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Engineering

Design
for
Manufacturing

Written by Kelly Bramble


Engineers Edge
www.engineersedge.com
Design for Manufacturing

Edited by:
Kelly Bramble (Engineers Edge), et al. Frank Sattler (Schlumberger), Mike Heath
(Schlumberger), Jason Jonas (Schlumberger), Alain Dorel (Schlumberger), Alan Schroder
(SLB), Kevin Forst (Lockheed), Diane Matthews (Lockheed).

The following documents have been used as reference material (cited and not cited).

Geometric Boundaries, Interpretation and Application of Geometric Dimensioning and


Tolerancing, 2000 – 2010, Kelly Bramble
Engineers Edge, Solutions by Design, 2000 – 2010
Machinery’s Handbook, 23rd Edition
Kents Mechanical Engineers Handbook, Twelfth Edition
Eshback, Handbook of Engineering
Design for Manufacturability & Concurrent Engineering, Dr. David M. Anderson
Nonferrous Metals, Reynolds Metals Company, Michael H, Skillingberg
Engineering Drawing and Design, Fourth Edition, Jensen Helsel
Industrial Fluid Poser, Volume 2-4th Edition, Charles S. Hedges
Design for Excellence, James G. Bralla, 1996
Chipless Machining, Charles Wick, 1960
Impact and Cold Extrusion of Metals, John L. Everhart, P. E. Metallurgical Engineer
Chemical Publishing Company, Inc. New York, 1964
Broaching Fundamentals, General Broach Company, Morenci, MI
American Machinist, Dressing for Grinding Success, Charles Bates, 2006
Finish Hard Machining; Surface Integrity and Fatigue Life, C. Richard Liu, PHD
McDonnell Douglas, (1978) Design Handbook
Superconducting Supercollider Laboratory, Universities Research Association (URA),
Design Specifications
Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory Design and Manufacturing Standards Handbook
Department of Defense – Designing and Developing Maintainable Products and System
(MIL-HDBK-470A)
Department of Defense – Electronic Design Handbook (MIL-HDBK-338B)

Revision K
Copyright 2006, 2007, 2008, 2009, 2010, 2011

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Preface

This book is directed primarily toward engineers who design and manufacture machinery,
appliances, mechanical equipment, and other engineered products.

The presentation of each subject and concept attempts to give the engineer or designer a
quick grasp of the essentials of the field, together with pertinent technical data and concepts
in a condensed form. The data consists of; basic descriptions of manufacturing processes;
Design Guidelines: mechanical tolerance where applicable; working charts; illustrations;
and engineering culture and business overview.

This book is not intended to be a comprehensive manufacturing guide or reference book.


References throughout the book suggest that the design engineer consult with cognizant
manufacturing personnel for all manufacturing related design criteria and guidance.

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Table of Contents

Preface 3
Introduction 11
Designing for High Volume Manufacturing 11
Designing for Low Volume Manufacturing 12
Product Lifecycle 13
Concurrent Engineering 13
Legacy Design Criteria 15
Manufacturing Operations/Procedure 17
Manufacturing Routing 17
CNC (Computer Numerical Control) 18
Three Axis CNC Machining 19
Five Axis Machining 19
CNC Coordinate Axis INTEGREX e-650 II 20
Mechanical Dimensions and Tolerances Overview 22
Ability To Fabricate Part or Features 22
Assigning Excessively Tight Tolerances 22
Assigning Very Loose Tolerances 23
Surface Quality – Texture Roughness 25
Surface Roughness (Ra) and Process Capability Chart 26
Preferred ISO Roughness Values and Grades 27
Cleaning Processes Overview 28
Scale and Rust 28
Common Cleaning Operations 28
Common Cleaning Processes 28
Design for Coatings and Platings Overview 29
Categories of Coatings 29
Selected Coatings and plating Methods 29
General Design Guidelines 35
Design for Marking and Identification: 36
Marking Methods Overview 36
Design Guidelines 37
Materials and Machinability 38
Industry Standard Machinability Chart 39
Materials Machinability 40
Design for Machining – General 41
Design Guidelines 41

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Table of Contents

Milling Manufacturing 43
Cutting Tool Construction 44
Insert Cutters 45
Design Guidelines 47
Radii Design 48
Tool Stiffness 49
Rib and Flange Design 50
Clevis Design 50
Tolerances 51
Tolerances for Machined Tapers 52
Sawing and Cutoff Machines 53
Design Guidelines 54
Tolerances 54
Turning – Lathes 55
Insert Cutters 56
Design Guidelines 57
Tolerances 58
Drilling and Reaming Hole Machines and Design 59
Design Guidelines 59
Types of Drilling Tools 61
Tolerances 62
Boring Manufacturing 64
Design Guidelines` 64
Tolerances 64
Honing Manufacturing 65
Design Guidelines 65
Tolerances 66
Trepanning Machining 67
Design Guidelines 68
Tolerances 69
Gun Drilling / Reaming 70
Design Guidelines 70
Tolerances 71

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Table of Contents

Ejector Drilling 72
Design Guidelines 72
Single Tube System (STS) Drilling 73
Design Guidelines 73
Threading (Screw Threads) 74
Thread Manufacturing 75
Thread Grinding 76
Thread Rolling 76
Design Guidelines 76
Thread Tolerances Overview 77
Thread Location Tolerances 79
Thread Design Illustrations 80
ACME Threads 81
General Purpose ACME Threads 81
American Standard ACME Threads 81
American Standard General Purpose Acme Thread 81
American Standard Centralizing Acme Threads 81
Stub Acme 81
Modified Square Threads 82
Acme Thread Abbreviations 82
Design Guidelines 84
Tolerances 84
ACME Threads Design Illustrations 85
Tapered Pipe Threads 86
Buttress Threads 87
Design Guidelines 87
Tolerances 88
Hobbing - Overview 89
Broaching 90
Design Guidelines 91
Blind Hole Broaching 92
Tolerances 93
Surface Grinding 94
Flat Ground Surfaces 94
Design Guidelines 95
Tolerances 96
Tooling Only Tolerances 96

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Table of Contents

Center-Type Grinding 97
Design Guidelines 98
Tolerances 98
Centerless Grinding (Ground) 99
Design Guidelines 99
Tolerances 100
EDM (Electrical Discharge Machining) 101
EDM Part Requirements 102
Design Guidelines 103
Tolerances 104
Sand Castings 105
Sand Casting Process Overview 105
Characteristics of Sand Cast Parts 105
Green-Sand Casting 106
Dry-Sand Casting 106
Cold-Cure Casting 106
Shell Molding Casting 106
Lost Foam Molding Casting 107
Design Guidelines 107
Geometry Design Recommendations 110
Tolerances 111
Dimensioning and Tolerancing 112
Investment Casting 113
Design Guidelines 114
Tolerances 114
Die Casting 115
Design Guidelines 116
Tolerances 117
Forging 118
Design Guidelines 120
Tolerances 122
Metal Extrusion Manufacturing 123
Design Guidelines 123
Tolerances 125

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Table of Contents

Electroforming 126
Design Guidelines 126
Tolerances 127
Rapid Prototype 128
Design Guidelines 128
Injection Molding Plastic 129
Design Guidelines 130
Mechanical Tolerances 137
Plastic Extrusion 138
Design Guidelines 143
Mechanical Tolerances 146
Stamping and Forming – Sheet Metal 147
Design Guidelines 148
Feature Design 148
Tolerances 153
Fine Blanking 154
Progressive Stamping – Sheet Metal 154
Deep Drawing 155
Design Guidelines 155
Tolerances 156
Feature Design 157
Spinning (Spun) Parts (Metal) Manufacturing 158
Design Guidelines 159
Tolerances 159
Laser Cutting 160
Design Guidelines 160
Abrasive Water Jet Cutting 161
Design Guidelines 161
Tolerances 162
Design for Welding 163
Shielded Metal Arc Welding SMAW 163
Gas Tungston Arc Welding, GTAW, TIG 163
Electric Resistance Welding 164
Spot Welding 164
Seam Welding 164
Flux-Cored Arc Welding (FCAW) 164 8
Table of Contents

Plasma Arc Welding (PAW) 165


Oxyacetylene Gas Welding 165
Electron Beam Welding 166
Laser Welding 166
Laser Conduction Welding 166
Laser Penetration Welding 166
Friction Welding 166
Materials 166
Design Guidelines 167
Design for Work Holding 169
Assembly Work Holding 169
Welding Fixtures 169
Manufacturing Work Holding 169
Manufacturing Work Holding Concepts 170
Design for Corrosion 171
Design Guidelines 171
Inspection and Quality 173
Inspection during design 173
Dimensional Gages and Instruments 174
Profilometer 175
Borescope 175
Bore and ID Gages 176
Thread Gages 177
Coordinate Measurements Machines (CMM) 178
Dye Penetrant Inspection 179
Eddy Current Inspection Method for Metals 180
Radiography (x-Ray) Inspection Method 181
Magnetic Particle Inspection 182
Ultrasonic Inspection Method 183
Advantages and Disadvantages 184
Engineering Drawings and Manufacturing 185
Engineering Drawing Recommendations 186

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Table of Contents

Computer Aided Design (CAD) and Manufacturing 187


CAD Model Recommendations 187
Design for Assembly 188
Design Guidelines 188
Design for Maintainability 198
Design Guidelines 199
Part Manufacturability Check Sheet 200
Appendix A 201
ANSI Size Drills
ISO (Metric Size Drills) and Conversion to Inches
ANSI Screw Threads Sizes
ACME Thread Forms
Tape Pipe Threads
Industry Finish and Coating Specifications Reference

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