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# Programming

## Installing WindowsLogic and Techniques

XP Professional Using Attended Installation

Objectives

## In this session, you will learn to:

Identify variables and constants
Use data types
Use operators
Represent decisions in a flowchart

## Ver. 1.0 Session 2 Slide 1 of 35

Programming
Installing WindowsLogic and Techniques
XP Professional Using Attended Installation

## Variables and Constants

Example:
Flowchart to display the sum of two numbers
Start

Accept the
First Number

Accept the
Second Number

and Store the Result

Stop

## Ver. 1.0 Session 2 Slide 2 of 35

Programming
Installing WindowsLogic and Techniques
XP Professional Using Attended Installation

## The internal memory consists of different locations in which

data is stored.
A computer needs to identify the memory locations to be
able to retrieve values from or store values in them.
The value of a variable changes each time the set of
instructions is executed.

## Ver. 1.0 Session 2 Slide 3 of 35

Programming
Installing WindowsLogic and Techniques
XP Professional Using Attended Installation

Constants

10 15 25

Variables

## Ver. 1.0 Session 2 Slide 4 of 35

Programming
Installing WindowsLogic and Techniques
XP Professional Using Attended Installation

## Variables and Constants (Contd.)

Example:
Flowchart to display the sum of two numbers using variables
Start

Accept nNum1

Accept nNum2

Display nSum

Stop

## Ver. 1.0 Session 2 Slide 5 of 35

Programming
Installing WindowsLogic and Techniques
XP Professional Using Attended Installation

Just a minute

## Each day, the courier service delivers some letters. The

number of letters is different each day. Regardless of the
number of letters delivered by the courier service, they are
paid a carrying charge of \$5. Identify the variable and
constant data in this situation.
Variable:
Constant:

Variable: Number of letters
Constant: Carrying charge \$5

## Ver. 1.0 Session 2 Slide 6 of 35

Programming
Installing WindowsLogic and Techniques
XP Professional Using Attended Installation

Just a minute

## Identify the variables and constants from the following list:

1. Age
3. 21
4. “10, Kingsway Camp”
5. “Henri”
6.  Name
7. “185”

Constants: 21, “10, Kingsway Camp”, “Henri”, “185”

## Ver. 1.0 Session 2 Slide 7 of 35

Programming
Installing WindowsLogic and Techniques
XP Professional Using Attended Installation

Numeric

## Numeric variables can contain only numbers.

These variables can be used in arithmetic operations.

## Ver. 1.0 Session 2 Slide 8 of 35

Programming
Installing WindowsLogic and Techniques
XP Professional Using Attended Installation

Character

## Character variables can contain any combination of letters,

numbers, and special characters.
These variables cannot be used for calculation.

## Ver. 1.0 Session 2 Slide 9 of 35

Programming
Installing WindowsLogic and Techniques
XP Professional Using Attended Installation

Declaring Variables

Example:
Start

## numeric nNum1, Declaration

nNum2, nSum of Variables

Accept nNum1

Accept nNum2

Display nSum

Stop

## Ver. 1.0 Session 2 Slide 10 of 35

Programming
Installing WindowsLogic and Techniques
XP Professional Using Attended Installation

## Variable Naming Conventions

The first letter of the variable may indicate the data type
used.
The variable name should clearly describe its purpose.
In case of multiple words, the first letter of each word could

## Ver. 1.0 Session 2 Slide 11 of 35

Programming
Installing WindowsLogic and Techniques
XP Professional Using Attended Installation

Using Operators

## Operators are symbols for some predefined operations.

The operators that are used in flowcharts are:
Arithmetic operators
Relational operators
Logical operators

## Ver. 1.0 Session 2 Slide 12 of 35

Programming
Installing WindowsLogic and Techniques
XP Professional Using Attended Installation

Arithmetic Operators

## Arithmetic operators are used to perform arithmetic

calculations.
The symbols that represent arithmetic operations are called
arithmetic operators (*, /, +, -, %).

## Ver. 1.0 Session 2 Slide 13 of 35

Programming
Installing WindowsLogic and Techniques
XP Professional Using Attended Installation

Relational Operators

## Relational operators are used to test the relationship

between two variables or the relationship between a
variable and a constant.
There are six relational operators (=,>,<,!=,>=,<=).

## Ver. 1.0 Session 2 Slide 14 of 35

Programming
Installing WindowsLogic and Techniques
XP Professional Using Attended Installation

Logical Operators

## Logical operators (AND, OR, NOT) are used to combine

expressions containing relational operators:
nNum1 = 7 AND nNum2 > 5
nNum1 = 7 OR nNum2 > 5
NOT nNum2 <= 5
The order of precedence for the execution of logical
operators is NOT, AND, and OR.

## Ver. 1.0 Session 2 Slide 15 of 35

Programming
Installing WindowsLogic and Techniques
XP Professional Using Attended Installation

Just a minute

## Draw a flowchart to accept item name, price, and quantity.

You need to calculate the value as the product of price and
quantity, and display the calculated value and the item
name using variables.

## Ver. 1.0 Session 2 Slide 16 of 35

Programming
Installing WindowsLogic and Techniques
XP Professional Using Attended Installation

## Just a minute (Contd.)

Start

character cltemName
numeric nPrice, nQuantity, nValue

Accept cItemName

Accept nPrice

Accept nQuantity

Stop

## Ver. 1.0 Session 2 Slide 17 of 35

Programming
Installing WindowsLogic and Techniques
XP Professional Using Attended Installation

## Many problems require decisions to be made.

All decisions may or may not state an action to be taken if
the condition is false.
Following is a flowchart segment to compare two numbers
and check for equality.

Is nNum1 = No
nNum2 ?

Yes

## Display “The Display “The

numbers are numbers are
equal” not equal”

## Ver. 1.0 Session 2 Slide 18 of 35

Programming
Installing WindowsLogic and Techniques
XP Professional Using Attended Installation

## Representing Decisions in a Flowchart (Contd.)

Example:
Accept two numbers and print the larger of the two numbers

Start

numeric nNum1,
nNum2

Accept nNum1

Accept nNum2

## Ver. 1.0 Session 2 Slide 19 of 35

Programming
Installing WindowsLogic and Techniques
XP Professional Using Attended Installation

## Representing Decisions in a Flowchart (Contd.)

Example (Contd.):
A

## Is Yes Display “ The

nNum1=nNum2?
numbers are equal”

No

Is Yes
nNum1>nNum2? Display nNum1

No

Display nNum2

Stop

## Ver. 1.0 Session 2 Slide 20 of 35

Programming
Installing WindowsLogic and Techniques
XP Professional Using Attended Installation

## Representing Decisions in a Flowchart (Contd.)

Example:
Print the value of nX only if the value of nX is greater than 10
and nX is an even number
Start

numeric nX

Accept nX

Is
No
nX>10 AND
nX%2=0?

Yes

Display nX

Stop

## Ver. 1.0 Session 2 Slide 21 of 35

Programming
Installing WindowsLogic and Techniques
XP Professional Using Attended Installation

## Representing Decisions in a Flowchart (Contd.)

Example:
Accept the year and then determine whether the year is a leap
year or not. A leap year is one that is divisible by 4, other than
a century year, such as 1900. A century year, which is divisible
by 400, such as 2000, is also a leap year.
To evaluate the given condition, we can interpret this as:
If year is divisible by 4 AND not divisible by 100 OR divisible by
400, it is a leap year.

## Ver. 1.0 Session 2 Slide 22 of 35

Programming
Installing WindowsLogic and Techniques
XP Professional Using Attended Installation

Start

numeric nYear

enter a year”

Accept nYear

## Ver. 1.0 Session 2 Slide 23 of 35

Programming
Installing WindowsLogic and Techniques
XP Professional Using Attended Installation

## Flowchart to determine a leap year (Contd.)

Is
nYear % 4=0 AND
No Display “This is
(nYear % 100 !=0 OR
nYear % 400=0) ? not a leap year”

Yes

Display “This is
a leap year”

Stop

## Ver. 1.0 Session 2 Slide 24 of 35

Programming
Installing WindowsLogic and Techniques
XP Professional Using Attended Installation

## Representing Decisions in a Flowchart (Contd.)

Example:
To decide about the discount percentage on a TV, the sales
person needs to check the type of TV. If the TV is Black and
White [B], the discount will be 5 percent of the selling price. If
the type of TV is colored[C], then he has to verify the size of
TV screen. For 14 inches screen, discount is 8 percent of the
selling price and for 21 inches screen, the discount is 10
percent of the selling price.

## Ver. 1.0 Session 2 Slide 25 of 35

Programming
Installing WindowsLogic and Techniques
XP Professional Using Attended Installation

Start

## numeric nScreen, nDiscount

character cType

Accept cType
Accept nScreen

Is Yes
cType=‘B’? nDiscount=5% of SP

No

Is Yes Is Yes
nDiscount=8% of SP
cType=‘C’? nScreen=14?

No No

Is Yes
nDiscount=10% of SP
nScreen=21?

No

Stop

## Ver. 1.0 Session 2 Slide 26 of 35

Programming
Installing WindowsLogic and Techniques
XP Professional Using Attended Installation

Exercises

## Ver. 1.0 Session 2 Slide 27 of 35

Programming
Installing WindowsLogic and Techniques
XP Professional Using Attended Installation

Exercise 1

## Study the given flowchart and answer the following

questions.
Start
What will be the output when:
nNum=7 numeric nNum

## nNum=3 Accept nNum

nNum=11
Is Yes
nNum>10? Display “ GOOD”

No

Is Yes
nNum>5? Display “OK”

No

Display “REJECT”

Stop

## Ver. 1.0 Session 2 Slide 28 of 35

Programming
Installing WindowsLogic and Techniques
XP Professional Using Attended Installation

Exercise 2

## Study the flowchart and answer the following questions.

Start

numeric nX, nY

Accept nX

Accept nY

Is Yes Is Yes
nX > 100 ? Display “ GOOD”
nX > nY ?

No No
Is No
nY > 100 ?

Yes
Display nY

Stop

## Ver. 1.0 Session 2 Slide 29 of 35

Programming
Installing WindowsLogic and Techniques
XP Professional Using Attended Installation

Exercise 2 (Contd.)

nX=150 and nY=75
nX=90 and nY=50
nX=40 and nY=80

## Ver. 1.0 Session 2 Slide 30 of 35

Programming
Installing WindowsLogic and Techniques
XP Professional Using Attended Installation

Exercise 3

## Draw a flowchart to accept a number and then find out

whether or not the number is divisible by 5.

## Ver. 1.0 Session 2 Slide 31 of 35

Programming
Installing WindowsLogic and Techniques
XP Professional Using Attended Installation

Exercise 4

largest number.

## Ver. 1.0 Session 2 Slide 32 of 35

Programming
Installing WindowsLogic and Techniques
XP Professional Using Attended Installation

Exercise 5

## Candidates have to enter their age. The age cannot be

negative. If a negative age is entered, an error message
has to be displayed, otherwise the age is displayed.
Represent the error checking logic for this situation using a
flowchart.

## Ver. 1.0 Session 2 Slide 33 of 35

Programming
Installing WindowsLogic and Techniques
XP Professional Using Attended Installation

Summary

## In this session, you learned that:

Data can be categorized as a constant or variable.
Data types can be:
Numeric
Character
The operators are:
Arithmetic
Relational
Logical
Arithmetic operators are used to perform arithmetic
calculations. The symbols that represents arithmetic operations
are called arithmetic operators (*,/,+,-,%).

## Ver. 1.0 Session 2 Slide 34 of 35

Programming
Installing WindowsLogic and Techniques
XP Professional Using Attended Installation

Summary (Contd.)

## Relational operators are used to test the relationship between

two variables. The symbols that represent relational operations
are called relational operators (<,>,=,!=).
Logical operators (AND, OR, NOT) are used to combine
expressions containing relational operators.
The decision box is used to apply conditions by asking a
question in a flowchart.