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AE 60022

AE 40030
ADVANCED GAS TURBINE THEORY

Dr. Chetan S. Mistry


AE 60022 / AE 40030 ADVANCED GAS TURBINE THEORY

1. General propulsion systems,


1. Introduction to Jet Propulsion systems
2. Theory of intakes and exhaust systems,
thrust reversers, 2. Types of aircraft engines
3. Jet engine noise and methods of noise 3. Jet engine Thermal Cycle analysis
reduction, 4. Two spool and Three spool configurations
4. Cycle analysis of one and two spool 5. Engine Installation & Theory of Intakes
engines, 6. Exhaust nozzles
5. Equilibrium running of gas turbine engines, 7. After burners and Thrust reverser
6. Design and off-design performance, 8. Design considerations for axial flow
Component matching, Transient behaviour, turbomachines
7. Design consideration of axial flow
9. Design and off-design performance
multistage machines, stream line curvature
10.Component matching
method, radial equilibrium equation

Dr. Chetan S. Mistry


Course Pre-requisites

Introduction to Aerospace Propulsion,

or

A course in Engineering Thermodynamics

Additionally :

A course in Fluid Mechanics and Gas dynamics


would be helpful

Dr. Chetan S. Mistry


Work Ethics
• DO participate and ask questions. For order in class, raise your hand when
asking a question.
• BRING all specified ENGINEERING equipment like Notebook, Calculator,
Gas table.
• HAND IN all Assignments ON TIME! Failure to do so may result in
consequences…YOU KNOW..
• SHOW CARE and concern for each other. Help one another in homework.
BUT NO COPYING OF ENTIRE ASSIGNMENTS!
• Design projects--- Group work
• IF you are LATE in class Do not take permission….. Take your seat without
disturbing whole class.
• Attendance---- Be Physically and Mentally present.

Dr. Chetan S. Mistry


Dr. Chetan S. Mistry
Course Evaluation

Examination Scheme
Teaching
Component
Scheme Hours
Course Weightage
Course Name Hours / CE
Code
Week
C SEE MS + ES
L T P
Att.
AE60022
ADVANCED GAS 3 - 0 3 3 0.20 0.30 0.50
AE 40030 TURBINE THEORY

Dr. Chetan S. Mistry


Weekly -3 Lectures

1. Introduction to Propulsion systems


2. Types of aircraft engines 4 Lectures
3. Jet engine Thermal Cycle analysis 7 Lectures
4. Two spool and Three spool configurations
5. Engine Installation &Theory of Intakes 8 Lectures
6. Exhaust nozzles
8 Lectures
7. After burners and Thrust reverser
8. Design considerations for axial flow 6 Lectures
turbomachines
9. Design and off-design performance 7 Lectures
10.Component matching

Dr. Chetan S. Mistry


Text/References
0. Class notes / Lecture notes
1.Saravanamuttoo, H.I.H., Rogers G.F.C., Cohen H.; Gas Turbine Theory, 2001, Pearson
2.El-Sayed Ahmed, Aircraft Propulsion and gas Turbine Engines , 2008, T&F,CRC press.
3.Saeed Farokhi, Aircraft Propulsion, 2009, John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
4.Kaluse Hunecke , Jet Engines-Fundamentals of theory, design and Operation, Motor books Internation
5.Hill Philip, Peterson Carl, Mechanics and Thermodynamics of Propulsion, 1992, Addison Wesly
6.Mattingly J D , Elements of Propulsion – Gas Turbines and Rockets, 2006, AIAA Education series.
7.Mattingly J D , Aircraft engine design, 2006, AIAA Education series.
8.Gordon C. Oates, Aircraft Propulsion Systems Technology and Design, 1989, AIAA Education series.
9.Roy Bhaskar, Aircraft Propulsion, 2008, Elsevier (India)

Dr. Chetan S. Mistry


Course Projects
Rules..
1. Thermal Cycle analysis 1. Group may be of maximum 3 members and need to be
2. Intakes defined in advance.
3. Exhaust nozzles 2. Decide Engine in advance for the study.
4. Component matching 3. For the same engine specification perform all design work.

GASTURB
Joachim Kurzke AED Sys Excellent project
Mattingly J D will get
Excellent group grades.

Dr. Chetan S. Mistry


Aerospace Engines

Air breathing Non-Air breathing


Engines Engines

Reciprocating Jet propulsion


engines engines

Ramjet Scramjet Pulsejet Gas turbine Turbo ramjet Turbo rocket


or
Jet engine

Dr. Chetan S. Mistry


Jet Engines

Turbojet Turboprop Turboshaft Turbofan Unducted Ducted fan


Propfan Engine

Non A/B With A/B Propeller/ Rotor


Industrial
On Compressor Single Counter rotating
turbine
shaft propeller fan propeller fan

Propeller/ Rotor
Driven by free
Turbine
Next
Slide

Dr. Chetan S. Mistry


Turbofan Engines

Forward fan Aft fan Advanced


ducted fan
High Bypass Low Bypass
Mixed flow Unmixed flow ratio ratio

Non afterburning Afterburning


Non A/B With A/B

Single spool
Geared fan
Two spool

Ungeared fan
Three spool

Dr. Chetan S. Mistry


Evolution of aero engines.

Dr. Chetan S. Mistry


Trade
studies Mission
analysis
Technologies
Thermodynamics
Components
Aerodynamics
Inlet
Heat transfer
Fan
Combustion
Compressor
Structures
Combustor
Acoustics
HP Turbine
Gear boxes
LP Turbine
Materials
Nozzle
Manufacturing
Controls

Design
Integration Methods
Dr. Chetan S. Mistry
Engine design—from concept to manufacture

Mission PRELIMINARY DESIGN


Weight

Cycle
Performance

Scaling
Engine Component
Configuration Test

Component Component
Performance Design

Manufacture

Engine Test
Dr. Chetan S. Mistry
Lecture 2,3
AE 60022 & AE 40030
ADVANCED GAS TURBINE THEORY

Dr. Chetan S. Mistry


Turbojet Engine

After burner Number of spools

With After Without After Single spool Two spool


burner burner

Axial flow Centrifugal Axial-Centrifugal


compressor compressor compressor

Dr. Chetan S. Mistry


Single spool Turbojet Engine

Compressor
CC

Diffuser

Turbine
Nozzle

J85-GE-17A turbojet engine from General Electric (1970) Dr. Chetan S. Mistry
Hans von Ohain
Frank Whittle Engine

The first axial gas turbine engine designed


by Prof. Dr. Herbert Wagner. Dr. Chetan S. Mistry
Single spool Turbojet Engine Westinghouse J34
Dr. Chetan S. Mistry
Single spool Turbojet Engine Double spool Turbojet Engine

MIG23 afterburner
Dr. Chetan S. Mistry
Dr. Chetan S. Mistry
Why afterburner ?

• After burning (reheat) method which augmenting the basic thrust of engine.

• Increasing thrust without adding extra weight or complexity

• Improve aircraft takeoff, climb and combat performance for supersonic aircraft.

With Without
afterburning afterburning
Altitude

time
Dr. Chetan S. Mistry
Turbojet Engine

• Use of high exhaust gas velocity increases the Thrust developed by the engine.

• Simplicity of design,

• Efficient at supersonic speed.

• Improvement in efficiency.
• SFC
• Power at supersonic flight.
????
• Noise

Dr. Chetan S. Mistry


Secondary stream

Primary stream

Dr. Chetan S. Mistry


The jet velocity of turbojets is generally very high…..
results in poor propulsive efficiency for subsonic flight.
How can we correct that defect?
Commercial aircrafts
The solution is simple: Military aircrafts

• We extract energy from the hot gas stream with a low pressure turbine (LPT) located between the high
pressure turbine (HPT) and the nozzle.
• The jet velocity becomes smaller due to the additional power extraction and the propulsive efficiency
of the primary exhaust stream increases.

• The LPT provides a certain amount of shaft power which we can use to drive either a compressor with low
mass flow and high pressure ratio or one with high mass flow and low pressure ratio.
• In the latter case, the excess compressed air is expanded in a second outer nozzle and delivers additional
thrust.

• We can adjust both the primary and the secondary nozzle exit velocities as we like……
• If we extract a lot of energy from the primary gas stream, we get a low primary jet velocity.
• If we use this energy to supply a second jet with a similar jet velocity, then we get a very significant increase
in propulsive efficiency compared with that of our original turbojet.
Dr. Chetan S. Mistry
Turbofan Engines

Forward fan Aft fan

High Bypass Low Bypass


Mixed flow Unmixed flow ratio ratio

Non afterburning Afterburning


Non A/B With A/B

Single spool
Geared fan
Two spool

Ungeared fan
Three spool

Dr. Chetan S. Mistry


Single-spool Turbofan engine
Compressors Combustion
Turbines
Chamber Nozzle/Exhaust
Inlet
Bypass airflow
Bypass ratio  
Primary airflow

m
 Cold
m Hot
 fan
m

 core
m

•At nozzle exit, fluid flow at primary and secondary nozzle are mixed.
Optional: Afterburner, Convergent or Con/Di Nozzle
• Turbojet engines are easy to handle because there are only two main design variables:
The compressor pressure ratio and the burner exit temperature (TET).
• With the turbofan we have two more variables:
The bypass ratio (i.e. the mass flow ratio mfan/mcore) and the fan pressure ratio or that of the bypass
stream pressure ratio. Dr. Chetan S. Mistry
Two spool turbofan - Low bypass ratio

Divergent
Air Intake Nozzle

LP
Compressors
LP Turbines
Burner
HP
Compressors HP Turbine
Dr. Chetan S. Mistry
mixer

Maximum Thrust:
takeoff thrust: 2,050 lbf (9.1 kN)
OPR: 24
BR: 2.9
SFC: <0.7 lb/lbf/h (20 g/kN/s)
T-to-W: >5

GE Honda HF120 Aero Engine


Dr. Chetan S. Mistry
F-15 Aircraft

Bypass ratio : 0.63:1


Maximum Thrust : 14,590 pounds-force (64.9 kN) military thrust,
23,770 pounds-force (105.7 kN) with afterburner
OPR: 25:1
SFC: Military thrust: (0.73 lb/(lbf·h))
T-to-W ratio: 7.4:1
Dr. Chetan S. Mistry
Three spool turbofan-low bypass ratio

Divergent
Nozzle
Air Inlet

LP
Compressor
LP Turbine
IP Combustor
Compressors HP IP Turbine
Compressors HP Turbine
Dr. Chetan S. Mistry
Variable cycle engine
Noise reduce

(a) Take off

(b) Supersonic cruise


Optional: Afterburner, Convergent or Con/Di Nozzle

A variable cycle engine (VCE) is an engine that is designed to operate efficiently


under mixed flight conditions, such as subsonic, transonic and supersonic.

Requirements/ Expectations from Engine


- Fuel economy during supersonic and subsonic cruise (c) Subsonic cruise
- Noise

Dr. Chetan S. Mistry


Low bypass Turbofan Engine

• Modest increase in diameter to accommodate bypass fan.

• Capable of supersonic speeds with minimal thrust drop at high speed and altitude ..

• More Efficient than the turbojet at subsonic operation.

• Noise generated is less compare to turbojet.

• Complex to accommodate dual shaft design.


????
• Inefficient compare to turbojet due to higher cross sectional area

Dr. Chetan S. Mistry