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Daily Lesson Plan  Algebra II  Grigor Gmbikian  Semester B

Quadratic Equations and Functions

Standard(s): 1California Common Core State Standards

CCSS.MATH.CONTENT.HSA.REI.B.4.B: Solve quadratic equations by inspection (e.g., for x2 = 49),


taking square roots, completing the square, the quadratic formula and factoring, as appropriate to the
initial form of the equation. Recognize when the quadratic formula gives complex solutions and write
them as a ± bi for real numbers a and b.

Learning Objective: 1By the end of the lesson, what will students know (knowledge), be able to do (skills), and produce (product),
independently and successfully? 2Objective is based on the Common Core Standards (listed above). 3Objective should match Closure.

● By the end of this lesson, students will be able to interpret quadratic graphs in different contexts.
● By the end of this lesson, students will be able to describe the importance of “roots” of a quadratic
function and identify critical points of a quadratic graph.
● By the end of this lesson, students will be able to interpret and describe what the roots and the critical
points mean in the context of the original problem.
Resources & Materials: 1What resources and materials will the teacher and students use to meet the Learning Objective?

● Teacher: document reader, overhead projector, laptop computer, worksheet/handout on quadratic functions titled
“Introducing Quadratic Functions”, Desmos, YouTube

● Students: Mathematics notebooks, chrome books, worksheet/handout on quadratic functions titled “Introducing Quadratic
Functions” (provided by the teacher), Desmos

Vocabulary: 1What Academic (high use/interdisciplinary) and Content-Specific (particular to a certain subject) vocabulary will the
students need to know in order to reach the Learning Objective? 2Vocabulary development must be supported throughout the lesson.

● Academic: maximum, minimum, equation, function, point

● Content-Specific: quadratic function, graph, roots, vertex, critical points, turning point, y-intercept, parabola

Lesson Sequence & Agenda:


1Lesson Sequence & Agenda: What is the sequence of activities and tasks to build knowledge and skills to reach the Learning Objective?
2Activities: (DI) – Direct Instruction, (GP) – Guided Practice, (IP) –Independent Practice, (FA) – Formative Assessment, (SA) – Summative
Assessment.

3
Instructional Strategies: Examples listed on back.

1 Discovery Charter Preparatory School  Daily Lesson Plan


Daily Lesson Plan  Algebra II  Grigor Gmbikian  Semester B

Type of Instructional
Time: Description of Activity:
Activity: Strategies:

For the opening part of the lesson, I will show students an example of a • Asking
quadratic expression on the board and ask students if they have ever seen students
Opening something like this before. I will then pose a question to the class and ask questions to
them “What kind of an expression is this an example of?” Students should active prior
identify the expression as quadratic or recognize that they have seen these knowledge
expressions before when multiplying out a pair of brackets in algebra. Then, • Visuals
I will show students the graph of a quadratic function and I will ask students
to identify the shape of the graph. I will then explain that the shape of the
graph is a parabola and that these shapes often occur in nature. I will then
emphasize two points on the graph as being the roots of the function and ask
students why these points might be important. I will then explain to students
that the values for x for which the function crosses the x-axis are the roots of
the function.

Body For the body of the lesson, I will begin by distributing a handout/worksheet • Visuals
containing three real world context quadratic problems. The first problem (quadratic
will be based around a short video that I will show students. The video that I graphs and
will show students will serve as a “hook” in order to engage students with video)
the lesson material. The video is about a gannet diving into water for fish. • Pair share
Following the video, I will present students with the first word problem. I • Asking
will have a student read the word problem aloud to the class. The first students
problem will state “The trajectory of a gannet’s flight is a parabola and we questions to
can describe its flight by using a quadratic function. The gannet’s flight can check for
be found by using the quadratic function ℎሺ‫ݐ‬ሻ = ‫ ݐ‬ଶ − 8‫ ݐ‬+ 12.” Then, I will level of
have students use their chrome books and go to desmos.com, type in the understanding
quadratic function h(t), and obtain the quadratic graph that models the
gannet’s flight. As students obtain the graph in Desmos, I will explain to
students that the x-axis represents time and the y-axis represents height. I
will project the parabola by using the overhead projector. Then, I will have
students work in a pair share setting and conduct a discussion where they
analyze the graph and answer the following questions:

(1) How many seconds passed before the gannet entered the water?
(2) After how many seconds did the gannet come back out of the water?
(3) How long was the gannet underwater for?
(4) What was the deepest dive of the gannet?
(5) After how many seconds was the gannet at its deepest?
(6) After 7 seconds the gannet burped and dropped its fish. At what height
did this occur?

Then, I asked different students for their answers to questions (1) and (2)
above. I will mark their answers on the graph and ask those students to
justify why those points are important. I then explain to students that these
points are called the roots of the quadratic function. Then, I will select
another pair of students and ask them for their response to questions (3) and
(4) above. I will then identify and mark the vertex on the graph, and ask the
students why it is the turning point. I will then explain to students that the
turning point is the minimum point of the function and I ask students to
justify why it is the minimum point.

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Daily Lesson Plan  Algebra II  Grigor Gmbikian  Semester B

For the second problem, I will present students with a problem in which the
context is a projectile flying through the air. This time, the projectile is a
Tomahawk missile instead of a bird. I will ask students “What type of
function can be used to model the missile’s flight? The quadratic function
which describes the missile’s height over time is ℎሺ‫ݐ‬ሻ = −‫ ݐ‬ଶ + 6‫ݐ‬. I will ask
students to obtain the graph of the height function by using Desmos and I
will project the trajectory, which is a parabola, on the overhead projector. I
will address to students that the x-axis represents time and the y-axis
represents the height. Based on the graph, I will have students in a pair share
setting analyze the parabola and answer the questions that follow:

(1) Why is it important to know the roots of this function? What do the roots
tell us?
(2) How long was the missile in flight for?
(3) What was the maximum height reached by the missile?
(4) After how many seconds did the missile reach its maximum height?
(5) The early warning system alarmed when the missile was descending and
reached a height of 8 km. How much time was there before impact?

As students answer the above questions, I will circulate around the classroom
and monitor students learning and progress. For the pairs who complete the
questions before time is up, they can answer these extension questions:

Extension question 1: Missiles only become detectable by RADAR above a


height of 8 km. How many seconds of warning will a ship equipped with
RADAR have before being struck by the missile?

Extension question 2: A ship can move at a speed of 150 m/s. To be safe


from a missile strike, it must be at least 500 m away from the impact
location. Will a ship make it to safety in time?

After students discuss with their partners and answer the questions
collaboratively, I will select different students and asks them for their
answers. I will ask students to use the term roots and be able to explain what
the roots tell us about the context given. In addition, I ask students to use the
term turning point and explain what the turning point tells us about the
context.

For the third problem, I will present students with another area in which
quadratic functions are used to describe real world scenarios. I will present
the problem to students by telling them that quadratic functions are used in
business plans to describe profit and loss. I will also state that some
businesses only operate for a short amount of time each year. I will then ask
them a follow up question: Could you think of any examples of such
businesses? I want students to understand that math is applicable to the real
world and I want students to think of examples where the profitability of a
business is short-lived. I will then randomly select different students from the
class and ask them to give me examples of businesses that operate for a short
amount of time. Next, I will tell them that in the problem that I will present,
we will be looking at a business which manufactures and sells Irish flags,
shamrocks, inflatable green hammers, leprechaun hats, etc. I will add that the
profit of the company over a number of weeks rises and then falls. I will then
ask them three discussion questions and have them discuss with their
partners: (1) Can you explain why might the profit over a certain number of
weeks rise and then fall?, (2) Could you describe the shape of the graph?, (3)

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Daily Lesson Plan  Algebra II  Grigor Gmbikian  Semester B

What type of function could be used to produce this graph? After a few
minutes, I will have different students share out for a whole class discussion.

The problem I will pose students states: The profit of the company (in
thousands of euro) is described by the quadratic function

‫݌‬ሺ‫ݔ‬ሻ = −‫ ݔ‬ଶ + 6‫ ݔ‬− 5.

I will ask students to graph the p(x) function in Desmos. I will project the
graph of the profit function using the overhead projector. Then, I will have
students analyze the graph of the quadratic function and discuss and answer
the following questions with their partners:

(1) What do the roots represent in this context?


(2) Where does the graph intersect the y-axis? What do you think this value
represents in the context of the original problem?
(3) Which week is most profitable?
(4) What was the profit in this week?
(5) If you were running the company, when would you stop manufacturing
flags, shamrocks, etc? Explain your reasoning.
(6) In which week do you think St. Patrick’s Day occurs? Explain you
reasoning.

After students work with their partners and respond to the questions above
on their handouts, we will then have a whole class discussion. During our
discussion, I will mark the roots of the function and I will ask students to
explain what the roots represent in the context of the problem. I want
students to describe the roots as the place where the company stops losing
money and starts making money. Then, I will mark the y-intercept on the
function and ask students what this value represents. I want students to
understand that the y-intercept tells us the starting value. Next, I will mark
the turning point of the function and ask students to explain what the turning
point means in the context of the problem. I want students to realize that the
turning point is where the company is making the highest profit.

Closing For the closure of the lesson, I will ask students questions that allows them to • Asking
reflect on what they’ve learned during the lesson and allows students to students
demonstrate their knowledge and understanding about quadratic functions. questions that
For example, some questions that I will ask students include: allows them
to reflect on
(a) What have we learned today? the lesson and
(b) Quadratic functions are used in lots of places to describe real-life reference key
events. Can you give me some examples of where quadratic information
functions are used? learned from
(c) The graphs of quadratic functions all have a similar shape. Can you that day’s
describe this shape? Can you sketch me an example of a quadratic lessson
graph?
(d) There are some points on the graph of a quadratic function which
are very useful to know about. What are these points? What do the
roots tell us about a quadratic function? What does the turning point
tell us about a quadratic function? What are the two types of turning
points?

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Daily Lesson Plan  Algebra II  Grigor Gmbikian  Semester B

I will select random students from the class and have them share out their
responses to the questions.

Assessment: During lesson, student learning will be assessed through verbal responses to the questions
and student responses to the questions on the worksheet. The teacher will ask students questions related to
the lesson and students will be required to respond to the questions and provide justification about how
they came to that conclusion and/or explain how they arrived to that answer. This assessment will serve as
an informal assessment of student understanding. At the end of the lesson, students will also need to turn
in the worksheet titled “Introducing Quadratic Functions.” Student responses to the questions on the
worksheet will also serve as another form of assessment and will allow me to determine what students
learned from the lesson and what misconceptions arose that need to be addressed during the next lesson.
At the end of the lesson, students will also take a quiz.

Differentiation:

Content Catalysts: 1Catalysts are ways to introduce content to students. 2Introduce variety to the mode of learning.

❑ Direction instruction, guided practice, ❑ Visual, verbal, written, kinesthetic ❑ Teacher and peer modeling.
independent practice. mediums and directions.

❑ Instructional scaffolding, tiered tasks. ❑ Cooperative learning: pairs and ❑ Inquiry-based learning stations.
groups, pair-share, pair-share w/
whiteboards .XX

❑ Student choice of content/exploration ❑ Other: ❑ Other:


topics.

Processes: 1Students process information in a variety of ways. 2Modify teaching processes by adding greater complexity or creativity to
tasks.

❑ Challenge levels: cognitive, affective, ❑ Recall. (Recall facts and information.) ❑ Understand. (Show your
psychomotor (Bloom’s Taxonomy). understanding.)

❑ Apply. (Use what you have learned.) ❑ Analyze. (Examine critically.) ❑ Evaluate. (Determine worth or value
based on criteria.)

❑ Create. (Put together in a new or ❑ Other: ❑ Other:


different way.)

Products: 1Products are the end results of learning. 2Differentiate products by providing greater challenge, variety, or choice in products.

❑ Visual, verbal, written, kinesthetic ❑ Modified assignments/assessments for ❑ Student choice of


products/demonstrations. XX readiness and ability levels. assignments/assessments.

❑ Enrichment and anchoring activities. ❑ Other: ❑ Other:


(Journals, projects, open-ended.)

Specially Designed Academic Instruction in English (SDAIE) Strategies:

❑ Slower speech, clear pronunciation, use ❑ Prior knowledge, background ❑ Multisensory experiences, audio-visual
of cognates, word banks, picture clues. information, contextual clues. mediums, kinesthetic activities.

❑ Comprehensible input, graphic ❑ Comprehension checks: formative, ❑ Modeling of activities, cooperative


organizers, charts, graphs, maps. summative, formal/informal. learning.

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Daily Lesson Plan  Algebra II  Grigor Gmbikian  Semester B

❑ Prewriting activities, pre-reading, ❑ Listening and speaking activities. ❑ Frontloading key academic/content-
during-reading, post-reading activities. specific vocabulary terms.

Vocabulary Development and Support Strategies:

❑ Decoding: morphemic analysis, context ❑ Repetition and meaningful use (multiple ❑ Frontloading key academic/content-
clues, external references, etymologies. opportunities to use words in class). specific vocabulary terms.

❑ Semantic mapping, word sorting, ❑ Modelling: clear pronunciation, slower ❑ Integration (connect to prior
concept maps, graphic organizers. speech. knowledge).

❑ Verbal/visual word associations, ❑ Paraphrasing definitions, providing ❑ Use of cognates, synonyms, antonyms.
analogies, puzzles, picture clues. XX examples and non-examples.

Accommodations:

Special Needs:

❑ Cooperative learning: pairs and ❑ Modified assignments/assessments for ❑ Preferential seating. XX


groups, pair-share, pair-share w/ readiness and ability levels.
whiteboards.

❑ Visual, verbal, written, kinesthetic ❑ Instructional scaffolding, tiered tasks, ❑ Supplementary materials.
mediums and directions. Curriculum compacting.

Gifted and Talented:

❑ Modified assignments/assessments for ❑ Enrichment and anchoring activities. ❑ Student choice on


readiness and ability levels. (Journals, projects, open-ended.) assignments/assessments.

❑ Higher challenge levels: Bloom’s ❑ Supplementary materials. ❑ Curriculum compacting.


Taxonomy.

Expected School-Wide Learning Results (ESLRs):

● Effective communicators who:  write and speak competently;  utilize technology skillfully;  articulate opinions with
supporting evidence;  exchange ideas cooperatively.

● Critical thinkers who:  read and write with comprehension;  identify problems and use various solutions for academic
challenges;

 process, synthesize, and evaluate information.

● Responsible individuals who:  respect themselves;  other people, and property;  contribute to their community;  exercise
personal and academic self-discipline;  create plans, options, and opportunities for the future.

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