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Technical engineering collage_baghdad

Automotive department

Name of the experiment:Friction of Plane Surfaces

:By
Purpose of Experiment: Determine the coefficient of friction between any two
.surfaces

:Theory

:Types of friction. In general, the friction is the following two types

.Static friction. It is the friction, experienced by a body, when at rest -1

Dynamic friction. It is the friction, experienced by a body, when in motion. -2


The dynamic friction is also called kinetic friction and is less than the Static
:friction. It is of the following three types

a- Sliding friction. It is the friction, experienced by a body, when it slides over


.anther body

.b-Rolling friction. which have balls or rollers interposed between them

c-Pivot friction. It is the friction, experienced by a body, due to the motion of


rotation as in case of foot step bearings. It is the friction, experienced between
the surfaces

Law of static friction. The magnitude of the limiting friction (F) bears a
constant ratio to the normal reaction (R) between the two surfaces.
.Mathematically F/R=constant

Coefficient of friction. It is defined as the ratio of the limiting friction (F) to


the normal reaction (R) between the two bodies. It is generally denoted by (u).
Mathematically, coefficient of friction u=F/R. as shown in fig (1). Let: 1-
W=weight of body acting through (C.G) downward. 2- R=normal reaction of
body acting through (C.G) upward. 3- P= applied force acting on the body
through (C.G) and parallel to the horizontal surface. 4- F= the force of friction
acting on the body in the direction opposite to (P).and as shown in fig (1) we
:get

R= W & F=P µ= limiting force of friction /Normal reaction. u= P/ W


Angle of friction, is defined as the angle between the resultant of the nomal (R)
and the limiting force of friction (F) and the normal reaction (R). It is denoted
.by angle (). Fig (2) shows a body resting on a rough horizontal plane
:Result and calculation

the first method-1

Surface in contact P) the total Angle (deg) Coefficient of


)weight friction

the second method-1

Surface in contact P) the total Angle (deg) Coefficient of


)weight friction

the third method-1

Surface in contact P) the total Angle (deg) Coefficient of


)weight friction

.
:Discussion
.What are the advantage and the disadvantage of friction -1

.What are the factors that the coefficients of friction depend on -2

What are the effects of the normal force on the friction force and the -3
coefficient of friction. What are the effects of the contact area between two
surfaces on the friction force and the coefficient of friction. 5- How to increase
the friction force betwveen two surfaces without changing