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TEMPERATURE-ZEROTH

LAW-PRESSURE-DENSITY-
SPECIFIC GRAVITY
MSc. Ing. Alejandro Vera Lázaro
avlazaro@usat.edu.pe
TERMODINÁMICA

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OBJETIVOS
Interpretar la ley cero de la termodinámica y el
estado de equilibrio térmico.
Diferenciar la energía térmica, calor y
temperatura, así como sus unidades.
Interpretar a la temperatura como un indicador
de la energía vibratoria de las moléculas de los
cuerpos.
Realizar cambio de escalas de temperature.
Interpretar a la densidad de los cuerpos y su
relación con la gravedad específica.
Diferenciar a los conceptos de presión absoluta,
presión atmosférica, presión gage, presión de
vacío.
Diferenciar el peso molecular y el peso atómico.
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Lista de Contenidos
• Ley cero de la termodinámica.
• Estado y Equilibrio
• Definición de energía térmica
• Temperatura-Escalas termométricas.
• Problema 01
• Presión-dispositivos.
• Ejemplo 01
• Problemas 02, Problemas 03, Problemas 04
• Densidad-gravedad específica.
• Ejemplo 02, Ejemplo 03
• Problema 05
• Peso molecular.
• Conclusiones
• Referencias
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The Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics
Thermal Equilibrium

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STATE AND EQUILIBRIUM

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Thermal Energy Defined

Total energy of the


particles in a material

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HEAT DEFINED

Heat - is the thermal energy


that flows from something of a
higher temperature to
something of a lower
temperature.

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TEMPERATURE

Temperature – measure
of the average kinetic
energy of the particles in
a sample of matter.

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TEMPERATURE UNITS DEPEND OF
SCALES

•The temperature scales


most widely used today
are the Fahrenheit,
Celsius and Kelvin Scales.
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Daniel Gabriel Fahrenheit
• He discovered, among other things, that water can remain liquid
below its freezing point and that the boiling point of liquids
varies with atmospheric pressure.

• Fahrenheit temperature scale, scale based on 32 degree for the


freezing point of water and 212 degree for the boiling point of
water, the interval between the two being divided into 180 parts.

• Fahrenheit originally took as the zero of his scale the


temperature of an equal ice-salt mixture and selected the values
of 30 degree for the freezing point of water and 90 degree for
normal body temperature.

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After Fahrenheit died in
1736, scientists calibrated
his model of thermometer
using 212 degrees, the
temperature at which water
boils, as the upper fixed point,
and 32 degree for water
freezing.

When the Fahrenheit


thermometer was recalibrated,
normal human body
temperature
registered 98.6 rather than 96.

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The Celsius temperature scale
was invented by Anders Celsius
(1701-1744) a Swedish Astronomer

• For his meteorological observations he


constructed his world famous Celsius thermometer, with 0 for
the boiling point of water and 100 for the
freezing point.
• After his death in 1744 the scale was
reversed to its present form with zero as
water’s freezing point.

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Celsius Temperature Scale
• The Celsius scale often used by countries
using the metric system.

• It is based on water’s
freezing point
– et at 0o and its boiling
point – set at 100o.

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Kelvin temperature scale

The temperature scale is named after the British


mathematician and physicist William Thomson
Kelvin (1824 – 1907) who proposed it in 1848.

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Kelvin temperature scale, has an absolute
zero below which temperatures do not exist.

Absolute zero or 0 K, is the temperature at which


molecular energy is a minimum, and it is equal to
a temperature of -273.15° on the Celsius scale.
The Kelvin degree is the same size as the Celsius
degree.

(When writing temperatures in the Kelvin scale,


convention the degree symbol is left out and we
merely use the letter K.)
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Temperature Conversion Formulas

• Fahrenheit to Celsius

• Celsius to Fahrenheit

• Kelvin to Celsius

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Thermal equilibrium
• The state in which two bodies in physical contact with each
other have identical temperatures. (Not net transfer of
thermal energy or heat.

• Thermal equilibrium is the basis for measuring temperature


with thermometers in that the thermometer must be in
thermal equilibrium with an object before a temperature
reading can be taken.

• Physics -Serway/Faughn (Holt)

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State of matter is related to temperature
Solids, liquids, gases- states of matter determined by
the rate at which atoms or molecules move.
• Solids- tightly packed with fixed volume & shape

• Liquids – not as tightly linked with fixed volume, but not shape.

• Gases- particle with little or no attraction, no fixed volume or


shape.

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• For gases with one type of atom
(monoatomic) temperature is
understood in terms of kinetic energy.
• For other kinds of substances,
molecules can rotate or vibrate, so
other types of energy is present.
Serway/Faughn Physics

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PROBLEMS 1

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PRESSURE
• Pressure is defined as a normal force exerted by a
fluid per unit area.
• Normally, we speak of pressure when we deal with a
gas or a liquid. The counterpart of pressure in solids is
normal stress. Note, however, that pressure is a scaler
quantity while stress is a tensor. Since pressure is
defined as force per unit area, it has the unit of
newtons per square meter (N/m2), which is called a
pascal (Pa). That is,
1 Pa = 1 N/m2

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PRESSURE UNITS
• The pressure unit pascal is too small for most pressures
encountered in practice. Therefore, its multiples kilopascal
(1_kPa=103 Pa) and megapascal (1 MPa = 106 Pa) are commonly
used. Three other pressure units commonly used in practice,
especially in Europe, are bar, standard atmosphere, and
kilogram-force per square centimeter:
• 1 bar = 105 Pa = 0.1 MPa = 100 kPa
• 1 atm = 101,325 Pa = 101.325 kPa = 1.01325 bars
• 1 kgf/cm2 = 9.807 N/cm2 = 9.807 3 104 N/m2 = 9.807 3 104 Pa
• = 0.9807 bar
• = 0.9679 atm

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APPLICATION

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GAGE PRESSURE-VACUUM PRESSURE

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Absolute, gage, and vacuum pressures

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EXAMPLE 01

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PROBLEMS 2

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PROBLEMS 3

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PROBLEMS 4

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DENSITY AND SPECIFIC GRAVITY

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EXAMPLE 02

• Un tanque vacío de 825 kg tiene un volumen de


0.917 metros cúbicos. Hallar su densidad, peso
específico y gravedad especifica del aire.

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SOLUTION

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EXAMPLE 03

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PROBLEMS 5

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MOLECULAR WEIGHT AND MOLAR MASS

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MOLECULAR FORMULA

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EXAMPLE

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Conclusiones

El estudiante comprendió los fundamentos básicos de la


termodinámica a través de sistemas y volumen de control, sus
propiedades, los procesos termodinámicos, los estados de
equilibrio, uso de unidades, así como su importancia en la
ingeniería.

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Referencias
• Cengel Yunus, México, McGraw-Hill, 2015. 621.4021 C43 2015
• Physics -Serway/Faughn
• Zemansky Mark, Calor y termodinámica. México, Pearson,
2005. 530 Z64
• Claus Borgnakke and Richard E. Sonntag, Fundamentals of
Thermodynamics, Wiley, 2012

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MSc. Ing. Alejandro Vera Lázaro
avlazaro@usat.edu.pe

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