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Straight Line
BASICS Section - 1

1.1 Important terms and their meanings:


 X  axis, Y  axis, Origin (O), Quadrants (Q I  Q IV)
and the coordinates of a point P which can be represented
as P (x, y).
 The plane containing X and Y axes is known as XOY plane.
 X  Coordinate of a point is also known as Abscissa = x
= Position of the point w.r.t. Y - axis

 Y  Coordinate of a point is also known as Ordinate = y


= Position of the point w.r.t. X - asix

To understand about the coordinates of a point, let us consider a square


ABCD with sides 2 units.

If the origin of XOY plane is at A and X  axis along AB, Yaxis along
AD then :
Coordinates of A  (0, 0), Coordinates of B  (2, 0)
Coordinates of C  (2, 2), Coordinates of D  (0, 2)

If the origin of XOY plane is taken at the centre of the square (as shown) then :
Coordinates of point A (in Q III)  (1, 1)
Coordinates of point B (in Q IV)  (1, 1)
Coordinates of point C (in Q I)  (1, 1)
Coordinates of point D (in Q II)  (1, 1)

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1.2 Distance formula :


Coordinates of A  (x1, y1) ; Coordinates of B  (x2, y2)
The distance between A and B :

AB  AC 2  BC 2

AB   x2  x1 2   y2  y1 2

The distance of a point P (x0, y0) from origin O (0, 0) : OP  x02  y02

Illustrating the Concepts :

Prove that the points (2a, 4a), (2a, 6a) and (2a  3a,5a ) are the vertices of an equilateral triangle
whose side is 2a.
Let A  (2a, 6a) 2 2
B  (2a, 4a)
CA   2a  3a  2a    5a  6a   2a

C  (2a + 3a, 5a) 2 2


BC   2a  2a  3a    4a  5a   2a

Using distance formula :  AB = BC = CA = 2a


or  ABC is an equilateral triangle
AB =  2 a  2 a 2 2
+ 6 a  4 a  = 2 a

1.3 Section formula :


Consider two points A (x1, y1) and B (x2, y2)
(i) Let a point P (x, y) divides the segment AB internally in the ratio of m : n.
PA m
 
PB n
The coordinates of point P (x, y) are :
mx2  nx1 my2  ny1
x , y
mn mn

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(ii) Let a point Q (x, y) divides the segment AB externally in the ratio of m : n.

QA m
 
QB n
The coordinates of point Q (x, y) are :
mx2  nx1 my2  ny1
 x , y
mn mn

Note : Mathematically, the case of external division can be taken as a case of internal division in the ratio m : n.

1.4 Mid-point formula :


If P (x, y) is the mid-point of AB, then m : n = 1 : 1, then the coordinates of point P are :
x x y y 
P  x, y    1 2 , 1 2 
 2 2 

Illustration - 1 The coordinates of the point which divides the line joining (1, 2) and (4, 7)
I. Internally in the ratio of 1 : 2 is :
(A) (3, 2) (B) (2, 1) (C) (3, 1) (D) (2, 3)
II. Externally in the ratio of 2 : 3 is :
(A) (2, 1) (B) ( 2, 1) (C) ( 5, 20) (D) (5, 20)
SOLUTION : I. (B) II. (C)
1  4   2  1 2   4   3  1
I. x 2 ; II. x  5 ;
1 2 23
1  7   2   2  2   7   3   2 
y 1 y  20
1 2 23
 The point (2, 1) divides the line segment  The point ( 5, 20) divides the line
AB internally in 1 : 2. segment AB externally in 2 : 3.

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Illustration - 2 The points ( 2, 1) , (1, 0), (4, 3) and (1, 2) represents the vertices of a :
(A) Square (B) Rectangle (C) Quadrilateral (D) Parallelogram
SOLUTION : (CD)
Let A, B, C and D be the points ( 2, 1), (1, 0),
(4, 3) and (1, 2) respectively.
The mid-points of diagonal AC and BD are :
  2  4  1 3
Mid point of AC   ,   1, 1
 2 2   Mid-points of AC and BD are same, so
 1 1 0  2  ABCD is parallelogram as diagonals
Mid point of BD   ,   1, 1 bisect each other. Also every
 2 2 
parallelogram is a quadrilateral.

Illustration - 3 The ratio in which the line joining (1, 3) and (2, 7) is divided by 3x + y = 9 is :
(A) 2:1 (B) 4:7 (C) 3:4 (D) 3:5
SOLUTION : (C)
Let the required ratio be k : 1. Now the point must satisfy the equation of
Now the point which divide the join of (1, 3) line 3x + y = 9.
and (2, 7) in the ratio k : 1 is given as :  2k  1  7k  3 3
3   9  k
 k 1  k 1 4
 k  2   11 k  7   1 3   2k  1 7k  3  Hence, the required ratio is 3 : 4.
 ,  ,
 k 1 k  1   k  1 k  1 

Illustration - 4 The coordinates of centroid of a triangle with angular points


(x1 , y1), (x2, y2), (x3, y3) is :

(A)  x1  x2  x3 , y1  y2  y3  (B)  x1  x2  x3 y1  y2  y3 
 , 
 2 2 

 x1  x2  x3 y1  y2  y3 
(C)  ,  (D) None of these
 3 3 
SOLUTION : (C)
Let A(x1, y1), B(x2, y2), C(x3, y3) be the vertices of ABC
and G be its centroid.
Let the mid - point of BC is D.

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The coordinates of D are :

 x2  x3 y2  y3 
 2 , 2 

Now the coordinates of G (the point at which the medians cut each other divides AD internally in ratio 2 : 1) are :

x x 
2  2 3   1  x1 
2  x x x
x   1 2 3
2 1 3

 y  y3 
2 2  1  y1 
 2  y  y  y3
y  1 2
2 1 3

1.5 Important terms w.r.t. triangle


(a) Centroid of triangle :
The point of convcurrency of medians of the triangle ABC
is called centroid of the triangle. It divides the medians in
the ratio of 2 : 1.
 x  x2  x3 y1  y2  y3 
Centroid   1  
 3 3 
(b) Orthocentre of Triangle
The point of concurrency of altiudes of the sides of tri-
angle ABC is called orthocentre of the triangle.The
orthocentre of the triangle is obtained by solving the
equations of two altitudes simultaneously.
Equation of AD is solved using slope-point form
(we will learn it in later sections) where A is the given
point and slope of AD is found using slope of side BC.
Similarly, we can find the equation of BE or CF.
(c) Circumcentre of triangle :
The point of concurrency of perpendicular bisecrtors of
the sides of the triangle ABC is called circumcentre of the
triangle. The circumcentre of triangle is obtained by solv-
ing the equations of two perpendicular bisectors simulta-
neously.

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Equation of OD is solved using slope-point form (we will


learn it in later sections) where D (mid-point of BC) is the
given point and slop of OD is found using slope of side
BC. Similarly, we can find the equation of OE or OF.
(d) Incentre of Triangle :
The point of concurrency of the internal angle bisectors of
the triangle ABC is called incentre of the triangle. The
incentre of the triangle ABC is :

 ax1  bx2  cx3 ay1  by2  cy3 


 x, y     
 a b  c a b c 
where a, b, c are the lengths of sides BC, CA and AB respectively.

(e) Ex-centres of Triangle :


The point of concurrency of one interior angle
bisector and two exterior angle bisectors of the
triangle ABC is called excentre of the triangle.
C1 is the point of intersection of interior angle
bisector of A and exterior angle bisectors of
B and C .
Similar is the case with C2 and C3.

 ax1  bx2  cx3 ay1  by2  cy3 


C1    
 a  b  c  a b c 

 ax  bx2  cx3 ay1  by2  cy3 


C2   1  
 abc a b c 

 ax  bx2  cx3 ay1  by2  cy3 


C3   1  
 abc a b c 
where a, b, c are the lengths of sides BC, CA and AB respectively.

1.6 Area of a Triangle :


Consider a triangle ABC with vertices :
A  ( x1, y1), B  ( x2 , y2 ), C  ( x3 , y3 ).

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The area of triangle ABC is denoted by  and is given as :


1
  x1  y2  y3   x2  y3  y1   x3  y1  y2  
2 
 If points (x1, y1), (x2, y2) and (x3, y3) must be taken in
anti-clockwise direction on diagram, then
 The expression for area can be written in determinant
notation as :

x1 y1 1 x1 y1 1
1 1
Area =   modulus of x2 y2 1  x 2 y2 1
2 2
x3 y3 1 x3 y3 1

1  y2 1 y 1 y 1
Evaluating the determinant : Area =    x1  x2 1  x3 1 
2  y3 1 y3 1 y2 1 

a1 b1
On opening the determinant, using :  a1 b2  b1 a2
a2 b2
We get :
1
  x1  y2  y3   x2  y1  y3   x3  y1  y2  
2 
1
  x1  y2  y3   x2  y3  y1   x3  y1  y2  
2 
This is same as above expression for area.
 If one of the vertices of a triangle is origin i.e. at (0, 0)

1
Area of AOB   x1 y2  x2 y1 
2
Illustrating the Concepts :
Show that the points (1, 4), (3, 2) and (3, 16) lie on a straight line i.e., the points are collinear.

For three points to be collinear, the area of


the triangle formed by these points should be x1 y1 1 1 4 1
1 1
zero, i.e.,  = 0.  Area =   x2 y2 1  3 2 1
2 2
Now we are given : (x1, y1)  (1, 4) x3 y3 1 3 16 1

(x2, y2)  (3, 2) Evaluating the determinant :

(x3, y3)  (3, 16)  = 0 the given points are collinear.

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Illustration - 5 The area of triangle ABC with vertices A (a, a2), B (b, b2), C (c, c2) taken in anticlockwise
direction is (in sq. units) :
1 1
(A)  a  b  b  c  c  a  (B)  a  b  b  c  c  a 
2 2
1 1
(C)  a  b  b  c  c  a  (D)  a  b  b  c  c  a 
2 2
SOLUTION : (A)
Here (x1, y1)  (a, a2) ; (x2, y2)  (b, b2) ;
and (x3, y3)  (c, c2) 1 

2   
a b2  c 2  ba 2  bc 2  ca 2  cb 2 

x1 y1 1 a a2 1
1
Area =   x2 y2 1  b b 2 1 1 
2
x3 y3 1 c c2 1

2 
 
a b2  c 2  a 2  b  c   bc  b  c  

1
  b  c  a  b  c  a  sq. units.
1  b2 1 a2 1 a2 1  2
 a b c 
2  c2 1 c 2 1 b 2 1
 
1 

2 
    
a b2  c 2  b a 2  c 2  c a 2  b 2 
 
Note : We can solve the determinant using properties of determinant that we will read in Determinant and Matrices.

NOW ATTEMPT IN-CHAPTER EXERCISE-A BEFORE PROCEEDING AHEAD IN THIS EBOOK

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STRAIGHT LINES Section - 2

2.1 Slope of a Line :


Slope (or gradient) of a line is defined as the tangent of the angle  which a line makes with +ve X-axis. It
is denoted by m.
 m = tan 

Illustrating the concept :

Note : 1. m can be defined as tan  for 0     and   /2.


2. The slope of a line parallel to X-axis = 0 and perpendicular to X-axis is undefined.

Slope of a line passing through two given Acute angle between two lines L1 and
points : L2 of given slope :
Let the two points be A (x1, y1) and B (x2, y2). Slope of L1 = m1 = tan 1
Slope of line L = m = tan 
Slope of L2 = m2 = tan 2
If  is the acute angle between L1 and L2,
then :

m1  m2
tan  
1  m1m2

If L1 is parallel to L2
BC y2  y1
 m  ( x1  x2 )
AC x2  x1  m1 = m2
If L1 is perpendicular to L2
 m1.m2 = 1

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llustrating the Concepts :

A line L1 passes through origin and ( 3, 3) and another line L2 passes through (1, 2) and (0,  3 ).

(a) Draw the lines L1 and L2 on XY plane. (b) Find the acute angle between L1 and L2 .
(a)

slope of L2  m2 

2  3   2 3
1 0

 tan  
m1  m2


1  2  3 
1  m1m2 
1   1 2  3 
y y
(b) Using the formula : m 2 1 3  3 3 1
x2  x1  tan    3  3
1  3 3 1
30
slope of L1  m1   1   = 60
3  0
2.2 Intercepts of a Line :
The line L cuts X and Y axes in A and B respectively.
X-intercept of L = OA = a
Y-intercept of L = OB = b
 X-intercept will be negative if L intersects -ve X-axis and
Y-intercept will be negative if L intersects -ve Y-axis.
 If L is parallel to X-axis, X-intercept is undefined and
If L is perpendicular to X-axis, Y-intercept is undefined.

2.3 Equations of Lines :


1. Consider a straight line passing through the point (0, 3) and parallel to
X- axis. Every point on this line satisfies the property :
Y - coordinate = 3
 This line can be represented by the equation y = 3.

2. Consider another line passing through ( 1, 0) and parallel to Y-axis.

Every point on this line satisfies the property :


X - coordinate = -1
 This line can be represented by the equation x = 1 .

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3. Taking a line passing through origin and making an angle 45° with
X-axis. For every point on this line, Y-coordinate is equal to X coordinate.
 This line can be represented by the equation y = x.
 Thus we can observe that corresponding to every line in the XY plane,
there is an algebraic equation of the form :
Ax + By + C = 0.
Definition :
Ax + By + C = 0 is the equation of a line L in XOY plane if :
(a) Coordinates of every point on L satisfy the equation : Ax + By + C = 0.
(b) Any pair of coordinates (x, y) satisfying Ax + By + C = 0 belong to the line L in the XOY plane.

Illustrating the concept :


Consider an equation 3x + 2y = 6 represented by line L.
(x = 0, y = 3) satisfy the equation  The point A (0, 3) lies on the line L.
(x = 2, y = 0) satisfy the equation  The point B (2,0) lies on the line L.
(x = 1, y = 3/2) satisfy the equation  The point C (1, 3/2) lies on the line L.

2.4 Equation of Line in various Forms :


(i) Equation of line L of slope m and cutting off an intercept b on Y-axis :
Any point P (x, y) on line L satisfies the following:
y b
tan   m 
x0
 y = mx + b is the equation of line L.
This is also known as slope - intercept form.

(ii) Equation of line L of slope m and passing through a given point (x1, y1) :
Any point P (x, y) on line L satisfies the following:
y  y1
Slope = m = x  x
1

 y - y1 = m (x - x1) is the equation of line L.


This is also known as point-slope form.

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(iii) Equation of line L passing through two given points (x1, y1) and (x2, y2) :
Any point P (x, y) on line L satisfies the following :
y  y1 y  y1
Slope of PA = x  x and slope of AB = 2
1 x2  x1
As PAB is a straight line :
 Slope of (PA) = slope of (PB)
y  y1 y2  y1
 x  x1 = x2  x1
y2  y1
  y  y1    x  x1  is the equation of line L.
x2  x1
In the determinant form it is given as :

x y 1
x1 y1 1  0 is the equation of line L.
x2 y2 1

This is also known as two-point form.

(iv) Equation of line L cutting intercepts a and b on X and Y axes :


Consider any point P (x, y) on line L.
 OAP +  OPB =  OAB
Now as one of the vertices of triangle is origin, using :
 = 1/2 (x1y2  x2y1), we get :

1/2 (ay  x.0) + 1/2 (xb  0.y) = 1/2 ab


 ay + xb = ab
x y
  1 is the equation of line.
a b
This is also known as intercept form.

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(v) Equation of line L in terms of p, the length of perpendicular from origin upon it and 
the angle which p makes with +ve X-axis :
Let OA be perpendicular to the line L
 OA = p
The coordinates of A  (p cos, p sin)
 = 90 + 
 Slope of L = tan  = tan (90 + ) = cot 
Using y  y1 = m (x  x1) (slope-point form)
y  p sin  =cot  (x  p cos ) ( can take values between 0 and 360)
x cos  + y sin  = p is the equation of line L.
This is also known as normal form of equation of line.

2.5 Properties of line whose equation is Ax + By + C = 0 :


(i) Slope :
A coefficient of x
Slope = m =  =
B coefficient of y
(ii) Intercepts :
(a) X-intercept :
C cons tan t term
X-intercept = a =  =
A coefficient of x

(b) Y-intercept :
C cons tan t term
Y-intercept = b =  =
B coefficient of y

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(iii) (a) Distance (d) of a point P (x1, y1) (not lying on the line) from
the line L : Ax + By + C = 0 :
A x1  B y1  C
d=
A2  B 2

(b) Distance of line L : Ax + By + C = 0 from origin (0, 0)


C
d=
A2  B 2

(c) Distance between two parallel lines Ax + By + C1 = 0


and Ax + By + C2 = 0 is :
C1  C2
d=
A2  B 2
(iv) The equation of any line parallel to Ax + By + C = 0 can be taken as Ax + By + k = 0, where k is any
number.
(v) The equation of any line perpendicular to Ax + By + C = 0 can be taken as Bx – Ay + k = 0, where
k is any number.
(vi) Concurrency of three lines :
The lines A1x + B1y + C1 = 0, A2x + B2y + C2 = 0 and A3x + B3y + C3 = 0 pass through a common
point (i.e. concurrent) if :

A1 B1 C1
A2 B2 C2  0
A3 B3 C3

Illustration - 6 1 1
If three points (a, 0) (0, b) and (1, 1) are collinear then the value of  is :
a b
(A) –1 (B) 1 (C) 2 (D) –2
SOLUTION : (B)
If points are collinear, then area of triangle formed  ab  a  b = 0
by these points must be zero. 1 1
Area   1
 a b
1 1 1
 a  b  1  0 1  0   1  0  b   0  1
2  Points are collinear if
a b

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Illustration - 7 A straight line passes through (2, 3) and the portion of the line intercepted between the axes is
bisected at this point. The equation of the line is :
(A) 2 x  3 y  12  0 (B) 2 x  3 y  12  0 (C) 3 x  2 y  12  0 (D) 3 x  2 y  12  0
SOLUTION : (D)
Let the required equation of the line be :  a 0 0b   a b 
 ,  , 
x y  2 2  2 2
 1 . . . . . .(i)
a b But it is given as  (2, 3)
The above line meets the X  axis and Y  axis in So on comparing, we get a = 4, b = 6
points (a, 0) and (0, b) respectively Substituting the values of a and b in (i), we get :
Now the point which bisects the join of (a, 0) x y
 1
and (b, 0) has coordinates : 4 6
or 3 x  2 y  12  0 is the required equation.

llustrating the concept :


Find the slope (m), intercept on X axis, intercept on Y axis of the line 3x + 2y  12 = 0. Also trace the
line on XY plane.
First calculate X and Y intercept in order to trace the line.

X-intercept = –
constant term

 12   4
coefficient of x 3

constant term

 12   6
Y-intercept = –
coefficient of y 2
coefficient of x 3
slope (m) = – coefficient of y   2

Illustration - 8 Given the triangle with vertices A (10, 4), B (4, 9), C (2, 1), find the equation of median
through B is :
(A) 3 x  4 y  92 (B) 13x  16 y  92 (C) 13 x  16 y  92 (D) 3x  4 y  9

SOLUTION : (B)
E (4, 5/2) using :
Let E is the mid - point of AC. y y
y  y1  2 1  x  x1  . . . . . .(i)
 E  (4, 5/2) x2  x1
Equation of median through B (4, 9) and (x1, y1)  B (4, 9) and (x2, y2)  E(4, 5/2)

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5 / 29
y 9   x  4
4   4 

Substituting the values of (x1, y1) and (x2, y2) in Simplify to get :13x + 16y = 92 is the required
(i), we get : equation.

Illustration - 9 Select the correct choice from the given choices of following questions.
I. Thre equation of the straight line passing through the points (3, 3) and (7, 6) is :
(A) 3x  4 y  3  0 (B) 3x  4 y  3 (C) 3x  4 y  3  0 (D) 3 x  4 y  3
II. The length of the portion of the line intercepted between the axes of the coordinates is :
(A) 5/4 (B) 3/2 (C) 3 (D) 5

SOLUTION : I. (C) II. (A)


The equation of the line through (x1, y1)  (3, 3)  Line cuts Xaxis in (1, 0) and Y-axis in
and (x2, y2)  (7, 6) is : (0, 3/4)
63
y3   x  3  3x  4y + 3 = 0 (1, 0)  (a, 0) and (0, 3/4)  (0, b)
73
3 Length of AB  a 2  b 2
a = X -intercept = –  1 , b = Y-intercept
3
3 3 2 5
=   12   3 / 4   AB  unit
4 4 4

Illustration - 10 Given the triangle with vertices A (4, 9), B (10, 4), C (2, 1). The equation of the altitude
through A is:
(A) 5 x  12 y  3  0 (B) 12 x  5 y  3  0 (C) 12 x  5 y  3  0 (D) 5 x  12 y  3  0
SOLUTION : (B)
We have m1m2 = 1 for two perpendicular lines

1
Hence slope of AE  AE  BC  
slope  BC 

1 12
1   4 
5  
Slope of line BC   5 / 12 5
2  10  12

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 Equation of line through A (4, 9) and having slope = 12/5 is given by :


y  9 = 12/5 (x + 4)
[using : y  y1 = m (x  x1)]
or 12x + 5y + 3 = 0 is the required equation.

Illustration - 11 The equation of perpendicular bisector of the line joining the points (1, 1) and (2, 3) is :

(A) 2 x  4 y  11  0 (B) x  2 y  11  0 (C) x  2 y  11  0 (D) 2 x  4 y  11  0

SOLUTION : (D)
Let P  (1, 1) and Q  (2, 3) 1 1
slope of L = 
The perpendicular bisector (L) of PQ will pass slope  PQ  2
through R (the mid point of PQ). [  L is r to PQ]
 1 2 1 3   3  Now equation of L : slope = 1/2 passing through
R ,    , 2
 2 2  2 
R (3/2, 2) is :
y y 3 1
slope of PQ  2 1  2
x2  x1 2  1 y  2 = 1/2 (x  3/2)
or 2x + 4y  11 = 0 is the required equation.

Illustration - 12 The coordinates of the foot of the perpendicular from the point (2, 3) on the line y = 3x + 4 is :

 1 37   1 37   1 37   1 37 
(A)  ,  (B)  ,  (C)  ,  (D)  , 
 10 10   10 10   10 10   10 10 
SOLUTION : (B)
Let L be the line  to the line 3x  y + 4 = 0  1 1 
  m1   
and passing through (2, 3).  3 m2 
The foot of the  is the point (P) of intersection The equation of L through (2, 3) is :
of L and 3x y + 4 = 0, so let us find the equation
y  3 = 1/3 (x  2)
of L first.
slope of given line or x + 3y  11 = 0

 coefficient of x   3 Now to find coordinate of P, solve


  3
coefficient of y 1 x + 3y  11 = 0 and 3x  y + 4 = 0
1 simultaneously to get :
 slope of L 
3
 1 37 
P , 
 10 10 

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Illustration - 13 The equation of line through the intersection of lines x  y = 1 and 2x  3y + 1 = 0 and parallel
to 3x + 4y = 12 is :
(A) 3 x  4 y  24  0 (B) 3x  4 y  24  0 (C) 3x  4 y  24  0 (D) 3x  4 y  24  0
SOLUTION : (C)
Required line L passes through intersection of Hence required equation of L is :
x  y  1 = 0 and 2x  3y + 1 = 0, so solving y  3 = 3/4 (x  4)
simultaneously the two equations:  3x + 4y  24 = 0
x  y 1 = 0 . . . . . . . (i)
Another approach :
2x  3y + 1 = 0 . . . . . . .(ii)
By cross-multiplication method, we get : As L passes through (4, 3) and is parallel to

x y 1 3x + 4y  12 = 0, its equation can be taken as


  x = 4, y = 3 3x + 4y + k = 0.
1  3 1  2 3  2
slope of L = slope of line : 3x + 4y  12 = 0 Since L passes through (4, 3)
( parallel lines)  3 (4) + 4 (3) + k = 0 or k =  24
slope (L) = 3/4
Hence, required equation of L is:
3x + 4y  24 = 0

Illustration - 14 The equation of the line passing through (a, b) and parallel to px + qy + 1 = 0 is :
(A) px  qy  pa  qb (B) px  qy  pa  qb
(C) px  qy  pa  qb (D) px  qy  pa  qb
SOLUTION : (B)
Equation of line parallel to px + qy + 1 = 0 can p (a) + q (b) + k = 0
be taken as px + qy + k = 0 (having same slope) k = (pa + qb)

Now, as it passes through (a, b) : Substituting for k = (pa + qb), the required
equation of L : px + qy = pa + qb

Illustration - 15 The equation of the line perpendicular to 3x + 4y + 1 = 0 and passing through (1, 1) is :
(A) 4x  3 y 1  0 (B) 4x  3y 1  0
(C) 4x  3 y 1  0 (D) 4x  3 y 1  0

SOLUTION : (A)
Equation of line perpendicular to 3x + 4y + 1 = 0 Now, the line passes through (1, 1) :
can be taken as 4x  3y + k = 0.  4 (1)  3 (1) + k = 0 k = 1
(i) Interchange coefficient of x and y Hence required equation is :
4x  3y  1 = 0.
(ii) Reverse the sign between x and y

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Illustration - 16 One side of a rectangle lies on the line 4x + 7y + 5 = 0. Two of its vertices are (3, 1)
and (1, 1). Then equation of other sides can be :
(A) 7 x  4 y  25  0 (B) 7x  4y  3  0 (C) 4 x  7 y  11  0 (D) 4 x  7 y  15  0
SOLUTION : (ABC)

One side is 4x + 7y + 5 = 0. Hence A (3 ,1) and C (1, 1) are opposite


vertices. Let ABCD be the rectangle with
AB lying along 4x + 7y + 5 = 0
(check that A lies on this line).
Equation of AD :
y  1 = 7/4 (x + 3)  7x  4y+ 25 = 0
Equation of BC :
Slopes of the four sides of rectangle are : y  1 = 7/4 (x  1)  7x  4y  3 = 0
4 7 4 7 Equation of CD :
 , ,  ,
7 4 7 4
y  1 = 4/7 (x  1)  4x + 7y  11 = 0
Slopes of line joining (3, 1) and (1, 1)
1 1
=  0 [  slope of any of the side  0 ]
1 3

Illustration - 17 The distance of line h (x + h) + k (y + k) = 0 from the origin is :

2 2
h2  k 2 h2  k 2 h2  k 2
(A) h k (B) (C) (D)
hk h k

SOLUTION : (A)
Remember :
Line is : h (x + h) + k (y + k) = 0 Distance from origin
| constant term |
=
hx + ky + h2 + k2 = 0
   
coeff.of x 2  coeff.of y 2 
h2  k 2
  h2  k 2
h2  k 2

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Illustration - 18 If p and p be the perpendiculars from the origin upon straight lines whose equations are :
x secθ + y cosecθ = a and x cosθ - y sinθ = a cos2θ, then 4p2 + p2 = a2 is equal to :

2
a2
(A) 3a (B)
2
(C) 2a 2 (D) a2

SOLUTION : (D)
4a 2
p is perpendicular distance of x secθ  y cosecθ Now, 4 p 2  p2   a 2 cos 2 2
= a from (0, 0) sec 2   cos ec 2

p
|  a|


4a 2 sin2  cos 2    a 2 cos 2 2
sec 2   cos ec 2 sin2   cos 2 

a2  a 2  4 sin2  . cos 2   cos 2 2 


 p2 
sec 2   cos ec 2
p is perpendicular distance of   a 2  sin 2 2  cos 2 2 
x cosθ  y sinθ = a cos2θ from (0, 0)
|  a cos 2 |  a2
 p 
cos 2   sin 2 
 p2 = a2 cos22

Illustration - 19 The distance between the lines : 6 x  8 y  45  0 and 3x  4 y  5  0 is :

(A) 3.0 (B) 3.5 (C) 2.0 (D) 2.5


SOLUTION : (B)
Note that, two lines are parallel as their slopes To use this result, write the given equations
are equal.Distance between two parallel lines as :
6x + 8y  45 = 0 . . . .(i)
Ax + By + C1 = 0 and and 6x + 8y  10 = 0 . . . .(ii)
Ax + By + C2 = 0 is given by : i.e. making the coefficient of x, y same in
respective equations
C1  C 2
The distance between the lines
A2 + B 2
|  45   10 | |  35| 35
    3.5 units
62  82 10 10

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Illustration - 20 The points on x + y = 4 that lie at a unit distance from the line 4x + 3y  10 = 0 are :
(A) (–3, –1) (B) (–7, 11) (C) (3, 1) (D) (7, –11)
SOLUTION : (BC)
Let P (t, 4  t) be an arbitrary point on the line  t 2 5
x + y = 4.
 t = 2  5 = 7, 3
Distance of P from 4x + 3y  10 = 0 is unity.
 Points are (7 , 11) and (3, 1)
4t  3(4  t)  10
  1 Draw the diagram yourself
16  9
NOW ATTEMPT IN-CHAPTER EXERCISE-B BEFORE PROCEEDING AHEAD IN THIS EBOOK
2.6 Equation of line in parametric form :
Consider a given line L making an angle  with + ve X-axis (i.e., 0    ) and passing through a given
point A (x1, y1).
We will express the coordinates of any point lying on the line in terms of
x1, y1, and a parameter r which will take different values for different
points on the line.
The value of parameter r for any point P is the distance of
that point from the given point A (x1, y1).
Let the coordinates of an arbitrary point P be (x, y).
From the right angle in the figure :
x  x1 = r cos   x = x1 + r cos 
y  y1 = r sin   y = y1 + r sin 

Hence the coordinates of any point on the line lying at a distance r from point (x1, y1) can be taken as :
(x1 + r cos , y1 + r sin )
Here r is positive for points above A and negative for points below A.

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Illustration - 21 A straight line drawn through point A (2, 1) making an angle /4 with the + X-axis inter-
sects another line x + 2y + 1 = 0 in point B. The length AB is :
10 5 5 2
(A) (B) (C) (D) 5 2
3 3 3
SOLUTION : (C)
Let AB = r
From parametric form, the point B can be taken as :
B  (xA + r cos , yA + r sin )
B  (2 + r cos /4, 1 + r sin /4)
B  (2 + r/2, 1 + r/2)
As B lies on x + 2y + 1 = 0, we have :

 r   r  5 2
2    2 1     1  r =
 2  2 3

Note that r is negative, as the point B lies below the point A.


5 2
 AB =
3
Another Approach :
Find the equation of AB from point-slope form and then solve with x + 2y + 1 = 0 simultaneously to get
coordinates of B. Then use distance formula to find AB.
2.7 Slopes of lines inclined at  with a given line :
Consider a given line L whose slope is m. Two other lines L1 and L2 are inclined at equal angles  with the
given line L. Let us calculate the slopes of L1 and L2.

Let m1 = slope of L1 and m2 = slope of L2


Let  = angle between line L and +ve X-axis

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 m = tan 
 L1 makes an angle ( + ) with +ve X-axis and L2 makes an angle (  ) with +ve X-axis.
 m1 = tan ( + ) and m2 = tan (  )
In terms of slope m of line L, we have :

tan   tan  tan   tan 


m1  and m2 
1  tan  . tan  1  tan  . tan 

m  tan  m  tan 
m1  and m2 
1  m .tan  1  m .tan 

Illustration - 22 The equations of straight lines passing through (2, 7) and having an intercept of length
3 between the straight lines : 4x + 3y = 12, 4x + 3y = 3 are :
(A) 7 x  24 y  182  0 (B) 7 x  24 y  18  0
(C) x2 0 (D) x2  0
SOLUTION : (AC)
Let the required line cut the given Slopes of the given parallel lines = m = 4/3.

parallel lines in points A and B. m  tan  4 / 3  3 / 4


m1 = = 1  4 / 3 .3 / 4
 AB = 3. 1  m . tan 
Let AC be the perpendicular
7
distance between the given lines. 
4
12  3 9
m  tan  4 / 3  3 / 4
 2 2 = m2 = = 1  4 / 3 .3 / 4
4 3 5
1  m . tan 
AC 9/5 3 = undefined
 sin  = = = .
AB 3 5
Hence one line is parallel to Y-axis and passes
Hence the required line(s) cut the given parallel
through (2, 7).
lines at an angle  where :
sin  = 3/5  tan  = 3/4.  its equation is : x + 2 = 0
Let m1 and m2 be the slopes of required lines. The other line is of slope = 7/24 and passes
through (2, 7).
 its equation is : y + 7 = 7/24 (x + 2)
or 7x + 24y + 182 = 0.

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Illustration - 23 The equation of the base of an equilateral triangle is x + y = 2 and its vertex is (2, 1).
The length and equations of its sides respectively are :

2 3
(A)
3
 
, 2 3 x y 52 3  0 (B)
2
 
, 2 3 x y 5 2 3  0

2 3
(C)
3
 
, 2 3 x  y 5 2 3  0 (D)
2
 
, 2 3 x y 5 2 3  0

SOLUTION : (AC)
Let A(2, 1) and B, C be the other vertices of
the equilateral triangle.
Length of the perpendicular from A to BC
(x + y  2 = 0)

| 2   1  2| 1
 p= 
12  12 2
m2 = slope (AB)
p 1 2 2
Side =    m  tan 

 1  tan 60  2  3
sin 60 2 3 3 =
1  m.tan  1   1 .tan 60
Now AB and AC make equal angles  = 60
with line BC whose slope is m = 1.
Equation of AC :

m1 = slope (AC) y  (1) = (2  3 ) (x  2)


 (2  3 ) x  y  5 + 2 3 = 0
m  tan   1  tan 60
= 1  m.tan   1  1 .tan 60  2  3 Equation of AB :
 
y  (1) = (2 + 3 ) (x  2)

 (2 + 3 )xy52 3 =0

2.8 Position of points relative to a given line :


Consider a line L  Ax + By + C = 0.

P (x1, y1) and Q (x2, y2) are also two given points. Let us calculate the ratio m : n in which the segment PQ is
divided by the line L.
The point of intersection of PQ and line L is :

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 m x  n x1 m y2  n y1 
R 2 ,
 mn m  n 

This point R lies on L. Hence :

 m x  n x1   m y2  n y1 
A 2  +B  + C = 0
 m  n   m  n 

m  A x1  B y1  C 
   
n  A x2  B y2  C 
Note that if Ax1 + By1 + C = 0 and Ax2 + By2 + C = 0 have same/opposite sign then PQ is divided by line
L externally/internally. Hence we have the following result.
(i) If Ax1 + By1 + C and Ax2 + By2 + C have same sign, then the points (x1, y1) and (x2, y2) lie on same
side of line Ax + By + C = 0.

(ii) If Ax1 + By1 + C and Ax2 + By2 + C have opposite

signs, then the points (x1, y1) and (x2, y2) lie on opposite
side of line Ax + By + C = 0.

(iii) The side of the line where origin lies is known as origin
side.

Note :
 A point (x1, y1) will lie on the origin side of the line Ax + By + C = 0 if Ax1 + By1 + C and C have same
sign.
 A point (x1, y1) will lie on the non-origin side of the line Ax + By + C = 0 if Ax1 + By1 + C and C have opposite
sign.

Illustrating the Concepts :


Check the validity of the following statements.
(i) (2, 1) and (3, 5) lie on opposite side of the line 3x  2y + 1 = 0.
(ii) (3, 5) lies on origin side of the line x + y + 1 = 0.

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Also confirm your answers by a diagram in the XY Plane.


(i) Line is 3x  2y + 1 = 0
For point (2, 1) :
Ax1 + By1 + C = 3(2)  2(1) + 1 = 5
For point (-3, 5) :
Ax2 + By2 + C = 3(3)  2(5) + 1 = 18
As the expressions have opposite signs, points lie on opposite sides
of the line and hence statement is TRUE.
(ii) Line is x + y + 1 = 0.
 the constant term C = 1 is positive.
For point (3,- 5) :
Ax1  By1  C  3  ( 5)  1  1
As Ax1  By1  C and C have opposite signs, the point (3, 5)
lies on non origin side.
Hence statement is FALSE.
NOW ATTEMPT IN-CHAPTER EXERCISE-C BEFORE PROCEEDING AHEAD IN THIS EBOOK
2.9 Family of lines :
Any line L passing through the intersection of two given lines.
a1x + b1y + c1 = 0 and a2x + b2y + c2 = 0 can be represented by the equation :
(a1x + b1y + c1) + k (a2x + b2y + c2) = 0,
Where k is a parameter and can take any value depending on other properties of line L.
Illustrating the Concepts :
Find the equation of the straight line which passes through the point of intersection of the lines
3x  4y + 1 = 0 and 5x + y  1 = 0 and cuts off equal intercepts from the axes.
Let (3x  4y + 1) + k (5x + y  1) = 0 be the required line.
 (3 + 5k)x + (k  4)y + 1  k = 0.
k 1 k 1
X  intercept = ; Y  intercept =
3  5k k 4
As it cuts off equal intercepts, we have :
k 1 k 1 7
= k =  , k = 1
3  5k k 4 4
7
 ( 3x  4y + 1 ) +    ( 5x + y  1 ) = 0
 4

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OR
 ( 3x  4y + 1 ) + (1) ( 5x + y  1 ) = 0
 23x + 23y 11 = 0 and 8x  3y = 0 are the possible equations of the line.
2.10 Angle Bisectors :
Consider two lines L1 and L2 represented as :
L1  a1x + b1y + c1 = 0,
L2  a2x + b2y + c2 = 0
Let P (x, y) be any point on either of bisectors.
Distance of P from L1 = distance of P from L2
| a1x  b1 y  c1 | | a2 x  b2 y  c2 |

2 2
a1  b1 a22  b22

a1x  b1 y  c1 a x  b2 y  c2
  2
a12  b12 a22  b22

Selecting + and  sign gives us two angle bisectors.


To distinguish between the two bisectors, follow the spets given below :
If c1> 0 and c2> 0
1. “+” sign gives the bisector of the angle containing origin.
2. If a1a2 + b1b2 > 0, then the origin lies in obtuse angle and if a1a2 + b1b2 < 0, then the origin lies in acute
angle.
3. If a1a2 + b1b2 > 0, then “+” sign gives the obtuse angle bisector.
4. If a1a2 + b1b2 < 0, then “” sign gives the obtuse angle bisector.

Illustration - 24 The equation of the obtuse angle bisector of the lines 12x  5y + 7 = 0 and
3y  4x  1 = 0 is :
(A) 4 x  7 y  11  0 (B) 4 x  7 y  11  0 (C) 4 x  7 y  11  0 (D) 4 x  7 y  11  0
SOLUTION : (A) Hence + sign gives the obtuse bisector.
Firstly, make the constant terms (C1, C2)  The obtuse angle bisector is
positive. 12 x  5 y  7 4x  3 y  1

12x  5y + 7 = 0 122  52 42  32
4x  3y + 1 = 0
 5 (12x  5y + 7) = 13 (4x  3y + 1)
a1a2 + b1b2 = 12(4) + (5)(3) = 48 + 15  4x + 7y + 11 = is the obtuse angle
= 63 (positive). bisector.

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Illustration - 25 The equation of the acute angle bisector of the lines 3x + 4y = 11 and 12x  5y = 2 is :

(A) 11x  3 y  15  0 (B) 3 x  11y  15  0

(C) 11x  3 y  17  0 (D) 3 x  11y  17  0

SOLUTION : (C)
Write the equation so that constant terms are positive.
3x  4y + 11 = 0 and 12x + 5y + 2 = 0
a1a2 + b1b2 = (3) (12) + ( 4) (5) = 16 (positive)
Hence +ve sign gives the obtuse angle bisector.
 ve sign gives theacute angle bisector.
   
 3x  4 y  11     12 x  5 y  2 
 The acute bisector is given as : 
 32  42  
 122  52 
 13 (3x  4y + 11) = 5 (12x  5y  2)
 11x + 3y  17 = 0 is the acute angle bisector.

LOCUS Section - 3

3.1 What is Locus ?


Locus is the path traced out by a point which moves under a given condition.
In coordinate geometry we represent the path of a moving point by an equation which is known as the
equation of the locus

Illustration - 26 The locus of a moving point so that its distance from the point (1,0) is always twice the
distance from the point (0, 2) is :
(A) x 2  y 2  2 x  16 y  15  0 (B) 3 x 2  3 y 2  2 x  16 y  15  0
(C) x 2  y 2  2 x  16 y  15  0 (D) 3 x 2  3 y 2  2 x  16 y  15  0
SOLUTION : (B)
Let P(x1, y1) be the coordinates of the moving point whose locus is to be found.
distance from (1, 0) = 2  (distance from (0,  2))

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  x1  12   y1  0 2

2  x1  0 2   y1  2 2
 x12 + 1  2x1 + y12 = 4 (x12 + y12 + 4 + 4y1)
 3x12 + 3y12 + 2x1 + 16y1 + 15 = 0
Replace x1 by x and y1 by y

Hence 3x2 + 3y2 + 2x + 16y + 15 = 0 is the required locus.

Illustration - 27 The locus of a point which moves so that the sum of its distances from the point (1, 0)
and (1, 0) is 4 units :

x2 y 2 x2 y 2 x2 y 2 x2 y 2
(A)  1 (B)  1 (C)  1 (D)  1
3 4 4 3 3 4 4 3

SOLUTION : (B)
 16  ( x1  1) 2  y12  8 ( x1  1) 2  y12
Let P ( x1, y1 ) be the moving point,
Distance from (1, 0) + Distance from 2
(1, 0)  4
  4x1 = 16  8  x1  1  y12

2
 (x1 + 4)2 = 4 [(x1 + 1)2 + y12]
( x1  1)  y12 2
 ( x1  1)  y12 4
 x12 + 16 + 8x1 = 4x12 + 4 y12 + 8 x1 + 4
( x1  1)2  y12  4  ( x1  1)2  y12  3x12 + 4y12 = 12

 ( x1  1) 2  y12 Replace x1 by x and y1 by y

x2 y2
   1 is the required locus.
4 3

3.2 General steps to be followed in a locus problem :


(i) Take the moving point as (x1, y1).
(ii) Convert all the given conditions into equations containing x1, y1, other fixed quantities (quantities
which remains same for all positions of moving point) and changing quantities.
(iii) Eliminate the changing quantities and form an equation containing x1, y1 and fixed quantities.
(iv) Replace (x1, y1) by (x, y) to get the equation of locus.

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Illustration - 28 A line is drawn through a fixed point (h, k) cutting the axes in P and Q respectively.
The rectangle OPRQ is completed. The locus of R is :
h k x y h k x y
(A)  1  0 (B)  1  0 (C)  1 (D)  1
x y h k x y h k
SOLUTION : (B)
To find the locus of R, let R be (x1, y1). But (h, k) lies on this line, hence it must
A s OPRQ is a rectangle, P  (x1, 0) satisfy the equation of line PQ i.e.,
and Q  (0, y1) h k
 1
 equation of line PQ is x1 y1
x y This equation contains x1, y1 and fixed
 1 quantities h, k. Hence the equation of locus
x1 y1
of R is obtained by replacing x1, y1 by x, y.
(intercept form)

i.e. h  k  1 is the required of the locus.


x y

Illustration - 29 A line segment of length  slides with its endpoints always on X-axis and Y-axis respec-
tively. The locus of its midpoint is :

2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
2
(A) x  y  (B) x  y  4 (C) x y  (D) x2  y 2  2
4
SOLUTION : (C)
Let (x1, y1) be the midpoint of segment AB.
Let A  (a, 0) and B  (0, b)
Mid-point of AB (a/2, b/2)
Hence x1 = a/2 and y1 = b/2
 a = 2x1 and b = 2y1
Hence A is (2x1, 0), B is (0, 2y1)
This equation contains x1, y1, and fixed
AB =   4x1 + 4y1 = 
2 2 2
quantity.
Replace x1, y1 by x, y.
 4x2 + 4y2 = 2 is the equation of locus.

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Illustration - 30 A straight line passes through a fixed point (h, k). The locus of the foot of the perpendicu-
lar drawn to it from origin is :
(A) x 2  y 2  hx  ky  0 (B) x 2  y 2  hx  ky  0

(C) x 2  y 2  kx  hy  0 (D) x 2  y 2  kx  hy  0

SOLUTION : B
Let A(h, k) be the fixed point. As OP  AP,
Let P (x1, y1) be the foot of the perpendicular Slope(OP) × Slope(AP) = 1
drawn from the origin to the line.
 y1  0   y1  k 
       1
x
 1  0   1 x  h 
2 2
 x1 + y1  hx1  ky1 = 0
Replacing x1, y1 by x, y we get :
x2 + y2  hx  ky = 0 is the required
locus.
NOW ATTEMPT IN-CHAPTER EXERCISE-D BEFORE PROCEEDING AHEAD IN THIS EBOOK
NOW ATTEMPT OBJECTIVE WORKSHEET BEFORE PROCEEDING AHEAD IN THIS EBOOK

THINGS TO REMEMBER

1. Distance Formula :
The distance between A and B : AB   x2  x1 2   y2  y1 2
2. Section Formula :
(i) Consider two points A  ( x1, y1 ) and B  ( x2 , y2 ) then coordinates of point P (x, y) which divides
mx2  nx1 my2  ny1
the segment AB internally in the ratio of m : n are : x  , y
mn mn

(ii) Consider two points A  ( x1, y1 ) and B  ( x2 , y2 ) then coordinates of point P (x, y) which divides
mx2  nx1 my2  ny1
the segment AB externally in the ratio of m : n are : x  , y
mn mn
3. Important terms w.r.t. Triangle
(i) Centroid of Triangle :
The point of concurrency of medians of the triangle ABC is called centroid of the triangle.
 x1  x2  x3 y1  y2  y3 
Centroid   , 
 3 3 

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(ii) Orthocentre of Triangle :


The point of concurrency of altiudes of the sides of triangle ABC is called orthocentre of the triangle.
The orthocentre of the triangle is obtained by solving the equations of two altitudes simultaneously.
(iii) Circumcentre of triangle :
The point of concurrency of perpendicular bisectors of the sides of the triangle ABC is called
circumcentre of the triangle. The circumcetnre of triangle is obtained by solving the equations of two
perperndicular bisectors simultaneously.
(iv) Incentre of Triangle :
The point of concurrency of the internal angle bisectors of the triangle ABC is called incentre of the
triangle. The incentre of the triangle ABC is :
 ax  bx2  cx3 ay1  by2  cy3 
( x, y )   1 ,  where a, b, c are the lengths of sides BC, CA and AB
 a bc a bc 
respectively.
(v) Ex-centres of Triangle :
The point of concurrency of one interior angle bisector and two exterior angle bisectors of the tiangle
ABC is called excentre of the triangle.
C1 is the point of intersection of interior angle bisector of A and exterior angle bisectors of
B and C. Similar is the case with C2 and C3.
 ax1  bx2  cx3 ay1  by2  cy3   ax  bx2  cx3 ay1  by2  cy3 
C1   ,  ; C2   1 ,
 a  b  c a  b  c   abc a  b  c 
 ax  bx2  cx3 ay1  by2  cy3 
C3   1 , 
 a b  c a  b c 
where a, b, c are the lengths of sides BC, CA and AB respectively.
4. Area of a Triangle :
Consider a triangle ABC with vertices : A  (x1, y1), B  (x2, y2), C  (x3, y3).
The area of triangle ABC is denoted by Δ and is given as :
1
  x1  y2  y3   x2  y3  y1   x3  y1  y2  
2

x1 y1 1
1
 The expression for area can be written in determinant notation as : Area =   x2 y2 1
2
x3 y3 1

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5. Slope of a Line :
Slope (or gradient) of a line is defined as the tangent of the angle  which a line makes with +ve X-axis.
It is denoted by m  m = tan 
6. Slope of a line passing through two given points :
Let the two points be A  (x1, y1) and B  (x2, y2). Slope of line

BC y2  y1
 m  (x1  x2)
AC x2  x1

7. Acute angle between two lines L1 and L2 of given slope m1 and m2 is :


m1  m2
tan  
1  m1 m2

If lines are parallel  m1 = m2 ; If lines are perpendicular  m1 . m2 = 1


8. Equation of line in various forms :
(i) Equation of line L of slope m and cutting off an intercept b on Y-axis is :
y = mx + b
This also known as slope - intercept form.
(ii) Equation of line L of slope m and passing through a given point (x1, y1) is :
y  y1 = m(x  x1)
This is also known as point-slope form.
(iii) Equation of line L passing through two given points (x1, y1) and (x2, y2) is :
y2  y1
 y  y1    x  x1 
x2  x1
This is also known as two-point form.
(iv) Equation of line L cutting intercepts a and b on X and Y axes is :
x y
  1
a b
This is also known as intercept form.
(v) Equation of line L in terms of p, the length of perpendicular from origin upon it
and a the angle which p makes with +ve X-axis is :
x cos  + y sin  = p
This is also known as normal form of equation of line.

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9. Properties of line whose equation is Ax + By + C = 0 :


A coefficient of x
(i) Slope : Slope = m =  B = 
coefficient of y

(ii) Intercepts :
C coefficient of constant term
(a) y-intercept : y-intercept = b =  =
B coefficient of y
C coefficient of constant term
(b) x-intercept : x-intercept = a =  =
A coefficient of x
10. Results :
(i) Distance (d) of a point P (x1, y1) (not lying on the line) from the line (L) Ax + By + C = 0 :
A x1  B y1  C
d=
A2  B 2
C
(ii) Distance of line (L) Ax + By + C = 0 from origin (0, 0) : d =
A2  B 2
C1  C2
(iii) Distance between two parallel lines Ax + By + C1 = 0 and Ax + By + C2 = 0 : d =
A2  B 2
(iv) The equation of any line parallel to Ax + By + C = 0 can be take as Ax + By + k = 0, where k is any
number.
(v) The equation of any line perpendicular to Ax + By + C = 0 can be take as Bx  Ay + k = 0, where
k is any number.
(vi) Concurrency of three lines :
The lines A1x + B1y + C1 = 0, A2x + B2y + C2 = 0 and A3x + B3y + C3 = 0 pass through a common
A1 B1 C1
A2 B2 C2  0
point (i.e. concurrent) if :
A3 B3 C3

11. Equation of line in parametric form :

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Consider a given line L making an angle  with + ve X-axis (i.e., 0    ) and passing through a given point
A (x1, y1). The value of parameter r for any point P is the distance of that point from the given point A
(x1, y1). Let the coordinates of an arbitrary point P be (x, y).
The coordinates of any point on the line lying a distance r from point (x1, y1) can be taken as :
 x1  r cos  , y1  r sin  
12. Slopes of two lines L1 and L2 having slope m1 and m2 inclined at an angle  with a
given line with slope m then the slopes of L1 and L2 in-terms of m are :
(i) m1 = tan ( + ) and m2 = tan (  )
tan   tan  tan   tan 
(ii) m1 = and m2 = and
1  tan  . tan  1  tan  . tan 
m  tan  m  tan 
m1 = and m2 =
1  m . tan  1  m . tan 
13. Positions of points relative to a given line :
Consider a line L  Ax + By + C = 0 and P  (x1, y1) and Q  (x2, y2) are also two given points. Then
m  A x1  B y1  C 
the ratio m : n in which the segment PQ is divided by the line L is   
n  A x2  B y2  C 
Note that if Ax1 + By1 + C = 0 and Ax2 + By2 + C = 0 have same/opposite sign then PQ is divided by
line L externally/internally. Hence we have the following result.
(i) If Ax1 + Bx2 + C and Ax2 + By2 + C have same sign, then the points (x1, y1) and (x2, y2) lie on
same side of line Ax + By + C = 0.
(ii) If Ax1 + Bx2 + C and Ax2 + By2 + C have opposite signs, then the points (x1, y1) and (x2, y2) lie
on opposite side of line Ax + By + C = 0.
(iii) The side of the line where origin lies is known as origin side.

14. Family of lines :


Any line L passing through the intersection of two given lines : a1x + b1y + c1 = 0 and a2x + b2y + c2 = 0
can be represented by the equation : (a1x + b1y + c1) + k (a2x + b2y + c2) = 0
15. Angle Bisectors :
Consider two lines L1 and L2 represented as : L1  a1x + b1y + c1 = 0, L2  a2x + b2y + c2 = 0
Distance of P from L1 = Distance of P from L2 where P (x, y) be any point on either of bisectors.

a1x  b1 y  c1 a x  b2 y  c2 a1x  b1 y  c1 a x  b2 y  c2
  2    2
a12  b12 a22  b22 a12  b12 a22  b22
Selecting + and  sign gives us two angle bisectors.

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To distinguish between the two bisectors, follow the steps given below :
If C1> 0 and C2> 0
1. “+” sign gives the bisector of the angle containing origin.
2. If a1a2 + b1b2 > 0, then the origin lies in obtuse angle and if a1a2 + b1b2 < 0, then the origin lies in
acute angle.
3. If a1a2 + b1b2 > 0, then “+” gives the obtuse angle bisector.
4. If a1a2 + b1b2 < 0, then “” sign gives the obtuse angle bisector.

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