doesn’t come to a person who
isn’t self-confident. Patience rises only when a person begins to believe in his own
capabilities. When a person’s faith in himself, faith in the great power that pervades
the earth, establishes him in the center, he begins to realize his innate powers and
develops them. It is only then that he enters his innate circle of emotions. It is only
then he becomes capable of sharing his affection with the people outside. Then only
his faith in God is strengthened. The process of the annihilation of the layers that cover
the soul begins. All the chakras and glands become balanced. Life moves forward
towards the path of health and the individual attains happiness and peace.

GLOSSARY


Term Definition

END
abhamandal a lustrous ring of waves of emotions and intellect


abhidha the literal significance or sense of a word, denotation

attachment; grasping or clinging; determination;


abhinivesha
concentrations;

one who is firm, does not yield to passions, name of


achyut
Vishnu

adhan infusion, conception

136
adharma unrighteousness, immorality

adhibhut the supreme spirit, all pervading influence

adhibhautik relating the Supreme Spirit

adhidev a presiding deity

adhidevic relating a presiding deity

adhyatma spirituality

aditi the earth, mother of Adityas / Gods

advaita non-dual identity of Brahma and the universe

agam sacred texts

sacrificial fire, one of the powerful Vedic deity, the god


agni
fire.

agni-somatmak that which has the nature of both fire and water

a center between eyebrows, commanding vortex or


agya-chakra
mystical center

aham myself ('I') in the Geeta this is indicative of avyaya

ahankriti illusion of being superior

offering to fire. the act of making an offering in fire in a


ahuti
yajnya

aishvarya divine faculties of omnipotence etc.; affluence

137
akarma absence of karma, inaction

space, the sky, the fifth gross element or mahabhootas of


akasha
the creation

akshar indestructible, imperishable, unalterable

akshara purusha indestructible spirit, Brahma

ambhovad doctrine of water (in the supraphysical state)

amritatva quality of Amrita in an object / individual

amrta-tattva the tattwa that is unchanging and stationary

a kind of sound produced without any external cause,


anhad
unstruck sound

anaahat unhurt, self generated inner sound

anahat-chakra cardiac plexus (centre of self generated inner sound)

anishwar bhav antagonistic attitude towards God

ananda unalloyed joy, pure bliss

anasakta strongly detached to,

one of the eight super human faculties/powers through


anima
which one can reduce oneself to the extent of an atom

anitya transient, irregular,

anna food; the lowest form in which supreme soul is manifasted

138
annad one who consumes anna, Vishnu

the gross material body or the last vesture of soul, in this


annamaya kosh
vesture dwell Jiva and God

one of the sixteen rituals (samskars) associated with


annaprashan- human life when a baby is given anna (food) for the first
time

the intermediate region between heaven and earth; celestial


antariksha
space; interspace

a nasal sound 'm' marked by a dot above the line in


anuswar
devnagari script; vocal nasality; bindu

aap water; the liquid state of an element

one of the five life winds or pranas in the body which goes
apan
downwards and exits via the anus

aradhana worship

one of the four pursuits of life i.e. dharma, artha kaam,


artha
moksha; sense; meaning; worldly prosperity

arthavaak meaning that originates in sound

ashanaya desire to eat, hunger

abode; four stages or periods of the life as described in


ashram
Vedas

asana seat of yogic posture

the eight snares which blind us to the world i.e. lust, anger,
ashta-pasha
greed, delusion, envy, shame, fear and disgust.

asura demon, the name of a vital force (prama)

139
atma the soul

atma-brahm the soul symbolizing Brahm; self illuminated spirit

auz luster

avabodhan awareness or perception

avachetan subconscious

avadhan attentiveness

avagam knowledge, perception

avagraha desire or urge, basic nature, original temperament

avairagya indulgence in worldly life

avatara incarnation, descent

avidya spiritual ignorance, illusion personified or maya

the supreme spirit; neither perishable nor mutable, name of


avyaya
Brahma, Vishnu and Shiv; eternal

avyaya Maanas eternal or indestructible mind

ayurveda the Indian system of medicine

beej mantra the mystical syllable with which a mantra begins

bhakti devotional worship, attachment

bhakti yoga One of the three paths of yoga.

140
existence, state of being, sentiment, supposition, implicit
bhava
belief, notion

bhavabhumi periphery of emotions, hypothesis

bhava-kriya purport, gist

bhavana feeling, creating, manifesting, conception, thought

the subtle body with which one experiences happiness or


bhog-yoni
misery according to its karma

bhokta one who bears the consequences of one’s deeds

bhooma bhava the feeling of completeness

matter; material substances; the past as distinct from


bhoota bhavah (the present) and bhavishyat (the future) (also spelt
bhuta)

bhootatma atma related to the grossest state, the body

earth; also one of the seven vyahritis, a term indicating


bhu various levels and depth of utterances signifying seven
worlds

bhuta vidya science and knowledge of the material state; psychiatry

bhuttaagni the fire of life'

bindu a spot or point or dot

bodh-agyan imperfect knowledge

bodh-gyan perfect knowledge or wisdom

141
brahm the all pervading soul and spirit of the universe.

the Supreme being, the Creator, the first deity of sacred


brahma
Hindu trinity.

brahma loka the domain of Brahma

one of the four types of veerya which determine genetic


brahma veerya
traits

the knowledge which facilitates an understanding of


brahma vidya
brahma

brahma vijnana the science of creation

brahmani the power of Brahma

celibacy – the state of complete abstinence from sexual


brahmacharya lust; the first of the four stages of the order of life
according to Vedas

brahmarshi a high level sage or rishi

brahm-muhurta wee hours or early hours of the morning time

brahm-naad the internal echo of the Supreme Spirit

brihaspati planet Jupiter

intellect; the power of forming and retaining concepts and


buddhi
general notions; intelligence

in yoga, a steady concentration on higher consciousness,


buddhiyoga
intellect rooted in Yoga

chaitanya consciousness

142
chakra wheel; a sensitive subtle nervous plexus.

the power of consciousness or subjectivity which identifies


chit shakti
with the unmanifested absolute

daan act of giving something in charity

dama to suppress, physical self-control

dasoham I am the follower

dehik relating to body

deva a god or an angel, deity, celestial being

devanagari a script adopted for writing Hindi and Marathi

divine prana, a specific class of supraphysical energies, as


devaprana
distinct from asura which emerges from the same source

The most celebrated physician, the founder of Ayurveda


Dhanwantari
the ancient science of life.

dharana power of retention, concentration of mind

dharma virtue, morality.

dhatus (seven) elements, minerals, primitive matter, ingredients

meditation, an act of attention directed to some particular


dhyan
object

doshas humor of the body; ailment; fault; deficiency

dukha misery, suffering, rejection

143
dwij the twice-born, a Brahmin in India is also known as dwij

the region beyond the sun which is one of the several


dyaulok
worlds

ekoham bahusyam “I am alone, desire to be many.”

gana attendants

demi-devine–it is also the name of a vital force (prana),


gandharva
celestial musicians or heavenly singers

the elephant-headed-god, son of Shiva and Uma


ganesha
(gana+isha, lord of attendants)

a Hindu sacred text or mantra having miraculous powers,


literally translated, it means "that which protects whoever
Gayatri mantra
chants it." Gayatri contains all the spirit and energy of the
Vedic mantras

geeta a Hindu sacred text

a purusha created by the integration of avyaya, akshara and


goodhatma
kshara

grihastha household, the third state of life in the Hindu tradition

attributes or qualities, constituent process; the three gunas


gunas are the three fundamental existence: Sattva (equilibrium),
Rajas (activity), and Tamas (inertia).

guru spiritual teacher, rishi, preceptor

gurukul a rishi’s school in ancient India

gurumantra a mantra or tips of success given by a guru

144
gyana (jnana) transcendent wisdom; knowledge (vidya) is an outward
projection or objectivization of this innate, living wisdom.

gyana yoga yoga based on the path of knowledge.

five senses relating to knowledge viz ears, eyes, tongue,


gyanendriya
nose and skin, (mind is also taken sometimes)

gyani one endowed with profound knowledge

havan offering made in fire

a form of yoga, it is described as the stairway for those


who wish to attain the lofty Raja Yoga, codified and
explained by the seer-scientist Patanjali in his Yoga Sutras.
hath yoga
Hatha Yoga covers restraint, postures, control of the
breath, control of senses, concentration, meditation and
self-realization.

ida a particular form of agni

iha action

one who rules a heaven, the name of a supraphysical


indra
energy

"sense"; five senses are enumerated-touch, smell, taste,


indriya
sight, hearing

isha master, leader

jainism it is a nonviolent religious tradition

jatak a new born one

chanting of a mantra, systematic repetition of a sacred


jap
name

145
jathara-agni "fire of the belly"; the digestive fire

jiva soul

jivatma an embodied soul, the atma of a living being

kaaran-sharir the casual body

kal time

kalas attributes or traits

longing desire or urge or passion (generally used for the


kama
urge for sexual gratification).

the five motor-organs of action (hand, foot, larynx, organ


karmendriya
of generation and of excretion)

both in Hinduism and Jainism the sum of a person’s


karma
actions in this life and the life here after

a religious performance for purifying the mind, yoga based


karmayoga
on the path of action.

karmic concerning karmas or actions,

kevalgyani all knowing, omniscient

affliction. there are five kleshas : ignorance (Avidya), false


consciousness of existence or individuality (Asmita),
klesha
passion (Raga), aversion (Dwesha) and attachment to
existence or individuality (Abhinivesha)

kriyas activities

the mortal being, proximate cause ( upadana karana ); the


kshara (purusha)
atma of all modifications

146
kshar that which is destructible

kshatriya Rajput – warrior

the secondary meaning or secondary significative power of


lakshana
a word

laya lyrical rhythm

laya-yoga science of rhythm

lazza shame

lokeshna hankering after worldly fame

lord-swayambhu self-born, self-begotten, God

maansa flesh

madhur sweet

between the two levels of speech ( vaikharee and pashyanti


madhyama
) there is a middle level known as madhyama

"Great or cosmic illusion"; the covering on the individual


mahamaya
self

mahabhoota five basic material elements

renowned jain acharya who discovered acharya Preksha-


mahapragya
Dhyan and given the theory of Relative Economics.

mahavir 24 th and the last Jain Teerthankar who preached principals


of nonviolence aparigrahe and anekant

147
mahima one of the eight miraculous powers

majja marrow

one of three components of atma , the other two being


manah
prana and wak ; also translated as 'mind' or 'heart'.

Maanas psyche or human mind

manomaykosha one of the five vestures that constitute human body.

mantra-yoga a science of mantras

according to the Vedic philosophy he is known as the


manu
progenitor of the world / races.

manumiriti a code of laws ascribed to Manu.

maya illusion personified.

maya-bhav a state of illusion, usually indicates cosmic illusion.

moksha salvation or liberation, emancipation,

moorchha infatuation, bereft of consciousness,

muladhar basal energy, the first chakra, located at the perineum.

a perennial humming, the nasal sound represented by a


naad
semi circle.

ethereal nerves; the body has 72,000 which are conduits of


nadi
prana.

naamroop name and form

148
navkar it is the most important Jain mantra ,

an auspicious period of nine days when the Hindus


navratra
organize rituals to worship Durga

nivriti inward movement of consciousness toward its source.

nyaya one of the six darshanas;

the sacred syllable OM (AUM), uttered as a holy


omkar
exclamation.

paapa inauspicious karma (sin), negative tendency

there are five vestures or cases that constitute the human


body as described in Vedic literature (annamaya kosh,
panchkosha
pranamaya kosha, manomaya kosha, vigyanmaya kosha,
anandmaya kosha)

five great vows of Jain pathway. i.e. nonviolence, truth,


panch mahavrata
non stealing, celibacy and non possessiveness.

the five essentials of the tantrikas names of which all begin


panch ma-kar with 'm'- madya (wine), mansa (flesh), matsya (fish),
mudra (coins) and maithun (sex)

the five life winds or vital airs–prana, apana, vyana, udana,


panchprana
samana.

ancient muni; a celebrated grammarian who authoured


panini mahrishi
'ashtadhyayee'

"beyond"; the fourth and highest level of speech, purely


para
telepathic; only rishis can access para.

para vaak a level of language higher than Pashyanti

parmesthi an epithet of Brahma the Creator

149
one of the five dimentional universe other being–
parmeshti loka swayambhu, surya, chandra and prithvi,

pashu-bhava the beastly state

pashu-shristi the animal world

pashyanti expressing a scene without causing sound

pitri-loka world of the ancestors.

pralaya collapse into a higher entity

pran vital force, supra physical energy / breath.

one of the five vestures in the body related to atma, a vital


pranmaya kosh force which sustains life and activates all the senses, it is
discernible in the body as breath.

pravritti external movement of consciousness toward manifestation.

preksha dhyan perceptive meditation, a technique of Jaina meditation .

punya auspicious karma (righteous act), actions which earn merit

pur that which has a center and a curcumference

puranas the sacral scriptures of the Hindus, ancient legend

purusha It stands for the living spirit existing in the ‘pur’

purushartha great endeavour, self effort, activities to gain purusha

purushartha- the four purusherthas viz. dharma, artha,

150
chatushtaya kama and moksha

putreshana a desire for the birth of a son

a form of yoga intended to achieve control over the mind


raja-yoga
and emotions

rajas rajoguna passion, one of the three basic attributes of human nature

juice; fluid; vast, finest of prime part of anything; essence;


rasa
marrow; taste

rasayana rejuvenation; a particular drug used as a vermifuge

Raskhana a Hindi poet devoted to Lord Krishna

rig one of the four Vedas

rinanubandha the bondage of karmic debt

a supraphysical energy which comes into motion at the


rishipran
beginning of creation

that tattwa, or portion of tattwa, which has no body and no


rit
centre or navel

wisdom that can permeate rit (that which is right and


ritambhara
truthful)

roop (rupa) form, shape, outline, sight, vision

rudraksh the berry of a tree used for a rosary which is considered to


possess miraculous powers

151
sadhana a dedicated effort which leads straight to spiritual goals

sahasrar a chakra at the top of head.

samadhi state of superconsciousness achieved through meditation.

samaya time (in the state when it acquires form)

in Jainism a shravak refrains from all forms of sinful


samayik
activities for a period of 48 minutes.

sammohan the act of charming, fascinating, hypnotic effect

samyama regulation or self-control of the sense.

mendicancy or asceticism or an act of renouncing the


sanyas
world.

the integrated principle of existence, consciousness and


sat-chit-anand
bliss.

illumination; enlightening knowledge; lightness (also spelt


sattva
satwa).

satya reality, purity or goodness, truth, eternal, unchanging.

shaivaism sectarian worship of Shiva or his aspects.

the supraphysical power and energy which governs the


shakti
world; the power of Shiva

sham to quieten involving breath control and bodily postures

shatrubhava a feeling of enmity

152
shoodra an individual vested with shoodra prana.

shukra semen

shunya void, zero, emptiness, nothingness

perfection, accomplishment; eight supernatural faculties


siddhis
which a man can accomplish through spiritual practice.

spandan vibrations

svovasiyas mana pure and pious mind

soham “I am that”

the material cause of the universe, The moon, a ray of


soma
light, water, air

sthitpragya having steadfast state of mind.

stribhava a state of female nature.

the gross body (composed of seven ingredients–marrow,


sthoola sharer
bones, fat, flesh, blood, dermis and epidermis

sukha happiness

the subtle body (consisting of the five organs of action, the


five organs of perception, the five pranas, the five basic
sukshmasarir
elements, the discriminative intellect and ignorance, desire
and action)

sushumna the central nadi through which the kundalini Shakti travels.

that which causes the place of atma in the body to remain

153
sutratma that which causes the place of atma in the body to remain
undisturbed.

to shine, bright space, third of the seven lokas; vowel,


svara
sound, note,

swa ons's own, the soul,

one's own nature or determination, spontaneity, will or


swadha
pleasure

swadhisthan a type of plexus above the basal one, name of a chakra.

swadhyaya self-study, study of sacred and religious literature.

swayambhu that which comes into being on its own.

syadvada the theory of indeterminacy or probability;

one of the there types of Prana, the other two are


taijas
Vaishwanara and Prajnya

darkness; one of the three basic attributes, the trait of


tama/tamas
inertia,

tanmatra fundamental origin of water

austerity, penance, mortification; karmas are burned away


tapa/tapah
by tapa

the name of the seer-scientist after whom the Tatteriya


tatteriya
Upanishad is named.

the sun; light; fire; extremely subtle, upward-moving,


teja
expansive Prana.

tirthankara "ford-maker"; name for any of the 24 supreme sanctified


jain teachers.

154
treta yug the second of the four Yugas. the eon of three-quarters.

triguna three characteristics i.e. reality, passion and darkness.

one of the five pranas, the others being prana, apana,


udana
vyana and samana.

udarguha stomach as a cave.

the path of worship; an important method to stabilizing the


upasana
mind

uroguha thoracic cave.

vaak matter.

vaakroop in the form of matter.

vaasanas passions.

the first and lowest level of speech; vocal or physical


vaikhari
speech

vaikuntha the heaven of Vishnu (Vishnu Loka)

vairagya a feeling of detachment, dispassion.

vagdevi another name of Saraswati.

when a householder retires into a forest for leading a life


vanprastha
of austerities.

a class or caste – each of the four sections in which society


varna
was organised in ancient India i.e.

155
vastiguha the part of the body below the waist.

vidya spiritual knowledge, the science of specific area.

vigyanbuddhi higher form of intellect

vigyan practical spiritual knowledge, higher than jnana.

vigyanmaya kosha one of the five sheaths related to atma.

the self blessed with special knowledge; one of the five


vigyanatma forms in which akshara manifests itself, the others being
shantatma, mahanatma, prajnanatma and bhootatma.

vijra,chitra, these are nadis or nerve plexis in

brahma shushumna.

vishnu Lord Vishnu - the preserver of the universe

center of purity located at the throat and is called thyroid,


vishuddhi chakra
the fourth chakra

vyana one of the five pranas.

Ved Vyas–the great sage who systematized the Vedas and


vyasa
authored the Gita

yagnopavita a scared thread worn by Brahmains

yagya/yajnaya a Hindu ritual sacrifice with a specific purpose.

yaju one of the four Vedas

yagyavalkya an ancient sage/rishi of India

156
yama god of death, also called Dharmaraj or king of
righteousness.

author of nirukta, the most renowned glossary on the Vedic


yaska
texts.

a spiritual and ascetic practice to control one’s body and


yoga
mind; a discipline.

yoni existence, embodied state of a soul.

the four yugas or eras are Satya Yuga. Treta Yuga, Dvapara
yuga
Yuga and our era–Kali Yuga.

157
Table of Contents
text00000 2
text00001 70
text00002 110

158