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A GUIDEBOOK FOR

SOCIAL SCIENCE RESEARCHERS

Lecture Notes for


ARCH 505 ADVANCED RESEARCH METHODS

by
Assoc. Prof. Dr. Şebnem Önal Hoşkara

EASTERN MEDITERRANEAN UNIVERSITY


FACULTY OF ARCHITECTURE
DEPARTMENT OF ARCHITECTURE
CONTENTS

 Foreword

 Acknowledgements

 Contents

 Course Outline & Schedule

 Becoming a postgraduate (including study skills and supervisor choice)

 Science is a way of thinking

 When to conduct research

 What is research?

 Charactersitics of good research

 Types of research and research methods (research families, research


approaches, research techniques)

 Preliminaries to research

 Practical considerations when starting

 The research process

 Research Process Phase 1: Selecting / defining a problem (stating the


problem, questions, hypothesis, objectives), Selecting variables, Measuring
variables, Research methodology, Research design, Selecting a sample

 Basic framework for a research report / research paper

 Research Process Phase 2: Data Collection

 Research Process Phase 3: Analysis and Interpretation; Drawing conclusions;


Writing-up your research; Dissertation structure, Referencing / writing down
the bibliography

 Appendix 1: Preparing bibliographies and citations: styles and systems

 Appendix 2: Writing in English

 References

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EASTERN MEDITERRANEAN UNIVERSITY
FACULTY OF ARCHITECTURE
DEPARTMENT OF ARCHITECTURE

COURSE CODE & TITLE


ARCH 505 ADVANCED RESEARCH METHODS

TUTORED BY
Assoc. Prof. Dr. Şebnem Önal Hoşkara

AIMS AND OBJECTIVES


The main aim of this module is to provide an introduction to the process / methods of research
plan formulation and implementation and the appraisal of completed pieces of research.

On successful completion of this module, all students will have developed their skills in:
- research planning and data collection
- quantitative and qualitative analysis
- problem identification and problem solving
- written, oral and graphic communication.

On successful completion of this module, all students will have developed their knowledge
about:
- traditions of thought and its impact on design and planning thought and method
- multi-disciplinary research methods and techniques (particularly in social science
research)
- essay and dissertation writing and presentation.

On successful completion of this module, all students will have developed their appreciation
of and respect for values and attitudes regarding the issues of:
- efficiency in the use of resources
- professional ethics.

RELATIONSHIP WITH OTHER COURSES

This module is closely linked to all other postgraduate courses in which term papers are
prepared , essays are written and it surely complements research development and design,
and dissertation writing.

TEACHING METHOD

There will be weekly lectures and supervision of individual essays, term papers / project
assignments. Additionally, students will be involved in a panel discussion in which they will
be given the opportunity to discuss their views of research with and ask questions to ex-
graduate students and/or students who have been already involved in research at some
levels.

METHOD OF ASSESSMENT

This module is examined by a term paper. As a brief for this paper, in addition to the lecture
notes, assignments through “reading texts” will be given at the appropriate lecture during the
semester. Besides, there will be class or take-home exercises, which will enable students to
practice the theoretical knowledge they are given. Each of these will have certain percentages,

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which will define the final grade in the end. (The percentages of each assessment tool will be
announced to the students during the course.)

CONTENT

The module will mainly cover the following topics:


1. Becoming a postgraduate (including study skills and supervisor choice)
2. Science is a way of thinking
3. When to conduct research
4. Preliminaries to research
5. Types of research
6. Research as a way of knowing / learning
Research as a way of knowledge production
Research as a process
Research as a discipline
7. Types of research
8. Qualitative and quantitative research
9. Research methods / Choosing a research method
10. Practical considerations when starting
11. The research process

Research Process Phase 1: Selecting / defining a problem (stating the problem, questions,
hypothesis, objectives), Selecting variables, Measuring variables, Research methodology,
Research design, Selecting a sample

Research Process Phase 2: Data Collection

Research Process Phase 3: Analysis and Interpretation; Drawing conclusions; Writing-up


your research; Dissertation structure

TEXTBOOK(S)

Supplementary notes and reading material for the module will be provided for the students
during the course.

REFERENCES / SHORT BIBLIOGRAPHY

Barnes, Rob (1992), Successful Study for Degrees, Routledge, London

Beach, David P., Alvager, Torsten K.E. (1992), Handbook for Scientific and Technical
Research, Prentice-Hall, Inc., New Jersey

Blaxter, L., Hughes, C., Tight, M. (1996), How to Research, Open University Press,
Buckingham

Bouma, Gary D., Atkinson, G.B.J. (1996), A Handbook of Social Science Reserach: a
Comprehensive and Practical Guide for Students, Second edition, Paper Back, Oxford
University Press

Cresswell, John W. (1994), Research Design: Qualitative & Quantitative Approaches, SAGE
Publications, London

Day, Robert A. (1996), Bilimsel Bir Makale Nasıl Yazılır? (How to Write and Publish a
Scientific Paper?), çev. Gülay Aşkar Altar, TÜBİTAK, Ankara

Evans, K.M. (1968), Planning Small-Scale Research, National Foundation for Educational
research in England and Wales

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Jordan, R.R (1990) Academic Writing Course, Collins Study Skills in English, London

Graziano, A. M. And Raulin, M. L. (1993), Research Methods: A Porcess of Inquiry, Second


Edition, Harper Collins College Publishers, New York

Phillips, Estelle M., Pugh, D.S. (1994), How to Get a PhD: A Handbook For Students and
Their Supervisors, second edition, Open University Press, Buckhingham

Stapleton, Paul (1987), Writing Research Papers: An Easy Guide for Non-Native-English
Speakers, Austrialian Center for International Agricultural Research, Canberra

Stevens, Michael (1998), Daha İyi Nasıl Sorun Çözümleme, trans. Ali Öimen, İstanbul, Timaş
Yayınları

Türkiye Bilimler Akademisi (TÜBA), Bilimsel Toplantı Serileri: 7, Bilim Adamı Yetiştirme
Lisansütü Eğitim

Türkiye Bilimler Akademisi (TÜBA), Bilimsel Toplantı Serileri: 4, Üniversitelerde Akademik


Yükseltmeler

Türkiye Bilimler Akademisi (TÜBA), Bilimsel Toplantı Serileri: 1, Dünyada ve Türkiye'de Bilim,
Etik ve Üniversite

White, Brian (1991), Studying for Science: A guide to information, communication and study
techniques, E&F.N. SPON, London

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COURSE SCHEDULE

Detailed course schedule is separately supplied at the beginning of each semester.

WEEKS DATES LECTURE TOPICS ASSIGNMENTS / EXERCISES


1 Introduction / Study methods Exercise 1 (Take-home Ass. 1)
Becoming a postgraduate Exercise 2
Study skills
Choosing your supervisor
2 Science is a way of thinking, When to Exercise 3
conduct (scientific) research? Exercise 4

3 What is research? Characteristics of Submission of Ass. 1


good research Exercise 5 (Take-home Ass. 2)
4 Types of Research and Research Exercise 6
Methods Exercise 7
Exercise 8 (Take-home Ass. 3)
5 Types of Research and Research Submission of Ass. 2
Methods (continued)
6 Preliminaries to research, Practical Exercise 9 (Take-home Ass. 4)
considerations when starting (Introduction to Final Assign.)
7 Research Process: Phase 1 Submission of Ass. 3 & 4

8 Research Process: Phase 1 (First 5 items in the list of Final


Assignment–to be individually
discussed)
9 Research Process: Phase 1
(Basic Framework For a Research
Report / Research Paper)
10 Research Process: Phase 2 Introduction to the Panel
Preparing questions in class
11 Research Process: Phase 3 Submission of panel questions
12 Panel Discussion Submission of the Final
Assignment
13 Evaluation of the Course Announcing assignment
grades

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WEEK ONE
Main topics: Becoming a postgraduate, Study skills, Finding and choosing your
supervisor

I. BECOMING A POSTGRADUATE / GRADUATE

“UNDER YOUR OWN MANAGEMENT” is the key nature of postgraduate (especially


the PhD / doctoral) education.

In undergraduate education, a great deal in academic terms is organized for the


student, although it may not have seen to you like that at that time.

In POSTGRADUATE education / in DOCTORAL education in particular, YOU HAVE


TO TAKE THE RESPONSIBILITY for MANAGING YOUR LEARNING, and for
GETTING YOURSELF A DEGREE. People around you, your tutors, supervisor,
head of the department, etc. will only be there for you – TO GUIDE YOU, TO GIVE
SOME ADVICE TO YOU. Some will tell you THEIR OWN OPINION, or THEIR OWN
EXPERIENCES just to HELP YOU. But the RESPONSIBILITY FOR WHAT IS
REQUIRED, as well as FOR CARRYING IT OUT, REMAINS FIRMLY WITH YOU.

YOU ARE UNDER SELF-MANAGEMENT.

SO IT IS NO USE SITTING AROUND, WAITING FOR SOMEBODY TO TELL YOU


WHAT TO DO NEXT OR, WORSE, COMPLAINING THAT NOBODY IS TELLING
YOU WHAT TO DO NEXT.

IN POSTGRADUATE / GRADUATE WORLD, THERE ARE OPPORTUNITIES, NOT


DEFICIENCIES.

ALL NEW POSTGRADUATES HAVE TO BE PREPARED TO UNLEARN AND


RETHINK MANY OF THE DOCTRINES THAT THEY HAVE HAD TO ACCEPT UP
TO THIS POINT IN THEIR STUDENTSHIP CAREER.

A VITAL ASPECT OF THIS RETHINKING IS TO TAKE THE INITIATIVE IN


DISCUSSING WITH YOUR SUPERVISOR THE WHOLE RANGE OF YOUR IDEAS.

IT IS ALSO IMPORTANT TO MAKE CLEAR IN YOUR MIND, AS NEW


POSTGRADUATES, “WHY YOU WANT TO MAKE A POSTGRADUATE DEGREE”.
THERE MAY BE SEVERAL REASONS FOR IT, SOME OF WHICH MAY BE:

- TO GET DEEPER KNOWLEDGE ON A PARTICULAR SUBJECT RELATED


TO YOUR SUBJECT OR INTEREST AREA (THAT YOU MIGHT USE IN
PROFESSIONAL PRACTICE);
- AS A FIRST STEP TO THE ACADEMIC LIFE;
- TO POSTPONE GOING INTO THE PROFFESSIONAL PRACTICE OR
MILITARY SERVICE, ETC.

In that sense you have to be HONEST to yourself, to your institute and to your
supervisor, in order to get the most benefit from the study in the end.

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ACCORDINGLY, YOU ALSO NEED TO DEFINE THE SUBJECT AREA THAT YOU
WOULD LIKE TO CONTINUE YOUR STUDY.

II. STUDY SKILLS

Here are some useful hints / clues about the study skills during your graduate study:

 “PULLING SOMETHING INTO THE FOREGROUND”

CHOOSING 3 IDEAS / TASKS OUT OF 10 and TO GIVE “SHORT-CUTS” FOR


EACH.

 PERCIEVE AND ARRANGE YOUR STUDY AS “MANAGEABLE PIECES”

 “IT IS ONLY A PROBLEM IF YOU THINK IT IS A PROBLEM”


A great barrier to doing anything is to perceive it as a problem.

 TIME MANAGEMENT – a valuable experience in higher education

A principle of management is to SKETCH IN OUR OVERALL PLANS, then


temporarily CONCEAL SOME OF THESE. Put some of the tasks in PRIORITY, and
some into the BACKGROUND.

YOU should find a good way of managing your time (LONGTERM, SHORT TERM,
IN DIARIES, ON COMPUTER, ETC.)

Below is an example for a brief / general time-schedule of a research process:

 Deciding on a research projects (The 1 st to the 4th month)


 Writing a research proposal (The 5h to the 8 th month)
 Research work (The 9th to the 18th month for masters degree, the 9th to the
45th month for doctoral degree)
 Completing and defending the thesis (The 19 th to the 20th month for
masters degree, the 46th to the 50th month for doctoral degree)

TIMING SHOULD BE as REALISTIC as possible. NOT something you start with


good intentions and only give up with disappointment in the end.

YOU HAVE TO REMEMBER “BUNCHED DEADLINES” IN YOUR PLANNED


TIMETABLE.

SOME DEADLINES MUST BE BROUGHT FORWARD BY YOU, NOT BY THE


INSTITUTION OR SUPERVISOR.

YOUR OWN STUDY TASKS WILL CREATE LONG TERM DEADLINES FOR YOU.

REGULAR BOOKINGS MIGHT HELP YOU TO ACHIEVE YOUR TASKS ON TIME.

 TIME INVESTED IN “ADVANCE PLANNING” SAVES TIME LATER ON.

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ADVANCE PLANNING IS ALSO A “DECISION-MAKING PROCESS”:
NO DECISIONS means NO EFFECTIVE MANAGEMENT.

 A PIECE OF PAPER MUST GO THROUGH YOUR HANDS ONCE. (TAKING


EFFICIENT NOTES WILL SAVE YOU TIME IN THE END)

 TASK MANAGEMENT – LIMIT YOURSELF TO NO MORE THAN FIVE OR


SIX ASPECTS OF A LARGE TASK. OF THESE YOU WILL WORK ON ONE
IN THE END.

SET ACHIEVABLE TARGETS BECAUSE EACH OF THESE GIVES YOU MUCH


NEEDED FEEDBACK ON YOUR PROGRESS.

EXERCISE 1 (take home assignment 1)

Identify and list your long-term and short-term tasks, by giving approximate timing.

 ORGANIZE YOUR STUDY IN A MEANINGFUL STRUCTURE (ESSAYS,


RESEARCH REPORTS, THESIS)

SEE PREVIOUS EXAMPLES, COMPARE THEM WITH EACH OTHER, CREATE


YOUR OWN ORGANIZATION SYSTEM.

 KEEP YOUR STUDY UNDER CONTROL – WITH SOME FEEDBACK AT


CERTAIN POINTS.

 DEVELOP YOUR QUESTIONING TECHNIQUE TO STUDY IN AN ACTIVE


WAY.

There are numerous situations in which you will meet too wide questions for your
purposes. KNOWING WHERE TO START is again a matter of PULLING
SOMETHING INTO THE FOREGROUND.
LEARN “WHERE” TO ASK “WHICH” QUESTIONS.

LEARN “WHERE TO START WITH” IN ANSWERING QUESTIONS.

Scientists seek answers to their own questions. Their work is built on highly refined
skills in ASKING AND ANSWERING QUESTIONS.

KNOWING HOW TO ASK QUESTIONS is as important as KNOWING HOW TO GO


ABOUT ANSWERING THEM.

THE ESSENCE OF SCIENCE IS THE PROCESS OF FORMING QUESTIONS AND


SYSTEMATICALLY SEEKING THEIR ANSWERS TO GAIN A BETTER
UNDERSTANDING OF NATURE. SCIENCE IS A PROCESS OF INQUIRY, A
PARTICULAR WAY OF THINKING. (Graziano and Raulin, 1993, p. 2)
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Some forms of questions are more useful than the others.

“WHY” and “HOW” questions are useful because THEY GENERATE EXTENSIVE
ANSWERS.

The traditional journalist‟s six questions are: WHO? WHEN? WHERE? WHAT?
WHY? HOW?

WHO? WHEN? WHERE? ----- CLOSED QUESTIONS INVITING BRIEF ANSWERS

WHAT? WHY? HOW? ---------- OPEN QUESTIONS ELICIT MUCH WIDER


RESPONSES

(This topic will be studied in detail in the coming weeks.)

 BEWARE OF THE DANGER OF BECOMING A “LAZY THINKER” WHO


KEEPS ASKING QUESTIONS AND WAITING OTHERS TO ANSWER THEM.

III. FINDING AND CHOOSING YOUR SUPERVISOR


SUPERVISOR is the term most commonly used within universities and colleges for
academics who have personal responsibility for overseeing the progress of individual
students‟ research projects. The term „tutor‟ is sometimes used in a similar meaning.

IDEALLY, SUCH SUPERVISORS SHOULD HAVE BOTH SOME KNOWLEDGE OF


THE SPECIALIST AREAS IN WHICH THEIR STUDENTS ARE RESEARCHING,
AND ALSO A GENERAL UNDERSTANDING OF THE RESEARCH PROCESS AND
VARIOUS STRATEGIES POSSIBLE.

THEY SHOULD HAVE AN INSIDE KNOWLEDGE OF RULES AND REGULATIONS,


BOTH WRITTEN AND UNWRITTEN, AFFECTING THE RESEARCH PROJECT.

THEY SHOULD HAVE SOME SKILL IN CONDUCTING THE KIND OF IN-DEPTH,


BUT PARTIAL AND DISONTINUOUS, RELATIONSSHIPS REQUIRED FOR
SUCCESSFUL SUPERVISION.

THEY SHOULD HELP TO KEEP STUDENTS FOCUSED ON THEIR RESEARCH.

EXERCISE 2 (in class)

What do you want from your supervisor?


Identify and list the qualities you are looking for in your supervisor.

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Students expect their supervisors:
 to supervise them
 to feel responsible for them
 to read their work well in advance
 to be available when needed, to have free timetable for them
 to be friendly, supportive, and open
 to be constructively critical
 to have a good knowledge of their research area
 to be intelligent
 to be systematically working
 to motivate them
 to put them in discipline whenever needed
 to be communicative
 to structure tutorials so that it is relatively easy to exchange ideas
 to have sufficient interest in their research to put more information in the path
of researchers
 to be sufficiently involved in their success to help them get a good job at the
end of it all

Supervisors expect their students:


 to be independent
 to be creative and curious
 to be careful, analytical, questioning, good thinking
 to be committed hard work at times when needed
 to produce written work that is just a first draft
 to have regular meetings
 to be honest when reporting upon their progress
 to follow the advice that they give, when it has been given at their request
 to be excited about their work, able to surprise them and fun to be with

(Source: Phillips and Pugh, 1994, Chapters 8 and 11; after Blaxter, Hughes, Tight,
1996, p. 45)

Your relationship with your supervisor is of critical importance for you and your
research. This is not to say that you cannot get through the job without having a good
supervisor and a wonderful supervisory relationship, but you will probably find it a lot
easier, more stimulating and more rewarding if you do. (Blaxter, Hughes, Tight, 1996,
p. 42)

MAJOR REFERENCES

Barnes, Rob (1992), Successful Study for Degrees, Routledge, London


Blaxter, L., Hughes, C., Tight, M. (1996), How to Research, Open University Press,
Buckingham
Evans, K.M. (1968), Planning Small-Scale Research, National Foundation for
Educational research in England and Wales

11
Graziano, A. M. And Raulin, M. L. (1993), Research Methods: A Porcess of Inquiry,
Second Edition, Harper Collins College Publishers, New York
Phillips, Estelle M., Pugh, D.S. (1994), How to Get a PhD: A Handbook For Students
and Their Supervisors, second edition, Open University Press, Buckhingham

12
WEEK TWO
Main topics: Science is a way of thinking, When to conduct (scientific) research?
What is research? Characteristics of good research

I. SCIENCE IS A WAY OF THINKING

Science begins with the observation of nature (Wilson, 1952, p.21), and with the
belief that problems arising from those observations can be answered (Goldsteins,
1979, p. 19). It acquires value when it is able to predict novel observations by
studying the answers to solved problems (Beveridge, 1957, p. 87).

SCIENCE IS A WAY OF THINKING THAT INVOLVES A CONTINUOUS AND


SYSTEMATIC INTERPLAY OF RATIONAL THOUGHT AND EMPIRICAL
OBSERVATION. In scientific research, empirical observation and observed events
constitute the facts of research. But the empirical observation of events and the
resulting identification or listing of facts is not sufficient in science. We must go
beyond the immediately observable facts, using them in rational processes of
abstract thought to construct general principles and understanding and to make new
predictions about nature. Science, then involves the CONTINUOUS SYSTEMATIC
INTERPLAY OF FACTS AND RATIONAL THOUGHT (Graziano & Raulin, 1993, p.
9).

At this point it is also worth to have a quick look at the definitions of the two terms:

RATIONALISM as a WAY OF THINKING IN WHICH KNOWLEDGE IS DEVELOPED


THROUGH REASONING PROCESS ALONE. In the rationalist approach, information
is carefully stated and logical rules are followed to arrive at acceptable conclusions.

Consider the following deductive syllogism:


All cows are black.
This is a cow.
Therefore, this cow is black.

The conclusion is logically derived from the major and minor premises. But the same
logic would lead us to reject the following conclusion:
All cows are black.
This is black.
Therefore, this is cow.

In the rationalist approach, the conclusion is reached through the logic of the
PROCEDURE, - which is a more reliable way to arrive at knowledge than tenacity,
intuition, or authority.
- TENACITY (willingness to accept an idea as valid knowledge because that
idea has been accepted for a long period of time; requires no evidence for
a belief except that the belief is already accepted)
- INTUITION (sezgi)
- AUTHORITY (the acceptance of an idea as valid knowledge because
some respected source – Aristotle, the president, Sigmung Freud, etc.-
claims it is valid)

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However, using rationalism alone has its limitations. Consider this syllogism:
All 4-years old children developed fears of the dark.
Lisa is a 4-year-old child.
Therefore; Lisa has developed fears of the dark.

The logic is clear and the conclusion is correct, unless of course Lisa has not
developed fears of the dark.

What is the limitation?

Suppose it is not true that all 4-years old children develop fears of the dark, or
suppose Lisa is actually 7 not 4 years old, or suppose Lisa is a teenager not a child
at all.

Although essential, rationalism alone has its limitations in science; that is, THE
PREMISES MUST BE TRUE AS DETERMINED BY SOME OTHER EVIDENCE TO
ARRIVE AT THE CORRECT CONCLUSIONS. ATTAINING KNOWLEDGE, THEN,
DEPENDS NOT ONLY ON THE REASONING PROCESS BUT ALSO ON THE
ACCURACY OF THE PREMISES. There is no provision for assessing their accuracy
in the purely rationalistic approach.

The rationalistic approach allows us SYSTEMATICALLY AND LOGICALLY TO


DEVELOP A TENTATIVE STATEMENT (HYPOTHESIS) THAT CAN THEN BE
TESTED IN SOME OTHER MANNERS. EACH PREMISE IS A HYPOTHESIS, which
if shown to be true on the basis of the external data, CAN BE USED RATIONALLY
IN DRAWING CONLUSIONS.

In summary, the logic of rationalism is used in modern science to aid in developing


hypotheses that then can be tested against external criteria. IN ORDER TO
PERFORM THIS TESTING AGAINST EXTERNAL CRITERIA, SCIENCE MUST
DEPEND ON STILL ANOTHER WAY OF KNOWING – EMPIRICISM.

The word EMPIRICAL means– BASED ON OR GUIDED BY, THE RESULTS OF


OBSERVATION AND EXPERIMENT ONLY. FROM THE GREEK WORD
“EMPEIRIKOS” MEANING EXPERIENCED, SKILLED. (Shorter Oxford English
Dictionary)

EMPIRICISM is A WAY OF GAINING KNOWLEDGE THROUGH OBSERVATION


OF REAL EVENTS; that is KNOWING BY EXPERIENCING THROUGH OUR
SENSES. It is a method as old as civilization. For the empiricist, it is not enough to
know through reason (or intuition or authority) alone. It is necessary to experience
the events through the senses – to see, hear, touch, taste and smell. “I won‟t believe
it unless I see it!” is the empiricist‟s motto.
Empiricism alone, however has its limitations. (Graziano and Raulin, 1993, pp 7-9)

EMPIRICAL RESEARCH IS THAT KIND OF RESEARCH WHICH SEEKS TO


ANSWER THOSE KINDS OF QUESTIONS WHICH CAN BE ANSWERED BY
REFERENCE TO SENSORY DATA.

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EMPIRICAL RESEARCH cannot determine if a car is beautiful, or a girl is the most
attractive; if god exists, etc. But empirical research can determine the percentage of
young people who think god exists, for example.

To conclude;

SCIENCE brings together elements of both RATIONALISM and EMPIRICISM.


SCIENCE employs RATIONAL LOGIC and checks each step with EMPIRICAL
OBSERVATION.

The SCIENTIST is constantly shuttling between EMPIRICAL OBSERVATION, more


abstract RATIONAL THOUGHT and generic principles, and returning again to further
EMPIRICAL OBSERVATION of SPECIFIC FACTS.

To repeat once more:

SCIENCE IS A WAY OF THINKING THAT INVOLVES A CONTINUOUS AND


SYSTEMATIC INTERPLAY OF RATIONAL THOUGHT AND EMPIRICAL
OBSERVATION.

Certain characteristics of scientists (Graziano & Raulin, 1993, p. 5):


- curiosity
- creativity
- skepticism
- tolerance for ambiguity
- commitment to hard work
- a way of thinking that searches for answers to questions

II. WHEN TO CONDUCT RESEARCH

ENDLESS ARGUMENTS
HOW / WHERE TO STOP
HOW TO KNOW WHO IS WRIGTH OR WRONG

HOW TO KNOW WHAT WE KNOW

WE ANSWER QUESTIONS IN A VARIETY OF WAYS:


- LOOK OUTSIDE
- ASK SOMEONE / TAKE SOMEONE‟S WORD FOR IT
- LOOK IN THE RIGHT BOOK, ETC.

AND WE ACQUIRE KNOWLEDGE BY:


- TENACITY
- INTUITION (sezgi)
- AUTHORITY

CONSULTING AN AUTHORITY / SOMEONE WHO KNOWS

- HOW DO WE CHOOSE THE RIGHT AUTHORITY


 THE KNOWLEDGE HE/SHE HAS

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 POPULARITY
 POSSESSIONS
 POSITION
 THE WAY HE/SHE LOOKS

- THE OPINION OF A PERSON ON A SUBJECT IN WHICH HE IS NOT AN


EXPERT IS OF NO MORE VALUE THAN THE OPINION OF ANY OTHER
PERSON
- THE AUTHORITIES SHOULD BE CHOSEN CAREFULLY
- THE WORDS OF AUTHORITIES SHOULD BE ACCEPTED CRITICALLY

To sum it up:

If we take RESEARCH AS A WAY OF KNOWING, then we can say that

WHEN THERE IS A DISAGGREEMENT ON A QUESTION BETWEEN


-
DIFFERENT AUTHORITIES
- WHEN A PERSON DOES NOT ACCEPT THE OTHER‟S AUTHORITY
- WHEN WE HAVE A QUESTION FOR WHICH THERE IS NO AUTHORITY
TO ANSWER (AUTHORITIES CANNOT ANSWER)
- WHEN WE ARE NOT READY TO ACCEPT ONE AUTHORITY HAS TOLD
US, WITHOUT QUESTION
THEN WE DO RESEARCH.

SO THE QUESTION OF “WHAT IS RESEARCH?” ARISES.


But before going into the definitions of research, let us practice our knowledge with a
quick exercise:

EXERCISE 3 (in class)


1. List 3 authorities which you may consult for 3 different questions you raise.
2. List 3 questions that you may find no authority to consult, therefore you need
to do research.

III. WHAT IS RESEARCH?

Let us start this section again with a short exercise:

EXERCISE 4 (in class)

How do you view research? Complete the following sentence in no more than 20
words to convey your view of research.

Research is……………..

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Now let us look at the twenty views of research:

1. Research is about providing your pet theory.


2. Research is something done by academics or experts.
3. Research is very expensive.
4. Research is about establishing the facts.
5. Research is objective.
6. Research is about justifying what your funding person/organization wants to
do.
7. Research can prove anything you want.
8. Research involves a lot of jargon.
9. Research serves the powerful.
10. Research exploits the poor.
11. Research is useless.
12. Research is very difficult.
13. Research is time-consuming.
14. Research is scientific.
15. Research is a highly controlled activity.
16. Research is removed from reality.
17. Research cannot change anything.
18. Research should always be policy-related.
19. Research will break up your relationships.
20. I could never do research.

And now let us look at the twenty things you did not know about research:

1. Research is very time-consuming.


2. Research is subjective.
3. Research can be undertaken by anyone.
4. Research is often boring.
5. Research can also be fun.
6. Research can take over your time.
7. Research can be much more interesting than its results.
8. Research is about being nosy.
9. Research can be done in many ways.
10. You can research anything.
11. Research uses everyday skills.
12. Research gets into your dreams.
13. Spies do research; so do newspaper reporters.
14. Research can be done by the people and for the people.
15. Research can turn a theory into action.
16. Research can lead you in unexpected directions.
17. Lots of women do research.
18. Even hard men do research.
19. There are no definite answers (or are there?).
20. You can do research.

17
Now let us come to a more scientific definitions of research:
In general RESEARCH, is

 A WAY OF ACQUIRING KNOWLEDGE / A WAY OF KNOWING /


LEARNING
 A WAY OF PRODUCING KNOWLEDGE
 THE METHODOLOGICAL PROCEDURE FOR SATISFYING HUMAN
CURIOSITY
 A SYSTEMATIC / DISCIPLINED WAY OF THINKING / A PROCESS
OF INQUIRY
 A DISCIPLINE / A DISCIPLINED WAY TO GO ABOUT ANSWERING
QUESTIONS.

RESEARCH AS A WAY OF ACQUIRING KNOWLEDGE / A WAY OF KNOWING /


LEARNING

SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH IS DONE TO TEST IDEAS ABOUT THE NATURE AND


OPERATION OF SOME ASPECT OF THE UNIVERSE.

WE ENGAGE IN RESEARCH TO SETTLE CONFLICTING CLAIMS OR


DIFFERENCES OF OPINION OR TO TEST AN IDEA.

RESEARCH IS THE DISCIPLINED WAY WE COME TO KNOW WHAT WE KNOW.

RESEARCH IS ONE WAY OF KNOWING AND LEARNING.

RESEARCH AS A WAY OF PRODUCING KNOWLEDGE

FIRST WE GATHER INFORMATION, THEN WE ANALYZE IT.

ACCORDING TO OUR AIMS, WE PUT FORWARD NEW HYPOTHESIS IN A


CREATIVE WAY.

WE GATHER AGAIN INFORMATION ABOUT THE METHODOLOGY SUITABLE TO


TEST OUR HYPOTHESIS.

WE SELECT OR DEVELOP OR CREATE A NEW METHODOLOGY FOR TESTING


THE HYPOTHESIS.

IF THE RESULTS SHOW SCIENTIFICALLY ACCEPTABLE, MEANINGFUL


VERIFICATION OF THE HYPOTHESIS WE REACH TO A CONCLUSION: THIS IS
THE KNOWLEDGE PRODUCED OR CREATED.

18
RESEARCH AS THE METHODOLOGICAL PROCEDURE FOR SATISFYING
HUMAN CURIOSITY

It is more than merely reading the results of others‟ work; it is more than just
observing one‟s surroundings. The element of research that imparts its descriptive
power is the ANALYSIS and RECOMBINATION, THE TAKING PART and PUTTING
TOGETHER IN A NEW WAY, of the information gained from one‟s observations.
(Beach and Alvager,1992, p 65)

RESEARCH AS A SYSTEMATIC / DISCIPLINED WAY OF THINKING / A


PROCESS OF INQUIRY

TO DO RESEARCH IS TO BE INVOLVED IN A PROCESS. A PROCESS CAN BE


SEEN AS A SERIES OF ACTIVITIES MOVING FROM A BEGINNING TO AN END.

The research process is NOT A RIGID PROCESS. A rigid process is one in which
Step 1 must be done and completed before Step 2 can begin. On the other hand,
THERE IS A SENSE, in which, IF THE FIRST STEPS ARE NOT EXECUTED
CAREFULLY THE REST OF THE RESEARCH PROCESS WILL BE WEAKENED
OR MADE MORE DIFFICULT.

Those who have done a lot of research develop their own style of going through te
phases of the research process. Each researcher will describe a pattern of his own.
THERE IS A USUAL “SEQUENCE” IN THE RESEARCH PROCESS: Thus, this
sequence is not an “this and then that” ordering. Rather, THERE IS AN ORDER OF
BASIC STAGES AND SERIES OF INTERLINKED ISSUES IN EACH STAGE.

FAILURE TO ADDRESS THE RIGHT ISSUES SATISFACTORILY WILL


UNDERMINE OR MAKE MORE DIFFICULT THE REST OF THE RESEARCH
PROCESS.

RESEARCH IS DESIGNED ACCORDING TO A PLAN OR DESIGN. WITHOUT


CLEAR DEFINITIONS CONFUSION RESULTS. IF ONE KNOWS HOW AND WHAT
FOR S/HE IS GOING TO ANALYSE HIS/HER DATA, S/HE IS CLEARER WHAT
DATA S/HE NEEDS. AIMS, OBJECTIVES, SHOULD BE KNOWN / CLARIFIED
BEFORE DATA ARE COLECTED.

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OUTLINE OF THE RESEARCH PROCESS

PHASE 1: ESSENTIAL FIRST STEPS – CLARIFICATION OF THE ISSUES


TO BE RESEARCHED AND SELECTION OF A RESEARCH METHOD

1. SELECTING, NARROWING AND FORMULATING THE PROBLEM


TO BE STUDIED
2. SELECTING A RESEARCH DESIGN
3. DESIGNING AND DEVISING THE MEASURES FOR VARIABLES
4. SETTING UP TABLES FOR ANALYSIS
5. SELECTING A SAMPLE

PHASE 2: DATA COLLECTION – COLLECTING EVIDENCE ABOUT THE


RESEARCH QUESTION

1. COLLECTING DATA
2. SUMMARIZING AND ORGANIZING DATA

PHASE 3: ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION – RELATING THE


EVIDENCE COLLECTED TO THE RESEARCH QUESTION ASKED;
DRAWING CONCLUSIONS ABOUT THE QUESTION, AND
ACKNOWLEDGING THE LIMITATIONS OF RESEARCH

1. RELATING DATA TO THE RESEARCH QUESTION


2. DRAWING CONSLUSIONS
3. ASSESSING THE LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY
4. MAKING SUGGESTIONS FOR FURTHER RESEARCH

In other words, WTHIN THE RESEARCH PROCESS, YOU MAY

 START WITH SELECTING A TOPIC OR A PROBLEM


 THEN LOOK AT EXISTING STUDIES AND ANY RELEVANT THEORIES
 THEN FORMULATE A HYPOTHESIS
 DESIGN AN EXPERIMENT TO TEST IT OUT
 MAKE COMPARISONS IN SOME CASES
 AND FINALLY DRAW CONCLUSIONS AND SPECULATE ON THE
IMPLICATIONS AND NEXT STEPS

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For its VALIDITY and USEFULNESS, research in science and technology depends
on a concept known popularly as the SCIENTIFIC METHOD. This method covers all
aspects of SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH, so a research student should become familiar
with its qualities and implications early in the process.

Scientific research involves at minimum:


1. Creating and posing a question
2. Determining how to go about answering the question
3. Planning for and making appropriate empirical observations
4. Rationally making sense out of those observations.

The scientific method covers the following steps:


1. Study and discuss
2. Recognize possible problems
3. Collect information, observe and describe
4. Clarify problem, divide into sub-problems
5. Hypothesize
6. Deduce consequences, make predictions, and design experiments
7. Experiment, analyse results, test hypothesis
8. Develop theory, publish results

We may as well simplify these steps as in the following chart (Beach and Alvager,
1992, p. 28):

Identify the problem that defines


the goal of the project

Gather data with the hope of


resolving the problem

Posit a tentative hypothesis both as


a logical means of locating the data
and as an aid for resolving the
problem

Empirically test the hypothesis by


processing and evaluating the data
to see if the interpretation of such
data will resolve the primary
question that initiated the research
in the first place

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SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH IS A PROCESS BY WHICH

 QUESTIONS ARE SHARPENED OR FOCUSED


 DATA ARE GATHERED IN SUCH A WAY THAT THE QUESTIONS CAN BE
ANSWERED
 SOME OTHER QUESTIONS MIGHT APPEAR

THEREFORE RESEARCH IS A CONTINUOUS PROCESS.


END OF ONE RESEARCH IS OFTEN THE BEGGINNING OF THE NEXT.

RESEARCH AS A DISCIPLINE / A DISCIPLINED WAY TO GO ABOUT


ANSWERING QUESTIONS.

RESEARCH PROCESS IS A DISCIPLINED PROCESS FOR ANSWERING


QUESTIONS AND ALSO FOR RELATING THEORY AND DATA.

Asking the right question

ASKING A QUESTION IS A CREATIVE ENDEAVOR. A QUESTION BRINGS


TOGETHER TWO OR MORE IDEAS THAT AT LEAST FOR THE MOMENT, POSE
SOMETHING NEW. THE FORMATION OF SOMETHING NEW PROVIDES
SCIENTISTS WITH THE PERSONAL SATISFACTION OF INDULGING THEIR OWN
CURIOSITY AND EXCERCISING THEIR OWN CREATIVITY.

SCIENTISTS AGREE THAT SHEER CURIOSITY IS ONE OF THE MAJOR


MOTIVATORS AND ALSO A MAJOR COMPONENT OF THEIR WORK. “WHAT?”,
“HOW?” AND “WHAT IF?” ARE AMONG THE SCIENTIST‟S MOST BASIC
VOCABULARY.

“CURIOSITY MAY HAVE KILLED THE CAT”, according to a old saying, but
“CURIOSITY ALSO SUSTAINS THE SCIENTIST”.

(OF COURSE SCIENTSITS‟ CURIOSITY IS A DISCIPLINED ONE, SHARPENED


AND FOCUSED BY LABOR AND FRUSTRATIONS AS WELL AS BY SUCCESS.)

MOVING FROM GLOBAL QUESTIONS TO “RESEARCHABLE” QUESTIONS.

RESEARCHABLE QUESTIONS ARE:


 LIMITED IN SCOPE TO CERTAIN TIMES, PLACES, CONDITIONS;
 USUALLY SMALL FRAGMENTS OF LARGER QUESTIONS;
 NARROWED AND FOCUSED IN BROADER ISSUES

BESIDES,
 SOME OBSERVABLE, TANGIBLE, COUNTABLE EVIDENCE OR DATA
CAN BE GATHERED WHICH IS RELEVANT TO THE QUESTION.

Example:

WHAT WERE THE 5 MAIN DESIGN CRITERIA WHICH FRANK LLOYD WRIGHT
HAS USED DURING THE DESIGN PROCESS OF HIS PROJECTS?

22
IN THIS QUESTION ONE OF THE LIMITATIOS IS “FRANK LLOYD WRIGHT”, WE
ARE NOT ASKING THE 5 MAIN CRITERION OF THE DESIGN PROCESS WHICH
ALL ARCHITECTS USE BUT ONLY WRIGHT‟S CRITERION. SO THE EXAMPLE
QUESTION IS A FRAGMENT OF THE BROADER QUESTION WHICH IS:
“WHAT ARE THE 5 MAIN DESIGN CRITERIA OF THE ARCHITECTS DURING THE
DESIGN PROCESS?”

RESEARCH CANNOT DETERMINE WHETHER AN ACTION IS RIGHT OR


WRONG.

One of the disciplines associated with doing research is to learn to ask questions
which have measurable, sensory, countable answers. That is, questions which can
be answered in terms of observation.

QUESTIONS OF BEAUTY, TASTE, FASHION, MORALITY, RELIGION, POLITICAL


IDEOLOGY…..

As mentioned before, EMPIRICAL RESEARCH cannot determine if a car is beautiful,


or a girl is the most attractive; if god exists, etc. But empirical research can determine
the percentage of young people who think god exists, for example. In scientific
research, EMPIRICAL QUESTIONS are to be asked. RESEARCHABLE
QUESTIONS ARE EMPIRICAL QUESTIONS.

TAKING A GENERAL QUESTION AND FORMULATING FROM IT RESEARCH


QUESTION is something that can be learned – WITH PRACTICE.

To sum it up:

You do research for; “FINDING OUT SOMETHING YOU DO NOT KNOW” or


“FINDING THAT YOU DO NOT KNOW SOMETHING”

 INTELLIGENCE-GATHERING – THE “WHAT” QUESTION is generally


asked
 For RESEARCH – THE “WHY” QUESTION – which GOES BEYOND
DESCRIPTION and REQUIRES ANALYSIS / LOOKS FOR EXPLANATIONS,
RELATIONSHIPS, COMPARISONS, GENERALIZATIONS, THEORIES /
includes intelligence-gathering, decision-making, policy formulation.

INFORMATION in RESEARCH is used for the purpose of DEVELOPING


UNDERSTANDING – by COMPARISON, RELATING TO OTHER FACTORS,
THEORIZING, TESTING THEORIES.

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IV. CHARACTERISTICS OF GOOD RESEARCH

 RESEARCH IS BASED ON AN OPEN SYSTEM OF THOUGHT – the key


approach should be to keep in mind that the classical position of a researcher
is not that of one who knows the right answer, but of one who is struggling to
find out what the right questions might be.
 RESEARCHERS EXAMINE DATA CAREFULLY / CRITICALLY – a
distinguishing character of research compared to other types of learning
activities.
o The questions of “Have you got the facts right? Is your data relevant?
Can the results be interpreted differently? etc.” should be asked all the
time
o Being SYSTEMATIC, VALID, RELIABLE should be the main task
 RESEARCHERS GENERALIZE AND SPECIFY THE LIMITS ON THEIR
GENERALIZATIONS
 Research should be REPEATABLE – VERIFIABLE – CLEAR

Honesty and accuracy

TO BE HONEST AND ACCURATE ARE THE CHARACTERISTICS OF ANY


INTELLECTUAL ENTERPRISE.

IT TAKES A DEGREE OF SELF-CONTROL..

BEING DISCIPLINED AND REPORTING ACCURATELY.

BEING UNBAISED.

Record keeping

RECORDING WHAT HAS BEEN DONE, WHAT DECISIONS HAVE BEEN TAKEN,
WHY, ETC. FOR THE SAKE OF YOUR OWN MEMORY AS WELL AS FOR THE
USE OF OTHER READERS AND RESEARCHERS.

Accepting limitations

NOT TO OVER-GENERALIZE.

JUST CONCLUDE ON THINGS THAT YOU HAVE TACKLED IN YOUR


RESEARCH.

DO NOT MAKE CLAIMS BEYOND YOUR LIMITATIONS OR BEYOND THE DATA


ACTUALLY COLLECTED.

KEEP YOUR CONCLUSIONS AT THE LEVEL OF THE QUESTIONS ASKED.

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EXERCISE 5 (take home assignment 2)
1. Ask 3 researchable and 3 non-researchable questions regarding each of the
following themes: (a) reading books and learning / education (b) user needs
and space organization (c) factors effecting the architectural environment. Try
several alternatives before you finalize and choose the best of your questions.
2. Find a research paper or newspaper article or a research article in a recent
periodical, and try to identify the research questions in it.

SUBMISSION IN 2 WEEKS TIME!

MAJOR REFERENCES

Blaxter, L., Hughes, C., Tight, M. (1996), How to Research, Open University Press,
Buckingham
Bouma, Gary D., Atkinson, G.B.J. (1996), A Handbook of Social Science Research:
A Comprehensive and Practical Guide for Students, Second edition, Paper Back,
Oxford University Press

Graziano, A. M. And Raulin, M. L. (1993), Research Methods: A Process of Inquiry,


Second Edition, Harper Collins College Publishers, New York

25
WEEK THREE – FOUR
Main topics: Types of research and research methods

I. TYPES OF RESEARCH AND RESEARCH METHODS

If one studies the literature on research, he/she will find a baffling list of types of
research. Some of these types include:

 Pure, applied and strategic research


 Descriptive, explanatory, and evaluation research
 Market and academic research
 Exploratory, testing-out, and problem solving research
 Covert, adversarial and collaborative research
 Basic, applied, instrumental and action research

The basic characteristics shared by all of these different kinds or views of research is
that they are or they aimed to me PLANNED, CAUTIOUS, SYSTEMATIC AND
RELIABLE WAYS OF FINDING OUT OR DEEPENING UNDERSTANDING.

If we look at the types of research from various points of view, such as, considering
its methodology, applicability, locality, and funding, we may have the following types
of research:

1. METHODOLOGY: EMPIRICAL versus THEORETICAL research

EMRICAL INVESTIGATIONS involve OBSERVATIONAL and EXPERIMENTAL


WORK including all kinds of instrumentation and laboratory equipment.

THEORETICAL INVESTIGATIONS are often conducted with the help of only


paper, pencil, and computer in today‟s working arena.

2. APPLICABILITY: BASIC versus APPLIED research and development

Whenever it is important to stress the GENERAL GOAL OF THE RESEARCH it


may be referred to as BASIC or as APPLIED RESEARCH.

BASIC RESEARCH embraces research in which the scientists pursue their


investigations with the main purpose of finding out how nature works.

In APPLIED RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT, the goal is to extend the


findings from basic research into useful techniques that may be developed into
products to cover needs in society.

3. LOCALITY: UNIVERSITY versus NON-UNIVERSITY / MARKET research

To a large degree, BASIC RESEARCH is the main theme at UNIVERSITIES,


whereas NONUNIVERSITY RESEARCH tends to be more APPLIED.

4. FUNDING: PUBLIC versus PRIVATE funding of research

26
Here are the definitions of some other basic types of research in some detail:

EXPLORATORY RESEARCH – tackling with a new problem / issue / topic which is


little known; the problem might come from another field/discipline; the research work
will include examining the appropriate theories and concepts, developing new ones
when necessary with the hope to discover something useful in the end.

TESTING-OUT RESEARCH – trying to find the limits of proposed generalizations.

PROBLEM-SOLVING RESEARCH – starting with a particular problem in real world,


bring together intellectual resources to bear on its solutions; the problem has to be
well-defined and the appropriate method – including theories, should be discovered.

Besides, THERE ARE MANY WAYS OF THINKING ABOUT, AND CATEGORIZING,


THE WIDE VARIETY OF RESEARCH METHODS AVAILABLE FOR DESIGNING,
CARRYING OUT AND ANALYZING THE RESULTS OF RESEARCH.

ANY RESEARCH THAT HAS ALREADY BEEN COMPLETED IN THE PAST


FOLLOWING A CERTAIN METHOD CAN AGAIN BE REPEATED USING AN
ALTERNATIVE METHODOLOGY.

IN SOME CASES MORE THAN ONE METHOD CAN BE USED.

RESEARCH METHODS ARE LIKE DIFFERENT TOOLS IN THE RESEARCH TOOL


BOX. DEPENDING ON YOUR RESEARCH TITLE, FIELD OF STUDY, ETC. YOU
ARE TO CHOOSE AN APPROPRIATE TOOL FOR YOUR RESEARCH TASK.

EVERY RESEARCH METHOD HAS ITS ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES.


AT THE BEGINNING OF YOUR RESEARCH PROCESS, IT IS SUGGESTED THAT
YOU FIND OUT THE ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF THE
RESEARCH METHODS YOU WANT TO USE AND ALSO DISCUSS YOUR PLANS
FOR GATHERING DATA WITH YOUR SUPERVISOR AND/OR OTHER TUTORS.

ALL RESEARCH METHODS THAT RELY ON EVIDENCE FROM THE REAL


WORLD RATHER THAN ABSTRACT OR THEORETICAL IDEAS ARE EMPIRICAL.

THERE ARE NUMEROUS TEXTS AVAILABLE WHICH, EITHER ATTEMPT TO


PROVIDE A COMPREHENSIVE OVERVIEW OF THESE METHODS OR FOCUS
ON A SMALLER SELECTION OR ON JUST ONE METHOD.

Blaxter, et.all, (1996, pp. 58-59) attempts to take a simpler and more straightforward
way into the discussions of the methods. Thus, THEY LOOK AT METHODS AT
THREE SUCCESSIVE LEVELS, in terms of:

 TWO RESEARCH FAMILIES – general strategies for doing research (two


alternative formulations are offered)
- QUANTITATIVE OR QUALITATIVE
- DESKWORK OR FIELDWORK

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 SIX RESEARCH APPROACHES to design your research project
- ACTION RESEARCH
- CASE STUDIES
- DOCUMENTARY RESEARCH
- ETHNOGRAPHIC RESEARCH
- EXPERIMENTS
- SURVEYS

 FOUR RESEARCH TECHNIQUES for collecting data


- DOCUMENTS
- INTERVIEWS
- OBSERVATION
- QUESTIONNAIRES

RESEARCH FAMILIES

Qualitative or Quantitative?

Quantitative research consists of those studies in which data concerned can be


analysed in terms of numbers... Research can also be qualitative, that is, it can
describe events, persons, and so forth scientifically without the use of numerical
data...Quantitative research is based more directly on its original plans and its results
are more readily analysed and interpreted. Qualitative research is more open and
responsive to its subject. Both types of research are valid and useful. They are not
mutually exclusive. It is possible for a single investigation to use both methods. (Best
and Kahn, 1989, pp. 89-90)

QUALITATIVE RESEARCH – Any social science research that produces results that
are not obtained by statistical procedures or other methods of quantification.

Qualitative research is concerned with collecting and analysing information in as


many forms, chiefly non-numeric, as possible. It tends to focus on exploring, in as
much detail as possible, smaller numbers of instances or examples which are seen
as being interpreting or illuminating, and aims to achieve „depth‟ rather than „
breadth‟.

In qualitative research some of the data can be quantified but the analysis is
qualitative. It can refer to people‟s lives, their stories, behavior, or can also be used to
examine organizations, relationships, social movements, etc.

The context of inquiry in qualitative research, are not contrived; they are natural.
Nothing is predefined or taken for granted.

QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH – is concerned with the collection and analysis of data


in numeric form, and it is associated with measuring. It measures large samples of
items or people, thus, tends to emphasize relatively large-scale and representative
sets of data. The results are presented by percentages, graphs etc. In quantitative
research.

28
In the following tables, you will find a comparative look at the two research families:

Aspect of QUALITATIVE RESEARCH QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH


Research
Research strategy UNSTRUCTURED, INTUITIVE STRUCTURED
Character of DEAL WITH IMMEASURABLE ASSOCIATED WITH
researched FEATURES MEASURING
features
Character of TAKES SMALLER SAMPLES, MEASURES LARGE SAMPLES
samples ITEMS OR GROUPS OF OF ITEMS, PEOPLE, ETC.;
PEOPLE AND LOOKS AT THE NOT COMMON TO FOCUS ON
QUALITIES IN THEIR INDIVIDUALS; COMPARISON
EXISTENCE OF EXTENDED DATA
Presentation of RESULTS ANALYSED AND RESULTS PRESENTED IN
data REPORTED TABLES, PERCENTAGES,
GRAPHS, ETC.
Relationship CLOSE - RESEARCHERS DISTANT - RESEARCHERS
between HAVE MORE PARTICIPANT THEMSELVES ARE REMOVED
researcher and the ROLE, THROUGH INFORMAL FROM INVOLVEMENT IN AN
subject DISCUSSIONS, SELF- PERSONAL WAY WITH THE
DISCOVERY, ETC. PEOPLE RESEARCHED
Nature of data RICH, DEEP, SUBJECTIVE HARD, RELIABLE, OBJECTIVE
Relationship EMERGENT CONFIRMATION
between theory
and research

CHARACTERISTICS OF QUANTITATIVE AND QUALITATIVE APPROACHES


QUESTION QUALITATIVE QUANTITATIVE
What is the purpose of To describe and explain To explain and predict
the research? To explore and interpret To confirm and validate
To build theory To test theory
Process-oriented Outcome-oriented
What is the nature of the Holistic Focused
research process? Unknown variables Known variables
Flexible guidelines Established guidelines
Emergent design Static design
Context-bound Context-free
Personal view Detached view
What are the methods of Informative Representative
data collection? Small sample, Large sample Standardized
Observations instruments
Interviews
What is the form of Inductive analysis Deductive analysis
reasoning used in
analysis?
How are the findings Words Numbers
communicated? Narratives Statistics
Individual quotes, Aggregated data
Personal voice Formal voice
Literary style Scientific style

29
WHICH APPROACH SHOULD I USE?
USE THIS APPROACH IF QUALITATIVE QUANTITATIVE
You believe that: There are multiple There is an objective
constructed realities reality that can be
measured
Your audience is: Familiar with/supportive of Familiar with/supportive of
qualitative studies quantitative studies
Your research question Exploratory, interpretative Confirmatory, predictive
is:
The available literature Limited or missing Relatively large
is:
Your research focus: Involves in-depth study Covers a lot of breadth
Your time available is: Relatively long Relatively short
Your ability/desire to High Medium to low
work with people is:
Your desire for structure Low High
is:
You have skills in the Attention to detail and Statistics and deductive
area(s) of: inductive reasoning reasoning
Your writing skills are Literary, narrative writing Technical, scientific writing
strong in the area of:

Fieldwork or Deskwork?

The distinction between fieldwork and deskwork offers an alternative thinking about
basic research strategies.

FIELDWORK refers to the process of going out to collect research data. Such data
may be described as original or empirical, and cannot be accessed without the
researcher engaging in some kind of expedition. It might involve, fore example,
visiting a company for interviewing member of staff, or standing on a street corner to
give out questionnaires to passers-by, or going to a shopping area to make
observations, take pictures, make sketches, etc. In some disciplines, like
anthropology, architecture or sociology, fieldwork assumes particular importance.

DESKWORK, on the other hand, consists of those research processes which do not
necessitate going into the field. It consists, literally, of those things can be done while
sitting at a desk. These may include, for example, the analysis of data collected by
others, literature searches in the libraries, and of course writing.

The fieldwork-deskwork distinction can be considered as a false dichotomy, since


most, if not all, research projects will make use of both sets of approaches. No matter
how much time researcher spends in the field, it is difficult to avoid some deskwork,
even if it only consists of writing up the results.

But on the other hand, an appreciation of this distinction may help the researcher in
planning and implementing her/his research project. The opportunities and
preferences for either fieldwork or deskwork will help the researcher in choosing

30
where this is possible, not just the topic of his/her research but the kinds of methods
he or she will be using.

RESEARCH APPROACHES

The approaches which will be mentioned and explained in the following lines are not
meant to be either definitive or exclusive. It simply recognizes the most common
approaches used by those carrying out small-scale research projects. It is worth to
keep in mind that, individual projects may involve more than one of these
approaches: thus, a case study may be carried out through action research, while
particular project may involve both experiments and surveys.

Action Research

 IS THE STUDY OF A SOCIAL SITUATION WITH A VIEW TO IMPROVING


THE QUALITY OF ACTION WITHIN IT.
 AIMS TO FEED PRACTICAL JUDGEMENT IN CONCRETE SITUATIONS,
AND THE VALIDITY OF THE THEORIES OR HYPOTHESES IT
GENERATES DEPENDS NOT SO MUCH ON SCIENTIFIC TESTS OF
TRUTH AS ON THEIR USEFULNESS IN HELPING PEOPLE MORE
INTELLIEGENTLY AND SKILFULLY.
 THEORIES ARE NOT VALIDATED INDEPENDENTLY AND THEN APPLIED
TO PRACTICE, BUT THEY ARE VALIDATED THROUGH PRACTICE.
 FINDS OUT A GREAT DEAL OF PROFFESSIONAL PRACTICE.
 MAY CHANGE POLICIES, PEOPLE, INSTITUTIONS FOR THE BETTER.
 EVIDENCE IS GATHERED AS THE ACTION PLAN IS PUT INTO EFFECT
AND BASED ON THIS A FURTHER PLAN IS FORMULATED.
 OFTEN INCLUDES HYPOTHESES IN THE DESIGN OF THE RESEARCH,
AND IS “VERIFIABLE” AND RIGOROUS WHEN APPROPRIATE
TECHNIQUES ARE USED.
 OUTPUTS GENERALLY INCREASE KNOWLEDGE, UNDERSTANDING
AND IMPROVED PRACTICE.
 IS EDUCATIVE.
 DEALS WITH INDIVIDUALS AS MEMBERS OF SOCIAL GROUPS.
 IS PROBLEM-FOCUSED, CONTEXT-SPECIFIC, FUTURE-ORIENTED.
 INVOLVES A CHANGE INTERVENTION.
 AIMS AT IMPROVEMENT AND INVOLVEMENT.
 INVOLVES A CYCLIC PROCESS IN WHICH RESEARCH, ACTION AND
EVALUATION ARE INTERLINKED.
 IS FOUNDED ON RESEARCH RELATIONSHIP IN WHICH THOSE
INVOLVED ARE PARTICIPANTS IN THE CHANGE PROCESS.
 MOST LIKELY TO INVOLVE AN EXTENSIVE COMPONENT OF
FIELDWORK.

EXAMPLE for ACTION RESEARCH: In EMU, Faculty of Architecture is intending to


set up a Department of Urban Planning and two of the lecturers within the Faculty
have been assigned to do a research on the situation of Urban Planning
Departments in other Universities in other countries. Once the research is completed,
the Faculty will act according to the research results.

31
As you may follow in the given example, the research will be followed by an action
(in a positive or negative way) in accordance with the research results.

Case Studies

 IS THE METHOD OF CHOICE WHEN THE PHENOMENON UNDER STUDY


IS NOT READILY DISTINGUISHABLE FROM ITS CONTEXT.
 ALLOWS AND ENDORSES A FOCUS ON JUST ONE EXAMPLE OR
PERHAPS TWO OR THREE: THIS MIGHT BE THE RESEARCHER‟S PLACE
OF WORK (for instance, for the study of the physical characteristics of public
spaces, one might select ten cases from different cities as case study, and
carry out research, observations in those spaces); A COMMUNITY GROUP
OR A SMALL NUMBER OF INDIVIDUALS.
 USES A MIXTURE OF METHODS: PERSONAL OBSERVATION, WHICH
SOME PERIODS OR EVENTS MAY DEVELOP INTO PARTICIPATION; THE
USE OF INFORMANTS FOR CURRENT HISTORICAL DATA;
STRAIGHTFORWARD INTERVIEWING; AND THE TRACING AND THE
STUDY OF RELEVANT DOCUMENTS AND RECORDS FROM LOCAL AND
CENTRAL GOVERNMENTS, TRAVELLERS, ETC.
 MIGHT BE PROGRESSED IN A VARIETY OF WAYS.
 Yin (1993) identifies six types of case study, defined along two dimensions, in
terms of:
- THE NUMBER OF CASES: SINGLE OR MULTIPLE
- THE PURPOSE OF THE STUDY: EXPLORATORY, DESCRIPTIVE OR
EXPLANATORY.
Thus we can talk in terms of single descriptive case studies, multiple
exploratory case studies, etc.

Experiments

 INVOLVES THE CREATION OF AN ARTIFICIAL SITUATION IN HICH


EVENTS THAT GENERALLY GO TOGETHER ARE PULLED APART.
 THE PARTICIPANTS CALLED IN AN EXPERIEMENT ARE CALLED
SUBJECTS.
 THE ELEMENTS OR FACTORS IN THE STUDY ARE NAMED AS
VARIABLES.
 INDEPENDENT VARIABLES ARE THOSE THAT ARE SYTEMATICALLY
ALTERED BY THE EXPERIMENTER. THOSE ITEMS THAT ARE AFFECTED
BY THE EXPERIMENTAL TREATMENT ARE THE DEPENDENT
VARIABLES.

Experiments are in fact mostly used in physical sciences, where materials are more
amenable to experimentation. Indeed, experiments are at the heart of what is known
as the scientific method, wit its practice of formulating and testing hypotheses
through carefully designed and controlled tests. The above mentioned terminology –
subjects, variables, etc., appears very precise and suggestive in that case.

32
However, experiments are also used in social science research, as a research
approach, particularly in psychology, economics, education, and even sometimes
planning and architecture.

In social science research, there are two broad traditions of research:


EXPERIMENTAL and NONEXPERIMENTAL. While both seek to explain human
behavior, they differ critically in the amount of control they have over the data.

As put forward by Leary (1991, p. 122) A WELL-DESIGNED EXPERIMENT HAS


THREE ESSENTIAL PROPERTIES:

(1) THE RESEARCHER MUST VARY AT LEAST ONE INDEPENDENT


VARIABLE TO ASSESS ITS EFFECTS ON SUBJECTS‟ BEHAVIOR,
(2) THE RESEARCHER MUST HAVE THE POWER TO ASSIGN
SUBJECTS INTO THE VARIOUS EXPERIMENTAL CONDITIONS,
(3) THE RESEARCHER MUST CONTROL EXTRANEOUS VARIABLES
THAT MAY INFLUENCE SUBJECTS‟ BEHAVIOR.

Surveys

 SURVEY RESEARCH IS THE METHOD OF COLLECTING INFORMATION


BY ASKING A SET OF PREFORMULATED QUESTIONS IN A
PREDETERMINED SEQUENCE IN A STRUCTURED QUESTIONNAIRE TO
A SAMPLE OF INDIVIDUALS DRAWN SO AS TO BE REPRESENTATIVE
OF A DEFINED POPULATION. (Hutton, 1990, p. 8)
 THE AIM OF THE SURVEYS IS TO COLLECT INFORMATION DIRECTLY
FROM PEOPLE.
 MOST SURVEYS ARE BASED ON SAMPLES OF A SPECIFIED TARGET
POPULATION – THE GROUP OF PERSONS IN WHOM INTEREST IS
EXPRESSED.
 QUESTIONNAIRES AND INTERVIEWS ARE THE TECHNIQUES, WHICH
ARE AT THE HEART OF ONE TYPE OF SURVEY RESEARCH. (THEY
ALSO PLAY A PART IN ACTION RESEARCH, AS WELL AS CASE STUDIES
AND EXPERIMENTAL APPROACHES). BESIDES, OBSERVATIONS AND
DOCUMENTS ARE ALSO USED IN SURVEYS.
 SURVEYS ARE USUALLY ASSOCIATED AS A RESEARCH APPROACH
WITH THE IDEA OF ASKING GROUPS OF PEOPLE QUESTIONS. THERE
IS HOWEVER, A RELATED MEANING OF SURVEY WHICH IS ALSO
RELEVANT TO THE SOCIAL SCIENCES. THIS IS WHEN THE SUBJECTS
WHICH ARE BEING QUESTIONED BY THE RESEARCHER ARE REALLY
OBJECTS: MATERIALS OR ARTEFACTS RATHER THAN PEOPLE. THUS,
MOST SMALL-SCALE RESEARCH PROJECTS WILL INVOLVE SOME KIND
OF LITERATURE SURVEY; BUT IN SOME CASES, AS WHEN
DOCUMENTARY ANALYSIS IS EXTENSIVELY USED, THISMAY BE THE
BASIS FOR THE WHOLE PROJECT. (Blaxter, et. al., 1996, p. 71)

Documentary Research

 DOES NOT SET UP EXPERIMENTS OR TRIALS.

33
 INCLUDES SEARCHING THROUGH DOCUMENTS ON A SELECTED
TOPIC.
 HAS THE DISADVANTAGE OF RESEARCHING WITHOUT ANY THEORY
AND CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK.
 FOR ANY KIND OF DOCUMENTATION, HAVING A CONCEPTUAL
FRAMEWORK, AND A THEORETICAL BACKGROUND WILL LEAD TO
SUCCESSFUL RESEARCH.
 A SUFFICIENTLY INTERESTING AND RESEARCHABLE QUESTION
SHOULD ALSO BE ASKED AT THE BEGINNING SO THAT ONE KNOWS
WHAT DOCUMENTS WILL BE USEFUL TO EXAMINE AND FROM WHAT
PERSPECTIVE TO READ THEM.
 ONE DISADVANTAGE IS THAT THE DOCUMENTS MAY BE MISSING,
THUS GIVING AN INCOMPLETE PICTURE.
 QUESTIONS OF RELAIBILITY, VALIDITY AND PURPOSE ARE ON THE
AGENDA.
 AVAILABLE EVIDENCE, THUS, DOCUMENTS SHOULD BE STUDIED
CAREFULLY.

Ethnographic Research

 LOOKING FROM THE INSIDE BY PARTICIPATING IN THE LIFE OF THOSE


GROUPS OF PEOPLE BEING RESEARCHED.
 “PARTICIPANT OBSERVATION” IS THE CHARACTER OF THE RESEARCH
 DATA CAN NEVER BE GATHERED IN THE SAME WAY TWICE.
 TOO MUCH INVOLVING MAY CAUSE LOSING THE ORIGINAL
PERSPECTIVE THAT WILL LEAD TO POOR QUALITY DATA RESULTS.

To sum it up;

WHEN YOU ARE WRITING YOUR DISSERTATION IT IS IMPORTANT TO


UNDERSTAND THE LIMITATIONS OF YOUR CHOSEN METHODS /
APPROACHES, COMPARED WITH OTHER ALTERNATIVES WHICH YOU
REJECTED.

THE DATA YOU GATHER AND THE METHOD YOU CHOOSE SHOULD BE
APPROPRIATE TO THE PURPOSE OF YOUR RESEARCH.

Eight issues to consider in choosing your research methods


1. What do you need or want to find-out?
2. What skills do you have? (consider the everyday skills and grade yourself on
a scale from 1 to 20 – which of these skills do you consider yourself to be best
at?)
3. Will your methodological preferences answer your questions?
4. How will your methods affect the answers you get?
5. How will you affect your research?
6. Which methods are acceptable?
7. Will using more that one method fit your aims?
8. Can you allow for changes in direction?

34
Besides, the following list presents the characteristics of various methods and the
research goals and methods attempts to achieve (based on Leedy, 1997, p. 111):

35
Method Characteristics of the Method and the Research Goals
and Method Attempts to Achieve

Action Research A type of applied research that focuses on finding a


solution to a local problem in a local setting. For example,
a teacher investigates whether a new spelling program
she has adopted leads to improvement in her students
achievements scores.

Case and Field Study A type of qualitative research in which data are gathered
Research directly from individuals (individual cases) or social or
community groups in their natural environment for the
purpose of studying interactions, attitudes, or
characteristics of individuals or groups.

Correlational Research A statistical investigation of the relationship between one


factor and one or more other factors. Correlational
research looks at surface relationships but does not
necessarily probe for causal reasons underlying them.
Example: an investigation of the degree of relationship
between the college grade point averages of freshmen
and selected high school achievement and personality
assessment scores.

Descriptive Survey or A common method used in business, sociology, and


Normative Survey government. The survey method is used to describe the
incidence, frequency, and distribution of certain
characteristics of a population.

Ethnography A type of qualitative inquiry that involves an in-depth study


of an intact cultural group in a natural setting.

Ex Post Facto or As discussed in this text, a subtype of the non-


Causal-Comparative experimental method. The method observes
Research existing conditions and searches back through the data
for plausible causal factors. It is the “detective method,” in
which the crime is discovered and then the cause or
motivation for the crime is sought.

Grounded Theory Qualitative research studies aimed at deriving theory


Research through the use of multiple stages of data collection and
interpretation.

Historical Research The attempt to solve certain problems arising out of


historical context through gathering and examining
relevant data.

Longitudinal Research An observational-descriptive type of research that usually


stretches over a period of time and is frequently called the
developmental study.

36
Non-Experimental A methodology that relies largely on a statistical
Quantitative Research investigation of the data. Its prime aim is to determine how
closely the data of the study approach ideal data as
established by the normal curve and whether the
divergence, if any is “significant” within certain prescribed
statistical parameters.

Phenomenological A qualitative research method that attempts to understand


Research participants perspectives and views of social realities.

Quasi-Experimental Experimental research that is not based on randomisation


Research of subjects.

True Experimental An experimental study based on random assignment of


Research subjects to groups and the administration of possibly
different treatments followed by observations or
measurements to assess the effects of the treatments.
__
(Source: Leedy, 1997:111)

RESEARCH TECHNIQUES

In everyday life, we all do research in a variety of ways, by using a variety of


techniques. Thus, RESEARCHERS USE EVERYDAY SKILLS FOR THE
COLLECTION, SELECTION, ANALYSIS AND PRESENTATION OF DATA.
However, researchers make use of these everyday (TAKEN-FOR-GRANTED) skills –
READING, LISTENING, WATCHING, CHOOSING, QUESTIONING,
SUMMARIZING, ORGANIZING, WRITING, PRESENTING (as put forward by
Blaxter, et. Al, 1996, p. 55) – IN A CONSCIOUS, CONSIDERED AND SYTEMATIC
FASHION, AND AIM TO BE RIGOROUS, CRITICAL AND ANALYTICAL.

RESEARCH INVOLVES THE PROFESSIONALIZATION OF EVERYDAY SKILLS. IT


ALSO REQUIRES THE RESEARCHER TO PAY PARTICULAR ATTENTION TO
ALTERNATIVE VALUES, VIEWS, MEANINGS AND EXPLANATIONS, WHILE
REMAINING ALERT TO BIASES AND DISTORTIONS.

YET, IN THE RPOCESS OF PROFESSIONALIZATION OF EVERYDAY SKILLS


RESEARCHERS USE SEVERAL TECHNIQUES TO ACHIEVE THEIR AIMS.

Study of Documents

All research project involve, to a greater or lesser extent, THE USE AND ANALYSIS
OF DOCUMENTS, often in conjunction with other research techniques such as
interviews with key informants.

RESEARCHERS ARE EXPECTED TO READ, UNDERSTAND AND CRITICALLY


ANALYSE THE WRITINGS OF OTHERS, WHETHER FELLOW RESEARCHERS,
PRACTITIONERS, OR POLICY-MAKERS.

37
For some research projects, however, the FOCUS OF DATA COLLECTION IS
ENTIRELY, OR ALMOST ENTIRELY, ON DOCUMENTS OF VARIOUS KINDS. As
Blaxter, et.al. (1996, p. 151) explains, they might,

 BE LIBRARY-BASED, AIMED AT PRODUCING A CRITICAL SYNOPSIS OF


AN EXISTING AREA OF RESEARCH WRITINGS,
 BE COMPUTER-BASED, CONSISTING LARGELEY OF THE ANALYSIS
PREVIOUSLY COLLECTED DAT SETS,
 HAVE A POLICY FOCUS, EXAMINING MATERIALS RELEVANT TO A
PARTICULAR SET OF POLICY DECISIONS,
 HAVE A HISTORICAL ORIENTATION, MAKING USE OF AVAILABLE
ARCHIVAL AND OTHER SURVIVING DOCUMENTARY EVIDENCE.

RESEARCHERS WHO BASE THEIR STUDIES ON DOCUMENTS MAY MAKE


CONSIDERABLE USE OF SECONDARY DATA, THAT IS THE DATA WHICH HAS
ALREADY BEEN COLLECTED, AND POSSIBLY ALSO ANALYSED BY
SOMEBODY ELSE.

In the following, some detailed information will be given related to primary and
secondary data, for the sake of documentary research.

PRIMARY DATA / INFORMATION


Data from primary sources collected for the first time as part of an experiment,
survey or personal observations
New and has never been published before
e.g. original research, new legislation and survey results like government
statistics
Up-to-date, detailed, accurate and specialized
Researchers find this process more reliable than others, because the people who
collect the information are able to understand the interpretation of the data and
know the conditions under which they were obtained.

SECONDARY DATA / INFORMATION


Data that have been collected previously and reported by some individual other
than the researcher

A scientist, a researcher, when describing new research results (primary


information) may refer to and comment on work published by others (secondary
information.

The primary data of previous research, when fond in books, periodical, journals,
bulletins, and similar publications, are less valuable than a researcher‟s own
findings.

38
PRIMARY BOOK SECONDARY BOOK NON-BOOK SOURCES
SOURCES SOURCES
Conference Proceedings Bibliographies Audio-visual material
Official Publications Current awareness General catalogues
publications
Patents Current contents Subject catalogues
Periodicals / Journals Indexes Cd ROMs
Reports Abstracts Online searching
Research in progress Newspaper and press Culture collections
clippings
Standards Reference books Museums
Statistics Encyclopaedias Information services
Theses Dictionaries Microforms
Trade literature Handbooks Maps
Memos, minutes, internal Directories Technical drawings
reports
Letters, diaries Year books Photographs
Contemporary and classic Textbooks Botanic gardens
works
Translations Zoos and nature reserves
Reviews Science parks
Popular media People
Edited collections and Organizations
literature reviews
Computer-based material

This table is produced based on a section by (White, 1991, pp. 18-58). All the
mentioned sources have been analysed in the given reference by the headings:
uses, limitations, how to locate.

Following is a number of hints about the sources of information (White, 1991, p. 58):

- realize that information is either new or original (primary) or second-hand


(secondary)
- note that information may be both book or non-book form
- be aware that information comes in many different sources and their number
is increasing all the time
- list all the different sources present in the libraries near you, and learn how to
use them
- know the uses and limitations of the sources you use
- use a number of different sources
- do not be dependent on one source (usually a textbook) – get a balanced view

When you try to work out and identify your information needs, first of all you
should decide WHY YOU NEED THE INFORMATION. Why you need information
often determines WHAT TYPE OF DATA YOU SHOULD LOOK FOR. Secondly,
DEFINE YOUR INFORMATION NEEDS. Here you decide what you already now,
what you need to know, and if your query is either specific or general. You may
use BRAINSTORMING TECHNIQUE for general needs. Then, you should
CHOOSE SOURCES TO USE, AND SEARCH THEM OUT. Here you choose to
search PRIMARY, SECONDARY, BOOK OR NON-BOOK MATERIAL. Library

39
skills are important here. Finally, you COLLECT INFORMATION. You work
through the selected sources by making notes.

With practice, searching out information is relatively easy, provided you adopt a
systematic approach.

Using a variety of sources will provide a good framework and background support
for your discussions.

Interviews

INTERVIEWS – an important technique used in qualitative research, which would be


unlikely to be accessible using techniques such as observation or questionnaires.
THE STATEMENTS OF OTHERS CAN BE ANALYZED IN SIMILAR WAYS TO
OTHER DATA.

INVOLVES QUESTIONING AND/OR DISCUSSING ISSUES WITH PEOPLE.

INVOLVES FINDING OUT THE LIFE STORIES / WORLD VIEWS OF THE


SUBJECTS BEING INTERVIEWED.

QUESTIONS ARE DESIGNED SO THAT ANSWERS FROM INDIVIDUAL


INTERVIEWS CAN BE ADDED TOGETHER TO PRODUCE RESULTS WHICH
APPLY TO THE WHOLE SAMPLE.

QUESTIONS ARE DESIGNED TO BE UNBAISED.

CONDUCTING THE INTERVIEWS – CHOOSING THE RIGHT PEOPLE;


INTRODUCING YOURSELF AND YOUR AIMS; GETTING COLLABORATION WITH
THEM; INTERVIEWS WITH FEW PEOPLE BUT IN-DEPTH; ASKING THE RIGHT
QUESTIONS; ASKING SENSITIVE QUESTIONS: about age, ethnic group, about
income; NOT PUTTING TOO MUCH JUDGEMENT; FOLLOWING THE CHECKLIST:

 DECIDING WHAT TO FIND OUT AND MAKING A LIST OF TOPICS


 OUTLINING SOME QUESTIONS AND PLACING THEM ON CARDS
 DECIDING AN ORDER OF QUESTIONS
 BEING PREPARED TO DEPART FROM THE SCHEDULE IF INTERESTING
POINTS ARISE
 AFTER THE INTERVIEW WRITING UP NOTES AND DECIDING WHAT
TOPICS TO FOLLOW UP.

ANALYSING THE INTERVIEW – EITHER IN A STORY OR BY CODING IT.

40
Blaxter et. al. (1996, p. 154) defines nine alternative interview techniques as listed in
the following:

 Interviews may take place face to face or at a distance over the telephone.
 They may take place at the interviewer‟s home or place of work, in the street,
or on some other neutral ground
 At one extreme, the interview may be tightly structured, with a set of questions
requiring specific answers, or it may be very open ended, taking the form of a
discussion. In the later case, the purpose of the interview may be simply to
facilitate the subject talking at length. Semi-structured interviews lie between
these two.
 Different forms of questioning may be practiced during the interview. In
addition to survey questioning, Dillon (1990) identified classroom, courtroom
and clinical questioning as well as the domains of personnel interviewing,
criminal interrogation and journalistic interviewing.
 Prompt, such as photographs might be useful for stimulating discussion.
 Interviews may just involve two individuals, the researcher and the
interviewee, or they may be group of events involving more than one subject
and /or more than one interviewer.
 The interviewee may or may not be given advance warning / clues of the
topics or issues to be discussed. The briefing might be very detailed to allow
the subject to gather together any necessary detailed information.
 The interview may be recorded in a variety of ways. It may be taped, and
possibly later transcribed by an audio-typist. The interviewer may take notes
during or after the interview, or where there is more than one interviewer, one
may take notes, while the other conducts the interview.
 Interviews may be followed up by a variety of ways. A transcript could be sent
to the subject for comment. Further questions might be subsequently sent to
the interviewee / the subject in writing. A whole series of interviews could be
held over a period of time, building upon each other or exploring changing
views and experiences.

EXERCISE 6 (in class)

Give an example of a research case (possibly related to your research area) where
you would need to carry out an interview survey.

41
Observation

PARTICIPANT OBSERVATIONS – RESEARCH DESIGN REMAINS FLEXIBLE,


THE DETAILS OF THE APPROACH ARE MODIFIED THROUGHOUT THE
PROCESS; THE SETTING IS DEFINED BY THE PARTICIPANTS; REQUIRES THE
RESEARCHER TO WATCH, RECORD AND ANALYSE WHAT IS HAPPENNING IN
A PARTICULAR SETTING, IF POSSIBLE VIEWING EVENTS THROUGH THE
EYES OF THE PARTICIPANTS.

A range of different approaches are possible:

- the events may be recorded, either at the time or subsequently, by the


researcher, or they may be recorded mechanically;
- the observation may be structured in terms of a predetermined framework, or
may be relatively open;
- the observer may also be a participant in the events being studied, or may act
solely as a “disinterested” observer.

There are many details which need to be considered before beginning observations.
Blaxter, et.al. (1996, p. 159) lists these details as in the following:

1. Are the times at which you carry out the your observations relevant?
2. Do you need to devise an observational schedule or determine pre-coded
categorize? If so, you might like to test these out in a pilot observation before
they are finalized.
3. If the answer to the last question was negative, how are you going to organize
your data recording?
4. Is it important to you to try and record “everything” or will you be much more
selective?
5. Are your age, sex, ethnicity, dress or other characteristics likely to affect your
observations?
6. How artificial is the setting? How visible are you as the observer? Does this
matter?
7. Is observation enough, or will you need to participate, and/or use other means
of data collection?
8. Are there any situations to which you cannot get access but where
observation may be important? How can you “get off the road” or “backstage”?
9. If you are going to participate more directly in the events you will be observing,
how are you going to balance the demands of participation and observation?
Again, you should find some practice beneficial here.

PRELIMINARY STEPS – INVESTIGATION AND OBSERVATIONS ON A CHOSEN


SITE / IN THE FIELD.

RECORDING WHAT HAPPENS – DESCRIBING THE SETTINGS AND ACTIVITIES


YOU ARE INVESTIGATING; PREPARING FIELD NOTES / SKETCHES /
PHOTOGRAPHS / DRAWINGS; THE FILED NOTES SHOULD GIVE THE “FEEL”
OF SPACE; DESCRIPTIONS SHOULD BE “OBJECTIVE”; YOU MAY ADD YOUR
“COMMENTS” SEPARATELY.

42
MAKING NOTES – YOU MAY PREPARE A “PARTICIPANT OBSERVATION FORM”
OR AN “INVENTORY FORM” IN MORE ARCHITECTURAL CASES, BEFORE
GOING TO THE FIELD; THE FORM SHOULD INCLUDE INFORMATION ON DATE,
TIME, EVENT(S), PARTICIPANTS, PLACE, REGION, STREET, DESCRIPTIONS,
COMMENTS, ETC.

ANALYSING YOUR DATA – ANALYSIS IS THE “PROCESS” BY WHICH YOU USE


THE DATA TO IDENTIFY THEMES, TO CONSRUCT HYPOTHESIS, AND THEN
TO SHOW SUPPORT FOR THESE THEMES AND HYPOTHESES. ANALYSIS OF
DATA IS AN “ONGOING PROCESS” STARTING FROM THE TIME THAT FIELD
WORK BEGINS.

Some hints can help the analysis process:

 REREAD THE LITERATURE IN THE AREA OF YOUR RESEARCH. DOES IT


SUGGEST ANY IDEAS? DO YOUR FINDINGS SEEM TO CONFIRM OR TO
REJECT PREVIOUS WORK?
 READ AND REREAD YOUR FILED NOTES / FINDINGS. WHAT IDEAS DO
THEY SUGGEST?
 GET A FRIEND TO READ YOUR NOTES / LOOK AT YOUR DRAWINGS,
AND SUGGEST IDEAS.
 CODE YOUR NOTES, DRAWINGS TO IDENTIFY OME CERTAIN TYPES OF
EVENTS, DETAILS, ETC.

At this point, once you have identified certain hypotheses, you can then analyze the
extent to which your results support these hypotheses.

You should keep in mind that, using observation as a method of collecting data is
(like interviewing) potentially very time-consuming. The time absorbed occurs not just
during the observation, but also afterwards as well, when you come to interpret and
analyse what you have recorded. Pre-categorizing, and structuring your observations
can reduce the time commitment dramatically, though at the risk of losing both detail
and flexibility.

Questionnaires

QUESTIONNAIRES – ANOTHER TECHNIQUE IN QUALITATIVE RESEARCH;


REQUIRES SOME KNOWLEDGE OF PREPARATION AND ANALYSIS.

QUESTIONNAIRES ARE ONE OF THE MOST WIDELY USED SOCIAL RESEARCH


TECHNIQUES. As Blaxter and et.al (1996, pp. 159-160) argues, although the idea of
formulating precise written questions, for those whose opinions or experience you
are interested in, seems such an obvious strategy for finding the answers to the
questions that interest you, as anyone who has tried to put a questionnaire together
will tell you, it is not as simple as it might seem.

There are a number of different ways in which questionnaires can be administered.

43
THEY CAN BE POSTED / SEND BY E-MAIL TO THE INTENTED RESPONDENTS,
who are then expected to complete and return them themselves (preferably, using a
reply-paid envelope)

THEY CAN BE ADMINISTERED FACE-TO-FACE, becoming much likely a highly


structured interview, getting a better response rate, but being more time-consuming.

There are also a variety ways of asking questions in the questionnaires. There might
be eight basic question types:

1. QUANTITY OR INFORMATION
e.g. In which year did you enroll on the phd degree? _____________

2. CATEGORY
e.g. Have you ever been, or are you now, involved in research?
Yes (currently) Yes (in the past) No, never

3. LIST OR MULTIPLE CHOICE


e.g. Do you view living in a single-house (villa-type) as any of the following?
a. luxury
b. a necessity
c. an investment
d. ordinary
e. none of these

4. SCALE
e.g. How would you describe your parents attitude to higher education at that
time? Please tick one of the options below.
_ Very positive
_ Positive
_ Neutral
_ Negative
_ Very Negative
_ Not sure

5. RANKING
e.g. What do you see as the main purpose(s) of your degree study? Please rank
all those relevant in order from 1 downwards.
_ Personal development
_ Subject interest
_ Career advancement
_ Recreation
_ Fulfill ambition
_ Other (please specify) ___________

6. COMPLEX GRID OR TABLE


e.g. How would you rank the benefits of your degree study for each of the
following? Please rank each item.

44
For Positive Neutral Negative Not sure
You
Your family
Your employer
The country
Your community
Your friends

7. OPEN-ENDED
e.g. What would your comments be on the living conditions in social housing units
constructed by the government.?
______________
______________

8. SKETCHING
e.g. Can you draw the sketch of the landmarks in your hometown.

These types of questions may be combined in various ways to give questions of


increasing complexity.

Here is a list of suggestions on how to best lay out and present questionnaires,
adapted from Blaxter, et. al. (1996, p. 163):

 Questionnaires should be typed or printed, clearly and attractively laid out,


using a typeface size which is legible.
 You should try to make the questionnaire format attractive by using techniques
such as colored ink, or paper, or laser printer.
 The items in the questionnaire should be organized in such a way that they
are easy to read and complete.
 The questionnaire should be organized in a logical sequence.
 The questionnaire should begin with a few interesting and non-threatening
items.
 Difficult and threatening / sensitive items should be put towards the end of the
questionnaire.
 Technical terms, jargon, or complex terms that the respondents may not
understand, should not be used.
 The term “questionnaire” should not be used on your form. Many people are
biased against these terms.
 If you are to administrate your questionnaires by post, you should enclose a
cover letter identifying yourself and describing the purpose of your survey, and
providing a contact address or telephone number or e-mail address for any
questions, as well as pre-paid and addressed envelope for the respondents to
return you the questionnaires back. In order to get back the required number
of replies back, send more forms than you would need (about %20 more than
what you expect to receive back)

45
 During the face-to-face questionnaire survey, you should introduce yourself
first, give a contact address or telephone number if requested, and be
prepared to answer questions about your survey.
 You should explain the benefits of your survey to the respondents at the
beginning.
 If the questions you are asking are sensitive (in many cases this will be the
case) you should start by assuring your respondents of the confidentiality of
their replies.
 Make sure any instructions you give on how the respondent is expected to
answer the questions are clear.
 It is usually keep the kind of response expected – ticking, circling or writing in
– constant.
 Biased and leading questions should be avoided.
 It is desirable that the length of the questionnaire is kept within reasonable
limits but at the same time, it is better to space questions well so that the
questionnaire does not appear cramped.
 The questionnaire should be kept as short as possible.
 If the questionnaire is lengthy and complicated, and you are expecting a
substantial number of replies, you should think about coding the answers in
advance on the questionnaire to speed up data input.
 Negatively stated items should be avoided; they are likely o be misread by the
respondents.
 Remember to thank your respondents at the end of the questionnaire and to
invite their further comments and questions.
 You would be well advised to carry out a pilot questionnaire before you carry
out the full survey, and to modify your questions in the light of the responses
you receive during this pilot survey.

EXERCISE 7 (in class)

Give an example of a research case (possibly related to your research area) where
you would need to carry out a questionnaire survey.

To sum it up;

WHICH TECHNIQUES YOU WILL BE USING IN YOUR RESEARCH


METHODOLOGY IS SURELY DEPENDENT UPON YOUR FIELD OF STUDY,
YOUR RESEARCH TOPIC, THE DATA NEEDED AND THUS THE
REQUIREMENTS OF YOUR RESEARCH. THESE SHOULD BE DISCUSSED WITH
YOUR SUPERVISOR CAREFULLY.

EXERCISE 8 (take-home assignment 3)

1. Library search: Please find a completed masters or phd thesis in the library.
Try to identify which research approach the thesis falls into, and the research
techniques used in the thesis.
2. Based on the information you have gained from the above discussed text,
identify two examples of research projects, each of which falls into one of the
approaches / families. Then identify the possible techniques that can be used
for the purpose of these research projects.

46
MAJOR REFERENCES
Barnes, Rob (1992), Successful Study for Degrees, Routledge, London

Blaxter, L., Hughes, C., Tight, M. (1996), How to Research, Open University Press,
Buckingham
Bouma, Gary D., Atkinson, G.B.J. (1996), A Handbook of Social Science Research:
A Comprehensive and Practical Guide for Students, Second edition, Paper Back,
Oxford University Press
Dillon, J. (1990), The Practice of Questioning, Routledge, London

Hart E. and Bond M. (1995), Action Research for Health and Social Care: A Guide to
Practice, Buckingham, Open University Press,
Hutton, P. (1990), Survey Research for Managers: How to Use Surveys in
Management Decision-Making, Basingstoke, Macmillan
Yin, R. (1993), Applications of Case Study Research, Newbury Park, Sage

White, Brian (1991), Studying for Science: A guide to information, communication


and study techniques, E&F.N. SPON, London

47
WEEK FIVE
Main topics: Preliminaries to research, Practical considerations when starting

I. PRELIMINARIES TO RESEARCH

CHOOSING A FIELD OF RESEARCH

Most experience proves that STUDENTS WORK MUCH MORE HAPPILY ON


PROJECTS / SUBJECTS THEY HAVE FOUND FOR THEMSELVES THAN THOSE
IMPOSED BY SOMEONE ELSE.

SOMETIMES THE RESEARCH TOPICS / TITLES / QUESTIONS ETC. ARE THERE


READY FOR THE STUDENT due to an already set up need.

However, there may also be some cases that THE STUDENT WHO WISHES TO
CARRY OUT RESEARCH, POSSIBLY TO FULFILL EXAMINATION / DEGREE
REQUIREMENTS, HAS TO CAST ABOUT FOR A SUBJECT TO DO RESEARCH
ON.

In such a case, it is wise to begin by CONSIDERING FIELDS OF RESEARCH,


RATHER THAN SPECIFIC QUESTIONS, and to STUDY / READ ON THE CHOSEN
FIELD UNTIL A SPECIFIC QUESTION CAN BE FORMULATED / A PROBLEM
CAN BE FOUND.

So it is important for postgraduate students in that case to READ AS MANY BOOKS


/ DOCUMENTS AS THEY CAN RELATE TO THEIR FIELD OF RESEARCH.

THE CHOICE OF FIELDS OF RESEARCH IN FACULTIES OF ARCHITECTURE


(AS IN SOCIAL SCIENCES) IS AS WIDE AS THE FIELD OF ARCHITECTURE &
DESIGN. POSSIBILITIES INCLUDE THEORY, DESIGN, HISTORY,
CONSTRUCTION, URBAN DESIGN, URBAN PLANNING, INTERIOR
ARCHITECTURE, LANDSCAPE ARCHITECTURE, MATERIALS, MANAGEMENT,
HUMAN-ENVIRONMENT RELATIONS, URBAN SOCIOLOGY, ETC.

IN CHOOSING A FIELD THE FIRST CONSIDERATION SHOULD BE INTEREST.


Work in a field in which one is not interested is irksome and a burden, and little
inspiration is likely to result. It is true, however, that WORK IN A FIELD DOES
SOMETIMES STIMULATE INTEREST. It is not possible to be interested in
something about which one knows nothing. For this reason it is wise to choose a field
of research about which one already has some knowledge.

IT IS NO GOOD DECIDING TO CARRY OUT RESEARCH IF THE FACILITIES FOR


IT ARE LACKING OR NOT AVAILABLE TO THE PARTICULAR RESEARCHER.
Another hindrance to some research projects may be the IMPOSSIBILITY OF
GETTING PERMISSION TO CARRY THEM OUT.

48
CHOOSING A TOPIC

Choosing your research topic is probably the most important single decision you
have to make in doing research. Blaxter et.all. (1997, p. 22) identifies twelve issues
to bear in mind when choosing a research topic:

1. How much choice you have


2. Your motivation
3. Regulations and expectations (written and/or un-written)
4. Your subject or field of study
5. Previous examples of research projects (on similar kinds of topic or size)
6. The size of your topic
7. The time you have available
8. The cost of your research
9. The resources you have available
10. Your need for support
11. Access issues
12. Methods for researching

What if you cannot think of a topic?

This is quite a common problem for especially the new research students. Blaxter
et.all. (1997, p. 30 - 33) suggest ten ways for helping you brainstorm your ideas for a
research project:

1. Ask your supervisor, manager, friends, colleagues, customers, clients or


mother or father.
2. Look at previous research work.
3. Develop some of your previous research, or your practice at work (your own
curiosity and desire to learn are the two key points to start).
4. Relate it to your other interests.
5. Think of a title (or possible titles in your interest area).
6. Start from a quote that engages you.
7. Follow your hunches / feelings.
8. Draw yourself a picture or a diagram (of your thoughts).
9. Just start anywhere (go away and read something, talk to somebody, about
some of the issues related to your subject area).
10. But be prepared to change direction.

BACKGROUND READING

Before starting on the detailed planning of a piece of research, it is necessary to


READ AS MUCH AS POSSIBLE OF THE LITERATURE ALREADY EXISTING ON
THE SUBJECT.

However, during your research process, you will be READING AT DIFFERENT


STAGES AND FOR DIFFERENT PURPOSES:

49
STAGES:
 At the beginning of your research, in order to check what other research has
been done, to focus your ideas, and to explore the context for your project;
 During your research to keep you interested and up to date with
developments, to help you better understand the methods you are using and
the filed you are researching; and as source of data,
 After your research, to see what impact your own work has had and to help
you develop ideas for further research projects.

PURPOSES:
 Accounts of research on similar topics to your own,
 Accounts of research methods being applied in ways which are similar to your
own plans,
 Accounts of the context relating to your project.

The search for information is sometimes a problem for beginners, who are usually
more used to consulting books than research.

 BOOKS – RECENT WORK or DATING SOME YEARS BACK (USUALLY


SUGGESTING SOME SUBJECTS FOR RESEARCH)
o REFERENCES IN BOOKS
 ARTICLES IN JOURNALS (USUALLY MORE RESEARCH BASED)
o REFERENCES IN ARTICLES
 TURNING TO THE ORIGINAL VIEW – FINDING THE REFERRED BOOKS
OR ARTICLES
 BACK NUMBERS OF JOURNALS
 PREVIOUSLY COMPLETED THESES (SOURCE OF ORIGINAL RESEARCH
both in terms of SUBJECTS, REFERENCES and FORMAT)
 REPORTS
 POPULAR MEDIA
 PUBLISHED OR UNPUBLISHED PAPERS, ETC.

(See primary and secondary sources of information in the previous section)

WHEN TO STOP READING – when reaching the stage in WHICH FURTHER


READING DOES NOT SEEM TO ADD TO THE INFORMATION ALREADY
GATHERED; then it is time to STOP READING and BEGINNING PLANNING THE
EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH WORK.

TAKING NOTES while READING is extremely important. - WAYS OF TAKING


NOTES (index cards, computer files, etc.) / DIRECT QUOTATIONS for exact
meaning or exact results. / MAKING A NOTE OF THE REFERENCE while taking
notes, in an APPROPRIATE FORMAT (to be tackled later)

50
FOCUSING

Once you have chosen a topic, or perhaps a number of possible alternative topics,
you will almost certainly need to refine it and focus. Focusing is not an instantaneous
process, but takes place over time. During this period, you are likely to be doing a lot
of background reading, thinking about the methods you will use in your research, and
refining your research design. (Blaxter, et. al, 1997, p. 34)

Blaxter et.al. (1997, p. 35) identifies six research-focusing techniques, five of which
are:

 Identifying your research questions or hypothesis.


 Defining the key concepts, issues and contexts.
 Sketching a research outline or proposal.
 Trying it out on a non-specialist: explaining your project topic in a simple
language (to you mother, friend, etc.)
 Informal piloting.

Actually, these research-focusing techniques define some of the main steps in the
process of a research. Presenting some practical considerations, which will be
mentioned in this section, the research process will be dealt with in detail in the
following sections.

II. PRACTICAL CONSIDERATIONS WHEN STARTING

Based on the above discussed points, here are some practical clues to start
research:

 CHOOSING YOUR FIELD OF STUDY / RESEARCH AREA


 WORKING WITH YOUR TITLE (A BROAD AGREED TITLE)
 DEFINING YOUR AIMS, OBJECTIVES (WHAT YOU WANT TO DO, WHY
YOU WANT TO DO IT)
 DECIDING ON YOUR RESEARCH METHOD (HOW YOU WILL DO)
 PREPARING A PERSONAL CHECKLIST OF THE SEQUENCE OF YOUR
RESEARCH
o CHOOSE A TOPIC THAT INTEREST YOU
o READ AND DISCUSS THE TOPIC
o IDENTIFY SOME PRIMARY AND SECONDARY SOURCES
o DO A BACKGROUND READING (THE FIRST STEP IN THE
INTENSIVE STUDY OF ANY FIELD IS TO FIND OUT WHAT WORK
HAS ALREADY BEEN DONE IN IT)
o TRY SEVERAL TITLES

51
o FORMULATE YOUR MAIN RESEARCH QUAESTION(S), AIMS,
OBJECTIVES (RESEARCH PROPOSAL)
o CONSTRUCT A “GHOST” STRUCTURE
o REVISE THE WORKING TITLE
o EXAMINE THE ETHICS OF YOUR RESEARCH
o DISCUSS THE MATTERS WITH SUPERVISOR
o FINALIZE MOST DECISIONS ABOUT RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
o ORGANIZE PRACTICAL EQUIPMENT (IF NEEDED)
o MAKE APPOINTMENTS (IF NECESSARY)
o SET UP THE PROJECT
o GATHER THE DATA (BY FOLLOWING UP YOUR METHODOLOGY)
o ANALYSE DATA
o REVISE YOUR “GHOST” STRUCTURE FOR WRITING UP
o SET UP CONCLUSIONS
o WRITE THE FIRST DRAFT
o EDIT IT
o CHECK WITH SUPERVISOR, ADVISORS, FRIENDS
o FINALIZE THE TITLE
o WRITE FURTHER DRAFTS
o TYPE THE FINAL COPY
o SUBMIT IT ON TIME
o
You may obviously extend the list according to your own experience.

EXERCISE 9 (take-home assignment 4)


1. Identify your field of study.
2. Write down 3 questions in your field of study as intelligence-gathering (any
questions that come into your mind).
3. Write down 3 questions in your field of study as to become research
(researchable questions).

MAJOR REFERENCES
Barnes, Rob (1992), Successful Study for Degrees, Routledge, London
Blaxter, L., Hughes, C., Tight, M. (1997), How to Research, Open University Press,
Buckingham

52
Bouma, Gary D., Atkinson, G.B.J. (1996), A Handbook of Social Science Research:
A Comprehensive and Practical Guide for Students, Second edition, Paper Back,
Oxford University Press

Phillips, Estelle M., Pugh, D.S. (1994), How to Get a PhD: A Handbook For Students
and Their Supervisors, second edition, Open University Press, Buckingham

53
WEEK SIX – SEVEN
Main topics: Research Process Phase 1: Selecting a problem (stating the
problem, questions, hypothesis, objectives), Selecting variables, Measuring
variables, Research methodology, Research design

There is a wide variety of views of what and how people research; and there are
alternative perspectives of WHAT THE PROCESS OF UNDERTAKING RESEARCH
SHOULD LOOK LIKE.

The figure below shows a number of diagrammatic representations of the research


process (Blaxter, et. al., 1997, p. 8):

54
Obviously, all these diagrams are both SIMPLIFICATIONS and IDEALIZATIONS of
the research process. (1. linear view, fixed stages, clear start and an end; 2. different
routes to be taken through the process at particular stages; 3. a circular process, the
process might be entered at a number of points, with reinterpretation of the earlier
stages; 4. cyclical, going through a number of cycles , the effects of each one
impacting upon the way in which successive cycles are approached)

55
Accordingly, in a more simplified way, research can be taken as (Blaxter, et.al., 1997,
p. 10):
 cyclical
 can be entered at almost any point
 is a never-ending process
 will cause you to reconsider your practice
 will return you a different starting place

Remember what we have said in the previous lines / weeks about the RESEARCH
PROCESS:

TO DO RESEARCH IS TO BE INVOLVED IN A PROCESS. A PROCESS CAN BE SEEN AS A


SERIES OF ACTIVITIES MOVING FROM A BEGINNING TO AN END.

The research process is NOT A RIGID PROCESS. A rigid process is one in which Step 1 must be
done and completed before Step 2 can begin. On the other hand, THERE IS A SENSE, in which, IF
THE FIRST STEPS ARE NOT EXECUTED CAREFULLY THE REST OF THE RESEARCH
PROCESS WILL BE WEAKENED OR MADE MORE DIFFICULT.

Those who have done a lot of research develop their own style of going through te phases of the
research process. Each researcher will describe a pattern of his own.

THERE IS A USUAL “SEQUENCE” IN THE RESEARCH PROCESS: Thus, this sequence is not an
“this and then that” ordering. Rather, THERE IS AN ORDER OF BASIC STAGES AND SERIES OF
INTERLINKED ISSUES IN EACH STAGE. FAILURE TO ADDRESS THE RIGHT ISSUES
SATISFACTORILY WILL UNDERMINE OR MAKE MORE DIFFICULT THE REST OF THE
RESEARCH PROCESS.

56
Accordingly, we may study the research process in three main phases, each of which
will further be sub-divided:

PHASE 1: ESSENTIAL FIRST STEPS – CLARIFICATION OF THE ISSUES TO BE


RESEARCHED AND SELECTION OF A RESEARCH METHOD
PHASE 2: DATA COLLECTION – COLLECTING EVIDENCE ABOUT THE RESEARCH
QUESTION
PHASE 3: ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION – RELATING THE EVIDENCE
COLLECTED TO THE RESEARCH QUESTION ASKED; DRAWING CONCLUSIONS
ABOUT THE QUESTION, AND ACKNOWLEDGING THE LIMITATIONS OF RESEARCH

We will be dealing with Phase 1 during two weeks, including this one:

PHASE 1: ESSENTIAL FIRST STEPS – CLARIFICATION OF THE ISSUES TO BE


RESEARCHED AND SELECTION OF A RESEARCH METHOD

THE FIRST PHASE OF RESEARCH PROCESS INVOLVES TWO SUB-PHASES:

1.A IDEA-GENERATING PHASE (PRELIMINARIES)


00. CHOOSING A FIELD OF RESEARCH
01. BACKGROUND READING / WRITING DOWN YOUR
THOUGHTS ROUGHLY / TAKING NOTES
02. CHOOSING A TOPIC
03. BACKGROUND READING / TAKING NOTES
04. WRITING DOWN YOUR THOUGHTS ROUGHLY
05. THINKING OF THE KEY CONCEPTS, ISSUES AND
CONTEXTS

1.B IDEA-REFINING PHASE


1. SELECTING A RESEARCH PROBLEM
2. NARROWING THE FOCUS OF THE QUESTION AND FORMULATING
THE PROBLEM TO BE STUDIED
3. STATING THE PROBLEM IN AN INITIAL QUESTION FORMS (I)
4. REFINING THE INITIAL QUESTION
5. STATING THE REFINED QUESTION AS EITHER A HYPOTHESIS OR
A RESEARCH OBJECTIVE
6. DEFINING / SELECTING VARIABLES (THAT ARE RELATED TO THE
CONCEPTS IN THE HYPOTHESES OR RESEARCH OBJECTIVE) (II)
7. MEASURING VARIABLES (III)
8. SELECTING A RESEARCH DESIGN (IV)
9. CONSTRUCTING AN INVESTIGATING INSTRUMENT /
SETTING UP TABLES FOR ANALYSIS
10. SELECTING / DRAWING A SAMPLE (V)

57
THIS FIRST PHASE (COMPOSED OF TWO SUB-PHASES) IS ONE OF
 DECISION-MAKING
 SORTING
 NARROWING
 CLARIFYING
IT REQUIRES CLEAR THINKING

FAVOURITE IDEAS / PRECISELY


PET TOPICS DEVELOPED IDEAS

05. DEFINING KEY CONCEPTS, ISSUES AND CONEXTS

(Since we have tackled with 00 – 04 in the previous section as the preliminaries to


research we will start with 05 in this part)

After choosing your research topic, DEFINING KEY CONCEPTS, ISSUES AND
CONTEXTS WILL ASSIST YOU IN FOCUSING YOUR WORK, AS WELL AS BEING
A GREAT HELP IN THE COMING STAGES OF YOUR RESEARCH. THEY DEFINE
THE TERRITORY OF YOUR RESEARCH, INDICATE THE LITERATURE YOU
NEED TO CONSULT AND SUGGEST THE METHODS AND THEORIES YOU
MIGHT APPLY.

CONCEPTS are WORDS WHICH LABEL IDEAS WHICH ARE KEY IMPORTANCE
TO US. The term “key variables” is sometimes used in an analogous way. Examples
of concepts include, truth, beauty, time, hunger, love, destiny. Concepts have a
resonance which goes beyond that of more ordinary words, but which may critically
DEPEND UPON THEIR CONTEXT, as in the case, for example, of concepts such as
development, quality, equity, class and work. Such concepts and your
understanding of them will help frame the structure and presentation of your
research.

Example 1
If you are examining the position of female managers in a particular organization, you
will probably want to inform your analysis with an understanding of concepts such as
gender and organizational development.

Example 2
If you are studying on the development of centers within the cities, you will probably
inform your analysis with an understanding of concepts such as city center and urban
context.

ISSUES are BROAD QUESTIONS WHICH UNDERLIES AND DIRECT


DISCIPLINES, SUB-DISCIPLINES OR SUBJECT AREAS, AS WELL AS PUBLIC
AFFAIRS. They are the subject of continuing debate and study from a range of
perspectives. Examples of issues include, the links between educational participation
and economic development, the effects of television programs on people‟s behavior,
and the relationship between road building and traffic congestion.

58
CONTEXTS comprise THE BACKGROUND OF EXISTING RESEARCH,
KNOWLEDGE AND UNDERSTANDING WHICH INFORM NEW OR ONGOING
RESEARCH PROJECTS. Research seldom, if ever, breaks wholly new ground; it
builds on an extensive history of other people‟s work. You will need to have some
familiarity with this if you are to make the most of your own research work. Your work,
might, for example, ask similar questions, replicate a study in another area or seek to
modify existing findings. Your research context will include many studies, which are
not specifically relevant to your particular research questions, but are illustrative of
broader issues in your disciplinary field, applications of your methodological
approach or comparative studies in other countries.

I. SELECTING AND STATING A PROBLEM


(IDENTIFYING YOUR RESEARCH QUESTIONS AND HYPOTHESIS OR
OBJECTIVES)

The first stage of a research process is the formulation of the problem. In general
hardest part of this process is this starting point: the original idea or problem.
Developing a clear statement of the problem requires SKILL and CREATIVE
THINKING. Thus, this is where EXPERIENCE, CREATIVITY and ORIGINALITY are
most necessary.

CURIOSITY
CLAIMS FOR OTHERS FORMALOR INFORMAL RESEARCH
READING
PROBLEMS

The statement of the problem is an important early phase in designing research. As


noted by Kerlinger (1986, pp. 16-17, in Graziano, et. al. 1993, p. 164), the major
criteria of a good problem statement are:

1. The problem should state clearly the expected relationships between


variables.
2. The problem should be stated clearly in the form of a question.
3. The statement of the problem must at least imply the possibility of an empirical
test of the problem.

Then we may say that, A CLEAR STATEMENT OF THE ISSUE COULD BE


STUDIED, IN THE FORM OF
 RESEARCH QUESTION(S)
 HYPOTHESIS
 OBJECTIVES
ALL PRECISE AND NARROWLY FOCUSED.

CLARIFICATION OF ISSUES AND NARROWING THE FOCUS OF CONCERN


ARE TWO FUNDAMENTAL STEPS.

HOW DO YOU GET THERE? …………… THERE ARE NO RULES.


THE SKILL IS BEST LEARNED BY PRACTICE.

59
QUESTIONS / OBJECTIVES WE BEGIN WITH ARE QUITE COMPLEX. WE NEED
TO LEARN HOW TO NARROW THEM. ASKING SOME QUESTIONS (AS IN THE
FOLLOWING LINES) ABOUT THE ORGINAL QUESTION MIGHT HELP:
- WHAT ARE THE MAJOR CONCEPTS?
- WHAT IS HAPPENING HERE?
- WHAT ARE THE ISSUES?
- WHAT ARE THE CONTEXTS?
- IS ONE AFFECTING, CAUSING OR PRODUCING A CHANGE IN
SOMETHING ELSE?
- WHY IS THIS SO? ETC.

ADDITIONALLY, READING, THUS, REVIWING THE LITERATURE BY


CONSULTING THE AVAILABLE LITERATURE ON THE SUBJECT MIGHT ALSO
HELP YOU TO NARROW AND CLARIFY YOUR QUESTIONS. (YOU SHOULD
ALLOW PLENTY OF TIME FOR THIS STAGE.)

WITHOUT A CLEAR STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM, OR ISSUES TO BE


STUDIED, THE RESEARCH UNDERTAKEN WILL BE CONFUSING AND
AMBIGIOUS.

IT IS VERY DIFFICULT - IF NOT IMPOSSIBLE, TO PROCEED TO THE NEXT


STAGE OF THE RESEARCH PROCESS IN A SATISFACTORY WAY WITHOUT
SUCH A CLEAR STATEMENT.

The diagram below shows a model for the generation of research hypothesis
(Graziano, et.al., 1993, p 161), thus a REFINED WAY OF PROBLEM STATEMENT:

Initial ideas
(often vague and general)

Initial Observations Search of existing


research literature

Statement of the Problem

Operational definitions
of constructs

Research Questions

Research Hypothesis
(a specific deductive prediction)

Research Objectives

60
RESEARCH QUESTIONS

An obvious point for focusing your research is TO TRY AND SET OUT, LOOSELY
AT FIRST AND THEN MORE PRECISELY, THE QUESTIONS YOU WANT TO
ANSWER IN YOUR RESEARCH PROJECT.

A QUESTION IS A PROBLEM OR STATEMENT IN NEED OF A SOLUTION OR


ANSWER.

IN A SMALL SCALE RESEARCH, YOU ARE UNLIKELY TO BE ABLE TO HANDLE


MORE THAN TWO OR THREE MAIN RESEARCH QUESTIONS. YOU MAY EVEN
ONLY HAVE ONE.

RESEARCH QUESTIONS ARE LIKE OBJECTIVES, RATHER THAN AIMS: THEY


SHOULD CONTAIN WITHIN THEMSELVES THE MEANS FOR ASSESSING THEIR
ACHIEVEMENT.

The beginning of a research project is A QUESTION. Perhaps first only vaguely


considered, the question is GRADUALLY EXAMINED AND REFINED UNTIL IT
BECOMES SPECIFIC ENOUGH TO PROVIDE THE RESEARCHER A CLEAR
DIRECTION FOR ANSWERING IT.

The initial question, once developed, is much more than just a point from which to
begin research; ITS VERY NATURE DETERMINES MUCH OF HOW YOU CARRY
OUT THE REST OF THE RESEARCH PROCESS.

THUS, IF, OR WHEN YOU GET YOUR RESEARCH QUESTIONS RIGHT, THEY
SHOULD SUGGEST NOT JUST THE FIELD FOR STUDY, BUT ALSO METHODS
FOR CARRYING OUT THE RESEARCH AND THE KIND OF ANALYSIS
REQUIRED.

AS IN A BALANCED EQUATION, A QUESTION IS ONE SIDE OF AN IDEA; ON


THE OTHER SIDE IS AN UNKNOWN QUANTITY, A POTANTIAL ANSWER.

61
THUS, DEVELOPING THE INITIAL QUESTION IS OF CONSIDERABLE
IMPORTANCE.

Having posed those questions, the first thing to do is SEARCHING THE


LITERATURE for previous work on these and related questions. You do this to
DETERMINE WHETHER THE QUESTIONS HAVE ALREADY BEEN ANSWERED
and, if not, WHAT METHODS HAVE BEEN USED by other investigators /
researchers in answering similar questions.

In formulating initial research questions, researchers proceed through an often


lengthy process of
 thinking about their area of interest,
 posing loosely defined questions at first,
 studying their own previous work and the work of others reported in literature,
and
 gradually refining their general or vague ideas into initial research questions.

This process might take them far from their starting point, and their refined questions
might be quite different from where they began.

The process of refining originally vague and general ideas does not stop when the
researchers arrive at an initial question. Rather, the question is further refined into a
more SPECIFIC STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM that he/she wishes to investigate;
and the statement is still further refined into a specific RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS
or RESEARCH OBJECTIVES.

62
RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS

A HYPOTHESIS IS A STATEMENT, WHICH ASSERTS A RELATIONSHIP


BETWEEN (TWO) CONCEPTS.

A CONCEPT IS AN IDEA THAT STANDS FOR SOMETHING OR REPRESENTS A


CLASS OF THINGS. (see previous lines)

causes
X Y
or

X is related to Y

The usual form of a hypothesis

DIAGRAMING HYPOTHESIS IS A USEFUL DEVICE TO PROMOTE A CLEAR


THINKING.

EXERCISE 10 (in class)


IF YOU READ SOME OF THE LITERATURE ON CULTURE AND
ARCHITECTURAL ENVIRONMENT, YOU WOULD HAVE FOUND “CULTURE HAS
MANY INFLUENCES ON THE ARCHITECTURAL ENVIRONMENT”. SOME OF
THE INFLUENCES OF CULTURE ON THE ARCHITECTURAL ENVIRONMENT
ARE RELATED TO:
- building form and architectural details (window size, dimensions, walls, etc.)
- building size and proportions
- plan and spatial arrangements
- construction techniques
- variations of public building types (cathedrals, mosques, town halls, etc.)
- organization and orientation of buildings, especially that of houses, in the urban
layout
- width and organization of streets, urban spaces
- functions and use of urban spaces.

ONE HYPOTHESIS YOU MAY DERIVE FROM THESE ISSUES WOULD BE:

Religion and religious beliefs affect the form, plan, spatial arrangements
and orientation of houses.

DIAGRAM OF THIS HYPOTHESIS WOULD BE AS:

X Y
THE FORM, PLAN,
RELIGION AND SPATIAL
RELIGIOUS BELIEFS ARRANGEMENTS AND
ORIENTATION OF
HOUSES
63
NOW DERIVE OTHER HYPOTHESIS FROM THE ABOVE LIST OF ISSUES,
WRITE THEM OUT CONCISELY AND THEN DIAGRAM THEM.

FROM THE EXERCISE WE HAD, YOU MAY TELL THAT DEVELOPING A


HYPOTHESIS REQUIRES THAT YOU IDENTIFY ONE CONCEPT OR THING THAT
CAUSES, AFFECTS, OR HAS AN INFLUENCE ON ANOTHER THING OR
CONCEPT. THIS IS BASIC TO THE LOGIC OF HYPOTHESIS.

THE CONCEPT THAT DOES THE CAUSING IS CALLED THE INDEPENDENT


CONCEPT. THUS, THE INDEPENDENT CONCEPT IS THE THING THAT CAUSES,
PRODUCES A CHANGE IN, OR ACTS UPON SOMETHING ELSE. THE
SOMETHING ELSE WHICH IS ACTED UPON, OR PRODUCED OR CAUSED BY
THE INDEPENDENT CONCEPT IS THE DEPENDENT CONCEPT.

WHILE WRITING A HYPOTHESIS, YOU IDENTIFY AN INDEPENDENT CONCEPT


AND A DEPENDENT CONCEPT.

GO BACK TO THE PREVIOUS EXAMPLE AND IDENTIFY YOUR DEPENDENT


AND INDEPENDENT CONCEPTS. (X IS THE INDEPENDENT CONCEPT, AND Y
IS THE DEPENDENT CONCEPT)

INDEPENDENT DEPENDENT
CONCEPT CONCEPT

ONE CONCEPT CAN BE AN INDEPENDENT CONCEPT IN ONE HYPOTHESIS


AND DEPENDENT ONE IN THE OTHER HYPOTHESIS.

64
WHETHER A CONCEPT S DEPENDENT OR INDEPENDENT, DEPENDS ON
YOUR THEORY, YOUR IDEA OF WHAT IS HAPPENING.

IN SOME CASES THE CAUSE-EFFECT RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN TWO


CONCEPTS MIGHT INDICATE A TWO-WAY RELATION / DIRECTION. IT IS UP
TO THE RESEARCHERS OBJECTIVE / GOALS AND THE MAIN AIMS OF THE
RESEACH HOW HIS/HER IDEAS WILL BE CLARIFIED AND STATED.

INDEPENDENT DEPENDENT
CONCEPT CONCEPT

BESIDES IN SOME CASES THE HYPOTHESES MIGHT INDICATE A NEGATIVE


STATEMENT, WHICH IS ALSO VALID FOR THE RESEARCH PROCESS.

AT THE END OF THE RESEARCH PROCESS THE RESEARCH MIGHT PROVE


OR DISPROVE HIS/HER HYPOTHESIS. BOTH RESULTS ARE VALID AS
CONCLUSIONS.

FORMING HYPOTHESES AND DIAGRAMMING THEM HELPS TO CLARIFY


THEORIES.

THE RESEARCH OBJECTIVE

NOT ALL RESEARCH IS GUIDED BY HYPOTHESIS. SOME RESEARCH IS DONE


JUST TO FIND OUT WHAT IS GOING ON. (Remember the research methods and
various research types)

IN SOME CASES IT IS NOT POSSIBLE OR DESIRABLE TO TRY TO SPECIFY


RELATIONSHIP AMONG VARIABLES BEFOREHAND. THERE ARE TIMES WHEN
DEVELOPING A RESEARCH OBJECTIVE MAY BE A MORE DESIRABLE WAY TO
NARROW THE FOCUS OF A RESEARCH PROJECT.

WHEN THE GOAL OF THE RESEARCH IS DESCRIPTIVE RATHER THAN


EXPLANATORY, A STATEMENT OF RESEARCH OBJECTIVE CAN SERVE TO
GUIDE THE ACTIVITIES OF THE RESEARCH.

65
EXAMPLE OBJECTIVE 1: TO DETERMINE THE NUMBER AND PERCENTAGE
OF YOUNG PEOPLE (UNIVERSITY STUDENTS) IN A PARTICULAR COMMUNITY
(IN FAMAGUSTA) WHO REQUIRE ACCOMMODATION.

THE GOAL OF THIS STUDY IS SIMPLY TO FIND OUT THE SPECIFIC


„COMMUNITY NEED‟. THERE ARE NO INFLUENCING FACTORS UNDER STUDY.
THERE IS NO ATTEMPT TO TEST THE IMPACT OF ANYTHING OR WHETHER
SPECIAL ACCOMMODATION IS NEEDED.

EXAMPLE OBJECTIVE 2: TO DISCOVER THE EXISTING POLICY ON


ADMISSION TO HOMES FOR YOUNG PEOPLE.

TO DISCOVER THE GOVERNMENT‟S POLICY ON FUNDING FOR HOMES FOR


YOUNG PEOPLE.

LOOKING AT THESE EXAMPLES, ONE MIGHT ARGUE THAT, AS LONG AS


YOUR AIM IS TO DESCRIBE WHAT IS, RATHER THAN TO TEST
EXPLANATIONS FOR WHAT IS, A RESEARCH OBJECTIVE WILL PROVIDE AN
ADEQUATE GUIDE TO YOUR RESEARCH.

Summary
THUS, A RESEARCH OBJECTIVE STATES THE GOAL OF THE STUDY WHICH
IS INTENDED TO DESCRIBE. WHEREAS, A HYPOTHESIS IS DEVELOPED TO
GUIDE RESEARCH INTENDED TO TEST AN EXPLANATION.

IN ANY RESEARCH, ACTUALLY, THE RESEARCHER HAS AN “OBJECTIVE”,


BUT NOT NECESSARILY A HYPOTHESIS.

+ or - + or -

GOALS phd RESEARCH PROCESS RESULTS


OBJECTIVES HYPOTHESIS CONCLUSIONS

masters

USUALLY (BUT NOT AS A GENERAL RULE), IN EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS,


AT THE PHD LEVEL, HYPOTHESIS IS REQUIRED BUT AT MASTER DEGREE
RESEARCH, THE PROCESS CAN BE FOLLOWED THROUGH A RESEARCH

66
OBJECTIVE ONLY. HOWEVER, A MASTERS DEGREE RESEARCH CAN SET UP
A HYPOTHESIS AS A PHD STUDY CAN BE BASED ON RESEARCH OBJECTIVE
ONLY – ALL DEPENDS UPON THE RESEARCH TOPIC AND INTENTIONS (HWAT
YOU WANT TO RESEARCH?)

EXERCISE 11 (at home / not to be submitted)


QUESTIONS FOR REVIEW
1. List five common starting points for the research process.
2. What are the reasons for reviewing the literature on a particular subject?
3. Why is it essential to identify the issues or factors involved in a subject, topic,
or problem being considered for a research project?
4. What is a hypothesis? Give an example. Diagram your hypothesis.
5. What is an independent concept? What is a dependent concept? Which of the
following are dependent concepts?
6. Write down 2 hypothesis statements in your field of study. Diagram them and
show the dependent concept and the independent concept on both of them?
7. What is a research objective? How is it different form a hypothesis? For what
kinds of research is it appropriate?

II. SELECTING VARIABLES

ONCE YOU HAVE DEVELOPED A HYPOTHESIS, YOU ARE READY TO DESIGN


SOME RESEARCH TO TEST THAT HYPOTHESIS.

SIMILARLY, ONCE YOU HAVE DEVISED A RESEARCH OBJECTIVE, YOU ARE


READY TO DESIGN A PLAN OF RESEARCH THAT WILL PROVIDE EVIDENCE
TO MEET THE OBJECTIVE.

AT THIS POINT YOU ARE STILL AT A CONCEPTUAL / ABSTRACT LEVEL.


(SIMILAR TO THE FIRST PHASES OF THE DESIGN PROCESS). YOU DO NOT
KNOW YET HOW YOU WILL COLLECT THE EMPRICAL EVIDENCE YOU NEED.

YOU HAVE TO FIND A WAY OF MEASURING CONCEPTS, WHICH NEEDS


CREATIVITY AND SKILL, AS A CHALLENGING ASPECT OF RESEARCH.

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ABSTRACT CONCRETE &
FROM CONCEPTS MEASURABLE
IDEAS

ONE OF THE MOST CHALLENGING AND CREATIVE TASKS IN THE RESEARCH


PROCESS IS THE DISCIPLINE OF FINDING MEASURABLE, OBSERVABLE,
SENSORY VARIABLES THAT RELATE TO THE CONCEPTS THAT CONCERN
US.

THE ACTIVITY OF FINDING MEASURABLE VARIABLES FOR CONCEPTS IS


CALLED OPERATIONALIZATION. AN OPERATIONAL DEFINITION OF A
CONCEPT GOES BEYOND A USUAL DICTIONARY DEFINITION. IT DEFINES
THE CONCEPT AS BEING EMPRICAL.

THE BASIC QUESTION WHICH GUIDES THIS ACTIVITY IS:


 HOW CAN I MEASURE THAT?
 WHAT CAN I TAKE AS AN INDICATOR OF WHAT IS GOING ON?

HOWEVER MOST OF THE CONCEPTS, WHICH CONCERN US ARE NOT


DIRECTLY MEASURABLE.

AT THIS POINT WE NEED TO OPERATIONALIZE THE CONCEPT BY USING A


VARIABLE.

ACTUALLY, A RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS MAKES (OR SHOULD MAKE)


A STATEMENT ABOUT THE RELATIONSHIP AMONG VARIABLES AND
CLEARLY IMPLIES THAT THE RELATIONSHIP CAN BE EMPRICALLY TESTED.

VARIABLES
A VARIABLE IS A CONCEPT THAT VARIES IN AMOUNT OR KIND. In other
words, A VARIABLE IS ANY CHARACTERISTICS THAT CAN TAKE MORE THAN
ONE FORM OR VALUE (e.g. anxiety, intelligence, height, reaction time, etc.)

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A VARIABLE IS A CONCEPT OF WHICH IT IS POSSIBLE TO HAVE MORE OR
LESS, OR DIFFERENT KINDS.

USUALLY THE VARIABLES THAT INTEREST US ARE VARIABLES WHICH NOT


ONLY VARY IN AMOUNT OR KIND BUT WHICH ARE ALSO MEASURABLE.

IN RESEARCH THERE ARE USUALLY AT LEAST TWO VARIABLES OF


INTEREST: (1) THE INDEPENDENT VARIABLE (which may or may not be
manipulated by the researcher), (2) THE DEPENDENT OR RESPONSE VARIABLE
(which is observed and measured by the researcher).

EXAMPLES

EXAMPLE ONE: CAN LOVE BE A VARIABLE? WHY? WHY NOT?

SOMEONE MIGHT ARGUE THAT LOVE IS A VARIABLE: YOU CAN HAVE MORE
OR LESS OF IT, AND THERE ARE DIFFERENT KINDS OF LOVE. HOWEVER
LOVE IS NOT DIRECTLY MEASURABLE. IF WE TRY TO MEASURE LOVE, WE
HAVE TO FIND SUITABLE AND MEASURABLE VARIABLES TO USE; SUCH AS
NUMBER OF KISSES RECEIVED FROM ONE‟S LOVER, THE FREQUENCY OF
PRESENTS OR FLOWERS RECEIVED, THE FREQUENCY AND NUMBER OF
HUGS, THE FAILURE OF REMEMBERING IMPORTANT DATES, ETC. WHILE THE
CONCEPT OF LOVE IS NOT DIRECTLY MEASURABLE, WE TEND TO FIND
SOME MEASURABLE CONCEPTS / VARIABLES TO ASSESS WHETHER WE ARE
LOVED OR NOT.

EXAMPLE TWO: IF WE TAKE ANOTHER EXAMPLE REGARDING THE


CONCEPTS OF READING BOOKS AND EDUCATION / LEARNING AND ARGUE
THAT “THERE IS A RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN LEARNING / EDUCATION AND
READING BOOKS”:

OUR HYPOTHESIS IS:

Reading books increase the level of one’s education.


or,
The more one reads books, the more his/her education level will
increase.

THE CONCEPTUAL FORM / DIAGRAM OF THE HYPOTHESIS WILL BE AS


FOLLOWS:
X Y

READING BOOKS LEVEL OF EDUCATION

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HERE X: READING BOOKS IS THE INDEPENDENT CONCEPT, AND Y: LEVEL
OF EDUCATION IS THE DEPENDENT CONCEPT. THEY ARE BOTH ABSTRACT
CONCEPTS. WE NEED TO DEFINE / FIND MEASURABLE VARIABLES -
RELATED TO BOTH CONCEPTS.

LET US FIRST TAKE LEVEL OF EDUCATION: HOW SHALL WE MEASURE


LEVEL OF EDUCATION? WHAT VARIABLES CAN BE TAKEN AS INDICATORS
OF EDUCATION LEVEL?
 Marks
 Test results
 Number of correct answers to questions on a given topic
 Observer‟s reports
 Ability to compete with others, etc.

WHAT ABOUT READING BOOKS: IT MIGHT BE DIFFICULT TO MEASURE


READING ALONE BUT WE CAN MEASURE
 Number of books read every week / month
 Number of hours spent for reading.

AT THIS POINT YOU TRY TO RELATE THE VARIABLES WITH EACHOTHER.


THUS, TRY TO SEE THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN DIFFERENT VARIABLES.

HERE THE OPERATIONAL DEFINITION OF THE CONCEPT READING MIGHT BE


“UMBER OF HOURS SPENT FOR READING BOOKS”

IT IS NOW POSSIBLE TO STATE THE HYPOTHESIS IN ANOTHER FORM – IN


OPERATIONAL FORM OF HYPOTHESIS:

X Y
NUMBER OF HOURS NUMBER OF
SPENT FOR READING CORRECT ANSWERS
BOOKS TO QUESTIONS ON A
GIVEN TOPIC

THE OPERATIONAL FORM OF THE HYPOTHESIS ASSERTS THAT THERE IS A


RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN VARIABLES - IN THIS CASE NUMBER OF HOURS
SPENT FOR READING BOOKS AND NUMBER OF CORRECT ANSWERS TO
QUESTIONS ON A GIVEN TOPIC.

IN THIS EXAMPLE NUMBER OF HOURS SPENT FOR READING BOOKS IS THE


INDEPENDENT VARIABLE, AND NUMBER OF CORRECT ANSWERS TO
QUESTIONS ON A GIVEN TOPIC IS THE DEPENDENT VARIABLE.

AT THIS POINT IT IS IMPORTANT TO FIND OUT “WHAT KINDS OF


RELATIONSHIPS CAN THERE BE BETWEEN VARIABLES?”. THERE ARE
THREE BASIC TYPES:

1. THE VARIABLES ARE NOT RELATED.


2. THE VARIABLES ARE RELATED.

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3. THE VARIABLES ARE CAUSALLY RELATED, THAT IS A CHANGE IN ONE
VARIABLE WILL PRODUCE A CHANGE IN THE OTHER VARIABLE.

IT IS RELATIVELY EASY TO DETERMINE WHETHER TWO VARIABLES ARE


RELATED. IT IS MORE DIFFICULT TO DETERMINE THAT X CAUSES Y. IN
ORDER TO ESTABLISH THAT TWO VARIABLES ARE CAUSALLY RELATED IT IS
NECESSARY TO SHOW

1. THAT X AND Y ARE RELATED,


2. THAT CHANGES IN X PRECEDE CHANGES IN Y,
3. THAT ALL OTHER VARIBALES WHICH MIGHT PRODUCE THE CHANGES
IN Y ARE CONTROLLED.

Summary

ANY HYPOTHESIS CAN BE STATED AT BOTH CONCEPTUAL (OR ABSTRACT


OR THEORETICAL) LEVEL AND AT THE OPERATIONAL (OR EMPRICAL OR
MEASURABLE) LEVEL.

 AT THE THEORETICAL LEVEL, A HYPOTHESIS ASSERTS A


RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN CONCEPTS
 AT THE EMPRICAL LEVEL IT ASSERTS A RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN
VARIABLES.

THERE ARE NO SET WAYS OR EVEN USEFUL GUIDES FOR FINDING


VARIABLES THAT ARE APPROPRIATE MEASURES FOR CONCEPTS. THIS IS
AN AREA FOR CREATIVITY AND EXPERIMENTATION. DOING RESEARCH
INVOLVES A GREAT DEAL OF INVENTIVENESS AND A WILLINGNESS TO
THINK IN NEW WAYS. YOU HAVE TO SEARCH FOR VARIABLES. VARIABLES
MUST BE MEASURABLE AND RELATE IN SOME ACCEPTED WAY TO THE
CONCEPT IN QUESTION. BEYOND THOSE TWO RULES THE JOB OF FINDING
VARIABLES IS UP TO YOU.

WHEN DEVELOPING RESEARCH, TO MEET OUR OBJECTIVES, IT IS STILL


NECESSARY TO CLARIFY OUR CONCEPTS AND TO SELECT VARIABLES
APPROPRIATE TO OUR CONCEPTS.

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RESEARCH OBJECTIVES ARE USED TO GUIDE RESEARCH THAT SEEKS TO
DESCRIBE AS OPPOSED TO RESEARCH THAT SEEKS TO EXPLAIN WHAT IS
HAPPENNING. WHILE THIS MEANS THAT THERE WILL NOT BE INDEPENDENT
CONCEPTS AND VARIABLES, IT IS STILL NECESSARY TO OPERATIONALIZE
THE CONCEPTS IN THE RESEARCH OBJECTIVE. VARIABLES MUST BE
SELECTED TO SERVE AS INDICATORS FOR THE CONCEPTS BEING STUDIED.

EXAMPLE: A RESEARCH OBJECTIVE CAN BE “TO DISCOVER THE EXISTING


POLICY ON ADMISSION TO HOMES FOR ELDERLY PEOPLE”.

AT FIRST GLANCE IT SEEMS PERFECTLY STRAIGHTFORWARD: GO AND FIND


OUT. FIND OUT WHAT? POLICY IS A FAIRLY GENERAL CONCEPT. HOW MIGHT
ADMISSION POLICY VARY FROM HOME TO HOME?
 Age
 Health
 Financial status
 Family status

ALL OF THESE ARE VARIABLES RELATED TO THE CONCEPT POLICY. YOU


NEED TO THINK OF THESE ISSUES BEFORE BEGINNING TO COLLECT YOUR
DATA.

SOME BACKGROUND READING OR REVIEWING THE RELEVANT LITERATURE


WILL HELP TO IDENTIFY VARIABLES THAT MIGHT BE RELATED TO THE
CONCEPTS UNDER STUDY.

EXERCISE 12 (at home / not to be submitted)

Work on a hypothesis on your own on any subject related to daily life that you might
be interested in. Practise writing down two hypotheses on the same subject– one in
the conceptual form and the other in the measurable form. Diagram both hypotheses
and identify the dependant and independent concepts and variables.

EXERCISE 13 (at home / not to be submitted)


QUESTIONS FOR REVIEW

1. What is a concept? Give three examples.


2. What is a hypothesis?
3. What is a variable?
4. Why do we have to select variables?
5. What is the difference between a hypothesis and a research objective?
6. Think of at least two variables for each of the given concepts below:

72
Concept Related variables

Health
Marital happiness
Study
Satisfactory housing
Culture
Behavior
Design
Light
Ecology

73
III. MEASURING VARIABLES (RESEARCH METHODOLOGY)

THERE IS A RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN CONCEPTS, VARIABLES, MEASURING


INSTRUMENTS AND UNITS OF MEASUREMENT. THIS RELATIONSHIP IS BASIC
TO ALL EMPRICAL RESEARCH.

THE LOGICAL ORDER OF ISUES TO BE DECIDED IN A MEASUREMENT IS


EXPLAINED IN THE BELOW DIAGRAM:

DEFINE SELECT DEVISE DEVISE


CONCEPTS VARIABLES MEASURING UNITS OF
INSTRUMENT MEASUREMENT

THE FOLLOWING TABLE GIVES SOME EXAMPLES OF THE LOGICAL ORDER


OF ISSUES TO BE DECIDED IN MEASUREMENT; YOU MAY ADD SOME OTHER
ISSUES FOR PRACTICE:

CONCEPT VARIABLE MEASURING UNITS OF


INSTRUMENT MEASUREMENT
Physical growth height ruler Centimeters
Physical growth weight scale Grams
Heat temperature thermometer Degrees Celsius
or Fahrenheit

ONCE WE HAVE IDENTIFIED AND SELECTED ONE OR MORE VARIABLE


RELATED TO OUR CONCEPTS, THEN WE NEED TO FIND A WAY TO MEASURE
THESE VARIABLES. THE PROBLEM OF MEASUREMENT IN SOCIAL AND
BEHAVIOURAL SCIENCES INVOLVES TWO MAJOR ISSUES:
1. BY WHAT INSTRUMENT ARE WE GOING TO MEASURE THE VARIABLES?
2. IN WHAT UNITS ARE WE GOING TO REPORT THE RESULTS OF OUR
MEASURING?
IT IS TRUE AND UNFORTUNATE THAT IN SOCIAL AND BEHAVIOURAL
SCIENCES TRULY STANDARDIZED MEASURES AND SCALES HAVE NOT BEEN
DEVELOPED YET. THIS IS PART OF THE GREAT CHALLENGE IN DOING
RESEARCH IN SOCIAL AND BEHAVIOURAL SCIENCES.

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THERE ARE THREE BASIC TECHNIQUES USED BY RESEARCHERS IN SOCIAL
AND BEHAVIOURAL SCIENCES TO MEASURE VARIABLES:

1. OBSERVATIONS – OBSERVE WHAT IS GOING ON AND RECORD WHAT


YOU OBSERVE.
2. INTERVIEWING & QUESTIONNAIRES – RESEARCHER ASKS QUESTIONS
(VERBALLY OR WRITTEN), SOMEONE RESPONDS, THE RESPONSE IS
RECORDED.
3. EXAMINING RECORDS & CONTENT ANALYSIS – GATHERING DATA TO
EXAMINE RECORDS AND DOCUMENTS.

See previous sections for research techniques.

IV. RESEARCH METHODOLGY / RESEARCH DESIGN

AS HAS BEEN DISCUSSED IN THE PREVIOUS LINES, THE RESEARCH IS DONE


TO TEST THE HYPOTHESIS OR TO MEET THE RESEARCH OBJECTIVE SET.

HOW DOES THE HYPOTHESIS GUIDE THE RESEARCH?

THE HYPOTHESIS CLAIMS THAT THERE IS A RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN X AND


Y. RESEARCH IS UNDERTAKEN TO DETERMINE WHETHER THERE IS
EVIDENCE TO SUPPORT THIS CLAIM.

IN ORDER TO CARRY OUT THE RESEARCH TWO BASIC THINGS MUST BE


DONE:

1. THE CONCEPTS OF HYPOTHESIS MUST BE DEFINED IN A WAY THAT


THEY CAN BE MEASURED.
2. SOME INDICATION THAT THE RELATIONSHIP IT STATES ACTUALLY
EXISTS, MUST BE FOUND.

THUS, MEASURING X AND Y IS ONE THING. FINDING AN INDICATION THAT X


AND Y ARE RELATED IS ANOTHER. HOWEVER, RESEARCH REQUIRES MORE
THAN THE MEASUREMENT OF THE CONCEPTS IN A HYPOTHESIS. WHILE
THE MEASUREMENT OF CONCEPTS IS TAKEN CARE OF BY OPERATIONAL
DEFINITIONS OF THE CONCEPTS IN THE HYPOTHESIS, THE RELATIONSHIP
BETWEEN X AND Y IS ASSESSED BY THE RESEARCH DESIGN.

IN EMPRICAL RESEARCH, FINDING MEASURES IS A GREAT CHALLENGE.


THE SECOND GREAT CHALLENGE IS TO DESIGN WAYS TO DISCOVER THE
RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN VARIABLES.

75
 HOW DO YOU PROVE THAT THE CONCEPTS ARE RELATED IN THE
ARGUED WAY?
 HOW DO YOU DESIGN YOUR RESEARCH TO ANSWER THIS QUESTION?

THE BASIC TYPES OF RESEARCH DESIGN CAN BE DIVIDED INTO FIVE TYPES:
1. THE CASE STUDY
2. THE LONGITUDINAL STUDY
3. THE COMPARISON
4. THE LONGITUDINAL COMPARISON
5. THE EXPERIMENT
THE TYPE YOU SELECT WILL DEPEND ON THE HYPOTHESIS OR RESEARCH
OBJECTIVE YOU HAVE SET UP FOR YOURSELF.

EACH TYPE OF RESEARCH DESIGN ANSWERS A DIFFERENT QUESTION.


(ONE WAY TO BECOME FAMILIAR WITH THE LOGIC OF RESEARCH DESIGN IS
TO UNDERSTAND THAT EACH TYPE OF RESEARCH DESIGN ASKS A
DIFFERENT KIND OF QUESTION.)

THE CASE STUDY


INVOLVES A CASE TO BE STUDIED.

QUESTION
THE QUESTION ANSWERED BY THE CASE STUDY IS “WHAT IS GOING ON?”
ACTION
IN A CASE STUDY A SINGLE CASE IS STUDIED FOR A PERIOD OF TIME AND
THE RESULTS ARE RECORDED.
OBJECT / KEY ELEMENT
A PERSON, A GROUP, A TOWN, A NATION, ETC.
THE KEY ELEMENT IN A CASE STUDY IS THAT ONE GROUP IS FOCUSED ON
AND THAT NO COMPARISON WITH ANOTHER GROUP IS MADE.
AIM
THE AIM OF THE CASE STUDY IS DESCRIPTION. ANSWERING THE
QUESTIONS OF WHAT IS GOING ON? IS THERE A RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN A
AND B?

76
THE CASE STUDY MAY BE AN EXPLORATORY STUDY, WHICH TAKES A
BROAD LOOK AT THE PHENOMENON UNDER STUDY. ATTENTION IS NOT AS
FOCUSED AS IN A STUDY TO TESY A HYPOTHESIS. THE PURPOSE IS TO
GETHER INFORMATION, SO THAT A DESCRIPTION OF WHAT IS GOING ON
CAN BE MADE.

THE LONGITUDINAL STUDY


INVOLVES TWO OR MORE CASE STUDIES OF THE SAME GROUP WITH A
PERIOD OF TIME BETWEEN EACH STUDY.

QUESTION
THE QUESTION ANSWERED BY THE CASE STUDY IS “HAS THERE BEEN ANY
CHANGE OVER A PERIOD OF TIME?”

THE ANSWER IS YES OR NO AND SOME INDICATION OF HOW MUCH. IT


CANNOT BY ITSELF IDENTIFY AND ISOLATE THE CAUSE OF CHANGE. THAT
REQUIRES AN EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH DESIGN.
ACTION
IN A LONGITUDINAL STUDY TWO OR MORE CASES OF THE SAME GROUP
ARE STUDIED FOR A PERIOD OF TIME BETWEEN EACH STUDY AND THE
RESULTS ARE RECORDED. SOMETIMES INCLUDES THE USE OF OFFICIAL
RECORDS.

A A

TIME 1 TIME 2

OBJECT / KEY ELEMENT


COMPARISON OF TWO OR SEVERAL MEASURES OF THE SAME PERSON,
GROUP, TOWN, NATION, ETC. OVER A PERIOD OF TIME.
AIM
THE AIM OF THE LONGITUDINAL STUDY IS TO DETERMINE WHETHER THERE
HAS BEEN A CHANGE OVER A PERIOD OF TIME.

77
TO DO A LONGITUDINAL STUDY, YOU:
1. SELECT VARIBALES RELEVANT TO THE CONCEPTS UNDER STUDY
2. DEVISE A WAY OF MEASURING THOSE VARIABLES
3. DEVELOP A DATA RECORDING DEVICE (METHOD)
4. MEASURE THE SAME VARIABLES IN THE SAME WAY IN ONE GROUP
(OR FOR ONE PERSON, TOWN, PLACE, ETC.) AT TWO OR MORE TIMES.

THE COMPARISON
INVOLVES ONE MEASURE OF TWO OR MORE GROUPS. THE MEASURES ARE
IDEALLY TAKEN AT THE SAME TIME.

THE FINDINGS OF THIS STUDY ARE LIMITED TO THE STUDIED GROUP. THE
RESERACHER CANNOT GENERALIZE FURTHER IN THIS INSTANCE.

QUESTION
THE QUESTION ANSWERED BY THE CASE STUDY IS “ARE A AND B
DIFFERENT?”
ACTION
IN A COMPARISON STUDY TWO DIFFERENT GROUPS ARE COMPARED USING
THE SAME MEASURE OF THE SAME VARIABLES AT OR NEARLY AT THE
SAME TIME.

TIME 1

TIME 1

OBJECT / KEY ELEMENT


COMPARISON OF TWO DIFFERENT GROUPS - PERSON, TOWN, NATION, ETC.
AIM
THE AIM OF THE COMPARISON STUDY IS TO DETERMINE WHETHER THERE
IS ANY DIFFERENCE BETWEEN THE TWO GROUPS.

78
TO DO A COMPARISON STUDY, YOU:
1. SELECT VARIBALES RELATED TO THE CONCEPTS UNDER STUDY
2. DEVISE A WAY OF MEASURING THE VARIABLES
3. DEVELOP A DATA RECORDING DEVICE (METHOD)
4. MEASURE THE SAME VARIABLES IN THE SAME WAY IN TWO OR MORE
GROUPS (OR INDIVIDUALS, TOWNS, PLACES, ETC.) AT THE SAME OR
NEARLY THE SAME TIME.

THE LONGITUDINAL COMPARISON


COMBINATION OF COMPARISON STUDY AND LONGITUDINAL STUDY.
INVOLVES A SERIES OF MEASURES OF THE SAME VARIABLES IN THE SAME
GROUPS OVER TIME.
IT IS A COMPARISON BECAUSE THE TWO GROUPS DIFFER IN A SIGNIFICANT
ASPECT.

QUESTION
THE QUESTION ANSWERED BY THE CASE STUDY IS “ARE A AND B
DIFFERENT OVER A PERIOD OF TIME?” IT CANNOT HOWEVER ANSWER TH
QUESTIONS “WHY THEY ARE OR THEY ARE NOT DIFFERENT?”
ACTION
IN A LONGITUDINAL COMPARISON STUDY TWO DIFFERENT GROUPS ARE
COMPARED USING THE SAME MEASURE OF THE SAME VARIABLES AT
MORE THAN ONE TIME.

A A

B B

TIME 1 TIME 2

OBJECT / KEY ELEMENT


COMPARISON OF TWO DIFFERENT GROUPS - PERSON, TOWN, NATION, ETC.
AT TWO ORE MORE TIMES.

79
AIM
THE AIM OF THE COMPARISON STUDY IS TO DETERMINE WHETHER THERE
IS ANY DIFFERENCE BETWEEN THE TWO GROUPS AND WHETHER THIS
DIFFERENCE PERSIST THROUGH TIME.

TO USE A LONGITUDINAL COMPARISON RESEARCH DESIGN, YOU MUST:


1. SELECT VARIBALES RELATED TO THE CONCEPTS UNDER STUDY
2. DEVISE A WAY OF MEASURING THE VARIABLES
3. DEVELOP A DATA RECORDING DEVICE (METHOD)
4. MEASURE THE SAME VARIABLES IN THE SAME WAY IN TWO OR MORE
GROUPS (OR INDIVIDUALS, TOWNS, PLACES, ETC.) AT TWO OR MORE
TIMES.

THE EXPERIMENT
AN EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH DESIGN PROVIDES THE MOST RIGOROUS
TEST OF A HYPOTHESIS WHICH SPECIFIES THAT X CAUSES Y.

THE FUNDAMENTAL REQUIREMENT OF AN EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN IS THAT


THE RESEARCHER HAS SOME CONTROL OVER VARIATION IN THE
INDEPENDENT VARIABLE AND IS ABLE TO CONTROL THE INFLUENCE OF
OTHER VARIABLES.

AIM
TO DETERMINE THE EFFECT THAT A CHANGE IN ONE VARIABLE HAS UPON
ANOTHER.

BEFORE AFTER

EXPERIMENTAL GROUP
A A

TIME 1 TIME 2

B B CONTROL GROUP

80
IN ORDER TO TEST AN HYPOTHESIS USING AN EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN, THE
RESEARCHER MUST:

1. MANIPULATE THE INDEPENDENT VARIABLE


2. SELECT TWO GROUPS – THE SAME OR AS ALIKE AS POSSIBLE IN ALL
ESSENTIAL WAYS, ONE OF WHICH WILL BECOME THE CONTROL
GROUP AND THE OTHER EXPERIMENTAL GROUP (THE GROUP THAT
GETS THE TREATMENT)
3. ISOLATE THE TWO GROUPS SO THAT THE EXPERIEMENTAL GROUP
DOES NOT COMMUNICATE WITH OR OTHERWISE AFFECT THE
CONTROL GROUP
4. DEVISE MEASURES FOR VARIABLES
5. MEASURE THE DEPENDENT VARIABLE FOR EACH GROUP BOTH
BEFORE AND AFTER THE CHANGE IN THE INDEPENDENT VARIABLE
(AN EXPERIMENT REQUIRES BEFORE AND AFTER MEASURES OF THE
DEPENDENT VARIABLE FOR BOTH THE EXPERIMENTAL AND THE
CONTROL GROUP)
6. RECORD DATA
7. PRESENT YOUR FINDINGS IN SUCH A WAY THAT YOU CAN DRAW
CONCLUSIONS ABOUT THE EFFECT (OR LACK OF IT) ON THE
DEPENDENT VARIABLE.

Remember the following:

YOU CHOSE A RESEARCH DESIGN ACCORDING TO THE KIND OF QUESTION


BEING ASKED.

YOU DRAW ONLY SUCH CONCLUSIONS AS YOUR DATA AND RESEARCH


DESIGN PERMIT.

NOTE THE FACT THAT YOUR RESEARCH IS LIMITED BECAUSE OF YOUR USE
OF A RESEARCH DESIGN OTHER THAN AN EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN.

THE LIMITATIONS SECTION OFYOUR REPORT IS THE PLACE TO


DEMONSTRATE THAT YOU KNOW WHAT THE IDEAL IS AND THAT YOU KNOW
YOUR WORK IS NOT COMPLETELY IDEAL.

V. SELECTING A SAMPLE

IN ORDER TO MAKE YOUR TASK POSSIBLE AND PRODUCE ACCURATE


RESULTS, THE SAMPLE SHOULD BE DRWAN CAREFULLY.

WE USE SAMPLING AND GENERALIZE FROM THE SAMPLES WE DRAW IN


OUR EVERYDAY LIFE. (EXAMPLE OF JUDGEMENTS OF THE WEATHER JUST
BY LOOKING OUT OF THE WINDOW)

81
SAMPLING IS AN IMPORTANT FEATURE OF ALL RESEARCH. PART OF THE
WHOLE IS STUDIED AND THE RESULTS ARE TAKEN TO BE ACCURATE
REFLECTION OF THE WHOLE.
THE MOST IMPORTANT POINT TO REMEMBER ABOUT SAMPLING IS:

THE MANNER IN WHICH THE SAMPLE IS DRAWN DETERMINES TO WHAT


EXTENT WE CAN GENERALIZE FROM FINDINGS.

IF THE SAMPLE STIUDIED IS NOT REPRESENTATIVE, THE CONCLUSIONS


DRAWN FROM THE RESEARCH MUST BE LIMITED TO THE SAMPLE STUDIED.

IF, FOR EXAMPLE, YOU ARE DOING A RESERCH ON “THE EFFECTIVE DESIGN
CRITERIA OF OTTOMAN HOUSES IN CYPRUS”, THE SAMPLES YOU SHOULD
BE SELECTING SHOULD BE THE TYPICAL, REPRESENTATIVE HOUSES FROM
THE OTTOMAN PERIOD.

THE BASIC PROBLEM IS TO SELECT A SAMPLE THAT ACCURATELY


REFLECTS A SPECIFIED LARGER GROUP.

TYPES OF SAMPLING PROCEDURE

A. RANDOM SAMPLING PROCEDURE PROVIDES THE GREATEST


ASSURANCE THAT THOSE SELECTED ARE A REPRESENTATIVE SAMPLE OF
THE LARGER GROUP.

IN ORDER TO DRAW A SIMPLE RANDOM SMAPLE THE RESERACHER MUST

1. IDENTIFY THE POPULATION OR NUMBER OF HOUSES, STREETS,


ETC. FROM WHICH THE SAMPLE IS TO BE DRAWN
2. ENUMERATE AND LIST EACH ELEMENT (OR PERSONS,
HOUSEHOLDS, ETC.) IN THE POPULATION
3. DEVISE A METHOD OF SELECTION WHICH ENSURES THAT EACH
ELEMENT HAS THE SAME PROBABILITY OF SELECTION AND THAT
EACH COMBINATION OF THE TOTAL NUMBER OF ELEMENTS HAS
THE SAME PROBABILITY OF SELECTION.

B. NON-RANDOM SAMPLING PROCEDURES PROVIDE ONLY A WEAK BASIS


FOR GENERALIZATION AND INCLUDE MOST COMMONLY

1. ACCIDENTAL SAMPLING PROCEDURE, WHICH INVOLVES USING


WHAT IS IMMEDIATELY AVAILABLE AND WHOSE RESULTS APPLY
ONLY TO THE SAMPLE STUDIED.
2. PURPOSIVE SAMPLING PROCEDURE, WHICH INVOLVES
SELECTIONS BASED ON THE RESEARCHER‟S OWN JUDGEMENT
AND INTUITION
3. SYSTEMATIC MATCHING SAMPLING PROCEDURE, WHICH IS USED
WHEN A RESEARCHER WANTS TO COMPARE TWO GROUPS OF
VERY DIFFERENT SIZES.

82
MAJOR REFERENCE
Bouma, Gary D., Atkinson, G.B.J. (1996), A Handbook of Social Science Research:
A Comprehensive and Practical Guide for Students, Second edition, Paper Back,
Oxford University Press

83
WEEK EIGHT
Main topics: Basic Framework For a Research Report / Research Paper

The basic technique of research is a PLANNED APPROACH TO A CLEARLY


DEFINED PROBLEM. This is how you should approach writing a research report /
paper. THE STRUCTURE OF THE PAPER / REPORT WILL COME FROM THE
SUBJECT ITSELF, THE PURPOSE AND THE INTENDED AUDIENCE.

WHY DO YOU INTEND TO WRITE A RESEARCH PAPER ANY WAY?


THE ANSWER IS: “SO THAT IT WILL BE READ.”

TO WRITE WELL, IT IS FIRST NECESSARY TO PLAN; EFFECTIVE WRITING IS


SYSTEMATIC, WITH THE WORDS ARRANGED IN A LOGICAL ORDER AND IN
THE RIGHT PROPORTION. BUT BEFORE YOU CAN START PLANNING YOU
MUST HAVE SOMETHING TO SAY, A MESSAGE TO DESCRIBE.

THE QUESTIONS YOU NEED TO ANSWER WHEN PLANNING A RESEARCH


PAPER / REPORT, HELP YOU BREAK THE PAPER DOWN INTO ITS ELEMENTS,
WHICH CAN BE EXPLAINED AS FOLLOWS:

1. The reason for doing the work


2. What was known and was not known before the investigation was started and
the logic leading to the experiments
3. What the work was expected to show, or the objectives and the hypotheses
under test
4. The setting and the conditions of the experiment that eliminate variation
5. The experimental plan
6. The methods used
7. How the data were collected
8. The methods of analyzing the data and the statistical techniques (if used any)
9. The results obtained
10. The validity and meaning of the results and the conclusions to be drawn from
them
11. Implications of the results in relation to other work
12. Directions for future work
13. References to other work in the field
14. Any other additional information to support the work

84
THE BASIC IDEA IS THAT YOU SHOULD APPROACH WRITING A PAPER /
REPORT SYSTEMATICALLY.

BEST WAY TO START WRITING IS TO DEVELOP A PLAN BY LOOKING AT THE


ABOVE LISTED QUESTIONS AND TRY TO FIND OUT THE ANSWERS FOR
THEM. (LOOK AT EACH QUESTION IN TURN AND MAKE NOTES OF THE
ANSWERS). THE OUTLINE WILL BE A SUMMARY OF THE ENTIRE PAPER IN
NOTE FORM, A FRAMEWORK THAT YOU CAN GRADUALLY BUILD UP INTO A
COMPLETE PAPER / REPORT.

THINKING OF THE RESEARCH PAPER AS A SERIES OF PARTS WILL MAKE IT


EASIER FOR YOU TO BUILD UP YOUR IDEAS INTO A FULL ARTICLE. (see the
following table from Stapleton, 1987, p.10)

QUESTION Working title


ANSWER Working abstract
Introduction
Background
Review
Objectives
Materials and methods
What?
How? etc.
Results
Discussion
Interpretation
Conclusion
Implications
Final Abstract
Objective
Results
Conclusions Implications
Final title

85
THE FINISHED PRODUCT IN A RESEARCH PAPER / REPORT, IN GENERAL,
CONSISTS OF THE FOLLOWINGS:

MAIN PARTS OF A RESEARCH REPORT


a. the title the fewest words possible that adequately
describe the paper. It attracts the expert and
interests the casual reader.
Preliminaries b. acknowledgements thanking colleagues, supervisors, friends etc. for
their assistance.
c. list of contents the sections in sequence included in the report.
d. list of figures/tables the sequence of charts or diagrams that appear
in the text.
e. the abstract an extremely concise summary of the contents of
the report, including the conclusions. It provides
an overview of the whole report for the reader. It
Introduction stimulates the expert to read the paper and
supplies the casual reader with definite
information
f. statement of the a brief discussion of the nature of the research
problem an the reasons for undertaking it. A clear
declaration of proposals and hypothesis.
a survey of selective, relevant and appropriate
g. review of the literature reading, both of primary and secondary source
materials. Evidence of original and critical
thought applied to books and journals.
a statement and discussion of the hypothesis
h. design of the and the theoretical structure in which they will be
investigation tested and examined, together with the methods
Main body used
detailed descriptions and discussion of testing
i. measurement devices used. Presentation of data supporting
techniques used validity and reliability. A discussion of the
analysis to be applied to the results to test the
hypothesis.
the presentation in a logical order of information
j. results and data upon which a decision can be made to
accept or reject the hypothesis.
the presentation of principles, relationships,
correlations and generalizations, shown by the
k. discussion and results. The interpretation of the results and their
conclusion relationship to the research problem and
Conclusion hypothesis. The making of deductions and
inferences and implications for the research. The
making of recommendations.
l. summary of a concise account of the main findings, and the
conclusions inferences drawn from them.
m. bibliography an accurate listing in strict alphabetical order of
all the sources cited in the text
Extras n. appendices a compilation of important data and explanatory
and illustrative material, placed outside the main
body of text

86
PARTS CONTENTS / FEATURES
 CONCISE, ACCURATE, INFORMATIVE
THE TITLE  NO WASTED WORDS
 MOST IMPORTANT PHRASE FIRST
 DESCRIPTION OR STATEMENT
THE AUTHORS
THE ADDRESSES
 OBJECTIVES
 METHODS
THE ABSTRACT  MAJOR (EXPECTED) RESULTS
 INTERPRETATION OF RESULTS IN TERMS OF THEIR
SIGNIFICANCE AND POSSIBLE IMPLICATIONS
KEYWORDS  SPECIFIC AND FOCUSED
 TO BE USED IN AN INDEX
MATERIALS AND  WHAT YOU USED - IN A LOGICAL ORDER
METHODS ANSWERING WHAT? WHERE? WHEN? HOW MUCH?
HOW MANY? QUESTIONS
 WHAT YOU DID – IN A LOGICAL ORDER
ANSWERING HOW? QUESTION
RESULTS  WHAT HAPPENED?
 WHAT HAVE YOU FOUND OUT?
DISCUSSION  WHY DID IT HAPPEN?
 WHAT DOES IT MEAN?
 INTERPRETATION
 FINDINGS IN RELATION TO OBJECTIVES AND/OR
HYPOTHESIS
 VALIDITY
 COMMENT ON SIGNIFICANCE
 RELEVANCE TO PRESENT CONDITIONS
 NEW LINES OF STUDY
CONCLUSIONS
REFERENCES
BIBLIOGRAPHY

MAJOR REFERENCE

Barnes, Rob (1992), Successful Study for Degrees, Routledge, London

Stapleton, Paul (1987), Writing Research Papers: An Easy Guide for Non-Native-
English Speakers, Austrialian Center for International Agricultural Research,
Canberra

87
WEEK NINE
Main topics: Research Process Phase 2: Data Collection

Research involves much more than data collection. The research process does not
begin, nor does it end, with data collection.

BEFORE WORTH-WHILE DATA COLLECTION CAN BE DONE, THE


RESEARCHER MUST:

1. FOCUS THE PROBLEM


2. IDENTIFY AND DEFINE THE BASIC CONCEPTS
3. SELECT VARIABLES THAT RELATE TO EACH OF THE CONCEPTS
UNDER STUDY
4. DEVISE WAYS OF MEASURING EACH OF THE VARIABLES
5. SELECT A RESEARCH DESIGN WHICH WILL PROVIDE THE DESIRED
INFORMATION ABOUT THE RELATION BETWEEN VARIABLES
6. DECIDE ON A SAMPLING PROCEDURE
7. DRAW THE SAMPLE

I. COLLECTING DATA

UNLESS EACH OF THESE ESSENTIAL FIRST STEPS IS COMPLETED, DATA


COLLECTION WILL OFTEN BE DONE IN A WASTEFUL, HAPHAZARD AND
UNPRODUCTIVE WAY.

IF PREPORATORY STEPS ARE COMPLETED, DATA COLLECTION CAN


PROCEED SMOOTHLY, EFFICIENTLY, AND WITH LITTLE WASTED TIME OR
EFFORT ON THE PART OF EITHER RESEARCHER OR THE SUBJECTS OF THE
RESEARCH.
DURING THE DATA COLLECTION PROCESS, THE RESEARCHER SHOULD;
 BE CONSIDERATE OF THE NEEDS, FEELINGS, PRIVACY OF OTHERS
 REMEMBER HIS/HER RESPONSIBILITY TO THE SUBJECTS OF HIS/HER
RESEARCH
 BE WELL-PREPARED (NOT TO TAKE TOO MUCH TIME OF PEOPLE)
 SEEK PERMISION FROM THOSE YOU WISH TO STUDY OR GET
INFORMATION
 EXPLAIN PEOPLE WHAT HE/SHE IS DOING AND WHY HE/SHE IS DOING
THE RESEARCH
 GET A LETTER OF INTRODUCTION SIGNED BY THE SUPERVISOR (IN
SOME CASES)
 KEEP THE PROVISIONS OF ANY AGREEMENTS MADE WITH THE
SUBJECTS OF THE RESEARCH.

88
WHILE YOU ARE COLLECTING AND RECORDING YOUR DATA, IT IS
ESSENTIAL TO PAY CAREFUL ATTENTION TO DETAIL OBSERVATION. THE
LOSS OF DETAIL IN DATA COLLECTION MAY MAKE SUBSEQUENT DATA
ANALYSIS IMPOSSIBLE.

IN ORDER FOR ATTENDING TO DETAIL IN THE RESEARCH PROCESS:


RECORDS MUST BE KEPT, IN
 DATA COLLECTION SHEETS (FOR EACH INDIVIDUAL DATA)
 NOTE CARDS
 BIBLIOGRAPHY CARDS (FOR HOW TO KEEP SUCH CARDS, SEE
READING TEXT 5/1 AND 5/2)

THE FORMAT OF THESE SHEETS, TABLES, CARDS, ETC. DEPEND ON YOUR


CREATIVITY AS WELL AS THE REQUIREMENTS OF YOUR RESEARCH.

II. SUMMARIZING AND PRESENTING DATA

ONCE THE DATA HAVE BEEN COLLECTED IT IS ESSENTIAL TO DECIDE HOW


THE DATA ARE TO BE SUMMARIZED AND PRESENTED. TO SUMMARIZE AND
ORGANIZE YOUR DATA INVOLVES THREE STEPS:
1. CATEGORIES MUST BE SELECTED IN WHICH THE RAW DATA CAN BE
SUMMARIZED.
WHILE DATA ARE COLLECTED IN DETAIL, THEY USUALLY
CANNOT BE REPORTED OR PRESENTED IN THE SAME LEVEL OF
DETAIL. IN ORDER TO SUMMARIZE AND PRESENT DATA,
TABLES, GRAPHS, OR CHARTS ARE CONSTRUCTED. IN ORDER
TO DO SO, THE DATA MUST FIRST BE CATEGORIZED.

2. THE DATA ARE CODED, THAT IS THEY ARE SORTED INTO THE
CATEGORIES.
3. DATA ARE PRESENTED IN A FORM WHICH FACILITATES THE DRAWING
OF CONCLUSIONS, USUALLY IN THE FORM OF TABLES, GRAPHS, OR
CHARTS WHICH LEAD TO A CLEAR WRITTEN INTERPRETATION AND
SUMMARY.

89
MAJOR REFERENCE
Bouma, Gary D., Atkinson, G.B.J. (1996), A Handbook of Social Science Research:
A Comprehensive and Practical Guide for Students, Second edition, Paper Back,
Oxford University Press

90
WEEK TEN
Main topics: Research Process Phase 3: Analysis and Interpretation; Drawing
conclusions; Writing-up your research; Dissertation structure

HAVING COMPLETED, SUMMARIZED AND PRESENTED YOUR DATA, YOU


HAVE NOW REACHED THE POINT WHERE YOU ANALYSE AND INTERPRET
THE FINDINGS OF YOUR RESEARCH.

ESSENTIALLY IT IS TIME TO DRAW CONCLUSIONS ABOUT YOUR


HYPOTHESIS AND/OR OBJECTIVES ON THE BASIS OF THE EVIDENCE YOU
HAVE COLLECTED.

I. KEEPING TO YOUR PURPOSE: ANALYZING YOUR DATA

DATA IS OFTEN CALLED “RAW DATA” BECAUSE IT IS UNPROCESSED. IT CAN


YIELD A WEALTH OF INFORMATION DEPENDING ON THE QUESTIONS YOU
ASK OF IT, BUT SHOULD NOT BE REGARDED IN ANY WAY AS PERFECT AND
PURE.

 WHAT QUESTIONS DID YOU ASK?


 ARE THE QUESTIONS RELEVANT TO THE DATA YOU COLLECTED? (OR
ARE THE DATA COLLECTED RELEVANT TO THE QUESTIONS YOU
ASKED?)

BEFORE A RESEARCHER FINEALIZES HIS/HER RESEARCH REPORT /


DISSERTATION STRUCTURE, HE/SHE WILL NEED TO REFER TO THE
ORIGINAL RESEARCH PURPOSE AND COMB HIS / HER DATA TO SEE WHAT IS
THERE.

YOU MAY HAVE GOOD / WELL-COLLECTED RAW DATA BUT WHAT WILL YOUR
ARGUMENT BE?

91
AT THIS POINT IT IS POSSIBLE TO COMBINE DATA AT FIRST WITH AN OPEN
MIND, LOOKING FOR CATEGORIES THAT MIGHT DETERMINE HOW YOU
WANT TO PRESENT YOUR FINDINGS.

IF YOU ARE GOING TO PUT YOUR DATA INTO CATEGORIES, YOU WILL NEED
TO WRITE ABOUT YOUR REASONS AND CRITERIA FOR INCLUDING OR
EXCLUDING ITEMS.

CATEGORIES ARE, AFTER ALL, CONVENIENT INVENTIONS AND PEOPLE OR


ITEMS VERY OFTEN BELNG TO MORE THAN ONE CATEGORY. YOUR TASK IS
TO CREATE CONVINCING CATEGORIES / GROUPS WHICH YOU CAN HANDLE
WHEN YOU WRITE ABOUT THEM. YOU ALSO NEED TO DECIDE WHAT YOU
YOURSELF THINK IS IMPORTANT. YOU WILL NEED TO REFINE THE
QUESTIONS YOU ASK OF YOUR DATA SO THAT THEY DO NOT PRODUCE
RESULTS THAT ARE SUPERFICIAL. IF YOU RE GOING TO WRITE ABOUT
DATA, IT WILL COVER AREAS SUCH AS:

 WHAT YOU HAVE FOUND OUT


 WHAT IS IMPORTANT OR SIGNIFICANT
 WHAT PATTERNS AND RELATIONSHIPS EXIST
 WHAT DATA / ISSUES / QUAESTIONS CAN BE COMPARED
 INSTANCES OF AGREEMENT AND CONFLICT
 AREAS IDENTIFIED AS NEEDING FURTHER EXAMINATION

THERE IS ONE IMPORTANT POINT FOR THE SAKE OF THE RESEARCHER:


QUESTIONS WHICH RESEARCHER / STUDENT DEVISES TO ANALYSE DATA
OUGHT HAVE BEEN DISCUSSED WITH THE SUPERVISOR LONG BEFORE
HE/SHE USED THEM.

PRODUCTIVE QUESTIONS ARE “HOW?” AND “WHY?” QUESTIONS (SEE


PREVIOUS LECTURE NOTES). QUESTIONS ARE UNPRODUCTIVE IF THEY:
 INVITE MEANINGLESS ANSWERS
 LIMIT YOUR ANALYSIS OF THE DATA
 ARE SO VAGUE THEY DO NOT INVITE SPECIFIC RESPONSES

92
 IGNORE USEFUL COMPRISONS
 DO NOT LEAD TO MORE SEARCHING QUESTIONS.

FOLLOWING QUESTIONS MIGHT BE ESSENTIAL TO ASK YOURSELF AND


THEN TO YOUR SUPERVISOR (WHO WILL PROBABLY ASK YOU FOR YOUR
OWN ANSWERS):

 AM I ASKING THE MOST PRODUCTIVE QUESTIONS OF MY DATA?


 ARE THERE OTHER WAYS TO ANALYSE MY DATA?
 WHAT ISSUES LOOK AS IF THEY ARE LIKELY TO BE IMPORTANT?
 WHAT ISSUES MIGHT I HAVE MISSED?
 WHERE DO PATTERNS EMERGE?
 WHAT METHODS OF PRESENTATION ARE NEEDED?

IT MAKES SENSE TO IDENTIFY A HIERARCHY OF ISSUES TO GIVE OYUR


REPORT / DISSERTATION SHAPE AND DIRECTION.

BASICALLY, YOU ARE LOOKING FOR A USEFUL FRAMEWORK INTO WHICH


TO FIT YOUR DATA.

II. DRAWING CONCLUSIONS

A PROPER CONCLUSION IS GROUNDED ON A CAREFUL ANALYSIS AND


INTERPRETATION OF THE DATA GATHERED IN THE LIGHT OF THE BASIC
QUESTION BEING RESEARCHED.

DATA HAVE BEEN COLLECTED AND PRESENTED, BUT THEY STILL REQUIRE
EVALUATION AND ANALYSIS.

93
FIVE BASIC QUESTIONS GUIDE THE ACTIVITIES OF DATA ANALYSIS AND
INTERPRETATION:

1. WHAT DID YOU ASK? (WHAT WAS/WERE YOUR RESEARCH


QUESTION/S?)
2. WHAT WAS/WERE YOUR HYPOTHESIS AND/OR RESEARCH
OBJECTIVE/S?
3. WHAT DID YOU FIND?
4. WHAT EXACTLY DO YOU CONCLUDE?
5. TO WHOM DO YOUR CONCLUSIONS APPLY?

WHAT DID YOU ASK? (WHAT WAS/WERE YOUR RESEARCH


QUESTION/S?)
WHAT WAS/WERE YOUR HYPOTHESIS AND/OR RESEARCH
OBJECTIVE/S?
THE FIRST STEP IN DRAWING A CONCLUSION IS TO RE-STATE THE
GENERAL ISSUE AND THE HYPOTHESIS, SHOWING HOW THE
HYPOTHESIS RELATES TO THE GENERAL ISSUE. ANOTHER QUESTION
THAT CAN BE ANSWERED IS THAT;

HOW DOES YOUR HYPOTHESIS AND/OR RESEARCH OBJECTVE/S


RELATE TO THE GENERAL AREA OF CONCERN?

WHAT DID YOU FIND?


IN ORDER TO ANSWER THIS QUESTION,
 FIRST, THE DATA NEED TO BE INTERPRETED, BY ANSWERIN
THE QUESTION OF:
“WHAT DO YOUR DATA, AS PRESENTED, SAY?”
THIS INVOLVES EXPRESSING IN WORDS WHAT THE
TABLES, GRAPHS, OR AVERAGES SAY. TO INTERPRET
YOUR DATA MEANS, TO RE-STATE THE RELATIONSHIPS
DEPICTED IN YOUR TABLES, GRAPHS, ETC. AS CLEARLY
AS POSSIBLE IN WORDS.

94
 SECOND, DATA ARE RELATED TO THE HYPOTHESIS OR
RESERCH OBJECTIVE, BY ANSWERIN THE FOLLOWING
QUESTIONS:
i. “WHAT DO THESE DATA TELL YOU ABOUT YOUR
HYPOTHESIS AND/OR RESEARCH QUESTIONS?”
ii. “IS THE EVIDENCE FOR OR AGAINST THE HYPOTHESIS /
OBEJCTIVES?”
iii. WHAT ARE THE IMPLICATIONS OF FINDINGS FOR THE
NARROWLY DEFINED RESERCH QUESTION?”
 THIRDLY, YOU NEED TO EVALUATE THE DATA AND TO
ACKNOWLEDGE THE LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY. (YOU MAY
ALSO HAVE SUGGESTIONS FOR FUTURE RESEARCH)

WHAT EXACTLY DO YOU CONCLUDE?


A GOOD CONCLUSION HAS TWO LEVELS:
 FIRST, IT STATES CLEARLY AND SIMPLY EXACTLY WHAT THAT
DATA REVEAL.
 SECONDLY, IT RELATES THIS SIMPLE STATEMENT TO LARGER
ISSUES.
THE ROLE OF A CONCLUSION IS TO RE-STATE THE FINDINGS OF THE
STUDY AND TO DRAW THE IMPLICATIONS OF THE FINDINGS FOR BOTH
HYPOTHESIS / OBJECTIVE(S) AND THE LARGER ISSUE.

IN WRITING YOUR CONCLUSION BE SURE TO:


 RE-STATE THE GENERAL AIM OF THE RESEARCH;
 RE-STATE THE FINDING(S) OF THE RESEARCH;
 INDICATE WHETHER THE HYPOTHESIS IS SUPPORTED OR
REJECTED, OR IF THE RESULT IS UNCLEAR;
 EXPLAIN THE IMPLICATIONS FOR THE LARGER ISSUE;
 MAKE SUGGESTIONS FOR FUTURE RESEARCH.

95
TO WHOM DO YOUR CONCLUSIONS APPLY?
THIS QUESTION CAN BE ANSWERED IN A NARROW SENSE AND IN A
BROADER SENSE. THUS, THE CONCLUSIONS REGARDING THE DATA
APPLY THOSE FROM WHOM THE DATA WERE COLLECTED, OR TO THE
LARGER POPULATION OF WHICH THEY ARE A REPRESENTATIVE SAMPLE.
 ON THE ONE HAND, YOUR CONCLUSIONS ARE LIMITED TO THE
SAMPLE STUDIED AND TO THE POPULATION OF WHICH IT IS
REPRESENTATIVE. THE NARROW INTERPRETATION OF THE
APPLICABILITY OF CONCLUSION IS BASED ON THE LIMITATIONS
IMPOSED BY THE SAMPLING PROCEDURE SELECTED.
 ON THE OTHER HAND, RESEARCH IS DONE TO GAIN SOME
UNDERSTANDING ABOUT LARGER ISSUES. SOME OF THE
CONCLUSIONS DRAWN REFER TO THE IMPLICATIONS OF THE
FINDINGS OF THE RESEARCH FOR THESE LARGER ISSUES, WHICH
IS THE BROADER SENSE OF THE APPLICABILITY OF THE
CONCLUSION.

IN DRAWING CONCLUSIONS, THE RESEARCHER MOVES FROM THE


NARROW CONCLUSIONS ABOUT THE FINDINGS OF THE STUDY TO THE
IMPLICATIONS OF THOSE FINDINGS FOR THE LARGER ISSUES.

CONCLUSIONS
THE NARROW THE
CONCLUSIONS IMPLICATIONS OF
ABOUT THE THOSE FINDINGS
FINDINGS OF THE FOR THE LARGER
STUDY ISSUES

96
III. WRITING UP YOUR RESEARCH

BY NOW YOU HAVE FOCUSED ON A RESEARCH ISSUES, IDENTIFIED AND


MEASURES VARIABLES, DRAWN SAMPLES, SELECTED RESEARCH DESIGN,
COLLECTED DATA, SUMMARIZED AND PRESENTED THE DATA, DRAWN
CONCLUSIONS AND DISCUSSED IMPLICATIONS.

YOU NOW READY TO WRITE THE RESEARCH PAPER / DISSERTATION.

IF YOU HAVE KEPT A RESEARCH JOURNAL YOU WILL PROBABLY HAVE A


MOUNTAIN OF NOTES AND RECORDS. THESE WILL BE VERY VALUABLE.

WE HAVE NOT SAID ANYTHING ABOUT THE RESEARCH REPORT UNTIL THIS
TIME BECAUSE IT IS THE LAST ACTIVITY IN ONE CYCLE OF THE RESEARCH
PROCESS. THE PROCESS DOES NOT BEGIN WITH HOW TO WRITE A
REPORT. THE RESEARCH PROCESS CONSISTS OF A SERIES OF ACTIVITIES
WHICH ARE UNDERTAKEN AND THEN REPORTED (AS WE HAVE BEEN
DISCUSSING SINCE THE BEGINNING OF THE COURSE). NOT EVERYTHING
THAT IS DONE DURING THE RESEARCH IS REPORTED IN THE RESEARCH
REPORT OR DISSERTATION.

THE RESEARCH REPORT / DISSERTATION SUMMARIZES THE ACTIVITIES IN


SUCH A WAY THAT THEY ARE CLEAR TO THE READER AND SO THAT THE
READER COULD REPEAT THE RESEARCH. REPLICABILITY IS A
CHARACTERISTICS OF GOOD RESEARCH.

BEFORE WRITING
THERE IS A GREAT TEMPTATION TO RUSH INTO WRITING BECAUSE THIS
GIVES A FEELIING OF SOMETHING ACCOMPLISHED, AND INDEED IT IS TRUE
THAT CERTAIN SECTIONS OF THE REPORT CAN SOMETIMES BE WRITEN IN
DRAFT FORM BEFORE THE RESEARCH IS COMPLETE. IN GENERAL,
HOWEVER, IT IS BETTER TO SPEND TIME CLARIFYING YOUR IDEAS AND
DECIDING PRECISELY WHAT IS THAT YOU WANT TO WRITE BEFORE YOU
ACTUALLY START WRITING IN A FORMAL WAY.

97
IT IS A GOOD IDEA TO TALK ABOUT YOUR IDEAS WITH YOUR FRIENDS,
COLLEAGUES, AS WELL AS WITH YOUR SUPERVISOR; AND ALSO TO WORK
OUT A PLAN.

AGAIN BEFORE STARTING, IT IS ESSENTIAL TO CHECK ANY REGULATIONS


(SUCH AS LIMITATIONS IN NUMBER OF PAGES, FORMAT, LETTERING, PAGE
LAYOUT, STYLE, ETC.).

ALSO CHECK WHAT TIME YOU HAVE AVAILABLE AND PREPARE A


TIMETABLE (WRITING UP SCHEDULE). WRITING UP A RESEARCH REPORT
OR A DISSERTATION CAN BE A VERY TIME-CONSUMING BUSINESS, SO YOU
SHOULD DRAW UP A TIMETABLE, MAKING SURE THAT YOU LEAVE
ADEQUATE TIME FOR RE-WRITING, TYPING AND THEN CHECKNING AND
CORRECTING THE TYPING.

WHILE WRITING
IF YOU HAVE DIRECT ACCESS TO A COMPUTER, YOU HAVE A GREAT
ADVANTAGE WHEN WRITING UP YOUR DISSERTATION OR REPORT.
HOWEVER, MAKE SURE YOU ALWAYS SAVE YOUR WORK EVERY FEW
MINUTES AS WELL AS GETTING BACK-UPS OF YOUR WORK IN BOTH HARD
AND FLOPPY DISC.

BE CAREFULL WITH YOUR LANGUAGE. KEEP THE LANGUAGE SIMPLE AND


AS CLEAR AS POSSIBLE. Remember you are writing about science and science
should be accurate and precise.

ALWAYS USE PARAGRAPHS. A general idea is to keep to one idea per paragraph.

KEEP THE PUNCTUATION SIMPLE.

TRY TO SPELL CORRECTLY, ESPECIALLY THE SCIENTIFIC WORDS. USE A


GOOD DICTIONARY.

98
IF YOU HAVE DIFFICULTY FINDING THE RIGHT WORD, THEN A THESAURUS
PROVIDES A GOOD LIST OF ALTERNATIVES.

WHEN USING ABBRIVIATIONS OR ACRONYMS, GIVE THE WORDS OR TITLE IN


FULL, AT THE FIRST MENTION, USING ONLY THE ABBRIVIATION OR
ACRONYM THEREAFTER. e.g. World Health Organisation (WHO)

REMEMBER TO GIVE REFERENCES WHENEVER THESE ARE NEEDED.

TALKING TO ONESELF CAN HELP ONE TO CLARIFY WHAT ONE IS WRITING.


HERE ARE A FEW QUESTIONS WHICH YOU MIGHT ASK YOURSELF WHEN
YOU ARE WRITING YOUR REPORT:

1. WHY AM I WRITING THIS PARAGRAPH?


2. WHY IS THIS IMPORTANT?
3. WILL THEY UNDERSTAND WHY?
4. AM I GOING INTO TOO MUCH DETAIL?
5. COULD I BE MORE CONCISE?
6. WILL THIS PART BE UNDERSTOOD?
7. IS THIS TRUE?
8. WHY IS THIS SENTENCE SO LONG?
9. WHAT IS THE MAIN PURPOSE OF THIS PARAGRAPH / CHAPTER /
SECTION?
10. SHOULD I CHANGE THE ORDER?
11. WHAT IS THE STRUCTURE OF THE REPORT? IS IT CLEAR?
12. WHAT IS THE TITLE OF THIS REPORT / CHAPTER?
13. IS THE “LIST OF CONTENTS” LOGICAL? DOES IT FOLLOW A
MEANINGFUL ORDER?

RE-READ ALL THE MATERIAL AT THE END, AND THEN HAVE YOUR FINAL
DRAFT READ BY A FRIEND OR RELATIVE (SOMEONE OTHER THAN YOUR
SUPERVISOR) TO CHECK ANY MISSPELLINGS, MISSING WORDS, ETC. THAT
MIGHT HAVE OCCURED BY MISTAKE.

99
IV. DISSERTATION STRUCTURE

THE FINISHED PRODUCT IN A RESEARCH THESIS / DISSERTATION, IN


GENERAL, CONSISTS OF:

TITLE PAGE INCLUDING THE FULL TITLE, YOUR NAME,


INSTITUTION, DATE

TITLE ATTRACTS THE EXPERT AND INTERESTS


THE CASUAL READER

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS (IF ANY)


A NUMBER OF PEOPLE WHO HAVE HELPED YOU
DURING YOUR RESEARCH PROCESS SHOULD BE
THANKED TO INCLUDING YOUR SUPEVISOR.

ABSTRACT A BRIEF SYNOPSIS OF THE WHOLE DISSERTATION;


STIMULATES THE EXPERT TO READ THE PAPER
AND SUPPLIES THE CASUAL READER WITH
DEFINITE INFORMATION, INCLUDING:

WHAT THE AIM OF THE RESEARCH WAS


HOW YOU HAVE GONE ABOUT IT
WHAT THE RESULTS WERE.

LIST OF CONTENTS

LIST OF TABLES / GRAPHS / FIGURES

CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION TO RESEARCH


BRIEF STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEMS AND
BACKGROUND INFORMATION
INCLUDES WHY THE STUDY IS IMPORTANT,
OUTLINES ISSUES AND GIVES AN OVERVIEW OF
THE WHOLE DISSERTATION

CHAPTER TWO REVIEW OF RELEVANT LITERATURE /


BACKGROUND READING
(MIGHT INCLUDE A PROGRAM FOR THE SUBJECT)

CHAPTER THREE DESIGN AD METHODOLOGY OF THE STUDY /


RESEARCH
INCLUDES WELL-ARGUED REASONS FOR THE
DESIGN OF THE RESEARCH. ARGUES A CASE
USING ONE METHOD RATHER THAN THE OTHER.

100
CHAPTER FOUR/FIVE/ETC.
SITE DESCRIPTION AND ANALYSIS / DESIGN
CONCEPTS AND CRITERIA / ETC. IMPLEMENTATION
OF THE RESEARCH
MAY INCLUDE ANY CHANGES WHICH OCCURRED
AND RELEVANT BACKGROUND TO A CASE STUDY

CHAPTER SIX PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS OF DATA /


RESULTS (IF ANY)
RESULTS OF THE RESEARCH INCLUDING GRAPHS,
TABLES OR STATISTICS IF APPLICABLE

CHAPTER FIVE DISCUSSIONS, CONCLUSIONS, SUGGESTIONS


(MIGHT BE IN 3 SEPARATE CHAPTERS)
A MAJOR SECTION SAYING WHAT IS SIGNIFICANT;
INCLUDES IMPLICATIONS FOR THE FUTURE,
COMMENT ON LIMITATIONS OF THE RESEARCH,
STRENGTHS AND WEAKNESSES

FIGURES & TABLES SUMMARIZE YOUR RESULTS TO THE PERSON


SCANNING YOUR REPORT / DISSERTATION

REFERENCES WHICH OCCUR IN THE TEXT

BIBLIOGRAPHY TELLS WHERE ELSE TO LOOK FOR FURTHER


READING

APPENDIX (APPENDICES)

WHILE WRITING:
 BEGIN EACH CHAPTER WITH A STATEMENT OF WHAT THE CHAPTER
IS ABOUT. E.G. THIS CHAPTER GIVES INFORMATION ABOUT THE
RELEVANT LITERATURE. IT IS DIVIDED INTO FOUR MAIN SECTIONS.....
 SUMMARIZE THE MAIN POINTS OF THE CHAPTER IN THE CLOSING
PARAGRAPHS AND LINK EACH CHAPTER TO THE BEGINNING OF THE
NEXT CHAPTER. E.G. THIS CHAPTER HAS BROUGHT TOGETHER THE
MAIN FINDINGS ON .....AND DISCUSSED VARIOUS ASPECTS OF........
THE EVIDENCE REVIEWED SUGGESTS THAT .... THESE PROPOSITIONS
ARE FURTHER EXPLORED IN THE COMING CHAPTER.

101
V. REFERENCING / WRITING DOWN THE BIBLIOGRAPHY

THE FOLLOWING COMPRISES EXAMPLES OF A TYPICAL STYLE SHEET FOR


LISTING REFERENCES AT THE END OF YOUR ESSAYS / PAPERS /
DISSERTATION IN ALPHABETHICAL ORDER:

FOR BOOKS

(NOTE THE SEQUENCE OF INFORMATION COMMOONLY USED IN


REFERENCE TO BOOKS)

Auhor‟s surname, initials or full name (date – in brackets), title (underlined, italic or
bold), place of publication, publisher

Adams, P. (1987), Analysis of Aesthetics: Essays on Creative Education, London,


The Flamer Press

Clerk, A. (1998), Coastal Topography, 2nd Edition, London, Alen & Unwin

Clerk, A. (1998b), Climate and the Coasts, London, Alen & Unwin

Eldem, Sedat Hakkı (1943), Türk Evi (The Turkish House), Istanbul, YEM

Marshal, H. (ed.) (1999), The History of the Village, 2 volumes, Berlin, Martin
Robertson Press

Note: If you are writing in English and (the name / title of) the book is in another
language (e.g. Turkish) then you should write the name of the book in its original
language and the translated name into English in brackets beside. (Both titles may
be italics or bold or underlined)

FOR CHAPTERS IN EDITED BOOKS

Ling, Arthur(1967), "Urban Form", in. Denis Sharp ed. Planning and Architecture,
London, Barrie and Rockliffe, pp. 59-70

Marcus, C.C., Wischemann, T. (1990), 'Campus Outdoor Spaces', People Places:


Design Guidelines for Urban Open Space, Cooper Marcus, New York, Van Nostrand
Reinhold, s.143-169

Note: 1. The title of the chapter is written between “…” and the title of the book is
written either
underlined, or written in bold or italic.
2. Inclusive page numbers should be given at the end.

102
FOR ARTICLES IN JOURNALS

(NOTE THE SEQUENCE OF INFORMATION COMMONLY USED IN REFERENCE


TO ARTICLES IN JOURNALS)

Auhor‟s surname, initials or full name (date – in brackets), “title of article” (between
“...”), name of the journal (underlined, or written in bold or italics), volume number,
issue number, sometimes season or month, page numbers

Campbell, R. (1995), 'Tradition Triumps', Architectural Record, Mart 1995, s. 82-83

Marcus, C.C., Wischemann, T. (1987), 'Outdoor spaces for living and learning',
Landscape Architecture, March - April, s. 54 – 61

FOR PAPERS IN PROCEEDING BOOKS

(NOTE THE SEQUENCE OF INFORMATION COMMONLY USED IN REFERENCE


TO PAPERS IN PROCEEDINGS)

Auhor‟s surname, initials or full name (date – in brackets), “title of paper” (between “...”),
name of the congress book (underlined, or in italics or bold), volume number if exists,
dates of the congress, place of the congress, organizers / publishers, page numbers of the
paper

Yücel, Atilla (1985), "Koruma Konusunda Pragmatik Bir Model: Bursa Kale Sokak
Projesi Örneği", Bildiriler, The Conference on the Preservation of Architectural
Heritage of Islamic Cities, 22-26 Nisan 85, İstanbul, s. 263-267

Zeren, Nuran (1981), "Gayrımenkul Eski Eserler ve Anıtlar ve Yüksek Kurulu


Tarafından Koruma Kurulu Kararı Verilen Yerleşmelerde Kararların
Uygulanabilirliğinin Araştırılması", Türkiye 1. Şehircilik Kongresi Bildiriler Kitabı, Cilt
2, s. 225-250

FOR GOVERNMENT PUBLICATIONS

Town Planning Department (1995), Land-use Survey of Gazimagusa, North Cyprus

Town Planning Department (1997), Inventory of Building Permissions, North Cyprus

Medical Services Review Committee (1976), A Review of the Medical Services in


U.K., London, HMSO

103
FOR UNPUBLISHED SOURCES

Önal, Ş. (1994), Functional and Physical Analysis of Squares - Public Spaces - in the
Seljuk and Ottoman Cities in Turkiye, unpublished PhD thesis, University of
Nottingham, U.K.

Town Planning Department (1984), Unpublished Report of Famagusta - Analysis,


North Cyprus

FOR ARTICLES TAKEN FROM INTERNET / WEB PAGES

Auhor‟s surname, initials or full name (date – in brackets), “title of paper” (between
“...”), address of the web page (underlined or italics)

James, C. (2000), “Research Report on Training for Urban Design”,


http://www.planning.detr.gov.uk/urbandesign/training/index.htm.

FOR PATENTS

Sisaky, A., Golab, F. and Myer, B., (1989), “Rust resistant potatoes”, United Kingdom
Patent, No: 2394783 dated 23.1.1989

FOR REPORTS

Burke, W.F. and Uğurtaş, G. (1974), “Seismic Interpretation of Thrace Basin”,


TPAO Internal Report, Ankara, Turkey

McCaffrey, R. and Abers, G. (1988), “SYN3: A program for inversion of teleseismic


body wave forms on microcomputers”, Air Force Geophysics Laboratory Technical
Report, AFGL-TR-88-0099, Hanscomb Air Force Base, MA

FOR MAPS ETC.

IOC-UNESCO (1981), International bathymetric chart of the Mediterranean,


Scale 1:1,000,000, 10 sheets, Ministry of Defense, Leningrad

FOR STANDARDS

TS-40561 )1985), “Çelik yapıların plastik teoriye göre hesap kuralları”, Türk
Standartları Enstitüsü, Ankara

104
FOR PERSONAL INTERVIEWS

LePichon, X. (1997), Personal Interview

See Appendix 1 for detailed information on “Preparing Bibliographies and Citations:


Styles and Systems”

MAJOR REFERENCE
Barnes, Rob (1992), Successful Study for Degrees, Routledge, London, pp. 125-130
Bouma, Gary D., Atkinson, G.B.J. (1996), A Handbook of Social Science Research:
A Comprehensive and Practical Guide for Students, Second edition, Paper Back,
Oxford University Press

105
APPENDIX 1

Preparing Bibliographies and Citations: Styles and Systems


by
Jennifer Beavan, August 2000

1 Bibliographical references should be recorded and reproduced accurately and in a


consistent form, with sufficient detail for the item to be identified unambiguously without
further searching.

It is helpful to develop the habit of recording full details of your references in a consistent
format (eg 5" x 3" cards) and noting the precise source of the details. As far as possible you
should take these details from the publication itself: from the title page of a book, or from the
heading to an article or other contribution.

2 The exact detail you require and the form of the reference will vary according to the
precise purpose:

 If you are writing a thesis, confirm with your supervisor the exact requirements for
your work.

 If it is to be a journal article, check the style sheet of the journal to which you hope to
submit. This is often reproduced in greater or lesser detail in the journal, often inside
the back cover.

 For books, you will normally have to conform to the publisher's house style.

3 Several methods of linking references to the text are used. It is best to follow one of
the standard systems; there are examples in the Appendix.

a) The Harvard system, best for citing articles, is generally used in scientific works. Include
the name of the author of the cited work in the text, followed by the date of the cited work in
brackets, or both name and date can be in brackets. List the complete references
alphabetically by author at the end of the text (ie chapter, article or book), with the date of
publication immediately following the author's name.

b) The numerical system is also widely used. A number above the line is introduced into the
text and the complete references listed in numerical order at the end of the text, with the
bibliographical details in the order given in the British Standard.

When additional references are made to a work, or to the same part of a work already cited,
use the same numeral.

If there is any variation in the reference, eg different page numbers, you must use another
numeral.

c) The footnote system is also frequently used, particularly in the humanities and social
sciences. Again a number above the line is introduced into the text, referring to the bottom of
the page, where the reference is given, possibly incorporated in other footnote material which
may include more than one reference. Numbers normally start anew on each page. When
you refer to a work for a second or subsequent time, the reference can be in a standardised
abbreviated form, such as author's surname and short title only.

In the numerical and footnote systems, it is usual to add a complete bibliography of all
works cited, or a select bibliography, to the text, listing items alphabetically by author,
perhaps under broad classifications.

106
d) The Vancouver system is a set of uniform technical requirements for manuscripts
submitted to the major biomedical journals. References follow the numerical system in
linking references to the text.

The forms of reference are the same as those given in the Appendix except that you should
abbreviate the titles of journals according to the style used in Index Medicus.

There is a full account of the Vancouver system in:

International Committee of Medical Journal Editors. Uniform requirements for manuscripts


submitted to biomedical journals. Br Med J 1982; 284;1766-7

4 Abbreviations can be introduced into references, but never sacrifice clarity for
economy. The information to be conveyed should be immediately intelligible to even a non-
specialist reader without having to search elsewhere in the work or outside. Provide a
checklist of your abbreviations at the front of the thesis, or at the beginning of the list of
references, as appropriate.

Basic source materials, standard reference works and periodicals to which you refer
repeatedly are usually cited in an abbreviated form eg:

DNB for Dictionary of National Biography

J.Opt. for Journal of Optics

Jos.Antiq. for Josephus, the Antiquities of the Jews

You should abbreviate periodical titles as in:

World list of scientific periodicals 4th ed. 1963-65 Gen Ref

05

Wor

or:

ALKIRE, Leland G. Periodical title abbreviations Ref

Vol. 1 By abbreviation: Vol.2: By title. Current ed. 506

Detroit: Gale Research Alk

Use the Latin abbreviation ibid ie 'in the same place', to avoid repeating an immediately
preceding reference, identical in every respect to the second reference.

Avoid the abbreviations loc.cit and op.cit except when both references are on the same
page.

5 Further details, useful suggestions and examples are in:

BRITISH STANDARDS INSTITUTION. Recommendations for SES citing and referencing


published material 025.3 London: British Standard Institution, 1990 BS5605 Bri 5605

ROYAL SOCIETY. General notes on the preparation of SES Copies inscientific papers 3rd
ed. 501.49 QML, F and London: Royal Society, 1974 Gen MacRobert 3

This gives a full, clear account of the Harvard System on pp.10-12

107
TURABIAN, Kate L. A manual for writers of term papers SES Various theses, and
dissertations Current ed. 808.02 editions in Chicago: Chicago University Press Tur Taylor
and MacRobert

This gives very detailed instructions on the content and form of references, footnotes and
bibliographies, along with all other aspects of thesis production, in accordance with the style
of Chicago University Press.

CHICAGO UNIVERSITY PRESS. The Chicago manual F Taylor SES of style for authors,
editors and copywriters Current ed. Ref 029.6 Chicago: Chicago University Press 610.149
029.6 Chi Chi Chi 13

Briefer, but still fairly detailed, advice on references is incorporated in:

TURABIAN, Kate L. Student's guide for writing college papers SES Current ed. 029.6
Chicago: Chicago University Press Turs

ANDERSON, Jonathan, DURSTON, Barr H., and POOLE, Millicent. SESThesis and
assignment writing 029.6 Sydney: John Wiley, 1970

This gives examples of the Harvard system in ch. 10 'Referencing'.

6 Because of the varying requirements of different subjects, especially in the


sciences, it is worth finding a style book by a leading scholarly organisation in your
field, or, failing this, the style sheet in a leading periodical covering the subject. Examples of
these books are:

BRITISH PSYCHOLOGICAL SOCIETY. Standing Committee on p029.6 Publications. The


journals of the British Psychological Society: Bri suggestions to authors Rev. ed. London:
C.U.P., 1971

MODERN LANGUAGE ASSOCIATION OF AMERICA SES The MLA style sheet 2nd ed.
029.6 New York: M.L.A., 1970 reprinted with corrections 1973 Mod

MODERN LANGUAGE ASSOCIATION OF AMERICA SES The MLA style manual 029.6
New York: M.L.A., 1985 Mod

MODERN HUMANITIES RESEARCH ASSOCIATION SES MHRA style book: notes for
authors, editors, and writers of 029.6 dissertations 4th ed. Mod London: M.H.R.A., 1991 4

For further help contact Jennifer Beavan

Queen Mother Library tel. (27)2590

108
EXAMPLES

A. Examples of Methods of Linking Bibliographical References to the Text

1 Harvard system: Text

The adverse effect of limited space on the developing child is noted by Sula Wolff (1969).
The effects of crowding had already been discussed in the 1930s (Plant 1937). Margaret
Mead (1966) has drawn attention to basic human needs as regards environment. The more
specific aspect of playground needs and provision has been examined by Jane Cummins
(1971). A report by R.L. Bishop et al (1972) offers guidelines for playground design.

2 Harvard system: References

(Note how the references in the passage of text above are in alphabetical sequence amongst
other references from other parts of the text.)

ABERNETHY, W.D. 1968 The importance of play. Town Country Planning. 36, 471-475.

BISHOP, Robert, et al. 1972 Measurements of children's preferences for the play
environment. Los Angeles: Environmental Design: Research and Practice. EDRA 3/AR 8.

CUMMINS, Jane. 1971 Planning for play. M.A. dissertation. University of Pittsburgh,
Graduate School of Public and International Affairs.

DEE, Norbert, and LIEBMAN, Jon C. 1970 A statistical study of children at urban play-
grounds. J. Leis. Res.. 2(3), 145-159.

MEAD, Margaret. 1966 Neighborhoods and human needs. Ekistics., 21, 124-126.

PLANT, James S. 1937 The personality and an urban area. In: Personality and culture, chap.
8 London: Oxford University Press.

WOLFF, Sula. 1969 Children and stress. p.141 London: Penguin.

If you are citing several articles by the same author from one year or different pages in the
same monographs place a b c etc. after the year of publication eg:

LANGMUIR, I. 1919a The arrangement of electrons in atoms and molecules. J. Am. Chem.
Soc. 41, 868-934.

LANGMUIR, I. 1919c Isomorphism, isosterism and covalence. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 41, 1543-
1559.

SMITH J. 1974a Children and play, chap.4, p.131. London: Macmillan.

SMITH J. 1974b Children and play, chap.9, p.293. London: Macmillan.

3 Numerical system: Text

The adverse effect of limited space on child development is noted by Sula Wolff.1

As early as the 1930s the effects of crowding had been discussed.2

More recently Margaret Mead3 has drawn attention to basic human environmental needs.
The more specific aspect of playground needs and provision has been examined by Jane
Cummins,4 and a report issued the following year offers guidelines for playground design.5

109
4 Numerical system: References

1 WOLFF, Sula. Children and stress. London: Penguin, 1969, p.141.

2 PLANT, James S. The personality and an urban area. In: Personality and culture. London:
Oxford University Press, 1937, ch.8.

3 MEAD, Margaret. Neighborhoods and human needs. Ekist. 1966: 21, 124-126.

4 CUMMINS, Jane. Planning for play. M.A. dissertation, 1971. University of Pittsburgh,
Graduate School of Public and International Affairs.

5 BISHOP, Robert, et al. Measurements of children's preferences for the play environment.
Los Angeles: Environment Design: Research and Practice. 1972. EDRA 3/AR 8

5 Footnote system: Text

As for the Numerical system: Text (above)

6 Footnote system: Reference

Give the author's name in the natural order (not inverted as in a list of references) and
incorporate it by punctuation into one sentence with the other bibliographical details, perhaps
as part of a longer sentence.

eg 1Sula Wolff, Children and stress (London: Penguin, 1969), p.141.

2 James S. Plant, The personality and an urban area, In: Personality and culture (London:
Oxford University Press, 1937). Ch. 8, amongst others, drew attention to the problem at this
time.

B. Citing Electronic Sources

Check the section on citing references in the CALAIS Student Survival Guide, Section 9,
Finding Information. It is mounted on the classroom pcs.

There are also a number of Web sites with suggestions for citation formats:

http://www.ukoln.ac.uk/ariadne/issue7/kairos

http://www.unn.ac.uk/central/isd/cite/
http://www.bournemouth.ac.uk/using_the_library/html/citing_references.html

110
APPENDIX 2
WRITING IN ENGLISH

Some Useful/Practical Verbs for Writing Research Reports / Dissertations

describe include ask explain show


mention examine concentrate on observe suggest
consider interpret recommend comprise introduce
specify distinguish analyze provide concern with
indicate illustrate prefer to finds out interested in
investigate focus on see appear to describe
point out address comment on aims to emphasize
believe define apply to explore underline
state deal with continue turn to present
discuss study conclude is required experience
believe define apply to explore underline
arrange fall into differentiate group classify
argue say constitute abstract categorize

to start with
to analyze in terms of
to be illustrated by
to explore the definitions of
to present a framework for analysis
to conclude with
to begin with

111
Some Useful / Practical Phrases for Writing Research Reports / Dissertations *

 Nevertheless,  The aim of this investigation was to test...


 Furthermore,  Many writers (e.g. Brown, Tiesdell, Smith)
 Besides, have pointed out to the particular
 Moreover, importance of...
 However,  The present investigation / research is
 Therefore, it may be concluded based on...
that….  In this report ......... will be described.
 Thus, it can be deduced that….  Chapter two looks at...
 On this basis it can / may be inferred  Chapter one considers...
that….  Final chapter then draws conclusions from...
 At the same time,  This chapter will introduce...
 On one hand....and on the other  Chapter one describes / introduces a
hand.... detailed information on...
 Consequently,  The study has three concerns as its
basis. The first concern is that...
 Apart from,
 There are number of reasons for ...
 Whereas,
 In the study, the report will ask the question
 In addition to,
“ .....”
 No matter which method is
 In answering this question reference is
followed,...
made to the criteria...
 There are number of suggestions
 This chapter surveys the.... It is divided into
for...
4 main sections:
 This includes that...
 This chapter has brought together the main
 On the contrary,
findings on...and discussed various ways
 As mentioned in the previous chapter,
of...
 The comparison will give particular
 The theme of this report is the study of...
attention to...
 This part of the report will present / will
 Thus, it can be concluded that...
address the matter of...
 One might argue that...
 Findings indicate that...
 Deciding whether...
 Findings and discussions reveal that...
 The purpose of...  In summary, findings show that ...
 Porter (1986) reported that, ...
 Therefore, recommendation concerning the
 Ellis (1989) recommended that... design process can be summarized as
 Williams (1978) argues that... follows:..

112
 Many writers suggest that...  Finally, if these recommendations are
 The classification is based upon…. followed, they will contribute to upgrading...
 X consists of…..  X may be classified according to / on the
 X comprises….. basis of / depending upon …..
 It is generally / widely accepted /  From the data / figures / results /
argued / believed that…. information it may / can be seen / concluded
 In conclusion it can be said that…. / shown / estimated / calculated that …..

* You may extend the list above, with your own experience.

113
Some Common Mistakes in Style and Writing of Words *

WRONG RIGHT
Analize Analyze
Air-flow Airflow
By-pass Bypass
Can not Cannot
Clearcut Clear-cut
Data is Data are
Disc Disk
Halflife Half-life
Large concentration High concentration
Less data Fewer data
Little data Few data
Low quantity Small quantity
Less data Fewer data
Mid-point Midpoint
Much data Many data
Occurance Occurrence
Over-all Overall
Un-tested Untested
Small concentration Low concentration
Transfered Transferred
Transfering Transferring
Transferrable Transferable

** You may extend the list above, with your own experience, especially for the most
commonly used words in your field area.

114
Some useful vocabulary and clues on structure for scale of qualification

 If you are uncertain if a word is quantity or frequency you can normally check
by seeing if it can be used to answer the following questions

Quantity : How many? How much?


Frequency : How often?

Some of the probability qualifications can be further qualified, as such:

 Sometimes generalizations may be introduced or qualified in the following


way:

115
 Impersonal verb phrases often associated with conclusions:

116
Some useful vocabulary and structure on qualification of comparison

117
Some useful informtaion on connectives

118
Some useful vocabulary for summarising and drawing conclusions

Appendix Prepared by

Dr Şebnem Önal (Hoşkara)


Eastern Mediterranean University
Faculty of Architecture

First in December 1997 as Research Hints


Updated first in November 2000 and then in January 2003 as a Reading Text as a part
of Lecture Notes for Arch 505.

119
REFERENCES

Barnes, Rob (1992), Successful Study for Degrees, Routledge, London

Beach, David P., Alvager, Torsten K.E. (1992), Handbook for Scientific and Technical
Research, Prentice-Hall, Inc., New Jersey
Blaxter, L., Hughes, C., Tight, M. (1996), How to Research, Open University Press,
Buckingham
Bouma, Gary D., Atkinson, G.B.J. (1996), A Handbook of Social Science Research:
A Comprehensive and Practical Guide for Students, Second edition, Paper Back,
Oxford University Press
Cresswell, John W. (1994), Research Design: Qualitative & Quantitative Approaches,
SAGE Publications, London
Dillon, J. (1990), The Practice of Questioning, Routledge, London

Day, Robert A. (1996), Bilimsel Bir Makale Nasıl Yazılır? (How to Write and Publish a
Scientific Paper?), çev. Gülay Aşkar Altar, TÜBİTAK, Ankara

Evans, K.M. (1968), Planning Small-Scale Research, National Foundation for


Educational research in England and Wales
Fellows R. and Liu, A. (1997), Research Methods for Construction, Blackwell Science,
Oxford

Graziano, A. M. And Raulin, M. L. (1993), Research Methods: A Process of Inquiry, Second


Edition, Harper Collins College Publishers, New York

Hart E. and Bond M. (1995), Action Research for Health and Social Care: A Guide to
Practice, Buckingham, Open University Press
Hutton, P. (1990), Survey Research for Managers: How to Use Surveys in
Management Decision-Making, Basingstoke, Macmillan
Jordan, R.R (1990) Academic Writing Course, Collins Study Skills in English, London
Phillips, Estelle M., Pugh, D.S. (1994), How to Get a PhD: A Handbook For Students
and Their Supervisors, second edition, Open University Press, Buckhingham
Stapleton, Paul (1987), Writing Research Papers: An Easy Guide for Non-Native-
English Speakers, Australian Center for International Agricultural Research,
Canberra
Stevens, Michael (1998), Daha İyi Nasıl Sorun Çözümleme, trans. Ali Öimen,
İstanbul, Timaş Yayınları

Türkiye Bilimler Akademisi (TÜBA), Bilimsel Toplantı Serileri: 7, Bilim Adamı


Yetiştirme Lisansütü Eğitim
Türkiye Bilimler Akademisi (TÜBA), Bilimsel Toplantı Serileri: 4, Üniversitelerde
Akademik Yükseltmeler
Türkiye Bilimler Akademisi (TÜBA), Bilimsel Toplantı Serileri: 1, Dünyada ve
Türkiye'de Bilim, Etik ve Üniversite

120
Yin, R. (1993), Applications of Case Study Research, Newbury Park, Sage
White, Brian (1991), Studying for Science: A guide to information, communication
and study techniques, E&F.N. SPON, London

121