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Optimization of Recycled Asphalt Pavement in Cold

Emulsified Mixtures by Mechanistic Characterization


Sravani Arimilli 1; Pramod Kumar Jain 2; and M. N. Nagabhushana 3
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Abstract: As road infrastructure development has witnessed a steep increase across the globe, it is adversely affecting the environment
attributable to unabated extraction and use of stone aggregates, a fast depleting natural resource. This situation has led to a serious ecological
problem and requires alternative techniques for obtaining a sustainable pavement such as use of cold mix recycled asphalt pavement (RAP)
technology with bitumen emulsion. Techniques like this have proved that they make a positive impact on both economic and environmental
conditions. The main objective of this study is to evaluate emulsified mixtures incorporating RAP, which is a typical task attributable to the
complexity by heterogeneity of materials. The study recommendations are on the basis of comparison of laboratory performance of emul-
sified mixtures: without RAP, as a control mixture; and with RAP, containing 30–80%. The study involved understanding the physical
characterization of materials, followed by developing mix designs for both conventional cold mix and mixes with varying percentages
of RAP content. Indirect tensile strength (ITS) is used as an indicative measure for cold recycled emulsified mixtures (CREMs) during
mix design. Laboratory tests, including tensile strength ratio (TSR), moisture induced susceptibility test (MIST), resilient modulus, rutting,
creep, and fatigue tests, were conducted for the performance evaluation of the mixtures with and without RAP. The obtained results indicated
that the CREMs are superior to conventional cold mixtures in mechanical performance. Among the varying RAP proportions, mixes with
60% RAP showed optimal results indicating that it is possible to design high-quality bituminous mixes incorporating considerable amount of
RAP that meets the desired volumetric and performance criteria. DOI: 10.1061/(ASCE)MT.1943-5533.0001412. © 2015 American Society
of Civil Engineers.

Introduction metric tons (80%) of RAP produced is used every year in resurfac-
ing and widening projects. Cold mix asphalt (CMA) using RAP is a
Large-scale road development projects in India have generated high cost-effective and environment-friendly solution to the recent chal-
demand for natural aggregates. Recently, availability of good qual- lenges. Production of such CMA involves the use of low viscosity
ity natural aggregates has been further constrained by its scarcity, bituminous binder, unheated mineral aggregate, and RAP which
high price, and environmental restriction. Conservation of materi- eventually contribute to durability of asphalt mixture by slowing
als, energy, and environment are pivotal for achieving sustainability down the cooling rate and environmental stewardship through de-
in construction as well as maintenance of roads. The traditional creased green houses gases (GHG). These mixes also offer the po-
techniques involving use of hot mix asphalt (HMA) are also known tential for reduction of energy input as well as construction cost by
for high air pollution, compromise with durability, and high energy improving the quality and efficiency of construction. Whereas there
consumption besides being unsafe for the health of construction are considerable benefits in cold bituminous mixes, unfortunately
crews. Therefore, highway agencies have been exploring alternate these mixes are still generally regarded as relatively inferior to hot
construction materials and techniques to reduce use of natural ag- mixes with respect to their performance. Many researchers treated
gregate, energy, and carbon footprint. Use of recycling techniques, RAP as black rock in cold recycled mixtures for replacement of
either hot or cold, with in-place or in-plant methods for rehabili- only natural aggregates (Oluwaseyi ‘Lanre 2010; Asphalt Academy
tation and maintenance of distressed bituminous pavement gained 2009; Thanaya 2003). Highway agencies in India are not able to
prominence recently in various countries such as South Africa, make use of cold recycled asphalt mixes because of lack of suffi-
Europe, and the United States. Since the 1970s, millions of metric cient research addressed to the performance of RAP on properties
tons of recycled asphalt pavement (RAP) have been effectively of CMA. The main objective of this study is to comprehend the
used in production of recycled HMA. According to the Federal performance of cold recycled mixtures, with varying RAP propor-
Highway Administration (FHWA 2002), 73 of the total 91 million tions, in order to come out with practically viable recommendations
for the effective usage of RAP adopting cold mix technology. The
1
M.Tech Student, Academy of Scientific and Innovative Research, work discussed in this paper helps in improving the existing knowl-
Central Road Research Institute, New Delhi 110025, India (corresponding edge and also provides additional information related to perfor-
author). E-mail: Sravani.arimilli007@gmail.com mance of cold mix asphalt. This paper also aims to fill existing
2
Chief Scientist, Flexible Pavement Division, Central Road Research gaps in providing guidelines for the use of RAP in CMA for con-
Institute, New Delhi 110025, India. E-mail: pramodj.crri@nic.in struction and rehabilitation of pavements.
3
Principal Scientist, Flexible Pavement Division, Central Road
Research Institute, New Delhi 110025, India. E-mail: mnnagabhushan@
gmail.com Literature Review
Note. This manuscript was submitted on October 20, 2014; approved on
June 29, 2015; published online on August 20, 2015. Discussion period Emulsions are often used as an additive in rehabilitation of pave-
open until January 20, 2016; separate discussions must be submitted for ment layers. The study performed by Oluwaseyi ‘Lanre (2010) fo-
individual papers. This paper is part of the Journal of Materials in Civil cused on cold bituminous emulsion mixtures at 20 and 32°C: one
Engineering, © ASCE, ISSN 0899-1561/04015132(10)/$25.00. without RAP and the other which contained artificially-controlled

© ASCE 04015132-1 J. Mater. Civ. Eng.

J. Mater. Civ. Eng., 2016, 28(2): 04015132


RAP produced in a laboratory with binder penetration of 5, 10, 15, Highest mechanical performance is always obtained by the addition
and 20 dmm. Also, only one aggregate proportion ratio was used of portland cement, compared with quicklime and hydrated lime
(i.e., 65∶35∶5 of RAP to virgin aggregate to filler). The results in- (Niazi et al. 2009; Yadav et al. 2012; Jitsangiam et al. 2012). In-
dicated that there is an increase in the indirect tensile stiffness active fillers do not have any influence on the dry or soaked ITS
modulus from 10 dmm to 15 dmm and to 20 dmm in RAP- (Hodgkinson et al. 2004). Therefore, fine balance between binder
incorporated cold recycled emulsified mixtures (CREMs) in content and cement should exist to ensure required strength and
comparison with virgin aggregate based cold bituminous emulsion flexibility (Liebenberg et al. 2003). Oruc et al. (2006) indicated that
mixtures. Thus, specified the possibility of residual binder in RAP by increasing the cement content from 1 to 6%, significant increase
to get softened or rejuvenated. The usage of higher percentages of in the resilient modulus and decrease in temperature susceptibility
RAP (65%) resulted in the enhancement of stiffness. Also, from the is observed. Hence, 1% cement and 3 days’ curing at 40°C have
laboratory based analytical studies, using KENLAYER (stress- been adopted in this study.
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dependent, non-linear) showed the suitability of CREMs for less


trafficked roads, as fatigue lives are normally lesser than HMA.
But in mechanical performance, durability, and moisture suscep- Mix Design
tibility, CREMs are better than mixes with virgin aggregate. Earlier There has not been much advancement in the design of cold mix-
study by Oluwaseyi ‘Lanre (2010) predominantly focused on a tures. Thanaya (2003, 2007), Ibrahim (1998), Asphalt Institute and
specific proportion of RAP and artificially-produced RAP in the Asphalt Emulsion Manufacturers Association (1997), FHWA
laboratory. Therefore, in this paper, a detailed performance study (1997), Needham (1996), and other researchers stated that there
has been done with increased RAP percentages (30 to 80%), and is no widely accepted mix design or structural design methodology
the RAP was collected from a working site. This selected RAP has for either virgin or cold recycled emulsified mixtures. However,
been used in order to fully understand the role played by RAP in some agencies and groups like Asphalt Recycling and Reclaiming
CREMs according to Indian conditions. Association (ARRA), California, Chevron, Oregon, Pennsylvania,
Modarres et al. (2011) conducted tests for parameters like resil- and the Asphalt Institute appear to have the most developed mix
ient modulus and indirect tensile fatigue at varying temperatures design procedures. From more than a decade, South Africa started
and curing times. The test results showed fatigue behavior of its study on emulsified mixes, which is termed as Bitumen Stabi-
CREMs does not depend on curing time, but slope of the fatigue lized Materials (BSM). They considered RAP as black rock during
line seemed to fall with increasing cement content and falling mix design. In 2002, the Asphalt Academy of South Africa pub-
temperature. lished its first interim guidelines and later modified these in 2009
Cold in-place recycling (CIR) is one of the most economically on the basis of the extensive work of Ebels and Jenkins (2007). In
efficient and environmental friendly rehabilitative techniques being this paper, the procedure for mix design was based on the research
practiced worldwide. Lee et al. (2003) conducted laboratory study work carried out on pavement with thin-wearing course supported
and indicated that an early result of CIR mixture is performing well by a cement-treated base and stabilized subbase.
with no visible cracking or distresses. Kim et al. (2011) studied Few countries are using immersion-compression tests [ASTM
cold recycled mixes of emulsion by using 3% emulsified asphalt D1075-96 (ASTM 2005)] for design of emulsified mixtures.
(HFMS-2 s) and with 3% moisture content. After compacting with Martinez et al. (2007) proposed that results from these immersion-
25 gyrations and 14 day curing, the study suggested that tensile compression tests do not correlate with field conditions. In the
strength of CIR emulsion continued increasing slowly and retained United States, resilient modulus testing, the Hveem stabilometer
higher ITS values after 24 h water immersion. Jordaan (2011) con- and cohesiometer tests (both in dry and wet conditions), and also
ducted heavy vehicle simulator (HVS) testing on an emulsion the indirect tensile strength (ITS) test are used to characterize such
treated base (ETB) layer to develop a fatigue equation. It was found materials. Therefore, recently, there has been a shift in design meth-
that analysis on this layer is ideal as it carried relatively poor sup- ods from Marshall samples to dynamic test procedures such as ITS,
port. Results indicated that ETB layer had carrying capacity of which is better correlated to the behavior of asphalt mixture and can
relatively high traffic loading (30 million ESALs) under relative also be used on cores extracted from field. Also, the ITS procedure
higher surface deflection (i.e., 0.6 mm). Fatigue failure was ob- is very fast and requires less material in specimen preparation.
served in the ETB layer and the maximum horizontal strains were Thus, ITS testing is considered in mix design of emulsified mix-
always not found at the bottom of ETB layer. tures in this study.
A recent study by Lane et al. (2008) on environmental benefits
of CIR emulsified mixtures was estimated by milling 4 in. HMA
and overlaying it to 5 inches. The results showed that there was: Compaction
(1) a 62% savings in consumption of aggregate; and (2) a reduction Thanaya (2007) observed that attributable to the setting of emul-
in greenhouse gas emissions such as carbon dioxide (52%), nitric sion, CREMs stiffen during compaction. Therefore, application
oxide/nitrogen dioxide (54%), and sulfur dioxide (61%). These of heavier compaction is inevitable in these mixes. Air voids also
benefits led to 20–40% savings in cost, making cold recycling a increases attributable to significant reduction of moisture during
sustainable road rehabilitation technique. curing. But attributable to traffic loads, the pavement section con-
Complete curing of cold mixtures, even without adding cement, solidates which accompanied further reduction in air void content.
was compared with stiffness of HMA by using equivalent bitumen But study by Serfass et al. (2009) observed marginal reduction in
grade in both mixtures (Thanaya et al. 2009). However, addition air voids of cold bituminous mixtures.
of ordinary portland cement (OPC) in cold mixes aids evaporation As compared with the laboratory Marshall samples, the density
of the moisture and thus helps in achieving quicker development of achieved after two to three years in the layers of the pavement
cohesion and strength. Hence with increased curing time along with from compaction is significantly more attributable to the increased
cement, resilient modulus and strength to meet stiffness is increased traffic levels. This thought abetted in the development of a super-
(Oruc et al. 2006). In most of the studies (Asphalt Academy 2009; pave gyratory compactor (SGC) for volumetric mix design during
Ruckel et al. 1983; Oluwaseyi ‘Lanre 2010), curing is done at 40°C the strategic highway research program (SHRP). The compaction
for 3 days (long-term life; equivalent to field cure of 30 days). of laboratory specimens are performed with gyratory action in SGC

© ASCE 04015132-2 J. Mater. Civ. Eng.

J. Mater. Civ. Eng., 2016, 28(2): 04015132


(i.e., by bringing in variations in the number of gyrations) rather Table 3. Gradation of the Recovered Aggregates from RAP
than the impact action (Marshall compactor) (Kandhal 2011). Sieve size (mm) Grading of RAP material Percent passing
The gyratory compactor is adopted during mix design with the
45 100 100
pre-fixed standard parameters, like the pressure of 600 KPa, speed
37.5 100 87–100
of 30 revolutions per minute (rpm), and angle of gyration of 1.25°, 26.6 100 77–100
which have also been considered by other researchers (Jenkins 19 100 66–99
2000; Sunarjono 2008; Oluwaseyi ‘Lanre 2010). Identical values 13.2 82.88 67–87
of densities are observed in both laboratory and field samples 4.74 31.16 33–50
by using these standard inputs (Martinez et al. 2007). 2.36 17.47 25–47
0.60 11.16 12–27
0.3 7.54 8–21
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Characterization of Materials 0.075 2.25 2–9

Evaluation of RAP Material


By proper crushing and screening, RAP material produced high- specified by TG-2 and shown in Fig. 1. In order to satisfy the
quality, well-graded aggregates coated by bitumen binder. Proper- standard gradation, RAP aggregate was blended with virgin aggre-
ties of RAP material observed in India are given in Table 1, in gate. Representative proportioning of the blended material was
which recovered binder showed properties of harder grades of bitu- carried out after dividing the sample into three fractions, i.e., 19 mm,
men. In this study, RAP material, from eight-year-old layers col- 10 mm, and stone dust. The blended aggregates, containing
lected from different locations of National Highway 1 of the Narela 30–80% RAP material and 1% active filler (cement), met the grad-
region near New Delhi, was used. This RAP material was selected ing requirements of recycled emulsion mixtures as shown in Fig. 1.
for laboratory testing as it has satisfying results (consistency in
grading of aggregate and acceptable softening characteristics) when
compared with other RAP samples tested. When tested according Bitumen Emulsion
to ASTM D6307 (ASTM 2010), the average bitumen content in the In the present study, slow setting 2 (SS-2) grade cationic bitumen
RAP material was found to be 3.61% by weight of total mix. Later, emulsion was used. The results (provided in Table 4) showed that
the two stage distillation process for binder recovery was done all the properties were in accordance with the Indian standard IS:
(Abson method) according to ASTM D2172 (ASTM 2004b)
and D1856 (ASTM 2004a). The recovered binder indicated the
properties of VG-40 grade of bitumen, which are listed in Table 2.
Finally, the aggregate obtained after the binder extraction was 100 Upper Limit
oven dried for 24 h and then sieve analysis was performed. In this 90
Lower Limit
study, bituminous mix has been designed for RAP gradation speci- 60% RAP
80
fied in the standard IRC 37 (IRC 2012) and is given in Table 3. The 70% RAP
virgin aggregates used in the present study were obtained from a 70 0% RAP
local quarry near New Delhi, and the results of the various tests 80% RAP
% passing

60
were observed in compliance with the Indian “Specifications for 50
50% RAP
Road and Bridge Works” (MoRTH 2013). The gradation analysis RAP Gradation
40
of RAP indicated deficiency of fine aggregate by lacking the mini- 30% RAP
mum requirement of 4% material passing a 0.075 mm sieve, as 30

20

10
Table 1. Properties of RAP Available in India
0
Property Test method Test results 26.5 19 13.2 4.75 2.36 0.6 0.3 0.075
Sieve Size (mm)
Binder content ASTM D6307 (ASTM 2010) 2 to 4%
Binder state Penetration index Viscous, semi Fig. 1. Aggregate gradation adopted for all different RAP percentages
viscous, gel in mix
Penetration IS 1203 (Bureau of 10 to 50 (0.1 mm)
of bitumen Indian Standards 1978a)
Viscosity ASTM D4402 2,500 to 7,500 (P)
of bitumen (ASTM 2002)
Table 4. Test Results of Cationic Bitumen Emulsion
Recommendation as
Characteristics Test results per IS:8887-2004
Table 2. Physical Properties of Recovered Binder Viscosity by sayboltfurol 67 30–150
viscometer, seconds at 25°C
Property Test method Test results
Storage stability after 24 h, 1.4 2
Penetration 25°C, IS 1203 (Bureau of Indian 41 percent, maximum
100 g, 5 s, 0.1 mm Standards 1978a) Residue by evaporation 64 60
Softening point IS 1205 (Bureau of Indian 61.2 percent, minimum
(R & B), °C Standards 1978b) Ductility, 25°C=cm, minimum 70+ 50
Viscosity, at 60°C, P ASTM D4402 (ASTM 2002) 3,552 Penetration, 25°C=100 g=5 s 91 60–120
Viscosity, at 135°C, P ASTM D4402 (ASTM 2002) 7.2 Particle charge Positive Positive

© ASCE 04015132-3 J. Mater. Civ. Eng.

J. Mater. Civ. Eng., 2016, 28(2): 04015132


8887 (Bureau of Indian Standards 2004) indicating the suitability value obtained for r is 20 and for Pnb is 2.91%. The virgin binder to
of emulsion in design. be added is bitumen emulsion containing 64% of residual bitumen.
Thus, the initial trial bitumen emulsion content to be added to
the recycled mixture works out to be approximately 4.7–5%.
Mixture Design Therefore, specimens will be prepared with increase in emulsion
Guidelines for design of CREMs have been developed by several content starting from 5%.
agencies on the basis of laboratory tests, empirical formulae, or past The optimum prewetting water content gives the best bitumen
experience (Austroads 2006; Ebels and Jenkins 2007; Asphalt coating on the aggregate. Hence to optimize the emulsion content,
Academy 2009). In this study, materials like blended aggregate trial mixtures were prepared with increasing emulsion contents us-
of RAP gradation (IRC 2012), SS-2 grade bitumen emulsion, and ing predetermined optimum water content for mixing. Then, the
cement (43 grade) as filler at approximately 1% were used. RAP in mix was left for half an hour at 60°C for breaking and curing of
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30, 50, 60, 70, and 80% proportions was blended with virgin ag- emulsified mixtures followed by compaction. Gyratory compactor
gregate to meet the gradation requirements. First, physical proper- was used at the mix design stage according to ASTM D6925
ties of aggregates were determined in the laboratory. Emulsion of (ASTM 2009b) for compacting specimens. The angle of gyration
grade SS-2 was tested as per requirement by IS 8887 (Bureau of being 1.25°, compaction pressure of 600 kPa, and 30 rpm settings
Indian Standards 2004). Finally, mechanical properties of CREMs was adopted. Samples were made at the target air void content of
were determined. 5% by determining the number of gyrations required to obtain
As the mixture cures, moisture evaporates and the residual bitu- maximum density. Compacted mix was then cured for 72 h at
men from emulsion starts performing its dual role of binding the 40°C in an oven. Then, the specimens were tested for ITS dry after
matrix together and also enhancing the density of mix. Optimum cooling them at 25°C, according to ASTM D6931 (ASTM 2012).
moisture content (OMC) value alone would not suffice for the total Optimum bitumen content was in accordance with the maximum
fluid content because the mechanism of compaction is slightly dif- values of ITS dry. Fig. 2 represents the flowchart of methodology
ferent when both moisture and binder are introduced to the mixture, adopted for laboratory evaluation of CREMs.
although it indicates the region in which total fluid content lies
(Ibrahim 1998; Thanaya 2003). These attributes necessitated the Determination of TFC
determination of the prewetting water content, i.e., total fluid con-
tent (TFC), required for the proposed mixture before emulsion is To determine the TFC, samples were prepared by keeping the emul-
added to the mix (Oluwaseyi ‘Lanre 2010). Thus, whereas keeping sion content constant by mass of the aggregate (as empirically de-
the emulsion content constant, specimens are prepared with differ- termined in earlier section). The prewetting water content was
ent prewetting water content. Generally four increments of water increased at intervals of 1.0% by mass of the aggregate starting
content with a difference of 1% are sufficient to develop a stability from total fluid content of 7.0 to 10%. Mechanical properties
curve. Finally, indicative tests, such as ITS, are performed to de- such as ITS dry on five replicate samples were then obtained for
termine TFC for adequate coating. Once the TFC has been estab-
lished, there is the need to optimize the binder content in the TFC.
Hence by keeping the TFC constant, emulsion content was varied.
Analysis of Engineering
The initial bitumen emulsion content to be added to the cold re- Collection of RAP
Properties of washed and
cycled mixtures is worked out in Eq. (1). Virgin Aggregate
The amount of initial bitumen emulsion was determined using Separation of Bitumen and
the Asphalt Institute (1989) empirical formula as in Eq. (1) Aggregate (ASTM D2172)
Proportioning of Virgin
(Kandhal et al. 1997; Oluwaseyi ‘Lanre 2010; Dinis-Almeida et al. and RAP Aggregate
2012; Choudhary et al. 2012) Determine Aggregate Gradation
and Binder Content in RAP
Desired Aggregate
Pb ¼ ð0.05 A þ 0.1 B þ 0.5 CÞ × ð0.7Þ ð1Þ Gradation as per
IRC: 37-2012
Selection of
where Pb = percent by weight of initial residual bitumen content by Bitumen Emulsion
mass of total mixture; A = percent of mineral aggregate retained on
2.36 mm; B = percent of mineral aggregate passing 2.36 and re- Determination of Physical
tained on 0.075 mm; and C = percent of mineral aggregate passing Properties and Compatibility study
0.075 mm. With virgin aggregate gradation having A ¼ 66%,
B ¼ 30%, and C ¼ 4%, the value obtained for Pb was 5.8%.
Fixing the Proportion
The available emulsion has a bitumen content of 64%; it implies of Virgin binder
that bitumen emulsion demand is 9%. This value eventually proved
useful in the determination of TFC of cold bitumen emulsion
mixtures without RAP content. The quantity of new bituminous Mix Design
• Gyratory Sample Preparation
binder, that is Pnb , to be added (as percentage of total aggregate • Curing at 40 c for 72hrs
0

weight) in recycled mix using the Asphalt Institute (2007) manula • ITS dry and Conditioned Specimens
series (MS) - 20 empirical formula is calculated by Eq. (2)
Determination of Optimum Binder Content
ð100 − rÞPsb
Pnb ¼ Pb − ð2Þ
100
Comparative Performance
Evaluation of the Mixes
where r characterizes the percentage of virgin aggregate to be
added in the recycled mix and bitumen content in RAP is expressed
Fig. 2. Flowchart of methodology for laboratory evaluation of cold
as Psb . The average value of bitumen content obtained in RAP is
recycled emulsified mixes
3.61%. For example, if 80% RAP mixture is considered, then the

© ASCE 04015132-4 J. Mater. Civ. Eng.

J. Mater. Civ. Eng., 2016, 28(2): 04015132


5.5
Performance Testing
5
Results and Discussion
4.5
There was a change in the optimum binder content in all emulsified
ITS dry (Kg/cm2)

4 mixtures containing different percentages of RAP, which was found


to be in the range of 5.12–3.52%. This showed that the percentage
3.5 of binder to be added in the mixes reduces as the percentage of RAP
in the mixture increases. Results plotted in Fig. 5 suggest that the
3 RAP in cold mixes is not completely acting as black rock (in which
the residual binders in the RAPs become inactive). This reveals that
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2.5
some portion of the residual aged binder is possibly rejuvenated
2
or softened by adding new binder. Under such circumstances, the
5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 mixes containing RAP are more active and have the effect of pro-
Total Fluid Content (%) ducing stiffer binder, reflected in the increase of ITS and stiffness
0% RAP 30% RAP 50% RAP modulus values of the RAP mixes.
60% RAP 70% RAP 80% RAP
ITS dry and wet increased with an increase in RAP content as
Fig. 3. Strength characteristics of cold recycled mixtures with varying shown in Fig. 6. The data presented indicate that significant differ-
total fluid content ence is observed in ITS dry and ITS wet values at 40°C and 60°C.
With all RAP contents, the error bars of ITS wet at 40°C slightly
overlap with ITS wet at 60°C, which means moisture resistance is
comparable at both temperatures. This indicates that temperature
optimizing TFC. Similarly properties were determined in all the variation does not significantly affect these mixtures. Addition
mixtures of varying percentages of RAP and plotted graphically, of required binder content and 1% cement provided required
as shown in Fig. 3. Using these parameters, TFC was found to mechanical strength. ITS in emulsified mixtures continued increas-
be 10, 9, 9, 8, 8, and 8% by weight of aggregates in 0, 30, 50, ing and had a better resistance to flexural fatigue as it gained
60, 70, and 80% RAP, respectively.

6
Determination of Optimum Emulsion Content
Optimum Binder Content (%)

In order to optimize the binder content in the TFC, the method 5


adopted kept the TFC constant while varying the emulsion content
4
at an interval of 1%, starting from 7% and ending at 10%, making a
total of four levels of observation as shown in conventional mixes. 3
Mechanical properties such as ITS dry on five replicate samples
were then obtained for determination of optimum emulsion content 2
(OEC). Similarly properties were determined in all the mixtures
with and without RAP and plotted graphically, as shown in Fig. 4. 1
Using the parameters outlined in this section, OEC was found to be
8, 7, 7, 6, 6, and 5.5% by weight of aggregates containing 0, 30, 50, 0
0 20 40 60 80 100
60, 70, and 80% RAP, respectively. This showed that, for example,
RAP Content (%)
in a total of 10% TFC, 8% of emulsion content and 2% of water
content is used in 0% RAP. Fig. 5. Optimum bitumen content in cold recycled emulsified mixes

5.5
6
0% RAP
5 5.5
30% RAP

50% RAP 5
ITS dry (kg/cm 2)

4.5
ITS (kg/cm2)

60% RAP 4.5


4
70% RAP 4

3.5 80% RAP


3.5

3
3
ITS Dry ITS Wet - 40°C ITS Wet - 60°C
2.5
2.5
4.5 5.5 6.5 7.5 8.5 9.5 10.5
2
Emulsion Content (%) 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90
RAP Content (%)
Fig. 4. Strength characteristics of cold recycled mixtures with varying
emulsion content Fig. 6. Indirect tensile strength in cold recycled emulsified mixes

© ASCE 04015132-5 J. Mater. Civ. Eng.

J. Mater. Civ. Eng., 2016, 28(2): 04015132


comparatively higher tensile strength. Cold mixtures with RAP per- pulled back to the surface of the asphalt from the pores. The MIST
formed better than mixtures without RAP but generally lower than reproduces these effects under similar conditions by the loading
HMA. Thus, ITS results depend on the grade of bitumen as well as and unloading of high water pressures cyclically on bituminous
RAP content. mix samples that are unsaturated and compacted. The test was
set under the temperature conditions of approximately 60°C and
below to promote the acceleration of potential damage to the core.
Tensile Strength Ratio Test As per ASTM D7870 (ASTM 2013), the test conditions were set
The degree of susceptibility to moisture damage was investigated for 3,500 cycles and the pressure applied was limited to 40 psi.
according to ASTM D4867 (ASTM 2009a). The specimens were After the sample conditioning in MIST for 3,500 cycles, they were
compacted using a gyratory compactor to achieve 7% target voids soaked in a water bath at 25°C for a period of 2 h; then tensile
corresponding to void levels expected in the field. This set was fur- strength was measured. Results obtained from MIST (for retained
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ther subdivided into two subsets of same void content approxi- strength on samples with and without RAP) are provided in Fig. 8.
mately, in which one was maintained as dry and the other was It is shown from the results that the incorporation of the RAP in
partially saturated and conditioned. Five replicate specimens the bituminous mix indicated better results in the MIST study as
were tested for their tensile strength using the tensile splitting test compared with the mix without RAP. In this study, MIST was con-
with a loading rate of 50 mm=min. The ratio of the tensile strength ducted, both at 40°C and also at 60°C, on three replicate samples in
of the wet subset to that of the dry subset indicates the potential for all mixtures to check the susceptibility of cold mixtures at worst
moisture damage. The tensile strength ratio (TSR) is calculated in conditions. As lower temperatures are specified for cold mixtures,
Eq. (3) tests at 40°C were done initially in all the mixes. This test at 40°C
  showed nearly 80% retained strength in all the mixes, which indi-
Stm cated better resistance to moisture damage. But at 60°C, only higher
TSR ¼ × 100 ð3Þ
Std RAP content mixtures showed improved susceptibility to moisture
in cold recycled mixtures with emulsion. Thus, all test results
where Stm = average tensile strength of the moisture-conditioned showed that increased RAP content, that is 70 and 80%, indicated
subset; and Std = average tensile strength of the dry subset. better resistance to moisture damage. It is believed that this can be
TSR was conducted both at 40 and 60°C to check the condition attributed to the fact that RAP contains hardened bitumen, which
of cold recycled mixtures with an increase in temperature, as will lead to increased stability attributable to higher bitumen vis-
shown in Fig. 7. No significant difference was observed in cosity. Oxidized bitumen is more viscous than emulsified binders.
TSR values at 40 and 60°C. TSR values were found to be greater Also, RAP absorbs less water compared with the virgin aggregates;
than 80%, indicating acceptable resistance to moisture damage in and cement contains surfactant, which enhances the resistance to
all mixtures with and without RAP. This resistance was main- moisture damage.
tained even when a high percentage of RAP was added. Moreover,
conventional mixes and mixes with 70 and 80% RAP showed in-
Resilient Modulus Test
creased resistance to damage by moisture. The addition of 1%
cement in conventional mixes and higher RAP percentages im- The elasticity of a material is estimated from its resilient modulus
proved stability in emulsified mixes, which resulted in reduced value, which is used for evaluating the material’s relative quality
moisture sensitivity. along with generating input for pavement design. Evaluating the
resilient modulus values for bituminous mixes at different temper-
atures with varying percentages of RAP was done. As per ASTM
Moisture Induced Susceptibility Test D7369 (ASTM 2011), a compressive load with haversine wave-
An accelerated test, named moisture induced susceptibility test form at 20, 30, and 40°C was applied on samples, with minimum
(MIST), was used to simulate the effects of traffic on wet pavement. 6 h conditioning and Poisson’s ratio of 0.35. The specimens were
The water that is trapped in between the tire and pavement surface subjected to repeated loading pulse width of 250 ms, to produce a
experiences high pressure and forces itself into all accessible peak load of 1,000 N. The mean resilient modulus value for five
pores when the tire rolls over a wet pavement. When the tire moves pulses was reported as the resilient modulus value. Five replicate
away from that region, the reverse occurs and water gets drained or specimens were tested, corresponding to each mix with an increase
in RAP content.

100
60°C 40°C 100
60°C 40°C
90
95
80
90 70
TSR (%)

60
TSR (%)

85
50
40
80
30
75 20
10
70 0
0 30 50 60 70 80 0 30 50 60 70 80
RAP Content (%) RAP Content (%)

Fig. 7. Results of TSR at varying RAP contents Fig. 8. MIST results for cold recycled emulsified mixes

© ASCE 04015132-6 J. Mater. Civ. Eng.

J. Mater. Civ. Eng., 2016, 28(2): 04015132


4000 0.7
20°C 30°C 40°C 20°C 30°C 40°C
3500 0.6

Total Permanent Strain (%)


3000
Resilient Modulus (MPa)

0.5
2500
0.4
2000
0.3
1500
0.2
1000
0.1
500
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0 0
0 30 50 60 70 80 0 30 50 60 70 80
RAP Content (%) RAP Content (%)

Fig. 9. Resilient modulus values with increase in RAP content Fig. 10. Results of total permanent strain with varying RAP content

The resilient modulus values in RAP mixtures were statistically stiffer and, thus, have more potential to resist permanent deforma-
significant because of the variability (no overlap) in test results as tion compared with the conventional mix. Accumulated strain
exhibited by error bars in Fig. 9, which showed standard deviation showed the vice versa trend of stiffness in creep: as the temperature
against mean value. On the basis of analysis of data, an increasing increased, the accumulated strain also increased. In emulsified mix-
trend was observed in resilient modulus values from 0% RAP to tures, when compared with all RAP percentages, the 60% RAP
60% RAP mixtures at all temperatures, whereas further addition showed lower accumulated permanent strain statistically.
of RAP reversed the trend. The 60% RAP mixture provided statisti-
cally higher modulus value at all test temperatures, whereas the 70 Wheel Tracking Test
and 80% RAP mixtures provided slightly increased modulus value Permanent deformation can be measured as rut depth by the wheel
when compared with conventional mixes. Further, the resilient tracking device as per AASHTO T324 (AASHTO 2004). In this,
modulus values of the mixes containing RAP were found to be loading and environmental conditions were simulated according to
more compared with the conventional mix at all the test tempera- the field. A slab (of dimensions 300 × 300 × 50 mm) was made
tures. This indicates that the incorporation of RAP makes the mix with optimum binder content, and load was applied through a steel
stiffer with an increasing percentage of RAP. It also implies that wheel by repeated back and forth movement along its length. Total
some portion of the residual aged binder in the RAP was reju- load of 31 kg with a mean normal pressure of 5.6 kg=cm2 was ap-
venated or softened and this, consequently, enhanced the stiffness plied at the rate of 42 passes per minute. After conditioning of sam-
responses of the RAP mixes compared with that of the conventional ple at 45°C, the load was applied for approximately 20,000 cycles,
mixes. The moduli of emulsion-treated materials are generally and, finally, the total rut depth was recorded. Three replicate sam-
lower than those of HMA for all the temperature conditions. ples were tested in all RAP mixtures.
According to the test results, better performance was seen in the Fig. 11 shows the relationship between RAP content (%) and
60% RAP samples, with an increase in modulus value of rut depth obtained for conventional mixes as well as for mixes
34.47% at 30°C, when compared with mix without RAP. containing from 30 to 80% RAP in emulsified specimens. It was
observed that, after 20,000 cycles, the rut depth was greater in con-
Dynamic Creep Test ventional mixes and reduced with the increase in the percentage of
In the universal testing machine test, specimens were subjected to RAP. The RAP-containing mixes became stiffer compared with the
dynamic axial load (unconfined), in accordance with NCHRP 9-19 mix without RAP and had better resistance to permanent deforma-
(McDaniel and Anderson 2001). Permanent strain was recorded tion. Cold recycled emulsified specimens showed a slower rate
after 10,000 loading cycles on conditioned samples at 20°C, of increment in permanent deformation and, thus, took a greater
30°C, and 40°C. Three replicates of samples were tested at each
temperature, in which a cyclic stress of 69 kPa with seating stress
6
of 11 kPa was applied. A compressive load of haversine waveform
was applied with a loading width of 0.1 s followed by rest period 0% RAP
5
of 0.9 s. 30% RAP
The error bars (shown in Fig. 10) represent the mean of total 50% RAP
4
Rut Depth in mm

permanent strains with plus/minus one standard deviation. From


60% RAP
the test results plotted in Fig. 10, it is shown that mix samples con-
3 70% RAP
taining RAP showed better creep performance, in terms of reduced
accumulated permanent strain, when compared with mix made of 80% RAP
2
virgin aggregates. On the basis of analysis of the data, a decreasing
trend was observed in accumulated permanent strain values in the
1
case of RAP mixtures from 0 to 60% RAP at all temperatures.
However, no significant difference was found between the 50
0
and 80% RAP mixtures, as supported by the overlapped error bars. 0 5000 10000 15000 20000 25000
This lack of a trend indicates that an increase in RAP content does Number of Passes
not significantly affect the performance related to permanent defor-
Fig. 11. Results of rut depth with increase in RAP content
mation. This indicates that the RAP-containing mixes become

© ASCE 04015132-7 J. Mater. Civ. Eng.

J. Mater. Civ. Eng., 2016, 28(2): 04015132


500 microstrain 400 microstrain Table 5. Results of Beam Fatigue Test at 400 and 500 Microstrain
200000
180000 Initial Termination Number
flexural flexural of cycles
Number of Cycles to Failure

160000
stiffness (MPa) stiffness (MPa) to failure
140000
Mix type 500 με 400 με 500 με 400 με 500 με 400 με
120000
100000 0% RAP 693 802 346.5 401 9,320 45,320
30% RAP 897 924 448.5 462 19,500 123,810
80000
50% RAP 652 960 326 480 42,360 183,730
60000 60% RAP 722 1,704 361 852 30,990 177,570
40000 70% RAP 854 1,402 427 701 28,500 155,920
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20000 80% RAP 1,234 811 617 405.5 19,870 140,310


0
0 30 50 60 70 80
RAP content(%)

Fig. 12. Number of cycles to failure in beam fatigue test with increase Conclusion and Recommendations
in RAP content
The following conclusions are drawn from the laboratory study and
analysis performed. Results indicated that CREMs can be used in
base/binder courses and even in the surface course of less traf-
number of loading cycles before a certain level of deformation
ficked roads:
could be attained when compared with conventional specimens. • The ITS test is mainly considered as the basis in the design of
In emulsified mixtures, the rut depth was less in RAP mixes CREMs, and further research is needed to develop a design
(i.e., almost 50% less in both the 50 and 60% RAP) when compared framework for these cold recycled mixes.
with conventional mixes. • In this study, RAP did not completely act as black rock, indicat-
ing that there is a possibility of rejuvenation. Further research is
Fatigue Test
needed to know about the interaction mechanism between virgin
For predicting the fatigue life of bituminous layers under repeated
and aged residual binder in cold mixes.
traffic loading, repeated flexural bending tests were conducted on
• The effect of moisture on mixes, determined by both methods
the bituminous mixture. The beam fatigue test can be conducted in
[ASTM D4867 (ASTM 2009a) and ASTM D7870 (ASTM
controlled stress or controlled strain mode. In this study, constant 2013)] for the cold bituminous mixtures with and without
strain mode was adopted, but the magnitude of the load was al- RAP, indicated that RAP offers acceptable resistance to damage
lowed to decrease with the increasing load cycle. Failure was de- by moisture, which is comparable to mixes with lower RAP
fined as a 50% loss in initial beam stiffness. The test was conducted content.
in accordance with AASHTO T321 (AASHTO 2008) and repeated • The accumulated permanent strain in the dynamic creep test was
haversine loads at a frequency of 10 Hz were applied at the third lower in the RAP-containing mixes (in 60% RAP) as compared
points of the specimen. Fatigue life of a beam-shaped specimen was with the conventional mix, which indicates the RAP mixes have
determined by this test (400 mm L × 50 mm H × 63 mm B). Three greater resistance to rutting.
replicates were considered at each microstrain (με), of 500 and 400, • Wheel tracking tests revealed that the rut depth in the mixes
for applying repeated flexural bending until failure. The constant containing RAP was found to be less compared with the con-
strain was maintained throughout the test and the flexural stiffness ventional mix. That is, up to 50% less in higher RAP con-
was recorded for each cycle of load with a beam fatigue apparatus tent mixes.
and control data acquisition system. Improvement in the fatigue life • The resilient modulus values were higher in the recycled mixes
of cold mixtures was observed with the addition of RAP as com- when compared with the control mix at all the test temperatures.
pared with the mix without RAP. The fatigue life, in terms of num- This indicates that the incorporation of RAP makes the mix
ber of cycles, with an increase in RAP content is shown in Fig. 12. stiffer, which is lower than that of HMA. The highest modulus
On the basis of analysis, an increased trend was observed in fatigue values were obtained for 60% RAP samples.
values of 50 and 60% RAP mixtures at all microstrains. Fatigue life • The fatigue life of the recycled mixes was observed to be more
in all these mixtures was statistically significant because of the vari- when compared with the conventional mix during the controlled
ability in test results as exhibited by error bars in Fig. 12. Although strain testing at 500 and 400 microstrain levels. Also, this re-
the average fatigue life of 60% RAP appears to decrease when com- search can be extended to the controlled stress method, as stres-
pared with 50% RAP, the error bar data showed that this trend was ses are critical in thicker pavements like RAP-incorporated
not statistically significant because of the overlapped values. The layers.
increase in fatigue life for 50 and 60% RAP mixes was found to be • The previously mentioned results help to infer that the addition
4.5 times greater when compared with the mix without RAP at 400 of RAP improves the properties of the bituminous mixes (in
and 500 με. Also, these cold recycled mixtures showed least resis- terms of resistance to deformation, durability, and stiffness)
tance to fatigue failure at 500 με, indicating that these mixtures and also the properties of CREMs are dependent on the state
should be laid in lower layers of pavement. The test results of flexu- of curing attained (as three days of curing at 40°C is equivalent
ral test at 400 and 500 με are given in Table 5. The RAP mixes to a 30-day field cure). The strength of these CREMs keeps in-
became stiffer compared with the mix without RAP and, thus, bet- creasing with time until the mix is fully cured or stabilized. The
ter resistance to fatigue failure was observed. A slight increase in only limitation is that final performance of the RAP-added mix
stiffness can result in an exponential increase in fatigue life of the depends on the properties of ingredients in the RAP and their
recycled mixture (Nguyen 2009). Hence, the increased fatigue life proportion.
implies that the mix prepared with the addition of RAP is more • On the basis of this study, it may be stated that 60% RAP in-
durable than the mix without RAP. corporation showed optimum results in many tests. Overall,

© ASCE 04015132-8 J. Mater. Civ. Eng.

J. Mater. Civ. Eng., 2016, 28(2): 04015132


RAP CREMs performed better than virgin aggregate mixtures in Dinis-Almeida, M., Castro-Gomes, J., and Antunes, M. D. L. (2012). “Mix
mechanical performance and durability. design considerations for warm mix recycled asphalt with bitumen
emulsion.” Constr. Build. Mater., 28(1), 687–693.
Ebels, L. J., and Jenkins, K. (2007). “Mix design of bitumen stabilised ma-
terials: Best practice and considerations for classification.” 9th Conf. on
Acknowledgments Asphalt Pavements for Southern Africa (CAPSA’07), Gaborone,
Botswana.
The authors would like to acknowledge the Director of the Central FHWA (Federal Highway Administration). (1997). “Pavement recycling
Road Research Institute in New Delhi, India, for his encouragement guidelines for state and local governments.” 〈http://www.fhwa.dot
in conducting this research. The authors are thankful to Mrs. Siksha .gov/pavement/recycling/98042/〉 (Nov. 20, 2007).
Swaroopa Kar for help during project work. FHWA (Federal Highway Administration). (2002). “User guidelines for
waste and by-product materials in pavement construction.” Washington,
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DC.
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