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ISBN-3-934584-79-9 Order No. 1 987 722 127 AA/PDT-06.

AA/PDT-06.04-En The Bosch Yellow Jackets Edition 2004 Expert Know-How and Automotive Technology Safety, Comfort and Convenience Systems

2004 Electronic

The Bosch Yellow Jackets

Transmission Control

The Program Order Number ISBN

Automotive Electrics/Automotive Electronics

Electronic Transmission Control ETC

Motor-Vehicle Batteries and Electrical Systems 1 987 722 143 3-934584-71-3
Automotive Technology
Alternators and Starter Motors 1 987 722 128 3-934584-69-1
Automotive Lighting Technology, Windshield
and Rear-Window Cleaning 1 987 722 176 3-934584-70-5
Automotive Sensors 1 987 722 131 3-934584-50-0
Automotive Microelectronics 1 987 722 122 3-934584-49-7

Diesel-Engine Management
Diesel-Engine Management: An Overview 1 987 722 138 3-934584-62-4
Electronic Diesel Control EDC 1 987 722 135 3-934584-47-0
Diesel Accumulator Fuel-Injection System
Common Rail CR 1 987 722 175 3-934584-40-3
Diesel Fuel-Injection Systems

Expert Know-How and Automotive Technology

Unit Injector System/Unit Pump System 1 987 722 179 3-934584-41-1
Distributor-Type Diesel Fuel-Injection Pumps 1 987 722 144 3-934584-65-9
• Transmission Versions
Diesel In-Line Fuel-Injection Pumps 1 987 722 137 3-934584-68-3 • Methods of Transmission Control
• ECUs and ECU Development
Gasoline-Engine Management • Sensors, Actuators and Modules
Emissions-Control Technology
for Gasoline Engines 1 987 722 102 3-934584-26-8
Gasoline Fuel-Injection System K-Jetronic 1 987 722 159 3-934584-27-6
Gasoline Fuel-Injection System KE-Jetronic 1 987 722 101 3-934584-28-4
Gasoline Fuel-Injection System L-Jetronic 1 987 722 160 3-934584-29-2
Gasoline Fuel-Injection System Mono-Jetronic 1 987 722 105 3-934584-30-6
Ignition Systems for Gasoline Engines 1 987 722 130 3-934584-63-2
Gasoline-Engine Management:
Basics and Components 1 987 722 136 3-934584-48-9
Gasoline-Engine Management:
Motronic Systems 1 987 722 139 3-934584-75-6

Safety, Comfort and Convenience Systems

Conventional and Electronic Braking Systems 1 987 722 103 3-934584-60-8
ESP Electronic Stability Program 1 987 722 177 3-934584-44-6
ACC Adaptive Cruise Control 1 987 722 134 3-934584-64-0
Compressed-Air Systems for Commercial
Vehicles (1): Systems and Schematic Diagrams 1 987 722 165 3-934584-45-4
Compressed-Air Systems for Commercial
Vehicles (2): Equipment 1 987 722 166 3-934584-46-2
Safety, Comfort and Convenience Systems 1 987 722 150 3-934584-25-X
Audio, Navigation and Telematics in the Vehicle 1 987 722 132 3-934584-53-5
Electronic Transmission Control ETC 1 987 722 127 3-934584-79-9

The up-to-date program is available on the Internet at:

Robert Bosch GmbH


Published by: Reproduction, duplication and translation of this

© Robert Bosch GmbH, 2004 publication, either in whole or in part, is permis-
Postfach 1129, sible only with our prior written consent and
D-73201 Plochingen, Germany. provided the source is quoted.
Automotive Aftermarket Business Sector, Illustrations, descriptions, schematic diagrams
Department AA/PDT5. and the like are for explanatory purposes and
Product Marketing, illustration of the text only. They cannot be used
Diagnostics & Test Equipment. as the basis for the design, installation, or speci-
fication of products. We accept no liability for
Editor-in-chief: the accuracy of the content of this document
Dipl.-Ing. (FH) Horst Bauer. in respect of applicable statutory regulations.
Robert Bosch GmbH is exempt from liability,
Editorial staff: Subject to alteration and amendment.
Dipl.-Ing. Karl-Heinz Dietsche.
Printed in Germany.
Authors: Imprimé en Allemagne.
(in alphabetical order)
Dipl.-Ing. D. Fornoff 1st Edition, March 2004
(Development AST Actuators), English translation of the 1st German edition
D. Grauman dated: June 2004
(Sales AST Transmission Actuators), (1.0)
E. Hendriks
(Product Management CVT Components),
Dipl.-Ing. T. Laux
(Product Management Transmission Control),
Dipl.-Ing. T. Müller
(Product Management Transmission Control),
Dipl.-Ing. A. Schreiber
(Development ECUs),
Dipl.-Ing. S. Schumacher
(Development Actuators and Modules),
Dipl.-Ing. W. Stroh
(Development ECUs)
and the editorial team in co-operation with
the responsible technical departments at
Robert Bosch GmbH.

Unless otherwise indicated, the above are

employees of Robert Bosch GmbH, Stuttgart.
Robert Bosch GmbH

Transmission Control ETC

Robert Bosch GmbH

Robert Bosch GmbH


4 Transmissions for 106 Modules for Transmission

Motor Vehicles Control
4 Transmission in the Drivetrain 106 Application
6 Transmission Requirements 107 Module Types
7 Manual Transmission
8 Automated Shift Transmission 111 Technical Terms and
(AST) Abbreviations
12 Dual-Clutch Transmission (DCT) 111 Technical Terms
13 Automatic Transmission (AT) 114 Abbreviations
22 Continuously Variable Transmission
(CVT) Toroid Transmission

30 Electronic Transmission Control

30 Drivetrain Management
31 Market Trends
32 Control of Automated Shift
36 Control of Automatic
52 Control of Continuously Variable

54 Sensors
54 Application in Motor Vehicles
55 Transmission Speed Sensors
56 Micromechanical Pressure
59 Temperature Sensors
60 Position Sensors

61 Sensor-Signal Processing

62 Electronic Control Unit (ECU)

62 Operating Conditions, Design,
Data Processing
68 ECUs for Electronic Transmission
75 Thermo-Management
77 Processes and Tools Used in ECU
78 Software Development

92 Electrohydraulic Actuators
92 Application, Function,
and Requirements
93 Design and Operating Concept
94 Actuator Types
103 Simulation in Development
Robert Bosch GmbH

The drivetrain is designed to transfer the energy generated by the engine to the wheels
of the vehicle with the minimum possible loss of energy. To do this, the drivetrain
components – engine, transmission, clutch, and brakes – must be matched as well as
possible. The best results are achieved using electronic transmission control (ETC).
Electronic transmission control can coordinate overall control of the individual
systems and components with convenient and energy-saving shifting strategies.

The automated shift transmission (AST) is a manually shifted transmission with elec-
tric or electrohydraulic actuators for operating the clutch and the gearshift mechanism.
In conjunction with suitable shifting strategies, the AST is so economical that it is now
used in the first 3-liter automobile.
Gearshift sophistication (ease of shifting) can be increased with a dual-clutch trans-
mission (DCT). This transmission prevents interruption of the tractive force during
gearshift operation. The advantageous fuel consumption values are retained.
New electronically controlled automatic transmissions (AT) open up a whole new
field of potential for reducing fuel consumption by selecting the best operating point.
They can also lock up the hydraulic converter within broad ranges. Their different
shifting strategies can even shape the character of the vehicle – from economical to
sporty requirements.
The continuously variable transmission (CVT) also offers a high degree of conve-
nience in conjunction with favorable fuel-consumption figures. Its electronic control
system can operate the engine in either the optimum fuel-consumption range or the
ultimate high-performance range.

This volume of the Automotive Engineering Technical Know-How series introduces

you to the various transmission types together with the accompanying variants of elec-
tronic transmission control and its components. The table of contents and the detailed
index of technical terms will help you to find the individual subject areas, and the list
of abbreviations sets out the abbreviations commonly used in the field of electronic
transmission control.
Robert Bosch GmbH
4 Transmissions for Motor Vehicles Transmission in the Drivetrain

Transmissions for Motor Vehicles

Every motor vehicle engine operates within Transmission in the
a specific speed range which is limited by
the idle speed and the maximum speed.
Power and torque are not offered uniformly Internal-combustion engines do not have a
and the maximum values are only available constant torque and power characteristic over
in partial ranges. the speed range available to them (idle to
Transmissions therefore convert the engine high idle speed). The optimum “elastic” speed
torque and the engine speed in accordance range lies between maximum torque and
with vehicle traction requirements in such maximum power (Figure 1). For this reason,
a way that the power remains roughly a vehicle cannot start off from a state of rest
constant. They also allow the different where the engine is stopped. To do this, it re-
directions of rotation for forward and quires a power take-up element (e.g. clutch).
reverse travel. Furthermore, the available engine torque
is not sufficient for gradients and powerful
acceleration. For this purpose, a suitable
gear ratio for adapting traction and torque
1 Internal-combustion engine, and for optimizing fuel consumption must
characteristics for torque and power
be made available.

Nm kW Engines only have one direction of rotation

Pmax as well, with the result that they require a
changeover facility for forward and reverse
Engine torque ME

æ STS0216E Engine output PE

As Figure 2 shows, the transmission is sit-

Mmax uated in a central position on the drivetrain
and thus substantially influences the drive-
train’s effectiveness.
In addition, an analysis of the losses that
0 rpm arise in the drivetrain show that, after the
Engine speed nE engine, it is the transmission which offers
the most possibilities for optimization
based on NEFZ driving cycle (Figure 3).

2 Drivetrain (overview) 3 Energy balance in the drivetrain (source: Opel)

100% 6%

Direction of travel Primary Kinetic

energy energy

Manual 30%
2 100% Engine 20% trans- 34%
mission 28%
Aerodynamic drag
Rolling resistance

80% 8%

Fig. 2 3 4
1 Engine
æ STS0217E

æ STS0218E

2 Transmission
3 Front axle Losses
4 Rear axle with
differential (output)
Robert Bosch GmbH
Transmissions for Motor Vehicles Transmission History 1 5

 Transmission History 1

Benz patent motor carriage from 1886 with Benz utilized the following machine parts to
belt and chain drives transfer the motive force of his engine to the
When Daimler, Maybach, and Benz launched road:
their first road vehicles, pioneers of motive The end of the engine’s crankshaft held the
power engineering had already developed the flywheel, which ensured that the engine ran more
machine parts required for power transmission smoothly and which could also be used to crank
to a considerable extent. Names such as the engine. Since the engine was built over the
Leonardo da Vinci, Dürer, Galileo, Hooke, rear axle, a bevel gear arranged at right angles
Bernoulli, Euler, Grashof, and Bach had played transmitted power in a small space to a belt
a significant role in these developments. drive, which reduced the rotational speed slightly
Power transmission in an automobile must to an intermediate shaft. Finally, a chain drive re-
guarantee the functions of starting and engine- duced the speed further to the powered axle.
speed and torque conversion for forward and The belt and chain drives dating from the ori-
reverse travel. These functions call for actuators gins of the automobile were gradually replaced
and shifting elements which intervene in the by a gear train. But, today, they are experiencing
power-flow and perform engine-speed and a renaissance in the form of the continuously
torque conversion. variable transmission (CVT). A CVT transmis-
The first operational Benz patent motor car- sion consists of a variator with two V-pulleys
riage appeared in 1886. It was the first three- and a flexible steel push-belt. As soon as the
wheel vehicle to be conceived in its entirety pressure of the transmission oil displaces the
specifically for motorized road traffic. It may well moving V-pulley halves, this changes the posi-
have had just one gear, but it did not have a tion of the steel push-belt between the two pul-
start-up clutch. In order to get the carriage mov- leys and with it the gear ratio. This technology
ing at all, it was necessary to push it or crank it allows continuous adjustment of the gear ratio
with the flywheel. without interrupting the power transmission and
A single-cylinder four-stroke engine with a operation of the engine in its most favorable
displacement of 984 cc and a power output of power range.
0.88 HP (0.65 kW) served as the drive unit for
this Benz three-wheeler.

 Benz patent motor carriage from 1886 with its machine parts (source: DaimlerChrysler Classic)

1 2 3 4

1 Engine
5 2 Belt drive to
intermediate shaft
3 Bevel gear
æ UTS0354Y

æ UTS0355Y

4 Crankshaft with
5 Chain drive to
powered axle
Robert Bosch GmbH
6 Transmissions for Motor Vehicles Transmission Requirements

Transmission Requirements Driveability

The following transmission functions ensure
Every motor vehicle places quite specific good driveability:
demands on its transmission. Each of the  shifting points adapted to the relevant
transmission types differ in terms of design driving situation,
and associated features. The objectives or  recognition of the type of driver,
main points of emphasis in transmission  high accelerating performance,
development can be divided into the follow-  engine braking action during downhill
ing categories: driving,
 comfort and convenience,  suppression of gear change during
 fuel consumption, cornering at high speed, and
 driveability,  recognition of winter road conditions.
 installation space, and
 production costs. Installation Space
Depending on the type of drive, there are
Comfort and Convenience different stipulations for the space available:
Essential requirements in terms of comfort Thus, the transmission for a rear-wheel
and convenience are, in addition to a smooth drive should be as small as possible in terms
gear change without engine-speed jumps, of diameter, while the transmission for a
comfortable gearshifts irrespective of engine front-wheel drive should be as low as possi-
load and operating conditions, and a low ble in overall length. There are also precisely
level of noise. Nor should there be any loss of defined specifications for satisfying require-
convenience over the entire lifetime of the ments in a crash test.
Production Costs
Fuel Consumption The preconditions for the lowest production
The following transmission characteristics costs possible are:
are essential in keeping fuel consumption as  production in large-scale numbers,
low as possible:  simple control-system layout and
 large transmission-ratio range, automated assembly.
 high mechanical effi-
ciency, 1 Manually shifted transmission (section, source: DaimlerChrysler)
 “intelligent” shifting 1 2 3 5
 low power for
 low weight, and
 stand-by control,
torque converter
lockup clutch,
low churning losses
(resistance of the
transmission oil
passing through the
Fig. 1 gears), etc.
1 Input shaft
æ UTS0219Y

2 Main shaft
3 Shifting elements
4 Countershaft 4
5 Output shaft
Robert Bosch GmbH
Transmissions for Motor Vehicles Manually Shifted Transmission 7

Manual Transmission Design

The design of a manually shifted trans-
Application mission (Figures 1 and 2) incorporates
Manually shifted transmissions are the sim-  a single-plate dry clutch as the power
plest and most inexpensive transmissions for take-up element and for interrupting the
car drivers (final users). For this reason, they power-flow during gear changes,
still dictate the market in Europe.  gears mounted on two shafts,
 positive clutches as shifting elements,
Due to increasing engine performance and actuated via a synchronizer assembly.
higher vehicle weight together with decreas-
ing cd values, 5-speed manual transmissions Features
have been superseding the previously domi- The main features of the manual
nant 4-speed manual transmissions since transmission are:
the beginning of the 1980s. And now the  high efficiency,
6-speed transmission is virtually standard.  compact, light design,
 economical construction,
This development provided, on the one  absence of comfortable operation
hand, safe starting and good acceleration (clutch pedal, manual gear changing),
and, on the other hand, lower engine speeds  driver-dependent shifting strategy,
at higher road speeds, and thus reduced fuel  interruption of tractive force during
consumption. gearshifting.

2 Power-flow in a standard drive (5-speed transmission)

1st gear 4th gear

2nd gear 5th gear

3rd gear Reverse gear

æ UTS0220E
Robert Bosch GmbH
8 Transmissions for Motor Vehicles Automated Shift Transmission (AST)

Automated Shift In the simplest system, the mechanical link-

age is merely replaced by a remote switch.
Transmission (AST) The shift lever (tip lever or switch with H
Application gearshift pattern) just outputs electrical
Automated shift transmissions (AST), or signals. Power take-up and clutching are
automated manual transmissions (AMT), performed as in the manual transmission,
help to simplify transmission operation and partly linked to a gearshift recommendation.
increase economic operation. They are an
add-on solution to conventional manual In fully automatic systems, the transmission
transmissions. The previously manual and power take-up element are automated.
gearshifts are now performed by pneumatic, A lever or tip switch is the control element
hydraulic, or electrical means. Bosch favors for the driver. The driver can skip the auto-
the electrical solution described below matic facility with a manual setting or with
(Figure 1). +/– buttons. Automatically controlling a
multispeed transmission requires a complex
Design and Operating Concept shifting strategy which also takes into ac-
The AST is made possible by electronic count the present total running resistance
clutch management (ECM), supplemented (determined by load and road profile).
by two servomotors (selection and shifting To support the synchronization process in
motors) for selection and shifting. Depend- the interruption of tractive force during the
ing on the system used, the required electri- gearshift operation, an electronic engine-
cal control signals can be issued directly from control facility (depending on the shift type)
a shift lever actuated by the driver or from an automatically closes the throttle briefly.
intermediate electronic control system.
Thanks to the electric-motor-driven The design of automated shift transmissions
actuators of the AST concept, it is possible is characterized by the following features:
at little expense to achieve automation of the  basic design as for manual transmissions,
transmission complete with the associated  actuation of clutch and gear change by
increase in convenience. An important argu- actuators (pneumatic, hydraulic or
ment for the transmission manufacturers electric-motor-driven), and
here is the ability to reuse existing produc-  electronic control.
tion facilities.
The main features of the automated shift
1 Automated shift transmission as add-on solution for transmission are:
manual transmission
 compact design,
Conventional with AST  high efficiency,
Declutching replaced by Clutch servo unit  adaptation to existing transmission
 more competitively priced than automatic
or CVT transmissions,
 simple operation,
 suitable shifting strategies for achieving
optimum fuel consumption and best
consumption figures, and
 interruption of tractive force during
æ UTS0221E

Selection replaced by Selection and gearshifting.

and shifting shifting motors
Robert Bosch GmbH
Transmissions for Motor Vehicles Automated Shift Transmission (AST) 9

Examples of AST in Series Production AST Electrohydraulic

AST Electric-Motor-Driven DaimlerChrysler Sprinter
Opel Corsa (Easytronic, Figure 2a), (Sequentronic, Figure 2b),
Ford Fiesta (Durashift), BMW-M with SMG2,
Toyota MR2,
AST with Electromechanical Ford Transit,
Drum Transmission VW Lupo,
Smart. Ferrari, Alfa,
BMW 325i/330i.

2 Series examples of AST (sources: Opel, DaimlerChrysler)

2 3

Fig. 2
a Easytronic
(Opel Corsa)
b Sequentronic
1 Transverse
2 Clutch servo unit
with integrated ECU
3 Tip lever
4 Shifting/
selection motor
5 Longitudinal
æ UTS0222Y

5 6 7 transmission
6 Shifting/
selection motor
7 Shift lever
Robert Bosch GmbH
10 Transmissions for Motor Vehicles Automated Shift Transmission (AST)

AST Components 3 Integrated ECU (view)

The components of an AST must be able to
withstand high loads in terms of tempera- 1
ture, leak-tightness, lifetime, and vibration.
Table 1 lists the most important
Fig. 3 requirements.
1 Monitoring computer
2 Flash memory Clutch Servo Unit
3 Microcomputer The clutch servo unit (Figures 4 and 5) with
integrated electronic control unit (ECU) (Fig-
4 Travel-sensor
ure 3) serves to actuate the clutch. The entire
5 DC converter AST function is also incorporated in the elec-

æ UAE0949-1Y
6 Driver stage for tronics. The clutch servo unit comprises
electric motors  integrated ECU,
7 Bridge driver  housing with cooling function, 2 3 4 5 6 7
 DC motor,
 helical gear,
 push rod, and DC Motors for Gear Selection
 return spring. and Engagement
There are two types of DC motor for AST
1 Demands placed on AST components (Figures 5 and 6):
Temperature 105°C permanent  The selector motor has a short
125°C briefly
Winding and response time.
commutation system  The shift motor has a high
Leak-tightness Steam jet rotational force.
Splash water
Transmission fluid
Operating life 1 million shift cycles The transmission types for the selector motor
Vibrations 7...20 g sine and the shift motor can be set up symmetri-
Armature mounting cally (left and right), and different mounting
Electrical / electronic
components bores are also possible. The layout of the
Table 1 Electronics PCB 6-pin connector can be chosen as desired.

4 Clutch servo unit (section)

1 2 3 4 5

Fig. 4
11 Actuator motor
12 ECU
13 Worm
14 Worm gear
15 Worm-gear shaft
16 Pin
17 Position sensor
æ UTS0224Y

18 Compensation
10 9 8 7 6
19 Push rod
10 Master cylinder
Robert Bosch GmbH
Transmissions for Motor Vehicles Automated Shift Transmission (AST) 11

5 Clutch servo unit with integrated ECU and DC motors for gear selection and engagement (view)

a b

Fig. 5
5 a Clutch servo unit
with integrated ECU
b Shifting motor
c Selection motor

1 Housing with
2 cooling function
c 2 Helical gear

æ UTS0225Y
1 6
3 DC motor
4 Return spring
5 Push rod
6 Integrated ECU

The motors with their aluminum housings 6 DC motor (section)

are mounted directly on the transmission.

They have a brush holder with integrated
connector. This also contains an integrated
double Hall-effect sensor (IC) with a resolu-
tion of 40 increments per engine revolution. 1
A Hall-effect sensor with output channels Fig. 6
for the rotor angle (lateral pulse) and the 1 Solid pinion for
2 manual-transmission
direction (high and low) can detect the
3 intervention
position of the output shaft.
2 Armature bearing
A 20-pin magnet on the rotor shaft allows with pressed-on ball
a resolution of 9° per increment. In relation 4 bearing (axial lock
to the transmission step-up ratio, it is possi- 5 with clamp)
ble to obtain a resolution of between 0.59° 3 20-pin ring magnet
per increment and 0.20° per increment at and double Hall
the output. Depending on the requirement,
4 Vibration-resistant
æ UTS0226Y

the gear has a crank or eccentric drive. The winding

worm-gear pair has 1 to 4 teeth. 5 Narrow armature
shape for high
EC Motors dynamics
EC motors are brushless, permanently
excited, electronically commutated DC 7 EC motor (schematic)

motors and are used as an alternative to the

DC motors. They are equipped with a rotor- 2
position sensor, supplied with direct current 3
via control and power electronics (Figure 7), Fig. 7
and characterized by long lifetime and the 1 Electrical machine
æ UAE0282-1Y

N 1 with rotor position

minimal space they take up.
2 Control and power
3 Power supply
Robert Bosch GmbH
12 Transmissions for Motor Vehicles Dual-Clutch Transmission (DCT)

Dual-Clutch Transmission Since its requirements profile matches that

of an automatic transmission in terms of
(DCT) convenience and functionality, it has found
Application its niche in the superior, luxury vehicle
Dual-clutch transmissions, DCT (Figure 1), categories.
are seen as the further development of the Dual-clutch transmissions also match the
AST. They operate without interruption of wishes of vehicle manufacturers for modular
tractive force, a major drawback of the AST. concepts since both manually shifted and
The DCT’s main benefit lies in its lower automated shift transmissions can be manu-
fuel consumption compared with auto- factured on the same production line.
mated shift transmissions.
The dual-clutch transmission was used Design
for the first time in 1992 in motor racing The design of dual-clutch transmissions is
(Porsche). However, owing to the high characterized by the following features:
computation effort required in the control  basic design as for manual transmissions,
system to ensure a comfortable overlapping  gears mounted on three shafts,
gearshift, it failed to make it into mass  two clutches,
production.  actuation of clutch and shifting elements
With the availability of high-power via transmission-shift control and
computers, several manufacturers (e.g. VW, actuators.
Audi) are now working on introducing dual-
clutch transmissions for mass production.

1 Dual-clutch transmission, DCT (cutaway view, source: VW)

1 2 3 4 5 6

Fig. 1
11 Output for right
front wheel
12 Bevel-gear drive for
rear axle
13 Parking lock
14 Oil cooler
15 Output shaft 1
16 Input shaft 2
17 Mechatronic module
18 Input shaft for oil
æ UTS0227Y

11 10 9 8 7
19 Return shaft
10 Input shaft 1
11 Dual clutch
Robert Bosch GmbH
Transmissions for Motor Vehicles Dual-Clutch Transmission (DCT) 13

Operating Concept the gears is thus possible. In this way, the

The dual-clutch transmission operates as gear change can take place between the two
follows: partial transmissions, in the same way as in
The gear wheels assigned to the gear steps an automatic transmission, without inter-
are divided into groups of even and uneven ruption of tractive force (Figure 2).
gears. Although it is similar in terms of basic
design to a conventional manual counter- Features
shaft transmission, there is one crucial dif- The main features of the dual-clutch
ference: Even the main shaft is split – namely transmission are:
into a solid shaft and a surrounding hollow  similar levels of convenience to an
shaft, both coupled to a gear train. automatic transmission,
 high efficiency,
Each partial shaft is assigned its own clutch  no interruption of tractive force during
at the transmission input. Since now two gearshifting,
gears are engaged during the gear change  skipping of a gear possible,
(both the active gear and the neighboring,  takes up more space than an AST,
preselected gear), a faster change between  high bearing forces, solid construction.

2 Dual-clutch transmission, operating principle with power-flow when accelerating in 1st gear (source: VW)

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

Fig. 2
11 Engine drive
12 Input shaft 1
13 Input shaft 2
14 Clutch 1 (closed)
15 Clutch 2 (open)
16 Output to differential
17 Reverse gear
18 6th gear
19 5th gear
10 Differential
11 2nd gear
æ UTS0228Y

10 6 11 12 13 14 (preselected)
12 4th gear
13 3rd gear
14 1st gear (active)
Robert Bosch GmbH
14 Transmissions for Motor Vehicles Automatic Transmission (AT)

Automatic Transmission (AT) A planetary-gear set of this type has a kine-

matic degree of freedom of 2. This means
Application that, when two speeds are specified, all the
Automatic power-shift transmissions, or other speeds are established. The individual
simply automatic transmissions (AT) per- gears are shifted in such a way that via two
form power take-up, select the gear ratios, shifting elements the speeds of two shafts
and carry out the gearshifts themselves. A are defined either as drive speed ndr or as
hydrodynamic converter acts as the power housing speed nC = 0 rpm.
take-up element.
The speed-ladder diagram clearly shows the
Design and Operating Concept speed ratios in the transmission. The speeds
Transmission with Ravigneaux Planetary- are entered upwards on the speed ladders for
Gear Set the individual shafts of the overlapping or
The four-shaft planetary-gear set known as shift transmission. The gaps of the speed
the Ravigneaux set is the basis of many auto- ladders are derived from the gear ratios or
matic 4-speed transmissions. Figure 1 shows numbers of teeth such that the speeds be-
the schematic, the shifting logic, and a speed- longing to a particular point of operation
ladder diagram for this transmission. The can be connected by a straight line.
transmission schematic clearly shows the lay-
out of the gear wheels and shifting elements. At a specific drive speed, the five reference
Sun gears B, C and planetary-gear carrier S lines characterize the speed ratios in four
can be connected via clutches CB, CC and CS forward gears and one reverse gear.
to shaft A, which is guided by the converter Only the three shafts B, C and S between the
turbine into the transmission. Shafts S and C input shaft “in” (corresponding to A) and
can be connected with the aid of brakes BS the output shaft “out” are available for the
and BC to the transmission housing. different gearshifts. All three shafts can be

1 4-speed automatic transmission based on Ravigneaux planetary-gear set

a c
CB CC BC BS Sun = C Bridge = S Ring gear = out Sun = B
TCC 6,000
TWP rpm
L S 4
Engine speed

in A out 3,000

Shifting range

b Gear CC CS CB BS BC itot
1 2 3
R –2.550
1 2 3 4
1 2 3 4 1 2.800
Fig. 1
2 1.508
a Transmission
æ UTS0229E

2 3 4 3 1.000
b Shifting logic Gear steps with 4 0.718
c Speed-ladder simple gearshifts
Robert Bosch GmbH
Transmissions for Motor Vehicles Automatic Transmission (AT) 15

connected to input shaft A, but then Transmission with

constructively only two shafts can still be Lepelletier Planetary-Gear Set
connected to the transmission housing. A more elegant way of shifting five and
more gears was devised by the French
The simultaneous shifting of two brakes is engineer Lepelletier. He expanded the
not useful for gearshifts as this blocks the Ravigneaux set to include a range-change
transmission. Of equally little use is the transmission for only two shafts of the
simultaneous connection of one shaft to the Ravigneaux set in order to drive them with
housing and to the input shaft. The simulta- means other than the drive speed.
neous shifting of two clutches always results
in the direct gear (i = 1). The unusual feature of the Lepelletier plane-
This retains exactly the five gears shown tary-gear set as set out in Figure 2 (following
in the shifting logic and in the speed dia- page) lies in the fact that the additional
gram. Beyond the numbers of teeth that are three-shaft planetary-gear set reduces the
possible within the framework of the instal- speed of shaft D in respect to that of shaft A.
lation conditions, the designer still has the In the first three gears of this 6-speed auto-
option of changing the individual gear matic transmission, the shifting logic corre-
ratios, where a direct gear is always specified sponds to the logic of the 4-speed Ravi-
with i = 1. gneaux set. The gear ratios are greater by the
orbit ratio of the internal gear to the carrier
Finally, these transmissions still make it pos- at the fixed sun gear of the additional plane-
sible with simple gearshifts to skip gears by tary-gear set.
cutting in one shifting element and cutting
out another shifting element. It is possible to In 4th and 5th gears, shaft S is connected via
shift from 1st gear into 2nd or 3rd gear, and clutch KS to shaft A. It rotates faster than
from 4th gear into 3rd or 2nd gear. From shafts B and C. The transmission ratios are
2nd and 3rd gear, all other gears can be produced from the gearshifts in 4th gear:
reached with simple gearshifts. S = A and B = D and in 5th gear S = A and
C = D. Without the additional transmission
However, it is not possible to shift more than from A to D, the gear ratios in 3rd, 4th and
four forward gears with the Ravigneaux set. 5th gears would be identical and all i = 1.
An automatic transmission with five gears The 6th gear of this 6-speed automatic
therefore requires either another basic transmission corresponds in terms of the
transmission or a front-mounted or rear- shifting logic again to the 4th gear of the
mounted range-change unit to expand the 4-speed automatic transmission. Even the
Ravigneaux set. But such an expansion stage gearshifts of the reverse gears are identical
requires at least two shifting elements. in these 4-speed and 6-speed automatic
An example of this is the 5HP19 auto- transmissions.
matic transmission from ZF, which has three
clutches, four brakes, and a one-way clutch
to shift only five forward gears.
Obviously, it is also possible to attain more
than 5 gears with range-change units but
shifting effort then becomes increasingly
more pronounced and gearshifts of several
shifting elements for one gear change cannot
be avoided.
Robert Bosch GmbH
16 Transmissions for Motor Vehicles Automatic Transmission (AT)

The 6-speed automatic transmission tion were removed and replaced by an addi-
(Figure 3) also makes possible wide gear tional brake BE, the vehicle could be started
steps with simple gearshifts, which can be with this brake instead of the converter.
necessary particularly in the case of rapid
downshifts. Power Take-Up Elements
In the majority of automatic transmissions
The Lepelletier planetary-gear set therefore which are geared towards convenience, a
differs from the Ravigneaux set only in that hydrodynamic converter adopts the power
it has an additional planetary-gear set with a take-up function. A hydrodynamic converter
fixed gear ratio. The number of shifting ele- is an ideal power take-up element because of
ments remains the same. They are simply the way it works as a turbo element. In order
used repeatedly for the additional gears. In to minimize converter losses during vehicle
terms of space, weight, and cost, this trans- operation, it is however (as often as is possi-
mission is more suitable than a 5-speed au- ble) locked up with the torque converter
tomatic transmission. With the numbers of lockup clutch (TCLC).
teeth shown in Figure 2, this 6-speed auto-
matic transmission achieves a setting range When used with very high-torque turbo-
of φ = 6 with easily shiftable gear spacings. diesel engines, the converter can no longer
be designed to achieve optimum results for
The additional planetary-gear set consists of all operating states. A drive of this type
sun gear E, internal gear A, and planetary- requires a relatively soft converter character-
gear carrier D and is used in reverse gear and istic for safe starting in cold conditions. The
the first 5 gears as a fixed ratio stage. Shaft E is maximum pump torque may only have an
permanently connected as reaction member effect at high speeds so that the drag losses
to the transmission housing. If this connec- do not stall the weak engine without suffi-

2 6-speed automatic transmission based on Lepelletier planetary-gear set

a c
CB CC BC BS Sun = C Bridge = S Ring gear = out Sun = B
TCLC 6,000
TWP D rpm 6
Engine speed

in C B
out 5
E A 3,000 4
0 1

Shifting range

b Gear CC CS CB BS BC itot
1 2 3 4
R –3.400
1 2 3 4
1 2 3 4 5 1 4.171
2 2.340
2 3 4 5 6 3 1.521
Fig. 2
a Transmission 3 4 5 6 4 1.143
æ UTS0231E

schematic 5 0.867
b Shifting logic 4 5 6 6 0.691
c Speed-ladder
Robert Bosch GmbH
Transmissions for Motor Vehicles Automatic Transmission (AT) 17

cient charge-air pressure. At normal operat-  low foaming tendency,

ing temperatures and at speeds at which suf-  compatibility with sealing materials,
ficient charge-air pressure is available, a hard These requirements must be guaranteed
converter characteristic with a steep rise in in the oil pan in a temperature range of
pump torque as engine speed increases is –30...+150°C. Temperatures of up to 400°C
advantageous. are briefly and locally possible between the
Series applications with fast and accurate clutch plates during a gearshift.
pressure control now also make it possible to The transmission fluid is specially adapted
start up comfortably with friction clutches. for fault-free operation of the automatic
A good example of this is the Audi A6 with transmission. A series of chemical sub-
the continuously variable Multitronic trans- stances (additives) is added to the basic oil
mission. for this purpose. The main additives are:
Pressure control and heat dissipation can  friction modifiers, which influence the
be better achieved with a brake than with a frictional behavior of the shifting
clutch. It should therefore also be possible to elements,
obtain comfortable starting with the brake.  antioxidants for reducing thermo-
Even during the gear changes, a slipping brake oxidative aging at high temperatures,
can remove the load from the other shifting  dispersants for preventing deposits in the
elements in the same way as a converter. transmission,
 foam inhibitors for preventing the
Automatic Transmission Fluid (ATF) buildup of oil foam,
Automatic transmissions place exacting  corrosion inhibitors for preventing
demands on the ATF (automatic trans- corrosion of transmission components
mission fluid): when condensation water is formed, and
 increased pressure-absorption capability,  seal-swell agents, which control the
 good viscosity-temperature characteristics, swelling of sealing materials (elastomers)
 high resistance to aging, under the influence of oil to defined levels.

3 ZF 6-speed 6HP26 automatic transmission (source: ZF Friedrichshafen)

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

Fig. 3
1 Transmission input
from engine
2 Torque converter
lockup clutch
3 Turbine
4 Converter
5 Multiplate clutches
æ UTS0230Y

6 Module for
transmission control
7 Planetary-gear set
8 Transmission output
Robert Bosch GmbH
18 Transmissions for Motor Vehicles Automatic Transmission (AT)

GM established the first specification for Figure 5 shows the output characteristics
ATF back in 1949. Typical technical data for of a gear pump (1) and a radial piston
SAE viscosity classes in accordance with pump (2) in comparison. Possibilities for
DIN 51 512 are: optimization in the oil-pump range are
Flash point (> 180°C) offered by a variable flow or a controllable
Pour point (< –45°C) pump pressure:
Viscosity index (VI > 190)
Kin. viscosity: 37 cSt (at +40°C) Variable Pump Flow
17 cSt (at +100°C) The particular features of variable pump
Dyn. viscosity: 17 000 cP (at –40°C) flow are as follows:
13 300 cP (at –30°C)  The design creates a sufficiently high flow
11 000 cP (at –20°C) to fill the clutch at idle speed.
 An additional displacement at higher
In the meantime, automatic transmissions speeds causes a loss of output.
are increasingly being filled with lifetime  The variable-capacity pump enables the
fluid, thus rendering unnecessary a change pump output to be adapted as required.
of fluid.  However, variable pump flow has the
drawback of being expensive and suscep-
Oil Pump tible to failure.
The transmission requires an oil pump (Fig-
ure 4) to build up a control pressure. This Controllable Pump Pressure
pump is driven by the engine. At the same The particular features of controllable pump
time, the oil-pump drive power reduces the pressure are as follows:
transmission efficiency. The following equa-  The pump pressure is adapted to the
tion applies here: torque to be transferred in each case.
 Main-pressure control allows effective
Pump output = pressure  flow operation (by means of the actuator)
close to the clutch slipping point.

4 Crescent oil pump (section) 5 Oil pumps (pump outputs in comparison)

1 2 3 4


Pump output PP

Fig. 4
1 Pressure outlet
2 Crescent
3 Internal gear
4 Suction side 4
5 External gear, 2
driven by engine
6 Drive lug
æ STS0232Y

æ STS0233E

0 2,000 4,000 6,000 rpm
Fig. 5
1 Gear pump 5 6 Engine speed nE
2 Radial piston pump
Robert Bosch GmbH
Transmissions for Motor Vehicles Automatic Transmission (AT) 19

Torque Converter The impeller sets the fluid from the hub in
The torque converter (Figure 6) is a power motion in an outward direction. There the
take-up aid, which works as an additional fluid hits the turbine, which directs it in-
gear in the start-up range and also serves to wards. The fluid from the turbine in the hub
damp vibrations. It was the hydraulic con- area then hits the stator, which diverts it
verter with centripetal turbine which first back to the pump (Figure 7).
enabled automatic transmissions to be used In the converter area (ν < 85%), the
in passenger cars. The most important turbine torque is increased by the reaction
elements of a converter are: torque at the stator. In the clutch area, the
 pump (driven by the engine), stator one-way clutch is released and there
 turbine, is no further increase in torque. The maxi-
 stator on the one-way clutch, and mum efficiency is < 97% (Figure 8).
 fluid (for the transfer of torque).
A transmission of power via the converter
6 Torque converter (section) can only take place when slip occurs be-
1 2 3
tween the impeller and the turbine wheel.
This is low in most vehicle operating states,
ranging from 2...10%. However, this slip
causes a loss in power output and thereby
increased vehicle fuel consumption. A
torque converter lockup clutch must there-
fore always cut in when the converter is not
required for start-up or torque conversion
(see also section “Controlled Torque Con-
verter Lockup Clutch”). This is a multiplate
clutch, which connects the impeller to the
Fig. 6
turbine wheel by frictional locking.
1 Torque converter
æ UTS0234Y

lockup clutch
2 Turbine wheel
3 Impeller
4 Stator

7 Fluid flow in torque converter 8 Torque converter (characteristic)

1 3 2.0 100
µ η
Torque conversion µ = –––


Torque conversion η


æ UTK0005-1E
æ UTS0235Y

0 0 Fig. 7
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 1 Turbine wheel
Speed ratio ν = –nT 2 Stator
3 Impeller
Robert Bosch GmbH
20 Transmissions for Motor Vehicles Automatic Transmission (AT)

Multiplate Clutches The following problems can occur in

Multiplate clutches (Figure 9) facilitate shift- connection with multiplate clutches:
ing without an interruption of tractive force  combustion at high temperatures,
and support the torque in the gear in which  supply of fluid with rotating clutches, and
they are being actuated.  pressure increase caused by rotation speed.

The lining and steel plates of the clutches Planetary-Gear Sets

and brakes take on the dynamic torque and The planetary-gear set (Figure 10) is the
the shifting energy during the gearshift and heart of the automatic transmission. Its
the load torque to be transferred after the function is to adjust the gear ratios and to
gearshift. In order to ensure high gear-shift ensure constant power transmission. A plan-
sophistication (convenience), the friction etary-gear set is made up of the following
linings must demonstrate coefficients of components:
friction which are as constant as possible and  A central gear wheel (sun gear).
not dependent on temperature and load.  Several (usually three to five) planet gears,
The friction linings in automatic trans- which can rotate around their own axes
missions have a cellulose support structure and also around the sun gear. The planet
(paper linings). Added aramide fibers (high- gears are held in place by the planetary-
strength plastic) ensure temperature stabil- gear carrier, which can rotate around the
ity. Further constituents are mineral aggre- central axis.
gates, graphite, or friction particles for influ-  An internal gear, which surrounds and
encing the coefficient of friction. The entire encloses the planet gears. This internal gear
lining is soaked in phenol resin to give it its can also rotate around the central axis.
mechanical strength. The steel plates are
made of cold-rolled sheet steel. Planetary-gear sets are used in automatic
The friction process occurs in the fluid transmissions for the following reasons:
layer between the lining and steel plates.  The power density of planetary-gear sets
The friction lining maintains this fluid layer is very high since the power is transmitted
through its porosity and by supplying cool- in parallel via several planet gears. Plane-
ing fluid. tary-gear sets are therefore highly com-
pact and low in weight.

9 Multiplate clutch (section) 10 Planetary-gear set (schematic)

1 3

Fig. 9 4 1
1 Fluid feed
2 Outer plate
3 Lining plate
4 Plate carrier
5 Return spring

Fig. 10
æ UTA0003-1Y

1 Planetary-gear
æ UTS0236Y

carrier with
planet gears
2 Sun gear
3 Internal gear
Robert Bosch GmbH
Transmissions for Motor Vehicles Automatic Transmission (AT) 21

 No free radial forces occur in the plane- Two types of planetary-gear set have been
tary-gear set. Rolling bearings can be successfully used in automatic transmissions
replaced by cost-effective plain bearings. and are characterized by the following easy-
 Multiplate clutches, multiplate brakes, to-distinguish features:
band brakes, and one-way clutches can be
arranged concentrically to the planetary- Ravigneaux Set
gear set, thus providing more space for the In the Ravigneaux set (Figure 11), two dif-
hydraulic control system. ferent planetary sets and sun gears operate
in a single internal gear.
Different planetary-gear set combinations
are used in transmissions: Simpson Set
 Simpson (3-speed, two systems), In the Simpson set (Figure 12), two plane-
 Ravigneaux (4-speed, two systems), tary sets and internal gears run on one joint
 Wilson (5-speed, two systems). sun gear.

Parking Lock
11 Ravigneaux set (schematic) The function of the parking lock (Figure 13)
1 2 2 3 4 is to secure the vehicle against rolling off. Its
reliable operation is therefore fundamental
to safety.
The driver must press the brake pedal
before the selector lever can be moved from
the P (Park) position. This mechanism pre-
vents the vehicle from being set in motion
by accidental operation of the selector lever.

Fig. 11
1 Internal gear
æ UTS0237Y

2 Sun gear and

planetary-gear set 1
3 Planetary-gear set 2
4 Sun gear 2

12 Simpson set (schematic) 13 Parking lock

1 1 2 3 4 1 2

Fig. 12
1 Planetary-gear set 1
and internal gear 1
2 Planetary-gear set 2
3 Internal gear 2
4 Sun gear
æ UTS0238Y

æ UTS0239Y

Fig. 13
1 Pawl
2 Parking-lock gear
Robert Bosch GmbH
22 Transmissions for Motor Vehicles Continuously Variable Transmission (CVT)

Continuously Variable 1 Current availability (worldwide) of vehicles

with CVT
Transmission (CVT)
Vehicle CVT designation Vehicle
Application manufacturer
Drive concepts with continuously variable Audi Multitronic A4, A6
transmissions (CVT) are characterized by BMW CVT Mini
high driving convenience, outstanding ride GM CVT Saturn
characteristics, and low fuel consumption. Honda Multimatic Capa, Civic,
VDT (Van Doorne’s Transmissie) has for HR-V, Insight,
many years specialized in developing CVT Logo
components and prototype transmissions. Hyundai CVT Sonata
Since its takeover of VDT in 1995, Bosch Kia CVT Optima
now covers the entire field of CVT system Lancia CVT Y 1.2l
developments through to complete drive- MG CVT F, ZR, ZS
train-management systems. All the continu-
Mitsubishi CVT Lancer-Cedia,
ously variable automatic transmissions listed Wagon
in Table 1 are operated with a push-belt Nissan Hyper-CVT Almera,
(Figure 1). One exception is the Audi Multi- ICVT Avensis,
tronic with a link-chain manufactured by Extroid-CVT Bluebird,
LuK (Figure 2). Cube Micra,
The main components of a CVT can be Murano, Primera,
Serano, Tino,
activated by an electrohydraulic module. In
Cedric Gloria
addition to the push-belt – in mass produc-
Rover CVT 25/45
tion since 1985 – pulleys, pumps, and electro-
Subaru ICVT Pleo
hydraulic modules are being developed for
volume production launch. There are differ- Toyota Super-CVT Previa,
Hybrid-CVT Opa Prius
ent types of push-belt for mid-range engine
torques up to 400 Nm (e.g. Nissan Murano
V6 with 3.5 l displacement and max. 350 Nm 1 CVT for front-wheel drive, transverse (section)

at 4000 rpm, with converter).

The know-how within the
Bosch Group provides the
software for optimum CVT
activation. Naturally there is
full flexibility with regard
to software sharing so that 6
vehicle manufacturers can 1
also develop and imple-
ment special functions
Fig. 1 2
1 Torque converter 3
2 Pump
3 Planetary-gear set
with forward/reverse
æ UTS0240Y

4 Push-belt
5 Variator
6 Control module
Robert Bosch GmbH
Transmissions for Motor Vehicles Continuously Variable Transmission (CVT) 23

2 CVT for front-wheel drive, longitudinal (Audi Multitronic with link-chain, source: Audi)

æ UTS0241Y
A distinction is drawn within the CVT func- Conflicting requirements can be satisfied
tions between a basic functionality and an with the aid of electronic control and
expansion stage. All the functions of the first appropriate prioritization.
group have already been
implemented and tested 3 Span of a CVT transmission compared with 5-speed automatic (characteristic)
and are in use in various
Low 1st gear 2nd gear 3rd gear 4th gear
vehicles. rpm
Suitable tools for effi- 5,000 5th gear
cient representation and
Engine speed

4,000 5th gear

testing such as ASCET- Overdrive
SD are available and used
in joint projects.
æ UTS0242E

The large gear-ratio span 0

0 50 100 150 km/h
of continuously variable
Vehicle speed
transmissions moves the
engine operating point
into ranges that are 4 Tractive force and running resistance (characteristics)
favorable to fuel con-
sumption. N
8,000 1st gear
Low Running
Starting out from the resistance
Tractive effort

span shown in Figure 3,

2nd gear
this produces the alloca- 4,000
tion of the tractive force 3rd gear
to the gear ratio shown 4th gear
2,000 5th gear
in Figure 4.
æ UTS0243E

5th gear
0 Overdrive
0 50 100 150 km/h
Vehicle speed
Robert Bosch GmbH
24 Transmissions for Motor Vehicles Continuously Variable Transmission (CVT)

5 Mechanical variator adjustment (schematic)

a a1 b a2

Fig. 5 2
a “Low” ratio
b “Overdrive” ratio

1 Input (primary) 3
2 Push-belt or chain
3 Output (secondary)

æ UTS0244Y

b1 b2
a1, b1 “Low” ratio
a2, b2 “Overdrive” ratio

6 Variator adjustment (control principle) Figure 5 shows the me-

chanical adjustment of
Secondary speed
the gear ratio from “low”
Primary speed
Primary pulley
to “overdrive”. The control
based Command signal ratio setup shown in Figure 6 is
variator used for this purpose.
control Secondary pressure
Primary The model-based
Command signal pressure
variator control system
pressure force
featured in Figure 7
processes the following
æ UTS0245E

Secondary pulley  Adjustment of primary
speed or gear ratio with
PI controller.
7 Model-based variator adjustment  Adjustment of contact
pressure for the primary
Nominal speed Nominal ratio Ratio Primary
controller current
and secondary pulleys.
Secondary speed –  Coupling of the control
Adaptive of gear ratio and con-
Gear ratio function
tact-pressure control
Engine torque Nom. pressure
and control of the
Primary Secondary- Secondary
Max. adjust- pressure current
ment speed
Clutch / CC controller  Adaptive function for
compensating toler-
æ UTS0246E

Engine speed Pump

control Secondary ances.
Temperature pressure
Robert Bosch GmbH
Transmissions for Motor Vehicles Continuously Variable Transmission (CVT) 25

Design Features
The converter or the multiplate clutch acts One advantage of CVT transmissions is that
as the power take-up element, and the re- they do not cause any interruption of trac-
verse gear is shifted via a planetary-gear set. tive force when the gear ratio is changed.
These transmissions offer a high level of con-
The gear ratio is continuously varied with venience since gearshifts are not necessary.
V-pulleys and a belt or a chain (variator).
In the entire engine map, operation is
High-pressure hydraulics provide the neces- matched to optimum fuel consumption/
sary contact pressure and variator adjust- maximum acceleration. A high ratio span is
ment. also possible.

All the functions are controlled by the elec- Although the high-pressure pump requires a
trohydraulic control system. The various certain level of drive power, the overall effi-
components of the CVT transmission are ciency is satisfactory.
depicted in Figure 8.

8 Model-based variator control

3 4 5

1 2
Fig. 8
11 Engine
12 Pump
13 Converter
14 Planetary-gear set
7 8 15 Push-belt
16 Input (primary)
17 Output (secondary)
18 Differential
19 Electronic engine
9 management
10 10 Electrohydraulic
module (hydraulic
æ UTS0247Y

valves, sensors,
11 actuators)
11 Vehicle wiring
Robert Bosch GmbH
26 Transmissions for Motor Vehicles Continuously Variable Transmission (CVT)

CVT Components Push-Belt

Variator The company Van Doorne’s Transmissie
The variator consists of two V-pulleys which holds a worldwide patent for the push-belt.
move in relation to each other (Figures 9 Figure 11 shows the different types of belt
and 10). and their areas of application in relation to
The pressure p of the transmission fluid the engine torque to be transferred.
moves the moving parts of the variator (1)
in relation to each other. This alters the posi- The push-belt (Figure 12) consists of push
tion of the push-belt (3) between the two elements 2 mm thick and 24...30 mm wide,
pulleys and changes the gear ratio. which are arranged at an inclination angle
As power transmission is based solely on of 11° to each other. The chain is held by
the friction between the belt and the varia- two packs, each with 8 to 12 steel belts.
tor, this type of adjustment requires a high The coefficient of friction of the chain is
system pressure. at least 0.9.

9 Variator (view) 11 Product range of push-belts



200 24/12
VDT 24/9
æ UTS0248Y

æ UTS0250E
Compact Mid-range Luxury-class
class class vehicles

10 Variator (schematic) 12 Push-belt (view with excerpt)

Fig. 10
1 Moving pulley
2 Fixed pulley 3
3 Push-belt
4 Spring 4
p Pressure of
transmission 1
fluid applied
æ UTS0249Y

æ UTS0251Y

Fig. 12
1 Push element 2
2 Steel-belt pack
Robert Bosch GmbH
Transmissions for Motor Vehicles Continuously Variable Transmission (CVT) 27

The following nomenclature is used for the CVT Oil Pump

belt designations: Since the process of adjusting the pulleys
in the CVT requires a high fluid pressure,
24/12/1.5/208.8 a high-power oil pump is used to generate
 Belt diameter this pressure (Figure 14).
 Thickness of belts
 Number of belts
 Width of push elements in mm

Instead of the push-belt usually used in CVT
transmissions, Audi uses a link-chain manu-
factured by the company LuK in its Multi- 13 Link-chain for Audi Multitronic (source: Audi)

tronic transmission (this chain is based on

the pin chain manufactured by the company
2 1
P.I.V. Reimers).
This link-chain is made completely of
steel and yet is almost as flexible as a V-belt.
It is composed of various positions of links
next to each other and therefore of such
robust design that it can transfer very
high torques (transferable engine torque
350 Nm) and forces.
æ UTS0252Y
The chain (Figure 13) consists of 1025 indi-
vidual links, each with 13...14 chain links Fig. 13
lined up next to each other. Pins with a 1 Links
width of 37 mm and an inclination angle of 2 Pin
11° connect the links (1) to each other. The
ends of the pins (2) press against the conical 14 CVT oil pump

surfaces in the variator.

The tractive force of the chain is trans-
ferred to the variator pulleys at the support
points created. The mini slip created in the
process is so minimal that the pins are sub-
ject to wear of no more than one to two
tenths of a millimeter over the entire work-
ing life of the transmission.
The link-chain has the further advantage
that it can be routed over a circumference
that is smaller still than other belts. By run-
ning on this minimum wrap diameter, it has
the capacity to transfer maximum forces and
torques. In this event, only nine pairs of pins
æ UTS0253Y

are in contact with the inside surfaces of the

pulleys. However, the specific contact pres-
sure is so high that they do not slip even
under maximum load.
Robert Bosch GmbH
28 Transmissions for Motor Vehicles Toroid transmission

Toroid Transmission  high-pressure hydraulics for preloading

the torus wheels, and
Application  electrohydraulic control.
The toroid transmission is currently only
used in Japan in the Cedric and Gloria Features
models built by Nissan. The main features are as follows:
 no interruption of tractive force,
Design  no gearshifts (high convenience),
As a special type of continuously variable  adapted operation in the engine map for
transmission (Figures 1 and 2), the toroid optimum fuel consumption/maximum
transmission is also known as a friction-gear acceleration,
CVT. It is characterized by the following  can be used for high torques,
design features:  rapid ratio adjustment,
 converter as power take-up element,  high drive power for the high-pressure
 reverse gear via planetary-gear set, pump (overall efficiency therefore only
 power transmission via torus wheels with satisfactory), and
intermediate rollers,  special ATF (automatic transmission
 continuously variable change of ratio fluid) with high shear strength required.
by hydraulic angle adjustment of inter-
mediate rollers,
1 Toroid transmission (schematic)

a b

2 2
3 1 3

Fig. 1 4 4
a Half toroid
b Full toroid
æ UTS0254Y
1 Input wheel
2 Variator
3 Output wheel
4 Output

2 Toroid transmission (version)

1 2 3
æ UTS0255Y

Fig. 2
1 Input wheel
2 Variator
3 Output
Robert Bosch GmbH
Transmissions for Motor Vehicles Transmission History 2 29

 Transmission history 2

Daimler/Maybach Steel-Wheel Carriage from The four-speed transmission to be operated

1889 with Four-Speed Transmission using two shift levers consisted of different
Power transmission in an automobile must straight-toothed gear pairs, one pair of which
guarantee the functions of starting, engine- could always be engaged with the aid of two
speed, and torque conversion for forward and sliding-gear clusters. The top speed that could
reverse travel. These functions call for actuators be reached ranged between 5 km/h (1st gear)
and shifting elements which intervene in the and 16 km/h (4th gear). For the purpose of
power-flow and perform engine-speed and starting and shifting, the power transmission
torque conversion. from the engine to the transmission could be
In the very early days of automobile history, interrupted with a bevel clutch.
many vehicles transferred their engine’s motive Despite the introduction of the variable-ratio
force to the road with belt and chain drives. gear transmission, the belt drive maintained its
Only in the output stage, the final drive, were position for some time as the power take-up ele-
gear and chain drives soon to be in use due to ment in the subsequent course of vehicle devel-
the high torques involved. opment because it permitted a certain starting
The steel-wheel carriage from Daimler and slip and a greater spacing to the other drivetrain
his designer Maybach from 1889 was the first components. There were also combinations of
four-wheel vehicle with an internal-combustion belt drives, manual gear transmissions, and
engine not to be simply a converted horse- chain drives. The chain drive remained in use
drawn carriage, but to be conceived in its in passenger cars until roughly 1910. But as
entirety specifically for motorized road traffic. engine power output continued to increase,
The power-flow of its vertically mounted two- there was no longer any way past the variable-
cylinder V-engine with a power output of 2 HP ratio gear transmission with bevel clutch on
(1.45 kW) was already transferred to the pow- account of the high forces that were created.
ered axle with a clutch, a four-speed manually After 1920 the positive connection (with
shifted gear transmission, and a differential. A constantly engaged gears) was established by
gear transmission could specifically carry out displacing dog clutches with low displacement
the conversion of rotational speed, torque, and travel. Then helical gears and synchronization
direction of rotation in the tightest of spaces. became standard in manually shifted transmis-
sions. Finally, there came the introduction of
automatic transmissions, which are usually fitted
 Daimler/Maybach steel-wheel carriage from 1889 with planetary-gear sets on account of the high
with its four-speed transmission power density.
(source: DaimlerChrysler Classic)

3 1 Transmission input
with bevel clutch
æ UTS0356Y

æ UTS0357Y

2 Sliding-gear
cluster 1
3 Sliding-gear
cluster 2
Robert Bosch GmbH
30 Electronic Transmission Control Drivetrain Management

Electronic Transmission Control

In complicated traffic situations, unfamiliar drivetrain-management system calculates
surroundings, or poor weather conditions the conversion into torque and engine speed
(e.g., heavy rain, snow, or fog), manual and implements them. In order for such a
gear changing can distract car drivers to strategy to be implemented, it is essential for
such an extent as to create situations that the system to be equipped with an electri-
are difficult to control. This also applies to cally actuated throttle valve (drive by wire).
the annoying, incessant process of engaging
and disengaging the clutch when driving in Figure 1 shows the organizational structure
stop-and-go traffic. Automatic transmis- of drivetrain management as part of the
sions with electronic control assist drivers in overall vehicle structure. The vehicle coordi-
these and other traffic situations so that they nator forwards the requested propulsion
can concentrate fully on the road conditions movement to the drivetrain coordinator
and what is happening around them. while taking into account the power require-
ments of other vehicle subsystems (e.g.,
Drivetrain Management body or electrical-system electronics). The
drivetrain coordinator distributes the power
As the number of electronic systems in the demand to the engine, converter, and trans-
vehicle increases, so too does the complexity mission. In the process, the various coordi-
of the overall network of the various ECUs. nators may also have to solve conflicts of in-
Controlling such networked structures re- terest that arise in accordance with defined
quires hierarchical order concepts, such as, priority criteria. A whole range of different
for example, the “Cartronic” system from external influencing factors (such as envi-
Bosch. Coordinated drivetrain manage- ronment, traffic situation, vehicle operating
ment is integrated as a substructure in the status, and driver type) plays a role here.
“Cartronic” system. It facilitates optimally
matched management of the engine and The Cartronic concept is based on an
transmission in the various vehicle operat- object-oriented software structure with
ing conditions. physical interfaces, e.g., torque as an inter-
The engine is operated as often as possible face parameter of drivetrain management.
in the fuel-saving ranges of its program
map. If the driver adopts a sporty driving
style, however, the high, less economical
speed ranges are increasingly utilized. Such a
mode of operation pre- 1 Monitoring architecture of monitored drivetrain management
supposes on the one hand
that the driver command
is recognized and on the Vehicle Drive
other hand that its imple- Environmental
mentation is left to the ? Torque Engine

electronic drivetrain- Driving-condition Vehicle


? Slip Converter
management system and variables motion
a higher-level driving Vehicle Body and Trans-
? Gear ratio
strategy. When the driver variable interior mission
presses the accelerator User Electrical Provision of propulsion
variables ? system
pedal, the system inter-
æ STS0256E

power and power for other

prets this action as an
acceleration request.
From this request, the
Robert Bosch GmbH
Electronic Transmission Control Market Trends 31

Market Trends CAFE Requirements

In contrast to Europe, the USA, the most
The statutory requirements relating to fuel important market for automatic transmis-
consumption and exhaust-gas emissions will sions, has seen no change in the CAFE fuel-
play a significant role in transmission devel- consumption requirements (corporate aver-
opment over the next few years. There fol- age fuel efficiency) since 1990 (Figure 2). All
lows a brief comparison of the requirements attempts to bring about a tightening of these
of the main markets for this purpose. requirements have proven unsuccessful.


The ACEA (Association des Constructeurs
Européens d’Automobiles, i.e. Association of
European Automobile Manufacturers) has
agreed to reduce the corporate average in 1 CO2-emission requirements

CO2 emissions in the period from 2002 to

2008 from 170 mg CO2 to 140 mg CO2
(Figure 1). 200
Current field
of values
The Japanese and Korean manufacturers’ as- 180
CO2 emission

sociations (JAMA and KAMA) have adopted 160
the same limits for the year 2009. In order
for this target to be achieved, the next few 140

years will see an increased acceptance of 120

Consumption leader
VW Polo 3l
transmission types such as the 6-speed
transmission CVT (continuously variable 100
2000 2002 2004 2006 2008 2010 2012
transmission) and AST (automated shift
æ STS0257E

2 CAFE fuel-consumption requirements (passenger cars, light commercial vehicles not included)

Standard Current value


Fuel consumption




æ STS0258E

1978 1990 2000
Robert Bosch GmbH
32 Electronic Transmission Control Control of Automated Shift Transmission AST

Control of Automated Shift sensor in the clutch-release system. Instead

the clutch-travel sensor is integrated in the
Transmission AST electric-motor actuator.
Requirements The small electric motor offers a low
Current market developments reveal a power density in comparison with a
marked trend towards an increase in in-car hydraulic pump and accumulator. The
safety and operating comfort and conve- electric-motor actuator is therefore only
nience. This is accompanied by an increase suitable if it can achieve sufficiently short
in vehicle mass and in the final analysis an declutching times for rapid gearshifts.
increase in fuel consumption. The emission
guidelines laid down by legislators (140 g/km Shifting without Torque Correction
CO2 by 2008) only intensify the situation. In the conventional system without torque
correction (Figure 1), the clutch torque is far
The automated shift transmission (AST) in excess of the engine torque. The reason
combines the advantages of a manually behind this is that the dry clutch, which has
shifted transmission with the functions of to transfer at least the engine torque under
an automatic transmission. The automated all extreme conditions, normally offers a
version of the classic manual transmission reserve of 50 to 150%. The engine torque
is characterized by its high efficiency. Slip drops when the driver wishes to change gear
losses do not occur as in conventional and at the same time takes his foot off the
torque-converter transmissions. accelerator pedal. Operating the shift lever
Specific fuel consumption in the auto- initiates the intention to change gear, and
matic mode is below the low level of the the clutch must now be moved from the
manual transmission. fully closed to the fully open position. This
AST development is founded on the defines the declutching time.
knowledge and findings gained in connec-
tion with electric-motor clutch management If the declutching time is too long, the clutch
(ECM). will still transfer torque while the next gear is
being synchronized, a process which may re-
Electric-Motor Clutch Management sult in rattling or damage to the transmission.
Following initial experiences with hydraulic
clutch management, users are now concen-
trating their efforts on the use of electric 1 Shifting without torque correction

motors as clutch actuators in the small-car S1

segment. This new approach allows for sav-
ings to be made on costs and weight, as well Nm
as providing a higher degree of integration. 400
Corresponding ECM systems are used in the 300
Mercedes A-Class, the Fiat Seicento, and the

Hyundai Atoz. 200

Design and Operating Concept
Fig. 1 0
The most important step in minimizing
MC Clutch torque
costs was switching from a hydraulic actua- ¯100
æ STS0259E

ME Engine torque 0 2 4 6 8s
tD Declutching time tor to an electric-motor actuator. This step
Time t
S1 Signal for gearshift removed the need for a pump, an accumula-
command tor, and valves as well as the need for a travel
Robert Bosch GmbH
Electronic Transmission Control Control of Automated Shift Transmission AST 33

Shifting with Torque Correction Design and Operating Concept

The most technically sophisticated solution The electric-motor AST features the auto-
for avoiding transmission damage is to mated clutch operation of the ECM system.
combine a reduced-force clutch with torque With an additional electric-motor actuator
correction. for the transmission, the driver is able to
Figure 2 shows the shifting operation with change gear without there being a mechani-
torque correction, in which the clutch cal connection between the selector lever
torque is only marginally above the engine and the transmission (shift by wire).
torque. When the driver takes his foot off
the accelerator pedal to change gear, the In the case of the AST, all modifications to the
clutch torque drops as well as the engine transmission are to be avoided. This will en-
torque. When the intention to change gear able the transmission manufacturer to mount
is initiated, the clutch is thus already almost either manual transmissions or ASTs on the
open and the remaining declutching opera- production line. As the hardware for this
tion follows very rapidly. system (e.g., for the Opel Corsa Easytronic),
Figure 3 features a schematic representa- Bosch supplies the electric motors for clutch
tion of electric-motor clutch management engagement, shifting, and selection (see chap-
(ECM) as a partial-automation solution, ter entitled “Transmission, Automated Shift
and the automated shift transmission (AST) Transmission”), and the ECU. Automated
as the complete automation of the manual and cost-effective mass production is made
transmission, both as add-on systems. possible by the use of standard components
in all AST applications.
Electric-Motor Automated Shift
Transmission AST 3 ECM and AST as add-on systems

Application a
Today the AST is used primarily in the lower 1 2 3
torque classes (e.g., VW Lupo, MCC Smart,
Opel Corsa Easytronic, see also chapter enti- Fig. 2
tled “Transmission Types”), where, in com- MC Clutch torque
parison to the fully automatic transmission, ME Engine torque
the cost benefit makes up for the downside tD Declutching time
S1 Signal for gearshift
of the interruption in tractive force.

2 Shifting with torque correction

Fig. 3
Nm AST 1 Available signals
2 Clutch actuator with
1 5 6
300 integrated ECM

MC 3 Gear recognition
100 4 Shift-intention
ME recognition on
0 shift lever
5 Clutch actuator with
æ STS0260E

æ STS0261E

0 2 4 6 8s integrated AST ECU

Time t 6 Transmission
7 Selector lever
Robert Bosch GmbH
34 Electronic Transmission Control Control of Automated Shift Transmission AST

Software Sharing Shifting Operation and Interruption of

The vehicle manufacturer (OEM), the sup- Tractive Force
plier and if necessary a system integrator The basic problem associated with the AST
share the AST software tasks. The operating is the interruption of tractive force. This is
system, signal conditioning, and the hard- represented in Figure 4 by the “hollow” of
ware-specific routines for activating the the vehicle acceleration between the two
actuators are provided by Bosch. Bosch’s shifted gears. In terms of what is required
extensive knowledge and experience in the of the actuators, these phases can be divided
field of automatic transmissions is also into two blocks:
applied in establishing the AST target gears.  phases which have an effect on the vehicle
This includes, among others, driver recogni- acceleration,
tion, uphill/downhill recognition, cornering  phases which represent pure response
recognition, and other adaptive functions times.
(see also chapter entitled “Adaptive Trans-
mission Control, ATC”). In the phases which have an effect on the
vehicle acceleration, it transpires that a
The tasks of activating the transmission and throttle action is needed because excessively
coordinating the gearshift sequence (clutch, quick changes in vehicle acceleration are felt
engine, transmission) are the responsibility to be unpleasant. The optimum interaction
of the OEM or the system integrator. of engine, clutch, and transmission interven-
tion results in the best possible performance.
This also applies to clutch control, signifi-
cant parts of which can be taken over from The synchromesh can be supported for
the ECM system. Each vehicle manufacturer example by double-declutching. In the
brings its marque-specific philosophy response times, however, the maximum speed
regarding shifting time, shifting points, of the actuators is demanded. It is important
and shifting sequences to bear. here that the synchromesh does not experi-
ence too hard a shock after the gear has been
disengaged and the following rapid phase.

4 Phases of AST shifting operation



Fig. 4 1 t0
Acceleration a

1 Current gear
2 Next gear

∆M1 Torque reduction ∆M1 2

∆M2 Torque increase
t0 Tractive-force t3 t4 t5
interruption ∆M2
t1 Shifting operation
t2 Acceleration
æ STS0262E

t3 Disengage and
select gear
t4 Synchronization Time t
t5 Shift through gear
Robert Bosch GmbH
Electronic Transmission Control Control of Automated Shift Transmission AST 35

Figure 5 shows a comparison of the shifting control strategy such as torque correction or
times that can be achieved with a hydraulic by the interaction of the engine and the
system and an electric-motor system and the clutch.
shifting time necessary for a comfortable
shifting operation. The bar lengths equate to It is important to highlight here that there
the times required for the individual phases is hardly any difference between the two
and the same shading schemes are used. systems in the phases for response time, gear
disengagement, and gear engagement. The
When the capacity of the actuators is response times are not extended practically,
exploited to maximum effect, the electric- even in the case of comfortable shifting.
motor system only demonstrates a time However, the phases relevant to acceleration
disadvantage compared with its hydraulic must be two to four times as long as in the
counterpart in the clutch-operation phase. extreme case, both for the hydraulic and the
This could be reduced in particular in the electric-motor actuator systems.
torque-reduction phase by an intelligent

5 Comparison of achievable shifting times

100 ms

hydraulic force

electronic force

æ STS0263E

Torque Gear Synchro- Gear Torque

reduction out nization in increase Fig. 6
1 Engine electronics
2 Transmission
6 Automated shift transmission (AST) in a diesel vehicle (example: system diagram)
3 Transmission
1 8 2 9 3 11 10 actuator
4 Diesel engine
5 Dry interrupting
CAN 6 Clutch servo unit
7 Intarder electronics
8 Display
9 Driving switch
(selector lever)
11 Transmission
æ UTS0207-1Y

12 Air supply

___ Electrics
4 5 6 12 7
---- Pneumatics
___ CAN communication
Robert Bosch GmbH
36 Electronic Transmission Control Control of Automatic Transmissions

Control of Automatic Hydraulic Control

The main function of the hydraulic-control
Transmissions system (Figures 1 and 2) is to regulate,
Requirements boost, and distribute hydraulic pressures
The control system for an automatic trans- and volumetric flows. This includes generat-
mission must fulfill the following essential ing the clutch pressures, supplying the con-
requirements or functions: verter, and providing the lubricating pres-
 always shifting the correct gear or setting sure. The housings of the hydraulic-control
the correct gear ratio as a function of system are made from diecast aluminum
assorted influencing variables, and contain several precision-machined
 executing the shifting operation through slide valves and electrohydraulic actuators.
adapted pressure characteristics as com-
fortably as possible, 2 Main control with hydraulic valves

 implementing additional manual inter-

ventions on the part of the driver,
 detecting maloperations, e.g. by prevent-
ing non-permitted gearshifts,
 providing ATF oil for cooling, lubrication
and for the converter.

Current control systems are exclusively

electrohydraulic in nature.

æ UTS0265Y
1 Exploded view of a hydraulic-control system (example: GM HYDRA-MATIC 4L60-E)

æ UTS0264Y
Robert Bosch GmbH
Electronic Transmission Control Control of Automatic Transmissions 37

Electrohydraulic Control Direct Control

Due to their extensive range of functions, all With direct control, the required pressure
modern automatic transmissions with four and throughflow for rapid clutch filling are
to six gears and continuously variable trans- provided directly by the actuator (Figure 4).
missions are exclusively controlled by elec- This results in a compact clutch-control
trohydraulic means. In contrast to earlier, system with reduced hydraulic sophistication.
purely hydraulic control systems with
mechanical regulators, the clutches are Shifting-Sequence Control
activated individually by pressure regulators, Conventional Shifting-Sequence control
which facilitate precise modulation and The following two shifting scenarios are
regulated overlapping gearshifts (without a examples of conventional control of a sim-
one-way clutch). ple 4-speed automatic transmission with
one-way clutches (Figure 5).
Clutch Control
Clutch control is always performed with Upshift Under Load
either pilot-controlled or directly controlled Unlike in a manual transmission, throttling
pressure. upshifts in an automatic transmission take
place without an interruption of tractive
Pilot Control force. The graphic in Figure 6 shows the
With pilot control, the required pressure time curve of the characteristic variables
and throughflow for rapid clutch filling are during an upshift into the direct gear
provided via a slide valve in the control (ratio 1). Shifting begins at time t0: The
housing. Pressure regulation is effected by clutch is filled with fluid and the friction
pilot pressure acting on the sensing surface elements are pressed against each other.
of the slide valve. An actuator generates this The clutch transfers a torque from time t1
pilot pressure (Figure 3). onwards. As the clutch torque increases, so
This results in greater degrees of freedom the torque supported at the one-way clutch
in the packaging and the use of standardized decreases. The one-way clutch is released at
actuators, high dynamics, and small electro- time t2. Now the engine speed begins to
magnets. change. The clutch torque increases to t3. Fig. 3
1 Supply to actuator
3 Pilot control (pictorial diagram) 5 Load transfer with one-way clutch US 2 Oil pan
3 Supply to slide valve
4 Actuator
5 Slide valve in control
1 2 3
Torque M

M 6 Clutch
æ STS0266Y

4 5 6
p1 Fig. 4
1 Supply to actuator
Pressure p

2 Actuator
4 Direct control (pictorial diagram) 3 Clutch

Fig. 5
1 nE p1 Pressure,
cutting-in clutch
Speed n

æ STS0268E
æ STS0267Y

p2 Pressure,
2 3 cutting-out clutch
Time t nE Engine speed
M Torque
Robert Bosch GmbH
38 Electronic Transmission Control Control of Automatic Transmissions

The clutch slips up to t4, after which it sticks. Downshift Under Load
After the end of the shifting operation, the In contrast to upshifts, downshifts take place
clutch pressure is controlled upward to a with an interruption of tractive force.
level of safety. Figure 7 shows the time progression.
The speed difference between the engine At t0 shifting begins with the clutch being
and the transmission output speed remain- drained. Engine torque is no longer trans-
Fig. 6
ing after t4 is caused by the converter, which ferred from t1 onwards and the engine revs
pC Clutch pressure always operates with slip when locked up. up. At t2 the synchronization speed of the
pF Filling pressure new gear is reached and the one-way clutch
pS Safety pressure The progression of the output torque in the is engaged; up to t3 the converter slip is set
t0 Start of shift phase t1...t4 determines the gear-shift so- according to the engine torque. The shifting
t1 Start of torque phistication (ease of shifting). To ensure operation is completed at t3. The gear-shift
transfer, clutch
good shift quality, the clutch pressure must sophistication (ease of shifting) is deter-
torque rises,
one-way clutch
be set so that the output torque is between mined by the torque drop in the phase t0...t1
torque drops the level at t < t1 and the level at t > t4. The and depends quite significantly on the
t2 One-way clutch torque jump at t4 should also be as low as torque increase between t2 and t2.
released possible. All the shifting scenarios that occur are
t3 Clutch slips, The load on the friction elements is de- primarily controlled by the electronic sys-
clutch torque
termined by the clutch torque and the slip tem; the hydraulic system is left above all
remains constant
t4 Clutch sticks, clutch
time (t4 – t1). It is clear here that controlling with the function of clutch power control.
torque decreases, the shifting sequence always involves a com- In all newer transmissions (5-speed
converter operates promise. and 6-speed types), one-way clutches are
with slip replaced by regular clutches for weight
reasons. However, during the shifting
1 Output operations, they require overlap control
2 One-way clutch
3 Clutch
4 Engine
6 Pressure, torque and speed curve during an upshift 7 Time curve of a downshift
5 Transmission output

Torque M
Torque M

Fig. 7 2
pC Clutch pressure 3
pF Filling pressure 3
t0 Start of shift,
clutch drains
t1 End of torque
transfer, engine
revs up pS
t2 Synchronization
Pressure p

speed of new gear pF pC

pC pF
Pressure p

reached, one-way
clutch engaged,
converter operates
with slip
t3 Shifting operation
completed 4 4
Speed n
Speed n

1 Output 5 5
æ STS0269E

æ STS0270E

2 One-way clutch
3 Clutch t0 t1 t2 t3
t0 t1 t2 t3 t4
4 Engine
Time t Time t
5 Transmission output
Robert Bosch GmbH
Electronic Transmission Control Control of Automatic Transmissions 39

for the clutches (Figure 8). This means that 8 Overlap control US
while clutch 1 opens for gear x, clutch 2 must
close for gear y. Since this type of control is
very elaborate and time-critical, it is neces- M

Torque M
sary to provide considerably higher comput-
ing power in the ECU than for the simple
shifting sequences with one-way clutch shifts
(see also chapter entitled “ECUs”). p1

Pressure p
The most important features of overlap
control are: p2
 low mechanical complexity,
 minimal space requirement,
 multiple use for different gear steps Fig. 8
nE p1 Pressure,
Speed n

cutting-in clutch
 high control precision for load transfer

æ STS0271E
p2 Pressure,
required, cutting-out clutch
 high software complexity for torque Time t nE Engine speed
control, M Torque
 in event of incorrect control: excessive
speed (engine races) or onset of a brak- 9 Fill time

ing torque (extreme case: transmission


Adaptive Pressure Control ∆ntu

Turbine speed ntu

The function of adaptive pressure control is

to achieve a consistently good shift quality
over the entire working life of the transmis-
sion and the accompanying changes in the
friction coefficients at the clutch surfaces. tfill
It also compensates for any potential devia-
æ STS0272E

tshift tvertex
tion of the calculated torque or the torque
Time t
transferred by the engine which can occur
on account of changes to the engine or
manufacturing tolerances.
In this case, an important role is played by Fill-Time Measurement
pressure adaptation with the aid of the shift- The fill time tfill (Figure 9) is the time from
ing times applied by the manufacturer. To the start of the gearshift tshift to the start of
this end, the applied shifting times are com- synchronization (a drop in speed is identi-
pared with the real shifting times that occur. fied during the upshift [US]):
If the measurements are repeatedly outside a
pre-specified tolerance range, the pressure tfill = tvertex – tshift
parameters pertaining to the shifting opera-
tion are incrementally adapted. A distinction Slip-Time Measurement
is made here between the fill time and the The slip time tslip (Figure 10) of the clutch is
slip time of the clutch. the time from recognition of the speed vertex
(start of synchronization) to complete syn-
chronization of the speed in the new gear.
Robert Bosch GmbH
40 Electronic Transmission Control Control of Automatic Transmissions

10 Slip time Shifting-Point Selection

Conventional Shifting-Point Selection
In the majority of automatic transmissions
currently available, the driving program is
selected using a selector switch or a button.
Turbine speed ntu

The following driving programs are gener-

ally available in this respect:
ntu  Economy (very economical),
 Sport, or
∆ntu  Winter.

æ STS0273E
tvertex tsync The individual programs differ in the posi-
Time t tion of the shifting points in relation to the
position of the accelerator pedal and the dri-
tslip = tsync – tvertex ving speed. The Economy and Sport shifting
maps of a 5-speed transmission are used
The speed thresholds used for measuring the here as examples (Figure 11).
slip time tslip (Figure 10) are calculated in
advance of the start of shifting, where the If the current driving speed or the accelera-
following relationship applies to upshifts: tor-pedal position corresponding to the
Start of fill-time measurement = start of driver command (accelerator-pedal value)
shifting intersects the shift curve, a gearshift is trig-
gered. A requested gearshift can be either
Vertex: A decrease in the turbine speed ntu by canceled or converted into a double shift
at least ntu (vertex) revolutions is detected. within a specific period of time (which
ntu (t – 1) – ntu (t) > ntu (diff) depends on the hydraulic system of the
automatic transmission)
Synchronization speed: An increase in the For example, the driver is driving in fifth
turbine speed ntu by at least ntu (sync) revo- gear on an interstate highway and would like
lutions is detected. to overtake. To do so, he presses the accelera-
ntu (t) – ntu (t – 1) > ∆ntu (sync) tor pedal to the floor, whereupon a down-
shift is requested.
Pressure Correction
Pressure adaptation is only permitted within 11 US and DS characteristics in Economy mode (XE)
and Sport mode (XS)
specific limits on account of operational re-
liability. The typical adaptation width lies in 2-1 RS 1-2 HS
the range of ±10% of the modulation pres- % XE XS XE XS
sure calculated for the shift. The correction 100
Accelerator-pedal position

values are also still distinguished according

to speed bands.
The adaptation values are stored in a non-
volatile memory so that the optimum mod- 50 1
ulation pressure can be reapplied when the
vehicle is restarted. The overall pattern of
pressure adaptation can also be evaluated as
a sign of changes in the transmission.
æ STS0274E

Fig. 11 0
0 50 km/h
1 Upshift
XE Economy mode Vehicle speed υF
XS Sport mode
Robert Bosch GmbH
Electronic Transmission Control Control of Automatic Transmissions 41

When the accelerator pedal is firmly pressed Uphill Driving

to the floor, the 4-3 DS shift curve is inter- Recognition of uphill driving by comparing
sected directly after the 5-4 DS shift curve, the current acceleration with the requested
and a 5-3 double downshift is performed acceleration by way of the engine torque,
instead of a sequential downshift. Special results in upshifts and downshifts at higher
shifting points for kickdown (forced down- engine speeds and thus prevents gearshift
shift) allow the maximum possible engine hunting.
power to be utilized at this point.
Adaptive Transmission Control (ATC) This facility uses the difference in wheel
All newer transmission-control systems have speeds to calculate whether the vehicle is in a
– instead of active driving-program selection curve or bend. With active cornering recog-
by the driver – software which enables the nition, requested shifts are delayed or pro-
driver to adapt to the special ambient condi- hibited in order to increase vehicle stability.
tions while driving. This includes first and
foremost driver-type recognition and dri- Winter Recognition
ving-situation recognition. Examples which Winter operation is recognized on the basis
are currently in use are adaptive transmission of slip detection from analysis of the wheel
control (ATC) from BMW and the dynamic speeds. This serves primarily to
shift program (DSP) from Audi.  prevent the wheels from spinning and
 select a higher gear during starting so that
Driver-Type Recognition less torque is transferred to the drive
A driver type can be identified by means of wheels, thereby preventing premature
an evaluation of the actions he or she wheel spin.
performs. This includes:
 kickdown operation, ASC Operation
 brake operation, and If the system detects while driving that the
 restriction via selector lever. ASC ECU (anti-slipping control or traction
control system, TCS) is in control mode,
For example, the kickdown evaluator counts requested gearshifts are suppressed in order
the number of times the driver engages kick- to support the ASC function.
down during a presettable period of time. If
the counter exceeds a specific threshold, the
driver-type recognition facility selects the
next, more sporty driving program. It auto-
matically switches back to a more economical
driving program once this time has elapsed.

Driving-Situation Recognition
For driving-situation recognition, different
transmission-control input variables are
linked to conclusions about the present
driving condition. The following situations
can generally be recognized:
 uphill driving,
 winter operation, and
 ASC operation.
Robert Bosch GmbH
42 Electronic Transmission Control Control of Automatic Transmissions

Engine Intervention Requirements

Application The ever-increasing demand for more eco-
A precisely controlled time characteristic of nomical fuel consumption in motor vehicles
engine torque during the shifting operations dictates to a significant degree the develop-
of an automatic transmission offers the pos- ment objectives in the field of automatic
sibility of optimizing transmission control transmissions as well. In addition to mea-
with regard to gear-shift sophistication sures for improving the efficiency of the
(convenience), clutch service life, and trans- transmission itself (such as, for instance, the
ferrable power. The engine management torque converter lockup clutch), these objec-
system implements the torque command tives include introducing transmissions with
(reduction) of the transmission control by more gears. However, additional gear steps
retarding the moment of ignition. inevitably call for increased shift frequency.
The theoretical principles, processes, and This in turn results in increased demands
measurement results are presented using the placed on gear-shift sophistication (conve-
example of engine intervention in ignition. nience) and the load capacity of the friction
Symbols and Abbreviations Engine intervention takes into account
C Spring stiffness of drivetrain both requirements and institutes an addi-
i Gear ratio tional degree of freedom for controlling an
J Mass moment of inertia automatic transmission. “Engine interven-
k Constant tion” covers all those measures which allow
M Engine torque the engine torque generated by the combus-
n Rotational speed tion process during the shifting operation in
q Specific lost work the transmission to be specifically influ-
Q Lost work enced and in particular reduced. Engine
t Time intervention can be used in both upshifts
W Running resistance and downshifts.
x Spatial coordinate The primary aim of engine intervention
δ Temperature in upshifts is to reduce the lost energy that
ω Angular velocity occurs in the friction elements during the
Φ Angle of rotation shifting operation. This is done by reducing
φ Angle of rotation, linearized the engine torque during synchronization
without interrupting the tractive force. The
Indices margin acquired in this process can be used
O Output to:
V Vehicle  Increase the service life by shortening the
limit Permitted limit value slip time (if all other operating parame-
C Clutch (friction element) ters in the transmission, such as clutch
kin Kinetic share pressure and number of plates, remain
E Engine (transmission input) unchanged).
red Reduced value  Improve the convenience by reducing the
s Slip time clutch torque, brought about by lowering
com Share of combustion energy the clutch pressure during the slip phase.
(engine torque)  Transmit higher power, provided the
 Reference variable mechanical strength of the transmission
1 Clutch drive side permits this; in most cases, however, the
2 Clutch output side power loss in the clutches is the limiting
Robert Bosch GmbH
Electronic Transmission Control Control of Automatic Transmissions 43

Naturally, it is also possible to adopt a sensible ∆ω = ω1 – ω2 (1)

combination of these measures within the
framework of the specified margin. In relation to the lost energy which must
be absorbed or forwarded by the friction
The aim of engine intervention in down- elements during the shifting operation, the
shifts is to reduce the jolt which occurs when following equation applies:
the one-way clutch or a friction element ts
engages at the end of the synchronization Q =  MC (t) · ∆ω(t) · dt (2)
processes. This results in 0
 improved convenience and
 supported and improved synchronization Furthermore, the angular-momentum prin-
in transmissions without one-way ciple applies to the drive and output sides of
clutches. the clutch. For the rotational masses of the
drive side:
Interventions in the Mechanical Shifting
1 – i ME – MC
Sequence ∆ω = ωO · + ·t (3)
i JO
The following explanations illustrate which
possibilities present themselves for interven-
tion in the mechanical shifting sequence. Under the above-mentioned preconditions,
The individual phases of upshifts and down- this produces:
shifts are described in the section entitled
“Shifting-Sequence Control”. ∆ω = ωE – ωO = ωE (t = 0) – ωO + ωE · t

Upshifts or
Engine intervention is discussed using the 2
example of an upshift from the direct gear
(i = 1) to overdrive (i < 1). The following

Q = MC ωO ·
M – MC t S
· ts + E
simplifications serve to illustrate the physical From (1), (2), and (3), this produces for a
relationships more clearly: time-constant clutch torque the lost energy
 The influence of the torque converter is as a function of the shifting-sequence para-
disregarded. meters.
 There is no overlap of friction elements,
i.e., only one friction element participates J1 · ω 1 = ME – MC
in the gearshift.
 The engine torque remains constant dur- The slip time itself is dependent on the
ing the gearshift, thereby providing linear clutch and engine parameters, where
speed characteristics.
ωO 1 – i 1–i JE
 The vehicle speed during the gearshift is ts = . · = ωO · · (4)
ω E i i ME – MC
taken to be constant.
 The heating of the friction linings by This produces the lost energy to be absorbed
briefly successive shifting operations is by the friction element
1 MC · JE 2 1–i
Q= · · ωO (5)
2 ME – MC i
Upshifts take place without an interruption of
the tractive force. Synchronization of engine i.e., the lost energy is dependent only on the
and transmission takes place via a friction clutch and engine torques, the driving speed,
element in slipping-intervention operation. and the gear ratios.
The following relative speed ensues between When the clutch torque determined by (4)
the drive and output side of the clutch: is applied in (5), this produces the lost energy
Robert Bosch GmbH
44 Electronic Transmission Control Control of Automatic Transmissions

as the sum of a share of the kinetic energy 12 Lost energy Qcom (a) and clutch torque MC (b)
which is released when the rotational masses of a clutch as a function of slip time tS and engine
torque ME
are braked to the synchronization speed and
a share of the engine combustion energy:
a Nm Qlimit

ω2 1–i ω 1–i
Q = Qkin +Qcom = JE · O · + ME · tS · O · (6) +2,000 S
2 i 2 i


Lost energy Qcom

Both these shares are roughly of the 7


same order of magnitude. At speeds of 50


ME =
n = 3000 rpm and typical values for the gear 5
step and the engine-drag torque (i = 0.8, +800
JE = 0.3 kg · m2, ME = 100 Nm, tS = 500 ms), 3
this produces: +400

Qcom/Qkin ≈ 1...4 Qkin=1,645

0 200 400 600 ms

This clearly shows the possibilities of engine Slip time ts
intervention for reducing the power loss in
the friction elements. b Nm
M E=
500 200
A further significant aspect is derived from
Clutch torque MC

Fig. 12

(6): Only the share of lost energy stemming 400

a Lost energy Qcom 8 ts limit
b Clutch torque MC from the combustion energy is dependent
on the slip time tS. The decisive factor is the

MClimit Maximum product of the engine torque and the slip


200 1
clutch torque time. This means, however, that the slip time MC limit
MCmin Minimum MC min
can be extended accordingly when the en- 100 4
clutch torque 6
gine torque is reduced without an increase
æ UTS0275E
ME Engine torque
Qlimit Maximum in the total lost energy. In actual fact, the 0
0 200 400 600 ms
permitted lost wear of the friction elements even decreases Slip time ts
energy with constant total lost energy when the slip
time is extended. The temperature of the
friction linings corresponds to the load on measure to a reduction in gear-shift sophis-
the friction elements. tication (convenience). A reduction of the
Figure 12a shows the lost energy absorbed clutch pressure is not permitted in this case,
by the friction element as a function of the as otherwise Qlimit will be exceeded.
engine torque and the slip time. The maxi-
mum permitted lost energy Qlimit and the It is now easy to tell from Figure 12 which
engine torque to be transferred during this possibilities are offered by engine interven-
gearshift determine the maximum slip time, tion. It is taken that the engine torque to be
for instance in accordance with point S. The transferred ME = 100 Nm can be reduced
maximum permitted energy Qlimit corre- during the slip phase to an average of 50%.
sponds in accordance with (5) to the clutch When first the case of constant clutch torque
torque determined by the slip time MClimit (shift quality) is considered, reducing the
(point 1 in Figure 12b). engine torque to 50 Nm results in a shorten-
To reduce the lost energy, the clutch ing of the slip time from 400 ms to 245 ms
torque in relation to point S would have to (point 1  point 2) with a simultaneous
be increased and thereby the slip time short- reduction in lost energy to 61% (point 3).
ened. However, this would lead in equal If, on the other hand, the slip time is kept
Robert Bosch GmbH
Electronic Transmission Control Control of Automatic Transmissions 45

constant, the clutch torque can be reduced 1 Numerical values for text examples and Figure 12
from 179 Nm to 128.5 Nm (point 1 
ME MredE MC ME t0 Q/Q100
point 4) with a reduction in lost energy to Nm Nm Nm Nm ms %
72% (point 5). 100 100 179 400 3740 100
100 50 179 245 2285 61
The maximum sensible slip time is then ob- 100 50 128.5 400 2693 72
tained if the minimum clutch torque MCmin 100 50 100 628 3290 88
during the gearshift does not drop below the 200 200 360 200 3740 100
200 100 179 400 3740 100
value after the end of the shift. On the one Table 1
hand, a smaller engine torque as a result of
engine intervention would result in a deteri- determine the gear-shift sophistication
oration in convenience; on the other hand, (convenience) to a substantial extent.
the clutch torque for safety reasons should at For a better understanding of the character-
any rate be so large that the non-reduced istic relationships, damping in the drivetrain is
engine torque can be transferred by the disregarded in the following analysis. It also
friction element after the end of the shift. applies on the assumption that the overall
In this example, it is taken that the torque vehicle dynamics can be reduced to engine
to be transferred at least by the clutch is mass, input-shaft rigidity, and vehicle inertia.
100 Nm in accordance with the engine
torque (direct gear). This means that the slip In the case of all the moments of inertia relat-
time can be stretched from 400 ms to max. ing to the transmission output, the engine
625 ms (point 6), again with a simultaneous and the vehicle are governed by the following:
reduction in lost energy to 88% (point 7).
JE · Φ̈E = ME, JV · Φ̈V = –W (9)
Finally, it can be gleaned from Figure 12 that
even an engine torque of 200 Nm, which At the point when the one-way clutch
without intervention would require a maxi- engages, the drivetrain resembles a torsion
mum slip time of 200 ms with a minimum damper (Figure 13, next page), and the
clutch torque of 360 Nm (point 8), can be motion equations are as follows:
traced back to the example with a torque of
100 Nm (point 1). JE · Φ̈E = c (Φ̈V – Φ̈E) + ME (10a)

The results of this analysis are on the safe JV · Φ̈V = c · (Φ̈V – Φ̈E) –W (10b)
side in this respect because extending the
slip time with constant lost energy results Since in this case it is not the absolute angle
in reduced friction-lining temperature and of rotation but rather only the deviations
thus protects the friction linings. Table 1 from the basic rotation (i.e., the rotation of
lists the numerical values for these examples. the input shaft) which are significant, these
two equations can combined. If the driving
Downshifts speed υ for the short time segments to be
In contrast to upshifts, downshifts take place considered is taken as constant, this
in the throttling mode with an interruption produces with
of load. The engine is decoupled from the
ΦE = ΦEo + φE, ΦV = ΦVo + φF,
drivetrain and runs as a result of the torque
Φ·Eo = Φ·Vo = υ = const.
it has generated up to the synchronization
speed. Only after the one-way clutch or the and
friction element has engaged is the frictional
ψ = φV – φE,
connection re-established. The torque ratios
when the synchronization speed is reached
Robert Bosch GmbH
46 Electronic Transmission Control Control of Automatic Transmissions

the motion equation (12) produces the relative acceleration

ψ̈ + c ·  J1E
JV· ψ = –ME (11) ψ = ω0 ·
2 M
cos (ω0 · t)

The natural frequency ω0 for this system as and (10b) the vehicle acceleration

Φ̈V = · [1 + cos (ω0 · t)] (14)
ω0 =   c·
This means that, at time t0 when the one-
The general solution produces the accelera- way clutch engages, an acceleration jump
tion acting on the driver: takes place, namely
from Φ̈V = 0 for t < t0 (15)
ψ = A · (sin ω0 · t) + B · cos (ω0 · t) (12)
to Φ̈V = 2 · for t = t0
(9) produces as the end condition of the
engine run-up phase: followed by a drivetrain vibration damped
in the real vehicle.
ψ̈E = for t < t0 (13)
Similar conditions are present in a gearshift
The energy to be applied here simply to from friction element to friction element
accelerate the engine is transformed when (overlapping gearshift), only this involves
the one-way clutch engages (at time t0) the additional problem of cutting in the
abruptly into a torque, which causes the friction element of the new gear exactly
input shaft to rotate: when the synchronization speed is reached.
As the damping effects of the torque con-
φEo = M verter and the rest of the drivetrain have
been disregarded in this analysis, the possi-
13 Diagram of drivetrain during load interruption and bility which engine intervention offers is all
establishment of frictional connection
the more clear:
a W According to (13), the initial acceleration
acting on the driver at time t0 is directly pro-
portional to the engine torque and thus the
engine acceleration during the run-up
ME phase. With precisely timed control of the
engine torque in the time segment t ≤ t0 to
t >> t0, it is possible to create an almost
Fig. 13 continuous transition from the range of
a Load interruption tractive-force interruption to the range of
b Frictional connection
tractive-force transfer.
JV Mass moment of
Implementation takes the form of a
inertia of vehicle W marked reduction in engine torque at time
drivetrain JV t0 followed by renewed control-up in accor-
JE Mass moment of dance with a time function. The conve-
inertia of engine ΦV nience can be varied within broad limits
ME Engine torque ME
with this control-up.
ΦV Angle of rotation
æ STS0276E

of vehicle drivetrain JE
ΦE Angle of rotation ΦE There is an equally clear possibility in
of engine gearshifts without a one-way clutch of influ-
W Running resistance encing the engine acceleration by control-
Robert Bosch GmbH
Electronic Transmission Control Control of Automatic Transmissions 47

ling the engine torque in the time range The overrunning point is identified through
t ≤ t0 and thereby reducing the time de- continual monitoring of the transmission
mands on the cut-in precision of the friction input speed in the time phase after t0. For
element at the synchronization point. this purpose, the maximum speed is calcu-
lated in the time phase t0...t3 as well as the
Sequence Control speed gradient.
The process of reducing the engine torque The overrunning point is identified in the
is essentially very simple. However, effective event of a reduction in the gradient by more
control requires precise coordination as the than a pre-specified threshold value, and
entire process only lasts approximately engine-torque control begins with control-
500 ms. down to a pre-specified value in accordance
with a pre-specified time function.
Pure time control of engine intervention is
not practicable because different variables In order to determine the speed n3 at the
which determine the sequence (such as start of control-up, the synchronization speed
clutch fill times, plate friction coefficients, n4 = n1/i in the new gear is calculated from
and similar) fluctuate within broad limits the maximum speed n1 at the overrunning
depending on the temperature and the point and the ratio jump i of the gear change
service life. to be carried out. A speed-dependent share
∆n is added to this synchronization speed
As engine intervention is directly linked to in order to obtain a derivative action for
the shifting sequence, a speed sequence control-up. When the speed n3 = n4 + ∆n is
control system suggests itself. The character- reached, torque control-up begins in accor-
istic variable that characterizes the shifting dance with a pre-specified time function. The
sequence exactly is the transmission input end of the gearshift is identified as soon as the
sequence. The engine speed is also suited with value of the non-corrected torque is achieved.
limitations to transmissions with hydrody-
namic converters as the controlled variable. 14 Sequence control, upshifts with engine
This is therefore important because it re-
quires a separate sensor to record the trans-
mission input speed, and not every transmis- S2
signal S

sion is fitted with this sensor for cost reasons. S1


In the interests of clarity, the following text

describes the control system with the trans-
mission input speed as the characteristic a
ration a

variable and reference is made, where neces-

sary, to the limitations or changes when the
engine speed is used. nE1 nE2
nE nE4
Speed n

The time curve of the characteristic vari- nT Fig. 14

ables for an upshift is depicted in Figure 14. 1 Control-down phase
The ratio of the old gear is retained up to 2 Control-up phase
the overrunning point t2; only then does ME
a Acceleration
Torque M

only a slipping clutch intervene. For this 1 2

nT Transmission input
reason, the engine torque cannot be reduced
æ STS0277E

before the overrunning point is reached, nE Engine speed
t0 t1 t2 t3 t4 t5 t6
otherwise this would entail an intensified Time t ME Engine torque
dip in the output torque in the phase t1...t2. S Shift signal
Robert Bosch GmbH
48 Electronic Transmission Control Control of Automatic Transmissions

For upshifts in the upper load range (greater  retarding the ignition angle too early ex-
than half load), the engine speed is used as tends the engine revving phase and thus
the controlled variable instead of the trans- the time of tractive-force interruption and
mission input speed because here the shifting  engine intervention after the one-way
points are at such great engine speeds that clutch has engaged does not bring about
the converter operates in the clutch range any improvement in convenience, but
and is thus subject to roughly constant slip. rather a deterioration as this causes a dip
Gearshifts at part load on the other hand in torque for the duration of the engine
take place in the converter range. This intervention.
means that the slip can change very substan-
tially during a gearshift. Here the engine The synchronization speed is calculated via
speed is no longer suitable for determining the gear step from the transmission input
the synchronization speed. In this case, a speed at the start of the gearshift. The engine
superimposed form of time control, which torque is abruptly reduced approximately
terminates engine intervention after a pre- 200 rpm before the synchronization speed is
specified time, is suitable for the part-load reached until this speed is reached or slightly
range t3...t4. exceeded. Then the engine torque is slowly
controlled up again.
Downshifts The synchronization speed cannot be
The time curve of the characteristic variables calculated directly by means of the engine
for a downshift is depicted in Figure 15. speed as a result of the slip at the hydrody-
Precise determination and recording of the namic torque converter. A consideration of
synchronization speed are crucial to engine the converter program map with the requi-
intervention in the case of downshifts site accuracy requires too much computa-
because tion effort in the microcontroller.

It is possible however to calculate the syn-

15 Sequence control, downshifts with engine chronization speed from the transmission
output speed by multiplying it by the corre-
sponding gear step. It is now possible to
S1 identify by means of the engine speed when
signal S

S2 the synchronization point is reached, since


the speed difference between the engine and

the turbine is approximately zero when the
engine revs up freely (interruption of trac-
a tive force) to the synchronization point.
ration a

nE3 The different possibilities of torque reduc-

nE1 tion are now discussed in the following text.
Speed n

Fig. 15
2 Control-up phase ME 2
a Acceleration
Torque M

nT Transmission input
æ STS0278E

nE Engine speed
t0 t1 t2 t3 t4 t5
ME Engine torque
Time t
S Shift signal
Robert Bosch GmbH
Electronic Transmission Control Control of Automatic Transmissions 49

Shifting the Ignition Angle Engine-Torque Specification

The oldest version of engine intervention In appropriately equipped vehicles with
involves intervention through shifting of the their CAN network of all the ECUs in the
ignition angle. This form of intervention drivetrain (Figure 17), torque reduction is
offers the following advantages: performed on the basis of a torque interface
 continuous regulation of the engine between engine management (TI-Motronic)
torque within broad limits, and electronic transmission control (ETC).
 short response time, and The torque reductions of the ABS and TCS
 availability in all vehicles with gasoline- ECUs must also be taken into consideration.
Figure 18 shows how a current transmis-
Figure 16 shows in schematic form the de- sion-control system calculates the desired
pendence of the engine torque on the igni- engine torque intervention (ETI_Etc).
tion angle for different load conditions and The next torque intervention is determined
engine speeds. It is clear from this figure that as a function of the available torque (actual
adjusting a pre-specified engine torque gen- torque). The torque M is the engine torque of
erally requires an ignition map as a function the engine-management system without
of engine load and engine speed. intervention by transmission control.

The response time τ between the initiation

of engine intervention and the start of
reduction in engine torque is specified by
the ignition angle, therefore
(z/2) · n E
where z is the number of cylinders and n E
the engine speed. In the effective speed
range n ≥ 2000 rpm, the maximum delay
for a 6-cylinder engine is 10 ms for initiation
and 30 ms for a complete reduction in
engine torque.
Fig. 16
16 Engine torque as a function of ignition angle 17 ECUs in the drivetrain
a Full load (index F)
αF1, MF1 Ignition angle
or engine torque
without engine
MF1 αF1 intervention
TI- αF2, MF2 Reduced
Motronic ignition angle or
Engine torque ME

High-Speed engine torque with

MF2 25 °KW αF2 CAN engine intervention
MP1 b αP1 b Part load (index P)
αP1, MP1 Ignition angle
MP2 20 °KW αP2 or engine torque
without engine
æ STS0282E
æ STS0281E

50 40 30 20 10 0 10 °KW αP2, MP2 Reduced

Ignition angle α ignition angle or
advance retard engine torque with
engine intervention
Robert Bosch GmbH
50 Electronic Transmission Control Control of Automatic Transmissions

18 Calculation of engine-torque intervention (ETI) in current transmission control

Torque without Limitation of Calculation of torque

transmission torque gradient intervention from
intervention program maps and functions
of gradient

torque M Gradient ETI_Dyn_Lim

Parameter Calculate No
of shift status reduced intervention

S_Phase Status TI_State Torque- Torque

check request limitation

Shift-sequence Torque- Determination of Limitation of

phase intervention torque intervention torque intervention
status as a function of

æ UTS0279E
phase and status Desired torque
of shift sequence intervention

Key to Figure 18: Torque Converter Lockup Clutch

ETI_Etc = f(ETI_Dyn_Lim, TI_State) Application and Operating Concept
The hydrodynamic converter is (necessitated
by its operating principle) subject to a level
ETI_ETC: Engine-torque request of transmission
of slip which is required particularly for
ETI_Dyn_Lim: Dynamically limited engine torque convenience reasons during startup and in
(reduction of torque change in the engine certain driving situations to increase torque.
to ensure convenience) Since this slip also involves a simultaneous
TI_State: Current status of torque intervention loss of power, the torque converter lockup
clutch (TCLC) was developed with this in
mind (see also section entitled “Torque

It is only advisable to lock up the converter

from a specific speed because at low speeds
the irregular rotation of the engine would
cause uncomfortable vibrations in the
drivetrain. The controlled torque converter
lockup clutch (CTCC) was developed in
order to be able to utilize these ranges for
lockup as well.
Robert Bosch GmbH
Electronic Transmission Control Control of Automatic Transmissions 51

Controlled Torque Converter Lockup Clutch fied setpoint value and corrects the pressure
The controlled torque converter lockup continually. Special functions perform
clutch (CTCC) sets a very low level of slip changeovers between the individual states
(40...50 rpm) and thus an almost stationary and provide for a comfortable shift perfor-
state. In this way, it keeps unwanted vibra- mance.
tions away from the drivetrain. The con-
verter lockup clutch therefore has three
different states:
 open, 19 Characteristic (pictorial diagram) of controlled
torque converter lockup clutch (CTCC)
 controlled, and
These states are defined by means of charac- open closed
Throttle-valve opening

teristic curves, which are plotted like shift

curves for each gear against throttle-valve
opening and driving speed (Figure 19). As is
the case with shift curves, fuel consumption
and tractive force are crucial criteria for the
torque converter lockup clutch.
In slipping controlled operation, the CTCC CTCC CTCC
open controlled closed
speed differential between the converter im-

æ STS0280E
peller and turbine is constantly set to a low 0
0 1,000 2,000 rpm 3,000
value. A closed control loop constantly com- Engine speed nE
pares the speed differential with a pre-speci-

20 Tiptronic® shifting strategies (flowchart)

Measured Throttle valve Engine speed Vehicle speed Lateral Linear

4 160 acceleration acceleration
variables 3 5 120 200
2 6 80 240
1 7 40 280

Adaptation of shift characteristics (transmission and torque converter lockup clutch)
Measured-value summation Modulation factor Shift/TCLC characteristics
1 Filtering MF1... MF5 SK5
Averaging MFA N SK1 SK2
Weighting % V

Short-time influencing Special function
Prevention of Gear holding Active shifting Upshift during
overrun upshifts in curves Jump to SC5 brake overrun
ahead of curves to low µ

Manual tip (nudge) shifting P + Upshift

D Computer-aided adherence to
- Downshift permitted speed limits
æ UTS0203-1E
Robert Bosch GmbH
52 Electronic Transmission Control Control of Continuously Variable Transmission

Control of Continuously Open and Closed-Loop Control

Variable Transmission The aforementioned transmission equip-
Requirements ment requires the following open and
Continuously variable transmissions that closed-loop control functions:
operate according to the wrap principle have  contact-pressure control,
a whole variety of different equipment  ratio control,
specifications (Table 1). The following  driving program,
equipment packages are widely used in  clutch activation,
compact and mid-range class vehicles:  activation for converter and torque
 When the master/slave concept is used, converter lockup clutch,
the primary pulley (transmission input  pump activation,
side) has double the surface of the  reverse-gear lock, and
secondary pulley (transmission output  deactivation of limp-home function.
side). The pressure in the primary
chamber can thus always be below the Contact-Pressure Control
secondary pressure. The belt contact pressure is adjusted in
 The converter with torque converter accordance with the current load situation
lockup clutch as power take-up element with the aid of the measured secondary
offers very good starting convenience and pressure. To achieve a high level of effi-
facilitates a good starting response ciency, the secondary pressure is reduced to
through torque increase so that the large such an extent that the current engine
ratio span of the CVT is completely bene- torque can still be transferred to a specific
ficial to the overdrive range. degree of safety and reliability without the
 Two wet clutches for the forward and belt slipping.
reverse gears.
 Variable-capacity pump.
 Convenient fail-safe and 1 Variations of CVT based on wrap principle
limp-home strategies. Assembly, Variants
In the event of a control-elec- Wrap Band Chain Belt
tronics failure, the fail-safe and element
limp-home requirements par- Variator principle Master/slave Partner principle Partner principle
Converter: Fitted Not fitted Not fitted
tially determine the hydraulic
– Converter clutch Yes No No
concept. Engine overspeeding
– Slip duration Brief Permanent Permanent
and associated high slip at the Clutch:
driven wheels must be avoided – Type Friction surfaces Magnetic-powder Magnetic-powder
at all costs. An adjustment in – Pressures Low High High
the overdrive direction would – Slip duration Brief Permanent Permanent
satisfy this requirement, but Pump adjustment Constant 2-stage Continuous
Limp home Not possible Limited Unlimited
starting from a standing stop
(loss of (increased
would no longer be possible. convenience) fuel
– Class Small to Compact class Mid-range and
mid-range class Luxury class
– Engine size <3 l <2 l >2 l
– Type of drive Front transversal Front longitudinal Rear

Table 1
Robert Bosch GmbH
Electronic Transmission Control Control of Continuously Variable Transmission 53

Ratio Control Pump Activation

The gear ratio can be changed by means A variable-capacity pump must be used to
of the primary pulley. The enclosed fluid ensure high transmission efficiency. This
volume determines the axial position of the pump enables the delivery flow to be limited
moving part of the primary pulley and thus at high speeds.
the radius on which the belt circulates on
the pulley. The primary pressure adjusts Suitable suction-throttled pumps which
itself in response to the secondary pressure. operate without additional activation have
been in development for years, but have
The requirements of driveability determine failed to make a breakthrough as yet. An ini-
the necessary adjustment speed. For exam- tial step towards a “variable-capacity pump”
ple, in the case of kickdown, it is necessary has been taken in the form of a two-stage
to switch from overdrive to low within 1.5 s. version, in which the more favorable deliv-
On the other hand, the pump delivery limits ery flow can be selected as a function of the
the adjustment speed. current demand.

Driving Program Further concepts are feasible with continu-

A driving program ascertains the desired ously variable pumps, in which secondary-
gear ratio. In addition to different program pressure control and pump adjustment can
maps for normal operation, in which there be combined.
is the option of choosing between economi-
cal and sporty operation (see also section Reverse-Gear Lock
entitled “Adaptive Transmission Control, Engagement of the reverse gear is disabled
ATC”), it is also possible to implement during forward driving at speeds above a
special functions such as kickdown, limit to be defined (e.g., 7 km/h).
downhill driving, etc.
It is also possible to simulate range trans- Deactivation of Limp-Home Function
missions, where any intermediate variations Limp-home is an emergency function
between copying a manually shifted trans- which is shut down during normal control
mission and an automatic transmission are operation.
realizable (see also chapter entitled “Trans-
mission for Motor Vehicles”). The fail-safe function remains permanently
activated so that engine overrevving is
Clutch Activation avoided even in the event of a partial failure
The interrupting clutch between engine and or late identification of partial failures.
drivetrain is designed as a function of the
position of the selector lever (P-R-N-D), the
engine speed, and the engine load.

Activation of Converter and

Torque Converter Lockup Clutch
In order to achieve the greatest possible
efficiency, it is essential for the converter to
be locked up as early as possible. Depending
on the power requirement, the torque
increase is used up to different speeds for
Robert Bosch GmbH
54 Sensors Application in Motor Vehicles

Sensors record operating states (e.g. engine Sensors are constantly getting smaller.
speed) and specified values (e.g. accelerator- This is combined with an ever-increasing
pedal position). They convert physical demand for more speed and accuracy since
variables (e.g. pressure) or chemical their output signals have a direct influence
variables (e.g. exhaust-gas concentration) on engine power and torque and on the
into electrical signals. exhaust emissions, driveability, and safety
of the vehicles in which they are installed.
This is all made possible by a mechatronic
Application in Motor Vehicles approach.

Sensors and actuators form the interface Signal conditioning, analog-digital conver-
between the vehicle with its complex drive, sion, self-calibration functions, and in future
brake, chassis, suspension, and body func- a small microcomputer for further signal
tions and the electronic control units processing can, depending on the level of
(ECUs) as processing units (e.g. engine integration, already be integrated in the
management, ESP, ACC, electronic trans- sensor (Figure 1). This provides the follow-
mission control, climate control). As a rule, ing benefits:
an adapter circuit in the sensor conditions
the signals and amplifies them to allow them  less computing power required in the
to be processed in the ECU. ECU,
 one standard, flexible, and bus-compa-
The field of mechatronics, in which me- tible interface for all sensors,
chanical, electronic, and data-processing  direct multiple use of one sensor via the
components work in close conjunction with data bus,
each other, is becoming increasingly impor-  recording of smaller signals, and
tant in relation to sensors as well. Sensors  simple calibration of the sensor.
are integrated in modules (e.g. crankshaft
sealing module with rotational-speed sensor
or modules for transmission control).

1 Integration levels of sensors

Sensors Transmission path ECU

Susceptible to
Conventional SE interference SA A SG
(analog) D

Resistant to
Multiple interference A
1st integration level SE SA SG
tap-off (analog) D
Fig. 1
SE Sensor(s)
Immune to
SA Analog signal 2nd integration level SE SA A interference SG
D compatible (digital)
A/D Analog-digital
æ UAE0037-1E

converter Immune to
SG Digital ECU 3rd integration level SE SA A MC interference SG
D compatible (digital)
MC Microcomputer
Robert Bosch GmbH
Speed Sensors Transmission Speed Sensors 55

Transmission Speed Sensors measuring resistor RM into a signal voltage

URM (Figure 1).
Application There are two types of transmission speed
Transmission rotational-speed sensors sensor (Figure 2):
RS sense the rotational speed in AT, AST,
and CVT transmissions. The sensors are RS50
designed to be resistant so that they can be Data record: Rotational-speed information
immersed in automatic transmission fluid as a square-wave signal.
(ATF). The packaging concept provides for Functional range: A frequency signal
their integration in the transmission control proportional to the sensor-ring speed,
module or a stand-alone version. The supply which triggers the sensor ring as it passes
voltage UV is 4.5...16.5 V and the operating- the sensor surface.
temperature range is –40...+150°C.
Design and Operating Concept Data record: Rotational-speed information
The active rotational-speed sensor has a as a square-wave signal with additional
differential Hall-effect IC with a 2-wire information which is transmitted in a
current interface. It must be connected to pulse width modulation process (PWM).
a power source (supply voltage UV) in order Functional range: Rotational-speed signal,
to be operated. The sensor can detect the detection of standstill, direction of rotation,
rotational-speed signal from ferromagnetic air-gap reserve, and installation position.
gears, punching sheets, or gears with
attached multipoles (air-gap range
0.1...2.5 mm), whereby it utilizes the Hall 2 Shape and information content of the output signal
of sensor versions
effect and delivers a signal of constant
amplitude that is not dependent on the
rotational speed. This allows speed record- Trigger wheel
ing to close on n = 0. The supply current is Tooth Tooth gap
modulated in the rhythm of the increment
Magnetic multipole trigger wheel
signal in order to deliver the signal. The
North Pole South Pole
modulated current (low: 7 mA, high: 14 mA)
can then be converted in the ECU with a RS 50 (standard): Output signal

1 Hall sensor with 2-wire current interface (example)

RS51 (intelligent): Critical air gap

Driving forwards
When reversing

Installation limit (forwards)

Fig. 1
Installation limit (reversing) IS Sensor current
(supply and signal)
RM Measuring resistor
æ SAE0908E
æ SAE0907Y

Standstill signal (in ECU)

RRM Signal voltage
UV Supply voltage
US Sensor voltage
Robert Bosch GmbH
56 Pressure Sensors Micromechanical Pressure Sensors

Micromechanical 1 Measurement cell of pressure sensor with reference

vacuum on the structure side (schematic)
Pressure Sensors
Fig. 1
1 Diaphragm 1 3
Application R2
2 Silicon chip R1 R1
Intake-Manifold or Boost-Pressure Sensor
3 Reference vacuum
4 Glass (Pyrex)
This sensor measures the absolute pressure 2 p
5 Bridge circuit in the intake manifold between the super-
p Measurement charger and the engine (typically 250 kPa or 4
pressure 2.5 bar) against a reference vacuum and not
U0 Supply voltage against the ambient pressure. This enables R2 R1
UM Measurement
the air mass to be precisely determined and UM

æ UAE0017-1Y
voltage 5 U0
R1 Strain-gauge
the boost pressure to be regulated in accor- R1 R2
resistor (deflected) dance with the engine demand.
R2 Strain-gauge
resistor (expanded) Ambient-Pressure Sensor
This sensor (also called the atmospheric-
pressure sensor) is located in the ECU or in 2 Measurement cell of pressure sensor with cap and
reference vacuum on the structure side (layout)
the engine compartment. Its signal is used
for magnitude-dependent correction of the
setpoint values for the closed control loops,
Fig. 2 e.g. exhaust-gas recirculation and boost-
1, 3 Electrical connec- pressure control. This allows the varying 1 4
tions with glass- atmospheric density to be taken into consid- 5
enclosed bushing
eration. The ambient-pressure sensor mea- 2
2 Reference vacuum 6
sures the absolute pressure (60 … 115 kPa or
4 Measurement
cell (chip) with
0.6 … 1.15 bar).
electronic evaluation

æ UAE0648-2Y
circuitry Oil and Fuel-Pressure Sensor 3 7
5 Glass pedestal Oil-pressure sensors are installed on the oil
6 Cap filter and measure the absolute oil pressure
7 Feed for measure- p
so that the engine load can be determined
ment pressure p
for the service display. Their pressure range
is 50 … 1000 kPa or 0.5 … 10.0 bar. On 3 Measurement cell of pressure sensor with cap and
account of its high media resistance, the reference vacuum on the structure side (view)
measurement cell is also used to measure
pressure in the fuel low-pressure stage. It is
installed in or on the fuel filter. Its signal is
used to monitor the level of filter contami-
nation/clogging (measurement range 20 …
400 kPa or 0.2 … 4 bar).

Type with Reference Vacuum on the

Structure Side
The measurement cell is the heart of the
æ UAE0721Y

micromechanical pressure sensor. It consists

of a silicon chip (Figure 1, item 2), into
which a thin diaphragm is micromechanically
Robert Bosch GmbH
Pressure Sensors Micromechanical Pressure Sensors 57

etched (1). The diaphragm incorporates four 4 Micromechanical pressure sensor with
diffused strain-gauge resistors (R1, R2) whose reference vacuum on the structure side (layout)
electrical resistance changes under mechanical
1 2 3 4 5
stress. A cap, under which the reference vac-
uum is enclosed, covers the measurement cell
on its structure side and acts as a seal (Figures
2 and 3). The pressure-sensor housing can
also accommodate a temperature sensor (Fig-
ure 4, item 1), whose signals can be evaluated Fig. 4
independently. Just one sensor housing is 1 Temperature sensor
therefore sufficient for measuring both tem- (NTC)
perature and pressure at a single point. 2 Lower housing
7 section
3 Intake-manifold wall
Operating Concept
4 Sealing rings
The diaphragm of the sensor cell is deflected

æ UAE0722Y
5 Electrical connec-
to varying degrees (10 … 1000 µm), de- tion (connector)
pending on the magnitude of the measure- 1 cm 6 Housing cover
ment pressure. The four strain-gauge resis- 7 Measurement cell
tors on the diaphragm alter their electrical
resistance under the mechanical stresses 5 Micromechanical boost-pressure sensor
(characteristic, example)
generated (piezoresistive effect).
The measuring resistors are arranged on V
the silicon chip in such a way that when the
diaphragm is deflected the resistance of two
of the measuring resistors increases while it
Output voltage

decreases in the other two resistors. The

measuring resistors are arranged in a Wheat-
stone bridge circuit (Figure 1, item 5). As the
resistances change, so too does the ratio of 1.87
the voltages to the measuring resistors. This
æ UAE0719-1E

causes the measurement voltage UM to

change. This as yet unamplified measure-
100 250 kPa
ment voltage is thus a measure of the
pressure acting on the diaphragm.
The Wheatstone bridge circuit produces a
higher measurement voltage than when an pressure characteristic. The output voltage
individual resistor is evaluated, thereby ranges between 0 and 5 V and is supplied to
increasing the sensitivity of the sensor. the engine control unit via electrical connec-
tions (Figure 4, item 5). The control unit
The structure side of the diaphragm which calculates the pressure from this output
is not subjected to the measurement pres- voltage (Figure 5).
sure is exposed to a reference vacuum (Fig-
ure 2, item 2) with the result that the sensor
measures the absolute pressure value.

The electronic circuitry for signal condition-

ing is integrated on the chip and serves to
amplify the bridge voltage, compensate
temperature influences, and linearize the
Robert Bosch GmbH
58 Pressure Sensors Micromechanical Pressure Sensors

Type with Reference Vacuum ment cell on a glass pedestal. But, unlike that
in a Cavern sensor, the glass pedestal does not have a hole
Design through which the measurement pressure
The pressure sensor with the reference acts from the rear side on the measurement
vacuum in a cavern (Figures 6 and 7) for cell. Instead, the silicon chip is pressurized
use as an intake-manifold or boost-pressure from the side on which the electronic evalua-
sensor is simpler in design than its counter- tion circuitry is situated. This side must
part with the reference vacuum on the struc- therefore be protected by a special gel against
ture side: A silicon chip with an etched dia- environmental influences (Figure 8, item 1).
phragm and four strain-gauge resistors in a The reference vacuum is located in the cavity
bridge circuit is located – like the pressure (cavern) between the silicon chip (6) and the
sensor with cap and reference vacuum on the glass pedestal (3). The entire measuring ele-
structure side – in the form of a measure- ment is supported on a ceramic hybrid (4),
which has soldered surfaces for further con-
tacting in the sensor.
6 Micromechanical pressure sensor with
reference vacuum in a cavern (layout)
The pressure-sensor housing can also
accommodate a temperature sensor. The
temperature sensor projects openly into the
air flow and reacts at great speed to temper-
1 5 ature changes (Figure 6, item 4).

Operating Concept
Its operating concept, and thus the signal
Fig. 6 conditioning and amplification and the
1 Intake-manifold wall characteristic, are identical to that of the
2 Housing 6 pressure sensor with cap and reference
3 Sealing ring vacuum on the structure side. The only
4 Temperature sensor
difference is that the diaphragm of the
æ UMK1645-1Y

5 Electrical connection
measurement cell is deflected in the opposite
(connector) direction and therefore the strain-gauge
6 Housing cover resistors undergo a deflection in the
1 cm
7 Measurement cell opposite direction.

7 Micromechanical pressure sensor with 8 Measurement cell of pressure sensor with

reference vacuum in a cavern and reference vacuum in a cavern (layout)
integrated temperature sensor (view)

Fig. 8
1 Protective gel
2 Gel frame
3 Glass pedestal
4 Ceramic hybrid 1 5
5 Cavern with 2
reference vacuum 6
6 Measurement 3
cell (chip) with 7
æ UMK1644-1Y

electronic evaluation 4
æ UMK1997Y

7 Bonded connection
p Measurement
Robert Bosch GmbH
Temperature Sensors Measured Variables 59

1 Coolant-temperature sensor 2 Characteristic of an NTC temperature sensor

1 2 3 4 5 6 Ω

10 4

Fig. 1
10 3 1 Electrical
æ UMK0124-7Y

2 Housing

æ UMK1998E
3 Sealing ring
10 2
- 40 0 40 80 120°C 4 Screw-in thread
Temperature 5 Measuring resistor
1 cm 6 Coolant

Temperature Sensors The exhaust-gas temperature sensor is located

at temperature-critical positions in the ex-
Applications haust system for regulating the exhaust-gas
The engine-temperature sensor in the coolant treatment systems. The measuring resistor is
circuit (Figure 1) records the coolant tem- mostly made from platinum (measurement
perature, from which the engine temper- range –40...+1000°C).
ature is derived (measurement range
–40...+130°C). Design and Operating Concept
The signal from the engine-oil temperature Temperature sensors come in various
sensor is used to calculate the service interval structural designs depending on the areas
(measurement range –40...+170°C). in which they are to be used. A temperature-
The ATF-temperature sensor records the dependent measuring resistor made from
transmission-fluid (ATF) temperature, with semiconductor material is installed in a
which the ECU compensates for example housing. It usually has a negative tempera-
the variable fluid viscosity and thereby ture coefficient (NTC, Figure 2), or less
speeds up or delays shifting sequences, or commonly a positive temperature coefficient
adapts clutch pressures. The ATF tempera- (PTC), i.e., its resistance decreases or in-
ture also determines adaptation of the pres- creases drastically as the temperature rises.
sure-flow characteristics for pressure-regula- The measuring resistor forms part of a
tor parameter adaptation. voltage-divider circuit powered with 5 V.
The fuel-temperature sensor is located in The voltage measured at the measuring
the diesel-fuel low-pressure stage. Its signal resistor is therefore temperature-dependent.
serves to calculate the fuel quantity (mea- It is read in via an analog-digital converter
surement range –40...+120°C). and is a measure of the temperature at the
The air-temperature sensor in the intake sensor. A characteristic which assigns an
tract records the intake-air temperature for appropriate temperature to each resistance
calculating the inducted air mass in con- or output-voltage value is stored in the
junction with a boost-pressure sensor. engine control unit.
In addition, setpoint values for closed con-
trol loops (e.g. exhaust-gas recirculation,
boost-pressure control) can be adapted to
the air temperature (measurement range
Robert Bosch GmbH
60 Position Sensors Position Sensor for Transmission Control

Position Sensor for For security reasons, the position setting is

coded (Figure 2) in such a way that two bit
Transmission Control changes always have to be executed before a
new position is detected.
The position sensor records the positions of
an actuator inside the automatic transmis- 1 Position sensor for transmission control

sion. It is located partially or completely

in fouled transmission fluid (ATF) and is
therefore exposed to the ambient conditions
prevailing inside the transmission, e.g. an
operating temperature of –40...+150°C.

The position sensor (Figure 1) consists
of four digital Hall-effect sensors and a
linear-displacement, multipolar permanent
magnet. The magnet is coupled to the
linear-actuated selector valve (hydraulic
slide valve in the transmission control plate)
or parking-lock cylinder and activates the 1 2
Hall cells. These cells are situated in an
oil-tight housing which also assumes the
magnet-guidance function. b

Operating Concept
In an automatic transmission with manual 3
shifting, also known as M-shifting, the
position sensor records the positions of the
selector slide P, R, N, D, 4, 3, 2 and the inter-
Fig. 1
a Front view
mediate ranges, and outputs them in the
b Rear view form of a 4-bit code to the transmission
1 Encapsulated control.
electronic circuitry In an automatic transmission with elec-
2 Connection to tronic shifting, also known as E-shifting, the
pressed screen
position sensor records only the positions of
3 Encapsulated Hall
æ UTS0363Y

the parking-lock cylinder POn and POff and
4 Carriage with an intermediate range, and outputs them in 5
permanent magnet the form of a 2-bit code to the transmission
5 Locating pin control.

2 Coding of position setting

P Z1 R Z2 N Z3 D Z4 4 Z4 3 Z4 2
æ UTS0364E

Shifting range and intermediate range

Transition range (recording of two ranges possible)

Robert Bosch GmbH
Sensor-Signal Processing Signal Conditioning 61

Sensor-Signal Processing

Signal Conditioning integrating the circuit locally on the sensor

(Figure 1, first to third integration level) is
(Evaluation IC) that sensor and signal conditioning (SC) can
Before they are supplied for general digital be jointly adjusted and compensated. They
evaluation (see section entitled “Data form an inseparable, highly interference-
Processing”), the sensor signals need to be proof unit and are also replaced as a single
specifically conditioned. Where necessary, unit in the event of the failure of a specific
this signal conditioning (SC) can, for exam- sub-unit.
ple, include the following functions: If the aforementioned function previously
 amplification (DC, AC), had to be implemented partially as separate
 rectification (also phase-synchronized), control circuits (e.g. CMOS IC for signal
 threshold evaluation (also variable processing, bipolar IC as the interference-
thresholds), pulse shaping, proof driver stage), current combined
 voltage/frequency conversion, technologies (e.g. BICMOS, BCD) now
pulse-duration modulation, also allow the entire function including any
 frequency filtering including interference necessary digital, programmable memory
protection, locations (PROM) to be integrated in a sin-
 A/D and/or D/A conversion, gle chip. There is basically the possibility in
 adjustment of offset and amplification virtually all cases even of integrating sensor
(characteristic in general), analog, digital and signal conditioning in monolithic form
(including (E2)PROM)), (e.g. in the case of Si intake-manifold pres-
 linearization, sure and Hall sensors). However, the initial
 adjustment of temperature compensation enthusiasm for this form of integration has
(analog, digital), abated in favor of more cautious, economical
 automatic zeroizing, if necessary also considerations. This has cleared the way now
calibration during operation, for other integration methods which are
 self-monitoring (on-board diagnosis, more cost-effective in accordance with cur-
diagnostic output) and test functions, rent state-of-the-art technology (e.g. thick-
 control for servo-controlled sensors film hybrid, a common “leadframe” and a
(compensation principle), common chip housing). This more modular
 generation of alternating voltage for concept is also much more flexible because it
carrier-frequency sensor systems, can be more easily adapted to new tasks.
 stabilization of power supply, The wealth of ASICs for sensor-signal
 short-circuit- and overvoltage-proof conditioning created in this way by Bosch
output and driver stages, represents a veritable gold-mine; most sen-
 signal multiplexer, analog and/or digital sors can only be operated in conjunction
serialization of signals, coding, incl. fault with these ASICs and their properties can
recognition, only be defined in association with these
 bus interface (e.g. CAN), etc. integrated circuits. If sensors are to be pro-
duced not just for in-house systems but are
All these functions are available mostly as also to be freely marketed, this should be
application-specific integrated circuits only done if at all possible with the associ-
bearing the designation ASIC (application ated signal-conditioning circuits.
specific integrated circuits). These circuits
tailored to the relevant sensor application
can be integrated either on the sensor side
(locally) or also on the ECU side. In many
cases, the functions, where suitable, can even
be shared on both sides. The advantage of
Robert Bosch GmbH
62 Electronic Control Unit (ECU) Operating Conditions, Design, Data Processing

Electronic Control Unit (ECU)

Digital technology furnishes an extensive Design
array of options for open and closed-loop
control of automotive electronic systems. The printed-circuit board with the electrical
A large number of parameters can be components (Figure 1) is installed in a hous-
included in the process to support optimal ing of plastic or metal. A four-pin plug (1)
operation of various systems. After receiving connects the ECU to the sensors, actuators,
the electrical signals transmitted by the and electrical power supply. The power dri-
sensors, the ECU processes these data in ver circuits (3), that provide direct control of
order to generate control signals for the the actuators, are specially integrated within
actuators. The software program for open- the housing to ensure effective heat transfer
loop control is stored in the ECU’s memory. to the housing and the surrounding air.
The program is executed by a microcon- Most of the electronic components are
troller. The ECU and its components are SMDs (surface-mounted devices). This
referred to as hardware. The electronic concept provides extremely efficient use of
transmission control ECU contains all of the space in low-weight packages. Only a few
algorithms for open and closed-loop control power elements and the plugs are mounted
needed to govern the drivetrain-manage- using conventional insertion technology.
ment processes (coordinated control of
engine and transmission). Hybrid versions combining compact dimen-
sions with extreme resistance to thermal
Operating Conditions attack are available for mounting directly
on the engine.
The ECU operates in an extremely harsh and
demanding environment. It is exposed to
 extreme ambient temperatures (ranging Data Processing
from –40 to +60...+140°C under normal
operating conditions), Input Signals
 abrupt temperature variations, The sensors join the actuators as the peri-
 exposure to fluids (oil, fuel, etc.), pheral components linking the vehicle and
 the effects of moisture, and the central processing device, the ECU.
 mechanical stresses such as engine The electrical signals from the sensors pass
vibration. through the wiring harness and the plug (1)
to reach the ECU. These signals can be in
The ECU must continue to perform flaw- various forms:
lessly during starts with a weak battery
(cold starts, etc.) and at high charge voltages Analog Input Signals
(onboard electrical-system fluctuations). Analog input signals can have any voltage
level within a specific range. Examples of
Other requirements arise from the need for physical parameters monitored as analog
EMC (electro-magnetic compatibility). The data are battery voltage and transmission-
requirements for resistance to electromag- fluid temperature. An analog-digital con-
netic interference and for suppressing EMI verter within the ECU’s microcontroller
emissions from the system itself are both transforms the signal data into the digital
very high. form required by the microprocessor’s cen-
More on the requirements for ECUs can tral processing unit. The maximum resolu-
be found in this chapter’s “editorial box”. tion of these analog signals is 5 mV. This
translates into roughly 1,000 incremental
graduations based on an overall monitoring
range of 0...5 V.
Robert Bosch GmbH
Electronic Control Unit (ECU) Data Processing 63

Digital Input Signals Signal Conditioning

Digital input signals have only two condi- Protective circuits limit the voltages of
tions: high (logical 1) and low (logical 0). incoming signals to levels suitable for condi-
Examples of digital input signals are switch tioning. Most of the superimposed interfer-
control signals (on/off) and digital sensor ence signals are removed from the useful
signals such as the rotational-speed pulses signal by filters. When necessary, the useful
from Hall-effect and magnetoresistive sen- signals are then amplified to the input volt-
sors. The microcontroller can process these age required by the microcontroller (0...5 V).
signals without prior conversion. Some or all of this initial conditioning can
be carried out in the sensor itself, depending
Pulse-Shaped Input Signals on its level of integration.
The pulse-shaped input signals with infor-
mation on rotational speed and reference Signal Processing
marks transmitted by inductive sensors are The ECU is the switching center governing
conditioned in special circuitry within the all of the functions and sequences regulated
ECU. In this process, interference pulses are by the electronic transmission-control sys-
suppressed while the actual pulse signals are tem. The control algorithms are executed by
converted into digital square-wave signals. the microcontroller. The input signals from
sensors and interfaces linking other systems
(e. g. CAN bus) serve as the input parame-
ters. The processor runs backup plausibility
checks on these data. The ECU program
supports calculation of the output signals
used to control the actuators.

1 ECU structure, using electronic transmission control (GS 8.60) as an example

æ UAE0956Y
Robert Bosch GmbH
64 Electronic Control Unit (ECU) Data Processing

Microcontroller The program is stored in a read-only memory

The microcontroller is the central compo- (ROM, EPROM or flash EPROM). This
nent of an electronic control unit (ECU) memory also contains variant-specific data
(Figure 2). It controls the function sequence (individual data, characteristic curves, and
of the ECU. In addition to the CPU (central program maps). This is non-variable data
processing unit), the microcontroller con- which cannot be changed during vehicle
tains not only the input and output chan- operation. It is used to regulate the program’s
nels, but also timer units, RAMs, ROMs, open- and closed-loop control processes.
serial interfaces, and other peripheral assem- The program memory can be integrated
blies, all of which are integrated on a single in the microcontroller and, depending on
microchip. Quartz-controlled timing is used the particular application, can be expanded
for the microcontroller. by adding a separate component (e. g., an
external EPROM or a flash EPROM).
Program and Data Memory
The microcontroller requires a program in ROM
order to carry out calculations; this is the Program memories can be in the form of a
software. The software is stored in a pro- ROM (read only memory). This is a memory
gram memory in the form of binary numer- whose contents have been defined perma-
ical values arranged into data records. The nently during manufacture and thereafter
CPU reads these values, interprets them as remain unalterable. The ROM installed in the
commands, and executes these commands microcontroller has a restricted memory
in sequence. capacity, which means that an additional
memory is required for complex applications.

2 Signal processing in the ECU



Output stages
Power supply

Input signals: controllers EEPROM
Conditioning Flash-
Digital of input signals EPROM
Monitoring module



æ UMK1508-3E

Interface with
other systems

Diagnosis interface
Robert Bosch GmbH
Electronic Control Unit (ECU) Data Processing 65

EPROM EEPROM (also known as E2PROM)

The data on an EPROM (erasable program- Data that must be retained when the battery
mable ROM) can be erased by subjecting the is disconnected (e. g., important adaptation
device to UV light. Fresh data can then be en- values, fault-memory data) must therefore
tered using a programming unit. The EPROM be permanently stored in a non-volatile
is usually a separate component and is ac- memory.The EEPROM is an electrically
cessed by the CPU via the address/data bus. erasable EPROM in which (in contrast to
the flash EPROM) each memory location
Flash EPROM (FEPROM) can be erased individually. This means that
The flash EPROM can be erased electrically. it can be used as a non-volatile random-
The ECU can therefore be reprogrammed in access memory.
service repair shops without having to open Some ECU variants also use separately
it. The ECU is connected to the reprogram- erasable areas of the flash EPROM as a
ming station using a serial interface. non-volatile memory.
If the microcontroller is also equipped
with a ROM, this contains the programming ASIC
routines for the flash programming. Flash Modern semiconductor technology now
EPROMs are available which, together with enables a whole range of electronic func-
the microcontroller, are integrated on a tions to be integrated in “ASICs” (applica-
single microchip. tion specific integrated circuits). The ASICs
Its crucial advantages have helped the used in the ECUs can be grouped into the
flash EPROM to largely supersede the following three categories:
conventional EPROM.  Power supply and monitoring,
 Signal conditioning, monitoring, and
Variable-Data or Main Memory diagnostics and
A random-access memory is needed in  Power driver stages.
order to store such variable data (variables) This high degree of integration not only
such as the computational and signal values. reduces the number of components and
with it the amount of space required but
RAM also increases reliability.
All current values are stored in the RAM
(random access memory). If complex appli- Monitoring Module
cations are involved, the memory capacity of The ECU is equipped with a monitoring
the RAM integrated in the microcontroller module. The microcontroller and the moni-
is insufficient so that an additional RAM is toring module use a “question-and-answer
required. It is connected to the microcon- session” to monitor each other. If an error is
troller via the address/data bus. detected, both devices can initiate appropri-
When the ECU is disconnected from the ate substitute functions independently of
power supply, the RAM loses its complete each other.
stock of data (volatile memory). However,
adaptation values (learned values relating to
engine and operating status) must again be
available when the ECU is restarted. They
must not be deleted when the ignition is
turned off. To prevent this from happening,
the RAM is permanently supplied with volt-
age (continuous power supply). These val-
ues are lost, however, when the battery is
Robert Bosch GmbH
66 Electronic Control Unit (ECU) Data Processing

Output Signals Communication Inside the ECU

With its output signals, the microcontroller Microcontrollers and external memories
trigger driver stages, which are usually (flash, RAM) exchange data over parallel
powerful enough to operate the actuators address/data lines.
directly. It is also possible for specific driver A current 32-bit system has a 32-bit data
stages to trigger a relay for particularly large bus and a > 20-bit address bus. These buses
current consumers. are operated at the microcomputer’s cycle
The driver stages are protected against (~ 50 MHz).
short circuits to ground or battery voltage,
as well as against destruction due to electri- The SPI bus has established itself as the
cal or thermal overload. The driver stage IC standard (synchronous, serial 3-wire inter-
detects such malfunctions and open-circuit face, cycle approx. 1 MHz) for communica-
lines as an error and reports this error to the tion with the ASICs (slow triggering signals,
microcontroller. writing and reading of diagnostic informa-
tion) or the external E2PROM.
Switching Signals
These are used to switch the actuators on EOL Programming
and off (e. g., on/off valves). The extensive variety of vehicle variants with
differing control programs and data records
PWM Signals makes it imperative to adopt a system which
Digital signals can be output in the form of reduces the number of ECU types needed by
PWM (pulse-width modulated) signals. These a given manufacturer. To this end, the flash
signals are constant-frequency square-wave EPROM’s complete memory area can be
signals with variable on-times (Figure 3) and programmed at the end of production with
are used to shift actuators to any desired the program and the variant-specific data
settings (e.g., PWM valve). record. This is referred to as EOL or end of
line programming.
A further possibility for reducing the
variety of variants is to have a number of
data variants available (e.g. engine variants),
which can then be selected by special coding
at the end of the line. This coding is stored
in an EEPROM.
3 PWM Signals

Signal voltage

æ UAE0738E

Fig. 3
a Period duration
(fixed or variable) Time
b Variable on-time
Robert Bosch GmbH
Electronic Control Unit (ECU) Very severe demands are made on the ECU. 67

 Very severe demands are made on the ECU

Basically, an ECU in a motor vehicle functions in Environmental Influences

the same way as a conventional PC. Data are Notwithstanding the wide range of environmental
entered from which output signals are calculated. influences to which it is subjected, the ECU must
As in a PC, the heart of an ECU is the printed- always operate reliably.
circuit board (PCB) with microcontroller using  Temperature: Depending on the area of appli-
high-precision microelectronic techniques. How- cation, the ECUs installed in motor vehicles
ever, there are a number of other requirements must perform faultlessly during continual opera-
which an ECU must also fulfill: tion at temperatures ranging between –40°C
Real-Time Compatibility and + 60 ... 140°C. In fact, due to the heat radi-
Systems for the engine and the transmission de- ated from the electronic components, the tem-
mand a very fast control response and the ECU perature at some areas of the substrate is con-
must therefore be “real-time-compatible”. This siderably higher. The temperature change in-
means that the control’s reaction must keep pace volved in starting from cold and then running up
with the actual physical process being controlled. to hot full-load operation is particularly severe.
It must be certain that the real-time system  EMC: The vehicle’s electronic circuitry has to
responds within a fixed period of time to the undergo severe electromagnetic-compatibility
demands made upon it. This necessitates appro- testing. That is, the ECU must remain com-
priate computer architecture and very high pletely unaffected by electromagnetic interfer-
computer power. ence emanating from such sources as electro-
Integrated Design and Construction mechanical actuators, or radiated by radio
The weight of equipment and the installation transmitters or cellular phones. In turn, the
space it requires inside the vehicle are becoming ECU itself must not negatively affect other
increasingly decisive. The following technologies, electronic equipment.
and others, are used to make the ECU as small  Resistance to vibration: ECUs which are
and light as possible: mounted in the transmission must be able to
withstand vibrations of up to 30 g (i.e., 30 times
 Multilayer: The printed-circuit conductors are
the acceleration due to gravity!).
between 0.035 and 0.07 mm thick and are
 Sealing and resistance to operating
“stacked” on top of each other in layers.
mediums: Depending on its installation posi-
 SMD components: These are very small and
tion, the ECU must be able to withstand damp,
flat and have no wire connections through
moisture, chemicals (e.g. oils), and salt spray.
holes in the PCB. They are soldered or glued to
the PCB or hybrid substrate, hence SMD The above factors and other demands mean that
(Surface Mounted Devices). the Bosch development engineers are continually
 ASIC: Specifically designed integrated faced with new challenges in their endeavors to
component (Application Specific Integrated economically realize the ever-increasing range of
Circuit) which can combine a large number of functions.
different functions.
 Hybrid substrate of an ECU

Operational Reliability
Very high levels of resistance to failure are -
provided by integrated diagnosis and redundant
computing processes (additional processes, usu-
ally running in parallel on other program paths).
æ UAE0948-1Y
Robert Bosch GmbH
68 Electronic Control Units (ECUs) ECUs for Electronic Transmission Control

ECUs for Electronic and TC (Figure 1a). In the USA, on the

other hand, it is predominantly the com-
Transmission Control bined drivetrain ECU (MEG) that is used
Application for 4-speed and 5-speed automatic trans-
In implementing electronic transmission missions (Figure 1b), the reason for this
control, engineers can choose to locate the being that automatic transmissions domi-
ECUs in different positions in the vehicle. nate the market in America with a market
There are, for example, separate, combined, share of over 85 %.
mounted, or integrated ECUs (Figure 1). The newer 6-speed or 7-speed transmis-
The way in which these ECUs are distrib- sion types and the increasing demands on
uted in the vehicle is essentially determined by engine-management systems (emission-con-
 the ratio of vehicles with automatic trans- trol legislation, CARB requirements) have
missions to vehicles with manually shifted now started a trend in the USA moving away
transmissions and from combined ECUs in favor of separate
 the demands made by the transmission on ECUs. This trend is consolidated still further
the control system (performance of the by the latest generation of 6-speed trans-
microcontroller used). missions. These transmissions are already
In Europe, the market is still dictated by equipped with electronic modules with
the separate printed-circuit-board ECUs ME integrated electronic circuitry.

1 Possible distribution of ECUs in the drivetrain

a ABS control unit TCS EC

Wheel brakes CAN

Separate ECUs Engine control unit (ME) Transmission control unit (TC)

or alternatively:
Add-on ECU (ME) TC
or integrated ECU (TC)

Engine Transmission


Combination ECU Drivetrain ECU (MEG)

or alternatively: MEG
Combination ECU
and intelligent power
driver stages
Fig. 1
a Layout with separate
ME and TC printed
æ UAE0954E

circuit board ECUs

b Layout with
combined Engine Transmission
drivetrain ECU
Robert Bosch GmbH
Electronic Control Units (ECUs) ECUs for Electronic Transmission Control 69

Design and Operating Concept The ECU acquires the transmission-fluid

The various ECUs and their technical and temperature as an analog input signal be-
functional details will be discussed below. cause the properties of the fluid have a
significant effect on shift quality, especially
Printed Circuit Board ECUs when the engine is cold. The ECU acquires
The most widely used ECUs currently are the position of the selector lever in the form
printed circuit board (PCB) units. of a digital signal. The following informa-
Figure 2 shows an ECU with a 32-bit tion can also be obtained and evaluated via
microcontroller (Motorola 683xx) for a the CAN interface:
ZF 5-speed transmission. This transmission  accelerator-pedal position
has been in mass production at BMW for (driver command),
some years now. The figure depicts the  kickdown switch,
essential layout and the data flow of the  engine temperature, and
ECU in a block diagram. The ECU itself  engine torque.
can be roughly divided into three sections:
2. Computer Core
1. Input side The computer core comprises microcon-
The input side comprises the power supply troller, flash, RAM, EEPROM, analog-digital
(terminals 15 and 30), signal acquisition, converter, and CAN bus system.
and the communication interface.
The input signals include the signals for 3. Output Side
engine speed, turbine speed, output speed, The output side features the driver stages for
and wheel speeds. The transmission control the on/off valve, ASICs, current control
unit usually receives the engine-speed and (CG205), and low-level signal driver stages.
wheel-speed signals via the CAN interface
from the acquiring ECUs (engine and ABS
control units).

2 Printed circuit board ECU for electronic transmission control (block diagram)

Internal power supply On/Off
Battery voltage solenoid valves
Micro- ASIC for
controller current-controlled
Interface engine µC driver stages
management Actuators
CAN interface
signals FEPROM
Rotational frequency
Analog RAM
voltage signals Interface for
analog signals ADC
Diagnosis EEPROM
Serial interface
for diagnosis
Digital Interface
æ UAE0953E

input signals Interface for Low-power to vehicle

digital signals driver stages
Robert Bosch GmbH
70 Electronic Control Units (ECUs) ECUs for Electronic Transmission Control

Drivetrain ECUs 4 BMW drivetrain ECU from 1983

MEG drivetrain ECUs (MEG = engine
ETC/EGAS transmission) are based on the
standard printed circuit board ECUs for
engine and transmission, and are commonly
used in the USA. As the block diagram in
Figure 3 shows, the main advantage of this
ECU lies in the fact that specific electronic
components only have to be fitted once,
thereby reducing costs.
An MG ECU (MG = engine/transmis-
sion) was the first example of elec-
tronic transmission control to be
This ECU was devel-
oped back in 1983
for BMW for use
with a ZF 4HP22
automatic trans-
mission (Figure 4).

æ UAE0946Y
3 MEG drivetrain ECU for electronic transmission control (block diagram)

Voltage ME 7 MEG 7
regulator Memory Memory

CAN Voltage Motronic
µC Motronic
Motronic regulator µC
Diagnosis output driver stages
EGAS driver stages
Motronic Controller CAN
inputs µC

Diagnosis EGAS
Voltage EGS Controller
regulator Memory

EGS Motronic
µC output
inputs driver stages
Diagnosis output
driver stages
ETC Watchdog Memory
æ UAE0952E

Not necessary in MEG 7 integrated ECU

Robert Bosch GmbH
Electronic Control Units (ECUs) ECUs for Electronic Transmission Control 71

5 MG7.9 combined drivetrain ECU

æ UAE0950Y
Figure 5 shows the current configuration of 1 Development of computer performance

a drivetrain ECU for the block diagram in Year Computer Memory RAM
Figure 3. Year Computer Memory RAM
1983 Cosmac 8 k ROM 128 byte
Since then, the demands on ECU computing 1988 80515 32 k ROM 256 byte
power and memory capacity have changed 1992 80517 64 k ROM 256 byte
1996 80509 128 k flash 2k
dramatically (see Figure 6 and Table 1).
199x C167 256 k flash 4k
As the figures in Table 1 demonstrate, 1996 683xx 256 k flash 8k
these demands are constantly rising and 2001 MPC555 448 k flash 28 k
there is no end in sight to their development. 2003 MPC555 1 MB flash 28 k
2005 ? 1.5 MB flash 66 k Table 1

6 Increasing demands on ECU computing power and memory capacity

8-Bit (80519)
Computing power/memory capacity

64k ROM

32-Bit (MPC555)
448k Flash

8-Bit (8051)
8k ROM

8-Bit (80515) 32-Bit (683xx)

32k ROM 256k Flash
æ UAE0951E

1983 1987 1992 1996 2001 Year

Robert Bosch GmbH
72 Electronic Control Units (ECUs) ECUs for Electronic Transmission Control

Microhybrid ECUs contacted by means of conductive bonding

The introduction of new transmissions agents.
(such as the ZF 6HP26) has seen a transfor- In contrast to the currently mass-produced
mation in the type of ECU from the PCB to circuits with LTCC (low-temperature cofired
the microhybrid. This development has been ceramics), finer layout structures are used in
influenced by the changing demands, mainly the new systems with 32-bit processors. This
because of the environmental conditions relates in particular to the via density and the
under which the ECU is used (Table 2). bondland size.
The microhybrid ECU basically contains
the same circuitry as the PCB, but now with The previous bondland grid of 450 µm
unencapsulated semiconductor components would require four bond rows and at least
being used, i.e. as “bare” silicon chips. three wiring layers to route the computer
Electrical contacting is provided by wire core. With the via grid of 260 µm used, two
bonding (in the PCB ECU with soldering). bond rows are sufficient, and this even with
Passive components are electrically a reduced space requirement and only two
wiring layers.
2 Technical limits for PCB and microhybrid

Type PCB Microhybrid Figure 7a shows the ABS computer bond

zones (44 bonds) on an LTCC standard sub-
strate compared with the 32-bit controller in
the diesel-control system (240 bonds) on
LTCC-fine-line in Figure 7b.
Installation Interior or In transmission
location engine compartment In addition, Figure 8 shows a comparison of
Temperature –40...+85/+105°C –40...+140°C the wiring density of the inner layers (Figure
Vibration ...5 g ...30 g 8a) and the reverse side of the hybrid with
Protection IP 40 / IP 69 IP6K9K in ATF
the integrated resistors (Figure 8b).

7 Bondzone microcontroller LTCC compared 8 Hybrid wiring densities

with LTCC-fine-line

a a

Fig. 7 b b
a On LTCC standard
b On LTCC-fine-line
æ UTS0318Y

æ UTS0319Y

Fig. 8
a Inner layers
b Reverse side with
Robert Bosch GmbH
Electronic Control Units (ECUs) ECUs for Electronic Transmission Control 73

The following significant measures were Figure 9 shows the complete microhybrid in
taken to bring about an improvement in the its housing. The following procedures are
process for microhybrid ECUs: used for the assembly process:
 use of finer punch needles,  All the components are bonded with
 finer screens, conductive bonding agent.
 adaptation of the pastes used, and  Bonding is carried out using a 32 µm gold
 tolerance optimization through adapted wire and a 200 µm aluminum wire.
process management.  The hybrid is bonded to the steel plate
with heat-conducting bonding agent.
This compression of the layout makes it pos-  The connection to the glass bushing is
sible to produce the circuit for transmission made by a 200 µm aluminum bond.
control on an area measuring 2 x 1.2≤. In  The housing is hermetically sealed tight.
other words, a substrate with the working
format of 8 x 6≤ alone can process 20 cir-
cuits in parallel.

For optimum cooling of ICs subject to high

heat loss, thermal vias with a diameter of
300 µm are filled in parallel to the function
vias. This increases the thermal conductivity
of the substrate from approx. 3 W/mK to
effectively 20 W/mK.
9 Microhybrid ECU in steel housing

æ UAE0948Y
Robert Bosch GmbH
74 Electronic Control Units (ECUs) ECUs for Electronic Transmission Control

ASIC Chips Figure 10a shows the encapsulated ASIC,

In addition to computer and memory chips, as is used in PCB ECUs.
application-specific integrated circuits make There is also the option of adjusting the
up a significant proportion of the electronic current range and the PWM output fre-
components in the ECUs. quency with the aid of an external circuit.
Different functions have been combined
into ASIC chips for the purpose of reducing Watchdog ASIC CG 120
costs and standardizing the electronic design Due to the fact that the 6-speed transmis-
of transmission-control systems. These sion with integrated electronic module no
ASICs are available in encapsulated and longer has a mechanical connection between
unencapsulated form and used for both the selector lever and the transmission, the
microhybrid and PCB ECUs. Transmission control system requires specific safety mech-
control features various ASICs which are anisms. This function is performed by the
currently in volume production; the three ASIC CG120 (Figure 10b), which monitors
ASICs used in the microhybrid ECU are the function of the microcontroller (see also
discussed in the following. the chapter entitled “Diagnostic functions”).
The ASIC CG120 performs the following
Current-Regulator ASIC CG205 functions:
The current-regulator ASIC CG205 with
integrated shunt was developed for high-  power supply with 5 or 3.3 V,
precision pressure control in the transmis-  sensor supply,
sion. It achieves a control precision of 1%  watchdog,
over the entire temperature range.  serial interface,
 CAN interface,
 ISO 9141 interface, and
 programmable via SPI interface.
10 ASIC chips


In order to achieve the high level of integra-
tion in the microhybrid, it is necessary to
combine as many functions as possible in
CG one ASIC. Achieving this with individual
components would therefore take up too
much space on the substrate.

b The following functions are integrated in the

I/O ASIC CG115 (Figure 10c):
 voltage monitoring,
 inputs and outputs for digital signal
 2 inputs for inductive Hall-sensor signals,
115  8-channel analog multiplexer,
 serial interface, and
Fig. 10
 programmable via SPI interface.
a Current-regulator
æ UAE0955Y

b Watchdog ASIC
c I/O ASIC CG115
Robert Bosch GmbH
Electronic Control Units (ECUs) Thermo-Management 75

Thermo-Management 1 Heat-dissipation model in the housing of a

microhybrid ECU
Dissipating the heat losses generated in the 1 2 1 3 4
ECUs represents a prime consideration in
the design of mechatronic modules, particu- RCh
larly in those cases where “hotspots” cause a RKl
highly uneven distribution of the heat RSu Fig. 1
RKl 1 Bonding agent
losses. Figure 1 shows the heat-dissipation RBo
2 Substrate
model in an ECU to the point of a heat sink RKo
3 Si chip

æ UTS0320Y
which is situated in the valve housing in this RVe
4 Thermal vias
example. This is an LTCC microhybrid in a TUm
5 Al valve housing
welded steel housing which is mounted on 5 6 7 6 ATF
the aluminum housing of the hydraulic 7 Steel housing base
main control stage.
2 Cross-section through a 4-layer microhybrid with
thermal vias
Effective heat management of the IC neces-
sitates a close contact between the chips
and the housing. Materials with high ther-
mal conductivity are suitable for use in this
As other tests on the various substrates for
high-temperature applications have shown,
these materials demonstrate very different
thermal-conductivity properties. LTCC glass
ceramic shows itself to be less effective than æ UTS0321Y
aluminum-oxide ceramic (Al2O3) by a fac- 1 mm
tor of almost 10. However, this drawback is
compensated by thermal vias in the micro-
hybrid to such an extent that LTCC technol-
ogy demonstrates equally good levels of Pl = (Tj – Ta) / Rjth
thermal conductivity as aluminum-oxide
technology. where

Figure 2 shows an area of thermal vias. The Tj Junction temperature

production process creates these heat-dissi- Rjth Thermal internal resistance
pating thermal vias (heat spreaders) in Ta Ambient temperature
parallel to the electrical connections.
The thermal resistance Rjth (auxiliary quan-
Essentially, the terms “power loss”, tity) is dependent on the geometric parame-
“depletion-layer/junction temperature”, ters and the specific thermal conductivity of
and “heat dissipation” define the limits the material and is determined from mea-
for a microhybrid ECU. surements. The maximum permitted junc-
tion temperature Tj determines the maxi-
The power loss Pl can be described in mum permitted power loss Plmax, where
simplified form for stationary operation Tj is dependent on the material (for silicon
as follows: Tjmax = 150...200°C). Current specifications
laid down by microcontroller manufacturers
establish an upper limit of Tjmax = 150°C.
Robert Bosch GmbH
76 Electronic Control Units (ECUs) Thermo-Management

3 Comparison of thermal resistance of aluminum-oxide Since Tj is also dependent on the design, a

and glass ceramics (LTCC) consideration of design rules is important
for optimization of the junction tempera-
a ture, e.g.:
1 2 4
 Circuit sections subjected to thermal load
should not be designed in accordance
with the otherwise applicable minimum
criteria, rather affected driver-stage areas
(transistors/pn junctions), for example,
should be geometrically enlarged.
 “Hotspots” should not be positioned in
the corners of the ICs, this enables the IC
substrate material to act in all directions
as a heat spreader.

The design of the ASICs for transmission

control described in the “ASIC Chips”
section is suitable for maximum junction
b temperatures of Tjmax = 175°C.
1 3 4

In relation to the complete microhybrid

system, designers are working towards opti-
mizing the level of sophistication between
increasing IC size, using thermal vias, and
mounting on special substrates such as DBC
or PCs.

Explanation of abbreviations:
DBC (direct bonded copper): copper-coated
PCs (power chips): chips soldered onto
copper plates.
Figure 3 shows a comparison of the thermal
25 resistance of aluminum oxide (Figure 3a)
and glass ceramic, i.e., LTCC (Figure 3b), and
Fig. 3 also specifically in chart form (Figure 3c).
a Aluminum-oxide 20

Thermal resistance

Rth = 12 K/W (CS 200

on aluminum) 15
Rth = 10...11 K/W (CS
200 in ABS 5.3) 10
c Comparison 2
æ UTS0322E

1 Chip 5
0 5 10 15 20 25 % 30
2 Al2O3
3 LTCC (thermal vias) Thermal vias, surface
4 Aluminum
Robert Bosch GmbH
Electronic Control Units (ECUs) Processes and Tools Used in ECU Development 77

Processes and Tools Used in Circuit Simulation with SABER

Before a circuit is built with real compo-
ECU Development nents, it is possible to test its function using
Simulation Tools the SABER® simulation tool. Many compo-
Simulation of individual components and of nent manufacturers already offer the data on
the complete system is playing an increas- their products in a SABER library for this
ingly important role in improving and purpose (Figure 2).
stepping up the development process. The
advantages of mathematical modeling over These data can be used to test the circuit
actual physical models (prototypes) are as with regard to its robustness, thermal prop-
follows: erties, worst-case performance, and EMC
 frequent reproducibility as desired, behavior and thereby facilitate any necessary
 deeper understanding of system behavior, circuit optimization at a very early stage in
 individual parameter analyses possible, its development.
 lower costs,
 less time required for model modifica- This approach can reduce the number of
tions, and redesigns.
 flexible application in all technical fields.

The following text deals briefly with some

tools for simulation that are used.
Figure 1 shows by way of example the
thermo-simulation of a microhybrid ECU.
It clearly shows the high temperature of
the hotspots in the electronic circuitry
which in this case occurs at a voltage regula-
tor. This simulation is used to optimize the
positioning of the thermal vias and the
distribution of the components before the
real ECU is built.

1 Thermo-simulation of a microhybrid layout 2 Simulation with SABER

æ UTS0323Y

æ UTS0324Y
Robert Bosch GmbH
78 Electronic Control Units (ECUs) Software Development

Software Development QA2F

When: After function implementation
A study of the current series projects What: Review of each individual function
together with the use of development and checking of following docu-
capacities demonstrate that approximately ments:
60% of the time spent on ECU development  specification,
has to be devoted to creating the necessary  function description,
software. For this reason, it is absolutely  source code,
essential that modern tools and processes  data definitions, and
be used.  test documentation.

Development Process QA2

Definition of Development Process When: Prior to software delivery
A depiction of the development steps in the What: Review of all QA2F documents
form of a V-model (Figure 1) serves as the
basis for all software-development activities. QA3
This model is used to detail the process steps When: Prior to start of series production
which facilitate implementation within a What: Series-production review for
product-development department. hardware and software

Quality Assessment An essential part of the development process

Quality assessments are scheduled at defined is also the distinction between specification
points of the development process (Figure 2) and implementation. This separation allows
for the purpose of process monitoring: programming by contract, whereby project
teams use the software knowledge of ReUse
QA1 teams who implement the functions (e.g.
When: At the start of the project Keyword 2000 protocol) for various cus-
What: Resource check (capacity, develop- tomers. To this end, the project teams write
ment environment, responsibility) out function contracts which establish the
boundary conditions of implementation.
QA1F The scopes and levels of testing of the indi-
When: Prior to function implementation vidual functions are determined in the pro-
What: Function specification check ject-specific quality plan (PQSP) with the
customer requirements in mind.

1 Simplified V-model 2 Development process in detail

System System
Specification Test initialization delivery
Function analysis QA2
QA1 integration/test
Function Function
initialization delivery
Function analysis QA2F
æ UTS0325E

æ UTS0326E

QA1F integration/test
Implementation development
Robert Bosch GmbH
Electronic Control Units (ECUs) Software Development 79

This also includes determining the QA x F Programming Guidelines

scopes. In any heterogeneous system of develop-
ment that is spread over countries and
The PQSP is a central element of project im- continents, a standardized procedure for
plementation and should be fully discussed creating software is a vital and integral part
between vehicle manufacturer and supplier. of the time to market process. These guide-
It lays down, among others things, the re- lines address the following points and are
sponsibilities, the customer relationships, binding for all programmers:
the development tools, the scopes of testing
and documentation, etc.  general guidelines (terminology, vocabu-
lary, variation handling),
The process in the ReUse team is set out as  guidelines for software developments in C
follows: (templates, structure),
 definitions and declarations (include,
defines, typedefs),
 The person in charge of the project  check instructions (if, for, while, break,
formulates the task (if necessary, return ...),
adoption of customer request).  coding specifications and instructions
 The function contract is drawn up (typecast, arithmetic, pointer),
(with details of task, project, desired  particular features when using variables
date, scope, and reference documents) (alignment, address),
and given to the ReUse teams.  instructions on data consistency
(preemptive), and
 instructions on resource relief.

 The persons in charge of ReUse and These guidelines also serve as a source of
the project discuss the application and knowledge for effective code configuration
establish the scopes and deadlines in order to counteract the limitations in
together. relation to memory capacity and run time
in the programming of microcontrollers.

 The person in charge of ReUse decides

on the variant and version handling
and implements the task.
 All documents are handed over to the
person in charge of the project on

In order to ensure that the created software

can be reused to the greatest possible extent,
there are C-programming guidelines bind-
ing an all programmers which are called up
in the relevant reviews (e.g. QA2F).
Robert Bosch GmbH
80 Electronic Control Units (ECUs) Software Development

Tools for Creating Software As the wide variety of tools demonstrates,

As well as the formal aspects such as process the process involved in creating the software
and programming guidelines, it is crucially for an ECU of the latest generation is highly
important to ensure that the tools are complex. Figure 4 provides a simplified
subject to constant support in the interests overview of the interplay between the indi-
of product quality. Figure 3 provides an vidual tools from the specification through
overview of the tools currently used for the to the finished ECU program.
various development phases. Significant
features of this tool chain are: By way of example, two component parts of
 constant support throughout the entire the tool chain will now be explained in
development process and closer detail:
 product-specific, optimized solutions  Design with ASCET-SD and
with tools partly developed in-house.  Vehicle simulation with TCM-Simutec.

3 Tools in the development process 4 Simplified process sequence

Organization: MS Project Design

ASCET-SD Function model
Proto- Implemen- Object model
Design Test
typing tation Prototyping
SD SD Innovator TCM-
StP Codewright LabCar Code generation
æ UTS0327E

Documentation: MS Word

ASCET: advanced simulation and control
æ UTS0328E

engineering tool
ASCET-SD: ASCET software developer
StP: software through pictures
(Aonix) for OO modeling
ESPRIT: engineering software-production
5 Function design with ASCET-SD
user interface for tools
Innovator: Software-development
environment (MID)
Codewright: Software-development
environment (Premia)
DAMOS: database for microcontroller-
oriented systems
INCA-PC: integrated car application system
TCM-Simutec: Vehicle simulator
æ UTS0329Y

ASCET-LabCar: Vehicle simulator for HiL simulation

ClearCase: Configuration-management tool
Robert Bosch GmbH
Electronic Control Units (ECUs) Software Development 81

Design with ASCET-SD Vehicle simulation with TCM-Simutec

ASCET-SD (Figure 5) offers the following To test the functions of a transmission-
functions for designing software: control system in the laboratory, there is a
 interactive creation of function simulator for the vehicle and transmission
descriptions and function models, environment which provides the input
 a graphical user interface, signals for ETC. One such simulator is
 support of object-oriented design, data- shown in Figure 7.
flow-oriented design and state machines. The front panel of the simulator is
equipped with assorted rotary potentio-
The ERCOSEK operating system is an inte- meters, switches, and pushbuttons which
gral part of the development environment, enable input variables such as output speed,
and facilitates real-time simulation of the selector-lever position, transmission
function model. temperature, etc., to be specified.
The top of the simulator accommodates a
ASCET-SD offers the following support for breakbox which permits access to every ECU
the rapid prototyping of functions: pin. Measuring instruments can be easily
 ASCET-SD operates as a bypass computer connected to these sockets to enable, for
for the series ECU, i.e., individual ECU example, a PWM signal of a pressure-regula-
functions run on the PC, while the other tor output to be viewed on an oscilloscope.
functions continue to be executed by ETC The laboratory car also contains com-
(Figure 6). puter cards which simulate the other ECUs
 The connection is established via the CAN in the vehicle network (e.g. ECUs for engine
or the INCA probe. management, for ABS, etc.) and also their
The next step is the automatic C-code cre-
ation and the creation of the corresponding Process and Maturity Model
data files for the application from the models. A clear definition of the development
process and the corresponding implementa-
For further information, log on to tion in the projects are made possible by a
software development which can be evalu-
http://www.etas.de ated with a maturity model such as CMM
(capture maturity model).

6 Test setup for ASCET-SD in bypass 7 TCM-Simutec (laboratory car)

2 4

Fig. 6
1 ASCET-SD and
2 ASCET hardware
æ UTS0330Y

æ UTS0311Y

(ETAS ES 1000.2)
4 ETC-Simutec
(laboratory car)
Robert Bosch GmbH
82 Electronic Control Units (ECUs) Software Development

8 Software layer model The operating system with its services

and the hardware-compatible software
Transmission software from are implemented on this hardware:
vehicle manufacturer or Bosch
(OS) driver Input/Output driver
library Device Device Device
driver driver driver

driver The interface layer and program library for
the application software contain:
Operating system Diagnosis Diagnosis Security
handling monitoring software
æ UTS0331E functions (SSK)
Hardware EEPROM KWP2000 Shift by wire
handling application functions

The application software

Software Structure (customized software) comprises:
The software structure described in closer e.g. ASIS (RB/ZF) Transmission software
detail in the following is implemented AGS (BMW)
within the transmission-control system. Software sharing (interface)
This layer model (Figure 8) comprises
 the application software (transmission
software) with program library provided Operating System
by the vehicle manufacturer or supplier It is absolutely essential to use an OSEK-
(in this case by Bosch), conforming operating system to fulfill the
 the operating system, current real-time demands on an ECU. The
 the component driver, and ERCOSEK operating system from ETAS is
 the hardware. used in Bosch transmission control units
(available for all kinds of microcontroller).
The separation of hardware and application
software ensures that the software can be An operating system is subdivided into
easily ported to new hardware platforms. processes and tasks (Figure 9):
Only the second layer, consisting of the A process is a function which has no call or
operating system and component driver return parameters.
(BIOS), has to be adapted. A task consists of different processes and
The contents of the individual layers will is characterized by
now be broken down in the following:  the sequential execution of processes,
 the allocation of processes  task,
The ECU hardware, the first layer of the  each task being assigned a priority,
software layer model, consists of the micro-  tasks being assigned to a time base.
controller (here, by way of example, the
MPC555), the memory, the interfaces (SPI, For task changing, there is either cooperative
CAN and UART), and the peripheral chips scheduling or preemptive scheduling (task
(ASICs): management):

Cooperative Scheduling
CPU core SPI TPU MIOS CAN UART In the case of cooperative scheduling,
timer and (2) (2)
a task can only be interrupted between two
Memory, hardware, driver, etc.
processes by a higher-priority task (Figure 10).
Robert Bosch GmbH
Electronic Control Units (ECUs) Software Development 83

The advantages of this procedure are low period, and a response time that is not
memory requirement (register banks, stack), dependent on process implementation.
simple management, and data consistency. The disadvantages are increased memory
The disadvantages are the limited response requirement (stack, register banks) and
time (dependent on the process run time) data-consistency problems.
and the jitter over the task period.
Mixed Scheduling
Preemptive Scheduling ERCOSEK offers the option of mixing both
Owing to the drawbacks of cooperative types of scheduling in one application.
scheduling, preemptive scheduling is used in A combination of hardware and software
operating systems which operate as real- scheduling serves this purpose. Figure 12
time systems. shows the distribution between cooperative
With this form of scheduling, a higher- and preemptive using the priorities assigned
priority task can interrupt a lower-priority to the tasks.
task at any time (Figure 11). The advantages A software call starts the operating sys-
of this procedure are the very short response tem. It can support different application
times, the minimal jitter over the task modes (e.g. different task sets for initializa-

9 Processes and task 11 Preemptive task change

Task Activation
and start
Task B

Task B
Process 1

p1B p2B p3B p4B

Process 2

Process 3

p1A p3A p4A

æ STS0332E

æ STS0334E

Prozess n Task A

Time t

10 Cooperative task change 12 Priority distribution

Activation Task B

Start Task B

Task B preemptive

p1B p2B p3B p4B


p1A p2A p3A p4A

æ STS0333E

æ STS0335E

Task A

Time t Distribution
Robert Bosch GmbH
84 Electronic Control Units (ECUs) Software Development

13 Application-mode change tion, operation and ECU run-on, Figure 13).

Each application mode consists of an initial-
ization phase and an execution phase. Inter-
rupts are prohibited during initialization of
Mode n Mode n+1 an application mode.
Further documents on the subject of
ERCOSEK / OSEK can be found on the

Internet at:
Init Execution Init Execution http://www.etas.de

æ STS0336E
Acquisition of Input and
Zeit t
Output Variables
Access to the hardware is obtained within
the framework of the software layer model
14 Hardware access in the layer model in accordance with three layers (Figure 14):
 user layer,
 configuration layer, and
User layer  hardware layer.

Access to hardware capsule: The first implementation example to be

featured is access (A) via global RAM cells.
via global as direct access Table 1 describes the name of the RAM cell,
RAM cells (function call)
the signal direction (input or output), the
signal type (analog, digital, frequency, or
PWM), the description, and the physical
The second example featured is access via
Configuration layer
(B) function interfaces. Table 2 is structured
along the same lines as Table 1, but here the
Configuration: Filtering:
Access to Elimination of global RAM cell is replaced by a function call.
hardware malfunctions The objective in the configuration layer is
to obtain independence from platform and
Coherence: Scaling: project in the conversion of the hardware
Data timing Conversion
into physical accesses into real software. This is achieved
variables on the one hand by using tools which auto-
matically create the C-code for access to the
hardware, and on the other hand by using
Hardware layer
C-macros which are then resolved on a
processor-specific basis.


æ STS0337E

Robert Bosch GmbH
Electronic Control Units (ECUs) Software Development 85

1 Hardware access via global RAM cells

RAM cell I/O Type Content Scaling

ugt_Batt In ANA 16 bit Battery voltage 0...25 000 mV
CGT In ANA 8 bit Oil temperature –40...+215°C
ccu_Chip In ANA 8 bit Substrate temperature –40...+215°C
fgt_Fet Out DIG 8 bit Status HSD-Fet 0.. 1 (On/Off)
fpo_L1 In DIG 8 bit Selector lever pos 1 0..1 (On/Off)
fpr_PinM In DIG 8 bit M button 0..1 (On/Off)
NAB In FREQ 16 bit Output speed 0...20 000 rpm
NAB32 In FREQ 8 bit Output speed/32 0...255 rpm/32
NTU In FREQ 16 bit Turbine speed 0...20 000 rpm
NTU32 In FREQ 8 bit Turbine speed/32 0...255 rpm/32
hmv1 Out PWM 16 bit Solenoid-valve output 0...1000 per mil
idr1s Out ANA 16 bit Nominal current 0..12 000 mA
pressure regulator
Table 1

2 Hardware access via functions

Software function I/O Return value Content Scaling

GetHWIO_U_IgnRunCrnk() In ANA Battery voltage 0...32 V
16 bit
GetHWIO_T_TransOil() In ANA Oil temperature –40...+215°C
16 bit
GetHWIO_b_HSD() In ANA Status HSD-Fet 0...1 (on/off)
8 bit
GetHWIO_e_TapUpDwnReq() In ENUM Tip (+/–) function 0 x 00...0 x 40
8 bit
TsHWIO_PRNDL In DIG Transmission control panel 0...1
GetHWIO_s_PRNDL(void) 8 bit
TsHWIO_FreqParams In FREQ Turbine speed Time stamp +
GetHWIO_s_NTU(void) struct counter value
TsHWIO_NAB_DualEdgeParams In FREQ Output speed, Time stamp +
GetHWIO_s_NAB_DualEdge() struct edge can be changed over counter value +
operating edge
SetHWIO_e_NAB_DualEdgeCptr Out – nout Rising, falling, both
Mode( BYTE ) Edge changeover Table 2

A further signal-acquisition component 15 ECU network

involves the exchange of signals via the a

communication interface. The CAN bus
(controller area network) has gained
acceptance in this field in the last few years. ECU 1 ECU 2 ECU 3 ECU 4

CAN replaces the conventional wiring

harness or the previously standard network
of ECUs (Figure 15). The bus system must b
satisfy the following requirements here:
Real-time updating for
safety functions: 10 ms ECU 1 ECU 2 ECU 3 ECU 4
Convenience functions: 10...100 ms
Maximum cable length: 40 m
æ STS0338E

CAN - Bus
Fig. 15
a Conventional
b With CAN
Robert Bosch GmbH
86 Electronic Control Units (ECUs) Software Development

3 Bit rates as a function of cable (bus) length The system must also be resistant to temper-
Maximum bit rate Bus length
ature and moisture. The CAN bus has also
kbit/s m gained acceptance in the field of automation
1000 40 technology. Table 3 lists the maximum pos-
500 100 sible data rates for different cable lengths.
250 250 Figure 16 shows the circuit-engineering
125 500
implementation of the CAN interface in an
40 1000
Table 3

16 CAN interface In the microcontroller itself, message

handling is conducted via a dual-port RAM
Microcontroller (Figure 17). Since this RAM chip, as the
name suggests, can be described from two
CAN controller
sides (CAN transceiver and microcon-
troller), the CPU workload is substantially
relieved for signal transfer.
TxD RxD Ref Rs +6V
VCC Complete arbitration (message organization,
CAN transceiver 100nF who sends what when) on the CAN bus is
performed automatically by the CAN trans-
ceiver. It does not require any computing
power in the microcontroller (Figure 18).
A distinction is made within CAN messages
æ UTS0339E

RT CAN-BUS RT between standard and extended data frames

BUS CAN_L BUS (Figures 19 and 20).
termination termination

17 Use of dual-port RAM with the CAN bus 19 CAN standard data frame

Standard Data Frame Inter Frame Space

Message 1 low high
1 11 1 1 1 4 0…64 15 1 1 1 7 3
Message 2 dominant
Bus idle
Start of Frame
Identifier Field
RTR Bit (D)
IDE Bit(D)
(reserved (D))
Data Length Code

Data Field

CRC Sequence
CRC Delimiter
ACK Slot
ACK Delimiter
End of Frame

æ UTS0340E

æ UTS0342E

Message n workload
Acceptance Message Host CPU
filter management
Arbitration Control CRC Acknowledge
Field Field Field Field

18 CAN-bus arbitration 20 CAN extended data frame

Bus idle recessive

Extended Data Frame Inter Frame Space

NODE A recessive
dominant 1 11 1 1 18 1 2 4 0…64 15 1 1 1 7 3
Bus idle
Start of Frame
SRR Bit (R)
IDE Bit(R)
Extended Identifier
RTR Bit(D)
(2 reserved (D))

Data Field
CRC Sequence
CRC Delimiter
ACK Slot
ACK Delimiter
End of Frame
Bus idle
Data Length Code

æ UTS0343E
æ UTS0341E

NODE B loses the arbitration
switches to receive Arbitration Control CRC Acknowledge
mode Field Field Field Field
Robert Bosch GmbH
Electronic Control Units (ECUs) Software Development 87

The standard data frame is characterized by Object-Oriented Approach

the following data (Figure 19): Vehicle Control
Data capacity: 0...8 bytes As an introduction, Figure 21 shows the 1-2
Identifier length: 11 bits US and 2-1 DS shift curves for a driving
Message length: max. 130 bits program.
The shift curves shown in Figure 22
In contrast, the extended data frame extend this system for different driving
(Figure 20) has the following programs from super economy (XE) to
characteristic data: super sport (XS). They clearly show that the
Data capacity: 0...8 bytes upshift point in the sporty driving program
Identifier length: 29 bits moves towards higher vehicle speed or
Message length: max. 150 bits higher engine speed and thereby achieves
optimum utilization of engine performance.
Gear Selection and Adaptive Functions
Transmission control has undergone various
phases or expansion stages within the
framework of development. 21 1-2 US shift curve

The basic functions and the adaptive

programs for shifting points and pressure
control are now standard in the field of
Accelerator-pedal position

electronic transmission control (ETC).

2-1 RS

1-2 H

Where the various marques and vehicles

differ is in the different strategies employed
in the automatic adaptation of the trans- 50 1
mission to the driving style and the traffic
situation. This also represents an area of
software which is being increasingly taken
up by the vehicle manufacturer directly and
which is no longer in the hands of a sup-
æ STS0344E

plier. The adaptive functions for shifting- 0 30 km/h
point control and pressure control have al- Vehicle speed υF
ready been discussed in the chapter sections
entitled Shifting-Sequence Control and
Adaptive Pressure Control. 22 1-2 curve with several driving programs

The following text will now deal with

Bosch-specific implementations of auto- %
matic adaptations (learn functions). The
Accelerator-pedal position

adaptive shifting strategy determines a gear

2-1 RS XS
2-1 RS XE


cyclically from the driver command, the

1-2 H
1-2 H

vehicle status, and the driving situation.

It is adaptive in relation to the driver type 50 1
(sportiness) and also takes into account
automatic or manual gear preselections
(tip/nudge operation, as is familiar, for
example, from Porsche Tiptronic© or BMW
Steptronic©). The complete software package
æ STS0345E

has been modeled with an object-oriented 0

0 50 km/h
approach for optimum reuse. Vehicle speed υF Fig. 21 and 22
1 Upshift
Robert Bosch GmbH
88 Electronic Control Units (ECUs) Software Development

To select a shift curve using the driver type On the other hand, there are the variables
and the total running resistance, it is neces- which are crucial to shifting-point selection:
sary for them first to be recorded and evalu-  driver type,
ated once. The overall structure of vehicle con-  driving situation, and
trol shown in Figure 23 serves this purpose.  driving program.
On the one hand, there are the variables This is made clearer with the newly
which determine the vehicle and its status: arranged graphic overall structure of gear
 transmission control panel (TCP), selection in Figure 24. Each of these vari-
 the transmission itself, ables is then further divided into different
 the engine, sub-evaluations.
 the accelerator-pedal position, and
 the vehicle variables (e.g. vehicle speed, The driver-type evaluation specifies whether
wheel speed, etc.). the current driving style is economical or
sporty. The driver-type determination as
23 Overall structure of vehicle control featured in Figure 25 can be shown for this
Determine Cyclical ()
The result of the driver-type determination
is a driver-type counter (Figure 26) with an
Determine status () Determine driver type () allocated driving program (XE to XXS).
Transmission Driver type
control panel
Driver-type evaluation is followed by hill
Engine Determine drive situation () recognition (based on the vehicle running
Driving situation resistance), which distinguishes between
different types of uphill and downhill driving
Vehicle variables Set transmission () with the following allocation (Figure 27):
Drive program B0 Downhill 2
Accelerator pedal
B1 Downhill 1
æ STS0346E

B2 Level
Vehicle control
B3 Uphill 1
B4 Uphill 2

24 Overall structure of gear selection 25 Driver-type determination

Determine driver type ()

variable Determine driver type () Give driver type ()
Accelerator Administrator Determiner
Transmission Driving
control panel situation Startup evaluation
Gear selection
Engine Driver type
Gradient evaluation
Electronic Kickdown evaluation
stability program Linear-acceleration Counter
Display Special evaluation
æ STS0348E
æ STS0347E

Driver-type recognition
Robert Bosch GmbH
Electronic Control Units (ECUs) Software Development 89

This is followed by determination of the Summary

driving situation (Figure 28). The following features can be summarized
for the object-oriented adaptive driving
Ratio Criteria (RC) strategy:
Driver type and driving situation form one  cyclical determination of the gear,
of three ratio criteria (RC), all of which  consideration of driver command,
demonstrate different functions: vehicle status, driving situation,
 adaptive in relation to driver type
RC Driver Type (sportiness),
RC driver type makes a gear suggestion us-  division into static and dynamic driving
ing a shift curve, depending on the relevant programs,
driver type. The driver thus serves as the  automatic and manual gear preselection
ratio supplier (RS). (tip/nudge operation),
 new, flexible prioritization procedure, and
RC FastOff  object-oriented structure.
RC FastOff prevents upshifts if FastOff has
been detected, i.e., a
shift prevention (USP, DSP) takes place. 27 Hill recognition

RC TCP changes the order of priority of the
ratio supplier in accordance with operation B2
of the transmission control panel (TCP). B3
An RC selection adapted to the B4
shift situation (SS) B0
takes place.
æ STS0350Y

26 Driver-type counter 28 Driving situation

Determine drive situation ()

Startup evaluation
Gradient evaluation
Lateral-acceleration evaluation Coordinator
"Kick Fast" evaluation
Special evaluation
Determine status ()

Driver-type counter Hot mode Curve

Urban driving Winter

Variable Hill
shifting sequence
æ STS0349E

æ STS0351E

Fast Off Warm-up

Drive program (characteristics) Driving situation
Robert Bosch GmbH
90 Electronic Control Units (ECUs) Software Development

Diagnostic Functions  contains filters, time stamps, and assorted

As well as the actual transmission-control flags,
functions, monitoring functions are taking  controls the internal program run via the
up an ever-increasing percentage of the soft- flags.
ware. At present, approximately 30% of the
software stored in the ECU is assigned to Backup Fault Memory (BFM)
diagnostics. The backup fault memory (BFM) exhibits
Full diagnostics serves to enhance driving the following features:
safety and also with the aid of substitute  optional use,
functions to increase system availability.  ring memory, saved in the non-volatile
Diagnostic management must make the memory,
following functions available:  typically 5 to 10 memory locations,
 management of the fault memory,  contains fault entries which have been
 CARB fault management, applicable to deleted from the PFM.
each individual fault code (only specific
faults alter the vehicle’s exhaust character- Snapshot Memory
istics and are therefore relevant to CARB), The snapshot memory is optional and con-
 filtering (time- and event-controlled), tains further environmental conditions for
 requirement of measures (substitute the first PFM entry.
functions, limp-home),
 provision of data for the application of The entries in this fault memory can be read
diagnostic management for each individ- out in the workshop with the diagnosis
ual fault type, tester, and provide important information
 monitoring functions call up diagnostic relating to vehicle repair.
management; this therefore only has a few
calls in the task lists. Monitoring Functions
The following text deals with the most
Fault Memory important monitoring functions in a
The fault memory is divided into different transmission-control system:
subsections, which are handled differently in
relation to the memory location and accord- Solenoid-Valve Monitoring
ing to the input of the “ignition off ” signal. The following conditions apply to monitor-
ing a solenoid valve in the transmission:
Primary Fault Memory (PFM)  activation in PWM mode,
The primary fault memory (PFM) exhibits  alternatively on/off function
the following features: (100%/0% PWM),
 saved in the non-volatile memory  PWM with fundamental frequency 1 kHz,
(EEPROM),  pulse-to-no-current ratio dependent on
 typically 10 memory locations, the supply voltage,
 contains fault code/type, environmental  jump from approx. 95% to 100% in PWM
conditions, CARB/“warm-up” counter, mode,
and flags.  analog feedback for diagnosis, separate for
“on” and “off ” states,
Secondary Fault Memory (SFM)  general test condition:
The secondary fault memory (SFM) exhibits battery voltage ≥ threshold (7 V),
the following features:  fault detection as per Table 4.
 one memory location for each fault code
(only in the volatile RAM),
Robert Bosch GmbH
Electronic Control Units (ECUs) Software Development 91

4 Solenoid-valve monitoring point in a PRC section must be followed by

a “complete check” which generates the rele-
0 – HW HW –
vant PRC part answer with the aid of correc-
0...5 – SW SW – tion values. The part answers are XORed
5...95 – SW SW SW and form the complete part answer of the
95...100 – – – SW PRC to the question/answer communica-
100 HW – – HW tion. The current question serves as the in-
Key: put variable into the PRC (or, more pre-
PWM Pulse width modulation
SCGO Short circuit to ground or
cisely, into each of the PRC parts), i.e., the
open circuit program run is monitored on a question-de-
SCG Short circuit to ground pendent basis. A dummy must simulate the
O Open circuit
SCP Short circuit to positive PRC-monitored points during the initializa-
HW Diagnosis by hardware tion phase because these points are not run
SW Diagnosis by software
through during initialization. Table 4

A further method of solenoid-valve moni- If faults occur in the PRC, i.e. are detected,
toring is ISIG evaluation (inductive signa- an incorrect complete part answer of the
ture). This method serves to monitor the PRC is formed, which for its part causes an
voltage characteristic at the solenoid valve incorrect complete answer to be sent to the
and evaluates the drop (UISIG) which occurs monitoring module (watchdog in the exter-
when the spool is moved (Figure 29). The nal ASIC, see also section entitled “ASIC”).
objective here is to monitor the function of This increases its fault counter by 1 (a fault-
the on/off valve. Since the voltage drop is free complete answer results in a decrease to
only very small and very short (tISIG), a the minimum fault-counter content 0). The
special evaluator circuit must be used here. monitoring module shuts down the driver
stages when the fault-counter content 5 is
Pressure-Regulator Monitoring reached and initiates a reset at fault-counter
The pressure regulator must be permanently content 7.
monitored because its function is crucial to
the function of the transmission.

Program-Run Check (PRC)

The program-run check (PRC) ensures that
the following incidents are detected:
 mix-up of components,
 double execution of code parts, and 29 ISIG signal characteristic

 skipping of code parts.

Each module or each safety-relevant code

part must have a check point at the begin-
UISIG ≈ 10 mV

ning and the end in order to ensure a correct

run with maximum high probability. The
Voltage U

numbers represent the relevant module

(function or process) and range from 0 to 9.
The checksum algorithm (MISR procedure) tISIG ≈ 10 ms
ensures the sequence relationship.
æ STS0352E

Fig. 29
Each reference (every 10, 20, and 30 ms UISIG Voltage drop
reference) has its own enumerator and de- tISIG Time interval for
Time t
livers its own part answer. The last checked voltage drop
Robert Bosch GmbH

92 Electrohydraulic Actuators Application, Function, and Requirements

Electrohydraulic Actuators
Electrohydraulic actuators form the inter- The actuators are important switching and
face between electrical signal processing control elements in an electrohydraulic
(data processing) and the system process transmission-control system. They control
(mechanics). They convert the low-power the oil (fluid) flow and the pressure charac-
command signals into an actuating force teristics in the hydraulic control plate.
with the increased power required for the The following different actuator types
process. are available:
1. On/off solenoid valves (on/off, o/o)
Application and Function 2. Pulse-width modulated
solenoid valves (PWM)
The transmission types most commonly in 3. Pressure regulators
use today (AT, CVT, AST) are equipped (spool-type) (PR-S)
with actuators to perform the most varied 4. Pressure regulators
of functions. Table 1 provides an overview (flat-seat-type) (PR-F)
of the most important applications and
highlights the link between the transmis- In most automatic transmissions, these
sion functions and the actuator types that actuators currently serve as pilot-control
can be used. elements, whose outlet pressure or volum-
etric flow is boosted in the hydraulic control
plate before operating the clutches. In con-
1 Transmission functions and associated actuators trast, direct-action control elements without
Automatic transmission (AT) this boosting facility supply the clutches with
Function Actuator type suitably high pressure and volumetric flow.



 Control main pressure X X X

The installation location (on the transmis-
 Initiate gear change: X X
1-2-3-4-5-6 sion inside the oil pan) gives rise to far-
 Modulate shift pressure X X X reaching requirements and demanding op-
 Control torque converter X X X erating conditions for the actuators that are
lockup clutch
used. Figure 1 provides a summary of these
 Reverse-gear lock X
 Safety functions X X
As ever more transmissions are now being
Continuously variable transmission (pulley CVT)
filled with lifetime oil (i.e., they do not need
to have their oil changed) abrasion and dirt
Function Actuator type
particles from breaking-in remain in the oil

system throughout the entire operation of



the transmission. Even central intake filters

 Adjust gear ratio X X and individual filters on the actuators can
 Control belt tension X X only retain particles over a specific size.
 Control start-up clutch X X X Excessively fine filters would soon clog up.
 Reverse-gear lock X
In addition to these considerations, the
working life of transmissions is being increas-
Automated shift transmission (AST) ingly extended: Transmissions in standard
Standard electric-motor actuation: passenger cars are now expected to last at
 Initiate gear change
least 250,000 km (155,000 miles), and much
 Actuate clutch
 Safety functions (fail-safe)
more for taxis and similar applications.
In contrast to many other electromagnets
Table 1 (e.g. in ABS valves), actuators used in trans-
Robert Bosch GmbH

Electrohydraulic Actuators Requirements, Design and Operating Concept 93

mission-control applications must be de- of the valve is designed as either a normally

signed over the entire temperature range for closed contact (n.c.) or as a normally open
100% ON time, because, for example, they contact (n.o.).
have to maintain the pressure while the gear PWM switching valves are suitable because
is held or control a torque converter lockup of their pulse-width-modulated input signal
clutch during driving. This creates a need to (constant-frequency current, variable ratio
limit the power loss and to implement copper of ON to OFF time) for use as pressure actu-
windings of suitably generous dimensions. ators, whose outlet pressure is proportional
Vehicle and transmission-specific func- or inversely proportional to the pulse duty
tion characteristics (switching performance, factor. The characteristic curve is referred to
control response, technical characteristic as rising or falling.
data), electrical and hydraulic interfaces Pressure-control valves finally are operated
tailored to individual applications, and the with a controlled input current and can
drive towards miniaturization and reducing likewise be designed with a rising or falling
costs are further boundary conditions for characteristic. These valves are activated
developing actuators for transmission- by analog means whereas PWM valves are
control applications. activated digitally.

Design and
Operating Concept 1 Boundary conditions for actuator development

Automatic transmissions require switching

Dirt tolerance Fatigue limit
valves for the simple on/off switching opera- (rubbed-off elements, residues) …5000 h (250,000 km)
tions and/or proportional valves for infinitely
Media resistance ON time
variable pressure control. Figure 2 shows (ATF with additives 100%
and water content)
different ways of converting an input signal Vibration strength
(current or voltage) into an output signal Temperature of engine: up to 30 g
(pressure). Basically, actuators can be load
(¯40…160°C) Miniaturization
designed with proportional or inversely (mass and space
Temperature change reduction)
proportional performance characteristics.
æ STS0286E

On/off valves are usually voltage-con- External mounting

trolled, i.e., the battery voltage is applied to (splash water, salt spray, industrial climate)
the copper winding. The hydraulic section

2 Actuators (typical characteristics for switching and proportional valves)

Switching valves Proportional-control valve

On/Off valve Pulse-width-modulated Pressure-control valve

(PWM) valve

(Current I)
Current I

n.c. Time t
Pressure p

(Pressure p) n.o.
Pressure p

æ STS0285E

Time t Duty factor Current I

Robert Bosch GmbH

94 Electrohydraulic Actuators Actuator Types

Actuator Types On/Off Solenoid Valves

On/off solenoid valves (Figure 2) are most
Overview commonly used as simple 3/2 valves (3 hy-
The following types are examples of actua- draulic ports/2 positions). They are clearly
tors commonly used for transmission-con- simpler in design than the 4/3-valves more
trol purposes together with their character- commonly found in stationary hydraulics,
istic values and features (overview, Figure 1). and are therefore inexpensive. Nor do they
The examples are pilot-control actuators have the drawbacks of 2/2 valves (such as
which operate within a pressure range of high leakage or limited flow rate, necessi-
400 to approx. 1000 kPa and act on a booster tated by their action in combination with
element in the transmission’s hydraulic an external restrictor).
control system. Spool plungers in the
hydraulic control system boost the pressure
and/or the volumetric flow. 2 On/off solenoid valves (view and oil flow)

The actuators described can be designed in a

any concrete application at their interfaces
in line with the conditions in the trans-
mission, e.g.
 mechanically (mounting),

æ UTS0313Y
 geometrically (installation area),
 electrically (contacting), or
 hydraulically (interface to control plate).
Fig. 2 The function data must be constructively
a View as switching adapted to the requirements in the trans- 1
valve with ball seat mission, particularly with regard to
b Oil flow in valve  feed pressure and pclutch
1 Return to tank
 dynamics (i.e., reaction speed and control
Fmag Magnetic force pfeed
æ UTS0287E
Ffeed Feed-pressure
pfeed Feed pressure
pclutch Clutch pressure

1 Actuators (overview with examples)

Solenoid valves Hydraulic module Pressure regulators

Switching valves Flat-seat valves

PWM valves Spool valves

æ UTS0288E
Robert Bosch GmbH

Electrohydraulic Actuators Actuator Types 95

On/off solenoid valves are mainly used in Figure 4 shows the characteristic of the 3/2
simple 3-speed or 4-speed transmissions switching valve with the pressure switching
without overlap control. However, they are cycles.
being used increasingly less in progressive or
complex transmission-control systems (pos- A switching valve of this type offers the
sibly still for safety functions). A pressure following features:
regulator controls the gearshift.  low costs,
 non-susceptible to dirt and
In the 3/2 switching valve (n.o.) depicted in contamination,
Figure 3, the feed pressure pfeed generated by  low leakage, and
the transmission pump is applied before the  simple actuation electronics.
flange (P) and seals the ball seat. This feature
is referred to as self-sealing. Since no pres- Areas of application for On/off switching
sure is applied at zero current in the work- valves are:
ing-pressure channel (A), the valve is closed
at zero current.  Gear change
In this state, the working pressure, which with multiple use of the same main
in the end supplies the consumer (e.g. a pressure regulator.
clutch), is directly connected to the return
line to the tank (oil pan) so that a pressure  Safety functions
that is applied there can reduce or an oil e.g. hydraulic disabling of the reverse gear
volume contained therein can drain. during forward travel.
When current is applied to the switching-
valve winding, the magnetic force generated  Torque converter lockup clutch
reduces the working air gap, and the arma- Cutting in and out (often controlled with
ture moves with its permanently connected a PWM valve or pressure regulator for
push rod towards the ball and opens it. Oil economy or convenience reasons).
flows to the consumer (from P to A) and
builds up the pump pressure there. The  Changeover of register pump
return line to the tank is closed off at the Selected for two different flow-rate ranges
same time. via o/o (mainly for CVT transmissions).

Fig. 3
3 3/2 switching valve (sectional view) 4 3/2 switching valve A Working-pressure
(characteristic with switching cycles)
kPa P Feed
T Return to tank
T 600 pfeed Feed pressure
500 Characteristic data
Pressure p

(typical example):
P 400
pfeed Feed 400...600 kPa
Flow rate > 2.5 l · rpm
Operating 9...16 V
Resist- 12.5 Ω
æ UTS0289E

æ UTS0290E

0 Number 2 · 106
0 10 20 30 40 ms of switching
Time t
Robert Bosch GmbH

96 Electrohydraulic Actuators Actuator Types

PWM Valves These requirements are reflected in the

PWM valves (Figure 5) have essentially the design. The sectional view in Figure 6 shows
same design as switching valves. Since they the incorporation of a rim on the armature,
operate with a frequency of 30...100 Hz, they which ensures a high magnetic force and
must be designed for a higher switching a high hydraulic damping action when
speed (dynamics) and higher mechanical closing. The relatively long push rod absorbs
load (wear). The latter is particularly applic- pulse forces. An annular seat seals the feed
able if a PWM valve is used for main-pres- pressure in the zero-current state shown
sure control and is operated throughout the against the working-pressure channel.
life of the vehicle. Compared with the ball seat, the advan-
tage of this type is that the feed pressure acts
only on minimal surface areas. These sur-
5 PWM valve (view and oil flow) faces are still pressure-compensated to the
greatest extent, i.e., the applied feed pressure
has an opening and closing effect such that
essentially the compression spring ensures
reliable closing. Only minimal opening
forces have to be applied here, which results
in high dynamics (switching speed) and
æ UTS0312Y

keeps the coil size and inductance low.

Additional requirements in relation to the
accuracy of the characteristics place stricter
Fig. 5
demands on precision during the manufac-
a Sectional view of
Fmag ture of the valve components and during
PWM valve their installation than is the case in a pure
b Oil flow in valve on/off switching valve.
1 Return to tank
Fmag Magnetic force
æ UTS0287E

Ffeed Feed-pressure Ffeed
pfeed Feed pressure
pclutch Clutch pressure

6 3/2 PWM valve with rising characteristic 7 3/2 PWM valve

(sectional view) (with rising characteristic)

æ UTS0292E

æ STS0293E

Fig. 6
1 Feed from pump
2 Return to tank
pwork Working pressure
Robert Bosch GmbH

Electrohydraulic Actuators Actuator Types 97

In all, PWM valves exhibit the following The ends of the characteristic demonstrate
features: slight discontinuity. This is caused by the
 low costs, transition from the switching to the holding
 non-susceptible to dirt and operating state (when closed or open). This
contamination, inaccuracy is tolerable in these closely
 free from hysteresis, limited areas.
 low leakage, and
 simple actuation electronics. 3/2 PWM Valve with High Flow Rate
The PWM valve with high flow rate has
However, drawbacks are essentially the same design as the standard
 pressure pulsation and PWM valve described above, but provides
 dependence of the characteristic on the larger opening cross-sections with a greater
feed pressure. diameter and a longer opening stroke of the
closing element (comparison in Table 1). This
Areas of application for the PWM valves design calls for a larger copper winding with a
with rising characteristic or high flow rate higher magnetic force (Figures 8 and 9).
described in the following are:
 control of the torque converter lockup
 clutch control, and
 main-pressure control.

3/2 PWM Valve with Rising Characteristic 1 Technical data of PWM valves in comparison

The pressure-compensated tubular design of PWM valve type Rising With high
characteristic flow rate
the closing element of this PWM valve (Fig-
ure 6) results in low inertial forces. Even this Feed pressure kPa 300…800 400…1200
Flow rate l · rpm > 1.5 > 3.9
circumstance meets the demand for fast (at 550 kPa)
switching times, low noise emission, and Timing frequency Hz 40…50 40…50
long service life. The pronounced linearity Coil resistance Ω 10 10
of the characteristic (Figure 7) in a broad Dimensions
Diameter mm 25 30
characteristic and temperature range is an
Free length mm 30 42
important advantage for use in the vehicle. Table 1

8 3/2 PWM valve with high flow rate 9 3/2 PWM valve with high flow rate
(sectional view) (characteristic)

Working pressure pwork


æ UTS0294E

æ STS0295E

0 Fig. 8
0 20 40 60 80 100 %
1 Feed from pump
Duty factor
2 Return to tank
pwork Working pressure
Robert Bosch GmbH

98 Electrohydraulic Actuators Actuator Types

Pressure Regulator Spool-Type Pressure Regulator PR-S

Two principles are used in the analog valves The spool-type pressure regulator (Figures
for pressure control (Figure 10): 11 to 13) operates as a two-notch regulator.
The regulated pressure is tapped between
 The spool-type pressure regulator opens inlet and outlet metering notches, and is pro-
a metering notch at the feed port and duced as a function of their opening ratio.
simultaneously closes a metering notch Maximum pressure is obtained with the inlet
to the tank return line (two-notch regula- opened and the outlet closed, while zero
tor). The position of the regulator plunger pressure is obtained under reversed condi-
is derived from the equilibrium of forces, tions. In between these settings, this pressure
depending on the stamped magnetic regulator changes its plunger position in the
force, the regulated pressure, and the equilibrium between force of pressure,
spring force. spring force, and magnetic force in propor-
 The flat-seat pressure regulator operates tion to the current passing through the coil
as an adjustable pressure relief valve and adjusts the control pressure accordingly.
(single-notch regulator). The recirculation of the regulated pressure
to the end face of the plunger via an oilway
With both principles, the regulated pressure in the transmission control plate closes the
intervenes directly in the equilibrium of closed control loop (external recirculation).
forces, which is why complete closed control The regulated pressure can also be included
loops are provided. The following text by means of a stepped plunger or other mea-
explains the flat seat and spool principles sures as a resulting force in the equilibrium
by way of examples. of forces and thus in the closed control loop
(internal recirculation).

10 Pressure regulator (basic layout) 11 D30 spool-type pressure regulator (view and oil flow)

Fig. 10
a a
a Spool type pfeed
b Flat-seat type
Fhyd 1
1 Feed from pump
2 Return to tank
Fspring Spring force Fmag
Fhyd Hydraulic-
æ UTS0303Y

pressure force
Fmag Magnetic force Fspring
preg Regulated
pressure to clutch 2
pfeed Feed pressure Fhyd = Fspring+ Fmag
from pump
b pfeed b
Fig. 11 Fhyd
a Cutaway view of
spool-type 1 Fmag
pressure regulator
b Oil flow in valve
1 Feed from pump
2 Return to tank
æ UTS0296E

æ UTS0297E

preg Regulated 2
pressure to clutch
Fhyd = Fspring+ Fmag
pfeed Feed pressure
from pump
Robert Bosch GmbH

Electrohydraulic Actuators Actuator Types 99

The advantages of the spool-type pressure 2 Technical data of spool-type pressure regulator
regulator are: PR-S (typical)
 high accuracy, Feed pressure kPa 700…1600
 non-susceptible to influencing quantities, Regulated pressure kPa typical 600…0
 low temperature sensitivity, Current range mA typical 0…1000
Activation frequency Hz ≤ 600
 non-susceptible to system leakage,
 low leakage, and Diameter mm 32
 zero pressure can be achieved. Free length mm 42
Table 2

The disadvantages of the spool-type 12 D30 spool-type pressure regulator (sectional view)

pressure regulator are:

 expensive production of the precision
components, and
 precision electronics required. pwork

By combining a frictionless mounting 1

(diaphragm spring) with a Teflon-coated
plain bearing, this pressure regulator ensures
minimum hysteresis and optimum accuracy.
The presence of a spool makes the regulator
largely resistant to the influences of system

æ UTS0298E
2 Fig. 12
leakage, fluctuations in feed pressure, or 1 Feed from pump
temperature changes. 2 Return from tank
The spool-type pressure regulator shown pwork Working pressure
in Figures 11 and 12, with its typical techni-
13 Spool-type pressure regulator (falling characteristic)
cal data listed in Table 2, exhibits none of
the drawbacks of the flat-seat pressure regu-
lator discussed below, but is more expensive kPa
than the latter due to its higher-quality 200
Regulated pressure pwork

individual parts (expensive flange,

precision-machined plunger).
As with the flat-seat pressure regulator, 400
there are versions available with rising and
falling characteristics (Figure 13).

Flat-Seat Pressure Regulator PR-F

æ STS0299E

Like its spool-type counterpart, the flat-seat 0

pressure regulator is also a proportional 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 A 1.0
valve. The magnetic force is proportional to Current I
the current passing through the coil. The
hydraulic pressure acts via the sensing The flat-seat-type pressure regulator is
surface on the equilibrium of forces. The therefore essentially an adjustable pressure
pressure regulator can also be fitted with a limiter with a hydraulic control function.
compression spring to be able to achieve a The essential features of the flat-seat
defined initial state. The regulated pressure pressure regulator are:
is established by a pressure drop caused by  high accuracy,
oil flowing back to the tank through a  inexpensive,
varying cross-section.  non-susceptible to influencing quantities,
Robert Bosch GmbH

100 Electrohydraulic Actuators Actuator Types

 non-susceptible to dirt and (of the variable restrictor at the flat seat)
contamination, can be more precisely matched with the
 high leakage, upstream permanent restrictor. Suitable
 residual pressure present measures can be used even to compensate
(dependent on temperature), and temperature sensitivity to a certain extent.
 expensive electronics.
This pressure regulator described by way of
Flat-seat pressure regulator, example has been specially optimized such
falling characteristic that the pressure/current characteristic ex-
Figures 14 to 16 show the example of a D30 hibits low hysteresis and a narrow tolerance
flat-seat pressure regulator with falling range. These properties are achieved by us-
characteristic. ing high-quality magnetic-circuit materials
The pressure regulator operates in con- and modern manufacturing procedures.
junction with a restrictor (diameter 0.8... Since the ratio of the hydraulic resistance
1.0 mm) which is either arranged externally of both restrictors cannot be indiscrimi-
in the hydraulic-control system or integrated nately small, the pressure/current character-
directly in the pressure regulator. The advan- istic of a typical flat-seat pressure regulator
tage of the latter type of restrictor lies in the exhibits a residual pressure which increases
fact that the pressure-regulator characteristic as the temperature decreases. The hydraulic-

14 D30 flat-seat pressure regulator, 15 D30 flat-seat pressure regulator,

falling characteristic (view and oil flow) falling characteristic (sectional view)

a 1
æ UTS0365Y

æ UTS0301E

16 Flat-seat pressure regulator (falling characteristic)

Fig. 14 600
a Cutaway view of b kPa
flat-seat pressure 1
Regulated pressure pwork

b Oil flow in valve 2 400
1 Feed from pump
2 Restrictor
3 Clutch
4 Return to tank 200
æ UTS0300Y

æ STS0302E

Fig. 15
1 Feed from pump 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 A 0.8
2 Return to tank
Current I
pwork Working pressure
Robert Bosch GmbH

Electrohydraulic Actuators Actuator Types 101

control system of the transmission must istic precision while taking up the minimal
take this circumstance into account; accord- amount of space.
ingly, the effective range for control does not
begin at 0 kPa, but rather at a suitably higher
pressure. 17 D20 flat-seat pressure regulator, rising characteristic
(cutaway view)
Another drawback of the flat-seat pres-
sure regulator manifests itself particularly
when several of these pressure regulators are
used in a transmission: The system dictates
that there is a permanent return oil flow
through the opened pressure regulator to
the oil pan, which results in energy losses
and under certain circumstances may re-
quire the use of a transmission-oil pump
with increased volumetric flow. These draw-

æ UTS0314Y
backs can be avoided by increasing the level
of sophistication in the actuator or in the
hydraulic-control system. However, this
cancels out to some extent the main benefits
of the flat-seat pressure regulator (simple
design and low costs). The options offered 18 D20 flat-seat pressure regulator, rising characteristic
(sectional view)
by the closed-end function are discussed in
the following.
Flat-seat pressure regulator, rising
characteristic (miniature version)
Thanks to the use of high-precision plastic
technology, the D20 flat-seat pressure regu-
lator (Figures 17 to 19) has undergone a
significant reduction in both size and cost.
æ UTS0304E

Fig. 18
With a diameter of little more than 2 1 Feed from pump
20 mm, it achieves a high level of character- 2 Return to tank
pwork Working pressure

3 Technical data of flat-seat pressure regulators 19 D20 flat-seat pressure regulator

in comparison (rising characteristic)
D30 D20
Pressure-regulator type 600
falling rising kPa
characteristic characteristic
Regulated pressure pwork

Feed pressure kPa 500…800 500…800

Regulated pressure kPa 40...540 40...540 400
Current range mA 150…770 150…770
Activation frequency Hz 600...1000
Chopper frequency Hz 600...1000
æ STS0305E

Diameter mm 30 23
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 A 0.8
Free length mm 33 42
Current I
Table 3
Robert Bosch GmbH

102 Electrohydraulic Actuators Actuator Types

Deciding on the Pressure-Regulator Type  installation position (horizontal, vertical),

The decision as to whether a flat-seat pres-  installation location (above or below oil
sure regulator, a spool-type pressure regula- level or varying),
tor, or even a PWM valve is used in the  adjustability of the closed control loop
transmission depends on a whole range of (end of line programming), and
considerations. Some technical criteria have  dirt concentration and dirt composition.
already been discussed in the descriptions of
the individual types. However, selection criteria such as the
These criteria are again set out and com- following are not to be underestimated:
pared in Table 4. The figures in this table  The user’s own experience with a
representing accuracy are not absolute, but particular type (familiarity level, risk).
only relative to each other. They are only  In-house user traditions which can also
approximate values and the conditions may lead to a wealth of single-sided
differ completely according to the vehicle experiences.
type used, for example depending on  Existing control-system concepts, for
constructive details such as which the reworking expense in changing
 variability of the equilibrium of forces, the regulator type is deemed to be too
 variability of the magnetic force, great.
 use of special tools in the magnetic  A cost analysis is conducted partly from
circuit, a standpoint of reducing outsourcing
 gap between feed pressure and maximum costs. An analysis of the overall costs
control pressure, including, for example, the expenditure
in internal production on control-plate
and system-conditioned criteria such as machining is difficult for the user
 type of control, (existing equipment . . .).
 damping properties of the follow-up

4 Criteria for actuator selection

Criterion Spool-type pressure Flat-seat pressure 3/2 PWM valve
regulator PR-S regulator PR-F

Sophistication in non-susceptible to Constant feed pressure Constant feed pressure

hydraulic system fluctuations in
feed pressure Feed restrictor Damping

Comparison value ≈ 7% (recirculation) ≈ 11 % ≈ 13% (control)
(manufacturing ±5...±25 kPa ±5...±30 kPa ±20 kPa
tolerance) (dependent on (dependent on (constant)
characteristic range) characteristic range)

Influence of feed pressure pC = 400 ±0.2 kPa ∆pC ≈ 0.2 · ∆pfeed ∆pC ~ ∆pfeed
at pfeed = 800 ±50 kPa

Leakage typ. 0.3 l · rpm 0.3...1.0 (...0) l · rpm 0...0.5...0 l · rpm

(without elasticity)

Noise – – If necessary
damping required

Costs High Medium Low

Table 4
Robert Bosch GmbH

Electrohydraulic Actuators Simulations in Development 103

Simulations in Development Computer-aided design of magnetic and

hydraulic circuits thus forms the basis for
Requirements simulation of the static and dynamic prop-
The development times (time to market) for erties of the actuators in the transmission
new transmission generations are getting system. This simulation can be used to
ever shorter. Testing-compatible actuators optimize functions and analyze properties
must be available with function data specific under limit conditions.
to the transmissions virtually immediately
after the start of any project. The strict de- Function Simulation
mands on quality and reliability necessitate 1D simulation enables, for example, the
comprehensive tests and trials with proto- properties of pressure-control valves to be
types. The previously standard iterative simulated in their system environment.
method using recursions and modifications These include pressure/current characteris-
will in future not be practicable from time tics, temperature sensitivity, dynamics, etc.,
and cost standpoints. under different boundary conditions or
In future, function prognoses and analyses geometric variables.
of conspicuous features in the product-cre-
ation process using virtual prototypes will in- Function simulation of the actuator in the
creasingly take place at an earlier stage and will (sub)system is performed for example for
at least support experimental development. the variables:
1 Simulation of flow characteristic and pressure  dynamics,
distribution in a PR-F pressure regulator
 temperature influence,
 influence of feed-pressure fluctuations,
 worst-case studies, manufacturing
Flow Simulation
The Fire tool used by Bosch to calculate
0…21.7 m·s-1
hydraulic losses and flow forces enables,
for example, the geometries of the hydraulic
section of a pressure-control valve to be op-
timized is such a way that flow influences on
the pressure/current characteristic are mini-
mized under all operating conditions and
flow cross-sections are optimized.

By way of example, Figure 1 shows the simu-

lated flow characteristic and the pressure
distribution in a flat-seat pressure regulator.

Fig. 1
æ STS0306E

55.5…350 kPa a Pressure regulator

(hydraulic section)
b Flow characteristic
c Pressure distribution
Robert Bosch GmbH

104 Electrohydraulic Actuators Simulations in Development

Magnetic-Circuit Calculation Basic Principles of 1D Simulation

A finite-element program (such as Motion Equation with Force Balance
MAXWELL 2D or Edison) is used to design The motion equation with force balance is
the magnetic circuit and thus the pressure/ as follows:
current characteristic of a pressure-control
valve. But it can also be used to utilize to Ftot = ∑(FM + Fp + FFl + FFr + FD + FS) = 0
optimum effect the available space (size
reduction) and the material of a magnetic With the variables
circuit (magnetic-force increase, Figure 2) or FM magnetic force,
to adapt the force/travel characteristic to the Fp pressure force,
requirement. FFl flow force,
FFr frictional force,
The magnetic force is simulated, FD damping force, and
for example, for: FS spring force
 the layout for the magnetic-force or according to Figure 3:
 eddy-current losses, and Ftot = mx·· + dx· + cx
 manufacturing tolerances.
With the variables
The following improvements have been m moving mass,
implemented as the result of the simulation d damping,
(example in Figure 2): x·· acceleration,
 position and shape of the working air gap, x· velocity,
 optimized cross-section for a stronger x travel,
magnetic flux, and c spring rate.
 reconfiguration of the working air gap
and parasitic air gap (geometry, position).

2 Optimization of magnetic force with MAXWELL 2D 3 “Force balance” model


a b

Fp FFr

FM x ˙ x

¯ d
æ STS0308E
æ STS0307E

Fig. 2
a Basic model
FM = 5.8 N FM = 10.2 N
b Optimization
FM Magnetic force
Robert Bosch GmbH

Electrohydraulic Actuators Simulations in Development 105

Pressure Calculation in a Chamber 4 “Chamber pressure” model

Pressure calculation in a chamber is
governed by:
dp β
= oil · Q
dt Voil
QE ΣQ β dt p
βoil compression module of pressurized
Voil chamber volume,
Q cumulative volumetric flow.

æ STS0309Y
The cumulative volumetric flow flowing into
the chamber, which is responsible for the pres-
sure build-up, is calculated from (Figure 4):
5 “Restrictor flow” model

Q = (QE – QA)

Q cumulative volumetric flow,
QA outlet volumetric flow,
QE inlet volumetric flow. Q

Flow-Rate Calculation at a Restrictor

The volumetric flow at a restrictor is 1 0 2 3
calculated from (Figure 5):
æ STS0310Y

Q = αf · Ao · · ∆p


∆p = p1 – p3

And where:
αf flow-rate coefficient,
Ao cross-sectional area of a restrictor,
ρ density of medium,
∆p pressure differential,
p1 pressure at point 1,
p3 pressure at point 3.
Robert Bosch GmbH
106 Modules for Transmission Control Application

Modules for Transmission Control

Modules are compact function and Modules exhibit the following advantages
constructional units that enable different over individual components:
standardized components to be integrated  reduced space requirement,
with the minimum component and space  reduced mass,
requirements and simplified interfaces.  fewer individual parts,
Hydraulic, electronic, and electrohydraulic  increased reliability,
modules are available to suit the level of  standardization of the components
integration required. integrated in the module, and thus
 reduced costs.
These advantages are essentially provided by
Mechatronic Modules simplifications to the mechanical and elec-
Since the number of sensors and actuators trical interfaces between the individual com-
deployed in the automatic transmission is ponents and the transmission. There is in
increasing while the amount of space avail- future still further potential for reducing
able to accommodate them is diminishing, costs in this field.
the drive towards ever-increasing integration However, any further increase in module
suggests itself not just for cost reasons. complexity could also lead to drawbacks;
Mechatronic modules can be used to this is because a manufacturer of modules
combine actuators and sensors, their con- must demonstrate competence over the en-
tacting and if necessary even an ECU into a tire spectrum of the components contained
single control system. The level of integra- therein. Since it is more difficult to separate
tion, or the scope, of a mechatronic module the components in the event of a fault, there
is dictated by the requirements of the rele- is the danger that increased follow-up costs
vant vehicle manufacturer (Figure 1). may be incurred in the event of both assem-
bly errors and repairs. Mechatronic systems
Improvement Potential therefore place strict demands on quality
Modular technology offers comprehensive and reliability in the manufacturing process
potential for improvement in comparison and necessitate precautionary measures to
with individual components (Figure 2). ensure that subsequent repairs can be
carried out.

1 Variable scope of a mechatronic module

Sensors Actuators
control unit
• Single unit • Temperature • on /off
• Mounting • Pressure • PWM
• Integrated • Rotational speed • Pressure regulator
• Combined • Position • (Stepping motor)

Electronic module (EM)

Hydraulic module (HM)

æ STS0291E

Electrohydraulic module (EHM)

Robert Bosch GmbH
Modules for Transmission Control Module Types 107

2 Improvement potential through modular system

Transmission manufacturer Vehicle manufacturer

Development Purchasing Assembly Final inspection Purchasing/Assembly

Individual components Individual components


Wiring Wiring Wiring

harness harness harness

4 to 8 4 to 8 4 to 8
actuators actuators actuators Transmission Transmission

4 to 8 4 to 8 4 to 8
sensors sensors sensors

Module Module
Electrohydraulic Electrohydraulic Electrohydraulic Transmission Transmission
module module module system system

Improvement potential Improvement potential

• Reduced expenditure • Reduced logistics • Simple assembly • Better adjustment • Reduced logistics
on electronics • Reduced costs • Lower wiring-harness • Increased reliability • No ECU mounting
• Optimized development scope • Lower wiring-harness

æ STS0315E
• Only one partner for • Reduced costs scope
development and • Space saving

Module Types 3 HM 5R55 hydraulic module (example: Ford)

Hydraulic Modules (HM)

The hydraulic module (HM) (example, 1 2 3 4 4 5
Figure 3) represents the first step towards
the simplified assembly of modules. This
module type comprises the following
components (primarily sensors and
 pressure regulator (1),
 PWM valve (2),
 integrated switching valves (4),
 transmission connector
matched to the vehicle type,
 temperature sensor,
 electrical connections, and Fig. 3
 joint filter seal between 1 Pressure regulator
module housing and 2 PWM valve
3 Transmission
adapter plate with
 hydraulic channels (5).
æ UTS0283Y

4 Integrated switching
5 Adapter plate with
hydraulic channels
Robert Bosch GmbH
108 Modules for Transmission Control Module Types

Electronic Modules (EM) to be routed, depending on the application.

Design As well as sensitive signal conditioning, the
The next stage of development involves the electronic transmission-control system
fusion of mechanics and electronics into the requires
mechatronic electronic module (EM), con-  power electronics with a high-precision
sisting of sensors and ECU. In many cases, current regulator (1 A with 1% accuracy)
it offers the possibility for system simplifica- for pressure control and
tion and cost reduction.  semiconductor relays for currents of
Electronic modules already come in dif- up to 8 A.
ferent types and versions. What they all have
in common is their optimum adaptation to Further functions are:
their environment, as the examples in Fig-  power supply,
ures 4 to 6 demonstrate.  safety monitoring, and
 CAN bus system for data transfer.
Bosch module for ZF transmission
The highly developed transmission func- The system also includes:
tions with real-time calculations require a  electrically actuated pressure-control
32-bit microcontroller (Motorola MPC555). valves and solenoid valves,
This means that up to 250 connections have  position sensor,
 rotational-speed sensors,
4 Siemens-VDO electronic module  temperature sensor, and
 transmission connector.

The environmental conditions which

impact on the transmission pose a particular
The temperature temporarily reaches
140°C and acceleration values of up to 30 g
occur. In addition, the electronic circuitry is
completely immersed in transmission fluid,
which contains contaminants, abrasion par-
æ UTS0316Y

ticles, and chemical additives (see also chap-

ter entitled “Automatic transmissions AT”
section “Automatic transmission luid/ATF”).

5 Conti-TEMIC electronic module 6 Bosch electronic module for ZF 6HP26

æ UTS0284Y
æ UTS0317Y
Robert Bosch GmbH
Modules for Transmission Control Module Types 109

Electrohydraulic Modules (EHM) Figure 7 shows an electrohydraulic module:

Expanding the components of the electronic A three-piece component carrier made of
module with the additional integration of plastic holds the components integrated in
actuators results in the electrohydraulic the module. A pressed screen, located be-
module (EHM). tween the plastic components to provide
protection against dirt and metal shavings,
An electrohydraulic module therefore contains the electrical wiring. The compo-
comprises nents in the pressed screen are contacted by
 sensors, laser welding or special insulation-displace-
 actuators, and ment connection technology.

7 Electrohydraulic module

3 Fig. 7
1 Transmission
2 Pressure-control
3 Rotational-speed
æ UTS0223Y

4 Microhybrid-
technology ECU
5 Position sensor
Robert Bosch GmbH
Robert Bosch GmbH
Index of technical terms 111

Index of technical terms

Technical Terms Control of Continuously Variable
Transmission, 52
1D Simulation, 104 Control, clutch, 37
Control, electrohydraulic, 37
A Controlled Torque Converter
ACEA, 31 Lockup Clutch, 51
Acquisition of Input and Conventional Shifting-Point Selection,
Output Variables, 84 40
Activation of Converter and Torque Cooperative Scheduling,
Converter Lockup Clutch, 53 software development, 82
Actuator selection, 102 Cornering, 41
Actuator Types, 94 ff “Crescent” oil pump, 18
Adaptive Pressure Control, 39 Current-Regulator, 74
Adaptive Transmission CVT, 22
Control (ATC), 41 CVT Components, 26 f
Add-on systems, 33 CVT Oil Pump, 27
Air-temperature sensor, 59
Application in Motor Vehicles, 54 D
ASC Operation, 41 Daimler/Maybach Steel-Wheel
ASIC, 65 Carriage, 29
ASIC Chips, 74 Data Processing, ECU, 62
AST Components, 10 DC Motors, 10 f
ATF-temperature sensor, 59 Deciding on the Pressure-Regulator
Automated manual transmissions, 8 Type, 102
Automated Shift Transmission (AST), 8 Design and Operating Concept, 93
Automatic Transmission (AT), 14 Design with ASCET-SD, 81
Automatic transmission fluid, 17 Design, ECU, 62
Automatic Transmission Development Process,
Fluid (ATF), 17 f software development, 78
Automatic transmissions, 14 Diagnostic Functions,
software development, 90
B Direct Control, 37
Backup Fault Memory, 90 Downshift Under Load, 38
Basic Principles of 1D Simulation, 104 Downshifts, 45, 48
Benz patent motor carriage, 5 Driveability, 6
Bit rates, 86 Driver Type, 89
Driver-type determination, 88
C Driver-type evaluation, 88
CAFE, 31 Driver-Type Recognition, 41
CAN interface, 86 Drivetrain, 4
Cartronic, 30 Drivetrain ECUs f, 70
Circuit Simulation with SABER, 77 Drivetrain Management, 30
Clutch Activation, 53 Driving Program, 53
Clutch Control, 37 Driving situation, 89
Clutch management, 32 Driving-Situation Recognition, 41
Clutch Servo Unit, 10 Dual-Clutch Transmission (DCT), 12
Comfort and Convenience, 6 Dunashift, 9
Communication Inside the ECU, 66
Continuously Variable Transmission E
(CVT), 22 Easytronic, 9
Continuously variable transmissions, EC Motors, 11
22, 52 ECU, 67
Control of Automated Shift ECU Development, 77
Transmission AST, 32 ECUs for Electronic Transmission
Control of Automatic Transmissions, Control, 68
36 EEPROM, 65
Robert Bosch GmbH
112 Index of technical terms

Electric-Motor Automated Shift Integrated ECU, 10

Transmission AST, 33 Integration levels of sensors, 54
Electric-Motor Clutch Management
(ECM), 32 J
Electrohydraulic Actuators, 92 JAMA, 31
Electrohydraulic Control, 37
Electrohydraulic Modules (EHM), 109 K
Electronic control unit, 10 KAMA, 31
Electronic Control Unit (ECU),
62-63 ff L
Electronic Modules (EM), 108 Lepelletier planetary-gear set, 15
Electronic Transmission Control, 30 Link-chain, 27
Energy balance in the drivetrain, 4
Engine Intervention, 42 ff M
Engine-oil temperature sensor, 59 Magnetic-Circuit Calculation, 104
Engine-temperature sensor, 59 Manually Shifted Transmission, 7
Engine-Torque Specification, 49 Market Trends, 31
Environmental Influences, ECU, 67 Mechatronic Modules, 106
EOL Programming, 66 Microcontroller, 64
EPROM, 65 Microhybrid ECUs, 72 f
Examples of AST in Series Production, Micromechanical Pressure Sensors,
9 56-58
Exhaust-gas temperature sensor, 59 Mixed Scheduling,
Extroid-CVT, 22 software development, 83
Module Types, 107
F Modules for Transmission Control, 106
Fault Memory, 90 Monitoring Functions,
Fill-Time Measurement, 39 software development, 90
Flash-EPROM, 65 Monitoring Module, 65
Flat-Seat Pressure Regulator, 99 f Multimatic, 22
Flow Simulation, 103 Multiplate Clutches, 20
Friction-gear CVT, 28 Multitronic, 22
Fuel Consumption, 6 Multitronic with link-chain, 23
Fuel-temperature sensor, 59
Function Simulation, 103 O
Object-Oriented Approach, 87
G Oil Pump, 18, 27
Gear Selection and Adaptive On/Off Solenoid Valves, 94 f
Functions, 87 Open and Closed-Loop
Control Functions, 52
H Operating Conditions, ECU, 62
Hall sensor, 55 Operating System,
Hardware access, 85 software development, 82
Hill recognition, 88 Operational Reliability, ECU, 67
Hybrid-CVT, 22 Output Signals, ECU, 66
Hydraulic Control, 36 Overall structure of gear selection, 88
Hydraulic Modules (HM), 107 Overall structure of vehicle control, 88
Hyper-CVT, 22
I Parking Lock, 21
I/O-ASIC, 74 Phases of AST shifting operation, 34
ICVT, 22 Pilot Control, 37
Input Signals, ECU, 62 Planetary-Gear Sets f, 20
Installation Space, 6 Position Sensor for Transmission
Integrated Design and Construction, Control, 60
ECU, 67 Power Take-Up Elements, 16
Robert Bosch GmbH
Index of technical terms 113

Power-flow in a standard drive, 7 Super-CVT, 22

Power-shift transmissions, 14 Switching valve, 95
Preemptives Scheduling,
software development, 83 T
Pressure Correction, 40 Temperature Sensors, 59
Pressure Regulator, 98 ff Thermo-Management, 75 f
Pressure-Regulator Monitoring, 91 Thermo-Simulation, 77
Primary Fault Memory, 90 Tools, 77
Printed Circuit Board ECUs, 69 Tools for Creating Software, 80
Process and Maturity Model, 81 Tools for simulation, 77
Processes, 77 Toroid Transmission, 28
Production Costs, 6 Torque Converter, 19
Program and Data Memory, 64 Torque Converter Lockup Clutch
Program-Run Check, 91 (TCLC), 16, 50
Programming Guidelines, 79 Transmission Control, 30
Pump Activation, 53 Transmission in the Drivetrain, 4
Pump Pressure, 18 Transmission Requirements, 6
Push-Belt, 26 Transmission Speed Sensors, 55
PWM Valves, 96 f Transmission with
Lepelletier Planetary-Gear Set, 15
R Transmission with Ravigneaux
RAM, 65 Planetary-Gear Set, 14
Ratio Control, 53 Transmissions for Motor Vehicles, 4
Ravigneaux set, 14, 21
Real-Time Compatibility, ECU, 67 U
Requirements, actuators, 92 Uphill Driving, 41
Reverse-Gear Lock, 53 Upshift Under Load, 37
ROM, 64 Upshifts, 43
Rotational-speed sensor, 55
S Variator, 26
SAE viscosity classes, 18 Vehicle simulation with TCM-Simutec,
Secondary Fault Memory, 90 81
Sensor-Signal Processing, 61
Sensors, 54 W
Sequence Control, 47 Watchdog, 74
Sequentronic, 9 Winter Recognition, 41
Shifting the Ignition Angle, 49
Shifting times, 35
Shifting with Torque Correction, 33
Shifting without Torque Correction, 32
Shifting-Point Selection, 40 f
Shifting-Sequence Control, 37
Signal Conditioning (Evaluation IC), 61
Signal Conditioning, ECU, 63
Signal Processing, ECU, 63
Simpson set, 21
Simulation Tools, 77
Simulations in Development, 103
Slip-Time Measurement, 39
Software Development, 78 ff
Software Sharing, 34
Software Structure, 82
Solenoid valves, 94
Solenoid-Valve Monitoring, 90 f
Spool-Type Pressure Regulator, 98 f
Robert Bosch GmbH
114 Index of technical terms Abbreviations

Abbreviations F R
FE: Fuel Efficiency RC: Ratio Criteria
ABS: Antilock Braking System H S
ACEA: Association des Constructeurs HM: Hydraulic module SAC: Self Adjusting Clutch
Européens d’Automobiles SW: Software
(Association of European I
Automobile Manufacturers) IC: Integrated Circuit T
AMT: Automated Manual Transmission ISIG: Inductive Signature TC: Transmission control
ASC: Anti-Slipping-Control TCLC: Torque Converter
ASIC: Application Specific Integrated J Lockup Clutch
Circuit JAMA: Japan Automotive TCP: Transmission Control Panel
AST: Automated Shift Transmission Manufactures Association TCM: Transmission Control Module
AT: Automatic Transmission TCS: Traction Control System
ATC: Adaptive Transmission Control K TI: Torque Intervention
ATF: Automatic Transmission Fluid KAMA: Korean Automotive
Manufactures Association U
B US: Up Shift
BIOS: Basic Input Output System L USP: Up Shift Prevention
LTCC: Low-Temperature Cofired
C Ceramic
CAFE: Corporate Average Fuel
Efficiency M
CAN: Controller Area Network M: Torque (German: Moment)
CARB: California Air Resource Board MEG: Engine ETC/EGAS transmission
CMM: Capture Maturity Model MV: Solenoid valve
CTCC: Controlled Torque Converter (German: Magnetventil)
Lockup Clutch
CVT: Continuous Variable N
Transmission n.c.: normally closed
n.o.: normally open
DC: Direct Current P
DCT: Dual-Clutch Transmission PCB: Printed Circuit Board
DS: Down Shift PRC: Programm-Run Check
DSP: Down Shift Prevention PR-F: Pressure Regulators
E PR-S: Pressure Regulators Spool-type
ECM: Electronic Clutch Management
EHM: Electrohydraulic Modules Q
EM: Elektronicmodule QA: Quality Assessment
EOL: End Of Line
ETC: Electronic Transmission Control