Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 40

Регистрационный номер _________________

Учреждение образования
«Могилевский государственный университет имени А.А.Кулешова»

Факультет иностранных языков

Кафедра романо-германской филологии

СОГЛАСОВАНО СОГЛАСОВАНО
Заведующий кафедрой Декан факультета
____________ А. К. Шевцова ____________ Ж. А. Барсукова
___ ____________ 2019 ___ ____________ 2019

УЧЕБНО-МЕТОДИЧЕСКИЙ КОМПЛЕКС
ПО УЧЕБНОЙ ДИСЦИПЛИНЕ

«Стилистика иностранного языка»

для специальности 1-21 05 06 Романо-германская филология

Составитель:
А.К. Шевцова, кандидат филологических наук, доцент

Рассмотрено и утверждено
на заседании совета университета ___ __________________ 2016,
протокол № ____

1
СОДЕРЖАНИЕ

Пояснительная записка …………………………………………..………..… 3

План прохождения дисциплины …………………...………..……………… 4

Рекомендуемая литература ………………………………………………….. 5

Тематика и содержание лекций …………………………………………..…. 7

Тематика и содержание семинарских занятий ……………...…………… 14

Вопросы к зачету …….………………………………………………………. 29

Тематика и содержание контрольных работ ………………...…………... 31

Терминологический минимум ……………………………………………... 33

Мультимедийные презентации лекционного курса (электронный носитель)

2
ПОЯСНИТЕЛЬНАЯ ЗАПИСКА

Курс «Стилистика иностранного языка» занимает центральное место в ряду


специальных дисциплин, входящих в программу обучения филологов-англистов.
Курс стилистики строится на основе требований современного языкознания,
он имеет преемственную связь с другими лингвистическими дисциплинами,
поскольку стилистическая характеристика высказывания выступает как синтез
лексических, грамматических и других приемов и средств. Он тесно связан с
такими дисциплинами, как «Лексикология английского языка», «Теория и практика
перевода», «Введение в языкознание».
Овладение искусством общения на английском языке предполагает
приобретение целого ряда определенных теоретических знаний и выработку
практических умений и навыков. Коммуникативные знания особого рода и
специфические умения и навыки составляют главный объект курса стилистики
современного английского языка. Предметом же преподавания этого курса являются
те аспекты теории и практики английского языка, которые особо значимы на
продвинутом этапе обучения. Ставшая уже традиционной, проблематика
лингвостилистики в наши дни заметно разрешилась как следствие разработки
теории стилистики текста и лингвистики текста.
Целью курса является ознакомление студентов с основными понятиями,
относящимися к принципам функционирования лексических, грамматических и
других средств языка в разных условиях общения, к их выразительному потенциалу
и номенклатуре, обучение умению читать с глубоким проникновением в текст
произведения.
Основными задачами курса «Стилистика иностранного языка» являются:
Образовательные цели курса:
1) развитие социолингвистической компетенции- умения стилистически
адекватного использования языковых средств в иноязычном общении;
2) развитие умений лингвостилистического анализа англоязычных
художественных и публицистических текстов;
3) развитие умений стилистического анализа использования отдельных
выразительных средств в художественной литературе, публицистике, устной
речи;
4) приобретение знаний о функционировании стилистически
дифференцированной лексики, выразительных средств, разнообразии
функциональных стилей английского языка.

Воспитательные цели:
1) развитие интереса к социолингвистическим особенностям
функционирования английского языка;
2) воспитание толерантности к социолингвистическим вариациям в
функционировании английского языка.

Развивающие цели:

3
1) развитие социолингвистической восприимчивости к оттенкам
использования языковых средств в устной и письменной речи,
территориальным и социальным диалектам английского языка.

Основные теоретические вопросы, рассматриваемые в рамках дисциплины,


излагаются на лекционных занятиях с применением мультимедийных технологий.
Семинарские занятия предполагают детальное обсуждение теоретического
материала, выполнение практических заданий, указанных в плане семинарских
занятий, а также обсуждение языкового материала, самостоятельно отобранного
студентами при подготовке к практическим занятиям. Серьезное внимание
обращается на выявление стилистических функций тех или иных приемов,
например, метафоры, метонимии, повтора, инверсии и др. в художественном или
публицистическом тексте. Лекции и семинары проводятся на английском языке.

ПЛАН ПРОХОЖДЕНИЯ ДИСЦИПЛИНЫ

Количество Формы контроля


Название раздела, темы аудиторных часов знаний
Лекции Семинар-
ские
Введение 2 2
Фонетическая стилистика. 2 2 Устный опрос,
Графические средства выполнение
практических,
тестовых заданий
Морфологическая стилистика 2 2 Устный опрос,
Лексическая стилистика 2 2 письменная
проверочная работа,
контрольная работа
Синтаксическая стилистика 2 2 Устный опрос,
Лингвистические вопросы 2 тестовое задание
синтаксического уровня
Текстовый уровень 2 2
Стилистические средства и приемы на 2 Индивидуальный
текстовом уровне опрос, тест,
Функциональная стилистика 2 2 прослушивание
Функциональные стили как сферы 2 устных тематических
дискурса сообщений, дискуссии
ВСЕГО 20 14 Зачет

4
РЕКОМЕНДУЕМАЯ ЛИТЕРАТУРА

Учебные пособия
1. Арнольд, И.В. Стилистика. Современный английский язык : учеб. для
вузов / И.В. Арнольд. – 4-е изд., испр. и доп. – М. : Флинта : Наука, 2002. – 384 c.
2. Гальперин, А.И. Очерки по стилистике английского языка : опыт
систематизации выразительных средств / А.И. Гальперин. – 2-е изд., испр. – М. :
Либроком, 2012. – 376 с.
3. Культура русской речи : учебник для вузов / С.И. Виноградов [и др.] ;
под ред. Л.К. Граудиной, Е.Н. Ширяева. – М. : Норма, 2006. – 549 с.
4. Майданова, Л.М. Очерки по практической стилистике : учеб. пособие
для студентов-журналистов / Л.М. Майданова. – Свердловск : Изд-во Урал. ун-та,
1987. – 184 с.
5. Майданова, Л.М. Практическая стилистика жанров СМИ : учеб. пособие
/ Л.М. Майданова, С.О. Калганова. – Екатеринбург : Гуманитарный ун-т, 2006. –
336 с.
6. Мороховский, А.Н. Стилистика английского языка : учеб. пособие / А.Н.
Мороховский [и др.]. – Киев : Вища школа, 1984. – 236 с.
7. Олешков, М.Ю. Основы функциональной лингвистики : дискурсивный
аспект : учеб. пособие для студентов фак. рус. яз. и лит. / М.Ю. Олешков ;
Нижнетагил. гос. соц.-пед. акад. – Нижний Тагил, 2006. – 146 с.
8. Скребнев, Ю.М. Основы стилистики английского языка: учебник для ин-
тов и фак-тов иностр. яз. – 2-е изд., испр. – М.: ООО «Издательство АСТ» : ООО
«Издательство Астрель», 2000. – 224 с.
9. Сопоставительная стилистика = Comparative stylistics : уч. пособие / Т.П.
Карпилович [и др.] ; под ред. Т.П. Карпилович. – Минск : МГЛУ, 2016. – 152 с.
10. Стилистика и литературное редактирование : учебник / под ред. В.И.
Максимова. – 3-е изд., перераб. и доп. – М. : Гардарики, 2007. – 653 с.
11. Цікоцкі, М.Я. Стылістыка беларускай мовы : вучэб. дапаможнік /
М.Я. Цікоцкі. – 2-е выд., перапрац. і дап. – Мінск : Універсітэцкае, 1995. – 296 с.

Справочная и научная литература


12. Винокур, Т.Г. Устная речь и стилевые свойства высказывания (к
постановке вопроса) / Т.Г. Винокур // Разновидности городской устной речи : сб.
науч. тр. / АН СССР, Ин-т рус. яз. ; науч. ред. Д.Н. Шмелев, Е.А. Земская. – М. :
Наука, 1988. – С.44–84.
13. Дементьев, В.В. Изучение речевых жанров : обзор работ в современной
русистике / В.В. Дементьев // Вопросы языкознания. – 1997. – № 1. – С. 109–121.
14. Жеребило, Т.В. Словарь лингвистических терминов / Т.В. Жеребило. – 5-
е изд., испр. и дополн. – Назрань : Пилигрим, 2010. – 486 с.
15. Зарецкая, Е.Н. Риторика : теория и практика речевой коммуникации /
Е.Н. Зарецкая. – 3-е изд., испр. – М. : Дело, 2001. – 480 с.
16. Земская, Е.А. Русская разговорная речь / Е.А. Земская,
М.В. Китайгородская, Е.Н. Ширяев. – М. : Наука, 1981. – 276 с.

5
17. Земская, Е.А. Язык русского зарубежья / Е.А. Земская // Русский язык в
научном освещении. – 2001. – № 1. – С. 114–131.
18. Зернецкий, П.В. Четырехмерное пространство речевой деятельности /
П.В. Зернецкий // Язык, дискурс и личность : межвуз. сб. науч. тр. / редкол.: И.П.
Сусов и др. ; Твер. гос. ун-т. – Тверь, 1990. – С. 160–168.
19. Костомаров, В.Г. Наш язык в действии : очерки современной русской
стилистики / В.Г. Костомаров. – М. : Гардарики, 2005. – 287 с.
20. Лаптева, O.A. Русский разговорный синтаксис / О.А. Лаптева ; отв. ред.
Ф.П. Филин. – 2-е изд., стер. – М. : Едиториал УРСС, 2003. – 400 с.
21. Contemporary Linguistics : an Introduction / ed. by W. O’Grady. – 6 th ed. –
Boston ; New York : Bedford, 2010. – 694 p.
22. Coulthard, M. An Introduction to Discourse Analysis / M. Coulthard. –
London : Longmans, 1977. – 195 p.
23. Dijk, T.A. van. Discourse, Context and Cognition / T.A. van Dijk // Discourse
Studies. – 2006. – Vol. 8 (1). – P. 159–177.
24. Kühnlein, P. Rhetorical Structure : an Introduction / P. Kühnlein //
Constraints in Discourse 2 / P. Kühnlein, A. Benz, C.L. Sidner (eds.). – Amsterdam ;
Philadilphia : John Benjamins Publishing Company, 2010. – P. 1–14.
25. Palmer, M.T. Controlling Conversation : Turns, Topics and Interpersonal
Control / M.T. Palmer // Communication Monographs. – 1989. – Vol. 56. – P. 2–18.

Практикумы
1. Ивашкин, М.П. Практикум по стилистике английского языка: учеб.
пособие / М.П. Ивашкин, В.В. Сдобников, А.В. Селяев. – М.: АСТ: Восток-Запад,
2005. – 101 с.
2. Кухаренко, В.А. Практикум по стилистике английского языка : учеб.
пособие для студ. филол. фак-та / В.А. Кухаренко. — М. : Высшая школа, 1986. —
144 с.

ТЕМАТИКА И СОДЕРЖАНИЕ ЛЕКЦИЙ

Лекция 1
Тема: The Subject-matter of Stylistics.

План лекции:
1.Stylistics as independent linguistic discipline.
2.Subject and problems of stylistics.
6
3.The place of stylistics in the system of other philological sciences.
4.Social linguistic and pragmatic aspects of stylistics.

The theory of language system levels. Interrelation of stylistics with other linguistic
disciplines. The principles and effect of a choice and use of lexical, grammatical, phonetic
language means for transfer of thought and emotion in different conditions of
communication. The organization of language units, their compatibility with each other
and connection in the text. Subject and problems of a course of stylistics of modern
English. Term "style": etymology, modern use of the term, linguistic interpretation of
category of style. Stylistics of language and stylistics of the speech, literary stylistics and
perception stylistics, decoding stylistics, etc.

Литература:
1. Арнольд, И.В. Стилистика. Современный английский язык : учеб. для
вузов / И.В. Арнольд. – 4-е изд., испр. и доп. – М. : Флинта : Наука, 2002. – 384 c.
2. Гальперин, А.И. Очерки по стилистике английского языка : опыт
систематизации выразительных средств / А.И. Гальперин. – 2-е изд., испр. – М. :
Либроком, 2012. – 376 с.
3. Мороховский, А.Н. Стилистика английского языка : учеб. пособие / А.Н.
Мороховский [и др.]. – Киев : Вища школа, 1984. – 236 с.
4. Скребнев, Ю.М. Основы стилистики английского языка: учебник для ин-
тов и фак-тов иностр. яз. – 2-е изд., испр. – М.: ООО «Издательство АСТ» : ООО
«Издательство Астрель», 2000. – 224 с.

Лекция 2
Тема: Phonetic stylistics.

План лекции:
1. Performing phonetic stylistic devices.
2. Author’s phonetic stylistic devices.
3. Euphony.
4. Alliteration, assonance, rhyme.
5. Onomotopeia.

All phenomena of the sound organization of verses and prose: rhythm, alliteration,
onomatopoeia, rhyme, alliteration, assonance, etc. For convenience of presentation and
consideration we will devide all phonetic stylistic devices into performing and author’s.
Taken together, these devices are considered within the science of euphony. Euphony, or
instrumentation, is called also the most subject of this study, i.e. matching the mood of
phonetic organization of utterances. Alliteration in the broadest sense of the word is the
repetition of consonant or vowel sounds at the beginning of closely spaced stressed
syllables. Assonance, or vocalic alliteration, is called the repetition of stressed vowels in a
line or a phrase or at the end of it in the form of incomplete rhyme. Direct onomotopeia is

7
contained in words that imitate natural sounds, and indirect onomotopeia is a combinations
of sounds the aim of which is to make the sound of the utterance an echo of its sense.

Литература:
1. Арнольд, И.В. Стилистика. Современный английский язык : учеб. для
вузов / И.В. Арнольд. – 4-е изд., испр. и доп. – М. : Флинта : Наука, 2002. – 384 c.
2. Гальперин, А.И. Очерки по стилистике английского языка : опыт
систематизации выразительных средств / А.И. Гальперин. – 2-е изд., испр. – М. :
Либроком, 2012. – 376 с.
3. Мороховский, А.Н. Стилистика английского языка : учеб. пособие / А.Н.
Мороховский [и др.]. – Киев : Вища школа, 1984. – 236 с.

Лекция 3
Тема: Morphological stylistics.

План лекции:
1. Stylistic use of synonymous grammatical forms.
2. Stylistic use of article.
3. Possessive case of inanimate nouns.
4. Temporary forms of a verb.
5. Transpositions of abstract nouns.

The stylistic effect of use of different parts of speech in unusual lexico-grammatical


meanings and with unusual reference. Transposition (grammatical metaphor) as the
difference between traditionally denoted and situationally denoted on the morphological
level. Expressional word formation and composition. Neologisms and nonce words and
their stylistic function.

Литература:
1. Арнольд, И.В. Стилистика. Современный английский язык : учеб. для
вузов / И.В. Арнольд. – 4-е изд., испр. и доп. – М. : Флинта : Наука, 2002. – 384 c.
2. Гальперин, А.И. Очерки по стилистике английского языка : опыт
систематизации выразительных средств / А.И. Гальперин. – 2-е изд., испр. – М. :
Либроком, 2012. – 376 с.
3. Мороховский, А.Н. Стилистика английского языка : учеб. пособие / А.Н.
Мороховский [и др.]. – Киев : Вища школа, 1984. – 236 с.
4. Скребнев, Ю.М. Основы стилистики английского языка: учебник для ин-
тов и фак-тов иностр. яз. – 2-е изд., испр. – М.: ООО «Издательство АСТ» : ООО
«Издательство Астрель», 2000. – 224 с.

8
Лекция 4
Тема: Lexical Expressive Means and Stylistic Devices.

План лекции:
1. Interaction of different types of lexical meaning.
2. Metaphor.
3. Metonymy.
4. Irony.
5. Epithet.
6. Oxymoron.

The interaction of primarily dictionary and contextually imposed meanings. Word


and its meaning. Denotative value and types of connotive values: emotional, expressional,
stylistic, cultural component.
Concepts of a metaphor, comparison and metonymy. Irony, antonomaziya, hyperbole
and oxymoron. Epithet, periphrasis, euphemism. Cliche, zevgma, pun. Sayings, proverbs,
maxims and hints.
Stylistic characteristic of set phrases. Set phrases in the speech. Book and colloquial
phraseological units. Decomposition of phraseological units and their stylistic means of
expression.

Литература:
1. Арнольд, И.В. Стилистика. Современный английский язык : учеб. для
вузов / И.В. Арнольд. – 4-е изд., испр. и доп. – М. : Флинта : Наука, 2002. – 384 c.
2. Гальперин, А.И. Очерки по стилистике английского языка : опыт
систематизации выразительных средств / А.И. Гальперин. – 2-е изд., испр. – М. :
Либроком, 2012. – 376 с.
3. Жеребило, Т.В. Словарь лингвистических терминов / Т.В. Жеребило. – 5-
е изд., испр. и дополн. – Назрань : Пилигрим, 2010. – 486 с.
4. Майданова, Л.М. Очерки по практической стилистике : учеб. пособие
для студентов-журналистов / Л.М. Майданова. – Свердловск : Изд-во Урал. ун-та,
1987. – 184 с.
5. Мороховский, А.Н. Стилистика английского языка : учеб. пособие / А.Н.
Мороховский [и др.]. – Киев : Вища школа, 1984. – 236 с.
6. Скребнев, Ю.М. Основы стилистики английского языка: учебник для ин-
тов и фак-тов иностр. яз. – 2-е изд., испр. – М.: ООО «Издательство АСТ» : ООО
«Издательство Астрель», 2000. – 224 с.

Лекции 5-6
Тема: Syntactic stylistic devices.

План лекции:
9
1. Syntactic expressive means. General notions.
2. Ellipsis.
3. Parenthesis.
4. Inversion.
5. Repetition.
6. Parcellation.
7. Break (aposiopesis).

General characteristics of syntactic expressive means. Stylistically marked questions.


Features of colloquial syntax. Different types of elliptical sentences – the most popular
syntactic stylistic device. A parenthesis, or parenthetical phrase, as an explanatory or
qualifying word, clause, or sentence inserted into a passage. Stylistic inversion aims at
attaching logical stress or additional emotional colouring. Repetition as a recurrence of the
same word, word-combination, phrase or a sentence two or more times. Parcellation as a
specific device of expressive syntax consisting in the deliberate breaking of a single
syntactic structure into two or more intentionally isolated parts.

Литература:
1. Арнольд, И.В. Стилистика. Современный английский язык : учеб. для
вузов / И.В. Арнольд. – 4-е изд., испр. и доп. – М. : Флинта : Наука, 2002. – 384 c.
2. Гальперин, А.И. Очерки по стилистике английского языка : опыт
систематизации выразительных средств / А.И. Гальперин. – 2-е изд., испр. – М. :
Либроком, 2012. – 376 с.
3. Жеребило, Т.В. Словарь лингвистических терминов / Т.В. Жеребило. – 5-
е изд., испр. и дополн. – Назрань : Пилигрим, 2010. – 486 с.
4. Майданова, Л.М. Очерки по практической стилистике : учеб. пособие
для студентов-журналистов / Л.М. Майданова. – Свердловск : Изд-во Урал. ун-та,
1987. – 184 с.
5. Мороховский, А.Н. Стилистика английского языка : учеб. пособие / А.Н.
Мороховский [и др.]. – Киев : Вища школа, 1984. – 236 с.
6. Скребнев, Ю.М. Основы стилистики английского языка: учебник для ин-
тов и фак-тов иностр. яз. – 2-е изд., испр. – М.: ООО «Издательство АСТ» : ООО
«Издательство Астрель», 2000. – 224 с.

Лекции 7-8
Тема: Text level of stylistics.

План лекции:
1. Text as object of stylistic studies.
2. Text and supraphrasal unit.
3. Cohesion and coherence.
4. Genre and compositional features of the text.

10
5. Important textual parameters: length; written/oral form; communicative purpose;
the relationship between text and other language units and levels; integrity.
6. The theory of context: N. Amosova, M. Riffaterre, Y. Lotman. Linguistic and
stylistic context.

Micro and macrostylistics. Semantic and stylistic interpretation of the text.


Text and superphrase unity. Stylistic structure of the text. Cohesion and coherence.
Ways of a statement in the art text. Author's speech, its composite forms. Dialogical
speech, internal speech. Non actually - direct speech. Intertextuality. Image of the author.
Author's point of view and ways of its expression.

Литература:
1. Арнольд, И.В. Стилистика. Современный английский язык : учеб. для
вузов / И.В. Арнольд. – 4-е изд., испр. и доп. – М. : Флинта : Наука, 2002. – 384 c.
2. Гальперин, А.И. Очерки по стилистике английского языка : опыт
систематизации выразительных средств / А.И. Гальперин. – 2-е изд., испр. – М. :
Либроком, 2012. – 376 с.
3. Жеребило, Т.В. Словарь лингвистических терминов / Т.В. Жеребило. – 5-
е изд., испр. и дополн. – Назрань : Пилигрим, 2010. – 486 с.
4. Майданова, Л.М. Очерки по практической стилистике : учеб. пособие
для студентов-журналистов / Л.М. Майданова. – Свердловск : Изд-во Урал. ун-та,
1987. – 184 с.
5. Мороховский, А.Н. Стилистика английского языка : учеб. пособие / А.Н.
Мороховский [и др.]. – Киев : Вища школа, 1984. – 236 с.
6. Скребнев, Ю.М. Основы стилистики английского языка: учебник для ин-
тов и фак-тов иностр. яз. – 2-е изд., испр. – М.: ООО «Издательство АСТ» : ООО
«Издательство Астрель», 2000. – 224 с.

Лекция 9
Тема: Functional stylistics.

План лекции:
1. Functional stylistics – general notions.
2. Aesthetic function of language (Yu. M. Lotman).
3. The major divisions within the informal colloquial language.
4. The language norm and the stylistic norm.

Differentiation of works of fiction and all mass of other texts (on a functional and
substantial sign). Distribution in literature of the sphere "high" and "low", integrity of a
work of art. Literary language: written, oral, different functions, receptions (L.V.
Shcherba). Art language as peculiar product of a contamination of colloquial, social and
geographical dialects (social environment). Poetic functions and layers of lexicon (sublime
and solemn, neutral and familiar, vulgar). Poetic diction: composite structure and rhythmic
11
organization. Lexical and syntactic properties of a verse. Dramatic art language:
characterization and stylization. Use of functionally marked lexicon in fiction.

Литература:
1. Арнольд, И.В. Стилистика. Современный английский язык : учеб. для
вузов / И.В. Арнольд. – 4-е изд., испр. и доп. – М. : Флинта : Наука, 2002. – 384 c.
2. Гальперин, А.И. Очерки по стилистике английского языка : опыт
систематизации выразительных средств / А.И. Гальперин. – 2-е изд., испр. – М. :
Либроком, 2012. – 376 с.
3. Мороховский, А.Н. Стилистика английского языка : учеб. пособие / А.Н.
Мороховский [и др.]. – Киев : Вища школа, 1984. – 236 с.
4. Олешков, М.Ю. Основы функциональной лингвистики : дискурсивный
аспект : учеб. пособие для студентов фак. рус. яз. и лит. / М.Ю. Олешков ;
Нижнетагил. гос. соц.-пед. акад. – Нижний Тагил, 2006. – 146 с.
5. Скребнев, Ю.М. Основы стилистики английского языка: учебник для ин-
тов и фак-тов иностр. яз. – 2-е изд., испр. – М.: ООО «Издательство АСТ» : ООО
«Издательство Астрель», 2000. – 224 с.

Лекция 10
Тема: Functional styles.

План лекции:
1. Functional styles and speech genres.
2. The major characteristics of the scientific style.
3. The main peculiarities of the newspaper style.
4. The main characteristics of the official style.
5. The main features of the belles-lettres style.

General ideas and definitions of functional styles and speech genres. Scientific style
and its stylistic peculiarities. Newspaper, official, belles-lettres styles and their stylistic
markers.

Литература:
1. Арнольд, И.В. Стилистика. Современный английский язык : учеб. для
вузов / И.В. Арнольд. – 4-е изд., испр. и доп. – М. : Флинта : Наука, 2002. – 384 c.
2. Гальперин, А.И. Очерки по стилистике английского языка : опыт
систематизации выразительных средств / А.И. Гальперин. – 2-е изд., испр. – М. :
Либроком, 2012. – 376 с.
3. Мороховский, А.Н. Стилистика английского языка : учеб. пособие / А.Н.
Мороховский [и др.]. – Киев : Вища школа, 1984. – 236 с.
4. Олешков, М.Ю. Основы функциональной лингвистики : дискурсивный
аспект : учеб. пособие для студентов фак. рус. яз. и лит. / М.Ю. Олешков ;
Нижнетагил. гос. соц.-пед. акад. – Нижний Тагил, 2006. – 146 с.

12
5. Скребнев, Ю.М. Основы стилистики английского языка: учебник для ин-
тов и фак-тов иностр. яз. – 2-е изд., испр. – М.: ООО «Издательство АСТ» : ООО
«Издательство Астрель», 2000. – 224 с.

ТЕМАТИКА И СОДЕРЖАНИЕ СЕМИНАРСКИХ ЗАНЯТИЙ

Семинар 1
Тема: The Subject-matter of Stylistics.

Теоретические вопросы:
1. What is the subject of stylistics? Discuss the concepts of style.
2. Functional style, individual style and idiolect.
3. What is understood by expressive possibilities of language? Discuss the concepts of
‘neutral language means’, ‘expressive means’ and ‘stylistic devices’.
4. What varieties of English are you familiar with? Consider their main characteristics.
5. Term "style": etymology, modern use of the term, linguistic interpretation of
category of style.
6. What functional styles are you familiar with?

Литература:
1. Арнольд, И.В. Стилистика. Современный английский язык : учеб. для
вузов / И.В. Арнольд. – 4-е изд., испр. и доп. – М. : Флинта : Наука, 2002. – 384 c.
2. Гальперин, А.И. Очерки по стилистике английского языка : опыт
систематизации выразительных средств / А.И. Гальперин. – 2-е изд., испр. – М. :
Либроком, 2012. – 376 с.
3. Мороховский, А.Н. Стилистика английского языка : учеб. пособие / А.Н.
Мороховский [и др.]. – Киев : Вища школа, 1984. – 236 с.

Практические задания:
1. Read the following sentences, paying attention to the underlined examples of
expressive language there, try to refer them to either expressive means or stylistic devices.
13
a) She saw around her multitudes of red lips, powdered cheeks, and cold, hard eyes.
b) The coffee was imprisoned in the can.
c) Thank you very much for the trouble of ruining this nice party!
d) He saved her life and three dollars in her pocket.
e) Their bitter-sweet union did not last long.
f) Everywhere were people. People going along the street and running, people talking
and smiling.
g) It was the best of times, it was the worst of times, it was the age of wisdom, it was
the age of foolishness...

2. Read the following two letters of complaint. Which letter do you find more
appropriate? What language features prove it? (You might want to consider the
word choice, the use of structures, and the length of periods)

Transaction ref: FR6104 Star Dear Sir/Madam


Dear Sir/Madam
I have phoned you twice already
On the 25 May 2006 your courier service
about the parcel of confidential
agreed to send a package of confidential
materials which was sent to a
materials to Monsieur Lebleu, a colleague
colleague of mine. Although I
of mine in France. I was assured that, if I
was told that your ‘Star’ express
took advantage of your 'Star’ express
service (which costs twice as
service, the materials were guaranteed to
much as the normal service)
arrive within 24 hour and would be
would get it there by Wednesday,
delivered personally to the addressee.
it didn’t actually arrive there until
However, the materials did not arrive until
last Friday. Monsieur Lebleu had
a week later, by which time my colleague
gone of holiday by then and the
had left the country. The parcel was left of
parcel was taken un by Madame
the doorstep and was eventually taken by
Tournier who lives next door.
a neighbor. Needless to say, this caused
You can imagine that I am very
great inconvenience. I had expected a
angry, especially as I asked for
more efficient and reliable service,
the ‘Star’ service and paid a lot of
especially considering the higher charges
money for the privilege. I really
for ‘Star’ delivery.
didn’t expect such inefficiency
and incompetence!
Although I have contacted your office by
phone on two occasions and explained the
So please let me know what you
circumstances, I am still awaiting a
are going to do about it. Although
response to my complaint. I would
I have phoned your office twice, I
appreciate if you could arrange for the
still don’t know what you are
package to be collected and returned to me
going to do about it. Can you get
as soon as possible. The address where the
the parcel back to me as soon as
package can be collected is at the bottom
possible? The next-door
14
of this letter. neighbour’s name is Madame
Tournier. Please let me know
I look forward to receiving your reply. what is happening.

Yours faithfully, Best wishes,


Kenneth Thompson Kenneth Thompson

Please collect the parcel from : Madam


Tournier
Rue Saint Denis 51, Vernosc-les-Annonay
France. Tel.: 4477 9340

Семинар 2
Тема: Phonetic stylistics.

Теоретические вопросы:
1. Performing and author’s stylistic devices.
2. Euphony (definition, details, examples).
3. Alliteration.
4. Assonance.
5. Onomatopoeia.
6. Rhyme.
7. Rhythm.
8. Graphic imagery. Graphon.

Литература:
1. Арнольд, И.В. Стилистика. Современный английский язык : учеб. для
вузов / И.В. Арнольд. – 4-е изд., испр. и доп. – М. : Флинта : Наука, 2002. – 384 c.
2. Гальперин, А.И. Очерки по стилистике английского языка : опыт
систематизации выразительных средств / А.И. Гальперин. – 2-е изд., испр. – М. :
Либроком, 2012. – 376 с.
3. Мороховский, А.Н. Стилистика английского языка : учеб. пособие / А.Н.
Мороховский [и др.]. – Киев : Вища школа, 1984. – 236 с.

Практические задания:
1. Identify the following phonetic stylistic devices:
1. Streaked by a quarter moon, the Mediterranean shushed gently into the beach.
(I. Sh.)
2. He swallowed the hint with a gulp and a gasp and a grin.
(R. K.)
3. His wife was shrill, languid, handsome and horrible.
15
(Sc. F.)
4. The fair breeze blew, the white foam flew,
The furrow followed free. (S. C.)
5. The Italian trio tut-tutted their tongues at me. (T. C.)
6. You, Jean, long, lanky lath of a lousy bastard! (O'C.)
7. To sit in solemn silence in a dull dark dock,
In a pestilential prison, with a life-long lock,
Awaiting the sensation of a short, sharp shock
From a cheap and chippy chopper on a big black block. (W. C.)
8. They all lounged, and loitered, and slunk about, with as
little spirit or purpose as the beasts in a menagerie. (D.)
9. "Luscious, languid and lustful, isn't she?"
"Those are not the correct epithets. She is-ог rather was surly, lustrous and
sadistic." (E. W.)
10. Then, with an enormous, shattering rumble, sludge-
puff, sludge-puff, the train came into the station. (A. S.)
11. "Sh-sh."
"But I am whispering." This continual shushing an-noyed him. (A. H.)
12. Twinkle, twinkle, little star,
How I wonder what you are.
Up above the world so high,
Like a diamond in the sky. (Ch. R.)
13.Dreadful young creatures-squealing and squawking. (C.)
14. The quick crackling of dry wood aflame cut through the night. (St. H.)
15. Here the rain did not fall. It was stopped high above by that roof of green
shingles. From there it dripped down slowly, leaf to leaf, or ran down the stems and
branches. Despite the heaviness of the downpour which now purred loudly in their ears
from just outside, here there was only a low rustle of slow occasional dripping. (J.)

2. Analyze the following extracts. What are the functions of graphic stylistic devices?
1.
Olwen: Martin didn't shoot himself.
Freda: Martin didn't —
Olwen: Of course he didn't. I shot him.
(J.B. Priestley. Dangerous Corner)
2.
«You'd try. I know you'd try. Perhaps...» But he had no idea himself how that
sentence was supposed to finish.
(Gr. Greene. The Heart of the Matter)
3.
After great pain, a formal feeling comes —
The Nerves sit ceremonious, like Tombs —
The stiff Heart questions was it He, that bore,
And Yesterday, or Centuries before?

16
The Feet, mechanical, go round —
A Wooden way
Of Ground, or Air, or Ought —
Regardless grown,
A Quarts contentment, like a stone —

This is the Hour of Lead —


Remembered, if outlived,
As Freezing persons, recollect the Snow
First — Chill — then Stupor — then the letting go —
4.
TRIUMPHAL MARCH

Stone, bronze, stone, steel, stone, oakleaves, horses' heels over the paving.
And the flags. And the trumpets. And so many eagles.
How many? Count them. And such a press of people.
We hardly knew ourselves that day, or knew the City.
This is the way to the temple, and we so many crowding the way.
So many waiting, how many waiting? What did it matter, on such a day?
Are they coming? No, not yet. You can see some eagles.
And hear the trumpets.
Here they come. Is he coming?
2.
DEFENCE OF THE ISLANDS
Let these memorials of built stone — music's
enduring instrument, of many centuries of
patient cultivation of the earth, of English
verse
be joined with the memory of this defence of
the islands
and the memory of those appointed to the grey
ships — battleship, merchantman, trawler —
contributing their share to the ages' pavement
of British bone on the sea floor
and of those who, in man's newest form of gamble
with death, fight the power of darkness in air
and fire
and of those who have followed their forbears
to Flanders and France, those undefeated in defeat,
unalterable in triumph, changing nothing
of their ancestors' ways but the weapons
and those again for whom the paths of glory are
the lanes and the streets of Britain:
to say to the past and the future generations
of our kin and of our speech, that we took up
our positions, in obedience to instructions.
3.
i'm

17
asking
you dear to
what else could a
no but it doesn't
of course but you don't seem
to realize i can't make
it clearer war just isn't what
we imagine but please for god's O
what the hell yea it's true that was
me but that me isn't me
can't you see now no not
any Christ but you
must understand
why because
i am
dead
7.
«AS — I — WAS — SAYING,» said Eyore loudly and sternly, «as I was saying when I was
interrupted by various Loud Sounds, I feel that?» (A. Milne).
8.
«You promised to tell me your history, you know,» said Alice, «and why it is you hate —
С and D,» she added in a whisper, half afraid that it would be offended again.

«Mine is a long and a sad tale!» said the mouse, turning to Alice and sighing.
«It is a long tail, certainly,» said Alice, looking down with wonder at the mouse's tail; «but
why do you call it sad?» And she kept puzzling about it while the mouse was speaking, so that her
idea of the tale was something like this
— «Fury1 said to
a mouse, that
he met
in the
house,
'Let us
both go
to law:
I will
prosecute
you. —
Come, I'll
take no denial:
We must
have a trial;
For
really
this
morning
I've
nothing
to do.'
Said the
mouse to
1
Fury имя собаки.

18
the cur,
'Such a
trial,
dear sir,
With no
jury or
judge,
would be
wasting
our breath.'
'I'll be
judge,
I'll be
jury.'
Said
cunning
old Fury;
'I'll try
the whole
cause,
and
condemn
you
to
death.'»

Семинар 3
Тема: Morphological stylistics.

Теоретические вопросы:
1. Transposition of different categories of nouns.
2. Stylistic use of Genitive forms.
3. Stylistic use of articles.
4. Possessive case of inanimate nouns.
5. Temporary forms of a verb.
6. Stylistic use of adjectives and adverbs.
7. Stylistic use of pronouns.

Литература:
1. Арнольд, И.В. Стилистика. Современный английский язык : учеб. для
вузов / И.В. Арнольд. – 4-е изд., испр. и доп. – М. : Флинта : Наука, 2002. – 384 c.
2. Гальперин, А.И. Очерки по стилистике английского языка : опыт
систематизации выразительных средств / А.И. Гальперин. – 2-е изд., испр. – М. :
Либроком, 2012. – 376 с.
3. Мороховский, А.Н. Стилистика английского языка : учеб. пособие / А.Н.
Мороховский [и др.]. – Киев : Вища школа, 1984. – 236 с.

19
4. Скребнев, Ю.М. Основы стилистики английского языка: учебник для ин-
тов и фак-тов иностр. яз. – 2-е изд., испр. – М.: ООО «Издательство АСТ» : ООО
«Издательство Астрель», 2000. – 224 с.

Практические задания:
1. Indicate cases of transposition in the following examples:
1 He was, indeed, a very different Toad from, the animal of an hour ago.
2. From No. 10 to the White House, society has the same old anxieties.
3. A much happier Nell settles down to finish up the day's business,
4. I ain't done nothing wrong by speaking to the gentleman.
5. It was obvious that he was being cheerful and bright for the sake of it.
6. He's a dirty dog, y"know, Miss Matfield. This is the fourth letter he's sent
explaining why he can't pay, and every time it's a different excuse.
7. ... his nose declaring at once that it had found itself in an unfamiliar
atmosphere.
8. Well, you are a mean pig! How much are they? I like that, and after I've paid
for the seats, too.
9. "But you quite understand," he said, "that the house is costing me a lot beyond
what I contemplated. I may as well tell you that 1 should have thrown it up ; only I'm not in
the habit of giving up what I've set my mind on!
10. ... and apparently the girl's through all the money her father left her -these
girls, my word, they think we're made of money!
11. It was tired of people, that little room.
12. These foreigners! What a question to put to a chap? What had it got to do with
her, the nosy old hag?
13. 1 suppose you'd like me to give an account of that as well, wouldn't you?
14. London neither knew nor cared; nevertheless, there it was: Mr. James Golspie
had arrived.
15. That girl of mine doesn't - the wilful, artful little devil.
16. She was a steamship of some 3,500 tons flying the flag of one of the new
Baltic states.
17. Turgis said nothing, but he had no need to, for his face replied for him.
18. I'm ancient, but I don't feel it. That's one thing about painting. It keeps you
young.
19. And one felt that there were capacities for enjoyment about her which might
yet come out.
20. He slumped his umbrella fiercely; yet he himself had followed Society's
behaviour for fifteen years - had only to-day been false to it!
21. Of all his thoughts, as he stood there, counting his cigars, this was the most
poignant, the most bitter.

20
20. Soames had chosen the furniture himself, and so completely that no
subsequent purchase had ever been able to change the room's atmosphere

2.What do you know about the novel “David Copperfield” and its main hero? Does the
school experience of David bear any resemblance to Dickens’ real life experience?

DAVID COPPERFIELD (CHARLES DICKENS)


The rest of the half year is a jumble of my recollection of the daily strife and struggle
of our lives, of the waning summer and the changing season, of the frosty mornings when
we were run out of bed, and the cold, cold smell of the dark nights when we were run into
bed, of the evening schoolroom dimly lighted and indifferently warmed, and the morning
schoolroom which was nothing but a great shivering machine, of the alternation of boiled
beef with roast beef, and boiled mutton with roast mutton, of clods of bread-and-butter,
canings, rulerings, hair-cuttings, rainy Sundays, and a dirty atmosphere of ink surrounding
all.
I well remember, though, how the distant idea of the holidays, after seeming for an
immense time to be a stationary speck, began to come towards us, and grow and grow.
How, from counting months, we came to weeks, and then to days, and how I then began to
be afraid that I shouldn’t be sent for, and when I learnt from Steerforth that I had been sent
for and was certainly to go home, had dim forebodings that I might break my leg first.
How the breaking-up day changed its place fast, at last, from the week after next to next
week, this week, the day after tomorrow, today, tonight – when I was inside the Yarmouth
mail, and going home.

1. What does the first paragraph depict? Can you point out any key words? Pay
attention to the choice of words, lexical repetitions, cases of antithesis (contrast), the
metaphor “a great shivering machine” based on depersonification. Comment on the
syntactical peculiarities of the sentence (abundance of subclauses, enumeration). How
would you describe David’s school life proceeding from the paragraph?
2. What does the second paragraph deal with? Point out the peculiarities of the
fictional time that is created within it. What makes you feel that time pace is getting faster
and faster? Comment on lexical repetitions, the epithet “immense time”, the simile
“seeming…to be a stationary speck”. Why do you think one complex sentence is divided
into three separate sentences? Comment on repetition or absence of conjunctions. What
helps to create gradation and finally leads to the climax of the fragment? How would you
formulate the message of the fragment? Does it correlate with other novels by Dickens?

1.
2. Analyze the following texts using questions as guidelines. Be ready to present
the results of your analysis in class.
THE LAKE ISLE OF INNISFREE (WILLIAM BUTLER YEATS)
I will arise and go now, and go to Innisfree,
And a small cabin build there, of clay and wattles made,

21
Nine bean rows will I have there, a hive for the honey bee,
And live alone in the bee-loud glade.
And I shall have some peace there, for peace comes dropping slow,
Dropping from the veils of the morning to where the cricket sings;
There midnight’s all a glimmer, and noon a purple glow,
And evening full of the linnet’s wings.
I will arise and go now, for always night and day
I hear lake water lapping with low sounds by the shore;
While I stand on the roadway, or on the pavements gray,
I hear it in the deep heart’s core.

1. Summarize the content of the poem in one sentence. What do you know about
the author and his works?
2. Describe the place the narrator models in the text and analyze the structure of
its fictional space paying special attention to its size, objects, sounds, light and colours
that fill it. Comment on the syntactical structure of sentences (repetitions of conjunctions,
syntactical parallelism) and lexical repetitions. What image serves as a basis for the
metaphor “peace comes dropping slow from the veils of the morning”?
3. How would you describe the place the narrator wants to leave (proceeding
from the text)? Why do you think there is only one line depicting it?
4. Point out cases of assonance (repetitions of stressed vowels), alliteration
(repetitions of initial consonants) and other cases of sound repetition and their function
and connotations in the poem.
5. Why the imaginary world of beauty and peace is portrayed as a small lake
isle?
6. Do you find the name of the isle Innisfree suggestive? Justify your point of
view.
7. Do you think the idea/message of the poem correlates with current problems
of our century, or it refers to the past only?

DAVID COPPERFIELD (CHARLES DICKENS)


The rest of the half year is a jumble of my recollection of the daily strife and struggle
of our lives, of the waning summer and the changing season, of the frosty mornings when
we were run out of bed, and the cold, cold smell of the dark nights when we were run into
bed, of the evening schoolroom dimly lighted and indifferently warmed, and the morning
schoolroom which was nothing but a great shivering machine, of the alternation of boiled
beef with roast beef, and boiled mutton with roast mutton, of clods of bread-and-butter,
canings, rulerings, hair-cuttings, rainy Sundays, and a dirty atmosphere of ink surrounding
all.
I well remember, though, how the distant idea of the holidays, after seeming for an
immense time to be a stationary speck, began to come towards us, and grow and grow.
How, from counting months, we came to weeks, and then to days, and how I then began to
be afraid that I shouldn’t be sent for, and when I learnt from Steerforth that I had been sent
for and was certainly to go home, had dim forebodings that I might break my leg first.
22
How the breaking-up day changed its place fast, at last, from the week after next to next
week, this week, the day after tomorrow, today, tonight – when I was inside the Yarmouth
mail, and going home.

3. Give a brief summary of the text. What do you know about the novel “David
Copperfield” and its main hero? Does the school experience of David bear any
resemblance to Dickens’ real life experience?
4. What does the first paragraph depict? Can you point out any key words? Pay
attention to the choice of words, lexical repetitions, cases of antithesis (contrast), the
metaphor “a great shivering machine” based on depersonification. Comment on the
syntactical peculiarities of the sentence (abundance of subclauses, enumeration). How
would you describe David’s school life proceeding from the paragraph?
5. What does the second paragraph deal with? Point out the peculiarities of the
fictional time that is created within it. What makes you feel that time pace is getting faster
and faster? Comment on lexical repetitions, the epithet “immense time”, the simile
“seeming…to be a stationary speck”. Why do you think one complex sentence is divided
into three separate sentences? Comment on repetition or absence of conjunctions. What
helps to create gradation and finally leads to the climax of the fragment?
6. How would you formulate the message of the fragment? Does it correlate
with other novels by Dickens?

Семинар 4
Тема: Lexical Expressive Means and Stylistic Devices.

Теоретические вопросы:
1. Interaction of different types of lexical meaning.
2. Metaphor.
3. Metonymy.
4. Irony.
5. Epithet.
6. Oxymoron.
7. Hyperbole.
8. Personification.
9. Phraseological units.
10.Periphrases.
11.Euphemisms.
12.Simile.

Литература:
1. Арнольд, И.В. Стилистика. Современный английский язык : учеб. для
вузов / И.В. Арнольд. – 4-е изд., испр. и доп. – М. : Флинта : Наука, 2002. – 384 c.
23
2. Гальперин, А.И. Очерки по стилистике английского языка : опыт
систематизации выразительных средств / А.И. Гальперин. – 2-е изд., испр. – М. :
Либроком, 2012. – 376 с.
3. Жеребило, Т.В. Словарь лингвистических терминов / Т.В. Жеребило. – 5-
е изд., испр. и дополн. – Назрань : Пилигрим, 2010. – 486 с.
4. Майданова, Л.М. Очерки по практической стилистике : учеб. пособие
для студентов-журналистов / Л.М. Майданова. – Свердловск : Изд-во Урал. ун-та,
1987. – 184 с.
5. Мороховский, А.Н. Стилистика английского языка : учеб. пособие / А.Н.
Мороховский [и др.]. – Киев : Вища школа, 1984. – 236 с.
6. Скребнев, Ю.М. Основы стилистики английского языка: учебник для ин-
тов и фак-тов иностр. яз. – 2-е изд., испр. – М.: ООО «Издательство АСТ» : ООО
«Издательство Астрель», 2000. – 224 с.

Практические задания:
1. Study the following examples, define the expressive parts, refer them to either
expressive means or stylistic devices, and comment on their function.
1. An enormous grand piano grinned savagely at the curtains as is it would grab
them, given the chance.
2. The next speaker was a tall gloomy man, Sir Something Somebody.
3. Last time it was a nice, simple, European-style war.
4. “Will you be my Valentine?”
5. He’s a proud, haughty, turned-nosed peacock.
6. She wore a pink hat, the size of a button.
7. We were fellow strangers.
8. A bulldog two years old for sale. Will eat anything. Very fond of children.
9. Some famous pictures in this room, gentlemen. Two Rembrandts, a Monet
and a Renoir.
10. They were wet to the skin and all were scared to death.
11. Apart from the political, racial, religious and ethnic differences, we are just
one friendly team.
12. They walked along, two continents of experience and feeling, unable to
communicate.
13. They saluted to the Stars and Stripes (American Flag).
14. He put on his dressing gown, a tweedy brown horror.
15. He is independent now, earning his bread.
16. You are a funny chicken in this yellow jacket of your.
17. Welcome to Reno- the biggest little town in the world.
18. He had loved her so much, he would give her the whole world.
19. He is a real Don Juan.
20. Huck Finn is a good bad boy of the American literature.
21. There were many Austrian guns in the wood that day.
22. Apart from that we really have been a disgustingly happy family.
23. We smiled at each other, but we didn’t speak because there were ears all
around us.
24
2. Study the following examples, define the expressive parts, refer them to either
expressive means or stylistic devices, and comment on their function.
a. We were fellow strangers.
b.
1. A bulldog two years old for sale. Will eat
anything. Very fond of children
c. The man was killed last July after being mistaken for suicide bomber on the
London Underground.
d. Dorothy, at my statement, had clapped her hand over mouth to hold down
laughter and chewing gum.
e. All men are liable to error (John Lock), and he is no exception.
f. Welcome to Reno- the biggest little town in the world.
g. He got an inheritance and got into troubles.
h. My business went bankrupt that’s why now I spend more time with my
family.

Семинар 5
Тема: Syntactic stylistic devices.

Теоретические вопросы:
1. Syntactic expressive means. General notions.
2. Ellipsis.
3. Parenthesis.
4. Inversion.
5. Repetition.
6. Parcellation.
7. Break (aposiopesis).

Литература:
1. Арнольд, И.В. Стилистика. Современный английский язык : учеб. для
вузов / И.В. Арнольд. – 4-е изд., испр. и доп. – М. : Флинта : Наука, 2002. – 384 c.
2. Гальперин, А.И. Очерки по стилистике английского языка : опыт
систематизации выразительных средств / А.И. Гальперин. – 2-е изд., испр. – М. :
Либроком, 2012. – 376 с.
3. Жеребило, Т.В. Словарь лингвистических терминов / Т.В. Жеребило. – 5-
е изд., испр. и дополн. – Назрань : Пилигрим, 2010. – 486 с.
4. Майданова, Л.М. Очерки по практической стилистике : учеб. пособие
для студентов-журналистов / Л.М. Майданова. – Свердловск : Изд-во Урал. ун-та,
1987. – 184 с.
5. Мороховский, А.Н. Стилистика английского языка : учеб. пособие / А.Н.
Мороховский [и др.]. – Киев : Вища школа, 1984. – 236 с.

25
6. Скребнев, Ю.М. Основы стилистики английского языка: учебник для ин-
тов и фак-тов иностр. яз. – 2-е изд., испр. – М.: ООО «Издательство АСТ» : ООО
«Издательство Астрель», 2000. – 224 с.

Практические задания:
I. Study the following examples, define the expressive parts, refer them to either
expressive means or stylistic devices, and comment on their function.
1. Mankind, says a Chinese manuscript, which my friend was obliging enough
to read and explain to me, for the first seventy thousand ages ate their meat raw.
2. Sorry, I’m so very sorry, I’m so extremely sorry...
3. It was the best of times, it was the worst of times, it was the age of wisdom, it
was the age of foolishness ...
4. A good generous prayer it was.
5. Jon seized her hand in gratitude, and they sat silent, with the world well lost,
and one eye on the corridor.
6. Money is what he’s after, money.
7. My heart’s in the Highlands, my heart is not here,
My heart’s in the Highlands, a-chasing the deer...
8. Admirable butlers, tawny chow dogs, halls laid in black an white lozenges
with white blinds blowing, Peter saw through the open door and approved of.
9. This (his beard), his regular eyebrows, and the rich white and black and
brown of his complexion- confound his complexion, and his memory! - made me think of
him, in spite of my misgivings, a very handsome man.
10. How could Jon, with his heart of gold, leave his family?
11. Down dropped the breeze, and the sails dropped down.
12. Women are not made for attack. Wait they must.
13. It would rain forever noiselessly. The water would rise inch by inch covering
the grass and shrubs, covering the trees and houses, covering the monuments and the
mountain tops.

II. Identify words with specific stylistic reference (terms, poetic words, foreignisms,
professionalisms, slang) and state their stylistic function in the following fragments:

THE MIND PARASITES (COLIN WILSON)


Human beings have been overlooking an extremely simple secret about existence,
although it is obvious enough for anyone to see. The secret is this: that the poor quality
of human life – and consciousness – is due to the feebleness of the beam of attention
that we direct at the world. Imagine that you have a powerful searchlight, but it has no
reflector inside it. When you turn it on, you get a light of sorts, but it rushes off in all
directions, and a lot of it is absorbed by the inside of the searchlight. Now if you install
a concave reflector, the beam is polarized, and slabs forward like a bullet or a spear.
But even this is only a half measure, for although every ray of light follows the same
path, the actual waves of light are “out of step”, like an undisciplined army walking
along a street. If you now pass the light through a ruby laser, the result is that the waves

26
now “march in step”, and their power is increased a thousand-fold – just as the
rhythmic tramping of an army was able to bring down the walls of Jericho.
The human brain is a kind of searchlight that projects a beam of “attention” on the
world. But it has always been like a searchlight without a reflector. Our attention shifts
around from second to second; we do not really have the trick of focusing and
concentrating the beam.
THE HARLOT’S HOUSE (OSCAR WILDE) – FRAGMENT
We caught the tread of dancing feet,
We loitered down the moonlit street,
And stopped beneath the harlot’s house.
Inside, above the din and fray,
We heard the loud musicians play
The “Treues Liebes Herz” of Strauss.
Like strange mechanical grotesques,
Making fantastic arabesques,
The shadows raced across the blind. […]
Like wire-pulled automatons,
Slim silhouetted skeletons
Went sidling through the slow quadrille.
They took each other by the hand,
And danced a stately saraband;
Their laughter echoed thin and shrill.

DON’T EVEN THINK ABOUT IT (LAUREN HENDERSON)


‘It’s pathetic,’ Sally added. ‘He’s pathetic.’
‘Well, yeah,’ Jude agreed, greatly relieved.
‘He was just using everyone. That poor Viliama cow was obviously convinced he was in
love with her. He must have told her he was in love with her, which is obviously a
complete lie. And Katie – he was very happy about the baby, and now look at him. And
you know what? He picked someone to cheat on Katie with who was a complete nutcase.
A psycho teenager with a jealous boyfriend.’

Семинар 6
Тема: Text level of stylistics.

Теоретические вопросы:
1. Text as object of stylistic studies.
2. Text and supraphrasal unit.
3. Cohesion and coherence.
4. Genre and compositional features of the text.
5. Important textual parameters: length; written/oral form; communicative purpose;
the relationship between text and other language units and levels; integrity.
6. The theory of context: N. Amosova, M. Riffaterre, Y. Lotman. Linguistic and
stylistic context.
27
Литература:
1. Арнольд, И.В. Стилистика. Современный английский язык : учеб. для
вузов / И.В. Арнольд. – 4-е изд., испр. и доп. – М. : Флинта : Наука, 2002. – 384 c.
2. Гальперин, А.И. Очерки по стилистике английского языка : опыт
систематизации выразительных средств / А.И. Гальперин. – 2-е изд., испр. – М. :
Либроком, 2012. – 376 с.
3. Жеребило, Т.В. Словарь лингвистических терминов / Т.В. Жеребило. – 5-
е изд., испр. и дополн. – Назрань : Пилигрим, 2010. – 486 с.
4. Майданова, Л.М. Очерки по практической стилистике : учеб. пособие
для студентов-журналистов / Л.М. Майданова. – Свердловск : Изд-во Урал. ун-та,
1987. – 184 с.
5. Мороховский, А.Н. Стилистика английского языка : учеб. пособие / А.Н.
Мороховский [и др.]. – Киев : Вища школа, 1984. – 236 с.
6. Скребнев, Ю.М. Основы стилистики английского языка: учебник для ин-
тов и фак-тов иностр. яз. – 2-е изд., испр. – М.: ООО «Издательство АСТ» : ООО
«Издательство Астрель», 2000. – 224 с.

Практические задания:
1. Read the following beginning of a story and explore how the choice of vocabulary
affects the writing.
"Five straight Saturday mornings, Ginnie Mannox had played tennis at the East Side
Courts with Selena Graff, a classmate at Miss Basehoar’s. Ginnie openly considered
Selena the biggest drip at Miss Basehoar’s- a school ostensibly abounding with fair-
sized drips- but at the same time she had never known anyone like Selena for bringing
fresh cans of tennis balls. Selena’s father made them or something... But this business
of dropping Selena off at her house after tennis and then getting stuck- every single
time- for the whole cab fare was getting on Ginnie's nerves. After all, taking the taxi
home from the courts was Selena's idea..."
(From J.D.Salinger "Just before the War with the Eskimos”

2. Comment on the following cases of convergence (конвергенция, «скопление»


стилистических приемов и выразительных средств). Point out the expressive
means and stylistic devices which “heap up” to work together and state their
stylistic function in the fragments
 A TALE OF TWO CITIES (CHARLES DICKENS)
It was the best of times, it was the worst of times, it was the age of wisdom, it was
the age of foolishness, it was the epoch of belief, it was the epoch of incredulity, it
was the season of Light, it was the season of Darkness, it was the spring of hope, it
was the winter of despair, we had everything before us, we had nothing before us,
we were all going direct to Heaven, we were all going direct the other way…
 THE COLLECTOR (JOHN FOWLES)
I said, now it’s your turn to tell a fairy story.
28
He just said, I love you.
And yes, he had more dignity than I did then and I felt small, mean. Always
sneering at him, jabbing him, hating him and showing it. It was funny, we sat in
silence facing each other and I had a feeling … of the most peculiar closeness to
him – not love or attraction or sympathy in any way. But linked destiny. Like being
shipwrecked on an island – a raft – together. In every way not wanting to be
together. But together.
I feel the sadness of his life, too, terribly. […] People who would never see, feel,
dance, draw, cry at music, feel the world, the west wind. Never be in any real sense.
Just those three words, said and meant. I love you.
They were quite hopeless. He said it as he might have said, I have cancer.
His fairy story.

Семинар 7
Тема: Functional styles.

Теоретические вопросы:
1. Speak about functional styles and speech genres.
2. The major characteristics of the scientific style.
3. The main peculiarities of the newspaper style.
4. The main characteristics of the official style.
5. The main features of the belles-lettres style.

Литература:
1. Арнольд, И.В. Стилистика. Современный английский язык : учеб. для
вузов / И.В. Арнольд. – 4-е изд., испр. и доп. – М. : Флинта : Наука, 2002. – 384 c.
2. Гальперин, А.И. Очерки по стилистике английского языка : опыт
систематизации выразительных средств / А.И. Гальперин. – 2-е изд., испр. – М. :
Либроком, 2012. – 376 с.
3. Мороховский, А.Н. Стилистика английского языка : учеб. пособие / А.Н.
Мороховский [и др.]. – Киев : Вища школа, 1984. – 236 с.
4. Олешков, М.Ю. Основы функциональной лингвистики : дискурсивный
аспект : учеб. пособие для студентов фак. рус. яз. и лит. / М.Ю. Олешков ;
Нижнетагил. гос. соц.-пед. акад. – Нижний Тагил, 2006. – 146 с.
5. Скребнев, Ю.М. Основы стилистики английского языка: учебник для ин-
тов и фак-тов иностр. яз. – 2-е изд., испр. – М.: ООО «Издательство АСТ» : ООО
«Издательство Астрель», 2000. – 224 с.

Практические задания:
1.Read the poems and give detailed answers to the following questions:
WIND AND SILVER (Amy Lowell)
Greatly shining
29
The Autumn moon floats in the thin sky:
And the fish-ponds shake their backs and
flash their dragon scales
As she passes over them.

FOG (Carl Sandburg)


The fog comes
on little cat feet.
It sits looking
Over harbor and city
on silent haunches*
and then moves on.

*silent haunches – sit on haunches (о животных) – сидеть, опираясь на задние


ноги.
1. Which words refer to the “tenor” and “vehicle” of the sustained metaphor
created in the text? Define and explain the “ground” (основание [для сравнения]) of this
metaphor.
2. Comment on the effect produced by the use of personification and point out
its formal signs. Does the image strike you as original? Which associations does it bring to
your mind?
3. Comment on the title of the first poem. Why do you think the word “silver” is
introduced as part of it? Define the type of trope used in the title.

ВОПРОСЫ К ЗАЧЕТУ

1. What is the subject of stylistics?


2. Discuss the concepts of style, functional style, individual style, and idiolect.
3. What is understood by expressive possibilities of language? Discuss the
concepts of ‘neutral language means’, ‘expressive means’ and ‘stylistic devices’.
4. What varieties of English are you familiar with? Consider their main
characteristics. What functional styles are you familiar with?
5. What layers does the English vocabulary consist of? Speak about the neutral
vocabulary, its own layers and general characteristics. Provide examples of your own.
6. Speak about the English literary vocabulary, its subdivisions and groups of
words.
7. Define the concepts of terms, less assimilated borrowings, barbarisms, archaic
and poetic words, and nonce-words. What is a foreignism? Give examples.
8. Speak about the English colloquial vocabulary and its sublayers. What is
understood by slang, jargon, professionalisms, nonce-words, cant, vulgarisms, and
dialectal words? Give examples.
9. Speak about the peculiar use of grammatical forms.
10. Discuss the stylistic value of grammatically incorrect forms, grammatical
synonymy, use of forms with a peculiar meaning, localization of forms, personification of
common nouns, animal metaphors and stylistic omission of articles.

30
11. Discuss peculiarities of stylistic word building.
12. Speak about the stylistic use of graphons and onomatopoeia.
13. Discuss the functions of assonance, alliteration, rhyme and rhythm.
14. Speak about different types of lexical meaning. Define the logical/
denotational, connotational, contextual and nominal meaning. How can these types of
meaning interplay? What does is result in?
15. Define metaphor, metonymy. Discuss their types. Use examples.
16. Speak about irony, antonomasia, epithet.
17. Discuss oxymoron and hyperbole.
18. Define oxymoron, periphrasis, euphemism. Discuss their types. Use
examples.
19. Speak about pun and zeugma. Give examples.
20. What do we understand by clichés, proverbs, sayings, epigrams and allusions?
Compare proverbs and epigrams. Define their stylistic function.
21. What is the difference between syntactical expressive means and stylistic
devices, lexical stylistic devices and syntactical stylistic devices? Use examples.
22. Discuss inversion, detachment, parallel constructions, enumeration and their
stylistic functions. Give examples.
23. Speak about repetition, climax, anticlimax, suspense and antithesis. Analyse
their stylistic function. Provide examples.
24. Define asyndeton, polysyndeton, and gap-sentence link. Describe their
stylistic function. Use examples.
25. Speak about litotes and stylistically marked questions. Use examples. Discuss
their stylistic function.
26. Speak about functional styles and speech genres.
27. Discuss the major characteristics of the scientific style. Find a scientific text
sample and prove your points.
28. Outline the main peculiarities of the newspaper style. Find an example of a
newspaper article and illustrate your answer.
29. Speak about the main characteristics of the official style. Use exapmples.
30. Analyse the main features of the belles-lettres style.
31. What is understood by the language norm and the stylistic norm? Provide
examples.
32. Define text and supraphrasal unit, cohesion and coherence.
33. Speak about the stylistic structure of text.
34. Define the characters’ speech and its forms: direct speech, indirect speech
and represented speech.
35. Enlarge on the difference between uttered and unuttered represented speech.
Give examples.
36. Speak about the author’s speech. Analyse narration, description and
meditation.
37. Speak about the major components of literary analysis. What part does
stylistic interpretation play in it?

31
Пример практического задания

Study the following examples, define the expressive parts, refer them to either expressive
means or stylistic devices, and comment on their function.
1. An enormous grand piano grinned savagely at the curtains as is it would grab them,
given the chance.
2. They walked along, two continents of experience and feeling, unable to communicate.

ПРИМЕР КОНТРОЛЬНОЙ РАБОТЫ (ТЕСТА)

TEST 1
Choose the correct answer:
1. Expressive means are language forms
a) used for logical intensification.
b) used for emotional intensification.
c) subconsciously used for logical and emotional intensification.
d) deliberately used for logical and emotional intensification.

2. The following words belong to the neutral layer of the English vocabulary.
a) child, father, proceed, get out.
b) child, father, continue, retire.
c) child, Dad, continue, leave.
d) child, father, continue, leave.

3. The sentence ‘He has a crush on her’ contains


a) a slang expression.
b) a vulgarism.
c) a dialectal expression.
d) a nonce-word.

4. Barbarisms are
a) words borrowed from other languages (e.g. wall, sky).
b) badly assimilated borrowings, knows by all the speakers of English (e.g. ballet,
bouquet)
c) badly assimilated borrowings, having corresponding English synonyms (beau monde,
chi).
d) foreign words which are used in fiction ( not registered in English dictionaries).
32
5. The sentence ‘In November a cold, unseen stranger, Pneumonia, stalked about the
colony, touching one here and there with his icy fingers’ contains
a) a sustained metaphor.
b) a dead metaphor.
c) a simile.
d) a trite metaphor.

6. In the sentence ‘The writer earns his living by his pen’ the author uses
a) a simile.
b) a metaphor.
c) metonymy.
d) an epithet.

7. Irony is generally used to convey


a) a positive meaning.
b) a negative meaning.
c) logical meaning.
d) nominal meaning.

8. The humorous effect of the sentence “ He took his hat and his leave’ is based on the use
of
a) zeugma.
b) an oxymoron.
c) a hyperbole.
d) metonymy.

9. A euphemism is usually used


a) to avoid misunderstanding.
b) for speech economy.
c) to replace a word with unpleasant connotations.
d) for the sake of humour.

10. The sentence ‘It’s high time we knew- to be or not to be’ contains
a) an allusion.
b) a saying.
c) a proverb.
d) a quotation.

33
ГЛОССАРИЙ
Alliteration
a repetition of the initial consonant in two or more words, following one
another.

Allusion
an indirect reference, by a word or a phrase, to a historical, literary,
mythological, biblical fact or to a fact of everyday life.

Anaphora
initial repetition of a word or phrase or sentence in successive phrases,
sentences or larger units.

Anticlimax
an unexpected turn of the thought, contrary to the expectations of the
reader/listener.

Antithesis
a stylistic device based on an arrangement of a sentence or a larger unit, in
which contrasting ideas are set one against the other.

Antonomasia
a lexico-semantic stylistic device, based on the interplay of the nominal
meaning and the contextual meaning.

Archaic word
an old word, which is either disappearing or has disappeared altogether.
34
Assonance
similarity of stressed vowels

Asyndeton
a connection between parts of a sentence or between sentences without any
formal sign.

Barbarism
a word of foreign origin which has not been assimilated into the English
language. It sounds and looks foreign, and is felt alien.

Break in the narrative (aposiopesis)


a sudden pause/break in the narrative aimed at achieving a certain stylistic
effect.

Cliché
a word combination which has long lost its originality and become
hackneyed and trite, but which is used as if it were fresh and original.

Climax (gradation)
an arrangement of statements in an ascending order of importance or
expressiveness.

Decomposition of phraseological units


changing the ready-made phraseological units on the basis of reflection or
innovation.

Description
presentation of the background of action, its atmosphere, scenery, and
characters.

Detachment
placement of the secondary parts of the sentence in a position of seemingly
formal independence.

Dialectal word
a word used in a certain locality.

Ellipsis
omission of various parts of the sentence.

Enumeration
a device by means of which separate things, actions, persons and features are
named one by one so that they produce a chain, the links of which form
35
homogeneous sentence parts.

Epigram
a witty saying resembling proverbs but created by men of letters.

Epiphora
final repetition of a word or phrase in successive clauses or sentences.

Epithet
a stylistic device, based on the interplay of emotive and logical meaning in
an attributive word, phrase or sentence.

Euphemism
a word or a word combination which is used to replace a word with an
unpleasant association.

Expressive means
a predictable phonetic, morphological, word-building, lexical,
phraseological and syntactical form existing in the language for logical
and/or emotional intensification. The main sphere of expressive means is
everyday language and esp. colloquial style, where they are used
spontaneously and subconsciously.

Foreignism
a foreign word, used by English-speaking people to add local color.

Fragmentation
separating parts of a bigger extended sentence into small autonomous
independent units.

Framing
a repetition of a word, phrase, or sentence both at the beginning and at the
end of a sentence or a larger syntactical unit.

Functional style
a subsystem of language means used in a certain sphere of life for a definite
communicative aim.

Gap-sentence link (cumulation)


the use of a connective in a peculiar, unconventional way.

Graphon
a peculiar, non-standard or emphatic pronunciation of words, expressed
through unusual spelling.

36
Hyperbole
a deliberate overstatement or exaggeration of a feature essential to an object.

Idiolect
speech of an individual, characterized by lexical, grammatical and phonetic
peculiarities typical of that particular individual

Individual style
recognizable individual peculiarities of using language and style by writers
in order to achieve the desired effect.

Inversion
a change in the word order, helping to emphasize certain elements of the
setnece.
Irony
A STYLISTIC DEVICE based on the interplay of logical and contextual
meaning, and these meaning are in opposition to each other

Jargonism
a word whose aim is to preserve secrecy within one or another social group.

Linking (anadiplosis, catch repetition)


the repeated use of the last word or phrase at the beginning of the following
sentence.

Litotes
a peculiar use of negative constructions- for the sake of assertion.

Meditation
some thoughts, ideas, reasoning of the author, which could be philosophical
or moral

Metaphor
a stylistic device based on the interplay of logical and contextual meaning
and on comparison.

Metonymy
a lexico-semantic stylistic device based on the interplay of the logical and
contextual meaning and on association

Narration
presentation of events in their development.

Nonce-word
an occasional word created specifically for a certain occasion.
37
Onomatopoeia
an imitation of sounds produced in nature, by things or people.

Oxymoron
a combination of two words in which the meanings of the two clash, being
opposite in sense.
Parallelism
a repetition of the syntactical structure of mainly the initial parts of
successive clauses, sentences or paragraphs.

Periphrasis
a word combination, a phrase which is used instead of another word or word
combination and renames it.

Poetic word
a highly literary word producing an elevated effect.

Polysyndeton
a stylistic device of connecting sentences, or phrases, or words by using
several times the same connectives.

Professionalism
names anew already-existing concepts, tools or instruments, connected with
the business activities of different branches of occupations.

Proverb
a brief statements showing in condensed form the accumulated life
experience of the community.

Pun (play upon words, paronomasia)


a stylistic device in which two meanings of the word are interacting or two
homonyms are used.

Question-in-the-narrative
is asked and answered by one and the same person, usually the author.

Quotation
a repetition of a phrase or statement from a book, speech used by way of
authority, illustration, and proof.

Repetition
recurrence of the same element within a sentence.
38
Represented speech
presentation of uttered speech or unuttered inner speech of the character
done by the author.

Rhetorocal question
a syntactical stylistic device based on the transference of structural meaning
of the interrogative sentence.

Rhyme
repetition of identical or similar final sounds of words.

Rhythm
the pattern of interchange of stressed and unstressed syllables.

Simile
a comparison of two objects, belonging to different classes.

Slang word
a colloquial word, often used in very informal intercourse, an intentional
substitute for a neutral or elevated word and expression.

Style
a specificity of a sublanguage

Stylistic device
a conscious and deliberate intensification of some typical structural and/or
semantic feature of a language unit. A stylistic device is a result of a
conscious artistic transformation f a language fact.

Sublanguage
a set of lingual units actually used in a given sphere

Supraphrasal unit
comprises a number of sentences which are interdependent both structurally
and semantically.

Suspense
deliberated postponement of the completion of the sentence.

Term
a word in different branches of knowledge dealing with some exact names of
concepts, instruments or activities.
39
Text
a semantically and syntactically independent unit of speech.

Vulgarism
a words considered too offensive for polite usage.

Zeugma
a stylistic device based on the possibilities of using one word in the sentence
which simultaneously refers to two unequal, semantically heterogeneous
(even incompatible) words, mainly nouns (the most typical pattern).

40