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СБОРНИК ТЕЗИСОВ

Всероссийской научно-технической
конференции молодых учёных и специалистов

АВИАЦИОННЫЕ ДВИГАТЕЛИ
И СИЛОВЫЕ УСТАНОВКИ

ФГУП «ЦИАМ им. П.И. Баранова»


Москва, 2019 г.
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JTYTY S.>., H_E:-VYO_] X.C.
%^DLYW\[ MYSYN[VS\A[UO^C N^L[P\ 4M\- \ J\M^VS^H^\LWIH S^V^SWIH NY1\W U z-FJ^P>WIN S^V^S^N . . . . . . . . . 28
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J[EL_][ A.S., N]V:L[O_] X.5.
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,[(;[YOGL_] A.*., [([Q-VYO_ S.N., $_OTY &.S., NGY!_] >.N., HTEVLV] K.8.
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6[OL[Y_] X.S.
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H_][L2 N.C.
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8]9TVYO_ J.X., S[Q(TY X.C.
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HG3Y[QVYO_ N.S., $_;T-V] X.8., XE:[(_] &.>., 6_.9[Y_] H.X., >VQV#V-OTY X.X., 6VL_] K.K.
6YDSY@^VOY V[HW^P^J\\ \WV[WU\9\OY?\\ MS^1\QO\ ^VQ[SUV\C Q 9^SUFWOYH YQ\Y?\^WW^C \
SYO[VW^-O^UN\A[UO^C V[HW\O\ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61
0[L[L[V][ >.K., @_] X.A.
MS[L[P[W\[ V[MP^Q^J^ \ WYMSK:[WW^-L[9^SN\S^QYWW^J^ U^UV^KW\K O^WVYOVWIH FDP^Q
U^QS[N[WWIH 4W[SJ^FUVYW^Q^O . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63
>[]L_] X.N.
%[MYSY?\K Q^DLFHY ^D^W\S^QYW\[N. ^WUVSFOV\QW^ W^QYK N^L[P> % +6, . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64

N@HK*2. 58>X08C@ JXKC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67

$V9_Q_] N.X.
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DYMYU^Q JYD^L\WYN\A[UO^C FUV^CA\Q^UV\ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69
5VVYYTO_] S.8.
Q^P(?\K O^WUVSFOV\QWIH UM^U^@^Q M^L@^SY VS[@F[NIH MYSYN[VS^Q
WYLS^V^SWIH FUVS^CUVQ #[P[Q^J^ V\MY. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70
JGQ[]V%O_ X.N., S_Q_3YTY A.S.
P\KW\[ FA[VY V[MP^^@N[WY MS\ SYUA[VYH ?[WVS^@[:W^J^ O^NMS[UU^SY WY U\PI \ N^N[WVI. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71
JGQ[]V%O_ X.N., S_Q_3YTY A.S.
"UUP[L^QYW\[ M^LH^L^Q O N^L[P\S^QYW\( V[A[W\K Q UVFM[W\ ?[WVS^@[:W^J^ O^NMS[UU^SY
U^ U@^SW^C OYN[S^C . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73
JG([;V9"1Y_][ J.J., ,_EET(TY X.X.
6YUA[VW^-4OUM[S\N[WVYP>W^[ \UUP[L^QYW\[ V^WYP>W^J^ 1FNY Q[WV\PKV^SY +6,, . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75
6[OGLV] S.5., 5[O_;_][ K.J., J[3:[O_] X.>., >[QYVYO_] X.@.
6YUA[VWI[ \UUP[L^QYW\K \WV[S9[S[W?\\ W[UF#[J^ \ SFP[Q^J^ Q\WV^Q U 4P[N[WVYN\ O^WUVSFO?\\
9(D[PK:Y @[UM\P^VW^J^ Q^DLF1W^J^ UFLWY Q[SV^P[VW^J^ V\MY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77
AQGTYTY *.J., JTLV3TY S.K.
6YUA[VW^-4OUM[S\N[WVYP>W^[ \UUP[L^QYW\[ Y4S^L\WYN\A[UO\H HYSYOV[S\UV\O N^L[P\
@\S^VYV\QW^J^ Q[WV\PKV^SY U FP>VSYQIU^O^C UV[M[W>( LQFHO^WVFSW^UV\ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78

5
U[S^UU\CUOYK WYFAW^-V[HW\A[UOYK O^W9[S[W?\K N^P^LIH FA[WIH \ UM[?\YP\UV^Q
«Q\Y?\^WWI[ LQ\JYV[P\ \ U\P^QI[ FUVYW^QO\», !^UOQY, 28-30 NYK 2019 J.

STOGLTY X.S., TL2!_][ @.C., HQG[L_] X.=., J[QT3OTY S.S., NT9_Q_] A.C.
^NMP[OU SYUA[VW^-MS^[OV\S^Q^AWIH SY@^V M^ SYDSY@^VO[ U\UV[N ^HPY:L[W\K SY@^A\H P^MYV^O
QIU^O^V[NM[SYVFSWIH JYD^QIH VFS@\W . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80
JTLV3TY S.K., NV;VYOTY S.=.
6YUA[VW^[ \UUP[L^QYW\[ M[SQ^C QIU^O^WYM^SW^C UVFM[W\ , W[P\W[CW^-JYSN^W\A[UO\N N[V^L^N . . . . . . . . . 82
T4[L_][ >.S., S_Q_3YTY A.S.
[S\9\OY?\K SYUA[VW^C N^L[P\ VFS@\WI \ \UUP[L^QYW\[ QP\KW\K Q[P\A\WI SYL\YP>W^J^ DYD^SY
WY HYSYOV[S V[A[W\K . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83
JTLV3TY S.K., 9[Y_] S.S., >V:Q_]T-V] X.J.
6YUA[VW^-4OUM[S\N[WVYP>W^[ \UUP[L^QYW\[ QP\KW\K WYLS^V^SWIH FUVS^CUVQ PY@\S\WVW^J^ V\MY
WY HYSYOV[S\UV\O\ QIU^O^WYJSF:[WW^C M[SQ^C UVFM[W\ O^NMS[UU^SY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85
V;L1Y[1 S.X.
6YDSY@^VOY V[HW^P^J\\ L^Q^LO\ U^MP^Q^C P^MYVO\ VFS@\WI QIU^O^J^ LYQP[W\K JYD^VFS@\WW^J^ LQ\JYV[PK . . . . 87
>_4VQV% K.@.
6YDSY@^VOY QIU^O^499[OV\QWIH WYLS^V^SWIH FUVS^CUVQ PY@\S\WVW^J^ V\MY U W[N[VYPP\A[UO\N\ QUVYQOYN\. . 89
5V4V9V] X.8.
\UP[WW^[ N^L[P\S^QYW\[ ^@V[OYW\K M[SUM[OV\QW^J^ MPYW[SY UYN^P[VY V\MY «P[VY(#[[ OSIP^»
U \WV[JS\S^QYWW^C 6% \ ^MS[L[P[W\[ HYSYOV[S\UV\O W[SYQW^N[SW^UV\ M^V^OY M[S[L Q[WV\PKV^SYN\ 6% . . . 90
5V4V9V] X.8.
!^L[P\S^QYW\[ \ Q[S\9\OY?\K S[DFP>VYV^Q SYUA[VY MYSYN[VS^Q V[A[W\K WY UV[WLYH
MS\ \UMIVYW\KH O^NMS[UU^S^Q +6,, . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91
>_-OTY *.N.
YLS^V^SW^[ FUVS^CUVQ^ OYO JPF1\V[P> 1FNY Q[WV\PKV^SY +6,, . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92
6V"4_Q_9_] N.X. 5[]QG3TY J.S., C["9Q[-V] N.S.
'S^[OV\S^QYW\[ QIU^O^V[NM[SYVFSW^C ^HPY:LY[N^C P^MYVO\ YQ\Y?\^WW^J^ LQ\JYV[PK . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93
N[;_(][L_] C.&., NVY9QV] N.K., >TEOGY_] N.@.
"UUP[L^QYW\[ 499[OV\QW^UV\ QWFVS\UV[W^AW^C U\UV[NI ^HPY:L[W\K SY@^A[C P^MYVO\ M[SQ^C UVFM[W\
VFS@\WI QIU^O^J^ LYQP[W\K . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95
6_.9[YV! N.S., NV9GYTY S.X.
"UUP[L^QYW\[ ^U^@[WW^UV[C CFD SYUA[VY UVFM[W\ ?[WVS^@[:W^J^ O^NMS[UU^SY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96
NVQO_] N.X., NV9GYTY S.X., H_;[Q_] 8.S., 6Q_9_] &.J.
6YDSY@^VOY OS\V[S\[Q LPK \L[WV\9\OY?\\ FJP^Q^J^ ^VSIQY M^V^OY Q N[:P^MYV^AW^N OYWYP[ ^U[Q^J^
O^NMS[UU^SY \ [J^ FUVSYW[W\[ U M^N^#>( VYWJ[W?\YP>W^J^ WYQYPY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98

N@HK*3. 0@8,@0K@NHX* K >,KH5XACX* =X8SX* AKCXJKHX.


=8,@CK@ K HXJ@, N=8,XCK* . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101

>VLV]OTY X.S., [QT#_] X.N.


\W[V\OY S[YO?\C 4P[OVS^WW^-Q^D@F:L[WW^J^ O\UP^S^LY U N^P[OFPYN\ MS^UV[C1\H FJP[Q^L^S^L^Q . . . . . . . . 103
H[9_-YTO_] K.C., XQEVY:2V] K.S.
M\UYW\[ J^S[W\K Q^L^S^L^-Q^DLF1W^C UN[U\ U \UM^P>D^QYW\[N FS^QW[QIH \ N^L^QIH N^L[P[C . . . . . . . . . . . 105
XQEVY:2V] K.S., H[9_-YTO_] K.C.
 QI@^S[ 9YOV^SY W[SYQW^Q[UW^UV\ MS\ ^M\UYW\\ Q^UMPYN[W[W\K Q^L^S^LY DY FLYSW^C Q^PW^C . . . . . . . . . . . . 106
JTY.[LV] N.S.
!^L[P\S^QYW\[ SYUMYLY V^MP\QW^C MP[WO\ Q W\DO^M[S[MYLW^C ?[WVS^@[:W^C 9^SUFWO[
YQ\Y?\^WW^J^ LQ\JYV[PK N[V^L^N ^@[NY :\LO^UV\ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108
NG: QTY 8.=., =V_Q.TV]EOT% >.&., 5V]TY S.X.
DY\N^L[CUVQ\[ FLYSW^C Q^PWI U P^OYP>W^C W[^LW^S^LW^UV>( Q J^S(A\H JYD^QIH UN[UKH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110
X#_] ,.., 6VY9VQEOT% 5.X., =LVOTY N.S., 54T;_] A.X., J[; 3V] A.5., >_L2Y1O_] C.X.
"UUP[L^QYW\[ QP\KW\K M^JSYW\AW^J^ UP^K M[S[N[WW^C V^P#\WI WY V[A[W\[ Q Q^DLFH^DY@^SW\O[
U M^N^#>( RANS/ILES-N[V^LY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112
=GQVY!_] @.S., @QV;TY X.S., H_L_:G3OTY ,.C.
^S[POY MP^UO^J^ MPYN[W\ LPK \DN[S[W\K UQ^CUVQ UY:\ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114

6
%^L[S:YW\[

S[QEV._] S.5., X49GLL[( 6VE:GY C[9;[L29TY X49GLL[(


YD^L\WYN\A[UOYK ^MV\N\DY?\K 9^SNI P^MYVO\ JYD^Q^C VFS@\WI N[V^L^N A\UP[WW^J^ N^L[P\S^QYW\K. . . . . . 115
6 E:Q_] C.N., @;VL21Y_] X.S., @QV;TY X.S., *!VYO_ >.K.
OUM[S\N[WVYP>W^[ \UUP[L^QYW\[ QDY\N^L[CUVQ\K W-@FVYW^PY U O\UP^S^L^N DY FLYSWIN\ Q^PWYN\
N[V^L^N 6% . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116
H_YE:[Y:TY_] X.>.
QV^O^P[@YW\K ^O^P^ M[S\^L\A[UO^C S[1[VO\ Q M^V^O[ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118
V#Q[E_] N.X., AQ_4 3 J.S.
!^L[P\S^QYW\[ YQV^O^P[@YW\C Q OYN[S[ UJ^SYW\K + . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119
X4Q[;_] S.N., >21YO_] H.N.
6YUA[V SYUMS^UVSYW[W\K V^WYP>W^J^ 1FNY Q VSYOV[ Q^DLFH^DY@^SW\OY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120
HQ[%O_ X.X., >21YO_] H.N.
 SYUA[V[ YOFUV\A[UO\H UQ^CUVQ MYW[P\ DQFO^M^JP^#Y(#[C O^WUVSFO?\\ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121
6VY9VQEOT% 5.X., 54T;_] A.X., J[O[Q_] X.&., 0VQV(_][ X.X.
WYP\D QP\KW\K U\WV[V\A[UO\H UVSFC WY ^UW^Q[ JYD^Q^J^ SYDSKLY WY ^VSIQW^[ VFS@FP[WVW^[ V[A[W\[
Q N^L[P>W^N L\99FD^S[ U M^N^#>( RANS/ILES N[V^LY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123
6VL_][ S.=., N:V#[Y_] S.X., TQO_] X.&.
'YSYN[VS\A[UO\[ \UUP[L^QYW\K U\WV[V\A[UO\H UVSFC Q MP^UO^N N^L[P>W^N OYWYP[ U ?[P>( FN[W>1[W\K
V[MP^QIH M^V^O^Q . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 124
N[L[Q N[4VQ H[Q:[E, >[Y-VYO_ S.K., XLVOE[Y9Q_] &.6.
P\KW\[ SYL\FUY OS\Q\DWI ^VQ^LY WY M^V[S\ LYQP[W\K Q OS\Q^P\W[CW^N OYWYP[ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 126
NGL[T;[Y XLT KEE[, JTY.["_] 6.=., XLVOE[Y9Q_] &.6., C.GVY 0( A[:
%N[1[W\[ M^M[S[AWIH UVSFC U JYD^QIN M^V^O^N . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 127
X(;V9 TQ3 N[LT; X(;V9, 8ET#_] 6.J.
!W^J^S[:\NWYK \L[WV\9\OY?\K M^PFA[W\K YL[OQYVW^C N^L[P\ +, LPK L\YJW^UV\O\
M^ V[SN^JYD^L\WYN\A[UO\N MYSYN[VSYN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 129
C.GVY 0( A[:, XLVOE[Y9Q_] &.6., JTY.["_] 6.=., NGL[T;[Y XLT KEE[
"UUP[L^QYW\[ UN[1[W\K M^V^OY DY P^MYV^AWIN DYQ\HS\V[P[N Q UQ^@^LW^N MS^UVSYWUVQ[ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 130
@Q3_][ @.X., H_;_] X.X., C_]TO_] K.C.
"UUP[L^QYW\[ SY@^VI MS[LOYN[SI O^P>?[Q^C NW^J^J^S[P^AW^C OYN[SI UJ^SYW\K
LPK YQ\Y?\^WWIH LQ\JYV[P[C . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 132
S[LTV] .$.
UV^CA\Q^UV> UVY?\^WYSW^J^ V[A[W\K U M[S[U:YV^C L[V^WY?\^WW^C Q^PW^C Q OYWYP[
M[S[N[WW^C MP^#YL\. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 133
>_Q_3TY[ *.., :OTY >.N.
\UP[WW^[ N^L[P\S^QYW\[ L[V^WY?\^WW^C Q^PWI Q U\UV[N[ O^^SL\WYV, UQKDYWW^C
U P\L\SF(#\N UOYAO^N, Q SYNOYH LQFHUVYL\CW^C N^L[P\ O\W[V\O\ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 134
[#_][L_] S.X.
^WVFS N\W\NYP>W^J^ Q^PW^Q^J^ U^MS^V\QP[W\K Q W[^LW^S^LW^N UQ[SHDQFO^Q^N M^V^O[,
^@V[OY[NIC U^ UOYAO^N FMP^VW[W\K. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 136
6VY9VQEOT% 5.X., 54T;_] A.X., J[; 3V] A.5., >_L2Y1O_] C.X.
WYP\D JYD^L\WYN\A[UO\H HYSYOV[S\UV\O \ UM[OVS^Q 1FNY Q @P\:W[N M^P[ MSKN^FJ^P>W^J^ U^MPY %,%
RANS/ILES-N[V^L^N . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 137
HQT]_3VV] K.X., HT3[L_] X.@., $TLT;_Y_][ X.A.
\UP[WW^[ N^L[P\S^QYW\[ MS^?[UUY J^S[W\K Q 9^SUY:W^C OYN[S[ U JYD^L\WYN\A[UO^C UVY@\P\DY?\[C
MPYN[W\ Q ANSYS CFX . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 138
N_4GQ X.X.
"UUP[L^QYW\[ FUV^CA\Q^UV\ L[V^WY?\^WW^C Q^PWI Q OYWYP[ MS\ WYP\A\\ YOV\QY?\\
N^P[OFP 2 PYD[SWIN \DPFA[W\[N . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 140
STY_.Q[9_] S.X., H_;Q[:_] A.S.
^UMPYN[WK[N^UV> MS^MYW-Q^DLF1W^C UN[U\ Q US[L[ UVS\N[SW^J^ % SYDSKLY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 142
HT3[L_] X.@., A[]LV:3TY[ A.,.
!^L[SW\DY?\K V[MP^DY#\VW^J^ 4OSYWY 9^SUY:W^C OYN[SI UJ^SYW\K U^QS[N[WW^J^ +6,,UN . . . . . . . . . . . . . 143

7
U[S^UU\CUOYK WYFAW^-V[HW\A[UOYK O^W9[S[W?\K N^P^LIH FA[WIH \ UM[?\YP\UV^Q
«Q\Y?\^WWI[ LQ\JYV[P\ \ U\P^QI[ FUVYW^QO\», !^UOQY, 28-30 NYK 2019 J.

VLV41Y 8.=., 5_.TY_][ X.X.


"UUP[L^QYW\[ MS^V^V\MY 9S^WV^Q^J^ N^LFPK U N[PO^L\UM[SUWIN SYUMIP^N :\LO\H V^MP\Q
LPK OYN[SI UJ^SYW\K M[SUM[OV\QW^J^ +6,,. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 145
=GQ[O_] C.K., G4QTLTY K.X., H_L_;"[Q_] 8.S.
6YUA[V SYUH^LW^C HYSYOV[S\UV\O\ ?[WVS^@[:W^C 9^SUFWO\ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 147
>G.[- H.N.
6YUA[VWI[ \UUP[L^QYW\K LQFD^WW^C OYN[SI UJ^SYW\K U M^UP[L^QYV[P>WIN U:\JYW\[N
V^MP\Q^Q^DLF1W^C UN[U\ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 148
6_Y9[QV][ J.S.
^NM>(V[SW^[ N^L[P\S^QYW\[ V[A[W\K MS^LFOV^Q UJ^SYW\K Q U^MP[ LQ\JYV[PK \ JYD^L\WYN\A[UO^C VSF@[. . . . 149
XL;TY K.K., 5[]QG(TY =.C., 0[L "TY S.X.
YSYOV[S\UV\O\ S[YOV\QWIH U^M[P SYUMS[L[P[WW^C U\P^Q^C FUVYW^QO\ MYUUY:\SUO^J^ UYN^P[VY . . . . . . . . . . . 150
@._Q1Y X.A.
%SYQW[W\[ HYSYOV[S\UV\O Q^DLF1W^-S[YOV\QWIH LQ\JYV[P[C U L[V^WY?\^WWIN \ L[9PYJSY?\^WWIN
J^S[W\[N . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 152
8YTTO K.K., *Q;[3 X.A.
"UUP[L^QYW\[ NYUU^^@N[WY Q ?\SOFPK?\^WWIH D^WYH MFV[N A\UP[WW^J^ N^L[P\S^QYW\K . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 154
[;[Q9TY[ 0.S.
'P^UO^MYSYPP[P>WI[ \ ^U[U\NN[VS\AWI[ V[A[W\K U MSKN^C DQFO^Q^C P\W\[C . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 155
0VEL1 A.C.
%M^U^@ UW\:[W\K FL[P>W^J^ SYUH^LY V^MP\QY JYD^VFS@\WW^J^ LQ\JYV[PK WY 9^SU\S^QYWWIH
S[:\NYH SY@^VI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 157

N@HK*4. >,8C8N0, CXA@C8N0, C8S@ H8CN0,HK8CC@ JX0@,KX5 K


0@C858=KK. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 159

H[QT;4[V] 0.A., X[Y[E2V] A.S., J[:(TY A.S.


"UUP[L^QYW\[ \DW^U^UV^CO^UV\ HQ^UV^Q\O^Q SY@^A\H P^MYV^O . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 161
>_#_] S.S.
!YV[NYV\A[UOYK N^L[P> MSKN^DF@^C 4Q^P>Q[WVW^C DF@AYV^C M[S[LYA\ LPK S[1[W\K DYLYA
L\WYN\O\ VSYWUN\UU\C YQ\Y?\^WWIH LQ\JYV[P[C . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 161
H_[QTY_] @.S.
6YDSY@^VOY N^L[P\ WYO^MP[W\K FUVYP^UVW^C M^QS[:LY[N^UV\ Q L[VYP\ U FA[V^N W[UVY?\^WYSW^J^
NW^J^O^NM^W[WVW^J^ WYMSK:[WW^-L[9^SN\S^QYWW^J^ U^UV^KW\K . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 163
=[L 3V] N.C., =_;"TY X.K., =[LL1;_][ ,.$., JGETY $.$.
^NM^D\VI U YP(N\W\[Q^C NYVS\?[C \ FJP[S^LWIN Q^P^OW^N . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 165
T4[V] N.X., =_LG4_]EOT% @.,.
!YP^?\OP^QYK FUVYP^UV> UMPYQY '-517 MS\ MP^UO^N WYMSK:[WW^N U^UV^KW\\.
@D^S OS\V[S\[Q 4OQ\QYP[WVWIH WYMSK:[W\C . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 167
H["Y[-VV][ X.J., VLV#_][ N.&.
"UM^P>D^QYW\[ OPYUV[SWIH N^L[P[C LPK SYDSY@^VO\ O^NM^D\?\^WWIH NYV[S\YP^Q (Ni-Al, Ti-Al) . . . . . . . . . . . 169
X]QG!OT% S.S., TYTY X.S., 6 -O_] C.=.
+[SN^?\OP\A[UOYK L^PJ^Q[AW^UV> P\V^J^ W\O[P[Q^J^ UMPYQY Q FUP^Q\KH LQFHAYUV^VW^J^ WYJSF:[W\K . . . . . . . . 170
>V:Q_] C.K., 5[]QVY:2V] &.5.
6YDSY@^VOY N[V^LY MS^JW^D\S^QYW\K V[MP^Q^J^ U^UV^KW\K \ L^PJ^Q[AW^UV\ UVYP>WIH \
J\@S\LWIH M^L1\MW\O^Q ^M^S YQ\Y?\^WWIH JYD^VFS@\WWIH LQ\JYV[P[C. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 171
JV"VY!V] J.X., H[QT;4[V] 0.A., @_] X.&.
6YDSY@^VOY SY@^A[J^ O^P[UY ?[WVS^@[:W^J^ O^NMS[UU^SY \D O^NM^D\?\^WWIH NYV[S\YP^Q
LPK Q[SV^P[VWIH LQ\JYV[P[C . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 173
>[L2-TO_] A.N., H[QT;4[V] 0.A.
6YDQ\V\[ N[V^L^Q 4OUM[S\N[WVYP>WIH \UUP[L^QYW\C N[HYW\A[UO\H HYSYOV[S\UV\O FJP[MPYUV\O^Q
LPK SY@^A\H P^MYV^O M[SUM[OV\QWIH Q[WV\PKV^S^Q. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 174

8
%^L[S:YW\[

AG9[QV][ C.&., @YTOVV] ,.A., JGETY C..


"DW^U^UV^CO\[, O^SS^D\^WW^UV^CO\[ \ V[MP^DY#\VWI[ M^OSIV\K LPK L[VYP[C M^S1W[QIH ,%
\D YP(N\W\[QIH UMPYQ^Q . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 176
5_4_] A.A.
!^L[P\S^QYW\[ WYMSK:[WW^J^ U^UV^KW\K FDPY M^LQ[UO\ +, MS\ Q\@SY?\^WW^N WYJSF:[W\\ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 178
K][Y_] K.K., J1EYTO_] S.&.
!^L[P\S^QYW\[ L\WYN\O\ SYD@YPYWU\S^QYWW^J^ S^V^SY Q W[P\W[CWIH ^M^SYH. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 179
=_Q4_]V! J.X., NL[]TY X.S.
"UUP[L^QYW\K \ OQYP\9\OY?\K NYV[S\YP^Q LPK YQ\Y?\^WWIH LQ\JYV[P[C . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 181
H[QT;4[V] 0.A., X[Y[E2V] A.S., J[:(TY A.S.
U^@[WW^UV\ MS^Q[L[W\K \UMIVYW\C WY NW^J^?\OP^QF( FUVYP^UV> M^P\N[SWIH
O^NM^D\?\^WWIH NYV[S\YP^Q . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 182
X49Q[(;[Y_] $.., JVL2YTO_] S.C., H_%:_] N.X., H_L;[O_] N.S.
%^DLYW\[ UVSFOVFSWIH YSN\S^QYWWIH V[MP^DY#\VWIH O^NM^D\?\^WWIH NYV[S\YP^Q . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 183
[;T9GLLTY X.., 6 -O_] C.=.
OUM[S\N[WVYP>WI[ \UUP[L^QYW\K QP\KW\K QIU^O^V[NM[SYVFSW^C QIL[S:O\ WY MS^AW^UVWI[
UQ^CUVQY ^VL[P>WIH UP^[Q +' . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 184
5V9VQ J.8., S_LO_] X.S., H[LTVYO_ J.N., S_LO_][ C.>., G3[O_][ @.X.
+\VYW^QI[ UMPYQI LPK YQ\YO^UN^UY: S[YP>W^UV>, M[SUM[OV\QI, ^JSYW\A[W\K . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 185
C_E_][ @.X, 6[L1OTY X.S., G-VYO_ @.K.
"UUP[L^QYW\[ QP\KW\K V[SN^^@SY@^VO\ WY M^KQP[W\[ L[9[OV^Q WY M^Q[SHW^UV\ ^@SYD?^Q,
M^PFA[WWIH N[V^L^N U[P[OV\QW^J^ PYD[SW^J^ UMPYQP[W\K Ti-6Al-4V MS\ H\N\A[UO^N M^P\S^QYW\\ . . . . . . . . . 186
[OTQ_] J.., JG([;V:3TY 0.X., CV9VL2O_ A.S.
![V^L^P^J\K FA[VY \DJ\@WIH WYMSK:[W\C LPK QYPY @[U1YSW\SW^J^ W[UF#[J^ Q\WVY Q[SV^P[VY
MS\ ^MS[L[P[W\\ 4OUMPFYVY?\^WWIH ^JSYW\A[W\C WY WYD[NWIH S[:\NYH 4OUMPFYVY?\\ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 188
>GE: YYTO_] 0.8., S_E:QTO_] X.S., S_LO_] X.J., 6[OQ[9"V J.J.
 Q^MS^UF 9^SN\S^QYW\K O^WUVSFOV^SYN\ M[SUM[OV\QWIH +, VS[@^QYW\C O N[HYW\A[UO\N UQ^CUVQYN
JSYWFP\SF[NIH :YS^MS^AWIH W\O[P[QIH UMPYQ^Q LPK L\UO^Q . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 190
J[QO_] A.N., CVEO_Q_;Y % @.S., HTQE[Y_] X.,.
\UP[WWYK N^L[P> M^QS[:LY[N^UV\ M^UV^S^WW\N\ MS[LN[VYN\ V^WO^MS^9\P>WIH @YWLY:\S^QYWWIH
SY@^A\H P^MYV^O Q[WV\PKV^SY JYD^VFS@\WW^J^ LQ\JYV[PK . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 191
K][YYTO_] S.S., AV.:1QV] N.X., 5V_Y:2V] J.H.
6YUA[VI WY L^PJ^Q[AW^UV> U FA[V^N UP^:W^J^ WYJSF:[W\K S^P\O^M^L1\MW\OY \ SYUMS[L[P[W\K
FU\P\C M^ V[PYN OYA[W\K. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 193
H[LTYTY A.S.
"UUP[L^QYW\[ QP\KW\K MS^9\P>W^C N^L\9\OY?\\ WY L\WYN\A[UO\[ WYJSFDO\
Q YQ\Y?\^WWIH DF@AYVIH M[S[LYAYH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 195
A_Q_VV] A.S., >_YOQ[3_] N.K., J[E:V#[O_ @.K., =_L_][Y_] S.S., V;EO_] X.X.,
>[Y_] N.N., =GO[E1Y N.=.
'^QI1[W\[ @[D^MYUW^UV\ M^P[V^Q U M^N^#>( O^NMP[OUW^J^ YWYP\DY V[HW\A[UO^J^ U^UV^KW\K Q[SV^P[V^Q . . . 197
H[LTYTY *.S., H[LTYTY A.S., >LGV]EOT% X.J.
WYP\D V[HW\A[UO\H S[1[W\C LPK S[JFP\SF[NIH VSYWUN\UU\C Q[SV^P[V^Q . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 198
6[L1OTY X.S., =_Y-[Q_] @.N., G-VYO_ @.K.
P\KW\[ MS[LQYS\V[P>W^C ^@SY@^VO\ WY 1[S^H^QYV^UV> M^Q[SHW^UV\ MS\ H\N\A[UO^N M^P\S^QYW\\
^@SYD?^Q, M^PFA[WWIH N[V^L^N %%. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 200
>_9921O_][ 5.N., XYTET;_] K.K., [T(TY @.X., N:V#[Y_] S.K.
6Y@^V^UM^U^@W^UV> \DL[P\C 6+, U^L[S:Y#\H O^SMFUWI[ L[9[OVI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 202
HQ[E_] K.N., >_#_] S.S.
!YV[NYV\A[UOYK N^L[P> L\WYN\O\ MPYW[VYSW^-?[Q^AW^J^ S[LFOV^SY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 204
>[L2-TO_] A.N., 6_._;_L_][ X.A., NTYT! Y X.S., S_Q_42V] N.S.
MS[L[P[W\[ QP\KW\K FLYSWIH M^QS[:L[W\C WY ?\OP\A[UOF( MS^AW^UV> M^P\N[SWIH
O^NM^D\?\^WWIH NYV[S\YP^Q . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 206

9
U[S^UU\CUOYK WYFAW^-V[HW\A[UOYK O^W9[S[W?\K N^P^LIH FA[WIH \ UM[?\YP\UV^Q
«Q\Y?\^WWI[ LQ\JYV[P\ \ U\P^QI[ FUVYW^QO\», !^UOQY, 28-30 NYK 2019 J.

SVLTO[Y_][ C.>., SVLTO[Y_] >.=., HTEVLV] X.N., N[LT( KY9[9 [QT N[LT(
P\KW\[ LP\V[P>W^C 4OUMPFYVY?\\ WY U^MS^V\QP[W\[ NYP^?\OP^Q^C FUVYP^UV\ NYV[S\YP^Q L\UO^Q
VFS@\W YQ\Y?\^WWIH +, . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 207
CT"[;V:9TY_] $.,., N_Q_OTY $.A.
6YDSY@^VOY O^W[AW^J^ 4P[N[WVY «LQFN[SWYK MS\DNYV\A[UOYK UQKD> U VS[W\[N» . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 208
$TLT##_] =.N., =L["GY_] S.X., $TLT##_] 8.N., H[EETY A.S.
6YDSY@^VOY N[HYW\DN^Q MYSYPP[P>W^-M^UP[L^QYV[P>W^C UVSFOVFSI LPK V[HW^P^J\A[UO\H U\UV[N . . . . . . . . . . . 210
S[ETL2V] 6.@., T4[V] N.X., NVLT][Y_] X.C.
?[WOY L^MFUV\N^UV\ \UM^P>D^QYW\K SYDP\AWIH OS\V[S\[Q MPYUV\AW^UV\ WY ^UW^Q[
4OUM[S\N[WVYP>WIH LYWWIH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 211
=GO[E1Y N.=., G-O_] K.=., 6_Y9[QVYO_ 8.S., H[Y[-OTY X.S.
"UUP[L^QYW\K Q ^@[UM[A[W\[ U^DLYW\K U\UV[NI ^@WYSF:[W\K VS[#\W Q DF@AYVIH O^P[UYH
MS\ UV[WL^QIH \UMIVYW\KH \ Q 4OUMPFYVY?\\ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 213
J[.VQQ[;_][ 5.X., S_LO_] J.@., S_L.TY 8.A.
'[SUM[OV\QI MS\N[W[W\K YLL\V\QWIH V[HW^P^J\C Q \DJ^V^QP[W\\ O^WUVSFO?\C
Y4S^O^UN\A[UO\H YMMYSYV^Q U \UM^P>D^QYW\[N KA[\UVIH UVSFOVFS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 214
K3OTY1V] .A., VOTY X.N., >V:Q_]EOT% S.C., >[E([L_] J.>.
P\KW\[ N^#W^UV\ \DPFA[W\K WY N[HYW\A[UO\[ UQ^CUVQY NYV[S\YP^Q MS\ MSKN^N PYD[SW^N QISY#\QYW\\. . . 215
,14_] X.X., ,V-OTY S.C., V;4[Q_] X.K., [#LTY S.X., >_YV9VLTY X.N.
^NM>(V[SWYK V[HW^P^J\K YWYP\DY MS^AW^UV\ QYPY \ ?[WVSYP>W^J^ O^W\A[UO^J^
MS\Q^LY U\P^Q^C FUVYW^QO\ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 216
J1EYTO_] S.&., K][Y_] K.K.
6YDSY@^VOY M^LH^LY O N^L[P\S^QYW\( L\WYN\O\ U\UV[NI S^V^S-O^SMFU U FA[V^N Q^DN^:W^J^
O^WVYOVW^J^ QDY\N^L[CUVQ\K . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 217
:OTY X.8., *O_]OTY S.C.
!^L[P\S^QYW\[ L\WYN\O\ Q\@S^UV[WLY WY S[D^WYWUWIH S[:\NYH SY@^VI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 220
AG4YTO_][ .A.
'S^JSYNNWIC O^NMP[OU ^@SY@^VO\ \ YWYP\DY HYSYOV[S\UV\O 4OUM[S\N[WVYP>WIH OS\QIH
?\OP\A[UO^J^ L[9^SN\S^QYW\K . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 221
[%QGLLTY[ 5.,.
6YDSY@^VOY V[HW^P^J\\ PYD[SW^C ^@SY@^VO\ \DL[P\C YQ\YUVS^[W\K . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 223

N@HK*5. KN>0XCK* K N,@AN0SX KJ@,@CK,


HN>5X0XK8CC@ X,XH0@,KN0KHK . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 225

XLVOE[Y9Q_] S.&., =VQ[ET;_] 8.C., H[Q 3V] N.K., HGL[O_] S.S., HEVY__Y:_] @.6.,
J[QO_] &.N., >V:Q_] A.N., >Q_(_Q_] X.C. T 9Q.
%\UV[NY M^LYA\ :\LO^J^ FJP[Q^L^S^LW^J^ V^MP\QY O UV[WLYN -16 \ -16 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 227
XL[]VQ9_][ K.$., A[] 9_] S.K., T.GY_] J.J., HEVY__Y:_] @.6., HGL[O_] S.S.,
5V]T!O[1 C.S., JG([;V9"1Y_] X.X., >_LV] X.N.
6YUA[VWI[ \ V[HW^P^J\A[UO\[ \UUP[L^QYW\K, O^WUVSFOV^SUO\[ MS^SY@^VO\ LPK SYDSY@^VO\
QIU^VW^J^ UV[WLY LPK \UMIVYW\K +6,, @^P>1^C VKJ\ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 228
XOT;_][ K.J., XL9[Y_][ @.N.

[UO^WVYOVWI[ N[V^LI O^WVS^PK V[NM[SYVFSWIH M^P[C M^Q[SHW^UV[C ^@[OV^Q \UUP[L^QYW\K


U \UM^P>D^QYW\[N V[MP^Q\D\^WWIH U\UV[N. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 230
NV4VLV] X.X., 0T(_Y_] X.N., 6_Q_]O_] X.K., 6_L9 QV] &.*.
![V^L\OY QYP\LY?\\ 3D SYUA[VY FDP^Q NYP^SYDN[SW^J^ JYD^VFS@\WW^J^ LQ\JYV[PK
M^ S[DFP>VYVYN WYVFSWIH \UMIVYW\C. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 232
J[Q-VYO_ &.=., NV9GYTY S.X.
4S^N[HYW\A[UOYK ^MV\N\DY?\K D^WLY \DN[S\V[P>W^C VSYQ[SUI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 234

10
%^L[S:YW\[

J[QO_] &.N., HGL[O_] S.S., >[YTL_] N.>., HEVY__Y:_] @.6., >V:Q_] A.N., 6[4 3OTY X.X.,
X]TL_] N.$., J[O[Q_] X.S., =GEV] N.S., 5_4[Y_][ @.C., AV;TY K.S., VO[3OTY[ @.S.
6YDSY@^VOY V[HW\A[UO^J^ MS[LP^:[W\K U ?[P>( M^QI1[W\K 499[OV\QW^UV\ ^HPY:L[W\K
^@^S^VW^C Q^LI % 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 236
6GQ[O_] A.6., $L[Y9VY S.N.
'\S^N[VS\A[UOYK U\UV[NY WY ^UW^Q[ '% LPK ^MS[L[P[W\K P^OYP>W^C V[NM[SYVFSI JYD^QIH M^V^O^Q . . . . . . . 238
=_Q1-V] A.X., =_LG4OTY S.N., =QV4VY2O_] N.X., HTQTLO S.X.
'S\N[W[W\[ 3D-UOYW\S^QYW\K LPK ^MS[L[P[W\K 9^SNI \ SYDN[S^Q P[LKWIH WYS^UV^Q
MS\ \UMIVYW\KH YQ\Y?\^WW^C V[HW\O\ Q FUP^Q\KH ^@P[L[W[W\K . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 240
=_LG4OTY S.N., =QV4VY2O_] N.X., =_Q1-V] >.X.
MS[L[P[W\K MYSYN[VS^Q Q^LKW^J^ ^@PYOY Q UV[WL^QIH FUP^Q\KH. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 241
=QV4VY2O_] N.X., =_Q1-V] X.S., =_Q1-V] A.X., HTQTLO S.X.
'^LJ^V^QOY \ MS^Q[L[W\[ \UMIVYW\C '% Q\WV^Q Q[SV^P[VY Q UV[WL^QIH FUP^Q\KH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 242
6_Q_Y_]EOT% @.=., TQO_] X.&.
"UUP[L^QYW\[ ^MV\A[UO\H UQ^CUVQ M^Q[SHW^UV[C U M^OSIV\KN\ M^ LYWWIN V[NM[SYVFSWIH \DN[S[W\C . . . . . . 243
$[4VLTYEOT% S.K., SVQV[.TY H.X., H_4!V] S.A., H_E:QT![ N.X., H_"L_] A.C., N;TQY_] S.S.
+[SN^N[VS\K N[VYW^-Q^DLF1W^J^ MPYN[W\ N[V^LYN\ '" \ 6% . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 245
5_.TY_][ X.X., VLV41Y 8.=.
'S\N[W[W\[ N[V^LY PSV LPK ^MS[L[P[W\K HYSYOV[S\UV\O 9YO[PY SYUMIPY, 9^SN\SF[N^J^
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5_#[:TY[ X.N., L[4GE:_] S.>., VL[O N.X.
'S^@P[NWI[ Q^MS^UI YVV[UVY?\\ \UMIVYV[P>W^J^ ^@^SFL^QYW\K LPK UV[WL^QIH \UMIVYW\C
M[SUM[OV\QWIH LQ\JYV[P[C \ \H U^UVYQWIH AYUV[C . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 248
S[ETL2V] A.5., T.GY_] J.J.
%SYQW[W\[ MS\N[W\N^UV\ U^QS[N[WWIH N[V^L^Q \ US[LUVQ ^MS[L[P[W\K OSFVK#[J^ N^N[WVY
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J_Q.[-V] H.S.
"DN[S[W\[ UO^S^UV\ M^P[VY DY@SYUIQY[N^J^ MS[LN[VY MS\ \UMIVYW\KH WY L\WYN\A[UOF( MS^AW^UV>
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JG([;V9"1Y_] X.X., 6_VYTY X.S., HEVY__Y:_] @.6., H[Q 3V] N.K.,
51Y"4VQ. &.>., >V:Q OTY H.X.
"DJ^V^QP[W\[ 4P[N[WV^Q N^L[P\ S[U\Q[SY QIU^VW^J^ UV[WLY -1 \ MS^Q[L[W\[
4OUM[S\N[WVYP>WIH \UUP[L^QYW\C N^L[P\ S[U\Q[SY UV[WLY -1 WY N^L[P>W^C FUVYW^QO[ UV[WLY +-08 . . . . . . 253
HGL[O_] S.S., HEVY__Y:_] @.6., >V:Q_] A.N., H[Q 3V] N.K., AV]LVO[Y_] A.,., J[QO_] &.N.,
0T(_Y_] @.X., =VQ[ET;_] 8.C. T 9Q.
%^DLYW\[ U\UV[NI UW\:[W\K MFP>UY?\C LYQP[W\K V^MP\QY, M^LYQY[N^J^ WY UV[WLI -5/1, -5/2,
U SY@^A\N LYQP[W\[N L^ 160 @YS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 255
XLVOE[Y9Q_] S.&., HGL[O_] S.S., HEVY__Y:_] @.6., >V:Q_] A.N., >V:Q_] N.6., >Q_(_Q_] X.C. T 9Q.
%\UV[NY M^LYA\ Q^DLFHY QIU^O^J^ LYQP[W\K ^V @YPP^WW^C @YVYS[\ O^SM. 79 O UV[WLF -16N. . . . . . . . . . . . 257
H[LTYTY K.X., NV9GYTY S.X.
4S^L\WYN\A[UOYK ^MV\N\DY?\K WYUYLOY D^WLY \DN[S\V[P>W^C VSYQ[SUI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 258
8.T4VE_] A.N., V;V"_] S.5., >TE[QV] S.S., N;TQY_] A.C., J[ELVYYTO_] H.=., XOT;_] J.X.
6YDSY@^VOY V[HW\A[UO^J^ ^@P\OY \ M^LJ^V^QOY P[VY(#[C PY@^SYV^S\\ LPK \UMIVYW\C
L[N^WUVSYV^SY % U MS\N[W[W\[N V[HW^P^J\C QIU^O^V[NM[SYVFSW^C UQ[SHMS^Q^L\N^UV\. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 260
J_Q.[-V] H.S.
6YUMS[L[P[WWYK U\UV[NY U@^SY \ ^@SY@^VO\ \W9^SNY?\\ LPK MS^Q[L[W\K UV[WL^QIH
4OUM[S\N[WVYP>WIH \UUP[L^QYW\C +, . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 261
S[]GLTY H.K., HEVY__Y:_] @.6., JG([;V9"1Y_] X.X., >V:Q_] A.N.
OUM[S\N[WVYP>WI[ \UUP[L^QYW\K 4:[OV^SY U AYUV\AW^C ^VOSIV^C SY@^A[C AYUV>( MS\ FN[S[WWIH
DWYA[W\KH O^499\?\[WVY 4:[O?\\ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 262

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U[S^UU\CUOYK WYFAW^-V[HW\A[UOYK O^W9[S[W?\K N^P^LIH FA[WIH \ UM[?\YP\UV^Q
«Q\Y?\^WWI[ LQ\JYV[P\ \ U\P^QI[ FUVYW^QO\», !^UOQY, 28-30 NYK 2019 J.

N@HK*6. NKN0@J XS08JX0K@NH8=8 >,XS5@CK*, H8C0,85* K AKX=C8N0KHK . . . . . 265

[QTO_][ N.X., GV] N.X., >V:G(_] X.X., =_L24VQ. $.A., H_][LVYO_ K.H.
"UUP[L^QYW\[ UM^U^@^Q FMSYQP[W\K ++, M^ W[\DN[SK[NIN MYSYN[VSYN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 267
GV] N.X., =_L24VQ. $.A.
MSYQP[W\[ U\P^Q^C FUVYW^QO^C %'% LPK UW\:[W\K 1FNY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 268
S_LO_] S.@., =GQV]T- 8.N., =_L24VQ. $.A., N_O_L_] J.>., HG3YTQ K.8., NVQ]V:YTO X.C.
,\YJW^UV\OY M^QS[:L[W\C FDP^Q +, U \UM^P>D^QYW\[N @^SV^Q^C NYV[NYV\A[UO^C N^L[P\ LQ\JYV[PK . . . . . . . 270
GQ_]EOT% &.J.
'^UVS^[W\[ \ QI@^S HYSYOV[S\UV\O 4P[OVS^MS\Q^LW^C U\UV[NI UNYDO\ +, . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 271
5[QT_Y_] X.S.
'S^SY@^VOY MS\N[W[W\K Q^P^O^WW^-^MV\A[UO\H \DN[S\V[P>WIH U\UV[N Q U^UVYQ[ U\UV[NI
YQV^NYV\A[UO^J^ FMSYQP[W\K \ O^WVS^PK +, . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 273
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KE;[.TL_] $.,., S[]TL_] S.@.
VOYD^FUV^CA\QIC QIU^O^^@^S^VWIC NYJW\V^4P[OVS\A[UO\C J[W[SYV^S LPK M[SUM[OV\QWIH OYWYP^Q
J[W[S\S^QYW\K 4P[OVS^4W[SJ\\ P[VYV[P>WIH YMMYSYV^Q . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 276
N;V:[YTY N.X., =GQV]T- 8.N., 0QT_Y_] J.@.
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"UUP[L^QYW\[ QP\KW\K WY HYSYOV[S\UV\O\ +6,, \DW^UY [J^ FDP^Q Q 4OUMPFYVY?\\. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 279
@LTEVV][ X.&., $TLT##VYO_] ,.=.
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V[UV\S^QYW\K % +, . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 282
A_L._#_L_] K.C., TQO_] &.X., ,_9T-V][ 8.N., 0TVYO_ &.>.
MS[L[P[W\[ \WV[WU\QW^J^ \DWY1\QYW\K SYL\YP>W^-V^S?[Q^J^ FMP^VW[W\K M^ VS\@^L\YJW^UV\A[UO\N
MS\DWYOYN MS\ O^NMP[OUW^N \UUP[L^QYW\\ SY@^A\H MS^@ NYUPY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 283
0VYT!OT% J.$., J_Q_" A..
?[WOY OYA[UVQY S[JFPKV^SY M[S[MFUOY Q^DLFHY M[SUM[OV\QW^C U\UV[NI YQV^NYV\A[UO^J^ FMSYQP[W\K
^U[Q^J^ O^NMS[UU^SY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 285
A_L._#_L_] K.C., TQO_] &.X., ,_9T-V][ 8.N., K.Y[:2V] @.X., 0TVYO_ &.>.
"UUP[L^QYW\[ L\YJW^UV\A[UO^J^ NYV[S\YPY, M^PFA[WW^J^ U NYJW\VWIH MS^@^O,
U ?[P>( P^OYP\DY?\\ L[9[OV^Q . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 287
0_]O[- N.N.
LYMV\QWI[ YMMYSYVW^-MS^JSYNNWI[ US[LUVQY @[UMS^Q^LW^C U\UV[NI FMSYQP[W\K LQ\JYV[P[N . . . . . . . . . . . . 289
CTO_L[V] C.J., 6VL_] N.X.
'S[L\OV\QWYK YWYP\V\OY U^UV^KW\K JYD^VFS@\WW^C FUVYW^QO\ U M^N^#>( O^N@\WY?\\ A\UP[WW^J^
N^L[P\S^QYW\K \ NY1\WW^J^ ^@FA[W\K . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 291
S[ETL2V] =.N.
PJ^S\VN YQYS\CW^J^ L^D\S^QYW\K V^MP\QY Q ^UW^QWF( OYN[SF UJ^SYW\K LQ\JYV[PK 6,-93!
LPK YJS[JYVY ,+-59 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 292

N@HK*7. XSKXK8CCX* KJJ80858=K* . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 295

J_L_O[Y_] X.X., J_L_O[Y_][ X.X., >LT3OTY C.X., C[4[:_][ X.S., H["[O_] X.K.,
S[QL[;_][ C.K., *Y_]EOT% 5.N.
\W[V\OY V[SN\A[UO^J^ SYDP^:[W\K QIU^O^MP^VWIH FJP[Q^L^S^L^Q Q \D^V[SN\A[UO\H FUP^Q\KH . . . . . . . . . . . 297
>[!TY[ J.C., >_#_] K.J., 6_Q_9[O_ >.S.
6YDSY@^VOY YP>V[SWYV\QWIH S[YOV\QWIH V^MP\Q \D FJPK . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 298
[%-VYO_ S.X., >_QTQ2V] *.S., G][L_] N.X.
6YDSY@^VOY W^Q^J^ V\MY UNYD^O LPK YQ\Y?\^WW^C V[HW\O\ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 300

12
%^L[S:YW\[

6T:TV] =.S., =GL1V][ 5.X., 6VL_GE_] X.K.


'^OYDYV[P\ OYA[UVQY S[YOV\QW^J^ V^MP\QY +-6, MS^\DQ^L\N^J^ M^ SYDP\AWIN V[HW^P^J\KN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 301
@Q3_] J.X., HLT;_] C.X.
V[A[UVQ[WWI[ NYSO\ W[4V\P\S^QYWW^J^ YQ\Y?\^WW^J^ @[WD\WY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 302
*Y_]EOT% 5.N., @_] S.J., KL2TY[ J.X.
"UUP[L^QYW\[ V[SN^^O\UP\V[P>W^C UVY@\P>W^UV\ NYU[P W^Q^J^ M^O^P[W\K LPK YQ\Y?\^WWIH +, . . . . . . . . . . 303
X]VQ2O_] K.N., ,["Y_E-TO_] S.S., *Y_]EO[1 J.5.
6YDSY@^VOY S[PK?\^WW^C @YDI LYWWIH V^MP\Q LPK U\UV[NW^J^ YWYP\DY P[VYV[P>WIH YMMYSYV^Q U Q^DLF1W^-
S[YOV\QWIN\ LQ\JYV[PKN\ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 304
J_L_O[Y_][ X.X., J_L_O[Y_] X.X., >_#_] K.J., >LT3OTY C.X., H["[O_] X.K.,
S[QL[;_][ C.K., *Y_]EOT% 5.N.
+[MP^9\D\A[UO\[ UQ^CUVQY QIU^O^MP^VWIH FJP[Q^L^S^L^Q – M^V[W?\YP>WIH O^NM^W[WV^Q :\LO\H V^MP\Q . . . 306
AQ_Y_][ J.N., JG(TY X.X., >_L1O_] N.&.
^QIC UM^U^@ ^MS[L[P[W\K L[Y4S\SF(#\H UQ^CUVQ NYU[P, \UM^P>DF[NIH Q ' . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 307
N[L[;[:TY A.K., 6VL_GE_] X.K., *Q!V] X.K., @Q3_] J.X.
![V^LI ^?[WO\ MS^V\Q^\DW^UWIH UQ^CUVQ S[YOV\QWIH V^MP\Q . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 308
6[.9[E[Q_] 5.C., X.[4VO_] N.N., XYTET;_] S.=.
\D\A[UOYK \ 4P[OVS^P\V\A[UOYK UVY@\P>W^UV> Q^L^UN[1\QY[NIH UNYD^AW^-^HPY:LY(#\H :\LO^UV[C,
MS\N[WK[NIH LPK ^@SY@^VO\ V\M^QIH YQ\Y?\^WWIH N[VYPP\A[UO\H NYV[S\YP^Q . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 310
XL:GYTY S.X., H_3VLV] A.S., 52]_] J.S., H[E2O_] X.N., T._LV] X.X., *Y_]EO[1 J.5.
WYP\D MS^@P[N FQ[P\A[W\K S[UFSUY \ WYL[:W^UV\ V^MP\Q^-UNYD^AWIH 9\P>VSF(#\H U\UV[N
LQ\JYV[P[C P[VYV[P>WIH YMMYSYV^Q . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 311
*Y_]EOT% 5.N., 6[%O_] X.S., NGQ_]VO_ X.N., J1O_-TY X.N.
WYP\D V[MP^QIH MS^?[UU^Q JYD\9\OY?\\ VQ[SL^J^ J^S(A[J^ Q W\DO^V[NM[SYVFSW^N JYD^J[W[SYV^S[ '6, . . 313
[QT#_] X.N., 5G(_]T!OT% 6.K.
+[SN^H\N\K NYPIH OPYUV[S^Q N[VYPP^Q \ N[VYPP^\L^Q: OQYWV^Q^-H\N\A[UO\[ SYUA[VI \ M[SUM[OV\QI
M^QI1[W\K 4W[SJ^[NO^UV\ O^NM^D\VWIH V^MP\Q . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 314
XL:GYTY S.X., X49GLLTY J.,., A[]L[:_] C.6., T.[#_] ,.,., *Y_]EO[1 J.5.
"UUP[L^QYW\[ Q^DN^:W^UV\ \WV[WU\9\OY?\\ V[MP^^VLYA\ O :\LO\N \ JYD^^@SYDWIN FJP[Q^L^S^LWIN \
YD^V^U^L[S:Y#\N J^S(A\N \ ^HPYL\V[PKN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 316
XL:GYTY S.X., 52]_] J.S., H[E2O_] X.N., T._LV] X.X., *Y_]EO[1 J.5.
6YDSY@^VOY W^QIH U\UV[N O^WVS^PK DY V[MP^QIN\ MS^?[UUYN\ Q U\UV[NYH UNYDO\ LQ\JYV[P[C
P[VYV[P>WIH YMMYSYV^Q . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 318
G4QTLTY K.X., =GQ[O_] C.K., K9QTE_] A.S., NV;VYT(TY X.N., J[:]VV] N.N.
^SN\S^QYW\[ UFSS^JYVY YQ\Y?\^WW^J^ O[S^U\WY WY ^UW^Q[ UQ^CUVQ ^VL[P>WIH
FJP[Q^L^S^LWIH O^NM^W[WV^Q. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 319
0_YO_Y_._] 6.>., NVQ[TY 0.N.
'^PFA[W\[ NYU[P 2-C \ 3-C JSFMM U FPFA1[WWIN\ 4OUMPFYVY?\^WWIN\ UQ^CUVQYN\ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 320

N@HK*8. X,8H8NJK@NHK@ ASK=X0@5K . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 323

6[:GQ[ N.C., HGO3TY_] C.S.


\UP[WW^[ N^L[P\S^QYW\[ J^S[W\K Q^L^S^LW^-Q^DLF1W^C UN[U\ Q ^U[U\NN[VS\AW^N \ MP^UO^N OYWYP[ . . . . . 325
6[:GQ[ N.C., HGO3TY_] C.S., N_O_L_][ @.K., VLV41Y 8.=.
\UP[WW^[ N^L[P\S^QYW\[ J^S[W\K Q^L^S^LY Q N^L[P>W^C FUVYW^QO[ HyShot . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 326
HGO3TY_] C.S., $Q[Y!G"_] J.N.
U^@[WW^UV\ QYP\LY?\\ S[DFP>VYV^Q A\UP[WW^J^ N^L[P\S^QYW\K J^S[W\K Q^L^S^LY
Q UQ[SHDQFO^Q^N Q^DLF1W^N M^V^O[ M^ LYWWIN P[VW^J^ 4OUM[S\N[WVY  « ,» . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 328
5_#G(_] N.X., $Q[Y!G_] J.N.
MS[L[P[W\[ QP\KW\K S^LY V[SN\A[UO\H JSYW\AWIH FUP^Q\C WY \WV[JSYP>WI[ HYSYOV[S\UV\O\ DN[[Q\O^Q^J^
V[MP^^@N[WW\OY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 330
H_Q_LV][ X.>., $Q[Y!G"_] J.N.
6YUA[VW^[ \UUP[L^QYW\[ W[UVY?\^WYSW^J^ V[MP^^@N[WY Q 1YS^QIH DYUIMOYH. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 331

13
U[S^UU\CUOYK WYFAW^-V[HW\A[UOYK O^W9[S[W?\K N^P^LIH FA[WIH \ UM[?\YP\UV^Q
«Q\Y?\^WWI[ LQ\JYV[P\ \ U\P^QI[ FUVYW^QO\», !^UOQY, 28-30 NYK 2019 J.

J[; 3V] A.5., HGO3TY_] C.S.


\UP[WW^[ \UUP[L^QYW\[ V[MP^^@N[WY MS\ M\S^P\D[ W-L[OYWY Q N^L[P>W^N OYWYP[ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 332
0[Q[EVYO_ X.C.
"UM^P>D^QYW\[ N[V^LY NYOU\NFNY 4WVS^M\\ LPK \UUP[L^QYW\K V[A[W\K MS^LFOV^Q UJ^SYW\K Q U^MP[ YQYPK . . 333
=GEV] N.S., [([Q_] C.C., =GE2O_] 8.S., [([Q_] S.N., >Q19O_ @.N.
!YV[NYV\A[UO^[ N^L[P\S^QYW\[ J[W[SYV^S^Q Q\HS[C Q QH^LWIH FUVS^CUVQYH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 335
JTYO_ X.S., =GE2O_] 8.S.
%SYQW[W\[ S[DFP>VYV^Q N^L[P\S^QYW\K J^S[W\K Q^L^S^LY Q OYWYP[ M[S[N[WW^J^ U[A[W\K
MS\ \UM^P>D^QYW\\ RANS \ DES N[V^L^Q SYUA[VY. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 336
S_Q_YV!OT% X.S., XQV2V] H.&., X4Q[;_] J.X.
WYP\D S[DFP>VYV^Q A\UP[WW^J^ N^L[P\S^QYW\K LQFH9YDWIH V[A[W\C Q ?\P\WLS\A[UO^N VSYOV[
MS\ \UM^P>D^QYW\\ N[V^LY L\UOS[VW^-W[MS[SIQW^J^ MS[^@SYD^QYW\K VSY[OV^S\C LQ\:[W\K
O^WL[WU\S^QYWWIH AYUV\? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 337
XQV2V] H.&., =LG3YV][ X.S., HQG-O_] N.S., N[]VL2V] X.N.
"UUP[L^QYW\[ :YS^UV^CO^UV\ ^@SYD?^Q \D QIU^O^V[NM[SYVFSWIH NYV[S\YP^Q MS\ SYDP\AWIH UM^U^@YH
\UMIVYW\C. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 338
L_#_] X.A., $Q[Y!G"_] J.N.
6YUA[VW^[ \UUP[L^QYW\[ FLYSW^-UVSFCW^C 9^SUFWO\ \ ^MS[L[P[W\[ ^MV\NYP>W^J^ SYUUV^KW\K
^VSY:YV[PK ^V U^MPY. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 339

N@HK*9. JC8=8AKNK>5KCX,C8@ J8A@5K,8SXCK@ K 8>0KJKXK* . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 341

S[ETL2V] 6.@., NV;VY_] X.S., N[L2YTO_] X.S.


A[V QP\KW\K SYUU[KW\K SYDN[S^Q Q MS[L[PYH V[HW^P^J\A[UO\H L^MFUO^Q MS\ MS^[OV\S^QYW\\ P^MYV^O +,. . 343
@QV;!V] H.X.
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N[L2YTO_] X.S.
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H_"L_] J.&., C_]TO_] K.X.
WYP\D ?[P[U^^@SYDW^UV\ MS\N[W[W\K ^S[@S[WWIH ^@^P^A[AWIH O^WUVSFO?\C WY O^SMFUYH WYSF:W^J^
O^WVFSY LQ\JYV[PK U ?[P>( UW\:[W\K NYUUI MS\ VS[@F[NIH MYSYN[VSYH MS^AW^UV\ \ FUV^CA\Q^UV\. . . . . . . . . 345
A[YTL_] J.X.
QV^NYV\D\S^QYWW^[ MS^[OV\S^QYW\[ ^U[Q^C W[^HPY:LY[N^C UVFM[W\ VFS@\WI NYP^SYDN[SW^J^
JYD^VFS@\WW^J^ LQ\JYV[PK U \UM^P>D^QYW\[N MYSYN[VS\A[UO^C VS[HN[SW^C N^L[P\. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 347
6GOLT 0.S., @._Q_] K.C., >_#_] =.J., =_Q1-OTY @.X., N[L2YTO_] X.S.
!W^J^L\U?\MP\WYSWYK ^MV\N\DY?\K 4OUM[S\N[WVYP>W^J^ O^NMS[UU^SY U \UM^P>D^QYW\[N SYDP\AWIH UH[N
MYSYN[VS\DY?\\ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 349
$TLTY_] @.>.
+[SN^L\WYN\A[UO^[ MS^[OV\S^QYW\[ NYP^SYDN[SWIH JYD^VFS@\WWIH LQ\JYV[P[C . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 351
6GLV% S.S., J[O[Q_] X.&.
'S^[OV\S^QYW\[ OS^NO\ Q^DLFH^DY@^SW\OY L^DQFO^Q^J^ P[VYV[P>W^J^ YMMYSYVY ^MV\NYP>W^C 9^SNI . . . . . . . . 352
G91O_][ X.A.
 M^UVS^[W\\ 9[W^N[W^P^J\A[UO\H N^L[P[C W[\D^V[SN\A[UO^C MPYUV\AW^UV\ LPK N[VYPP\A[UO\H
NYV[S\YP^Q . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 353
J[OET;_] X.C., =V_Q.TV]EOT% >.&.
U^@[WW^UV\ \UM^P>D^QYW\K FCT- \ TVD-N^L\9\OY?\C UH[NI !YO-^SNYOY LPK S[1[W\K DYLYA U^QS[N[WW^C
JYD^Q^C L\WYN\O\ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 355
6[QTY_] X.X., 1_ S., ]VEO S.K.
'SKN^[ !^WV[-YSP^ N^L[P\S^QYW\[ UYN^L\99FD\\ 9^W^W^Q . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 357
6[QTY_] X.X., 5 6., ]VEO S.K.
!^L\9\?\S^QYWWYK N^L[P> SYUA[VY U^MS^V\QP[W\K YM\?I (V[MP^Q^J^ O^WVYOVW^J^ U^MS^V\QP[W\K) . . . . . . . 359
N[;_3OTY[ A.A., >[LV3OTY X.S.
!^L[P\S^QYW\[ QW[1W[J^ V[MP^^@N[WY  U M^N^#>( V[SN^4OSYW^Q. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 361

14
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«(3/ 3,--#1 "(3/&1'3 3 *3',(#1 *&/-,(%3», ,*%(/, 28-30 /$ 2019 .

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57$9579#, 47) 9 & ; 0(=/5; 2=.,9.=0709#2* ,=/=+!# &$;5!# 9 2(;97/924=0 7097+0974;/;24.=94;/5=
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(= 02;, 57&$5!, 57(.70/;59*, 02;+7 75/7. ;2,=4.* 57 4=, 74,=2;.7 0 2;)9*# +;/=07* 9
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+=/= 94 20=9 .;&/474!.
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16
?naOl] 1 «?lbpcZn l LingYnhlUnealn \ehkipcal»

%QFLDQGJTI@ DFTBQOQOT6 JQ?OSHS:TT JFQJ7Q:S GSOJ5FN


9.?. 3lVnnc1
1
7:E «9A= l`. E.9. "kgkipck», =peack
e-mail: yaezrokhi@ciam.ru

1. 1IQCQOTQ ?:, _glUn` lhpYpck] elehn`k \gkcinilS Ipg`lg\nhe]


c Vkclel`pehl ph eXn`Z ^clYkhnb].
;kiik] gkTphk _pec]Hnik _gpTbn`k` gkVgkTphal kehRN == C2C; ]cb]nhe] l Tbpa gkeUnhk `keeZ
l _gpnahlgpckil] `ipYpgnPl`iZX ^clYkhnbnS JnehpYp ^clYkhnb], Uhp _pVcpb]nh _pil`khR epphipJniln `nP^\
_papbnil]. khgkYlcknh cp_gpeZ _p \b\UJnilN h]Ypcp- \b\UJniln` LIInahlciZX Xkgkahnglehla ^clYkhnb] l
Lapip`lUnealX Xkgkahnglehla ^clYkhnb] l elbpcpS elbpcpS \ehkipcal c Onbp`, c lhpYn cZgkPkNHn`e]
\ehkipcal (?:). c Lapip`ll hp_blck, l gpehp` `keeZ ?:.
2kTphk _gp^pbPknh lVcnehiZn ikgkTphal _p ^clYk-
hnb]` lV`ni]n`pYp gkTpUnYp _gpOneek, ikUkhZn c ???2, 3. QJSC@ DSI@!QOT6 (""QGJTIOSLJT /
k hkaPn gkeagZcknh epcgn`niiZn _gn^ehkcbnil]
p ;9E phnUnehcniiZX l Vkg\TnPiZX ^clYkhnbnehgpl- ?gn^l ap`_bnaek Vk^kU, ^b] cZ_pbinil] aphpgZX
hnbnS. Epb\UniiZn gnV\bRhkhZ _pVcpb]Nh Yb\TPn l _gn^_pbkYknhe] _gl`nilhR hnXipbpYlN hgnhRnYp apih\gk,
_pbinn _pi]hR cpV`pPiZn ik_gkcbnil] gkVclhl] aka TZbl phpTgkiZ iklTpbnn ckPiZn e hpUal Vgnil] hgnTp-
^clYkhnbnehgpnil], hka l kclkehgpnil] c Onbp` _gl`n- ckilS `kincgniiZX bnhkhnbRiZX k__kgkhpc Vk^kUl:
ilhnbRip a Jnehp`\ _papbnilN kclkOlpiipS hnXilal. –
_pcZJniln Lapip`lUipehl ?: e C2C; ik ^pVc\-
5k peipcn _gpcn^niipYp pTVpgk epehp]il] `lgp- apcZX gnPl`kX _pbnhk;
cpYp p_Zhk leebn^pckil] ^clYkhnbnS lV`ni]n`pYp –
_pcZJniln h]Yl ?: e C2C; ik ecngXVc\apcZX
gkTpUnYp _gpOneek _pehkcbniZ ebn^\NHln Vk^kUl: gnPl`kX _pbnhk.
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apih\gipYp h\gTpgnkahlcipYp ^clYkhnb] (C2C;); cZ_pbinil] \akVkiiZX Vk^kU _gli]hp c akUnehcn `nhp^k
2) epV^kiln `khn`khlUneapS `p^nbl ?:, epehp]HnS _pcZJnil] LIInahlcipehl elbpcZX \ehkipcpa, c hp`
lV ecngXVc\apcpYp cXp^ipYp \ehgpSehck, C2C; l Ulebn eN^k ebn^\nh phinehl p_gn^nbniln iklcZYp^-
cZXp^ipYp \ehgpSehck; inSJlX eXn` C2C; l lX gnY\blgpckiln.
3) gkVgkTphak `nhp^pc _pcZJnil] LIInahlcipehl -h^nbRiZ`l ik_gkcbnil]`l leebn^pckil] ecpSehc
_nge_nahlciZX ?:; l Xkgkahnglehla ?: e C2C; ]cb]Nhe]:
4) gkVgkTphak gnap`ni^kOlS _p _gpnahlgpckilN –
pOniak cbl]il] hnXipbpYll hgnhRnYp apih\gk
hgnXapih\gipYp 7C; l _p^Xp^pc a nYp Lae_ngl`nihkbR- ik Xkgkahnglehlal ^clYkhnb] l ?:;
iZ` leebn^pckil]`; –
pOniak cbl]il] _kgk`nhgpc ^clYkhnb] ik LIIna-
5) p_gn^nbniln cbl]il] _kgk`nhgpc ^clYkhnb] hlcipehR _gl`ninil] hnXipbpYll hgnhRnYp apih\gk.
ik LIInahlcipehR hnXipbpYll hgnhRnYp apih\gk. Egpcn^niZ leebn^pckil] cpV`pPipehnS _pcZJnil]
Lapip`lUipehl ik ^pVc\apcZX agnSengealX gnPl`kX
2. NJQBNJT=QLGN6 BSCQH7 _pbnhk ?: ik TkVn ^clYkhnbnS UnhcnghpYp (^c\X eXn`)
l _]hpYp (p^ik _glpglhnhik] eXn`k) _papbnilS, k hkaPn
=khn`khlUnea\N `p^nbR C2C; e IpgekPipS leebn^pckiln cpV`pPipehl _pcZJnil] h]Yl ik ecngX-
ak`ngpS \^pTip Ipg`lgpckhR ik peipcn `kh`p^nbl Vc\apcZX `kael`kbRiZX gnPl`kX _pbnhk ?: ik TkVn
C2;;. G Lhp` eb\Ukn inpTXp^l`p blJR cinehl apggna- ^clYkhnb] _]hpYp _papbnil].
hlgpcal _p cipcR ^pTkcbniiZ` akikbk` l lV`niniiZ` Egl leebn^pckill cbl]il] _kgk`nhgpc ^clYkhnb]
\Vbk` c epphcnhehcll ep eXn`pS ^clYkhnb]: ik LIInahlcipehR _gl`ninil] hnXipbpYll hgnhRnYp

35; e ^c\X]g\eipS eh\_niRN; apih\gk cZ_pbiniZ gkeUnhZ 27 ckglkihpc ^clYkhnbnS

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akikb\ hgnhRnYp apih\gk;

epTehcniip`\ gnkahlcip`\ ep_b\ hgnhRnYp apih\gk; 4. 3QLDQ=QOTQ (GLDQFTBQOJNH7O@?

hgnX_phpUip`\ e`nelhnbN. TLLHQCSINOT2
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?: e C2C; _p^gkV\`ncknh gkeJlgniln elehn`Z G pTne_nUniln Lae_ngl`nihkbRiZX leebn^pckilS
\gkcinilS aka _p \Vbk` ^clYkhnb], hka l _p Lbn`nihk` C2C; _gpcn^niZ ebn^\NHln `ngp_gl]hl]:

17
GengpeelSeak] ik\Uip-hnXilUneak] apiIngniOl] `pbp^ZX \UniZX l e_nOlkblehpc
«AclkOlpiiZn ^clYkhnbl l elbpcZn \ehkipcal», =peack, 28-30 `k] 2019 Y.


egkciniln gnV\bRhkhpc gkeUnhpc l Lae_ngl`ni- 1. 2kVgkTphkik \ilcngekbRik] `khn`khlUneak]
hkbRiZX leebn^pckilS gkVblUiZX ap`_gneepgpc `p^nbR elbpcpS \ehkipcal e hgnXapih\giZ` h\gTp-
e _ngn_\eap` cpV^\Xk lV-Vk _gp`nP\hpUipS eh\_nil; gnkahlciZ` ^clYkhnbn`.

cZgkTphak _gn^bpPnilS _p _gpcn^nilN Lae_ngl- 2. :epcngJniehcpckik `nhp^lak gkeUnhk `keeZ
`nihkbRiZX leebn^pckilS hgnXapih\gipYp ^clYkhnb]- ^clYkhnb] l k^k_hlgpckik ^b] hgnXapih\giZX eXn`.
^n`piehgkhpgk, c hp` Ulebn _pehkcbniZ Onbl l Vk^kUl 3. EpakVkiZ cpV`pPipehl \b\UJnil] h]Ypcp-
leebn^pckilS, cZgkTphkiZ _gn^bpPnil] c _gpYgk``\ Lapip`lUnealX _pakVkhnbnS ?: e C2C; ik peipcn
le_ZhkilS, epV^kik `nhp^lak gkeUnhk Xkgkahnglehla ^clYkhnbnS UnhcnghpYp l _]hpYp _papbnilS. -_gn^nbnip,
?: e C2C; c _pbnhiZX \ebpcl]X c _gpOneen _gpcn- Uhp _gl le_pbRVpckill hnXipbpYll hgnhRnYp apih\gk
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5. )NGH-=QOTQ hgnhRnYp apih\gk, k _gl le_pbRVpckill hnXipbpYll
hgnhRnYp apih\gk ik ecngXVc\apcZX gnPl`kX _pbnhk –
G gk`akX gkVgkTphal `nhp^pc _pcZJnil] LIIna- eXn`\ ep e`nJniln`.
hlcipehl _nge_nahlciZX `ipYpgnPl`iZX kclkOlpiiZX 4. EpakVkip cbl]iln lV`ninil] leXp^iZX _kgk-
elbpcZX \ehkipcpa e hgnXapih\giZ` 7C; _pb\UniZ `nhgpc ^clYkhnb] ik LIInahlcipehR _gl`ninil]
ebn^\NHln gnV\bRhkhZ. hnXipbpYll hgnhRnYp apih\gk.

LLHQCSINOTQ (""QGJTIO@? ?NFNGJQFTLJTG LTHSIS2 5LJNOSIGT


DQFLDQGJTIOS:S LIQF?;I5GSIS:S CQHSIS:S LNBSHQJN
A.;. Abni^kgR, A.5. 7g\ili, A.A. cehlYinnc, A.?. Epbnc1
1
7:E «9A= l`. E.9. "kgkipck», =peack
e-mail: dep300@ciam.ru

1. 1IQCQOTQ e _p`pHRN lVcnehiZX epphipJnilS YkVpcpS ^lik`lal.


G eb\Ukn, apY^k ik ablin l`nNhe] _g]`Zn eakUal
G gkTphn gkee`phgnik elbpck] \ehkipcak (?:) \_bphinil] l ^pVc\apcZn VpiZ Vk il`l, ^b] gkeUnhk
ecngXVc\apcpYp ^nbpcpYp ek`pbnhk (?;?) e agnSengeal` cx cX _gl`ni]nhe] hnpgl] papbpVc\apcpYp _p^pTl].
Ulebp` =kXk _pbnhk =ag  1,8. ;b] p_gn^nbnil] Egl _pbipehRN ^pVc\apcp` hnUnill ik ablin lbl
LIInahlciZX Xkgkahnglehla ?: le_pbRVpckik ap`_- Vk YpbpcipS cpbipS ik _ngcpS eh\_nil ablik ^b] gkeUnhk
bnaeik] `khn`khlUneak] `p^nbR, aphpgk] _pVcpb]nh cx cX le_pbRV\nhe] L`_lglUneak] `nhp^lak A79 [1].
_gplVcp^lhR gkeUnh ci\hgniilX Xkgkahnglehlal ^clYk- G gkTphn gkee`khglcknhe] ^c\XckbRiZS C2;;,
hnb], k hkaPn apLIIlOlnihk epXgkinil] _pbipYp cZ_pbiniiZS _p eXn`n ep e`nJniln` _phpapc
^kcbnil] *cX l cinJinYp ep_gphlcbnil] cXp^ipYp ci\hgniinYp l ikg\PipYp apih\gpc l ecngXVc\apcZ`
\ehgpSehck cx cX (GX:) l apLIIlOlnihk cinJinYp gnY\blg\n`Z` gnkahlciZ` ep_bp`. ;b] gkeUnhk
ep_gphlcbnil] apg`pcpS Ukehl `phpYpi^pbZ cx apg`. _kgk`nhgpc l Xkgkahnglehla C2;; c epehkcn ?:
le_pbRVpckik `khn`khlUneak] `p^nbR _ngcpYp \gpci]
e _pakeak^iZ` p_lekiln` ap`_gneepgpc ik peipcn
2. 9NL=QJ (""QGJTIO@? ?NFNGJQFTLJTG
LTHSIS2 5LJNOSIGT pTpTHniiZX Xkgkahnglehla l _pakeak^iZ` p_lekiln`
h\gTliZ [2].
;b] gkeUnhk _kgk`nhgpc l Xkgkahnglehla GX: =khn`khlUneak] `p^nbR gkeUnhk apLIIlOlnihk
le_pbRV\nhe] L`_lglap-`khn`khlUneak] `p^nbR gkeUnhk cinJinYp ep_gphlcbnil] cZXp^ipYp \ehgpSehck _gn^-
_bpeapYp gnY\blg\n`pYp ecngXVc\apcpYp GX: cinJinYp ehkcb]nh epTpS kbYnTgklUnealn Vkclel`pehl, pTpTHk-
ePkhl]. EpcngXipehR hpg`pPnil] cpV^\JipYp _phpak NHln gnV\bRhkhZ gkeUnhiZX l Lae_ngl`nihkbRiZX
_gn^ehkcb]nh epTpS eh\_niUkhZS abli, epehp]HlS lV leebn^pckilS Xkgkahnglehla gnY\blg\n`ZX cZXp^iZX
ineapbRalX _kinbnS, gke_pbpPniiZX _p^ lV`ni]n`Z` \ehgpSehc. Egl gkeUnhn apLIIlOlnihk ep_gphlcbnil]
c Vkclel`pehl ph Ulebk = l gnPl`k gkTphZ ^clYkhnb] apg`pcpS Ukehl `phpYpi^pbZ \UlhZckNhe] Ynp`nhgl-
\Ybp` ^g\Y a ^g\Y\. Egl ecngXVc\apcp` hnUnill ik cenX Unealn _kgk`nhgZ `phpYpi^pbZ l ep_bk, gnPl` gkTphZ
_pcngXipeh]X hpg`pPnil] _phpak gkeUnh cn^nhe] ^clYkhnb], _pbnhiZn \ebpcl] l ^g\Yln IkahpgZ [3].

18
?naOl] 1 «?lbpcZn l LingYnhlUnealn \ehkipcal»

? _p`pHRN `khn`khlUneapS `p^nbl _gpcn^nip 3. )NGH-=QOTQ


leebn^pckiln cbl]il] eapgpehl lehnUnil] gnkahlcipS
ehg\l lV ep_bk l ehn_nil gkeagZhl] ep_bk ik cVbnhip` G Xp^n gkTphZ leebn^pckip cbl]iln peipciZX
`kbpJ\`ip` gnPl`n ik _kgk`nhgZ ^clYkhnb] l ?:. _kgk`nhgpc C2;; ik LIInahlciZn Xkgkahnglehlal ?:,
EpakVkip, Uhp \`niRJniln eapgpehl lehnUnil] k hkaPn gkee`phgnip ^ck e_pepTk ^gpeenblgpckil]
e 400 ^p 300 `/e _glcp^lh a \cnblUnilN gkeXp^k ^clYkhnb]. EpakVkip, Uhp ^gpeenblgpckiln ^clYkhnb]
cpV^\Xk ik agnSengeap` gnPl`n ik 35%, Uhp cZVZcknh e _p^^ngPkiln` _pehp]iipS UkehphZ cgkHnil] gphpgk
epphcnhehc\NHnn \cnblUniln _bpHk^l cXp^k GX: l, ilVapYp ^kcbnil] pTne_nUlcknh VikUlhnbRip Tpbnn
ebn^pckhnbRip, cinJinYp ep_gphlcbnil] ?:. Egl Lhp` ilVapn ep_gphlcbniln GX:, Un` _gl ^gpeenblgpckill
LIInahlciZS \^nbRiZS gkeXp^ hp_blck CR LI ik agnS- e _p^^ngPkiln` _pehp]iipYp apLIIlOlnihk Vk_kek
engeap` gnPl`n \cnblUlcknhe] ik 1,5%, k ik hgkie- \ehpSUlcpehl cnihlb]hpgk.
Vc\apcp` gnPl`n (=  1,2;  10 a`) – ik 4,5%.
:cnblUniln _bpHk^l aglhlUneapYp enUnil] ep_bk /DTLSG TLDSH7;SINOO@? TLJS=OTGSI
ik cVbnhip` `kbpJ\`ip` gnPl`n, epphcnhehc\NHnn
\cnblUnilN apLIIlOlnihk Vk_kek \ehpSUlcpehl cnihl- [1] Epbnc A.?., gn`nnc =.G. =nhp^lak gkeUnhk Xkgka-
b]hpgk ky G e 20% ^p 40%, _glcp^lh a eilPnilN hnglehla cpV^\XpVkTpgilak ^b] 7&A e =max  4…6
gkeXp^k cpV^\Xk ik agnSengeap` gnPl`n ik 9%. e \Unhp` c]Vapehl l _gpehgkiehcniipehl hnUnil]
Egl Lhp` CR LI ik agnSengeap` gnPl`n \`niRJknhe] YkVk // G eT.: 5k\Uip-`nhp^lUnealn `khnglkbZ _p
`ninn, Un` ik 1%, k ik hgkieVc\apcp` gnPl`n (=  1,2; _gpOneek` l Xkgkahnglehlak` kclkOlpiiZX ^clYk-
 10 a`) – ik 25%. hnbnS. =.: 9V^. GG9A l`. 5.. \apceapYp, 1996.
CkaPn gkee`phgniZ ^ck e_pepTk ^gpeenblgpckil] [2] ;g\Plili &.5., cnO &.9., &kiJli A.9. =khn-
^clYkhnb] ik agnSengeap` gnPl`n. Egl ^gpeenblgp- `khlUneapn `p^nblgpckiln 7C; ik epcgn`niiZX
ckill ^clYkhnb] ik 25% _p h]Yn e _p^^ngPkiln` *G= _gl leebn^pckill _kgk`nhgpc l Xkgkahn-
_pehp]iipS UkehphZ cgkHnil] nG _g gphpgk cnihlb]- glehla kclkOlpiiZX ^clYkhnbnS. Cg\^Z 9A=
hpgk CR LI ik 13% `niRJn, Un` _gl ^gpeenblgpckill  832, 1979.
e _p^^ngPkiln` _pehp]iipYp ky G (Uhp TblVap [3] &kcg\Xli 7.5., 9ckiRali =.A., CkbZVli G.A.
a eb\UkN ingnY\blg\n`pYp ep_bk), Uhp pT]ei]nhe] ALgpYkVp^lik`lak gnkahlciZX ep_nb. G 3 h. C. III.
VikUlhnbRiZ` \cnblUniln` cx cX _gl \`niRJnill GinJinn ep_gphlcbniln l _phngl LIInahlcipS
gkeXp^k cpV^\Xk ^clYkhnb]. h]Yk ep_nb. =.: 9=AC&9C, 2017. 1144 e.

9N;FN3SJGN $ LHSOS:S &TGHN I GHNLLQ BSOSLJT 200 H.L.


?.?. 2n`U\apc, 9.G. -el_pc, 5.&. gpebkcOnc1
1
7:E «9A= l`. E.9. "kgkipck», =peack
e-mail: ssremchukov@ciam.ru

1. 1IQCQOTQ 2. 9N;FN3SJGN CIT:NJQH6 L FQ:QOQFN&TQ2 JQDHN


9ihngne a `kbpgkV`ngiZ` YkVph\gTliiZ` ^clYk- Egl ^p_\ehl`pehl \cnblUnil] \^nbRipS `keeZ,
hnb]` (=7C;) `pHipehRN 150…500 b.e. cZVcki gpehp` _pcZJnil] hp_blcipS LIInahlcipehl `pPip ^pehlUR
_phgnTipehl c Tne_lbphiZX bnhkhnbRiZX k__kgkhkX _\hn` gnYningkOll hn_bk phgkTphkcJlX c h\gTlin YkVpc
("E&A) gkVblUipYp hl_k l ikVikUnil] c 2peell. [1, 2]. 5k gle. 1 _gn^ehkcbnik apiehg\ahlcik] eXn`k
?\Hnehc\NHln =7C; c ^kiip` abkeen `pHipehl h\gTpckbRipYp ^clYkhnb] e gn^\ahpgp` l hn_bppT`ni-
phehkNh ph kclkOlpiiZX _pgJincZX ^clYkhnbnS (AE;) ilap` elehn`Z gnYningkOll hn_bk c abkeen `pHipehl
hpS Pn `pHipehl, c _ngc\N pUngn^R, _p _pakVkhnbN 200 b.e. (CG;g-200). -eipcik] apiehg\ahlcik] pepTni-
hp_blcipS LIInahlcipehl, ip e\Hnehcniip _gncpeXp^]h ipehR hkapYp ^clYkhnb] – ikblUln hn_bppT`niilak,
lX _p \^nbRipS `keen. ?bn^pckhnbRip, ^b] JlgpapYp pe\Hnehcb]NHnYp _p^pYgnc Vkap`_gneepgipYp cpV^\Xk
_gl`ninil] =7C; ik bnYalX "E&A, c _ngc\N pUngn^R _ngn^ ak`ngpS eYpgkil].
inpTXp^l`p, _peh\_lcJleR hgnTpckil]`l a \^nbRipS =p^\bRik] apiehg\aOl] hn_bppT`niilak _gn^\-
`keen, _p^i]hR hp_blci\N LIInahlcipehR ^clYkhnb]. e`khglcknh cpV`pPipehR le_pbRVpckil] gkVblUiZX

19
GengpeelSeak] ik\Uip-hnXilUneak] apiIngniOl] `pbp^ZX \UniZX l e_nOlkblehpc
«AclkOlpiiZn ^clYkhnbl l elbpcZn \ehkipcal», =peack, 28-30 `k] 2019 Y.

in`\ apbbnahpg\ ap chpgp`\ g]^\ akikbpc, _p aphpgZ`


_p^pYgnhZS cpV^\X ik_gkcb]nhe] c ak`ng\ eYpgkil].
EngcZS Vk^ilS apbbnahpg pe\Hnehcb]nh _ngnik_gkc-
bniln _p^pYgnhpYp cpV^\Xk lV `khglO Tbpapc c `nP-
TbpUipn _gpehgkiehcp. k eUnh hkapS ap`_pipcal ^kcbn-
iln ci\hgl `khglO Tbpapc l c `nPTbpUip` _gpehgkiehcn
p^likapcp l inh inpTXp^l`pehl \agn_b]hR akP^ZS
Tbpa ^p_pbilhnbRiZ`l Pnehal`l l h]PnbZ`l apg_\-
ek`l. GhpgpS Vk^ilS apbbnahpg pe\Hnehcb]nh _p^cp^
Ypg]UnYp YkVk ph h\gTliZ c `khglOZ Tbpapc hn_bp-
pT`niilak. Gen apbbnahpgk blhZn l ]cb]Nhe] ine\Hl`l
Lbn`nihk`l ^clYkhnb].
9TL. 1. 3piehg\ahlcik] eXn`k ^clYkhnb] CG;g-200
ckglkihpc hn_bppT`niipS `khglOZ: aka hg\TUkhpS, hka 3. 9Q;5H7JNJ@ FN3SJ@
l _bkehliUkhpS.
-eipcipn _gnl`\Hnehcp hg\TUkhpYp hn_bppT`ni- G gnV\bRhkhn _gpcn^niiZX leebn^pckilS ^b] ^kbR-
ilak c apihnaehn ^kiipS Vk^kUl – pTne_nUniln gkVcpgphk inSJnS gkTphZ _p hn_bppT`niila\ ^clYkhnb] CG;g-200
ik 180_phpak _p^pYgnckn`pYp cpV^\Xk c hn_bp- pT`ni- TZb _gli]h ckglkih `khglOZ e _bkehlik`l hl_k
ipS `khglOn. Ckal` pTgkVp`, gnJknhe] cp_gpe _p^cp^k «ikTlcal gnianb]» p^ipXp^pcpS eXn`Z. ;b] pTne_n-
cpV^\Xk c ak`ng\ eYpgkil]. 2kVcpgph _phpak ci\hgl Unil] cpV`pPipehl _gl`ninil] _bkehliUkhpS hn_bp-
_bkehliUkhpS hn_bppT`niipS `khglOZ, epYbkeip pT`niipS `khglOZ gkVgkTphkik \ilakbRik] ap`_pipcak
_gpcn^niiZ` gkeUnhiZ` leebn^pckil]` [3], _glcp^lh hn_bppT`niilak ik ^clYkhnbn.
a VikUlhnbRiZ` Yl^gkcblUneal` _phng]`.
:UlhZck] _gnl`\Hnehck _bkehliUkhpS hn_bp- 4. )NGH-=QOTQ
pT`niipS `khglOZ [4, 5], TZbp _gli]hp gnJniln
pT lV`ninill ap`_pipcal hn_bppT`niilak c epehkcn 2kVgkTphkiiZS _gn^ckglhnbRiZS _gpnah ^clYk-
^clYkhnb]. 3p`_pipcak ^pbPik pTne_nUlckhR _g]`phpa hnb] CG;g-200 _pVcpb]nh pTne_nUlhR bnYaln "E&A
cpV^\Xk c hn_bppT`niipS `khglOn l hgnT\n`ZS _p^cp^ gkVblUipYp hl_k l _gl`ninil] phnUnehcniiZ`l,
cpV^\Xk c ak`ng\ eYpgkil]. epcgn`niiZ`l, ik^nPiZ`l l in^pgpYl`l c _glpTgn-
Cn_bppT`niila epehplh lV cpeR`l \ilIlOlgp- hnill l Lae_b\khkOll ^clYkhnb]`l.
ckiiZX Tbpapc (gle. 2), aphpgZn gke_pbkYkNhe] _p pag\P-
ipehl `nP^\ hgnX apbbnahpgpc, _ngn^inYp l ^c\X Vk^ilX. /DTLSG TLDSH7;SINOO@? TLJS=OTGSI
Engn^ilS apbbnahpg ebpPipS Ipg`Z l epehplh lV
^c\X g]^pc lVpblgpckiiZX akikbpc. Ep _ngcp`\ g]^\ [1] ClXpipc A.=. 2nYningkOl] hn_bk c kclkOlpiiZX
akikbpc cpV^\X lV-Vk ap`_gneepgk ik_gkcb]nhe] c `kh- 7C;. =.: =kJlipehgpniln, 1977. 108 e.
glOZ Tbpapc hn_bppT`niilak, ^kbnn cpV^\X _p^pYgn- [2] 3nSe G.=., &pi^pi A.&. 3p`_kahiZn hn_bppT`ni-
cknhe] c `khglOkX ph Ypg]UlX cZXbp_iZX YkVpc l ilal. =.: *ingYl], 1967. 224 e.
cpVcgkHknhe] _p `nPTbpUip`\ _gpehgkiehc\ a _ngn^- [3] 2n`U\apc ?.?., ;kilbpc =.A., lehpc 3.A. Achp-
`khlVlgpckiipn _gpnahlgpckiln l gkeUnh _bkehli-
UkhpYp hn_bppT`niilak ^b] `kbpgkV`ngipYp YkVp-
h\gTliipYp ^clYkhnb] // Gnehila =peapceapYp
kclkOlpiipYp liehlh\hk. 2018. C. 25.  3. ?. 116–123.
[4] ?kcpehli A.., ClXpipc A.=. 9eebn^pckiln Xkgka-
hnglehla _bkehliUkhZX _pcngXipehnS hn_bppT`nik.
=.: Cn_bpLingYnhlak, 1970. 108 e.
[5] gpebkcOnc 5.&., 2n`U\apc ?.?. 9eebn^pckiln
cbl]il] VkYgp`pP^nil] akikbpc ap`_kahiZX hn_bp-
pT`niilapc ik lX hn_bpYl^gkcblUnealn Xkgkahn-
glehlal // *E9 =nP^\ikgp^iZS ik\Uip-_gkahl-
UnealS P\gikb «*_pXk ik\al»: ik\UiZS P\gikb,
9TL. 2. =p^\bR hn_bppT`niilak AUliea, 2016. ?. 186–202.

20
?naOl] 1 «?lbpcZn l LingYnhlUnealn \ehkipcal»

%SI@!QOTQ (""QGJTIOSLJT IS;C5!OS-JSDHTIOS2 LTLJQB@


LBN;GT :N;SJ5F3TOOS:S CIT:NJQH6
G.5. 3bl`pc, ;.. ;\^Rnc, G.. ?lYkSbp, 5.9. 3bl`pc1
1
lblkb EA- «-;3-?kh\gi»--=3", -`ea
e-mail: Klimov-Vitaliy-asp@yandex.ru

1. 1IQCQOTQ \_pgipYp _p^Jl_ilak. 2k^lkbRipn ikYg\Pniln Fr


_p^Jl_ilapc pTne_nUlckbpeR Vk eUnh ^leTkbkiek gphpgk.
Gin^gniln cpV^\Jip-hp_blcipS elehn`Z e`kVal 9`lhkOl] _kgk`nhgpc cpV^\Xk, phTlgkn`pYp lV ap`_-
c apiehg\aOlN YkVph\gTliipYp ^clYkhnb] (7C;) gneepgk, pe\Hnehcb]bkeR Vk eUnh _p^pYgnck cpV^\Xk,
_pVcpb]nh leabNUlhR lV inn `kebpTka, pXbk^lhnbR, _p^kckn`pYp c e`nelhnbR.
`kebpph^nblhnbR, `kebpikepe l `kYlehgkbl phakUal ;b] pOnial gkTphpe_pepTipehl e`kVZckn`pYp
`kebk lV gphpgiZX p_pg, Uhp e\Hnehcniip \`niRJknh cpV^\Jip-hp_blcipS e`neRN _p^Jl_ilak l LIIna-
hg\^pn`apehR l ehpl`pehR lVYphpcbnil] ^clYkhnb], hlcipehl nYp pXbkP^nil] _gplVcp^lbleR lV`ngnil]
k hkaPn \b\UJknh nYp YkTkglhip-`keepcZn Xkgkahn- hn`_ngkh\g ikg\PipYp apbROk _p^Jl_ilak _ ,
glehlal. 5ne`phg] ik p_lekiiZn _gnl`\Hnehck 7C; cpV^\Jip-hp_blcipS e`nel ik cXp^n cX l cZXp^n cZX
e cpV^\Jip-hp_blcipS elehn`pS e`kVal c ikehp]Hnn lV _p^Jl_ilak.
cgn`] in _pb\Ulbl JlgpapYp gke_gpehgkinil] c ec]Vl 2nV\bRhkhZ le_ZhkilS _gn^ehkcbniZ c hkTblOn,
e in^pehkhpUiZ` lX hnXilUneal` epcngJniehcp`. Y^n n – Ukehphk cgkHnil] ckbk; NLb – LbnahglUneak]
-hTpg cpV^\Xk lV ap`_gneepgk l hp_blck lV hp_blcipS `pHipehR, _phgnTb]n`k] Lbnahgp^clYkhnbn`;  – Lacl-
`kYlehgkbl inYkhlcip phgkPknhe] ik peipciZX ckbnihik] ^lik`lUneak] ikYg\Vak ik _p^Jl_ila; _ –
XkgkahnglehlakX ^clYkhnb] [1]. Egl Lhp` in^pehkhpUik] _ngn_k^ ehkhlUneapYp ^kcbnil] e`nel ik _p^Jl_ilan;
lV\UniipehR _gpOneepc, _gphnakNHlX c e`kVZckn`ZX % – `keepck] apiOnihgkOl] hp_blck c e`nel.
cpV^\Jip-hp_blcipS e`neRN _p^Jl_ilakX, e\Hnehcniip AikblV \ebpclS gkTphZ leebn^\n`pYp _p^Jl_-
Vkhg\^i]nh _gpYipVlgpckiln lX gkTphpe_pepTipehl ilak l gnV\bRhkhpc le_ZhkilS _pakVZcknh ebn^\NHnn:
_gl gkVblUiZX gnPl`kX Lae_b\khkOll 7C; l _kgk- :cnblUniln UkehphZ cgkHnil] gphpgk n l \`niR-
`nhgkX cpV^\Jip-hp_blcipS e`nel, Uhp cZi\P^knh Jniln hn`_ngkh\gZ hp_blck ik cXp^n c _p^Jl_ila cX
phTlgkhR ^b] e`kVal l pXbkP^nil] _p^Jl_ilapc _glcp^lh a \b\UJnilN \ebpclS nYp e`kVal [2], Uhp
lVTZhpUipn apblUnehcp hp_blck l cpV^\Xk. e_pepTehc\nh \cnblUnilN ^pbYpcnUipehl _p^Jl_ilak.
-_gn^nbniln p_hl`kbRiZX _kgk`nhgpc cpV^\Jip- 9e_pbRVpckiln «Ypg]UnS» cpV^\Jip-hp_blcipS
hp_blcipS e`nel, pTne_nUlckNHlX gkTphpe_pepTipehR e`nel (cX  74…98°?) ^b] pXbkP^nil] gphpgiZX
gphpgiZX _p^Jl_ilapc 7C; _gl `lil`kbRiZX _phng]X _p^Jl_ilapc 45-1262052 _pVcpb]nh pTne_nUlckhR lX
cpV^\Xk l hp_blck c ^clYkhnbn hgnT\nh _gpcn^nil] _gln`bn`pn hn_bpcpn epehp]iln _gl cZepalX UkehphkX
Lae_ngl`nihkbRiZX gkTph. cgkHnil] gphpgk.
9V`niniln apiOnihgkOll hp_blck c e`nel _glcp^lh
a lV`ninilN l _ngngke_gn^nbnilN `pHipehl, gkeXp-
2. LD@JNOT6 IS;C5!OS-JSDHTIOS2
LTLJQB@ LBN;GT $
9`lhkOl] gkTphZ p_pgZ gphpgk 7C; e cpV^\Jip-
hp_blcipS elehn`pS e`kVal _gplVcp^lbkeR c e_nOlkbR-
ip` `p^\bn, c aphpgp` _p^Jl_ila Vk^inS p_pgZ gphpgk
e`kVZckbe] cpV^\Jip-hp_blcipS e`neRN (gle. 1),
k _ngn^ilS (ce_p`pYkhnbRiZS) – `kebp` =?-8E.
G akUnehcn pTnahk le_Zhkil] TZb cZTgki JkglapcZS
gk^lkbRip-\_pgiZS _p^Jl_ila 45-1262052 e angk-
`lUneal`l hnbk`l akUnil] lV ilhgl^k agn`il] Si3N4.
G akUnehcn hp_blck le_pbRVpckbe] angpeli C?-1
e ^pTkcbniln` 5% `kebk =?-8E. 2keag\hak gphpgk
pe\Hnehcb]bkeR Lbnahgp^clYkhnbn`. -encpn ikYg\Pniln
_p^Jl_ilapc Fa pTne_nUlckbpeR e_nOlkbRipS _g\PlipS,
\ehkipcbniipS `nP^\ apg_\ep` `p^\b] l ikg\PiZ`
apbROp` ce_p`pYkhnbRipYp JkglapcpYp gk^lkbRip- 9TL. 1. -_pgk gphpgk

21
GengpeelSeak] ik\Uip-hnXilUneak] apiIngniOl] `pbp^ZX \UniZX l e_nOlkblehpc
«AclkOlpiiZn ^clYkhnbl l elbpcZn \ehkipcal», =peack, 28-30 `k] 2019 Y.

$N3HT&N. 2nV\bRhkhZ le_ZhkilS Egl \cnblUnill apiOnihgkOll hp_blck % cZJn 7,7%


n, pT/`li P, 5 NLb, Gh TcX, °? T_, °? TcZX, °?
cnblUlik NLb cpVgkehknh Vk eUnh Tpbnn lihnielcipYp
\cnblUnil] _phngR ik hgniln c e`kVan [3].
9e_Zhkiln  1 (_  80 aEk; %  9,5)
:cnblUniln apiOnihgkOll hp_blck c e`nel %
0 1536 0 77 78 73 _glcp^lh a \`niRJnilN hn`_ngkh\gZ _p^Jl_ilak.
10 000 1545 450 78 79 74
Cka, ^b] gnPl`k n  43 000 pT/`li pT/`li _gl le_Z-
20 000 1572 1600 79 80 76
hkill  1 (%  9,5%) _gncZJniln hn`_ngkh\gZ
30 000 1617 1575 83 88 81
92
_p^Jl_ilak ik^ hn`_ngkh\gpS e`nel ik cXp^n c inYp
43 000 1702 3520 86 98,5
epehkclbp 12,5?, _gl le_Zhkill  3 (%  7,7%) –
9e_Zhkiln  2 (_  59 aEk; %  12,2)
15?, _gl le_Zhkill  4 (%  4,5%) – 22,5?.
0 1536 0 74 72,5 71
:`niRJniln _ngn_k^k ^kcbnil] cpV^\Jip-hp_blc-
10 000 1545 425 74 73 71,5
ipS e`nel ik _p^Jl_ilan _ _glcp^lh a \`niRJnilN
20 000 1572 1000 74 76 73
30 000 1617 1680 75 82 79 elbZ hgnil] `nP^\ en_kgkhpgp` l Jkglak`l,
43 000 1702 3400 79,5 94 89 Uhp _p^hcngP^knhe] \`niRJniln` cnblUliZ NLb
9e_Zhkiln  3 (_  80 aEk; %  7,7)
ik epphcnhehc\NHlX gnPl`kX gkTphZ.
CkaPn ik ^kiipS \ehkipcan _gpcp^lbleR gkTphZ
0 1536 0 82,5 84 80
79,5
_p p_gn^nbnilN _glcn^niipYp apLIIlOlnihk hgnil]
10 000 1545 400 83 84
20 000 1572 900 84 85 80 f_g c _p^Jl_ilan 45-1262052, gkTphkNHn`
30 000 1617 1320 86 93 84 c \ebpcl]X n  10 000…43 000 pT/`li, _  107 aEk,
43 000 1702 3360 89,5 104,5 94,5 %  4,9…10,7%, e`.cX  11…21?. :ehkipcbnip,
9e_Zhkiln  4 (_  80 aEk; %  4,5) Uhp c ^kiiZX \ebpcl]X NLb 4202,5 Gh, f_g 0,0053.
0 1536 0 96 94 88 :UlhZck], Uhp _gl le_Zhkil]X  1–4 cnblUlik NLb
10 000 1545 400 97 96 86 in _gncZelbk 3740 Gh, `pPip e^nbkhR cZcp^, Uhp l
20 000 1572 1000 96 99 87 f_g c ^kiiZX \ebpcl]X in _gncZJknh 0,0053.
30 000 1617 1600 98 107 91 ?\``kgipn cgn`] gkTphZ _p^Jl_ilak 45-1262052
43 000 1702 3740 94 116,5 105 Vk cneR ap`_bnae _gpcn^niiZX le_ZhkilS
e n  10 000…43 000 pT/`li, _  59…107 aEk,
^\n`pS ik hgniln `nP^\ ^nhkb]`l _p^Jl_ilak l e`.cX  11…21 l 74…98?, %  4,5…12,2% epehkclbp
hgniln` c e`kVpUip` ebpn. ;b] _p^Jl_ilak 45-1262052, Tpbnn _]hl Ukepc. Egl Lhp` epehp]iln _p^Jl_ilak
gkTphkNHnYp c \ebpcl]X n  10 000…43 000 pT/`li, _p VkcngJnill gkTph _glVikip \^pcbnhcpglhnbRiZ`.
_  80 aEk, e`.cX  74…98°?, \cnblUniln apiOnih-
gkOll hp_blck c e`nel aka `lil`\` ^p %  7,7% 3. )NGH-=QOTQ
e_pepTehc\nh \`niRJnilN _phngR, ec]VkiiZX e hgniln`
`nP^\ ^nhkb]`l _p^Jl_ilak (Vk eUnh \cnblUnil] :Unh _glcn^niiZX ^kiiZX _gl _gpnahlgpckill
hpbHliZ e`kVpUipYp ebp] `nP^\ nYp ^clP\Hl`le] _nge_nahlciZX 7C; e cpV^\Jip-hp_blcipS elehn`pS
^nhkb]`l), Uhp _p^hcngP^knhe] \`niRJniln` _phgnT- e`kVal _pVcpblh ^b] gkee`phgniiZX \ebpclS cZTgkhR
b]n`pS Lbnahgp^clYkhnbn` LbnahglUneapS `pHipehl p_hl`kbRiZn _kgk`nhgZ cpV^\Jip-hp_blcipS e`nel,
NLb ik epphcnhehc\NHlX gnPl`kX gkTphZ (gle. 2). pTne_nUlckNHln gkTphpe_pepTipehR gphpgiZX _p^Jl_-
ilapc _gl `lil`kbRiZX _phng]X hp_blck l cpV^\Xk
c ^clYkhnbn. *hp pTne_nUlh _pcZJniln LIInahlcipehl
cpV^\Jip-hp_blcipS elehn`Z e`kVal l \b\UJniln
peipciZX _kgk`nhgpc 7C;.

/DTLSG TLDSH7;SINOO@? TLJS=OTGSI


[1] Aal`pc G.=., "ka\bnc G.9., 3\gVling 2.9. l ^g.
Cnpgl] l gkeUnh cpV^\Jip-gnkahlciZX ^clYkhnbnS
/ Ep^ gn^. ?.=. b]Xhniap. :UnTila ^b] c\Vpc.
=.: =kJlipehgpniln, 1987. 568 e.
[2] 3p^ilg ;.?. 3pihkahik] Yl^gp^lik`lak e`kVal
^nhkbnS `kJli. =.: =kJlipehgpniln, 1976. 304 e.
[3] 3pJnbR G.=. Ep^Jl_ilal akUnil]. =i.: 5kc\ak i
9TL. 2. 7gkIlal Vkclel`pehl NLb(% ) hLXiiak, 1993. 255 e.

22
?naOl] 1 «?lbpcZn l LingYnhlUnealn \ehkipcal»

1@3SF FN&TSONH7O@? DFSQGJO@? DNFNBQJFSI CIT:NJQH6


I LSLJNIQ LTHSIS2 5LJNOSIGT I@LSGSLGSFSLJOS:S LNBSHQJN
E.G. 5]Yli, ;.". pali1
1
7:E «9A= l`. E.9. "kgkipck», =peack
e-mail: NyaginPavel@gmail.com

1. 1IQCQOTQ 2. %SLJNOSIGN ;NCN=T


CgnTpckil], _gn^]cb]n`Zn a elbpcZ` \ehkipc- G epehkcn ?: _nge_nahlcipYp cZepapeapgpehipYp
ak` (?:) bnhkhnbRiZX k__kgkhpc (&A), Ipg`lg\Nhe] ek`pbnhk `pY\h TZhR LIInahlcip le_pbRVpckiZ cZepap-
c Vkclel`pehl ph Vk^kU, gnJkn`ZX Lhl`l ek`pbnhk`l, hn`_ngkh\giZn h\gTpgnkahlciZn ^c\Xapih\giZn
l c pTHn` eb\Ukn cabNUkNh Tpbnn ^ne]hak _gphlcp- ^clYkhnbl e IpgekPipS ak`ngpS l e`nJniln` _phpapc
gnUlcZX _pakVkhnbnS lV gkVblUiZX ^leOl_bli, hkalX ^c\X apih\gpc (C2;;), gkVblUiZn ckglkihZ ^clYk-
aka gkVYpiiZn, `kincgniiZn, hnXilap-Lapip`lUnealn, hnbnS lV`ni]n`pYp Olabk (;9), k hkaPn ap`Tlilgp-
LapbpYlUnealn l `ipYln ^g\Yln Xkgkahnglehlal. ckiiZn h\gTp_g]`phpUiZn ^clYkhnbl (CE;), l`nNHln
EgpTbn`k Ipg`lgpckil] p_hl`kbRipYp pTblak l _p`l`p apih\gk C2;; ^p_pbilhnbRiZS _g]`phpU-
_gpnahiZX _kgk`nhgpc ^clYkhnb] ingkVgZcip ec]Vkik iZS apih\g. GpV`pPipehR cZTpgk hpYp lbl lipYp
e gkVgkTphapS l _gl`niniln` `khn`khlUnealX `p^nbnS ckglkihk eXn`ip-hnXilUneapYp pTblak ?: p_gn^nb]-
(==) gkVblUipYp \gpci] ebpPipehl, p_leZckNHlX nhe] aka ikVikUniln` bnhkhnbRipYp k__kgkhk, hka l
gkTpUlS _gpOnee c Lbn`nihkX ?: (cpV^\XpVkTpgilan, T\^\Hl` _gpYgneep` c `khnglkbkX l hnXipbpYl]X.
^clYkhnbn, cZXp^ip` \ehgpSehcn) l lX `keepcp- G ^kiipS gkTphn gkee`phgni C2;; «hgk^lOlpi-
YkTkglhiZn Xkgkahnglehlal, cp_gpeZ ap`_pipcal ?: ipS» eXn`Z e _nge_nahlciZ` \gpcin` _kgk`nhgpc
c epehkcn &A, k hkaPn bnhip-hnXilUnealn Xkgkahn- LIInahlcipehl \Vbpc.
glehlal (&C) kclkOlpiipYp ap`_bnaek (A3) e \Unhp` ;b] Ipg`lgpckil] gkOlpikbRipYp pTblak ^clYk-
cpV`pPiZX _gpIlbnS _pbnhk cp cen` ^lk_kVpin hnb] _nge_nahlcipYp G?, gnJkbkeR Vk^kUk `ipYpIka-
nYp Lae_b\khkOlpiiZX gnPl`pc [1]. hpgipS `ipYpaglhnglkbRipS p_hl`lVkOll, Y^n c akUn-
3pinUipS OnbRN `khn`khlUneapYp `p^nblgpckil] ehcn p_hl`lVlg\n`ZX _kgk`nhgpc gkee`khglckbleR:
_gl _gpnahlgpckill ek`pbnhk l nYp ?: ]cb]nhe] _pb\- –
_kgk`nhgZ «Vkc]Val» &A: h]Ypcppg\PniipehR
Uniln p_hl`kbRiZX VikUnilS _gpnahiZX _kgk`nhgpc ek`pbnhk, p_gn^nbniik] _p cVbnhipS h]Yn, l \^nbRik]
l _gpYgk`` \_gkcbnil] ^clYkhnbn` [2]. ?bpPipehR ikYg\Vak ik nYp agZbp _gl Ilaelgpckiip` VikUnill
Vk^kUl VkabNUknhe] c TpbRJp` apblUnehcn _kgk`nhgpc, cVbnhipS `keeZ;
cbl]NHlX ik OnbncZn I\iaOll, k hkaPn ikblUln` –
peipciZn _kgk`nhgZ gkTpUnYp _gpOneek ^clYk-
TpbRJpYp Ulebk aglhnglnc pOnial LIInahlcipehl. hnb] ik cVbnhip` gnPl`n: hn`_ngkh\gk YkVk c aglhl-
2nJniln `ipYpaglhnglkbRiZX Vk^kU ik ikUkbRiZX Uneap` enUnill ep_bpcpYp k__kgkhk h\gTliZ cZepapYp
Lhk_kX _gpnahlgpckil] OnbneppTgkVip pe\Hnehcb]hR ^kcbnil] (?A CG;), ehn_niR ^c\Xapih\gipehl l
c epphcnhehcll e lVcnehiZ` _gliOl_p` Ekgnhp [3], e\``kgik] ehn_niR _pcZJnil] ^kcbnil].
epYbkeip aphpgp`\ c _gpehgkiehcn kgY\`nihpc ^pbPik
TZhR cZ]cbnik pTbkehR, c _gn^nbkX aphpgpS inbRV] 3. )NGH-=QOTQ
^pTlhRe] \cnblUnil] il p^ipYp UkehipYp aglhngl] TnV
\`niRJnil] ^g\YlX. G gkTphn, ik _gl`ngn ?: _nge_nahlcipYp cZepap-
G lhpYn, apiOn_h\kbRiZn leebn^pckil] LIInahlc- eapgpehipYp &A, _gp^n`piehglgpckik _gpOn^\gk _gpcn-
ipehl _gl`ninil] ^clYkhnb] c epehkcn &A ^pbPiZ ^nil] p_hl`lVkOlpiiZX leebn^pckilS, ik_gkcbniiZX
_gplVcp^lhRe] c gnV\bRhkhn: ik Ipg`lgpckiln nn p_hl`kbRipYp pTblak, _gpcn^ni

in_pegn^ehcniipYp ep_pehkcbnil] gkeeUlhkiiZX kikblV cbl]il] peipciZX _gpnahiZX _kgk`nhgpc
_pakVkhnbnS LIInahlcipehl _gl`ninil] kbRhngik- ^clYkhnb] l ek`pbnhk ik _gphnakiln &C, k hkaPn
hlciZX ckglkihpc ^clYkhnb] ik p_gn^nbniip` &A; _gn^ehkcbniZ gnV\bRhkhZ gnJnil] `ipYpaglhnglkbRipS
– gkeUnhk Ekgnhp-p_hl`kbRipYp `ipPnehck gnJnilS, `ipYpIkahpgipS Vk^kUl p_hl`lVkOll.
\^pcbnhcpg]NHnYp elehn`n pYgkilUnilS ik _gli]hZn
aglhnglkbRiZn _pakVkhnbl; /DTLSG TLDSH7;SINOO@? TLJS=OTGSI

p_gn^nbnil] l `lil`lVkOll hnXilUneapYp gleak
_gl cZTpgn iklTpbnn gkOlpikbRipYp ckglkihk [1] Ypc -.3., ?nblckipc -.;. -eipcZ lihnYgkOll ek`p-
lV l`nNHlXe] kbRhngikhlc. bnhk l ^clYkhnb]. =.: =kJlipehgpniln, 1989. 304 e.

23
GengpeelSeak] ik\Uip-hnXilUneak] apiIngniOl] `pbp^ZX \UniZX l e_nOlkblehpc
«AclkOlpiiZn ^clYkhnbl l elbpcZn \ehkipcal», =peack, 28-30 `k] 2019 Y.

[2] Ypc -.3., ?nblckipc -.;., ;g\Plili &.5. -_hl- [3] ?pTpbR 9.=., ?hkhilapc 2.", GZTpg p_hl`kbRiZX
`kbRipn \_gkcbniln elbpcpS \ehkipcapS ek`pbnhk. _kgk`nhgpc c Vk^kUkX ep `ipYl`l aglhngl]`l.
=.: =kJlipehgpniln, 1978. 204 e. =.: 5k\ak, 1981.

$5F3SGSBDN5OCO@2 DSF!OQIS2 CT;QH7 BSOSLJ7- 300 H.L.


?.9. "kgZJilapc, A.A. nbniOpc, A.5. 3pehNUniapc1
1
7:E «9A= l`. E.9. "kgkipck», =peack
e-mail: piston@ciam.ru

1. 1IQCQOTQ 2. FNJGN6 ?NFNGJQFTLJTGN TLLHQC5QBS:S


CIT:NJQH6
-eipcipS Vk^kUnS _gl epV^kill ^clYkhnb] ]cb]-
nhe] pTne_nUniln iklb\UJlX LIInahlciZX _pakVk- -Tnahp` leebn^pckil] ]cb]nhe] p__pVlhiZS
hnbnS. ;b] kclkOlpiipYp _pgJincpYp ^clYkhnb] UnhZgnXhkahiZS JnehlOlbli^gpcZS kclkOlpiiZS ^clYk-
abNUncZ`l _pakVkhnb]`l ]cb]Nhe] \^nbRik] `pHipehR hnbR Pl^apehipYp pXbkP^nil] e cpe_bk`niniln` ph
l \^nbRiZS LIInahlciZS gkeXp^ hp_blck. Ckal` ePkhl], gkTphkNHlS ik ^lVnbRip` hp_blcn. -eipciZn
pTgkVp`, Vk^kUk ecp^lhe] a _pcZJnilN `pHipehl l hnXilUnealn ^kiiZn ^clYkhnb] _glcn^niZ c hkTblOn.
Lapip`lUipehl _gl epXgkinill Vk^kiiZX `keep-
YkTkglhiZX _pakVkhnbnS.
3. LDSH7;5QB@Q BNJQBNJT=QLGTQ BSCQHT
;b] ^clYkhnbnS, gkTphkNHlX TpbRJ\N UkehR cgn- DSF!OQIS:S CIT:NJQH6
`nil ik cZepalX UkehphkX _gl VikUlhnbRipS `pHipehl,
iklTpbnn _nge_nahlciZ` ik_gkcbniln` gkVclhl] _gn^- =khn`khlUneapn `p^nblgpckiln gkTpUnYp _gpOneek
ehkcb]nhe] le_pbRVpckiln LingYll cZXbp_iZX YkVpc. AE; _gplVcp^lbpeR c _gpYgk``ip` ap`_bnaen
?gn^l cpV`pPiZX apiehg\ahpgealX gnJnilS «AVL BOOST» (gle. 1).
c ^kiip` ik_gkcbnill b\UJl` ]cb]nhe] le_pbRVpckiln G akUnehcn peipcipS `p^nbl hgnil] le_pbRVpck-
h\gTli, pTne_nUlckNHnn iklb\UJnn epphipJniln bkeR `p^nbR Patton, Nitschke, Heywood (PNH), gkeUnh
`keepYkTkglhiZX _pakVkhnbnS l _pb\Ukn`pS `pHipehl. eYpgkil] c ak`ngn eYpgkil] AE; pe\Hnehcb]be]
$N3HT&N. -eipciZn hnXilUnealn ^kiiZn _p p^likgipS `p^nbl GlTn, ^b] gkeUnhk hn_bppT`nik
Olbli^gk le_pbRVpckbkeR `p^nbR GpJil 1978 Y.
Ekgk`nhg ikUniln
;lk`nhg Olbli^gk D, `` 87
p^ _pgJi] S, `` 94 4. )NGH-=QOTQ
lebp Olbli^gpc 6
;pehlYi\h _glgpeh `pHipehl ik cVbnhip` gnPl`n
?hn_niR ePkhl] (Ynp`nhglUneak]),  17
GVbnhik] `pHipehR Ne, aGh
c 22 aGh, Uhp epphcnhehc\nh 10%. :^nbRiZS LIInahlc-
_gl Ukehphn cgkHnil] n, `li 1
221/4000 iZS gkeXp^ hp_blck eilPni ik  25 Y/(aGh U) ik cenX
:^nbRiZS gkeXp^ hp_blck ik agnSengeap` peipciZX gkTpUlX gnPl`kX, Uhp epehkcb]nh 11,1%
207
gnPl`n ge, Y/(aGh U) ^b] `kael`kbRip _gp^pbPlhnbRipYp gnPl`k. Egl `lil-
?\XpS cne ^clYkhnb] m, aY 220 `kbRip` gkeXp^n ^pehlYknhe] LIInahlciZS 3E;
^clYkhnb] 42%.

/DTLSG TLDSH7;SINOO@? TLJS=OTGSI


[1] -gbli A.?. l ^g. ;clYkhnbl ci\hgniinYp eYpgkil].
C. 1. =.: =kJYlV, 1957. 396 e.
[2] 3kchkgk^Vn 2.. &pakbRiZS hn_bppT`ni c _pgJin-
cZX ^clYkhnb]X. =.: 9V^-cp =7C:, 2001. 592 e.
[3] Patton K., Nitschke R., Heywood J. Development and
Evaluation of a Friction Model for Spark-Ignition
9TL. 1. =p^nbR TkVpcpYp ^clYkhnb] Engines // Sae Technical Paper 890836.

24
?naOl] 1 «?lbpcZn l LingYnhlUnealn \ehkipcal»

&QOGN DNFNBQJFSI $9 6-:S DSGSHQOT6


CH6 BN:TLJFNH7O@? LNBSHQJSI
A.?. 9Y\`ipck, G.;. 3pgpcali, A.A. cehlYinnc1
1
7:E «9A= l`. E.9. "kgkipck», =peack
e-mail: igumnova@ciam.ru

1. 1IQCQOTQ ^clYkhnbR), cnblUli\ *a ik `kael`kbRip` agnSenge-


ap` gnPl`n _pg]^ak 70, cnblUli\ ehn_nil ^c\Xapih\g-
;b] pTne_nUnil] apia\gnihpe_pepTipehl _nge_na- ipehl m  12…16.
hlciZX phnUnehcniiZX `kYlehgkbRiZX ek`pbnhpc -_gn^nbniZ [1] _kgk`nhgZ ^c\Xapih\giZX ^clYk-
YgkP^kieapS kclkOll inpTXp^l`p epV^kiln phnUneh- hnbnS _gn^ikVikUniiZX ^b] _nge_nahlciZX `kYleh-
cniiZX ^clYkhnbnS ipcpYp _papbnil], peipciZn _kgk- gkbRiZX ek`pbnhpc 2030-X Yp^pc. 2kee`phgniZ ^clYk-
`nhgZ hkalX ^clYkhnbnS ^pbPiZ epphcnhehcpckhR hnbl hgnX \gpcinS h]Yl: 32, 10 l 5 he – ^b] ^kbRin-
hni^niOl]` `lgpcpYp ^clYkhnbnehgpnil]. ;clYkhnbl `kYlehgkbRipYp, TblPin-egn^in`kYlehgkbRipYp l
6-Yp _papbnil] ^pbPiZ pTne_nUlhR eilPniln agnS- gnYlpikbRipYp ek`pbnhpc. 2kee`khglckn`Zn ^clYkhnbl
engeapYp \^nbRipYp gkeXp^k hp_blck ik 15 l Tpbnn cZ_pbiniZ _p ^c\XckbRipS eXn`n e gn^\ahpgiZ`
_gpOnihpc _p egkcinilN e C2;; E;-14, J\`k Tpbnn _glcp^p` cnihlb]hpgk l TZehgpXp^iZ` ap`_gneepgp`
Un` ik 30 EPN dB ilPn ipg` 7b. 4 ehki^kghk 93A-, ilVapYp ^kcbnil] gkV`nHniip` ik ckb\ C5;.
L`leell NOX ik 55…65% ilPn ipg` CAEP6. ;b] akP^pYp ^clYkhnb] gkee`phgniZ ckglkihZ
e gkVipS cnblUlipS ehn_nil ^c\Xapih\gipehl
ik gkeUnhip` gnPl`n. EpakVkip, Uhp _pcZJniln
2. ONHT; JQOCQO&T2 FN;ITJT6 T S&QOGN ehn_nil ^c\Xapih\gipehl e cnblUliZ 10 ^p 22
DNFNBQJFSI $9 BN:TLJFNH7O@?
LNBSHQJSI _glcp^lh a _pcZJnilN Lapip`lUipehl _gl`ngip
ik 8%. GnblUlik bpTpcpS h]Yl ik cVbnhip` gnPl`n
? ikUkbk 2000-X Yp^pc Vk g\TnPp` kahlcip ccp^]he] _gl Lhp` \`niRJknhe] ik 40%. GZ_pbinik pOniak
c Lae_b\khkOlN ik `kYlehgkbRiZX ek`pbnhkX YgkP^ki- `keepYkTkglhiZX _pakVkhnbnS gkee`khglckn`ZX ^clYk-
eapS kclkOll ^clYkhnbl _]hpYp _papbnil]. G TblPkSJnn hnbnS. EpakVkip, Uhp \cnblUniln ehn_nil ^c\Xapih\g-
cgn`] pPl^knhe] ccp^ c Lae_b\khkOlN ^clYkhnbnS ipehl e cnblUliZ 10 ^p 22 _glcp^lh a _pcZJnilN
5+ _papbnil] – C2;; GE9X Ilg`Z General Electric l cnek ^clYkhnb] _gl`ngip ik 10%.
^clYkhnb] gkVgkTkhZckn`pYp _p _gpYgk``n Advance
Ilg`pS Rolls-Roys. Egl Lhp` c ?A l cgp_n c gk`akX 3. )NGH-=QOTQ
Ype\^kgehcniiZX l apg_pgkhlciZX _gpYgk`` kahlcip
epV^knhe] ik\Uip-hnXilUnealS Vk^nb (5C) ^b] gkVgk- Ckal` pTgkVp`, ebn^\nh pPl^khR, Uhp ^clYkhnbl
Tphal ^clYkhnbnS ebn^\NHnYp, JnehpYp, _papbnil]. 6-Yp _papbnil] T\^\h cnblUli\ hn`_ngkh\gZ YkVk
G ikOlpikbRip` _bkin ?A l cgp_nSeapS _gpYgk``n ik cVbnhip` gnPl`n _pg]^ak 2000 3 l cnblUli\
ACARE _pehkcbniZ Onbl epV^kil] a 2030-` Yp^k` e\``kgipS ehn_nil _pcZJnil] ^kcbnil] 70…80
ek`pbnhpc e akg^likbRip \b\UJniiZ`l bnhip-hnXil- c \ebpcl]X agnSengeapYp _pbnhk. ?hn_niR ^c\Xapih\g-
Uneal`l Xkgkahnglehlak`l l VikUlhnbRip eilPni- ipehl _gl Lhp` T\^nh epehkcb]hR _pg]^ak 15. ikUnil]
iZ`l \gpci]`l J\`k l L`leell cgn^iZX cnHnehc. \^nbRipYp gkeXp^k hp_blck ik agnSengeap` gnPl`n
G gkTphn gkee`phgniZ peipciZn hni^niOll T\^\h pehkcb]hR 0,45…0,48 aY/aYe U.
gkVclhl] C2;; `kYlehgkbRiZX ek`pbnhpc _p _kgk-
`nhgk` hng`p^lik`lUneapYp Olabk l ehn_nil ^c\Xapi- /DTLSG TLDSH7;SINOO@? TLJS=OTGSI
h\gipehl l pTpeipcki cZTpg cnblUli hn`_ngkh\gZ
YkVk l e\``kgipS ehn_nil _pcZJnil] ^kcbnil] [1] 3pgpcali G.;., cehlYinnc A.A. EgpYgk``k gkeUnhk
epphcnhehc\NHlX ^clYkhnb]` JnehpYp _papbnil]. kclkOlpiiZX 7C; ik Lhk_n _gn^ckglhnbRipYp
EpakVkip, Uhp ^clYkhnbR JnehpYp _papbnil] ^b] _gpnahlgpckil] e le_pbRVpckiln` clV\kbRiZX
^kbRin`kYlehgkbRiZX ek`pbnhpc YgkP^kieapS kclkOll _gpYgk``iZX egn^ehc. 3-n lV^kiln. AclkOlpiiZn
T\^nh l`nhR cnblUli\  *Y ik cVbnhip` gnPl`n c \ebp- hnXipbpYll 2000, CnVleZ ^pabk^pc, \apcealS,
cl]X =?A+15? _pg]^ak 2000 3 (egn^ilS ipcZS 1997. 27 e.

25
GengpeelSeak] ik\Uip-hnXilUneak] apiIngniOl] `pbp^ZX \UniZX l e_nOlkblehpc
«AclkOlpiiZn ^clYkhnbl l elbpcZn \ehkipcal», =peack, 28-30 `k] 2019 Y.

1HT6OTQ OQSDFQCQHQOOSLJT I SDFQCQHQOTT DSGN;NJQHQ2 LSIQF!QOLJIN


HQJNJQH7OS:S NDDNFNJN T Q:S LTHSIS2 5LJNOSIGT ON $ LNBSHQJN
;.". pali, A.=. 9e]ipc1
1
7:E «9A= l`. E.9. "kgkipck», =peack
e-mail: Nik_oF@ciam.ru

1. 1IQCQOTQ Vk^kiln` ^c\X _kgk`nhgpc ( – _kgk`nhg, phcnhehcniiZS


Vk Ipg`\ gke_gn^nbnil] l  – _kgk`nhg, phcnhehcniiZS
GZepak] ehn_niR inp_gn^nbniipehl c ikVikUnill Vk `keJhkT) _pb\UkhR ek`Zn gkVblUiZn VkapiZ: ph ipg-
_pakVkhnbnS epcngJniehck Lbn`nihpc gkVgkTkhZckn`pYp `kbRipYp \enUniipYp ^p TblValX a gkcip`ngip`\ (gle. 1).
ek`pbnhk l nYp elbpcpS \ehkipcal (?:) in ^knh cpV-
`pPipehl e \cngniipehRN _gpYipVlgpckhR cZXp^iZn 2. %SLJNOSIGN ;NCN=T
lihnYgkbRiZn bnhip-hnXilUnealn Xkgkahnglehlal (&C)
bnhkhnbRipYp k__kgkhk (&A). G cngp]hipehipS _pehkipcan inp_gn^nbniipehR
EpLhp`\ c _gpOneen _gpnahlgpckil] PnbkhnbRip leXp^ipS liIpg`kOll _p ?: `pPnh \UlhZckhRe] aka
l`nhR ]eipn _gn^ehkcbniln p gnkbRiZX cpV`pPipeh]X Vk^kiln` phabpinilS lihnYgkbRiZX _kgk`nhgpc (h]Yl
c phipJnill epV^kckn`pS elehn`Z l p ehn_nil gleak R l \^nbRipYp gkeXp^k hp_blck CR) ik peipciZX
cZ_pbinil] Vk^kiiZX hgnTpckilS, aphpgpn `pPnh TZhR gnPl`kX gkTphZ ^clYkhnb], hka l Tpbnn ^nhkbRiZ`
eIpg`lgpckip c gnV\bRhkhn _gl`ninil] ehkhlehlUnealX gkee`phgniln` gleak in_pb\Unil] _gpYipVlg\n`ZX
`nhp^pc, _pVcpb]NHlX \UnehR cngp]hipehR epUnhkil] Xkgkahnglehla nn \Vbpc.
phabpinilS gkVblUiZX _kgk`nhgpc ^clYkhnb], ?: l Egl`niniln _ngcpYp _p^Xp^k OnbneppTgkVip
&A ph ikVikUniiZX ip`likbRiZX VikUnilS [1 –
3]. ik ikUkbRiZX Lhk_kX gkVgkTphal ^clYkhnb], apY^k
-eipcik] ebpPipehR Vk^kUl p_gn^nbnil] cngp]h- incpV`pPip e cZepapS ^pbnS \cngniipehl e_gpYipVl-
ipehl cZ_pbinil] hgnTpckilS, _gn^]cb]n`ZX a ek`p- gpckhR TpbRJpS `keelc _kgk`nhgpc _gkahlUneal cenX
bnh\, epehplh c pTpeipckiip` _gpYipVn cpV`pPipYp nYp Lbn`nihpc, k cabNUniln lX c Ulebp Ikahpgpc gleak
^lk_kVpik phabpinil] peipciZX leXp^iZX Xkgkahn- VikUlhnbRip \ebpPilh gkee`phgniln _gpTbn`Z.
glehla ^clYkhnb] l &A ph lX ip`likbRiZX VikUnilS, G gkTphn gkee`phgni ^clYkhnbR ^b] _nge_nahlc-
ikVikUnill Vkapik gke_gn^nbnil] phabpinilS cZTgki- ipYp ek`pbnhk ik TkVn phgkTphkiipYp YkVpYningkhpgk
iZX _kgk`nhgpc c _gn^nbkX \ehkipcbniipYp ^lk_kVpik, (77), _pVcpb]NHnYp e cZepapS ^pbnS \cngniipehl
k hkaPn phTpgk ^b] leebn^pckilS _kgk`nhgpc ?: e_gpYipVlgpckhR nYp Xkgkahnglehlal l hn` ek`Z`
l ek`pbnhk c Onbp`, ehn_niR inp_gn^nbniipehl e\Hnehcniip epagkhlhR `keelc eb\UkSiZX ^clYkhnbR-
^pehlPnil] Vk]cbniiZX VikUnilS aphpgZX ]cb]nhe] iZX Ikahpgpc. EpLhp`\ c akUnehcn Ikahpgpc gleak,
iklTpbnn cZepapS. aphpgZn `pY\h _glcnehl a phabpinil]` &C &A
Egl `p^nblgpckill _kgk`nhgpc ek`pbnhiZX _p^- ph Pnbkn`pYp \gpci], TZbl cZTgkiZ _pakVkhnbl epcng-
elehn` ik peipckill gnV\bRhkhpc Lae_nghlVZ \^pTip Jniehck cnihlb]hpgk, cpV^\XpVkTpgilak l ep_bk, k hkaPn
le_pbRVpckhR -gke_gn^nbniln, ^kNHnn cpV`pPipehR cnepcZn l kLgp^lik`lUnealn Xkgkahnglehlal ek`pbnhk.

9TL. 1. Egl`ngZ -gke_gn^nbnil]

26
?naOl] 1 «?lbpcZn l LingYnhlUnealn \ehkipcal»

k hkaPn _\hl \cnblUnil] cngp]hipehl ^pehlPnil]


3. )NGH-=QOTQ
hgnT\n`ZX Xkgkahnglehla ek`pbnhk.
Egn^ehkcbniZ _p^Xp^Z a leebn^pckilN cbl]il]
inp_gn^nbniipehl c leXp^iZX ^kiiZX _p ?: l &A, /DTLSG TLDSH7;SINOO@? TLJS=OTGSI
phgkPkNHln ehn_niR gleak ^pehlPnil] Pnbkn`ZX
VikUnilS bnhiZX ^kiiZX ek`pbnhk. G Ukehipehl, [1] ;kilbpc G.., 9eknc G.3., 2]Tpc A.=., ak^pc &.=.
e le_pbRVpckiln` `nhp^k ehkhlehlUneapYp `p^nblgp- ?hkhlehlUneak] pOniak Xkgkahnglehla _gpnahlg\n-
ckil] =pihn-3kgbp, eIpg`lgpckiZ Vkclel`pehl, `pYp ek`pbnhk e _p`pHRN `nhp^k =pihn-3kgbp.
_pVcp- b]NHln p_gn^nblhR cngp]hipehR _pb\Unil] :UniZn Vk_leal A79, 1973. C. 4.  2. ?. 137–142.
inpTXp^l`ZX &C, k hkaPn pOnilhR ehn_niR \X\^- [2] Ypc -.3., ?nblckipc -.;., ;g\Plili &.5. -_hl-
Jnil] Xkgkahnglehla &A _gl _gln`bn`p` \gpcin `kbRipn \_gkcbniln elbpcpS \ehkipcapS ek`pbnhk.
cpV`pPiZX gleapc. =.: =kJlipehgpniln, 1978. 204 e.
5k peipcn kikblVk gnV\bRhkhpc _pakVkiZ cpV`pP- [3] Ypc -.3., ?nblckipc -.;. -eipcZ lihnYgkOll ek`p-
iZn ckglkihZ _kglgpckil] ^nSehclS Ikahpgpc gleak, bnhk l ^clYkhnb]. =.: =kJlipehgpniln, 1989. 304 e.

9N;FN3SJGN ID5LGOS:S GSHHQGJSFN CH6 DQFLDQGJTIOS:S


NITN&TSOOS:S DSF!OQIS:S CIT:NJQH6 L FNLDFQCQHQOO@B
IDF@LGTINOTQB T TLGFSI@B ;NT:NOTQB
G.A. k`ZJb]nc, A.A. nbniOpc1
1
7:E «9A= l`. E.9. "kgkipck», =peack
e-mail: piston@ciam.ru

1. 1IQCQOTQ inpTXp^l`p `kael`kbRip p_hl`lVlgpckhR _gpOneeZ


c_gZeak l YkVppT`nik ^b] _pb\Unil] iklb\UJlX
G ikehp]Hnn cgn`] Jlgpapn gke_gpehgkiniln `pHipehiZX Xkgkahnglehla _gl ^p_\ehl`p` \^nbRip`
c bnYalX bnhkhnbRiZX k__kgkhkX _pb\Ulbl kclkOlpiiZn gkeXp^n hp_blck [1, 2].
_pgJincZn ^clYkhnbl (AE;). AE; cZ_\eakNh ^b] nbRN _gpcn^niipS gkTphZ ]cb]nhe] – gkVgkTphak
\ehkipcal ik ek`pbnhZ enbReapXpV]SehcniipYp _gl`n- p_hl`kbRipS, e hpUal Vgnil] ik_pbinil] l Ipg`lgp-
inil], c akUnehcn elbpcpS \ehkipcal ^b] UkehiZX ckil] hp_blcpcpV^\JipS e`nel, c_\eaipS elehn`Z ^b]
ek`pbnhpc, k hkaPn Tne_lbphiZX bnhkhnbRiZX k__kgkhpc. V-pTgkVipYp _pgJincpYp ^clYkhnb] `pHipehRN 500 b.e.
AE; – cZepapikYg\PniiZS ^clYkhnbR, TpbRJ\N GZ_pbinik hgnX`ngik] `p^nbR c_\eaipYp T\Ingk.
UkehR cgn`nil gkTphkNHlS ik pTpgphkX 80% ip`l- Egl _gpnahlgpckill cZTgki Vkapi lV`ninil] pTn`k
ikbRiZX, c ec]Vl e Lhl` a ^nhkb]` l \Vbk` _gl`ni]- _p akP^p`\ lV Olbli^gpc ^clYkhnb] ik gnPl`n
Nhe] _pcZJniiZn hgnTpckil] ik^nPipehl, hkaPn 3gnSengealS 1 (pTpgphZ 4500 pT/`li), leXp^] lV
Ynp`nhglUnealX gkV`ngpc ^clYkhnb] l LIInahlcipehl
ik_pbinil] Olbli^gpc.

2. NJQBNJT=QLGN6 BSCQH7
Egl`ninik k– `p^nbR h\gT\bnihipehl. :gkcinil]
ehki^kghipS k– `p^nbl, Vk_lekiiZn c hniVpgipS
Ipg`n:

9TL. 1. 3D-`p^nbR c_\eaipYp T\Ingk

27
GengpeelSeak] ik\Uip-hnXilUneak] apiIngniOl] `pbp^ZX \UniZX l e_nOlkblehpc
«AclkOlpiiZn ^clYkhnbl l elbpcZn \ehkipcal», =peack, 28-30 `k] 2019 Y.

Y^n t  ck2 /  – h\gT\bnihik] c]VapehR, k L`_lglUnealn cpV^\Xk ^b] akP^pYp Olbli^gk, _pakVZckNHln
apiehkihZ l`nNh VikUnil]: c  0,09; c1  1,44; XpgpJ\N gkcip`ngipehR gke_gn^nbnil] hp_blcp-
c2  1,92; k  1;   1,3 [3]. cpV^\JipS e`nel ik c_\ean ^clYkhnb].

3. )NGH-=QOTQ /DTLSG TLDSH7;SINOO@? TLJS=OTGSI


G Xp^n gnJnil] Vk^kUl _gl ehkhlUneapS _gp^\can [1] Egpap_niap 5.9. *ae_ngl`nihkbRiZn leebn^pck-
Ypbpcal Vk^kckbleR YgkilUiZn \ebpcl] ik cXp^n – il] ^clYkhnbnS ci\hgniinYp eYpgkil]. 9V^-cp
^kcbniln ik^^\ck 1,33 Tkg, ik cZXp^n inehkOlpikgiZn &kiR, 2010. 592 c.
\ebpcl] – lV`niniln pTn`ipYp gkeXp^k cpV^\Xk [2] &\akili G.5. ;clYkhnbl ci\hgniinYp eYpgkil].
ik akP^ZS \Ypb _pcpgph apbniUkhpYp ckbk. =.: GZeJk] Japbk, 2007. 368 c.
G gnV\bRhkhn `khn`khlUneapYp `p^nblgpckil] [3] k_pJilapc .A., CNili A.G. =p^nblgpckiln
_pb\UniZ lihnYgkbRiZn VikUnil] `keepcpYp gkeXp^k hnUnilS YkVk cp c_\eaip` akikbn ;G?.

/S;CNOTQ DNFNBQJFT=QLGS2 BSCQHT (DT- T :TDSJFS?STCO@?


FSJSFO@? BN!TO L z-5:SH7O@B FSJSFSB
G.E. =lili, A.5. 3pehNUniapc1
1
7:E «9A= l`. E.9. "kgkipck», =peack
e-mail: piston@ciam.ru

1. 1IQCQOTQ `kbpgkV`ngiZX &A Jlgpap _gl`ni]Nhe] 2E;, englSip


cZ_\eakn`Zn hkal`l Ilg`k`l aka: Aixro – 7ng`kil],
-^il` lV peipciZX ^pehpliehc gphpgip-_pgJin- Wankel AG – 7ng`kil], Austro Engine – Acehgl],
cZX ^clYkhnbnS (2E;) cZ_pbiniiZX _p eXn`n . Gkianb], Lycoming – ?A.
]cb]nhe] `kbZS \^nbRiZS cne, agp`n hpYp 2E; pTbk- CkaPn gphpgiZn `kJliZ Jlgpap _gl`ni]Nhe]
^kNh ilVal`l clTgkOlpiiZ`l Xkgkahnglehlak`l. c akUnehcn ap`_gneepgiZX `kJli ik ikVn`ipS hnXilan.
"bkYp^kg] Lhp`\ 2E;, cen Tpbnn Ukehp, le_pbRV\Nhe] G 9A=n cn^\he] gkTphZ e OnbRN epV^kil]
ik _lbphlg\n`ZX l Tne_lbphiZX bnhkhnbRiZX k__k- ik\Uip-hnXilUneapYp Vk^nbk _p kclkOlpiiZ` 2E;.
gkhkX (&A). k g\TnPp`, c epehkcn elbpcZX \ehkipcpa k _pebn^iln Yp^Z gkVgkTphkik apiOn_Ol] epV^kil]

9TL. 1. ?Xn`Z hgpXpl^iZX gphpgiZX `kJli

28
?naOl] 1 «?lbpcZn l LingYnhlUnealn \ehkipcal»

en`nSehck ^clYkhnbnS `pHipehRN 50…300 b.e. ik TkVn ^kiiZn ^b] gkeUnhk bNTpS lV eXn` hgpXpl^iZX
\ilIlOlgpckiiZX `p^\bnS l \Vbpc. 5k ^kiiZS `p`nih gphpgiZX `kJli.
gkVgkTphkiZ epcgn`niiZn `nhp^lal gkeUnhk gkTpUnYp 2kTphk cZ_pbinik e OnbRN ^p_pbinil] 3p`_bnaeipS
_gpOneek, alin`khlal l ^lik`lal, _gpUipehl peipciZX `nhp^lal gkeUnhk [1] 2E;, epV^kiipS c 9A=n c 2014 Y.
^nhkbnS l _g. Egpcn^niiZn gkinn gkeUnhiZn leebn^p-
ckil] _pVcpblbl epV^khR ^n`piehgkhpg kclkOlpiipYp 3. )NGH-=QOTQ
gphpgip-_pgJincpYp ^clYkhnb] `pHipehRN 100 b.e. l
_gpcnehl nYp le_Zhkil] ik ehni^n :-336 9A=k. ?pV^kiln _kgk`nhglUneapS `p^nbl 2E; _pVcpblbp
pTbnYUlhR l \eapglhR _gpOnee _p^Tpgk Ynp`nhglUnealX
2. 9N;FN3SJGN DNFNBQJFT=QLGS2 BSCQHT _kgk`nhgpc epV^kiipYp l le_ZhkiipYp c 9A=n
^clYkhnb]-^n`piehgkhpgk 2E;-650, k \b\UJniln LhpS
5npTXp^l`pehR _gpgkTphal cpV`pPipehl epV^kil] `p^nbl _pVcpblh c ^kbRinSJn` gkeJlglhR cpV`pPipehl
2E; gkVblUiZX gkV`ngipehnS _glcnbp a _p]cbnilN `nhp^lal gkeUnhk 2E; l _gl`ni]hR nn \Pn ^b] epV^kil]
_kgk`nhglUneapS `p^nbl 2E; apiehg\aOll Gkianb], gphpgip-_pgJincZX ap`_gneepgpc l ^clYkhnbnS,
_pVcpb]NHnS _pb\UlhR lV _ngclUiZX Ynp`nhglUnealX phblUiZX ph 2E; eXn`Z Gkianb].
^kiiZX (LaeOnihglelhnhk, pTgkV\NHnYp gk^l\ek l
JlgliZ gphpgk) ^kiiZn ^b] gkeUnhk _p `nhp^lan: /DTLSG TLDSH7;SINOO@? TLJS=OTGSI
appg^likhZ ^b] _pehgpnil] hgpXpl^Z l Ygkil gphpgk,
_bpHk^l gkTpUlX ak`ng, ^kiiZn _p gkTpUn`\ pTn`\ [1] 3pehNUniapc A.5., nbniOpc A.A., ?n`nipc E.G.,
l nYp lV`ninilN, ehn_nil ePkhl]. =lili G.E. 2kVgkTphak p^ipenaOlpiipYp gphpgip-
5p 2E; Gkianb] ]cb]nhe] UkehiZ` eb\Ukn` _pgJincpYp ^clYkhnb]-^n`piehgkhpgk ik peipcn
gphpgiZX `kJli, _pLhp`\, ^b] cpV`pPipehl _p^Tpgk epcgn`niipS ap`_bnaeipS `nhp^lal gkeUnhk //
gkVblUiZX eXn` gphpgiZX `kJli, _kgk`nhglUneak] Gnehila ?k`kgeapYp Ype\^kgehcniipYp kLgpape`l-
`p^nbR TZbk gkeJlgnik ^b] _gl`ninil] a Yl_p- UneapYp \ilcngelhnhk l`. kak^n`lak ?.E. 3pgpbnck
hgpXpl^iZ` eXn`k` l ^p_pbinik _kgk`nhgp` cZTpgk (ikOlpikbRipYp leebn^pckhnbReapYp \ilcngelhnhk),
Ulebk cngJli z. *hp _pVcpblbp _pb\UkhR ikUkbRiZn 2014.  5–2 (47). ?. 173–181.

%FSQGJTFSINOTQ ITOJN I LHQCQ ;N S3JQGNQB@B JQHSB


=.A. "\Yknc, G.G. 7\TealS1
1
7:E A79, \apcealS
e-mail: Mikhail.bugaev@tsagi.ru

1. 1IQCQOTQ ag\hal bp_kehl (r


 ), aphpgpn pTne_nUlcknh `kael`kbR-
ipn VikUniln h]Yl clihk P.
5k peipckill _gn^Z^\HlX le_ZhkilS [1 –
3]
TZbp gnJnip gkee`khglckhR Jnehlbp_kehiZn `p^nbl 2. 9N;FN3SJGN DNFNBQJFT=QLGS2 BSCQHT
clihk ^lk`nhgp` D  0,32…0,36 `. 2keUnhik] eapgpehR
_phpak c A;C C-102 _gli]hk gkcipS V  40 `/e. lebp 7np`nhglUnealn Xkgkahnglehla bp_kehl (gke_gn-
pTpgphpc `p^nbl clihk ckgRlgpckbpeR c ^lk_kVpin ^nbniln Xpg^, `kael`kbRiZX hpbHli l _gpIlbnS
n  4000…4500 pT/`li. 5k gle. 1 _gn^ehkcbnik `p^nbR enUnilS bp_kehnS) le_pbRVpckiZ aka ik _gpJbpS
pThnakn`pYp hnbk e clihp` ^lk`nhgp` D  0,24 `. `p^nbl clihk ^lk`nhgp` D  0,24 `
ALgp^lik`lUneapn _gpnahlgpckiln bp_kehl clihk G gnV\bRhkhn _gpnahlgpckil] _pb\Uni Vkapi ag\hal
pe\Hnehcbnip lV \ebpclS agnSengeapYp _pbnhk e _p`pHRN bp_kehl ^b] clihk gkTphkNHnYp c ebn^n Vk hnbp`.
`nhp^k, gkVgkTphkiipYp 3lJkbpcZ` A.5. c 59--1 kapi ag\hal c ebn^n VikUlhnbRip phblUknhe]
A79 [4] -_hl`lVkOl] _pb\Unik _gl gnJnill ph Vkapik ag\hal clihpc c gkcip`ngip` _phpan (gle. 2).
ebn^\NHnS ckglkOlpiipS Vk^kUl. *hp ec]Vkip e gkVblUiZ`l Vkapik`l lV`ninil] \Ybpc
Egl Vk^kiip` VikUnill `pHipehl W^ ^clYkhnb] _glhnakil]  bp_kehl ^b] clihk c Vkhpg`pPniip` _phpan.
hgnT\nhe] ikShl hkapn gke_gn^nbniln Olga\b]Oll7(r ) 9e_pbRV\] _pb\UniiZS _gl _gpnahlgpcpUip`
l epphcnhehc\NHnn nS lV`niniln \Ybk Ynp`nhglUneapS gkeUnhn Vkapi ag\hal, _gpcn^ni _pcngpUiZS gkeUnh

29
GengpeelSeak] ik\Uip-hnXilUneak] apiIngniOl] `pbp^ZX \UniZX l e_nOlkblehpc
«AclkOlpiiZn ^clYkhnbl l elbpcZn \ehkipcal», =peack, 28-30 `k] 2019 Y.

Xkgkahnglehla clihk. :YbZ khkal _gpIlbnS c _glap`-


bncpS Vpin cZXp^]h Vk _gn^nbZ 10ik gle. 2, Uhp `pPnh
_glcp^lhR a phgZc\ c _glap`bncp` \Ukehan bp_kehl.
G ec]Vl e Lhl` ag\hak bp_kehl TZbk eapggnahlgpckik
^b] epTbN^nil] \Ybk khkal c _gn^nbkX 10ik gle. 3.
;b] e_gpnahlgpckiipYp clihk TZbl gkeeUlhkiZ
kLgp^lik`lUnealn Xkgkahnglehlal l p_gn^nbnik _phgnT-
ik] `pHipehR c Vkclel`pehl ph \Ybk \ehkipcal .
5k gle. 4 _gn^ehkcbnip egkciniln `pHipehnS
clihk c ecpTp^ip` _phpan l c ebn^n Vk hnbp` _gl
pTne_nUnill inpTXp^l`pS h]Yl 3,2 aY.
9TL. 1. =p^nbR penel``nhglUipYp hnbk e cpV^\JiZ` Glih c ebn^n hgnT\nh ik  29% `niRJn `pHipehl
clihp` ^lk`nhgp` D  0,24 ` c A;C C-102 ^b] pTne_nUnil] _phgnTipS h]Yl c 3,2 aY. Egl Lhp` clih
c ebn^n Vk hnbp` gkTphknh _gl `niRJn` Ulebn pTpgphpc.

3. )NGH-=QOTQ
Egpcn^nip _gpnahlgpckiln `p^nbl cpV^\JipYp
clihk c ebn^n Vk pThnakn`Z` hnbp`. ;b] pTne_nUnil]
TnVphgZcipYp pThnakil] _gn^bpPnip \`niRJniln
ag\hal c _glap`bncpS Vpin.
Egpcn^niZ gkeUnhZ kLgp^lik`lUnealX Xkgkahn-
glehla e_gpnahlgpckiipYp clihk _gl gkTphn c ebn^n
Vk hnbp`.
9TL. 2. ?gkciniln ag\hpa bp_kehl clihk c ebn^n Vk hnbp`
l c ecpTp^ip` _phpan =lil`\` _phgnTb]n`pS `pHipehl _gl h]Yn 3,2 aY
_pb\Uni _gl \Ybn \ehkipcal bp_kehl 75  250.
Glih c ebn^n hgnT\nh _gl`ngip ik 29% `niRJn
`pHipehl _p egkcinilN e clihp` c ecpTp^ip` _phpan
^b] pTne_nUnil] h]Yl 3,2 aY.

/DTLSG TLDSH7;SINOO@? TLJS=OTGSI


[1] Enhgpc G., :^P\X\ A.., 3lJkbpc A.5. l ^g.
CgnhlS Lhk_ Lae_ngl`nihkbRiZX leebn^pckilS
c A;C C-102 kLgp^lik`lUneapS lihngIngniOll
`p^nbl INVnb]Pk e \ehkipcbniiZ` c XcpehpcpS
Ukehl ^clPlhnbn`. 5C- 59--2 A79, 2008.
9TL. 3. ?apggnahlgpckiik] ag\hak l  11657.
epphcnhehc\NHln nS \YbZ khkal [2] Enhgpc A.G., :^P\X\ A.., 9bR]Jniap 5.E. l ^g.
nhcnghZS Lhk_ Lae_ngl`nihkbRiZX leebn^pckilS
c A;C C-102 kLgp^lik`lUneapS lihngIngniOll
`p^nbl INVnb]Pk e \ehkipcbniiZ` c XcpehpcpS
Ukehl ^clPlhnbn`. 5C- 59--2 A79, 2009.
 11753.
[3] Enhgpc A.G., 7\TealS G.G., 3lJkbpc A.5. l ^g.
2keUnhip-Lae_ngl`nihkbRiZn leebn^pckil] _p p_hl-
`lVkOll ap`_pipcal clihk ^b] _pcZJnil] kLgp-
^lik`lUneapS LIInahlcipehl elehn`Z INVnb]P –
hpbakNHlS clih. 5C- 59--2 A79, 2010.  11831.
[4] 3lJkbpc A.5. 9eebn^pckil] _p gkVgkTphan _nge_na-
hlciZX `nhp^pc gkeUnhk kLgp^lik`lUnealX Xkgka-
hnglehla l _gpnahlgpckil] cpV^\JiZX clihpc
9TL. 4. kclel`pehR `pHipehl _gl h]Yn 3,2 aY e \Unhp` hgnTpckilS _p kLgp^lik`lUneapS LIIna-
^b] clihk c ebn^n Vk hnbp` l c ecpTp^ip` _phpan hlcipehl l gne\ge\. 5C- 59--1 A79, 2005.  7461.

30
?naOl] 1 «?lbpcZn l LingYnhlUnealn \ehkipcal»

1HT6OTQ DFS:FNBB@ 5DFNIHQOT6 TOJQ:FNH7OS:S FNGQJOS-


DF6BSJS=OS:S CIT:NJQH6 ON HQJOS-JQ?OT=QLGTQ ?NFNGJQFTLJTGT
I@LSGSLGSFSLJOS:S 3QLDTHSJOS:S HQJNJQH7OS:S NDDNFNJN
2.2. 5lY`kh\bbli, A.?. gJpc1
1
7:E «9A= l`. E.9. "kgkipck», =peack
e-mail: NRR@ciam.ru

1. 1IQCQOTQ bnil] _pbipYp ^kcbnil] cX, apLIIlOlnihk gkeXp^k 


l apLIIlOlnihk ep_gphlcbnil] _p Pl^apS blill X.cX
5k Lhk_n Ipg`lgpckil] _gn^ckglhnbRipYp c Vk^kiip` ^lk_kVpin Ulenb H ikeUlhZckNhe] Vkgkinn.
hnXilUneapYp pTblak _nge_nahlciZX &A c Xp^n _gpcn- G _gpYgk``n gkeUnhk Xkgkahnglehla 92E;C
^nil] 592 gnJknhe] Vk^kUk _pleak p_hl`kbRipYp le_pbRVpckiZ lVcnehiZn `nhp^lal YkVp^lik`lUneapYp
pTblak &A ik peipcn pOnial nYp _phniOlkbRiZX &C gkeUnhk gkanhip-_g]`phpUiZS ^clYkhnbnS [3] e \Unhp`
l lX epphcnhehcl] Vk^kiiZ` hgnTpckil]`. Vkclel`pehl hn_bpIlVlUnealX ecpSehc cpV^\Xk l
G ^pabk^n gkee`phgni Yl_phnhlUnealS ecngXVc\- _gp^\ahpc eYpgkil] ph hn`_ngkh\gZ. 2keUnh ecpSehc
apcpS Tne_lbphiZS &A hl_k Meteor (gle. 1) [1], peikHni- _gp^\ahpc eYpgkil] _gplVcp^lhe] e _p`pHRN _gpYgk``-
iZS lihnYgkbRiZ` gkanhip-_g]`phpUiZ` ^clYkhnbn` ipYp `p^\b] Astra [4]. Gbl]iln api^nielgpckiipS
ik hcng^p` hp_blcn (92E;C) YkVpYningkhpgipYp hl_k, IkVZ (k-IkVZ) ik ecpSehck _gp^\ahpc eYpgkil] \UlhZ-
e ^c\`] ecngXVc\apcZ`l cpV^\XpVkTpgiZ`l \ehgpSeh- cknhe] _\hn` gkeUnhk YkVpcpS _pehp]iipS R, lVpTkgipS
ck`l (?G:).  hn_bpn`apehl ^b] _enc^pYkVk e \Unhp` `keepcpS
2keUnhik] eXn`k 92E;C _gn^ehkcbnik ik gle. 2. ^pbl k-IkVZ [1, 5].
;b] gkVYpik &A ^p Ulebk H cabNUnil] 92E;C EgpYgk``k gkeUnhk Xkgkahnglehla 92E;C ]cb]-
le_pbRV\nhe] ehkghpcZS \eapglhnbR (?h:) – Tneep_bpcpS nhe] UkehRN _gpYgk``Z gkeUnhk &TX ecngXVc\apcpYp
gkanhiZS ^clYkhnbR hcng^pYp hp_blck, gkV`nHniiZS Tne_lbphipYp &A, _gl Lhp` c akUnehcn aglhngl]
c ak`ngn eYpgkil] 92E;C. LIInahlcipehl gkee`khglcknhe] ^kbRipehR _pbnhk L
7kVpYningkhpg (77) _gn^ehkcb]nh epTpS gkanhiZS ik _pehp]iipS cZephn.
apih\g, _gp^\ahZ _ngclUipYp Ypgnil] aphpgpYp e`nJl-
ckNhe] e cpV^\Xp`, _peh\_kNHl` lV ?G:, l ^pPlYk- 2. 9Q;5H7JNJ@ TLLHQCSINOT2
Nhe] c ak`ngn eYpgkil]. 2keXp^ hp_blck c 92E;C
pTne_nUlcknhe] c Vk^kiip` ^lk_kVpin e _p`pHRN G Xp^n _gpcn^nil] leebn^pckilS gkee`phgnip
e_nOlkbRipYp gnY\b]hpgk. _gl`niniln ik 92E;C e gkeUnhiZ` Ulebp` ?G:  2,5
-THln _pbpPnil] `nhp^lal gkeUnhk Xkgkahnglehla ebn^\NHlX _gpYgk`` \_gkcbnil], pTne_nUlckNHlX
^clYkhnb] gkVgkTphkiZ c 9A= [2] l peipckiZ _pehp]iehcp Ulebk H `kgJncpYp _pbnhk &A
ik cZ_pbinill Vkapipc epXgkinil] LingYll, l`_\bRek ( H  const), gkeXp^k hp_blck (Gh  const), apLIIl-
_phpak l gkeXp^k gkTpUnYp hnbk (cpV^\Xk, YkVk) c Xkgka- Olnihk lVTZhak cpV^\Xk (lVT  const) l hn`_ngkh\gZ
hngiZX enUnil]X hgkahk 92E;C (e`. gle. 2). YkVk c ak`ngn eYpgkil] ( *Y  const). 5k gle. 3 – gle. 7
kgkahnglehlal ingnY\blg\n`pYp ?G: cinJinYp _gn^ehkcbniZ Vkclel`pehl lV`ninil] LIInahlcipS
ePkhl] c cl^n Vkclel`pehnS apLIIlOlnihk cpeehkipc- h]Yl RLI 92E;C, Ulebk H _pbnhk &A, gkeXp^k hp_blck

9TL. 1. -THlS cl^ ecngXVc\apcpYp Tne_lbphipYp &A

9TL. 2. 2keUnhik] eXn`k 92E;C 9TL. 3. kclel`pehR RLI  f (t)

31
GengpeelSeak] ik\Uip-hnXilUneak] apiIngniOl] `pbp^ZX \UniZX l e_nOlkblehpc
«AclkOlpiiZn ^clYkhnbl l elbpcZn \ehkipcal», =peack, 28-30 `k] 2019 Y.

9TL. 4. kclel`pehR MH  f (t) 9TL. 7. kclel`pehRL  f (MH)

lVT  const, aphpgk] pTne_nUlcknh gkVYpi &A


^p TpbRJnS eapgpehl _pbnhk.
G`nehn e hn` iklTpbRJk] ^kbRipehR `kgJncpYp
_pbnhk ^pehlYknhe] _gl _gpYgk``n \_gkcbnil]  const,
hka aka c ^kiip` eb\Ukn gnkblV\nhe] ikl`niRJlS gkeXp^
hp_blck l iklTpbRJnn kLgp^lik`lUneapn akUnehcp.

3. )NGH-=QOTQ
2nV\bRhkhZ _gpcn^niiZX leebn^pckilS _pVcpblbl
p_gn^nblhR Xkgkahng _gphnakil] Xkgkahnglehla 92E;C
c _gpOneen gkVYpik &A l gkVgkTphkhR gnap`ni^kOll
_p le_pbRVpckilN iklTpbnn LIInahlcipS _gpYgk``Z
9TL. 5. kclel`pehR Gh  f (t) \_gkcbnil] _p aglhnglN ^kbRipehl _pbnhk.

/DTLSG TLDSH7;SINOO@? TLJS=OTGSI


[1] Abnaeki^gpc G.5., "ZOanclU G.=., GngXpbp`pc G.3.
l ^g. 9ihnYgkbRiZn _g]`phpUiZn cpV^\Jip-
gnkahlciZn ^clYkhnbl ik hcng^ZX hp_blckX
(-eipcZ hnpgll gkeUnhk). =.: 93 «Aak^n`-
ailYk», 2006. 343 e.
[2] ;\bn_pc 5.E., 2kUapck &.C., 7\ekgpc 7.E. l ^g.
2kVgkTphak `khn`khlUneapS `p^nbl, kbYpglh`k l
epV^kiln ap`_bnaek _gpYgk`` ^b] gkeUnhk Xkgka-
hnglehla 2E;, EG2; l pOniak LIInahlcipehl
_gl`ninil] LhlX ^clYkhnbnS ik gkanhkX gkVblU-
ipYp ikVikUnil]. C- 9A=  3594, 1979.
9TL. 6. kclel`pehR KkLg  f (t) [3] -gbpc ".G., =kVliY 7.., 2nS^nbR A.&. l ^g.
-eipcZ _gpnahlgpckil] gkanhip-_g]`phpUiZX
Gh, kLgp^lik`lUneapYp akUnehck &A ph cgn`nil _pbnhk ^clYkhnbnS ^b] Tne_lbphiZX bnhkhnbRiZX
t l phipelhnbRipS ^kbRipehl &AL L (  Li / L  const) k__kgkhpc. =.: =kJlipehgpniln, 1967. 424 e.
`kgJncpYp _pbnhk ph Ulebk . [4] Cg\epc ".7. =p^nblgpckiln Xl`lUnealX l IkVpcZX
?gkciniln _gpcp^lbpeR ^b] p_hl`kbRiZX pTblapc gkcipcnelS _gl cZepalX hn`_ngkh\gkX. =.: 9V^-cp
92E;C, eIpg`lgpckiiZX ^b] akP^pS lV _gpYgk``. =7C: l`. 5.*. "k\`kik, 1995. 40 e.
AikblV _gn^ehkcbniiZX Vkclel`pehnS _pakVkb, [5] AT\Ypc ;.9., "pTZbnc G.=. Cnpgl] l gkeUnh gkanh-
Uhp iklb\UJl`l h]YpcZ`l Xkgkahnglehlak`l pTbk^knh iZX ^clYkhnbnS hcng^pYp hp_blck. =.: =kJlip-
92E;C _gl gnkblVkOll _gpYgk``Z \_gkcbnil] ehgpniln, 1987. 272 e.

32
?naOl] 1 «?lbpcZn l LingYnhlUnealn \ehkipcal»

%FTBQOQOTQ ISCSFSCO@? JSDHTIO@? (HQBQOJSI I NITN&TT


A.?. pbph\Xli, .. 3lgJlik, A.. 3lJkbpc1
1
:7AC:, :Ik
e-mail: zolotuhinant@yandex.ru

1. 1IQCQOTQ Olpilgpckil] cpV^\Xk cp cgn`] ikXpP^nil] ek`pbnhk


ik Vn`bn. Cka Pn G?: pTne_nUlcknh Vk_\ea `kgJncZX
G ikehp]Hnn cgn`] c kclkOll iklTpbnn gke_gpehgk- ^clYkhnbnS, pTZUip e _p`pHRN ePkhpYp cpV^\Xk, phTl-
iniiZ`l cl^k`l hp_blck ]cb]Nhe] angpeliZ (C?-1, gkn`pYp ph ap`_gneepgk. G?: `pPnh gke_pbkYkhRe]
2C, C-1), aphpgZn, c ecpN pUngn^R, _pb\UkNhe] lV p^ipYp c gkVblUiZX Ukeh]X ek`pbnhk, ip UkHn cenYp ikXp^lhe]
lV ek`ZX ckPiZX incpVpTipcb]n`ZX gne\gepc – inIhl. c nYp XcpehpcpS Ukehl [1].
9`niip _pLhp`\, k hkaPn c ec]Vl e ^kbRinSJl` _pcZ-
Jniln` Oni ik \Ybncp^pgp^iZn cl^Z hp_blck, `pPip 3. $SDHTIO@Q (HQBQOJ@ T T? SLS3QOOSLJT
e^nbkhR _gn^_pbpPniln, Uhp c egn^inegpUipS _nge_na-
hlcn c kclkOll _gplVpS^nh _ngnXp^ ik cp^pgp^ipn Gen C*, cin Vkclel`pehl ph lX hl_k, cabNUkNh c enT]
hp_blcp. -^ipS lV pepTniipehnS cp^pgp^k ]cb]nhe] kip^, akhp^ l Lbnahgpblh. C* in `pY\h ikak_blckhR
nYp «Xpbp^ipn» Ypgniln. 3 hp`\ Pn, cp^pgp^ – Tpbnn LbnahglUnea\N LingYlN, in gkVg]PkNhe] l in hgnT\Nh
LapbpYlUiZS cl^ hp_blck, _gp^\ahp` eYpgkil] aphpgpYp LbnahglUnehck ^b] _pchpgipS Vkg]^al.
]cb]nhe] cp^k. 5klTpbnn LIInahlcip _gl`niniln C* cZgkTkhZckNh hn_bp l LbnahgpLingYlN c gnV\bR-
cp^pgp^ipYp hp_blck c epUnhkill e hp_blciZ`l Lbn`ni- hkhn LbnahgpXl`lUnealX gnkaOlS, _gpleXp^]HlX
hk`l (C*) – \ehgpSehck`l, _pVcpb]NHl`l LIInahlcip ik akhp^n l kip^n. Egl _peh\_bnill cp^pgp^k ik kip^,
cZgkTkhZckhR _pehp]iiZS hpa l hn_bp lV TpYkhpYp k alebpgp^k – ik akhp^, ikUliknhe] Xl`lUneak]
cp^pgp^p` hp_blck _\hn` LbnahgpXl`lUnealX gnkaOlS. gnkaOl], c gnV\bRhkhn aphpgpS Yninglg\nhe] Lbnahgl-
?k`pbnh\, aka l bNTp`\ bnhkhnbRip`\ k__kgkh\ UnealS hpa, hn_bp l cp^k [2].
(&A), ^b] pTne_nUnil] LingYlnS `nXkilVkOll G Vkclel`pehl ph gkTpUnS hn`_ngkh\gZ C* gkV^nb]-
(VkagZbal, _gn^agZbal, _gn^agZbal l lihngOn_hpgZ), Nhe] ik ilVaphn`_ngkh\giZn l cZepaphn`_ngkh\giZn.
k hkaPn ^b] _lhkil] gkVblUipYp pTpg\^pckil] 5lVaphn`_ngkh\giZn C* gkTphkNh _gl hn`_ngk-
(elehn`k 2&?, pecnHniln, kchp`khlak &A, elehn`k h\gn ilPn 100?. G hkalX C* c akUnehcn hp_blck hgnT\-
kchp`khlUneapYp \_gkcbnil] l Vk_\eak ^clYkhnb]) nhe] phipelhnbRip UlehZS cp^pgp^. *hp Ukehp pVikUknh,
inpTXp^l`p p_gn^nbniipn apblUnehcp LingYll (`nXkil- Uhp hgnT\nhe] pTgkTphak _ngclUipYp hp_blck (hkapYp
Uneak], LbnahglUneak], ePkhZS cpV^\X). *ingYl] phTlgk- aka _glgp^iZS YkV) c UlehZS cp^pgp^ ^b] \ehgkinil]
nhe] ph `kgJncpYp ^clYkhnb] blTp ph ce_p`pYkhnbRipS _gl`nenS: pael^k \Ybngp^k l ^g\YlX akhkblhlUnealX
elbpcpS \ehkipcal (G?:). C* ]cb]Nhe] `kbpYkTkglh- ]^pc, VkYg]Vi]NHlX akhkblVkhpg. *hph _gpOnee _phgnT-
iZ`l l cZepapLIInahlciZ`l lehpUilak`l Lbnahgp- b]nh ^p_pbilhnbRi\N LingYlN l hgnT\nh e_nOlkbRipYp
LingYll, Uhp _pVcpb]nh le_pbRVpckil] lX c akUnehcn pTpg\^pckil].
_pbipOniipYp lehpUilak LingYll ik Tpgh\ ek`pbnhk, GZepaphn`_ngkh\giZn C* gkTphkNh c ^lk_kVpin
Vk`ni]] hn` ek`Z` YningkhpgZ hpak G?: lbl hn`_ngkh\g 800…1000q. -^il` lV peipciZX ^pehpliehc
`kgJncpYp ^clYkhnb]. cZepaphn`_ngkh\giZX C* ]cb]nhe] hp, Uhp pil `kbpU\ceh-
G ^kiipS ehkhRn gkee`phgnik cpV`pPipehR _gl`n- clhnbRiZ a akhkblhlUneal` _gl`ne]`. gal`l _gn^-
inil] C* c`nehp kclkOlpiiZX G?: lbl c ek`lX G?:, ehkclhnb]`l ]cb]Nhe] hcng^ppael^iZn hp_blciZn
lX cl^Z l OnbneppTgkVipehR _ngnXp^k ik C*.

2. 1@FN3SJGN T DFTBQOQOTQ FN;HT=O@?


ITCSI (OQF:TT ON 3SFJ5 
5k ^kiiZS `p`nih peipciZ` lehpUilap` Lbnahgp-
LingYll c &A `pY\h eb\PlhR aka Yningkhpg, _glcp^l`ZS
c ^nSehcln ph ckbk h\gTliZ elbpcpS \ehkipcal (gle. 1),
hka l Yningkhpg, _glcp^l`ZS cp cgkHniln G?:.
G?: _gn^ehkcb]nh epTpS inTpbRJpS YkVph\gTliiZS
^clYkhnbR, le_pbRV\n`ZS ^b] cZgkTphal LbnahglUnehck,
epV^kil] ^kcbnil] c Yl^gkcblUneapS elehn`n l api^l- 9TL. 1. AclkOlpiiZS Yningkhpg

33
GengpeelSeak] ik\Uip-hnXilUneak] apiIngniOl] `pbp^ZX \UniZX l e_nOlkblehpc
«AclkOlpiiZn ^clYkhnbl l elbpcZn \ehkipcal», =peack, 28-30 `k] 2019 Y.

Lbn`nihZ (C-C*), aphpgZn _pVcpb]h cZgkTkhZckhR LbnahgpYningkhpg. : e\Hnehc\NHlX C* 3E; epehkc-


Tpbnn cZepaln `pHipehl. b]nh _pg]^ak 40…80%.
Gen C* l`nNh g]^ pTHlX in^pehkhapc. -^il` C* bnYUn l l`nNh `niRJln gkV`ngZ, Un` hgk^l-
lV ilX ]cb]nhe] hp, Uhp c ikehp]Hnn cgn`] cp^pgp^iZn OlpiiZn lehpUilal _lhkil] (TniVlipcZn YningkhpgZ
hp_blciZn Lbn`nihZ ]cb]Nhe] ^pgpYpehp]Hl`l l h._.). Cp_blciZn Lbn`nihZ _gplVcp^]h `niRJn J\`k,
c _gplVcp^ehcn. ;pgpYpehp]Hl` ]cb]nhe] l hp_blcp – `niRJn ikYgnckNhe], Tpbnn LIInahlciZ e hpUal
cp^pgp^. "pbnn 50% cp^pgp^ipYp hp_blck, _gplVcp^l- Vgnil] _phgnTbnil] hp_blck.
`pYp cp cen` `lgn, _pb\UkNh lV _glgp^ipYp YkVk,
c hp cgn`] aka ^g\Yln e_pepTZ nYp _pb\Unil]
4. ONHT; &QHQLSS3FN;OSLJT ;NBQO@
Lapip`lUneal `ninn cZYp^iZ. 5k enYp^i]JilS ^niR, NITN&TSOOS2 1/ ON 3NJNFQ- $

Onik ik cp^pgp^ipn hp_blcp epehkcb]nh 73,75 g\T./b,


c hp cgn`] aka ehpl`pehR TniVlik A9-95 – 45,95 g\T./b ;b] pOnial OnbneppTgkVipehl cin^gnil] C* c &A,
(62,3% ehpl`pehl cp^pgp^k), kclkOlpiipYp angpelik gkee`phgl` G?: hkalX ek`pbnhpc aka CA-6A (\ehk-
C?-1 – 38,00 g\T./b (51,5%), YkVk – 16 g\T./b (27,70%). ipcbnip ik C\-154) CA-8" (\ehkipcbnip ik Ai-72) l
Epcen`nehip`\ cin^gnilN hp_blciZX Lbn`nihpc CA-18-200=? (=?-21). 9X Xkgkahnglehlal _gn^ehkc-
`nJknh phe\hehcln cp^pgp^ipS liIgkehg\ah\gZ. bniZ c hkTblOn.
G ebn^ehcln in_pbipYp palebnil] hp_blck, k hkaPn G akUnehcn _gl`ngk _glcn^niZ Xkgkahnglehlal C*
_lgpblVk, aphpgZS l`nnh `nehp c cZepaphn`_ngkh\giZX ph kchp`pTlb] Toyota Mirai. C* ^kiipYp kchp`pTlb]
VpikX ak`ngZ eYpgkil], c G?: pTgkV\nhe] `ipPnehcp l`nnh p^i\ lV b\UJlX Xkgkahnglehla c ecpn` abkeen,
VkYg]Vi]NHlX cnHnehc. 9X peipc\ epehkcb]Nh: pael^Z k hkaPn ]cb]nhe] `keepcp cZ_\eakn`Z` lV^nbln`.
kVphk (N-X), pael^Z \Ybngp^k, \Ybncp^pgp^Z, ekPncZn
UkehlOZ l, c pUniR `kbZX apblUnehckX, pael^Z engZ. 5. )NGH-=QOTQ
C* blJniZ LhpYp, cn^R c lX peipcn bnPlh LbnahgpblV,
Uhp _p^gkV\`ncknh cp^\, aka _pTpUiZS _gp^\ah gnkaOll, *aclckbnihik] `keek hp_blciZX Lbn`nihpc,
aphpgk] c ^kbRinSJn` `pPnh TZhR le_pbRVpckik c eb\Ukn e C\-154, `niRJn `keeZ G?: ik 44,4%,
_pbnViZ` pTgkVp` ik Tpgh\. Ai-72 – ik 43,7%, k c eb\Ukn e =?-21 – 24,6%.
CkaPn C* pTbk^kNh cZepal`l 3E; _p egkcinilN ?bn^\nh ph`nhlhR, Uhp ik G?: _gle\hehc\Nh `nXk-
e hn_bpcZ`l `kJlik`l. -i ^pehlYknhe] TbkYp^kg] ilUnealn Lbn`nihZ (EE-, apgpTak _ngn^kU), ^b] _p^^ng-
_g]`p`\ _gncgkHnilN LingYll hp_blck c Lbnahgp- Pkil] c gkTphn aphpgZX hgnT\nhe] ecp] epTehcniik]
LingYlN: inh _phngR ik gkeag\ha\ h\gTliZ lbl ckbk `keb]ik] elehn`k (`kebpTkal, JbkiYl, hg\Tal). -hakV
^clYkhnb], aphpgZn, c ecpN pUngn^R, cgkHkNh ph G?: c _pbRV\ Tkhkgnl C* `pPnh eilVlhR pTn`
_ngncpVl`pYp `kebk c `kebpTkan, hka aka apiehg\aOl]
$N3HT&N. kgkahnglehlal kclkOlpiiZX G?: l C* in _gn^_pbkYknh ikblUl] hkalX Lbn`nihpc.
LaclckbnihiZX TkhkgnS C*
CA18- C* c akUn-
G?: CA-6A CA-8"
200=? ehcn G?:
/DTLSG TLDSH7;SINOO@? TLJS=OTGSI
?k`pbnh C:-154 A5-72 =?-21 – [1] ?clHnc 7.E. Ge_p`pYkhnbRik] elbpck] \ehkipcak.
=keek ek`pbnhk, h 55,3 32,0 72,6 – AclkOl]: *iOlabp_n^l]. =.: "pbRJk] 2peelSeak]
=kael`kbRik] _pbnVik] *iO-^l]. A79 l`. 5. . \apceapYp, 1994. 736 e.
18,0 7,20 18,9 –
VkYg\Vak, h
[2] Cp_blciZn Lbn`nihZ: cl^Z l _gliOl_ gkTphZ //
=keek G?:, aY 245 185 230 56
[*bnahgpiiZS gne\ge]. URL: https://econet.ru/
2keXp^ phTlgkn`pYp
1,35 0,75 1,4 – articles/86640-toplivnye-elementy-vidy-i-printsip-
cpV^\Xk, aY/e
phTlgkn`pYp raboty (^khk pTgkHnil]: 26.12.2018).
_pehp]iipYp 40 40 120
hpak, aGA [3] ?pbpcRnc A.A., ?pU\Ypc 5.?., l_lbpck A.G. l ^g.
=pHipehR, aGh 113
cpV^\Xk, aGh 235 170 – ?gn^inhn`_ngkh\giZn hcng^ppael^iZn hp_blciZn
e\``kgik] 275 210 350 Lbn`nihZ e hpiap_bnipUiZ` ZrO2 : Y2O3 Lbnahgp-
:^nbRik] `pHipehR, aGh/aY 1,122 1,448 1,522 2,018 blhpc. Cp`ea: Cp`ealS _pblhnXilUnealS \ilcng-
GZephk Vk_\eak, a` 3 5 9 – elhnh, 2011. 10 e.
:^nbRik] `pHipehR, aGh U/aY 1,22 1,44 1,94 14,9 [4] ?lbpcZn \ehkipcal: AclkOlpiiZn, gkanhiZn,
*aclckbnihik] `keek C* _gp`ZJbniiZn (1944-2000) / *bnahgpiik] LiOlabp-
136,3  173,5 –
^b] \ehkipcal ik &A, aY _n^l] lV^. A3?-3picngekbh, 2000. 277 e.

34
?naOl] 1 «?lbpcZn l LingYnhlUnealn \ehkipcal»

LLHQCSINOTQ JSGSOQL5T? LIS2LJI 1$/%-2 HQOJ CH6 TLDSH7;SINOT6


I S3BSJGN? (HQGJFT=QLGT? BN!TO
A.G. ?pbpcRnc1
1
=A9 (59:), Y. =peack
e-mail: 79267839836@ya.ru

1. 1IQCQOTQ _gphphl_lgpckilN pTgkVOk Yningkhpgk ^b] \Yb\Tbni-


ipYp leebn^pckil].
2kVclhln gpeelSealX ecngX_gpcp^ilapcZX elehn` =k]hila \ehkipcal _gn^ehkcb]nh epTpN _pehp]iiZS
ikXp^lhe] ik gkcip` \gpcin e ^pehlPniln` `ipYlX `kYilh lV Nd-Fe-B ik Pnehap` _p^cnen, ecngX_gpcp^il-
ehgki, k c inaphpgZX ke_nahkX _gl`ninil] l hnXipbpYlS apcZS apih\g cZ_pbini lV GC?E-2G bnihZ JlglipS
^kPn _gncpeXp^lh. -^ikap _gl`niniln ipcZX `khnglkbpc 4 ``, e apiOk`l, e_k]iiZ`l e _ngnXbnehp` c 10 e`
c lV^nbl]X TnV _gn^ckglhnbRipYp ap`_bnaeipYp leebn^p- (ecngX_gpcp^ilapcZ`l ebp]`l ^g\Y a ^g\Y\), lV ^kiipS
ckil] LhlX `khnglkbpc gleapckiip l cn^nh a VikUlhnbR- bnihZ eIpg`lgpcki _g]`p\YpbRila l gkV`nHni p^ipS
iZ` IlikiepcZ` l cgn`niiZ` _phng]`. ;p in^kcinYp ehpgpipS _p^ _pehp]iiZ` `kYilhp`. 3pih\g ikXp^lhe]
cgn`nil leebn^pckiln hpapine\HlX ecpSehc cZepap- c aglpehkhn c in_p^clPip` peipckill TkJil `k]hilak.
hn`_ngkh\gipYp ecngX_gpcp^ilak (GC?E) ]cb]bpeR G Xp^n gkTphZ Lae_ngl`nihkbRipS elehn`pS
cneR`k ^pgpYpehp]HnS _gpOn^\gpS, hgnT\NHnS TpbRJpYp pe\Hnehcb]nhe] _gnpTgkVpckiln alinhlUneapS LingYll
apblUnehck hpUipYp pTpg\^pckil], k VikUlh hkapn ^clPnil] `k]hilak c LbnahglUnea\N. 5kcn^niipn *;?
leebn^pckiln TZbp ^peh\_ip in akP^pS bkTpgkhpgll. c apgphapVk`ai\hp` apih\gn e_pepTehc\nh _gphnakilN
3glhlUneak] _bphipehR hpak, ^n`piehglg\NHk] hpak c GC?E, VikUniln aphpgpYp gkcip aglhlUneap`\
`kael`kbRiZn hpapine\Hln e_pepTipehl ecngX_gpcp^- hpa\ GC?E bnihZ, lV aphpgpS lVYphpcbni ^kiiZS
ilak, ]cb]nhe] p^il` lV hgnX YbkciZX _kgk`nhgpc apih\g e \Unhp` cbl]il] `kYilhipYp _pb] `k]hilak.
ecngX_gpcp^ilak. ;kiiZS _kgk`nhg p_gn^nb]nh cpV`pP- k`ng hpak _gplVcn^ni Tneapihkahip e _p`pHRN
ipehR le_pbRVpckil] ecngX_gpcp^ilak c LbnahglUnealX TnVPnbnVipYp hgkieIpg`khpgk hpak, elYikb e aphpgpYp
`kJlikX. ;b] p_gn^nbnil] aglhlUneapYp hpak c GC?E TZb Vkcn^ni c AE, Y^n `p`nihkbRip pTgkTkhZckbe]
le_pbRV\Nh ^cn Yg\__Z `nhp^pc: apihkahiZn l _gpYgk``iZ` ap`_bnaep` LabVIEW l cZcp^lb
TneapihkahiZn. _pb\UniiZn VikUnil] aglhlUneapYp hpak.
G ikehp]Hnn cgn`] _gplVcn^niZ Vk`ngZ aglhl-
2. LLHQCSINOTQ UnealX hpapc GC?E bnih JlglipS 4 `` gpeelSeapYp
_gplVcp^lhnb] SuperOx, k hkaPn k`nglakiealn bnihZ
2kVgkTphkiik] c =A9 Lae_ngl`nihkbRik] elehn`k SuperPower l AMSC, ^pgkTkhZcknhe] \ehkipcak ^b]
ik peipcn `k]hilak e _pehp]iiZ` gn^apVn`nbRiZ` Vk`ngk hpak c bnihkX JlglipS 12 ``, k hkaPn c OnbRip`
`kYilhp` ^pakVkbk gkTphpe_pepTipehR `nhp^k li^\Ol- apih\gn GC?E TnV cbl]il] `nehk e_k] bnihZ. *ae_ngl-
gpckil] aglhlUneapYp hpak ik apgphapVk`ai\hZS `nihkbRiZn ^kiiZn, _pb\UniiZn e _gl`niniln` ^kiipS
apih\g ecngX_gpcp^ilak. 5pcJnehcp ^kiipYp `nhp^k \ehkipcal, _pVcpblbl akIn^gn 310 =A9 (59:) \epcng-
VkabNUkhe] c Vk`nin hgk^lOlpiipYp UnhZgnXapihkah- JniehcpckhR apiehg\aOlN TnVgn^\ahpgipYp Yningkhpgk
ipYp `nhp^k Vk`ngk aglhlUneapYp hpak Tpbnn ^nJncZ` ^b] _nge_nahlcipS cnhgp\ehkipcal.
li^\aOlpiiZ`.
CkaPn `nhp^ apecniipYp lV`ngnil] hpapine\HlX 3. )NGH-=QOTQ
ecpSehc li^\Olg\nh aglhlUnealS hpa ik apgphap-
Vk`ai\hZS clhpa, Uhp pVikUknh cpV`pPipehR Tpbnn ;kiik] \ehkipcak e\Hnehcniip eilPknh VkhgkhZ
^nhkbRip lV\UlhR _gpOneeZ, _gpleXp^]Hln e GC?E ik 59-32 ^b] ecngX_gpcp^ilapcZX `kJli l _pVcp-
pT`phapS c Yningkhpgn. ?gn^l cpV`pPipehnS Lae_ngl- b]nh _gplVcp^lhR `ipPnehcp Lae_ngl`nihpc ik^ GC?E.
`nihkbRipS elehn`Z nehR ikcn^niln hpak _ngn`niipS Enge_nahlcipn gkVclhln ^kiipYp _gpnahk – epV^kiln
UkehphZ, _glUn` Ipg`k hpak T\^nh VkclenhR ph Ipg`Z englSipYp pTgkVOk Lae_ngl`nihkbRipS \ehkipcal,
_pb] _pehp]iiZX `kYilhpc ik `k]hilan. k hkaPn lVYphpcbniln Tpbnn `keJhkTipS ap_ll
=nhp^k`l `p^nblgpckil] `kYilhiZX _pbnS ^b] lV\Unil] li^\aOlpiiZX _phngR c GC?E bnihkX
`pPip _p^pTgkhR `kYilhZ `k]hilak hkal` pTgkVp`, e UkehphpS li^\Olgpckil] hpak 400 7O e kchp`khlVk-
UhpTZ cpeepV^khR _pbi\N kikbpYlN `kYilhipYp _pb] OlnS _gpOneek lV`ngnil] ^b] \cnblUnil] ehkTlbR-
c VkVpgn Yningkhpgk, in _glTnYk] a ^pgpYpehp]Hn`\ ipehl gnV\bRhkhpc.

35
GengpeelSeak] ik\Uip-hnXilUneak] apiIngniOl] `pbp^ZX \UniZX l e_nOlkblehpc
«AclkOlpiiZn ^clYkhnbl l elbpcZn \ehkipcal», =peack, 28-30 `k] 2019 Y.

/DTLSG TLDSH7;SINOO@? TLJS=OTGSI [2] Ekili G.G., ?hn_kipc ".=. 9V`ngniln l`_\bRe-
iZX l `kYilhiZX l LbnahglUnealX _pbnS. =.:
[1] 9bR]epc 2.9., ;nPli ;.?. *bnahgp`nXkilak ^b] *ingYpkhp`lV^kh, 1987. 120 e.
ikUlikNHlX: _gpehp p ebpPip`. :UnTipn _pepTln. [3] 7liVT\gY G., Ai^gNJli . ?cngX_gpcp^l`pehR.
=.: ":39 G;9, 2011. 240 e. =.: AbRIk-=, 2006. 110 e.

%QFLDQGJTIO@Q JQDHSS3BQOO@Q NDDNFNJ@ NITN&TSOO@? $


9.C. GngTkipc1
1
7:E «9A= l`. E.9. "kgkipck», =peack
e-mail: isverbanov@mail.ru

1. 1IQCQOTQ 9ihnYgkOl] YningkhlciZX kbYpglh`pc c _gpYgk``-


iZn liPningiZn ap`_bnaeZ _pVcpblh _gpnahlgpckhR
Eplea p_hl`kbRiZX Ipg` _bkehliUkhZX CA CA e cnhc]Hl`le] akikbk`l _p LIInahlcipehl
_gpcp^lhe] e le_pbRVpckiln` CFD `nhp^pc ^b] _pb\- _glTblPkNHlne], ik_gl`ng, a agpcnipeipS elehn`n
Unil] aglhnglkbRiZX hn_bpYl^gkcblUnealX Vkclel- Unbpcnak.
`pehnS c Lbn`nihkgiZX ]UnSakX l abkeelUnealX
liPningiZX `nhp^la ^b] p_gn^nbnil] _kgk`nhgpc CA 3. )NGH-=QOTQ
c Onbp`. ;b] ckbl^kOll CFD gkeUnhpc _gpcp^]he]
Lae_ngl`nihkbRiZn leebn^pckil] _gn^ehkclhnbRiZX G ikehp]Hnn cgn`] `lgpcZn bl^ngZ c eIngn
`p^nbnS _bkehliUkhZX hn_bp_ngn^kNHlX _pcngXipehnS gkVgkTphal liPningipYp _gpYgk``ipYp pTne_nUnil]
gkVipS Ipg`Z (YpIgpcZn, Xpb`lehZn) [1, 2]. GZTpg `p^ngilVlg\Nh ap^Z _pehgpnil] hp_pbpYlUneal p_hl-
hl_k _pcngXipehl ec]Vki hkaPn e hnXipbpYlUneal`l l `kbRiZX hn_bppT`niiZX ehg\ah\g _p^ k^^lhlcipn
_gpUipehiZ`l _gnl`\Hnehck`l/pYgkilUnil]`l, hkal`l _gplVcp^ehcp. -^ikap `nhp^lal YningkhlcipYp _gpna-
aka, ik_gl`ng, gkcip`ngipehR cZh]Pal cp cenX ik_gkc- hlgpckil] hn_bppT`niilapc gna\_ngkhlcipYp hl_k
bnil]X _gl Jhk`_pcan l cpV`pPipehR hpUnUipS eckgal c ikehp]HlS `p`nih in gkVclhZ. G 9A=n epV^kik
c apihkahiZX hpUakX apicnghpc Xpb`lehZX _bkehli. `nhp^lak _gpnahlgpckil] l gkeUnhk gna\_ngkhlcipYp
hn_bppT`niilak ^b] kclkOlpiiZX 7C;, e_gpnahlgpcki
l lVYphpcbni _p k^^lhlcipS hnXipbpYll _nge_na-
2. %FTBQOQOTQ NCCTJTIO@? JQ?OSHS:T2 T
:QOQFNJTIOS:S DFSQGJTFSINOT6 hlciZS cnhclehZS CA ^n`piehgkhpg (gle. 1). Epb\Uni
_khnih ik elehn`\ pXbkP^nil] `ipYpapih\gipS YkVp-
A^^lhlciZn hnXipbpYll, ei]cJln VikUlhnbRi\N h\gTliipS \ehkipcal e le_pbRVpckiln` hn_bppT`ni-
UkehR pYgkilUnilS ik Ynp`nhglUnea\N Ipg`\ CA, ilak ^kiipYp hl_k [3].
hgnT\Nh _gl`ninil] ipcZX _p^Xp^pc a _gpnahlgpck-
ilN hn_bppT`niiZX _pcngXipehnS l akikbpc. GVkl`ip- /DTLSG TLDSH7;SINOO@? TLJS=OTGSI
_pglehZn ehg\ah\gZ l hp_pbpYlUneal p_hl`kbRiZn
cnhclehZn ^gncpcl^iZn hn_bppT`niiZn akikbZ _pVcp- [1] GngTkipc 9.?., 7\bl`pcealS 9.A. ?gkcilhnbRiZS
b]h ^pTlckhRe] nHn TpbRJnS LIInahlcipehl l b\UJlX kikblV gnV\bRhkhpc Lae_ngl`nihkbRiZX l UlebniiZX
`keepYkTkglhiZX Xkgkahnglehla CA. leebn^pckilS hn_bpYl^gkcblUnealX Xkgkahnglehla
`lagpXpb`lehpS l YpIglgpckiipS _bkehliUkhZX
_pcngXipehnS // EglTpgZ l elehn`Z, \_gkcbniln,
apihgpbR, ^lkYipehlak. 2018.  11. ?. 20–24.
[2] GngTkipc 9.?. GlV\kblVkOl] _pbnS hn`_ngkh\g
c `p^nbRiZX _bkehliUkhZX hn_bppT`niiZX
Lbn`nihkX // Eglabk^ik] IlVlak l `khn`khlak.
2018.  5. ?. 3–8.
[3] GngTkipc 9.?., 7\bl`pcealS 9.A. ?lehn`k pXbkP-
9TL. 1. GnhclehZS hn_bppT`niiZS k__kgkh, ^nil] `ipYpapih\gipS YkVph\gTliipS \ehkipcal.
lVYphpcbniiZS _p k^^lhlcipS hnXipbpYll Ekhnih 2  2680636 ph 25.02.2019.

36
?naOl] 1 «?lbpcZn l LingYnhlUnealn \ehkipcal»

9NL=QJOSQ T (GLDQFTBQOJNH7OSQ BSCQHTFSINOTQ NJBSL"QFO@?


5LHSIT2 CSC6 DFT I@DSHOQOTT TLD@JNOT2 CIT:NJQH6 ON LJQOCQ
A.G. 7pg]Unc, E.A. 7pg]Unc, ?.A. 7gnTniRapc1
1
7:E «9A= l`. E.9. "kgkipck», =peack
e-mail: avgoryachev@ciam.ru

1. 1IQCQOTQ \ebpclS ^pP^] e \Unhp` gnPl`k gkTphZ ^clYkhnb]


_gl _gpcn^nill le_ZhkilS c \ebpcl]X phagZhpYp
Egl cZ_pbinill _pbnhpc c ebpPiZX abl`khlUnealX ikVn`ipYp ehni^k.
\ebpcl]X bnhkhnbRiZS k__kgkh (&A) `pPnh _p_k^khR
c \ebpcl] ^pP^]. -Tne_nUniln TnVp_keipehl _pbnhpc 3. LOSIO@Q FQ;5H7JNJ@
ik_g]`\N ec]Vkip e ipg`kbRiZ` I\iaOlpilgpckiln`
^clYkhnb] &A c ^kiiZX inTbkYp_gl]hiZX abl`khlUne- ;b] gnJnil] _pehkcbniipS Vk^kUl _p cZ]cbnilN
alX \ebpcl]X. Egpcngak ^clYkhnb] ik \ehpSUlc\N gkTph\ iklTpbnn aglhlUnealX cpV^nSehclS ^pP^] ik gkTph\
_gl _p_k^kill ik cXp^ ^pP^] ]cb]nhe] agkSin kah\kbR- ^clYkhnb], k hkaPn ^b] l`lhkOll gkTphZ ^clYkhnb]
ipS l ebpPipS Vk^kUnS. c ehni^pcZX \ebpcl]X TZbk epV^kik gkeUnhik] `p^nbR
?\Hnehc\Nh aka gpeelSealn, hka l Vkg\TnPiZn ^clYkhnb] (gle. 1).
ipg`khlciZn ^pa\`nihZ, gnYbk`nihlg\NHln _pg]^pa 5k peipckill gnV\bRhkhpc, _pb\UniiZX ik _ngcp`
l \ebpcl] _gpcngal kclk^clYkhnbnS ik _gln`bn`pn Lhk_n gkTphZ, TZbl cZ^nbniZ aglhlUnealn gnPl`Z
I\iaOlpilgpckiln c \ebpcl]X ^pP^]. 5ne`phg] ik hp, gkTphZ ^clYkhnb] c epUnhkill e iklTpbnn inTbkYp-
Uhp ^kiiZn abl`khlUnealn ]cbnil] e\Hnehcpckbl cenY^k, _gl]hiZ`l abl`khlUneal`l \ebpcl]`l ^pP^] c epph-
inpTXp^l`pehR _gpcngal ^clYkhnbnS c LhlX \ebpcl]X cnhehcll e ipg`khlciZ`l ^pa\`nihk`l [1, 2].
TZbk phgkPnik c ipg`kX egkcilhnbRip in^kcip. Ckal` 5k gle. 2 _gn^ehkcbnip gke_gn^nbniln apiOnih-
pTgkVp`, ^b] cenX cipcR gkVgkTkhZckn`ZX ^clYkhnbnS gkOll ak_nbR cp^Z (cp^ipehl) _p hgkah\ ^clYkhnb]
^pbPip TZhR _gp^n`piehglgpckip c _gpOneen enghl- c _pbnhiZX \ebpcl]X.
IlakOll _gln`bn`pn I\iaOlpilgpckiln _gl ^pP^n.
;b] ^n`piehgkOll ik^nPipS gkTphZ ^clYkhnb]
c abl`khlUnealX \ebpcl]X ^pP^] ^pbPiZ TZhR cZ_pb-
iniZ enghlIlakOlpiiZn le_Zhkil]. CgnTpckil]
a `p^nblgpckilN kh`peIngiZX \ebpclS ^pP^] c ehni-
^pcZX \ebpcl]X, k hkaPn aglhngll _gln`bn`pS gkTphZ
^clYkhnb] c ^kiiZX abl`khlUnealX \ebpcl]X eIpg`\-
blgpckiZ c gpeelSealX ipg`khlciZX ^pa\`nihkX
AE-33.78 (k) (2) [1, 2].

2. QH7 FN3SJ@
9TL. 1. 2keUnhik] `p^nbR ^clYkhnb]
nbRN ^kiipS gkTphZ ]cb]bpeR gkeUnhip-kikblhl-
Uneapn leebn^pckiln e OnbRN cZgkTphal gnap`ni^kOlS
_p _gpcn^nilN le_ZhkilS _nge_nahlcipYp kclkOlpi-
ipYp ^clYkhnb] _gl l`lhkOll kh`peIngiZX \ebpcl]X
^pP^] ik phagZhp` le_ZhkhnbRip` ehni^n.
5k _ngcp` Lhk_n gkTphZ cZ_pbini gkeUnhiZS
kikblV e OnbRN p_gn^nbnil] iklTpbnn aglhlUnealX
\ebpclS gkTphZ ^clYkhnb], _gl aphpgZX cpVilakNh
iklTpbnn inTbkYp_gl]hiZn lV`ninil] c nYp gkTphn
c \ebpcl]X ^pP^]. 5k peipckill gnV\bRhkhpc \akVkiiZX
gkeUnhpc p_gn^nbni _ngnUniR iklTpbnn aglhlUnealX
\ebpclS le_ZhkilS l gkVgkTphkik _gpYgk``k le_Zhk-
ilS ^clYkhnb].
5k chpgp` Lhk_n gkTphZ _gplVcp^lbpeR gkeUnhipn 9TL. 2. 2ke_gn^nbniln cp^ipehl `nP^\ cinJil` l
`p^nblgpckiln _gpOneek cpe_gplVcn^nil] kh`peIngiZX ci\hgniil` apih\gk`l ^clYkhnb] c \ebpcl]X _pbnhk

37
GengpeelSeak] ik\Uip-hnXilUneak] apiIngniOl] `pbp^ZX \UniZX l e_nOlkblehpc
«AclkOlpiiZn ^clYkhnbl l elbpcZn \ehkipcal», =peack, 28-30 `k] 2019 Y.

GZ_pbini gkeUnh _gpOneek ^gpTbnil] ak_nbR


ik cXp^n c ^clYkhnbR l p_gn^nbnik hgkieIpg`kOl]
kh`peIngipYp e_nahgk gkV`ngpc ak_nbR ph enUnil],
gke_pbpPniipYp ik VikUlhnbRip` \^kbnill ph ^clYk-
hnb], ^p enUnil] ik cXp^n c cnihlb]hpg ^clYkhnb].
9eXp^iZS kh`peIngiZS e_nahg gkV`ngpc ak_nbR l
gnV\bRhlg\NHlS e_nahg _gn^ehkcbniZ ik gle. 3.
G gnV\bRhkhn gkeUnhpc p_gn^nbnip apblUnehcp cp^Z
_p `keen, _p_k^kNHnn cp ci\hgniilS apih\g ^clYk-
hnb], k hkaPn e_nahgkbRiZS epehkc ak_nbR ik cXp^n
c ^clYkhnbR. *hl ^kiiZn ]cb]Nhe] leXp^iZ`l _gl `p^n-
blgpckill cpV^nSehcl] \ebpclS ^pP^] c _pbnhiZX
9TL. 3. ?_nahg gkV`ngpc ak_nbR \ebpcl]X _gl lX l`lhkOll ik ikVn`ip` ehni^n
e le_pbRVpckiln` cp^pgke_ZblhnbRipYp apbbnahpgk.
Egl `nhp^lUneap` gkeUnhip-kikblhlUneap` ep_gp-
cpP^nill ikh\giZX le_ZhkilS ^clYkhnb] ik phagZhp`
ehni^n TZbk p_hl`lVlgpckik ap`_pipcak ehni^pcpYp
pTpg\^pckil] ^b] _pb\Unil] inpTXp^l`pYp `keepcpYp
gkeXp^k cp^Z, _p_k^kNHnYp, epYbkeip gkeUnhk`,
cp ci\hgniilS apih\g ^clYkhnb]. ;b] LhpYp le_pbR-
VpckbkeR gkeUnhik] `p^nbR (gle. 4) e ckgRlgpckiln`
_pbpPnil] cp^pgke_ZblhnbRipYp apbbnahpgk phipel-
hnbRip cXp^k c ^clYkhnbR.
G gnV\bRhkhn p_gn^nbnip p_hl`kbRipn _pbpPniln
cp^pgke_ZblhnbRipYp apbbnahpgk, Uhp epphcnhehc\nh
gkeehp]ilN 300 `` ph cZXp^k lV cp^pgke_ZblhnbRiZX
9TL. 4. 2keUnhik] `p^nbR ^clYkhnb] ik ehni^n Ipge\ipa ^p enUnil] cXp^k c ^clYkhnbR.
G ^kiipS ap`_pipcan TZbl cZ_pbiniZ gkeUnhZ
_p p_gn^nbnilN hgknahpglS _pbnhk ak_nbR _gl lX ^cl-
Pnill ci\hgl cpV^\XpVkTpgipYp \ehgpSehck ^clYkhnb]
(gle. 5).
G gnV\bRhkhn p_gn^nbnip, akapn apblUnehcp cp^Z,
_p^kckn`pS UngnV cp^pgke_ZblhnbRiZS apbbnahpg,
_p_k^knh c pTbkehR _ngn^ cnihlb]hpgp`, Ynp`nhgl-
Uneal epphcnhehc\NH\N cXp^\ c YkVpYningkhpg ^clYk-
hnb] (gle. 6). Ep Lhl` ^kiiZ` TZbl eapggnahlgpckiZ
inpTXp^l`Zn _gl le_Zhkil]X gkeXp^Z cp^Z UngnV
apbbnahpg ^b] l`lhkOll cpV^nSehcl] ik ^clYkhnbR
\ebpclS ^pP^], epphcnhehc\NHnYp gnkbRiZ` _pbnh-
9TL. 5. Cgknahpgll ak_nbR iZ` \ebpcl]`.

4. )NGH-=QOTQ
G _gpOneen gkTphZ gkVgkTphki _p^Xp^ a gnJnilN
cp_gpek l`lhkOll kh`peIngiZX \ebpclS ^pP^] c \ebp-
cl]X phagZhpYp ikVn`ipYp ehni^k. -_gn^nbni _ngnUniR
aglhlUnealX gnPl`pc gkTphZ ^clYkhnb] c _pbnhiZX
\ebpcl]X l gkVgkTphkik _gpYgk``k le_ZhkilS ^clYk-
hnb]. GZ_pbinik gkeUnhip-kikblhlUneak] p_hl`lVkOl]
ap`_pipcal ehni^pcpYp pTpg\^pckil], c Ukehipehl,
_pbpPnil] cp^pgke_ZblhnbRipYp apbbnahpgk phipel-
hnbRip cXp^k c ^clYkhnbR. EgplVcn^nik gkeUnhik] pOniak
9TL. 6. 2ke_gn^nbniln cp^ipehl _p gk^l\e\ ^clYkhnb] apblUnehck cp^Z, _p_k^kNHnYp c pTbkehR, epphcnheh-

38
?naOl] 1 «?lbpcZn l LingYnhlUnealn \ehkipcal»

c\NH\N YkVpYningkhpg\ ^clYkhnb], l eapggnahlgpcki /DTLSG TLDSH7;SINOO@? TLJS=OTGSI


gkeXp^ cp^Z UngnV cp^pgke_ZblhnbRiZS apbbnahpg.
Egl`niniln _gn^ehkcbniipYp gkeUnhip-kikblhl- [1] AclkOlpiiZn _gkclbk. . 33. 5pg`Z bnhipS Yp^-
UneapYp _p^Xp^k _pVcpb]nh epagkhlhR apblUnehcp le_Z- ipehl ^clYkhnbnS cpV^\JiZX e\^pc. =A3, =., 2012.
hkilS, k hkaPn p_hl`lVlgpckhR ap`_pipca\ ehni^pcpYp [2] EglbpPniln B a AclkOlpiiZ` _gkclbk`. kehR
pTpg\^pckil], Uhp _glcn^nh a epagkHnilN pTHnYp 33. 5pg`Z bnhipS Yp^ipehl cpV^\JiZX e\^pc.
cgn`nil _gpcn^nil] le_ZhkilS l lX ehpl`pehl. =A3, =peack, 2012.

LDSH7;SINOTQ GHNDNOSI L3FSLN CH6 TLGH-=QOT6 GNDHQDNCQOT6


BNLHN T; DNJF53GSI L3FSLN S?HNCN-Q:S IS;C5?N SDSF CIT:NJQH6
9-33
A.G. ?niUk1
1
A- «-;3-3bl`pc», ?kiah-EnhngT\gY
e-mail: avsencha@mail.ru

1. 1IQCQOTQ Egl _gpnahlgpckill pOnilckbleR cpV`pPipehl


«in phagZhl]» abk_kik. ;b] leabNUnil] _p^pTipYp
5k ^clYkhnbn 2;-33=3 ik gnPl`n `kbpYp YkVk l`nnh c apiehg\aOll abk_kik _gn^\e`phgni _p^Jl_ila
`nehp ^nInah – «ak_bn_k^niln `kebk lV _khg\Tapc eapbRPnil], c cl^n TgpiVpcpS ch\bal ^b] \b\UJnil]
eTgpek pXbkP^kNHnYp cpV^\Xk IV-V p_pg ^clYkhnb]». _ngn`nHnil] abk_kik. G eb\Ukn «in phagZhl]» p^ipYp
? OnbRN leabNUnil] ^kiipYp ^nInahk TZbp gkVgkTp- lV 2-X abk_kipc c _gn^`keb]iipS _pbpehl cpV`pPip
hkip ebn^\NHnn `ngp_gl]hln: \ehkipcak abk_kipc inVikUlhnbRipn _pcZJniln ^kcbnil] ik cnblUli\,
eTgpek (3?T) ik cZXp^n lV _khg\Tapc eTgpek cpV^\Xk. in Tpbnn 0,1 aYe/e`2, c eb\Ukn «in phagZhl]»
*hl abk_kiZ _gl _ngnXp^n ^clYkhnb] ik gnPl` `kbpYp 2-X abk_kipc – c _gn^`keb]iipS _pbpehl cpV`pPip
YkVk VkagZckNhe], Uhp _glcp^lh a _pcZJnilN ^kcbnil] _pcZJniln ^kcbnil] ik cnblUli\, in Tpbnn 0,7 aYe/e`2.
ci\hgl elehn`Z pXbkP^nil] ^leapc, k VikUlh a \cnbl- GnblUlik ^kcbnil] c _gn^`keb]iZX _pbpeh]X
UnilN _ngn_k^k ^kcbnilS ik YgkIlhpcp` \_bphinill apg_\epc p_pg ik cZepalX gnPl`kX gkTphZ ^clYkhnb]
IV-V p_pg ^clYkhnb] l nYp Yng`nhlVkOll, Uhp _p`pYknh ^pehlYknh 1,8 aYe/e`2, k c `keb]iZX _pbpeh]X – in Tpbnn
_gn^phcgkhlhR cZhnakiln `kebk lV `keb]ipS _pbpehl. 0,16 aYe/e`2, h.n. YgkIlhpcZn \_bphinil] ik ^pbPip`
\gpcin pTne_nUlckNh _gn_]hehcln _gpXpP^nilN cpV-
2. %FSFN3SJGN GSBDSOSIGT GHNDNOSI L3FSLN ^\Xk c `keb]iZn _pbpehl lV _gn^`keb]iZX, k elehn`k
e\Iblgpckil] pTne_nUlcknh nYp phcn^niln. ;kcbniln,
=ngp_gl]hln cabNUknh c enT] ^pgkTphkiiZn _kh- _gl aphpgp` _gpleXp^lh phagZhln abk_kipc, epehkc-
g\Tal eTgpek e \ehkipcbniiZ`l abk_kik`l (gle. 1) b]nh 0,8 aYe/e`2, Uhp e\Hnehcniip ilPn pYpcpgniipS
ik cZXp^n lV _gn^`keb]iipS _pbpehl apg_\epc cZJn cnblUliZ 1,8 aYe/e`2, ccl^\ UnYp cbl]iln`
IV-V p_pg, aphpgZn Vk eUnh pgYkilVkOll cgn`niipYp
_ngnagZhl] cpV^\Xk lV _gn^`keb]iipS _pbpehl \ehgk-
i]Nh cZTgpe lV _khg\Tapc _kgpc l TgZVY `kebk. ?ap_lc-
Jnne] `kebp lV _pbpehl _ngn^ abk_kip` phcp^lhe]
UngnV Plablg\NHnn phcngehln c ^gnikPiZS TkUpa.
=ngp_gl]hln _p \ehkipcan abk_kipc c _khg\Tal
eTgpek cipelh lV`ninil] hpbRap c elehn`\ eTgpek
cpV^\Xk. ;lk`nhgZ abk_kipc _p^pTgkiZ hkal` pTgkVp`,
UhpTZ _gl gkTphn in cpVilakbp Vk\Pnil] _gpXp^ipYp
enUnil] akikbk cZcp^k cpV^\Xk lV _gn^`keb]iipS
_pbpehl apg_\epc Vk^ilX p_pg, hn` ek`Z` cbl]iln
ikblUl] abk_kipc _gl lX phagZhp` _pbpPnill
ik cnblUli\ ^kcbnilS c `keb]iZX l _gn^`keb]iiZX
_pbpeh]X ine\Hnehcniipn. 9TL. 1. 3piehg\aOl] abk_kik eTgpek

39
GengpeelSeak] ik\Uip-hnXilUneak] apiIngniOl] `pbp^ZX \UniZX l e_nOlkblehpc
«AclkOlpiiZn ^clYkhnbl l elbpcZn \ehkipcal», =peack, 28-30 `k] 2019 Y.

\cnblUnil] ^kcbnil] c _gn^`keb]iiZX _pbpeh]X "Zbk _gpcn^nik IlaekOl] ak_bn_k^nil] ik gnPl`kX


lV-Vk ikblUl] abk_kipc `pPip _gninTgnUR. ^clYkhnb] ph `kbpYp YkVk ^p cVbnhk UngnV akP^Zn 2%
pTpgphpc C3 l pTgkhip. GZ_pbinik l`lhkOl] cVbnhk
e _kb\TZ ik _gpYgnhp` ^clYkhnbn c gnPl`n _gln`le-
3. %FNGJT=QLGSQ DFTBQOQOTQ GHNDNOSI
L3FSLN ON CIT:NJQHQ 9-33 hpehl. Egl _gpcngan cZ]cbnip phe\hehcln ak_bn-
_k^nil] `kebk lV _khg\Tapc eTgpek.
Ep gnV\bRhkhk` kikblVk ^kiiZX ^clYkhnbnS lV Ckal` pTgkVp`, \ehkipcbnip phe\hehcln ak_bn-
Lae_b\khkOll cZ]cbnip, Uhp _gl Lae_b\khkOll pTnah _k^nil] ik cenX gnPl`kX, LIInahlcipehR `ngp_gl]hl]
epcngJknh _gpYgnc l g\bnPa\ _p kLgp^gp`\ e Ukehp- _p^hcngP^nik.
hk`l nk  85%. Egl ikTpgn pTpgphpc c gnPl`n _gln-
`lehpehl ak_bn_k^niln in Ilaelg\nhe] lV-Vk TZehgpYp 4. )NGH-=QOTQ
_gpXpP^nil] lihngckbk pTpgphpc e pTgkVpckiln` ak_nbR
c lihngckb pTpgphpc, apY^k _gpleXp^lh le_kgniln Ep^hcngP^nik LIInahlcipehR le_pbRVpckil] abk-
`kebk. Ckal` pTgkVp`, pTne_nUlc phagZhln abk_kipc _kipc eTgpek. 9e_Zhkiln TZbp VkeUlhkip, aka \^pcbnh-
_gl Ukehphn cgkHnil] nk Tpbnn 85% (^kcbniln phagZ- cpglhnbRipn. Gbl]iln abk_kipc c _khg\TakX eTgpek
hl] abk_kipc 0,8 aYe/e`2) leabNUknhe] pTgkVpckiln ik cnblUli\ ^kcbnilS c `keb]iZX l _gn^`keb]iiZX
ak_nbR l lX _k^niln lV _khg\Tapc eTgpek ik kLgp^gp`. _pbpeh]X ine\Hnehcniip.

LLHQCSINOTQ ?NFNGJQFTLJTG (HQBQOJSI (HQGJFSDFTISCO@?


BNLH6O@? LTLJQB
A.A. ?hg\apc, 5.3. Aaenipc, 5.A. =pg^pcli, C.5. Aaenipck, G.?. 7pb\Tali1
1
7:E «9A= l`. E.9. "kgkipck», =peack
e-mail: nikenl@ciam.ru

1. 1IQCQOTQ VikUnil] pTpgphpc kYgnYkhpc l hn` ek`Z` \`niRJlhR


hn`_ngkh\g\ `kebk, k hkaPn eilVlhR TnVcpVcgkhiZn _phngl
2kTphpe_pepTipehR l ik^nPipehR kclkOlpiipYp `kebk, _pcZelhR LIInahlcipehR `keb]ipS elehn`Z.
^clYkhnb] c VikUlhnbRipS ehn_nil Vkclelh ph gkTphZ ;b] leebn^pckil] Xkgkahnglehla gkVblUiZX
`keb]ipS elehn`Z. -h ehn_nil epcngJniehck `keb]ipS Lbn`nihpc `keb]ipS elehn`Z le_pbRV\Nhe] ^ck ehni^k:
elehn`Z Vkclelh in hpbRap pTHlS egpa eb\PTZ ^clYk- –
_ngcZS ehni^ _gn^ehkcb]nh lV enT] l`lhkOlN
hnb], ip l TnVphakVipehR nYp gkTphZ c _gpOneen Lae_b\k- _p^Jl_ilapcpYp \Vbk ^clYkhnb] l _pVcpb]nh leebn-
hkOll, k, ebn^pckhnbRip, l TnVp_keipehR _pbnhk. 5k cenX ^pckhR _gkahlUneal bNTpS Lbn`nih `kebpelehn`Z.
gnPl`kX gkTphZ l _gl bNTZX \ebpcl]X Lae_b\khkOll, 5k ehni^n gnY\b]gip _gpcp^]he] leebn^pckil]
ik aphpgZn gkeeUlhki bnhkhnbRiZS k__kgkh, `keb]ik] _p _pb\UnilN gkeXp^iZX Xkgkahnglehla HnhpUiZX l
elehn`k ^pbPik pTne_nUlckhR ik^nPi\N _p^kU\ `kebk _kbRUlapcZX \_bphinilS, _gpcp^lbleR le_Zhkil]
e Vk^kiiZ`l _kgk`nhgk`l a e`kVZckn`Z` \Vbk`. ^n`piehgkOlpiipS Lbnahgp_glcp^ipS elehn`Z e`kVal;
:e_nJipn I\iaOlpilgpckiln `keb]ipS elehn`Z
pTne_nUlcknhe] epc`nehipS gkTphpS cenX nn \Vbpc l
kYgnYkhpc, k l`niip: ikYinhkNHnYp l phakUlckNHlX
ikepepc, OnihgpTnPipYp e\Ibngk, hn_bppT`niilapc,
\_bphinilS, _p^Jl_ilapc l h.^.
G ikehp]Hnn cgn`] cn^\he] gkTphZ _p epV^kilN
Lbnahgp_glcp^iZX elehn` ^clYkhnb]. G epcgn`niiZX
`keb]iZX elehn`kX kYgnYkhZ _glcp^]he] ph apgpTal
_glcp^pc, UkehphZ cgkHnil] ckbk ikYinhkNHnYp l
phakUlckNHlX ikepepc l _glcp^ipYp e\Ibngk p_gn^n-
b]Nhe] UkehphpS cgkHnil] gphpgk ^clYkhnb] l in gnY\-
blg\Nhe]. Egl`niniln Lbnahgp_glcp^iZX kYgnYkhpc 9TL. 1. ?hni^ ^b] leebn^pckil] _glcp^iZX
c `keb]iZX elehn`kX _pVcpblh _p^pTgkhR p_hl`kbRiZn OnihgpTnPiZX e\Ibngpc

40
?naOl] 1 «?lbpcZn l LingYnhlUnealn \ehkipcal»


chpgpS ehni^ epV^ki ^b] p_gn^nbnil] Xkgkahn- 3. LLHQCSINOT6 L5"HQFSI
glehla OnihgpTnPiZX e\Ibngpc (gle. 1). ?hni^ _pVcp-
b]nh Vk^kckhR inpTXp^l`Zn _kgk`nhgZ `kebpcpV- G akUnehcn pTnahpc leebn^pckil] TZbl cZTgkiZ
^\JipS e`nel `kYlehgkbl phakUal _\hn` gnY\blgpcal e\IbngZ e gkVblUiZ`l Ynp`nhglUneal`l Xkgkahngle-
_p^kckn`pYp c e`nelhnbR `kebk l cpV^\Xk, k hkaPn hlak`l. 9e_Zhkil] _gpcp^lbleR _gl gkViZX hn`_ngk-
gnY\blgpcal hn`_ngkh\gZ e`nel, l _gl lV`ninill h\gkX l epehkckX `kebpcpV^\JipS e`nel.
UkehphZ cgkHnil] _pb\UkhR p_hl`kbRiZn gnPl`Z Epebn pTgkTphal Lae_ngl`nihkbRiZX ^kiiZX TZbl
gkTphZ OnihgpTnPiZX e\Ibngpc ik gkVblUiZX gnPl`kX _pb\UniZ L`_lglUnealn Vkclel`pehl ^b] p_gn^nbnil]
gkTphZ _nge_nahlcipYp C2;;. UkepcpYp gkeXp^k `kebk W` c Vkclel`pehl ph UkehphZ
5k ehni^n \e_nJip leebn^pckiZ ineapbRap cgkHnil] ckbk N, gkeXp^k cpV^\Xk Gc.cX l `kebk G`.cX,
e\Ibngpc l _pb\UniZ lX Xkgkahnglehlal. hn`_ngkh\gZ cpV^\Xk tc.cX l `kebk t`.cX, _p_k^kNHnYp
ik cXp^ c _glcp^ipS OnihgpTnPiZS e\Ibng cl^k
2. LLHQCSINOT6 5DHSJOQOT2 W`  f (N, Gc.cX, G`.cX, tc.cX, t`.cX).

5k ehni^n le_ZhZckbleR HnhpUiZn l _kbRUlapcZn 4. )NGH-=QOTQ


\_bphinil] ^lk`nhgk`l 160…264 ``. G gnV\bRhkhn
Lae_ngl`nihpc TZbl _pb\UniZ gkeXp^iZn Xkgkahngle- ?pV^kiik] elehn`k ehni^pc _pVcpb]nh _pb\UkhR
hlal \_bphinilS c Vkclel`pehl ph _ngn_k^pc ^kcbnilS Xkgkahnglehlal l pOnilckhR akUnehcp gkTphZ Lbn`ni-
`nP^\ _pbpeh]`l. "Zbp _gpcn^nip egkciniln Xkgka- hpc `keb]ipS elehn`Z c gkVblUiZX \ebpcl]X gkTphZ
hnglehla _kbRUlapcZX l HnhpUiZX \_bphinilS. `kebpelehn`Z ^clYkhnb].

TLHQOOSQ BSCQHTFSINOTQ JQ=QOT6 JQDHSOSLTJQHQ2 L 3SH7!TBT


=TLHNBT %FNOCJH6 T LTH7OS2 ;NITLTBSLJ7- JQDHS"T;T=QLGT?
LIS2LJI SJ JQBDQFNJ5F@ I LDTFNH7O@? GNONHN?
;.G. =kebpck, A.&. ?cnhbkapc1
1
7:E «9A= l`. E.9. "kgkipck», =peack
e-mail: verbanov89@ciam.ru

G ikehp]Hnn cgn`] cen UkHn L`_lglUnealn `nhgk – ehn_nil VkXpbkPlckil] _gl gkeUnhn hnUnil]
`nhp^lal c liPningiZX gkeUnhkX _gl`ni]Nhe] hpbRap `kebk c V`nnclakX ^b] L`_lglUneapYp _p^Xp^k (apgl-
^b] _ngclUipS pOnial, _pebn UnYp peipcik] UkehR ^pgiZS _\Upa hg\T) [1] l ^b] 3D-gkeUnhk. G hp Pn cgn`]
cZUlebnilS _gpcp^lhe] e _p`pHRN 3D-`p^nblgp- c eb\Ukn kikbpYlUiZX gkeUnhpc _p hn` Pn `nhp^lak`,
ckil]. Egl Lhp` in gn^ap `nP^\ L`_lglUneal`l l ip ^b] cpV^\Xk, _p^pTipYp in ikTbN^kbpeR.
CFD-gkeUnhk`l `pY\h cpVilakhR VikUlhnbRiZn gkeXpP- ?gn^l cpV`pPiZX _glUli ^kiipYp inepphcnhehcl]
^nil]. G Lhp` eb\Ukn inpTXp^l`p _gpcp^lhR ckbl^k- ehplh _gn^_pbpPlhR ebn^\NHln:
OlN 3D-gkeUnhpc ik `p^nbRiZX Vk^kUkX. –
Vkclel`pehl ^b] apgl^pgipYp _\Uak in \UlhZ-
G ^pabk^n _gn^ehkcbniZ gnV\bRhkhZ UlebniipYp ckNh ^pbPiZ` pTgkVp` lV`niniln \ebpclS ci\hgniinYp
CFD-gkeUnhk hnUnil] hn_bpipelhnbnS e Ulebk`l hn_bppT`nik c pTbkehl YlTk hg\Tpa, `nP^\ hn` ^blik
Egki^hb], e\Hnehcniip TpbRJl`l n^lilOZ, l elbRipS _p^pTiZX \Ukehapc `pPnh epehkcb]hR VikUlhnbRi\N
Vkclel`pehRN hn_bpIlVlUnealX ecpSehc ph hn`_ngk- UkehR ph lX pTHnS ^bliZ;
h\gZ c e_lgkbRiZX akikbkX. =p^nblgpckiln _gpcp^l- –
^b] `kenb Xkgkahngik e\Hnehcniik] Vkclel`pehR
bpeR hpbRap ^b] bk`likgipYp gnPl`k hnUnil]. lX hn_bpIlVlUnealX ecpSehc ph hn`_ngkh\gZ. Egl
G gkeUnhn leebn^\nhe] hn_bppT`ni _gl hnUnill Lhp` pepTniip elbRip pik _gp]cb]nhe] ^b] apLIIlOl-
Ypg]UnYp `kebk (9E=-10) c e_lgkbRip` akikbn ag\Y- nihk ^lik`lUneapS c]Vapehl, ^b] \Unhk UnYp c pTZUiZX
bpYp _p_ngnUipYp enUnil] e _pehp]iipS hn`_ngkh\gpS liPningiZX `nhp^lakX `kbp L`_lglUnealX ^kiiZX.
ehnial (^lk_kVpi hn`_ngkh\g 420…320 3, Uhp epph- Epb\UniiZn c gnV\bRhkhn gkeUnhk _gpIlbl TnVgkV-
cnhehc\nh Ulebk` Egki^hb] c lihngckbn 115…27). `ngipS eapgpehl l`nNh XpgpJnn epphcnhehcln e Lae_n-
CpbUap` a ^kiip`\ leebn^pckilN _peb\Plbp gl`nihkbRiZ`l ^kiiZ`l [2]. 3gp`n hpYp, Yl^gp^lik-
e\Hnehcniipn inepphcnhehcln abNUncpYp OnbncpYp _kgk- `lUneak] ehkTlblVkOl] _phpak e Ipg`lgpckiln`,

41
GengpeelSeak] ik\Uip-hnXilUneak] apiIngniOl] `pbp^ZX \UniZX l e_nOlkblehpc
«AclkOlpiiZn ^clYkhnbl l elbpcZn \ehkipcal», =peack, 28-30 `k] 2019 Y.

hka ikVZckn`pYp, chpglUipYp hnUnil] (secondary flow) ckNh gkee`khglckn`ZS hl_ hnUnil] l \bkcblckNh nYp
_gpleXp^lh \Pn c _gn^nbkX _ngcpYp clhak e_lgkbl, peipciZn XkgkahngiZn pepTniipehl, aka e hpUal Vgnil]
Uhp hkaPn epYbke\nhe] e ^kiiZ` Lae_ngl`nihpc. Yl^gp^lik`lal, hka l e hpUal Vgnil] hn_bppT`nik.
?p_pehkcbniln _pb\UniiZX c CFD-gkeUnhn VikUnilS
Ulenb 5\eenbRhk e l`nNHl`le] aglhnglkbRiZ`l /DTLSG TLDSH7;SINOO@? TLJS=OTGSI
Vkclel`peh]`l [2] _pakVZcknh `kael`kbRipn gkeXpP-
^niln ik \gpcin 10…15%, Uhp ]cb]nhe] c_pbin _gln`- [1] pS E.G. =nhp^Z gkeUnhk ph^nbRiZX Vk^kU hn_bp-
bn`Z` l in _gncZJknh XkgkahngipS hpUipehl hn_bp- `keep_ngnipek. =.: *ingYl], 1971.
IlVlUnealX Lae_ngl`nihpc. [2] Sadik Kakac, Ramesh K. Shah, Win Aung. Hand book
Ckal` pTgkVp`, gnV\bRhkhZ _gpcn^niipYp Ulebni- of single-phase convective heat transfer. Wiley-
ipYp `p^nblgpckil] e _gln`bn`pS hpUipehRN p_leZ- Interscience Publication, Canada, 1987. P. 5.1–5.21.

TLHQOOSQ BSCQHTFSINOTQ S3HQCQOQOT6 S3JQGNJQH6 IQOJTH6JSFN


DQFLDQGJTIOS:S NITN&TSOOS:S CIT:NJQH6
G.A. 3lglbNa1,2, ?.A. 7gnTniRapc1, ;.A. 7pg]Unc1
1
7:E «9A= l`. E.9. "kgkipck», =peack
2
=7C: l`. 5.*. "k\`kik, =peack
e-mail: Kiriluk.94@yandex.ru

1. 1IQCQOTQ epcgn`niipYp kclk^clYkhnb] c ^kiiZX \ebpcl]X. nbR


gkTphZ VkabNUknhe] c gkVgkTphan ap`_pipcal leebn-
2kTphk _pec]Hnik `khn`khlUneap`\ `p^nblgp- ^\n`pS `p^nbl _gl le_Zhkil]X ik ehni^n l p_gn^n-
ckilN kh`peIngiZX \ebpclS pTbn^ninil] l gkeUnh\ bnill _ngnUi] aglhlUnealX, e hpUal Vgnil] pTbn^n-
_kgk`nhgpc bn^]iZX ikgpehpc, pTgkVpcZckNHlXe] inil], gkTpUlX gnPl`pc e _p`pHRN cZUlebnilS
ik _pcngXipehl `p^nbl pThnakhnb] cnihlb]hpgk c epcgn`niiZX _gpYgk``iZX ap`_bnaekX. 2kTphk
]cb]nhe] UkehRN _gpOneek ^pcp^al _gphlcppTbn^nil-
hnbRipS VkHlhZ (E-) kclk^clYkhnb], l nn kah\kbR-
ipehR ec]Vkik e hn`, Uhp _gl`ni]n`k] gkeUnhik]
`nhp^lak `pPnh TZhR le_pbRVpckik _gl enghlIlakOll
^g\YlX \Vbpc l kYgnYkhpc kclkOlpiipS hnXilal
^b] I\iaOlpilgpckil] c \ebpcl]X pTbn^ninil].

2. LOSIO@Q FQ;5H7JNJ@
G gk`akX gkTphZ _gp^nbkiZ p^ip- l ^c\XIkViZn
gkeUnhZ pThnakil] `p^nbl apak c _pbnhiZX \ebpcl]X
l c \ebpcl]X ehni^k e _p`pHRN _kanhk _gpYgk``
ANSYS CFX (gle. 1), _p gnV\bRhkhk` aphpgZX p_gn^n-
9TL. 1. 5kbpPniln _pbnS Ulenb =kXk c _pbnhiZX bniZ IlVlUnealn _kgk`nhgZ, aphpgZn inpTXp^l`p
\ebpcl]X l \ebpcl]X ehni^k _p^^ngPlckhR ik Lae_ngl`nihkbRip` pTnahn ^b] hpUipS
l`lhkOll le_ZhkhnbRipYp gnPl`k.
GZUlebnil] _gpcp^lbleR _gl gkVblUiZX gkTpUlX
gnPl`iZX _kgk`nhgkX (eapgpeh]X, hn`_ngkh\gkX,
cp^ipeh]X ikTnYkNHnYp _phpak).
? _p`pHRN _kanhk _gpYgk`` FENSAP-ICE cZ_pbini
gkeUnh `kee bn^]iZX ikgpehpc ik _pcngXipehl `p^nbl
pThnakhnb], _p gnV\bRhkhk` aphpgpYp p_gn^nbni
9TL. 2. ?gkciniln Lae_ngl`nihkbRiZX l gkeUnhiZX _ngnUniR aglhlUnealX gnPl`pc gkTphZ ^clYkhnb],
bn^]iZX ikgpehpc ik aphpgZX gnap`ni^\nhe] _gpcp^lhR le_Zhkil].

42
?naOl] 1 «?lbpcZn l LingYnhlUnealn \ehkipcal»

GZ_pbini gkeUnh Ynp`nhglS bn^]iZX ikgpehpc. G Xp^n 3. )NGH-=QOTQ


egkcinil] gkeeUlhkiiZX gkV`ngpc bn^]iZX ikgpehpc
ik `p^nbl apak e gnV\bRhkhk`l Lae_ngl`nihkbRipYp Egl`niniln _gn^ehkcbniipS gkeUnhip-kikblhl-
leebn^pckil] (gle. 2) e^nbkiZ cZcp^Z p _gln`bn`pS UneapS `nhp^lal _pVcpb]nh akUnehcniip Vk apgphalS
hpUipehl le_pbRV\n`pS gkeUnhipS `nhp^lal ^b] egpa pOnilhR pTbn^niniln `p^nbl, TbkYp^kg] Un`\ cpV-
gnJnil] _pehkcbniipS Vk^kUl. `pPip e\Hnehcniipn epagkHniln cgn`nil le_ZhkilS.

9N;FN3SJGN JQ?OSHS:TT T;:SJSIHQOT6 ;I5GSDS:HSN-Q2 DNOQHT


LHSOS2 :QSBQJFT=QLGS2 "SFB@ L DFTBQOQOTQB JQFBSDHNLJT=OS2
;NTJOS2 DHQOGT
A.G. 7pgbpc, 9.G. nbRinck1
1
A- «-5EE «CnXipbpYl]» l`. A.7. 2p`kJlik», -Tiliea
e-mail: gorlovav@technologiya.ru

1. 1IQCQOTQ G ^kiipS gkTphn c akUnehcn pTnahk ^b] _gpcn-


^nil] leebn^pckilS TZbk cZTgkik hng`p_bkehlUik]
5k enYp^i]JilS ^niR _gl ap``ngUneapS gnkbl- _bniak ik peipcn hng`p_bkehk lV ep_pbl`ngk Lhlbnik
VkOll lV^nbl] ik chpgp` `nehn _p ckPipehl, _pebn l XbpghglIhpgLhlbnik (ECTFE), _pb\Uniik] `nhp^p`
TnVp_keipehl _pbnhk, ehplh pTne_nUniln hgnTpckilS Laehg\Vll e _pebn^\NHnS _bkV`niipS pTgkTphapS
_p \gpciN J\`k cpV^\JiZX e\^pc (G?) ik `nehipehl. e p^ipS lbl pTnlX ehpgpi, l le_pbRV\n`k] c akUnehcn
5pg`Z _p \gpciN J\`k =nP^\ikgp^ipS pgYkilVkOll VkHlhipYp _pagZhl] ^b] Vc\ap_pYbpHkNHlX apieh-
YgkP^kieapS kclkOll (93A-) \ehkikcblckNhe] g\aOlS c ^clYkhnbRipS \ehkipcan (gle. 1).
c Vkclel`pehl ph `kael`kbRipS cVbnhipS `keeZ G? CgnTpckil], _gn^]cb]n`Zn a _pcngXipehl _kinbl
c hgnX IlaelgpckiiZX apihgpbRiZX hpUakX l Xkgkahn- E3 e ikineniipS _pcngXipehipS _bniapS:
glV\Nh peipciZn Lhk_Z _pbnhk ek`pbnhk: cVbnh, ikTpg – hn`_ngkh\giZS ^lk_kVpi Lae_b\khkOll 60…100?;
cZephZ, VkXp^ ik _pek^a\. 5nepphcnhehcln VikUnilS –
cZepak] ehpSapehR a cinJil` cpV^nSehcl]`
\gpci] J\`k hgnTpckil]` 93A- _glcp^lh a Vk_gnh\ pag\PkNHnS egn^Z, hkal` aka: cbkPipehR, api^niekOl],
Lae_b\khkOll G? ik hngglhpgll Ype\^kgehck lbl Vk`pgkPlckiln/gkV`pgkPlckiln, epb]ipS h\`ki, _nepa
\_bkhn LapbpYlUnealX JhgkIpc [1]. GkPi\N gpbR _gl l _ZbR, YglTal l _bneniR, \bRhgkIlpbnhpcpn lVb\Uniln;
gkVgkTphan apiehg\aOll Vc\ap_pYbpHkNHlX _kinbnS –
epXgki]hR hgnTpckil] _p kLgp^lik`lan, _gn^]c-
(E3) lYgknh lX \ehpSUlcpehR a abl`khlUneal` cpV^nS- b]n`Zn a _pcngXipeh]` Vc\ap_pYbpHkNHlX apiehg\aOlS.
ehcl]`, Uhp _pVcpb]nh le_pbRVpckhR lX c gkVblUiZX
abl`khlUnealX VpikX. -^il` lV hkalX `khnglkbpc, 2. QH7 FN3SJ@
_pVcpb]NHlX pTne_nUlhR \ehpSUlc\N VkHlh\ _pcngX-
ipehl apiehg\aOlS, ]cb]Nhe] _pcngXipehiZn VkHlhiZn G ^kiipS gkTphn gkee`khglckbkeR hnXipbpYlUneak]
_bnial, peipciZ`l ecpSehck`l _gl cZTpgn aphpgZX phgkTphak epc`nehipYp Ipg`pckil] hng`p_bkehlUipS
]cb]Nhe] hna\UnehR, ^gk_lg\n`pehR, cgn`] YnbnpTgk- _bnial l L_pael^ipYp _gn_gnYk ^b] _kinbl E3, Ipg`p-
Vpckil], k hkaPn OlablUneak] _gpUipehR [2]. pTgkV\NHk] _pcngXipehR aphpgpS l`nnh ebpPi\N
Ynp`nhglUnea\N Ipg`\.
;b] ^pehlPnil] _pehkcbniipS Onbl _gpcn^niZ
ebn^\NHln `ngp_gl]hl]:
1. GZ_pbinip `khn`khlUneapn `p^nblgpckiln
\abk^al hng`p_bkehlUipS _bnial ik peikeha\ ebpPipS
Ynp`nhgll c _gpYgk``ip` pTne_nUnill «FiberSim».
2. 2kVgkTphkiZ apiehg\ahlcip-hnXipbpYlUnealn
ckglkihZ \abk^al hng`p_bkehlUipS _bnial epc`nehip
ep ebp]`l L_pael^ipYp _gn_gnYk ik peikeha\ e _pebn-
^\NHl` _gpcn^niln` phcngP^nil] `nhp^p` kchpabkc-
9TL. 1. ;clYkhnbRik] \ehkipcak ipYp Ipg`pckil].

43
GengpeelSeak] ik\Uip-hnXilUneak] apiIngniOl] `pbp^ZX \UniZX l e_nOlkblehpc
«AclkOlpiiZn ^clYkhnbl l elbpcZn \ehkipcal», =peack, 28-30 `k] 2019 Y.

7. 5k peipckill _gpcn^niiZX gkTph l hnXipbpYl-


UneapS phgkTphal cZ_pbinik ehkhlehlUneak] pTgkTphak
^kiiZX _pegn^ehcp` _pehgpnil] apihgpbRiZX akgh.

9TL. 2. E3 e VkHlhiZ` hng`p_bkehlUiZ` _pagZhln`


3. )NGH-=QOTQ
3. 2kVgkTphkik _gpYgk``k kchp`khlVlgpckiipYp 2kVgkTphki _gpOnee lVYphpcbnil] Vc\ap_pYbpHk-
gkeagp] VkYphpcpa e \Unhp` pepTniipehnS ecpSehc NHnS _kinbl ebpPipS Ynp`nhglUneapS Ipg`Z e _gl`n-
hng`p_bkehlUipS _bnial. iniln` hng`p_bkehlUipS VkHlhipS _bnial (gle. 2),
4. Egpcn^nik phgkTphak gnPl`pc hn`_ngkh\gipS aphpgk] \e_nJip cin^gnik c englSipn _gplVcp^ehcp.
pTgkTphal hng`p_bkehlUipS _bnial ^b] nn Ipg`p-
pTgkVpckil]. /DTLSG TLDSH7;SINOO@? TLJS=OTGSI
5. 2kVgkTphkik l lVYphpcbnik hnXipbpYlUneak]
peikehak ^b] _gpcn^nil] _gn^ckglhnbRipS hn`_ngk- [1] Ebkhpipc =.=., 5nehngpck C.A., ?k`pYpipck G.A.
h\gipS p_gneepcal _bnial. Aa\ehlUnealn _pbl`ng. `khnglkbZ ipcpYp _papbnil].
6. 2kVgkTphkik hnXipbpYl] lVYphpcbnil] _kinbl [2] 2kea\hli A.., g\bRapc A.G., Vcniap &.5.
E3 ebpPipS Ynp`nhglUneapS Ipg`Z e _gl`niniln` Epbl`ngipn _bnipUipn _pagZhln ^b] apiehg\OlS
hng`p_bkehlUipS VkHlhipS _bnial. lV E3=.

9NL!TFQOTQ FQ:5HTFSIS=OS:S CTNDN;SON %


".;. Cn_bpc1, G.;. "\gpc2
1
-A- «GC9», =peack
2
59: «=*9», =peack
e-mail: bdteplov@gmail.com

1. 1IQCQOTQ (-A- «*=AbR]ie»). *bnahglUneak] `pHipehR


LingYpTbpak _gl apihgkahiZX cinJilX \ebpcl]X
G ikehp]Hnn cgn`] ik phnUnehcniiZX C*? kahlcip (t5G  3,1?, Bkh`  99,5 aEk) epehkcb]nh 423,8 =Gh,
cin^g]Nhe] `pHiZn _kgpYkVpcZn \ehkipcal e aphbk`l- k 3E; – 58,2%.
\hlblVkhpgk`l hgnX ^kcbnilS l _gp`nP\hpUiZ` _ngn- G 2014–2015 YY. TZbl _gpcn^niZ hn_bpcZn le_Z-
Ygncp` _kgk, ]cb]NHlne] iklTpbnn Lapip`lUiZ` hl_p` hkil] E7: ^b] leebn^pckil] nn Xkgkahnglehla. Egl lX
Yninglg\NHlX \ehkipcpa ik _glgp^ip` YkVn. :UlhZck] _gpcn^nill le_pbRVpckbkeR ^pehkhpUip _pbik], hpUik]
Lhp, lX _gpnahlgpckbl ^b] Lae_b\khkOll _gnl`\Hneh- l kchp`khlVlgpckiik] Jhkhik] elehn`k lV`ngnilS.
cniip c TkVpcp` gnPl`n e `lil`kbRiZ` apblUnehcp` G _gpOneen _\eapikbk^pUiZX gkTph, ap`_bnaeipYp p_gp-
_\eapc l lV`ninilS ikYg\Val. -^ikap, c \ebpcl]X Tpckil], YkgkihlSiZX le_ZhkilS l Lae_b\khkOll leebn-
p_hpcpYp gZiak LbnahgpLingYll l `pHipehl l pYgkil- ^pckip 92 ehkTlbRiZX gnPl`k c Jlgpap` ^lk_kVpin
UniiZX cpV`pPipehnS gnY\blgpckil] ikYg\Val c LingYp- LbnahglUnealX ikYg\Vpa 7C: (5…302 =Gh) l hn`_ngkh\g
elehn`kX gnPl`Z Lae_b\khkOll E7: e\Hnehcniip ikg\PipYp cpV^\Xk ( 12…24?). -TgkTphak Lae_ngl-
phblUkNhe] ph TkVpcZX. `nihkbRiZX ^kiiZX cZ_pbinik c epphcnhehcll e [1].
G [2] _glcn^niZ gnV\bRhkhZ l kikblV ^kiiZX le_ZhkilS.
2. FNJGSQ SDTLNOTQ S3QGJN TLLHQCSINOT6 *ae_ngl`nihkbRiZn Xkgkahnglehlal ap`_gneepgk
l YkVpcpS h\gTliZ, _pb\UniiZn e _p`pHRN ehkhlehl-
*ingYpTbpa E7:-420 C*-16 Ilblkbk EA- UneapS pTgkTphal gnV\bRhkhpc hn_bpcZX le_ZhkilS,
«=peLingYp» _gn^ehkcb]nh epTpS ^c\XckbRi\N _pbpPniZ c peipc\ `khn`khlUneapS `p^nbl 7C: [3],
`pipTbpUi\N _kgpYkVpc\N \ehkipca\, c epehkc _pVcpb]NHnS p_gn^nblhR lihnYgkbRiZn _pakVkhnbl,
aphpgpS cXp^]h: YkVph\gTliik] \ehkipcak SGT5-4000F k hkaPn ci\hgniiln _kgk`nhgZ 7C: (_glcn^niiZn
(Siemens AG), _kgpck] h\gTlik SST5-5000 (Siemens gkeXp^Z l 3E; h\gTp`kJli) _gl gkVblUiZX ikYg\VakX,
AG) l YpglVpihkbRiZS hgnXapih\giZS TkgkTkiiZS hn`_ngkh\gkX ikg\PipYp cpV^\Xk l \ehkcakX _p gnY\-
aphnb-\hlblVkhpg e _gp`nP\hpUiZ` _ngnYgncp` _kgk blg\n`Z` _kgk`nhgk` A?:CE. =khn`khlUnealn `p^nbl

44
?naOl] 1 «?lbpcZn l LingYnhlUnealn \ehkipcal»

3: l EC gkVgkTphkiZ c _gpYgk``ipS elehn`n Boiler _niUkhpYp YlTgl^ipYp YpgnbpUipYp \ehgpSehck, k cZTgpeZ


Designer e le_pbRVpckiln` hnXilUnealX ^kiiZX Vkcp^k- pael^pc kVphk ikUlikNh \cnblUlckhRe]. Ckal` pTgkVp`,
lVYphpclhnb] l cnglIlOlgpckiZ _p ^kiiZ` hn_bpcZX ^lk_kVpi `pHipehl 7C:, c aphpgp` nn gnY\blgpckiln
le_ZhkilS E7:-420C C*-16. pe\Hnehcb]nhe] e _p`pHRN G5A ap`_gneepgk, ]cb]nhe]
^p_\ehl`Z`. 9V LhlX _gn^_peZbpa _pb\UniZ kikblhl-
3. 9Q:5HTFSIS=O@2 CTNDN;SO ON:F5;SG % Unealn Vkclel`pehl ^b] p_gn^nbnil] hnXipbpYlUneapYp
`lil`\`k ikYg\Val E7:-420 c lihngckbn hn`_ngkh\g
*bnahglUnealn `pHipehl E7: l 7C: c Vkclel- ikg\PipYp cpV^\Xk 45…40?:
`pehl ph hn`_ngkh\gZ ikg\PipYp cpV^\Xk `ni]Nhe]
c JlgpalX _gn^nbkX. Egl t5G  25? ^b] 7C: l E7:
pil epehkcb]Nh 266 l 400 =Gh epphcnhehcniip, _gl 3
_pilPnill LhpS hn`_ngkh\gZ ^p 12? `pHipehR 7C:
_pcZJknhe] ^p 302 =Gh, k E7: – ^p 436,8 =Gh, 3E;
7C: _gl Lhp` \cnblUlcknhe] ph 38,8 ^p 39,8%, k 3E;
E7: – ph 56,8 ^p 57,7%. Egl `niRJlX VikUnil]X
4. 9NL!TFQOTQ FQ:5HTFSIS=OS:S CTNDN;SON
hn`_ngkh\gZ ikg\PipYp cpV^\Xk `pHipehR 7C: _p^^ng- ON:F5;SG %
Plcknhe] _pehp]iipS _\hn` _glagZhl] G5A ap`_gne-
epgk. 5k peipckill ^kiiZX, _pb\UniiZX _gl gkeUnhip` ;kbRinSJnn eilPniln ikYg\Val E7: `pPip
leebn^pckill gnPl`pc gkTphZ E7:-420, ^b] hnXipbp- pe\HnehclhR Vk eUnh _p^pYgnck cpV^\Xk _ngn^ ap`_-
YlUneapYp `kael`\`k ikYg\Val E7: c lihngckbn gneepgp` l \Yb\Tbnil] gnY\blgpckil] nYp gkeXp^k
hn`_ngkh\g ikg\PipYp cpV^\Xk 45…40? _pb\UniZ e _p`pHRN G5A. Egpcn^niiZn gkeUnhZ _pakVkbl, Uhp
ebn^\NHln kikblhlUnealn Vkclel`pehl: eilPniln ikYg\Val 7C: c Lhp` eb\Ukn ep_gpcpP^knhe]
\cnblUniln` hn`_ngkh\gZ phgkTphkcJlX YkVpc, `kael-
`kbRip ^p_\ehl`pn VikUniln aphpgpS, epYbkeip lieh-
g\aOll _p Lae_b\khkOll, epehkcb]nh  600? l pYgkil-
Ulcknh cpV`pPipehl eilPnil] hnXipbpYlUneapYp
`lil`\`k ikYg\Val E7:.
5lPi]] YgkilOk gnY\blgpcpUipYp ^lk_kVpik Egl t5G  15? cpV`pPipehl eilPnil] hnXipbp-
ikYg\Vpa E7: p_gn^nb]nhe] eilPniln` ik^nPipehl YlUneapYp `lil`\`k ikYg\Val Vk eUnh _gn^ckglhnbRipYp
gkTphZ pTpg\^pckil] _gl eilPnill _kgk`nhgpc _kgk _p^pYgnck cpV^\Xk pYgkilUlckNhe] hn_bpcpS `pHipehRN
Vk aphbp`-\hlblVkhpgp`, \X\^Jniln` LapbpYlUnealX cpV^\Xp_p^pYgnckhnb], cehgpniipYp c 3G-:, `kael-
Xkgkahnglehla Tbpak l eilPniln` nYp Lapip`lUipehl `kbRipn _pcZJniln hn`_ngkh\gZ c aphpgp` epehkc-
_gl gkTphn ik _pilPniiZX ikYg\VakX. b]nh _p gnV\bRhkhk` gkeUnhpc  50…55?. Egl Tpbnn
Egpcn^niiZn ik peipcn gkVgkTphkiipS `p^nbl cZepalX hn`_ngkh\gkX ikg\PipYp cpV^\Xk nYp _p^pYgnc
E7:-420 gkeUnhZ _pakVkbl, Uhp pYgkilUnil] hnXipbp- _ngn^ ap`_gneepgp` ^p 40? _pVcpb]nh eilVlhR hnXip-
YlUneapYp `lil`\`k ikYg\Val ec]VkiZ, _gnP^n cenYp, bpYlUnealS `lil`\` ikYg\Val E7: ^p 141 =Gh
e LapbpYlUneal`l pTehp]hnbRehck`l. Egl gkTphn 7C: (34% ip`likbRipS `pHipehl).
SGT5-4000F e apbROncpS ak`ngpS eYpgkil] l YlTgl^- :Yb\Tbniln gnY\blgpckil] gkeXp^k cpV^\Xk
iZ`l Ypgnbak`l ik _pilPniiZX ikYg\VakX _pebn _pbipYp e _p`pHRN G5A ap`_gneepgk _glcp^lh in hpbRap
_glagZhl] G5A ap`_gneepgk c cZXbp_iZX YkVkX a VikUlhnbRip`\ eilPnilN LbnahglUneapS `pHipehl
cpVgkehkNh apiOnihgkOll NOx. 2nY\blgpckiln gkeXp^k 7C:, ip l a e\Hnehcniip`\ eilPnilN `pHipehl
cpV^\Xk e _p`pHRN G5A ap`_gneepgk _pVcpb]nh _kgpcpS h\gTliZ, cZVckiip`\ \`niRJniln` gkeXp^k
Lae_b\khlgpckhR ak`ng\ eYpgkil] 7C: e _gkahlUneal phgkTphkcJlX c 7C: YkVpc, _peh\_kNHlX c 3:.
_pehp]iiZ` lVTZhap` cpV^\Xk l pe\Hnehcb]hR Egl t5G  20? _ngnVkagZhln G5A ap`_gneepgk
ePlYkiln _gn^ckglhnbRip _p^YphpcbniipS Yp`pYniipS _gl inlV`niip` apLIIlOlnihn lVTZhak cpV^\Xk _pVcp-
hp_blcp-cpV^\JipS e`nel e ilVal`l cZTgpek`l pael^pc b]nh eilVlhR hnXipbpYlUnealS `lil`\` ikYg\Val E7:
kVphk. Egl eilPnill ikYg\Val 7C: _pebn _pbipYp ^p 105,4 =Gh (21% ip`likbRipS `pHipehl). Egl Tpbnn
_glagZhl] G5A ap`_gneepgk, apY^k gkeXp^ cpV^\Xk cZepalX VikUnil]X ikg\PipS hn`_ngkh\gZ eilPniln
pehknhe] _pehp]iiZ`, k gkeXp^ hp_blck _gp^pbPknh hnXipbpYlUneapYp `lil`\`k ikYg\Val Vk eUnh _ngn-
eilPkhRe], cZVZck] \cnblUniln lVTZhak cpV^\Xk c 3?, VkagZhl] G5A cpV`pPip, ip c `niRJnS ehn_nil.
Ypgniln _gn^ckglhnbRip _p^YphpcbniipS hp_blcip- ?hkTlblVlgpckhR ip`likbRi\N `pHipehR epcgn-
cpV^\JipS e`nel ehkTlblVlg\nhe] _bk`nin` _lbphipS `niiZX 7C: _gl t5G  15? Vk eUnh _pcZJnil] ikUkbR-
^lII\VlpiipS Ypgnbal, cXp^]HnS c epehkc ^c\Xeh\- ipS hn`_ngkh\gZ YkVpc inOnbneppTgkVip lV-Vk \eapgni-

45
GengpeelSeak] ik\Uip-hnXilUneak] apiIngniOl] `pbp^ZX \UniZX l e_nOlkblehpc
«AclkOlpiiZn ^clYkhnbl l elbpcZn \ehkipcal», =peack, 28-30 `k] 2019 Y.

ipYp leUng_kil] ^pbYpcnUipehl ^pgpYpehp]HlX pXbkP- Egl hn`_ngkh\gn ikg\PipYp cpV^\Xk 35? ePlYkiln
^kn`ZX ^nhkbnS Ypg]UnYp hgkahk. pgelgpckhR `pHipehR _ngn^ aphbp`-\hlblVkhpgp` ^p_pbilhnbRipYp hp_blck
7C: c UkeZ _la `pPip Vk eUnh LingYnhlUneapYp ccp^k c apblUnehcn 1,7 aY/c hkaPn _pVcpb]nh ehkTlblVlgpckhR
_kgk c 3? 7C:, ePlYkil] ^p_pbilhnbRipYp hp_blck LbnahglUnea\N `pHipehR E7: ik ip`likbRip` \gpcin.
ik cXp^n c 3: l pXbkP^nil] cpV^\Xk ik cXp^n l _gl =pHipehR E7: c Lhp` eb\Ukn _pcZJknhe] _\hn` Ipgel-
nYp ePkhll c ap`_gneepgn 7C:. 5klTpbnn _gpehZ` l gpckil] _kgpcpYp apih\gk Vk eUnh _g]`pYp _p^cp^k
LIInahlciZ` e_pepTp` ]cb]nhe] c_gZea cp^Z c cpV^\Xp- c inYp hn_bk hp_blck. Cn`_ngkh\gk YkVpc ik cXp^n c 3:
VkTpgiZS hgkah 7C: in_pegn^ehcniip _ngn^ ap`_gne- _pcZJknhe] ^p  700?, k 3E; E7: eilPknhe] ik 1,14%.
epgp`. ?pYbkeip _gpcn^niiZ` gkeUnhk`, c_gZea cp^Z
_ngn^ ap`_gneepgp` 7C: _gl hn`_ngkh\gn ikg\PipYp /DTLSG TLDSH7;SINOO@? TLJS=OTGSI
cpV^\Xk 35? c apblUnehcn  1,8% gkeXp^k ePl`kn`pYp
c in` cpV^\Xk _pVcpb]nh ehkTlblVlgpckhR LbnahglUne- [1] 7-?C 20440-75. :ehkipcal YkVph\gTliiZn.
a\N `pHipehR E7: ik ip`likbRip` VikUnill l _pcZ- =nhp^Z le_ZhkilS.
elhR nn 3E; ik 0,3%. *hph gkeXp^ TblVpa a `kael- [2] Cn_bpc ".;., 2k^li .A., lbli A.A., 2\^niap ;.G.
`kbRip cpV`pPip`\ _p \ebpcl]` le_kgnil] ak_nbR Cn_bpcZn le_Zhkil] YkVph\gTliipS \ehkipcal
cp^Z Vk cgn`] _gnTZckil] c _gphpUipS Ukehl ap`_- SGT5-4000F LingYpTbpak E7:-420C C*-16
gneepgk. GpV`pPipn nYp \cnblUniln, aka l _g]`pS =peLingYp // Cn_bpLingYnhlak, 2016.  8.
c_gZea cp^Z _pebn ap`_gneepgk, `pY\h ^p_pbilhnbRip [3] "\gpc G.;., Cn_bpc ".;. 2kVgkTphak gkeUnhipS `p^nbl
_pcZelhR `pHipehR, ip TnV \`niRJnil] gkTphZ YkVph\gTliipS \ehkipcal ik peipcn Lae_ngl`ni-
ePkhl] cpV^\Xk c ap`_gneepgn l e inaphpgZ` eilPn- hkbRiZX Xkgkahnglehla // 5pcpn c gpeelSeapS
iln` 3E; 7C:. LbnahgpLingYnhlan, 2016.  8. ?. 6–18.

$QSFQJT=QLGTQ SLOSI@ T DFNGJT=QLGN6 FQNHT;N&T6 T;:SJSIHQOT6


CIT:NJQHQ2 3QLDTHSJO@? HQJNJQH7O@? NDDNFNJSI L TLDSH7;SINOTQB
NCCTJTIO@? JQ?OSHS:T2
A.G. EpTnb]iealS, A.A. &nclXli1
1
"7C: «G-5=» l`. ;.. :ehlipck, ?kiah-EnhngT\gY
e-mail: pobelyanskiy@inbox.ru

1. 1IQCQOTQ Ep `ngn \`niRJnil] IlVlUnealX gkV`ngpc &A,


inpTXp^l`p \UlhZckhR _k^niln Ulenb 2nSipbR^ek,
Ep ^kiiZ` ;pgpPipS akghZ 5C9 «ALgpinh» k hkaPn gpeh _bpHk^l, p`Zckn`pS _phpap`, _p phip-
c 2peell e\Hnehc\nh _phgnTipehR c `kbZX YkVph\g- JnilN a pTn`\ l `keen. Cn` ek`Z` Vk^kUk ^pehlPnil]
TliiZX ^clYkhnb]X (7C;) ^b] Tne_lbphiZX bnhkhnbRiZX cZepalX eapgpehnS _pbnhk pebpPi]nhe] in_gp_pgOlp-
k__kgkhpc ("E&A), ^lik`lUneal _p^pTiZX bnhkNHlX ikbRiZ` gpehp` _phgnTipS h]Yl _gl \`niRJnill
`p^nbnS (;E=) TpbRJlX cpV^\JiZX e\^pc (G?), k hkaPn gkV`ngipehl "E&A.
Lae_ngl`nihkbRiZX bnhkhnbRiZX k__kgkhpc (&A). G2; e_pepTiZ pTne_nUlhR cZepa\N agnSengea\N
"kVlg\]eR ik pepTniipeh]X _gl`ninil] "E&A, eapgpehR _pbnhk "E&A l ^pehkhpUi\N _gp^pbPlhnbR-
a ^clYkhnb]` _gn^]cb]nhe] e_nOlIlUnealn hgnTpck- ipehR _pbnhk.
il]: `kbk] ehpl`pehR, TZehgZS Vk_\ea, \_gpHniipn
hnXilUneapn pTeb\Plckiln [1]. ?nYp^i] gke_gpehgkinil]
_pb\Ulbl LbnahglUnealn ^clYkhnbl (*;), ^clYkhnbl 2. ;:SJSIHQOTQ (HQBQOJSI CIT:NJQH7O@?
5LJNOSISG % BQJSCNBT NCCTJTIO@?
ci\hgniinYp eYpgkil] (;G?), cpV^\Jip-gnkahlciZn JQ?OSHS:T2
(G2;) l gnkahlciZn ^clYkhnbl (2;).
G2; l`nNh `ipYln _gnl`\Hnehck: VikUlhnbRip -eipcipS in^pehkhpa G2; ^clYkhnbnS – phipel-
`niRJlS cne l pTn`, `niRJnn apblUnehcp ^nhkbnS, hnbRip cZepalS gkeXp^ hp_blck l ilValS pTHlS 3E;,
`niRJnn gkTpUnn ^kcbniln, apiehg\ahlci\N _gpehph\, in Tpbnn 17% [2]. -eipciZ`l _\h]`l _pcZJnil] 3E;
b\UJ\N h]Ypcppg\PniipehR, ik^nPipehR l _gpehph\ ^b] C2; ]cb]Nhe]:
pTeb\Plckil]. –
_pcZJniln _kgk`nhgpc Olabk;

46
?naOl] 1 «?lbpcZn l LingYnhlUnealn \ehkipcal»

9TL. 1. -Tbla l ap`_pipcak 7C;-100


_pcZJniln _kgk`nhgpc ^clPlhnb]; peipcZ l _gkahlUneak] gnkblVkOl] hnXipbpYlUnealX

_pcZJniln 3E; \Vbpc C2;. _gpOneepc lVYphpcbnil] ^nhkbnS ^clYkhnb] l kYgnYkhpc
;kiiZn `ngZ inlVTnPip _glcp^]h a \ebpPinilN Tne_lbphiZX bnhkhnbRiZX k__kgkhpc e le_pbRVpckiln`
apiehg\aOll l \cnblUnilN ehpl`pehl apinUipYp k^^lhlciZX hnXipbpYlS» c "7C: «G-5=» l`.
_gp^\ahk, lV UnYp ebn^\nh, Uhp _p _ngcpikUkbRipS ehpl- ;.. :ehlipck _gpkikblVlgpcki p_Zh le_pbRVpckil]
`pehl e ;G? l *;, ikXp^]Hl`e] c `keepcp` _gplV- k^^lhlciZX hnXipbpYlS c kclk^clYkhnbnehgpnill
cp^ehcn, `pY\h apia\glgpckhR hpbRap iklTpbnn _gpehZn ik cn^\HlX kclkOlpiiZX _gn^_gl]hlS, c ik\Uip-leebn-
hl_Z C2;. ^pckhnbRealX liehlh\hkX l cZeJlX \UnTiZX Vkcn^n-
Egl Jlgpap` _gl`ninill k^^lhlciZX hnXipbpYlS il]X. EpakVkip, Uhp epV^kiln `kbpgkV`ngiZX ^clYk-
VkhgkhZ ik pTpg\^pckiln, inpTXp^l`pn ^b] k^^lhlc- hnbnS e h]YpS 100…1000 5 _pVcpblh gnJlhR JlgpalS
ipYp _gplVcp^ehck inaphpgZX iklTpbnn ebpPiZX \Vbpc e_nahg Vk^kU ^b] _gnp^pbnil] hnXipbpYlUnealX TkgRn-
l ^nhkbnS 7C; ehkipc]he] ^nJncbn, Un` _gplVcp^ehcp gpc, pTpVikUniiZX c «^pgpPipS akghn» 5C9 «A*2-5C».
e _p`pHRN iZin hgk^lOlpiiZX `nhp^pc. G ikehp]Hnn
cgn`] cpV`pPip epagkHniln _gplVcp^ehcniipYp Olabk 3. )NGH-=QOTQ
_gl lVYphpcbnill ^nhkbnS ep ebpPipS Ipg`pS _pcngX-
ipehl lbl cabNUkNHlX c enT] ci\hgniiln _pbpehl ? \Unhp` cZJneakVkiipYp gkVgkTphkik ap`_pipcak,
gkVippTgkVipS apiIlY\gkOll. _gpcn^nip _gpnahlgpckiln l apiehg\lgpckiln, gkVgk-
-UniR ckPiZ` pTehp]hnbRehcp` ]cb]nhe] cpV`pP- TphkiZ 3D-`p^nbl ^nhkbnS l kYgnYkhpc _nge_nahlciZX
ipehR cipelhR apggnaOlN c ^lVkSi ^nhkbnS TnV _ngn- 7C;-100 (gle. 1) l 7C;-1000 (gle. 2) (e h]Yk`l 100 l
ikehgpSal _gplVcp^ehcniipYp _gpOneek, k hpbRap cinen- 1000 5 epphcnhehcniip), apiehg\aOl] aphpgZX hp_pbp-
iln` lV`ninilS c OlIgpc\N `p^nbR. YlUneal p_hl`lVlgpckik l k^k_hlgpckik _p^ k^^lhlc-
GpV`pPipehl k^^lhlciZX hnXipbpYlS _pVcpb]Nh i\N hnXipbpYlN lVYphpcbnil].
_p ipcp`\ _p^pShl a _gpOnee\ _gpnahlgpckil] G2;, G Xp^n gkTph _p pTpeipckilN pTblak l gkVgkTphal
ik_gl`ng, le_pbRVpckiln hp_pbpYlUneapS p_hl`lVkOll ap`_pipcal 7C; gkVgkTphkik pglYlikbRik] `nhp^lak
^b] _pb\Unil] bnYalX l _gpUiZX ^nhkbnS, _pglehZX gkeUnhk ^b] _gpIlblgpckil] bp_khpUiZX `kJli,
apiehg\aOlS, ^nhkbnS ep ebpPiZ`l elehn`k`l ci\h- _gl`ni]n`ZX c `kbpgkV`ngiZX 7C;, ik aphpg\N TZbp
gniilX akikbpc ^b] lX pXbkP^nil] c Xp^n Lae_b\khkOll. _pb\Unip ecl^nhnbRehcp p Ype\^kgehcniipS gnYlehgkOll
;kiiZn cpV`pPipehl epV^kckhR ebpPiZn ci\hgniiln _gpYgk``Z ^b] *G=  2018619309 «EgpYgk``ipn
ehg\ah\gZ _p]clbleR TbkYp^kg] hnXipbpYl]` 3D-_nUkhl, pTne_nUniln ^b] gkeUnhk l _gpIlblgpckil] bp_khpa
Uhp incpV`pPip _gl le_pbRVpckill IgnVngpcal lbl `kbpgkV`ngipYp YkVph\gTliipYp ^clYkhnb]».
hpUipYp blhR].
G gk`akX cZ_pbinil] gkTph  YpegnYlehgkOll /DTLSG TLDSH7;SINOO@? TLJS=OTGSI
AAAA-A19-119013090101-4 _p hn`n «CnpgnhlUnealn
[1] Ekcb\Jniap =., cehkIRnc 7., =kakgniap 9.
"ne_lbphiZn bnhkhnbRiZn k__kgkhZ: lehpgl], _gl`n-
iniln, \YgpVk gke_gpehgkinil] l _nge_nahlcZ
gkVclhl]. =.: Egkck Unbpcnak, 2005.
[2] ^kipc 9.A., hk\^kXng C., kbkbnnc ?.G. EgpT-
bn`Z l _nge_nahlcZ gkVclhl] `lagpYkVph\g-
TliiZX ^clYkhnbnS ^b] Tne_lbphiZX bnhkhnbRiZX
k__kgkhpc // Gnehila ?k`kgeapYp Ype\^kgehcniipYp
9TL. 2. -Tbla l ap`_pipcak 7C;-1000 kLgpape`lUneapYp \ilcngelhnhk, 2011.  3(27).

47
GengpeelSeak] ik\Uip-hnXilUneak] apiIngniOl] `pbp^ZX \UniZX l e_nOlkblehpc
«AclkOlpiiZn ^clYkhnbl l elbpcZn \ehkipcal», =peack, 28-30 `k] 2019 Y.

1@3SF T FNL=QJ ?NFNGJQFTLJTG $ CH6 :T3FTCOS2 LTHSIS2


5LJNOSIGT LNBSHQJN 1
;.. 2kX`kia\bpc, G.?. kXkgUniap, .G. pali, E.?. ?\iOpc, 9.-. 3lenbnc1
1
7:E «9A= l`. E.9. "kgkipck», =peack
e-mail: rahmankulov@ciam.ru

1. 1IQCQOTQ e _gl`niniln` gkVblUiZX LbnahglUnealX hnXipbpYlS


l ap`_pipcpa _pakVkb, Uhp c TblPkSJnS _nge_nahlcn
kahpg VkYg]Vinil] pag\PkNHnS egn^Z cpV^\J- ^b] ek`pbnhpc `nehiZX cpV^\JiZX blilS (=G&)
iZ` hgkie_pghp` ]cb]nhe] ckPiZ` ke_nahp` c ehgk- gkOlpikbRip gkee`phgnhR epV^kiln YlTgl^ipS elbpcpS
hnYll gkVclhl] `lgpcpS kclkOll l p_gn^nb]nh _nge_na- \ehkipcal (7?:), eXn`k aphpgpS _pakVkik ik gle. 1.
hlciZn liipckOlpiiZn ik_gkcbnil] c epV^kill elbpcZX -eipcik] l^n] epehplh c le_pbRVpckill Tbpak
\ehkipcpa, phcnUkNHl` cen` LapbpYlUneal` hgnTpck- kaa\`\b]hpgiZX TkhkgnS (A") ^b] epV^kil] ^p_pbil-
il]` _p \gpciN cZTgpepc L`leell. Cka, `kYlehgkbR- hnbRipS `pHipehl ik gnPl`kX cVbnhk l ikTpgk cZephZ,
iZ` hnXilUneal` gnJniln`, c VikUlhnbRipS `ngn Uhp _pVcpb]nh eIpg`lgpckhR pTbla h\gTpckbRipYp YkVp-
p_gn^nb]NHl` ^kbRinSJln _nge_nahlcZ c kclkOll, h\gTliipYp ^clYkhnb] (CG7C;), leXp^] lV _phgnTipS
]cb]nhe] _gnl`\Hnehcniipn le_pbRVpckiln LbnahglUne- `pHipehl c \ebpcl]X agnSengeapYp _pbnhk &A e ^kbR-
apS LingYll c \ehgpSehckX bnhkhnbRiZX k__kgkhpc (&A). inSJnS pOniapS LIInahlcipehl _gl`ninil] cenS
GZ_pbiniiZS e_nOlkblehk`l ph^nbk 006 9A= YlTgl^ipS elbpcpS \ehkipcal c epehkcn &A. CkapS
_gpYipViZS kikblV gkVclhl] LbnahglUnealX lehpUil- _p^Xp^ _glcp^lh, e p^ipS ehpgpiZ, a VikUlhnbRip`\
apc LingYll, Lbn`nihpc _gnpTgkVpckil] LbnahglUneapS \`niRJnilN \^nbRipYp gkeXp^k hp_blck l `keepYkTk-
LingYll, LbnahglUnealX `kJli l lX elehn` \_gkc- glhiZX Xkgkahnglehla h\gTpckbRipYp ^clYkhnb], k e
bnil] e \Unhp` pOnial _gplVcp^ehcniipYp epehp]il] ^g\YpS – a \cnblUnilN `keeZ 7?: Vk eUnh cabNUnil]
cn^\HlX _gn^_gl]hlS 2peell ^knh cpV`pPipehR _ngn- Tbpak A" l g]^k LbnahgpkYgnYkhpc.
e`phgk hgk^lOlpiiZX apiehg\aOlpiiZX l hnXilUnealX Egl epehkcbnill \gkcinil] `keepcpYp Tkbkiek &A
gnJnilS ap`_pipcal elbpcZX \ehkipcpa ^kbRinSJnS ckgRlg\nhe] `keek 7?: l `keek hp_blck _gl epXgk-
_nge_nahlcZ ik phnUnehcniiZX bnhkhnbRiZX k__kgkhkX. inill pehkbRiZX _kgk`nhgpc. ?bn^pckhnbRip, \cnbl-
-epTniipehl epV^kil] LbnahglUnealX ap`_pini- Uniln `keeZ 7?: _p egkcinilN e ?: hgk^lOlpiipYp
hpc, c Ukehipehl Lbnahgp^clYkhnbnS l LbnahgpYningk- hl_k _glcn^nh a \`niRJnilN `keeZ hp_blck. -^ikap
hpgpc, VkabNUkNhe] c ebpPipehl le_pbinil] TpbRJn- _gl pOnian bnhip-hnXilUnealX Xkgkahnglehla (&C)
gkV`ngiZX Lbn`nihpc (_pg]^ak 1 =Gh l cZJn) e cZep- Vk eUnh \`niRJnil] \^nbRipYp gkeXp^k hp_blck ^clYk-
al`l _pakVkhnb]`l 3E; l ilVal`l `keepYkTkglhiZ`l hnb] ik peipciZX gnPl`kX gkTphZ ^clYkhnb] `pPip
_pakVkhnb]`l, e pTne_nUniln` _gln`bn`pYp \gpci] _pb\UlhR cZlYgZJ c ^kbRipehl _pbnhk &A.
ik^nPipehl, hn_bpcpYp epehp]il] kYgnYkhpc, Lbnahgp-
`kYilhipS epc`nehl`pehl l h.^. Egpcn^niiZS kikblV 2. LOSION6 =NLJ7
hl_pgkV`ngipYp g]^k ek`pbnhpc YgkP^kieapS kclkOll
nbRN ^kiipS gkTphZ ]cb]nhe] _plea gkOlpikbR-
ipYp pTblak 7?:, c Ukehipehl, e cabNUniln` 7C;
in_g]`pS gnkaOll, _gl`nilhnbRip a ek`pbnh\ hl_k
L-410UVP-E20 (cZepap_bki, peikHniiZS 2 cpV^\JiZ`l
clihk`l, XcpehpcZ` p_ngniln` l hgnXp_pgiZ` Jkeel)
e ap``ngUneapS ikYg\VapS 19 _keekPlgpc _gl `keen
OnbncpS ikYg\Val GOi  1800 aY (19 _keekPlgpc) l
cVbnhipS `keen &A G0  6600 aY. "kVpck] ?: cabNUknh
c enT] ^ck h\gTpclihpcZX ^clYkhnb] (CG;) General
Electric 580-200 e gn^\ahpgk`l, gke_pbpPniiZn c `php-
Ypi^pbkX ik agZbn. :ebpcl] agnSengeapYp _pbnhZ TZbl
_gli]hZ ik cZephn 3050 ` l eapgpehl 278 a`/U.
G peipcn _pehkcbniiZX Vk^kU bnPlh leebn^pckiln
9TL. 1. ?Xn`k YlTgl^ipS elbpcpS \ehkipcal ek`pbnhk =G&:
1 –
cpV^\JiZS clih; 2 –
Lbnahgp^clYkhnbR; p_hl`kbRipYp Tkbkiek gke_gn^nbnil] `pHipehnS h\gTp-
3 –
Tbpa \_gkcbnil]; 4 –
Tbpa kaa\`\b]hpgiZX ckbRipYp ^clYkhnb] l kaa\`\b]hpgipS Tkhkgnl hnXip-
TkhkgnS; 5 –
LbnahgpYningkhpg; 6 – CG7C; bpYlUneapYp \gpci] 2030-X YY. ik peipciZX gnPl`kX

48
?naOl] 1 «?lbpcZn l LingYnhlUnealn \ehkipcal»

gkTphZ l egkcilhnbRik] pOniak _pakVkhnbnS &C ckil] _pbnhipYp Olabk ek`pbnhk =G& _pVcpb]nh _gpcp-
e TkVpcZ` ckglkihp`, k hkaPn e epcgn`niiZ`l phnUneh- ^lhR leebn^pckiln cbl]il] _kgk`nhgpc l _gpYgk``
cniiZ`l ^clYkhnb]`l, aphpgZn `pY\h TZhR le_pbRVp- \_gkcbnil] ^clYkhnb] ik _pakVkhnbl &C &A.
ckiZ ik ^kiip` &A. ?\``kgik] cVbnhik] `pHipehR
7?: 1600 b.e., inpTXp^l`k] ^b] cVbnhk l ikTpgk cZephZ 3. )NGH-=QOTQ
&A, cpV`pPik c ^c\X ap`_pipcpUiZX gnJnil]X:

p^ip^clYkhnbRipS 7?: e \Unhp` `keJhkTlgpck- -^ip^clYkhnbRik] 7?: c epehkcn &A pTne_nUlcknh
il] gkV`ngipehl ^clYkhnb] ^b] pTne_nUnil] cVbnhipS iklTpbRJ\N ^kbRipehR, ip cpVilakNh cp_gpeZ,
`pHipehl 1150…1500 b.e. l 610 …650 b.e. ik agnSeng- ec]VkiiZn e ik^nPipehRN ^kiipS elbpcpS \ehkipcal.
eap` gnPl`n _pbnhk l A3" (`pHipehRN 100…450 b.e.); ;b] \gpci] 2020 Y. ^b] pTne_nUnil] `kael`kbRipS

^c\X^clYkhnbRipS 7?: e \Unhp` `keJhkTlgpck- ^kbRipehl _pbnhk l`nnh e`Zeb \cnblUlckhR gkV`ng-
il] gkV`ngipehl ^clYkhnb] ^b] pTne_nUnil] cVbnhipS ipehR CG7C; l \`niRJkhR gkV`ngipehR A", _peapbRa\
`pHipehl 300…650 b.e. l 305…325 b.e. ik agnSengeap` kaa\`\b]hpgiZn Tkhkgnl l`nNh ilValn \^nbRiZn
gnPl`n l A3" (`pHipehRN 100…500 b.e.). _pakVkhnbl.
;b] _gl`ninil] c YlTgl^iZX elbpcZX \ehkipcakX ;b] \gpci] _nge_nahlcZ 2030 Y. _gpleXp^lh
\gpci] 2030 Y. `pPnh gkee`khglckhRe] h\gTpckbRiZS pTgkhipn – `kael`kbRik] ^kbRipehR ^pehlYknhe] _gl
^clYkhnbR ik peipcn _nge_nahlcipYp YkVpYningkhpgk _gl`ninill c 7?: CG7C;-1150 l A3" `pHipehRN
`kbpgkV`ngipYp ^clYkhnb], pTbla aphpgpYp TZb eIpg- 450 b.e.
`lgpcki c gk`akX _gpcp^l`ZX c 9A= leebn^pckilS
_p gkVgkTphan 5C. Egl lV`ninill gkV`ngipehl ^clYk- /DTLSG TLDSH7;SINOO@? TLJS=OTGSI
hnb] _kgk`nhglgpckbleR _glcn^niiZS gkeXp^ cpV^\Xk
ik cXp^n, _pakVkhnbl 3E; bp_khpUiZX \Vbpc l ehn_niR [1] "\hpc A.=., 3pVkgnc &.A. =khn`khlUneapn `p^n-
_pcZJnil] _pbipYp ^kcbnil] c ap`_gneepgn c gkeUnh- blgpckiln gkTpUnYp _gpOneek kclkOlpiiZX ^clYk-
ipS hpUan. hnbnS: :UnTipn _pepTln. =.: 9V^. GG9A l`. _gpI.
;b] p_gn^nbnil] LIInahlcipehl 7?: c epehkcn 5.. \apceapYp, 1993.
&A TZbk gkVgkTphkik `khn`khlUneak] `p^nbR [1, 2]. [2] =kebpc G.7. Cnpgl] cZTpgk p_hl`kbRiZX _kgk`nh-
9e_pbRVpckiln gkeeUlhkiiZX Lae_b\khkOlpiiZX gpc _gl _gpnahlgpckill kclkOlpiiZX 7C;. =.:
_kgk`nhgpc l Xkgkahnglehla ^clYkhnb] ^b] `p^nblgp- =kJlipehgpniln, 1981. 127 e.

SCQHTFSINOTQ BSOSLJO@? ?NFNGJQFTLJTG JIQFCSDSHTBQFO@?


JSDHTIO@? (HQBQOJSI
A.5. GkgNXli1, A.G. 7nblnc1, ;.9. \gkcbnc1, 9.-. 3lenbnc1,2
1
7:E «9A= l`. E.9. "kgkipck», =peack
2
=7C: l`. 5.*. "k\`kik, =peack
e-mail: geliev@ciam.ru

1. 1IQCQOTQ 9V `ipPnehck e\Hnehc\NHlX c ikehp]Hnn cgn`]


ckglkihpc C* iklTpbnn LIInahlciZ`l ^b] _gl`ninil]
Cp_blciZn Lbn`nihZ (C*) ]cb]Nhe] LIInahlciZ`l c kclkOll eUlhkNhe] hcng^p_pbl`ngiZn C* (CEC*)
\ehgpSehck`l _g]`pYp _gnpTgkVpckil] Xl`lUneapS l, c Tpbnn ^kbnapS _nge_nahlcn, hcng^ppael^iZn
LingYll epn^linilS c LbnahglUnea\N. G C* hp_blcp (C-C*) C* [2].
(cp^pgp^) _pehp]iip _pehkcb]nhe] cinJil` lehpUilap`, 2kTphk _pec]Hnik gkVgkTphan _pb\L`_lglUneapS
c hp cgn`] aka c kaa\`\b]hpgn LingYl] ep^ngPlhe] `khn`khlUneapS `p^nbl CEC*, _pVcpb]NHnS _gpYipVl-
c pTgkhl`ZX gnkaOl]X epehkcb]NHlX nYp gnkYnihpc. gpckhR nYp `pHipehiZn l cpbRhk`_ngiZn Xkgkahngle-
Gn^\Hln leebn^pckhnbRealn pgYkilVkOll, gkVgkTph- hlal c Vkclel`pehl ph ehn_nil \cbkPinil] _p^kckn-
Ulal l _gplVcp^lhnbl kclkhnXilal gkee`khglckNh C* `pYp c hp_blci\N TkhkgnN cpV^\Xk, cXp^iZX ^kcbnilS
aka iklTpbnn _nge_nahlciZS lehpUila LbnahglUneapS cp^pgp^k l cpV^\Xk, hn`_ngkh\gZ gnkYlg\NHlX kahlciZX
LingYll ^b] LbnahglUnealX elbpcZX \ehkipcpa T\^\HlX _pcngXipehnS. Ep^pTik] `kh`p^nbR inpTXp^l`k
bnhkhnbRiZX k__kgkhpc [1]. ?gn^l ilX Safran, DLR l ^g. _gl Ipg`lgpckill pTblapc ?: ik peipcn CEC*.

49
GengpeelSeak] ik\Uip-hnXilUneak] apiIngniOl] `pbp^ZX \UniZX l e_nOlkblehpc
«AclkOlpiiZn ^clYkhnbl l elbpcZn \ehkipcal», =peack, 28-30 `k] 2019 Y.

2. NJQBNJT=QLGN6 BSCQH7
UnSak CEC* ep^ngPlh hpia\N _pbl`ngi\N
_gphpip_gpcp^]H\N `n`Tgki\ e ikineniiZ`l ik nn pTn
ehpgpiZ ebp]`l akhkblVkhpgk. 3khkblVkhpg apihkahl-
g\nh e _pglehZ` Lbnahgpi_gpcp^]Hl` `khnglkbp`,
ikVZckn`Z` YkVp^lII\VlpiiZ` ebpn` (7;?). Epegn^-
ehcp` 7;? pe\Hnehcb]nhe] hpapen`, _p^cp^ YkVp-
pTgkViZX gnkYnihpc a `n`Tgkin (cp^pgp^, alebpgp^) l
phcp^ _gp^\ahpc LbnahgpXl`lUneapS gnkaOll (cp^Z).
?pcpa\_ipehR `n`TgkiZ e ikineniiZ`l ik inn ebp]`l
9TL. 1. ?Xn`k ehnak CEC*
akhkblVkhpgk l 7;? ikVZckNh `n`Tgkiip-Lbnahgp^iZ`
Tbpap` (=*").
?pc`nHk] _pebn^pckhnbRip =*"Z, _pb\UkNh ehna.
?Xn`khlUneapn gke_gn^nbniln YkVpcZX _phpapc l
LbnahglUneapYp hpak c ehnan _pakVkip ik gle. 1 [3].
G `p^nbl _glil`knhe], Uhp hn`_ngkh\gk ]Unna
(=*"pc) _p^^ngPlcknhe] _pehp]iipS, Uhp pTne_nUl-
cknhe] p_hl`kbRiZ` phcp^p` hn_bk, Yninglg\n`pYp
ik nYp Lbnahgp^kX cebn^ehcln _gphnakil] Lbnahgp-
Xl`lUnealX gnkaOlS.
9eXp^iZn _kgk`nhgZ CEC*, VkbpPniiZn c `p^nbR,
TZbl cV]hZ lV [2 –
4]. 9TL. 2. :egn^iniik] ik p^i\ ]UnSa\ `pHipehik] Xkgkahngl-
kclel`pehR ik_g]Pnil] p^ipS ]UnSal CEC* ehlak CEC* _gl hn`_ngkh\gn kahlcipS _pcngXipehl Lbnah-
ph hpak l`nnh cl^ [4]: gp^pc 70C, _p^kckn`ZX c CEC* ^kcbnil]X cp^pgp^k l
cpV^\Xk 1 l 2,5 kh`, 95% phipelhnbRipS cbkPipehl _p^kckn-
`pYp c CEC* cpV^\Xk (_\iahlgiZn aglcZn – gkeUnh;
e_bpJiZn aglcZn – Lae_ngl`nih)

Y^n Vocv  1,04 G – ik_g]Pniln gkVp`ai\hpS On_l


CEC* [4]; PH2, Pair , P0 – ^kcbnil] cp^pgp^k, cpV^\Xk l
ipg`kbRipn kh`peIngipn epphcnhehcniip; c, a –
_ngnik_g]Pnil] ik akhp^n l kip^n epphcnhehcniip [4];
I – LbnahglUnealS hpa; R – \egn^iniipn ik p^i\
]UnSa\ ep_gphlcbniln CEC*.
kclel`pehR LbnahglUneapS `pHipehl, Yninglg\n`pS
CEC* ik _pbnVipS ikYg\Van, ph hpak _pb\Ul` _pegn^-
ehcp` _gplVcn^nil] hpak ik ik_g]Pniln. ?gkciniln 9TL. 3. kclel`pehR egn^inYp ik p^i\ ]UnSa\ 3E; CEC*
gkeUnhipS l Lae_ngl`nihkbRipS `pHipehiZX Xkgka- ph hpak _gl hn`_ngkh\gn kahlcipS _pcngXipehl Lbnahgp^pc
hnglehla p^ipS ]UnSal CEC* _gn^ehkcbnip ik gle. 2. 70C, _p^kckn`ZX c CEC* ^kcbnil]X cp^pgp^k l cpV^\Xk 1
3E; CEC* p_gn^nbl` aka phipJniln Lbnahgl- l 2,5 kh`, 95% phipelhnbRipS cbkPipehl _p^kckn`pYp
UneapS `pHipehl, cZ^nb]n`pS ik _pbnVipS ikYg\Van, c CEC* cpV^\Xk
a eapgpehl cZ^nbnil] Xl`lUneapS LingYll _gl eYpgkill Lbnahgpipc ik kip^n CEC*; G – LingYl] 7lTTek
cp^pgp^k c alebpgp^n (2): pTgkVpckil] Pl^apS cp^Z _gl ehnXlp`nhglUneap`
eYpgkill 1 `pb] cp^pgp^k c alebpgp^n; V c0(T) – gkcip-
cneipn ik_g]Pniln, cpVilakNHnn ik Lbnahgp^kX ]UnSal
CEC* _gl \Unhn hpbRap gnkaOll LbnahgpXl`lUneapYp
eYpgkil] cp^pgp^k c alebpgp^n e pTgkVpckiln` Pl^apS
Y^n H – LihkbR_l] pTgkVpckil] Pl^apS cp^Z _gl cp^Z; t  G / H  0,83 – hng`p^lik`lUnealS 3E;
ehnXlp`nhglUneap` eYpgkill 1 `pb] cp^pgp^k c alebp- CEC*; I  ne / 2 – 3E; CEC* _p hpa\; v  VFC / V c0(T) –
gp^n; ne – egn^inn Ulebp Lbnahgpipc, pTgkV\NHlXe] 3E; CEC* _p ik_g]PnilN. G epphcnhehcll e (2) GA
_gl LbnahgpXl`lUneap` palebnill p^ipS `pbna\bZ CEC* (1) _pVcpb]nh _pb\UlhR Vkclel`pehR 3E; CEC*
cp^pgp^k ik kip^n CEC*; dve / dt – eapgpehR gpP^nil] ph Yninglg\n`pYp l` hpak (gle. 3).

50
?naOl] 1 «?lbpcZn l LingYnhlUnealn \ehkipcal»

3. )NGH-=QOTQ sity Higher School of Economics. Moscow: HSE,


2016. 232 p.
Egn^ehkcbnik `p^nbR GA l `pHipehipS Xkgkahn- [2] O’Hayre R, Suk-Won Cha, Colella W, Prinz F B. Fuel
glehlal CEC*. 5klTpbRJnn phipelhnbRipn gkeXpP- cell fundamentals, third edition. New Jersey: John
^niln gkeUnhipS l Lae_ngl`nihkbRipS Yninglg\n`pS Wiley&Sons, Inc. Hoboken, 2016. 830 p.
CEC* LbnahglUneapS `pHipehl in _gncZJknh 4,5%. [3] Barbir F. PEM fuel cell: theory and practice. London.
UK: Elsevier Academic Press, 2005. 436 p.
/DTLSG TLDSH7;SINOO@? TLJS=OTGSI [4] Burlatsky S., Gummalla M., O’Neill J. et al. A mathe-
matical model for predicting the life of polymer
[1] Gokhberg L.(Ed.). Russia 2030: Science and Tech- electrolyte fuel cell membranes subjected to hydration
nology Foresight (Ministry of Education and Science cycling // Journal of Power Sources. 2012. Vol. 215.
of the Russian Federation; National Research Univer- P. 135–144.

QJSC@ T LFQCLJIN SF:NOT;N&TT BOS:SDHNBQOOS:S LT:NOT6 :N;N


I GNBQFN? L:SFNOT6 GSOIQFJTFSINOO@? $
A.G. "kabkipc1
1
A- «3kVkieapn `phpgpehgplhnbRipn _gplVcp^ehcniipn pTn^liniln», 3kVkiR
e-mail: andreybaklanov@bk.ru

1. 1IQCQOTQ gkTphkNHlX ik YkVppTgkVip` hp_blcn. lg`pS General


Electric gkVgkTphkik `kbphpaelUik] ak`ngk eYpgkil]
?pcgn`niiZn ak`ngZ eYpgkil] pTpg\^pckiZ clXgn- ^b] 7C: LM 6000 l LM 2500, aphpgk] l`nnh hgl g]^k
cZ`l `p^\bRiZ`l Ypgnbak`l lbl Ipge\iak`l. GlXgncZn clXgncZX `p^\bRiZX Ypgnbpa l ebpPi\N elehn`\
`p^\bRiZn Ypgnbal c apbROncZX ak`ngkX, aka _gkclbp, \_gkcbnil] _p^kUnS hp_blck [2].
gke_pbkYkNhe] cp Igpihpcp` \ehgpSehcn c p^li g]^. G 2peell -A- «A.&NbRak – ?kh\gi» gkVgkTphkik
-^il` lV ik_gkcbnilS ilVapL`leelpiipYp ePlYk- ipck] `kbphpaelUik] `ipYp`p^\bRik] apbROnck] ak`ngk
il] hp_blck, _pbpPlhnbRip Vkgnap`ni^pckcJl` enT] eYpgkil] ^b] YkVph\gTliipS \ehkipcal A&-31?C,
c _gkahlan kclkOlpiipYp ^clYkhnbnehgpnil], ]cb]nhe] epV^kiipS ik TkVn epcgn`niipYp kclkOlpiipYp ^clYk-
_gl`niniln c apbROncZX ak`ngkX eYpgkil] `ipYp- hnb] A& -31.
]g\eiZX IgpihpcZX \ehgpSehc. G_ngcZn hkak] ak`ngk ?bn^\nh ph`nhlhR, Uhp ^kiiZn ak`ngZ _gpnahlg\-
eYpgkil] TZbk gkVgkTphkik c ikJnS ehgkin 5.;. 3\Vin- Nhe] l lVYphkcblckNhe] e i\b] TnV le_pbRVpckil]
OpcZ` l _gl`ninik c ^clYkhnbn 53-8. G _pebn^ehcll `khnglkbRipS Ukehl bnhipYp lV^nbl]. A- «3=E-»
ak`ngZ eYpgkil], e_gpnahlgpckiiZn _p hkap`\ cZ_pbilbp _ngncp^ ak`ngZ eYpgkil] 53-8-2:
_gliOl_\, TZbl \ehkipcbniZ ik ^clYkhnb]X 53-86, ik YkVppTgkVipn hp_blcp l _gl`nilbp ^kii\N ak`ng\
53-25, 53-32, 53-56, 53-64, 53-108, 53-93 [1]. c Ipgelgpckiip` ^clYkhnbn 53-16-18?C.
EpV^inn c ?A _p _gpYgk``n NASA TZbl gkVgk-
TphkiZ `ipYp]g\eiZn eXn`Z. 3k`ngk eYpgkil] _p^pTipS 2. %FTBQOQOTQ GSBDHQGLOS:S DSC?SCN
eXn`Z TZbk cZTgkik c 80-X Yp^kX l leebn^pckik
c gk`akX Ilikielgpckil] NASA _gpYgk``Z epV^kil] G _gpOneen `p^ngilVkOll ^clYkhnbR 53-16-18?C
Lapip`lUneapYp ^clYkhnb] 3 (nergy Efficient Engine). TZb Ipgelgpcki _\hn` \ehkipcal Tpbnn _gplVcp^l-
? \Unhp` _gpcn^niiZX leebn^pckilS Ilg`k General hnbRipYp ap`_gneepgk cZepapYp ^kcbnil], Ipg`lg\N-
Electric c akUnehcn peipcipYp ckglkihk ^b] `p^lIlak- HnYp cZepa\N eapgpehR (_pg]^ak 170 `/e) ik cXp^n
OlS ^clYkhnb] GE-90 l ?FM-56 cZTgkbk ^c\X]g\ei\N c ak`ng\ eYpgkil]. G hkalX ^clYkhnb]X pgYkilVkOl]
ak`ng\ eYpgkil]. G ak`ngn eYpgkil] ^clYkhnb] E;-14 Ypgnil] l pTne_nUniln p_hl`kbRipYp ilVapYp \gpci]
gkVgkTphal A- «-;3-Aclk^clYkhnbR» hkaPn _gl`n- cZTgpepc hpaelUiZX cnHnehc Vkhg\^ilhnbRik lV-Vk
inik eXn`k e ^c\X]g\eiZ` gke_pbpPniln` clXgncZX cZepapik_pgiZX _kgk`nhgpc _phpak cpV^\Xk.
`p^\bRiZX Ypgnbpa. ;b] pe\Hnehcbnil] LIInahlcipYp _ngncp^k kclk-
=ipYp]g\ei\N eXn`\ hkaPn _gl`ni]Nh c ak`ngkX OlpiipS ak`ngZ eYpgkil] ik YkVppTgkVipn hp_blcp l
eYpgkil] LingYnhlUnealX YkVph\gTliiZX \ehkipcpa, pTne_nUnil] gkTphZ c IpgelgpckiiZX \ebpcl]X, eIpg`l-

51
GengpeelSeak] ik\Uip-hnXilUneak] apiIngniOl] `pbp^ZX \UniZX l e_nOlkblehpc
«AclkOlpiiZn ^clYkhnbl l elbpcZn \ehkipcal», =peack, 28-30 `k] 2019 Y.

gpcki ap`_bnaeiZS _p^Xp^, aphpgZS cabNUknh c enT] hn`_ngkh\gZ ehnipa l pOnial LIInahlcipehl lX pXbkP-
_gpcn^niln g]^k leebn^pckhnbRealX l cin^gniUnealX ^nil]. *bn`nihZ PkgpcpS hg\TZ, hp_blcp_p^cp^]Hln
`ngp_gl]hlS, hkalX aka [3]: hg\Tal apbbnahpgZ, IlaekhpgZ l ^g\Yln nn Lbn`nihZ
1) cZTpg e_pepTk _p^kUl hp_blck (ehg\SiZS lbl _gn_kglg\Nhe] hniVp^khUlak`l ^b] p_gn^nbnil] ik_g]-
OnihgpTnPiZS); PnilS, cpVilakNHlX c LhlX Lbn`nihkX ik gkVblUiZX
2) cZTpg p_hl`kbRipS apiehg\aOll clXgncpS gnPl`kX gkTphZ 7C; [6].
`p^\bRipS Ypgnbal (Ipge\ial);
3) p_gn^nbniln pTn`k hp_blcipYp apbbnahpgk l 3. )NGH-=QOTQ
apblUnehcp _p^cp^pc hp_blck cp Igpihpcp` \ehgpSehcn;
4) _ngngke_gn^nbniln phcngehlS _p ^blin PkgpcpS 2nkblVpcki ap`_bnaeiZS _p^Xp^ _p _ngncp^\
hg\TZ ^b] pTne_nUnil] Vk^kiipYp _gpIlb] hn`_ngkh\g ak`ngZ eYpgkil] 53-8-2: ik YkVppTgkVipn hp_blcp
ik cZXp^n lV ak`ngZ; ^b] IpgelgpckiipYp ^clYkhnb] 53-16-18?C.
5) pTne_nUniln LIInahlcipehl pXbkP^nil] ehnipa ;kiik] ak`ngk eYpgkil] _pVcpblbk pTne_nUlhR
PkgpcpS hg\TZ; \gpcniR cZTgpepc cgn^iZX cnHnehc c _gp^\ahkX eYpgk-
6) pTne_nUniln ilVapYp \gpci] _\bRekOlS ^kcbn- il] IpgelgpckiipYp ^clYkhnb] 53-16-18?C, epphcnh-
il] c PkgpcpS hg\Tn. ehc\NHlS hgnTpckil]` 7-?C [7]. GZTgpeZ pael^pc
;b] pTne_nUnil] LIInahlcipYp ePlYkil] YkVk kVphk NOx 140 `Y/`3; pael^k \Ybngp^k CO 100 `Y/`3
c hkapS ak`ngn eYpgkil] cin^gnip ehni^pcpn pTpg\- ik gnPl`kX gkTphZ ^clYkhnb] 0,5…1,2 Ne, TnV ccn^n-
^pckiln l _gpcn^niZ Lae_ngl`nihkbRiZn gkTphZ, il] elehn`Z kchp`khlVlgpckiipS elehn`Z \_gkcbnil]
_pVcpb]NHln cZ_pbilhR _ngnUlebniiZn cZJn `ngp- _p^kUnS hp_blck.
_gl]hl] l pTne_nUlhR englSipn lVYphpcbniln ak`ng
eYpgkil] gkee`phgniipYp hl_k. /DTLSG TLDSH7;SINOO@? TLJS=OTGSI
5k _ngcp` Lhk_n p_gn^nb]Nhe] YkVp^lik`lUnealn
Xkgkahnglehlal clXgncZX `p^\bRiZX Ypgnbpa. ;b] LhpYp [1] "kabkipc A.G. =kbpL`leelpiik] ak`ngk eYpgkil]
e_gpnahlgpcki l cin^gni ehni^ p_gn^nbnil] _gp_\eaipS ^lII\VlpiipYp hl_k e `lagp_bk`niiZ` Ypgniln`
e_pepTipehl Ypgnbpa. Gin^gni ehni^ _p p_gn^nbnilN ^b] apicnghlgpckiipYp kclkOlpiipYp YkVph\gTli-
akUnehck _p^Yphpcal hp_blcpcpV^\JipS e`nel c Vkag\- ipYp ^clYkhnb] // Gnehila `peapceapYp kclkOlpiipYp
UniipS ehg\n ik cZXp^n lV Ypgnbal. 2ke_gn^nbniln liehlh\hk. C. 24.  2. ?. 57–68.
apiOnihgkOlS c Vkag\UniipS ehg\n _pVcpb]nh \cl^nhR [2] Epehilapc A.=. ?ilPniln pael^pc kVphk c cZXbp_-
^lik`la\ lV`ninil] \gpci] apiOnihgkOll hp_blck iZX YkVkX 7C:. ?k`kgk: 9V^-cp ?k`kgeapYp ik\U-
cp cenS pTbkehl lV`ngnil] l c akP^pS apiagnhipS hpUan ipYp Onihgk 2A5, 2002. 286 e.
Vkag\UniipS ehg\l, Uhp ^knh cpV`pPipehR pOnilhR [3] "kabkipc A.G. EpLhk_ik] ^pcp^ak ak`ngZ eYpgkil]
akUnehcp _p^Yphpcal hp_blcpcpV^\JipS e`nel. Egp_\ea- YkVph\gTliipYp ^clYkhnb], gkTphkNHnS c \ebpcl]X
ik] e_pepTipehR Ypgnbal pOnilcknhe] ik gkVblUiZX Ipgelgpckil] eapgpehl cpV^\Xk ik cZXp^n lV ap`_-
_ngn_k^kX ^kcbnil]. CkaPn c Vkag\UniipS ehg\n pOnil- gneepgk // Gnehila `peapceapYp kclkOlpiipYp
cknhe] _pbn eapgpehnS l ^kcbnilS. Egpcp^]he] pYincZn liehlh\hk. C. 24.  3. ?. 13–22.
le_Zhkil] Ypgnbpa, cp cgn`] aphpgZX p_gn^nb]nhe] [4] =kga\Jli A.5., =nga\Jli G.3., "ZJli G.=.,
hn`_ngkh\gk _bk`nil l apiOnihgkOl] hpaelUiZX "kabkipc A.G. :epcngJniehcpckiln apiehg\aOll
ap`_pinihpc c _gp^\ahkX eYpgkil] [4]. ak`ng eYpgkil] hgk^lOlpiiZX eXn` c Onb]X \b\U-
?bn^\NHlS Lhk_ – lV\Uniln _gpOneepc c _pbip- Jnil] LapbpYlUnealX _pakVkhnbnS 7C; // 9Vcnehl]
gkV`ngipS ak`ngn eYpgkil], _gl aphpgZX p_gn^nb]Nhe] c\Vpc. AclkOlpiik] hnXilak, 2010.  1. ?. 41–44.
_phngl ^kcbnil] c ak`ngn eYpgkil] l ingkcip`ngipehR [5] =kga\Jli A.5., =nga\Jli G.3., "ZJli G.=.,
hn`_ngkh\gipYp _pb] ik cZXp^n lV PkgpcpS hg\TZ [5]. "kabkipc A.G. -gYkilVkOl] ilVapL`leelpiipYp
kabNUlhnbRiZS Lhk_ VkabNUknhe] c _gpcngan Ypgnil] c apbROncpS ak`ngn eYpgkil] 7C; // 9Vcnehl]
gkTphpe_pepTipehl ak`ngZ eYpgkil] c epehkcn hnXip- c\Vpc. AclkOlpiik] hnXilak, 2009.  3. ?. 70–72.
bpYlUneapYp ^clYkhnb]. ;b] p_gn^nbnil] \ebpclS ik cXp^n [6] =kga\Jli A.5., "kabkipc A.G. 9eebn^pckiln gkTp-
c ak`ng\ eYpgkil] _gl gkVblUiZX gnPl`kX gkTphZ 7C; UnYp _gpOneek ak`ngZ eYpgkil] c epehkcn 7C; //
c ^lII\Vpgn ak`ngZ \ehkikcblcknhe] ap`Tlilgpckiik] Gnehila ek`kgeapYp \ilcngelhnhk. ALgpape`l-
_in`p-hng`pYgnTniak. ;b] p_gn^nbnil] hn`_ngkh\gZ Uneak] hnXilak. CnXipbpYll l `kJlipehgpniln,
ik cZXp^n lV ak`ngZ eYpgkil] \ehkikcblcknhe] _gn_k- 2016. C. 15.  3. ?. 90–98.
glgpckiiZS Xgp`nbR-kbN`nbncZ`l hng`p_kgk`l [7] 7-?C 28775-90. AYgnYkhZ YkVp_ngnakUlckNHln
ep_bpcpS k__kgkh h\gTliZ. Egl Lhp` ehnial ak`ngZ e YkVph\gTliiZ` _glcp^p`. -THln hnXilUnealn
eYpgkil] _gn_kglg\Nhe] hng`p_kgk`l ^b] p_gn^nbnil] \ebpcl]. =.: ?hki^kghliIpg`, 2005. 12 e.

52
?naOl] 1 «?lbpcZn l LingYnhlUnealn \ehkipcal»

DJTBT;N&T6 LIQF?;I5GSIS:S I?SCOS:S 5LJFS2LJIN


?.5. 3pckbR1,2
1
=A9 (59:), =peack
2
7:E «9A= l`. E.9. "kgkipck», =peack
e-mail: koval-svetlana@ro.ru

1. 1IQCQOTQ -eipcipS Vk^kUnS ]cb]be] gkeUnh l p_hl`lVkOl]


elehn`Z eakUapc \_bphinil] c ecngXVc\apcp` cXp^ip`
GkPinSJl` cp_gpep` _gl _gpnahlgpckill \ehgpSehcn.
_nge_nahlcipYp bnhkhnbRipYp k__kgkhk (&A) ]cb]nhe] Ep^ p_hl`kbRipS T\^n` _pil`khR elehn`\, l`nN-
gkVgkTphak cZepapLIInahlcipS elbpcpS \ehkipcal. H\N `kael`kbRip cpV`pPi\N cnblUli\ apLIIlOlnihk
-^il` lV Ikahpgpc, cbl]NHl` ik nYp LIInahlcipehR, epXgkinil] _pbipYp ^kcbnil] [3]. G akUnehcn _kgk`nhgk
]cb]nhe] cZTpg cXp^ipYp \ehgpSehck. Ckal` pTgkVp`, p_hl`lVkOll gkee`khglcknhe] _pbpPniln _ngcpYp
_pcZJniln hgnTpckilS a Xkgkahnglehlak` elbpcpS eakUak \_bphinil] Vk eUnh e^clYk api\ek cpV^\Xp-
\ehkipcal &A _glcp^lh a inpTXp^l`pehl gkVgkTphal VkTpgilak c pencp` _ngn`nHnill.
_gpehgkiehcniiZX cpV^\XpVkTpgilapc lbl cpV^\Xp- G gnV\bRhkhn gkeUnhk cpV`pPip _gpcnehl p_hl`l-
VkTpgilapc ebpPipS Ipg`Z. VkOlN _gphpUipS Ukehl cpV^\XpVkTpgilak, l`nNH\N
Egl epV^kill bNTpYp Lbn`nihk &A \UlhZcknhe] p_hl`kbRipn _pbpPniln elehn`Z eakUapc, lbl \hpU-
cVkl`p^nSehcln hgnX ap`_pinihpc: apiehg\lgpckiln, ilhR Ynp`nhglN _gphpUipS Ukehl cXp^ipYp \ehgpSehck,
YkVp^lik`lUnealS gkeUnh l hnXipbpYlUneapn pTne_n- aphpgk] T\^nh b\UJn cenYp phcnUkhR _pehkcbniiZ`
Uniln. GZTgkiiZS, e hpUal Vgnil] hnXipbpYll, ckglkih hgnTpckil]`.
in ]cb]nhe] p_hl`kbRiZ` l `pPnh _phgnTpckhR ^p_pb-
ilhnbRipS p_hl`lVkOll. 3. )NGH-=QOTQ
-eipciZ`l hgnTpckil]`l [2], _gn^]cb]n`Z`l
a cXp^iZ` \ehgpSehck`, ]cb]Nhe]: 2kVclhln cZUleblhnbRipS hnXilal l `nhp^lal

pTne_nUniln cZepalX VikUnill apLIIlOlnihk UlebniipYp `p^nblgpckil] e^nbkbp cpV`pPiZ` _gpcn-
epXgkinil] _pbipYp ^kcbnil]; ^niln p_hl`lVkOlpiiZX gkeUnhpc, _pVcpb]NHlX gnJkhR

epV^kiln gkcip`ngipYp _phpak ik cXp^n c ^clYk- lVbpPnii\N cZJn _gpTbn`\.
hnbR lbl Pnbkn`pS (^p_\ehl`pS) ingkcip`ngipehl; G gkTphn _gpcn^niln p_hl`lVkOlpiipYp

`lil`kbRipn kLgp^lik`lUneapn ep_gphlcbniln; leebn^pckil] peipckip ik le_pbRVpckill `nhp^pc

`lil`kbRiZn YkTkglhZ l cne; cZUleblhnbRipS Yl^gpYkVp^lik`lal c _gpYgk``ip`

pTne_nUniln \ehpSUlcpS l LIInahlcipS gkTphZ ap`_bnaen ANSYS CFX e _gl`niniln` p_hl`lVkhpgk
cp cen` hgnT\n`p` ^lk_kVpin gnPl`pc _pbnhk l IOSO.
gnPl`pc gkTphZ ^clYkhnb].
?pYbkeip [4], cZTpg cXp^ipYp \ehgpSehck cp `ipYp` /DTLSG TLDSH7;SINOO@? TLJS=OTGSI
Vkclelh ph gkeUnhipYp Ulebk = _pbnhk &A , _phgnTipYp
^lk_kVpik phabpinil] Ulenb = ph gkeUnhipYp, `nehk [1] Ab]`pcealS A.A. SolidWorks. 3p`_RNhngipn
gke_pbpPnil] elbpcpS \ehkipcal ik &A, hl_k _gl`n- `p^nblgpckiln c liPningipl _gkahlan [Cnaeh]:
i]n`ZX ^clYkhnbnS l g]^k ^g\YlX Ikahpgpc. ?pTkUali A.A., -^liOpc .G., kglhpipclU A.9.,
G Vkclel`pehl ph gkeUnhipS eapgpehl _pbnhk Epip`kgnc 5.". ?ET.: "G – EnhngT\gY, 2005. 800 e.
cXp^iZn \ehgpSehck `pPip gkV^nblhR ik hgl hl_k: [2] AY\bRila A."., "ka\bnc G.9., 7pb\Tnc G.A.,

^pVc\apcZn; 3gkcUniap 9.G. Cng`pYkVp^lik`lUnealn gkeUnhZ

hgkieVc\apcZn; l gkeUnh Xkgkahnglehla kclkOlpiiZX 7C;. =A9,

ecngXVc\apcZn. 2002. 257 e.
[3] Borovikov A., Gavriliouk V., Gilevich I. et al.
2. NJQBNJT=QLGN6 BSCQH7 Gasdynamic design of supersonic and hypersonic
airframe integrated inlets and nozzles //AIAA Paper.-
G ^kiipS gkTphn gkee`phgnip ecngXVc\apcpn 96-4549, 1996.
penel``nhglUipn cXp^ipn \ehgpSehcp, `p^nbR aphpgpYp [4] 7bkYpbnc A.5., 7pbR^lipc =.., 7glYpgniap ?.=.
TZbk _pehgpnik c E3 Solid Works [1]. 3piehg\aOl] ek`pbnhpc. 1975. 480 e.

53
GengpeelSeak] ik\Uip-hnXilUneak] apiIngniOl] `pbp^ZX \UniZX l e_nOlkblehpc
«AclkOlpiiZn ^clYkhnbl l elbpcZn \ehkipcal», =peack, 28-30 `k] 2019 Y.

%FTBQOQOTQ BQJSCN NONHT;N TQFNF?T2 DFT S&QOGQ FTLGSI FN;FN3SJGT


NITN&TSOOS:S CIT:NJQH6
*.A. -V^pnck1
1
7:E «9A= l`. E.9. "kgkipck», =peack
e-mail: eaozdoeva@ciam.ru

G \ebpcl]X epcgn`niiZX gZipUiZX phipJnilS G ikehp]Hnn cgn`] ik _gn^_gl]hl]X ^kiipS phgkebl


gkVgkTphak l cin^gniln liipckOlS ]cb]Nhe] gnJkNHl` phe\hehc\nh n^lik] elehn`k \_gkcbnil] gleak`l,
Ikahpgp` \e_nJipYp epOlkbRipYp l Lapip`lUneapYp e_pepTik] _pT\P^khR cbk^nbROnc gleak _glil`khR
gkVclhl] ehgkiZ. 9iipckOlpiik] ^n]hnbRipehR cenY^k LIInahlciZn \_gkcbniUnealn gnJnil], Uhp ^nbknh
ep_g]Pnik e gleak`l. -Ygp`ipn apblUnehcp cinJilX gkee`khglckn`\N _gpTbn`\ pepTniip kah\kbRipS.
l ci\hgniilX Ikahpgpc, cbl]NHlX ik _gpnah, inehk- ?bpPlcJk]e] elh\kOl] \elblcknh inpTXp^l`pehR
TlbRipehR cinJinS l ci\hgniinS egn^Z _glcp^]h gkVclhl] `nhp^pc kikblVk gleapc liipckOlpiiZX
a cpVilaipcnilN OnbpYp g]^k gleapc, gnkblVkOl] _gpnahpc c enahpgn kclk^clYkhnbnehgpnil] kclkOlpi-
aphpgZX `pPnh _glcnehl a _phngn LIInahk ph liipck- ipS _gp`ZJbniipehl, l pepTniip ckPipS ehkipclhe]
OlpiipS ^n]hnbRipehl _gn^_gl]hl]. -^il` lV _gl`ngpc Vk^kUk lX pOnial. ?cpncgn`niik] l^nihlIlakOl],
cZepap gleapckiipS liipckOlpiipS ^n]hnbRipehl akUnehcniiZS l apblUnehcniiZS kikblV gleapc _gpnahk
]cb]nhe] kclk^clYkhnbnehgpniln. _pVcpb]h pOnilhR cpV`pPiZn e\``kgiZn _phngl,
AclkOlpiipn ^clYkhnbnehgpniln, aka ckPik] epehkc- aphpgZn `pPnh _pinehl VkakVUla c Xp^n gkVgkTphal
b]NHk] kclkehgpnil] c Onbp`, _pehkcb]] cZepaln _nge_nahlcipYp kclkOlpiipYp ^clYkhnb], l _pcZelhR
hnXipbpYll c YgkP^kiealS enahpg _gplVcp^ehck, ikg]^\ Lapip`lUnea\N LIInahlcipehR _gpnahk.
e ape`lUneapS phgkebRN cp `ipYp` ]cb]nhe] p^il` 9^nihlIlakOl] gleak c ^kiip` eb\Ukn _p^gkV\-
lV abNUncZX Ikahpgpc gkVclhl] Lapip`lal 2peell. `ncknh epehkcbniln ehg\ah\glgpckiipYp leUng_Zck-
-Tne_nUlck] cZepalS \gpcniR hnXipbpYlUneapYp gkVcl- NHnYp _ngnUi] cenX cpV`pPiZX Ikahpgpc, aphpgZn
hl] Ype\^kgehck, ^kiik] phgkebR _gp`ZJbniipehl `pY\h inYkhlcip eakVkhRe] ik _gpOneen gkVgkTphal
l`nnh TpbRJpn ehgkhnYlUneapn VikUniln. kclkOlpiipYp ^clYkhnb]. EpeapbRa\ _gl _gli]hll
?pV^kiln kclkOlpiipYp ^clYkhnb] hgnT\nh _gpnahiZX gnJnilS ehkhlehlUnealn ^kiiZn p inTbkYp-
c 1,5–2 gkVk TpbRJn cgn`nil, Un` epV^kiln ek`pYp _gl]hiZX epTZhl]X c pTbkehl kclk^clYkhnbnehgpnil]
bnhkhnbRipYp k__kgkhk [1]. Egl Lhp` l`niip ^clYkhnbR, blTp cneR`k `kbZ _p pTn`\, blTp cppTHn phe\hehc\Nh,
]cb]]eR peipcpS elbpcpS \ehkipcal, eb\PkHnS hp gleapcZn elh\kOll lV`ng]Nhe] kbRhngikhlciZ`
^b] epV^kil] h]Yl, _ngn`nHkNHnS cpV^\Jipn e\^ip _\hn`, k l`niip, _gl _p`pHl Lae_nghiZX pOnipa,
c _gpehgkiehcn, p_gn^nb]nh nYp bnhip-hnXilUnealn phgkPkNHlX Vikil] l p_Zh Lae_nghpc. Ckal` pTgkVp`,
Xkgkahnglehlal. Egpnahlgpckiln l gkVgkTphak kclk- ik Lhk_n l^nihlIlakOll gleak inpTXp^l`p ik peipcn
^clYkhnbnS, aka _gkclbp, ec]Vkip e Ilikielgpckiln` Lae_nghiZX `inilS eIpg`lgpckhR gnnehg gleapc, ep^ng-
bnhkhnbRipYp k__kgkhk. -^ikap VkhgkhZ ik lX epV^kiln PkHlS cneR _ngnUniR Ikahpgpc, eYg\__lgpckiiZX
c akapS-hp ehn_nil eplV`ngl`Z e Vkhgkhk`l ik epV^kiln _p cl^k` gleak, k hkaPn Lae_nghiZn pOnial cpV`pP-
ek`pYp ek`pbnhk. ipehl cpVilaipcnil] hpYp lbl lipYp Ikahpgk gleak l
G epphcnhehcll e ^kiiZ`l _pghkbk 7pe_gpYgk`` `keJhkTk cpV`pPipYp \HngTk _gl nYp gnkblVkOll
2 c _nglp^ 2013…2018 YY. VkhgkhZ ik gnkblVkOlN _p Jakbn ph 0 ^p 5. CkaPn ^b] _pebn^\NHnS akUneh-
_gpnahpc _p^_gpYgk``Z «AclkOlpiipn ^clYkhnbn- cniipS pOnial cZ]cbniiZX Ikahpgpc gleak c gnnehgn
ehgpniln» _gncZelbl TN^Pnh _pUhl ik 1 `bg^. g\T. [2, 3]. _glcp^]he] pTpTHniiZn pOnial \_p`]i\hZX cZJn
Cka Pn TZbl VkIlaelgpckiZ Vk^ngPal _gl gnkblVkOll _pakVkhnbnS, phgkPkNHln ehn_niR ckPipehR akP^pYp
ph^nbRiZX gkTph _p _gpnahk`, Uhp c _pebn^ehcll Ikahpgk gleak.
_glcnbp a ^p_pbilhnbRiZ` IlikiepcZ` Vkhgkhk`. ;kbnn, _pb\Unii\N ik _p^YphpclhnbRip` Lhk_n
GpV`pPipehR gnkblVkOll gleapc, e_pepTiZX pakVkhR liIpg`kOlN inpTXp^l`p ikinehl ik akgh\ gleapc,
inTbkYp_gl]hipn cbl]iln ik Xp^ cZ_pbinil] _gpnahk, le_pbRV\] pOnial ehn_nil ckPipehl Ikahpgpc gleak.
]cb]nhe] TpbRJpS \YgpVpS l `pPnh ehkhR _glUlipS 3kghk gleapc ^nblhe] ik hgl VpiZ.
engRnViZX IlikiepcZX _phngR c _gpOneen epV^kil] 1. nbnik] Vpik – pTbkehR _gninTgnPl`pYp gleak.
kclkOlpiipYp ^clYkhnb]. G ec]Vl e Lhl` cpVgkehknh ^neR cbl]iln Ikahpgpc ik epcpa\_iZS glea
inpTXp^l`pehR cin^gnil] elehn`Z kikblVk gleapc ine\Hnehcniip.
ik \gpcin gkVgkTphal kclkOlpiipYp ^clYkhnb] 2. nbhk] Vpik – pTbkehR _gln`bn`pYp gleak.
e nn ^kbRinSJl` \epcngJniehcpckiln`. G ^kiipS Vpin gke_pbkYkNhe] gleal, pakVZckNHln

54
?naOl] 1 «?lbpcZn l LingYnhlUnealn \ehkipcal»

p_gn^nbniipn cbl]iln ik gkVgkTpha\ ^clYkhnb], –


_gpcnga\ e\P^nilS Lae_nghpc ik epYbkepcki-
ip c ^p_\ehl`ZX _gn^nbkX. ipehR;
3. 3gkeik] Vpik – pTbkehR akhkehgpIlUneapYp gleak. –
_pehgpniln gkiPlgpckiipYp _ngnUi] Ikahpgpc
G ^kiipS Ukehl gke_pbkYkNhe] IkahpgZ gleak, pakVZ- gleak _gpnahk _\hn` cZUlebnil] l kikblVk ap`Tlil-
ckNHln VikUlhnbRipn inYkhlcipn cbl]iln ik _gpOnee gpckiiZX cnepcZX apLIIlOlnihpc.
gkVgkTphal ^clYkhnb] l hgnT\NHln _gli]hl] `ng Epb\UniiZn _\hn` gkiPlgpckil] ^kiiZn `pY\h
_p nYp eilPnilN. TZhR le_pbRVpckiZ ^b] ^kbRinSJnS apblUnehcniipS
;kbnn c gk`akX Lhk_k akUnehcniipS pOnial gleak pOnial gleak gkVgkTphal kclkOlpiipYp ^clYkhnb] l
ebn^\nh _gpcnehl gkiPlgpckiln Ikahpgpc gleak _pebn^\NHnS _p^Yphpcal `ng cpV^nSehcl] ik iklTpbnn
lV agkeipS VpiZ. 2nJniln ^kiipS Vk^kUl _pVcpb]nh p_keiZn IkahpgZ gleak.
_pb\UlhR gkiPlgpckiiZS _ngnUniR cbl]il] Ikahpgpc
gleak ik epcpa\_iZS glea _gpnahk. -^il` lV _p^Xp^pc /DTLSG TLDSH7;SINOO@? TLJS=OTGSI
a nn gnJnilN ]cb]nhe] le_pbRVpckiln `nhp^k kikblVk
lngkgXlS, e\hR aphpgpYp epehplh c lngkgXlUneapS [1] "kTali G.9., XpcgnTpc =.=., ?pbpili G.9.,
^nap`_pVlOll gkee`khglckn`pS _gpTbn`Z ik Tpbnn &kiJli A.9. 2kVclhln kclkOlpiiZX 7C; l
_gpehZn epehkcb]NHln Lbn`nihZ l c Lae_nghipS epV^kiln \ilakbRiZX hnXipbpYlS. ;clYkhnbR
apblUnehcniipS pOnian ehn_nil lX cVkl`p^nSehcl] 2(86), 2013. ?. 2–7.
c lngkgXll. [2] - cinenill lV`ninilS c Ype\^kgehcnii\N
AbYpglh` ^kiipYp `nhp^k _gn^_pbkYknh ebn^\N- _gpYgk``\ 2peelSeapS n^ngkOll «2kVclhln
Hln JkYl: kclkOlpiipS _gp`ZJbniipehl ik 2013–2025

_gn^ehkcbniln elehn`Z iklTpbnn p_keiZX Yp^Z»: _pehkipcbniln EgkclhnbRehck 2peelSeapS
gleapc l lX Ikahpgpc c cl^n lngkgXll; n^ngkOll ph 30.03.2018  349.

p_gn^nbniln cnepcZX apLIIlOlnihpc cl^pc [3] Epghkb Ype_gpYgk`` 2peelSeapS n^ngkOll:
gleapc l lX Ikahpgpc _gl _p`pHl _pehgpnil] l [ekSh]. ;khk pTipcbnil]: 26.02.2019. URL:
kikblVk `khglO _p_kgiZX egkcinilS; https://programs.gov.ru/Portal/

9N;FN3SJGN 3HSGN 5DFNIHQOT6 1/ %


.A. kY\`niipc1,2
=7C: l`. 5.*. "k\`kik, =peack
1

2
7:E «9A= l`. E.9. "kgkipck», =peack
e-mail: sgw32@yandex.ru

1. 1IQCQOTQ ehcp Ipg`lgpckil] elYikbpc ^b] ehkghk l apggnahipS


gkTphZ ^clYkhnb] ci\hgniinYp eYpgkil] (;G?),
*ingYnhlak epcgn`niiZX Tne_lbphiZX bnhkhnbR- cgkHkNHnYp Yningkhpg, e akgTNgkhpgipS lbl liPna-
iZX k__kgkhpc e LbnahglUneapS elbpcpS \ehkipcapS hpgipS elehn`pS c_gZeak. "bpa gnJknh Vk^kUl \_gkc-
in _pVcpb]nh pe\Hnehcb]hR _pbnhZ ik TpbRJ\N ^le- bnil] ^gpeenbRipS VkebpiapS, pXbkP^nil], lV`ngnil]
hkiOlN l e VikUlhnbRipS _gp^pbPlhnbRipehRN _pbnhk pTpgphpc, \gpci] pehkcJnYpe] hp_blck, hn`_ngkh\g
lV-Vk in^pehkhpUipS \^nbRipS n`apehl ^kPn ek`ZX ;G? l Yningkhpgk. -^ik lV I\iaOlS hkaPn _pVcpb]nh
epcgn`niiZX kaa\`\b]hpgpc. phabNUkhR VkPlYkiln ;G? l cZabNUkhR ^clYkhnbR.
-^il` lV gnJnilS ]cb]nhe] _gl`niniln YlTgl^ipS ;p_pbilhnbRiZ`l I\iaOl]`l Tbpak ]cb]Nhe] lV`n-
elbpcpS \ehkipcal ik peipcn ^clYkhnb] ci\hgniinYp gniln hpak _phgnTbnil] k__kgkhk l hpak Yningkhpgk,
eYpgkil] l kaa\`\b]hpgiZX TkhkgnS. k hkaPn ik_g]Pnil] TpghpcpS enhl.
Ckal` pTgkVp`, eIpg`\blgpckik Vk^kUk _gpnahl-
gpckil] e_nOlkbRipYp \ehgpSehck, _pVcpb]NHnYp pTne_n- 2. NJQBNJT=QLGN6 BSCQH7
UlckhR \ehpSUlcZS gnPl` YningkOll LbnahglUneapS
LingYll YlTgl^ipS elbpcpS \ehkipcal "E&A. Egl gkVgkTphan \ehgpSehck TZbk epV^kik `p^nbR,
"bpa \_gkcbnil] ^clYkhnbn` "E&A le_pbRV\nhe] p_leZckNHk] IlVlUnealn _gpOneeZ l elehn`\ \_gkc-
c epehkcn Tne_lbphipYp bnhkhnbRipYp k__kgkhk aka \ehgpS- bnil]. =p^nblgpckiln _gplVcp^lbpeR c egn^n MATLAB

55
GengpeelSeak] ik\Uip-hnXilUneak] apiIngniOl] `pbp^ZX \UniZX l e_nOlkblehpc
«AclkOlpiiZn ^clYkhnbl l elbpcZn \ehkipcal», =peack, 28-30 `k] 2019 Y.

Simulink. -eipcipS OnbRN `p^nblgpckil] ]cb]nhe]


_gpcngak gkTphpe_pepTipehl kbYpglh`k gkTphZ Tbpak,
peipckiipYp ik gnY\blgpcan \Ybk ^gpeenbRipS Vkebpial
l _glbpPniipYp a ^clYkhnbN `p`nihk – Laclckbnihk
hpapcpS ikYg\Val. -eipciZ`l gnV\bRhkhk`l `p^nbl-
gpckil] ]cb]Nhe] ^cn Tbpa-eXn`Z, phcnhehcniiZn
Vk YningkOlN LingYll l Vk pXbkP^niln ^clYkhnb].
"bpa YningkOll LingYll _gn^ehkcb]nh epTpS IlVl-
9TL. 1. =p^nblgpckiln Vkclel`pehl hpak YningkOll
Unea\N `p^nbR ;G? e Tbpap` _p^^ngPkil] pTpgphpc. ph cgn`nil
GXp^ipS _kgk`nhg eXn`Z – hpa _phgnTbnil] "E&A.
GZXp^iZ`l _kgk`nhgk`l ]cb]Nhe] YningkhpgiZS hpa
l pTpgphZ ^clYkhnb].
"bpa _p^^ngPkil] hn`_ngkh\gZ `p^nblg\nh gkTph\
l`_nbbngk pXbkP^nil] c \ebpcl]X ikblUl] VikUlhnbR-
ipYp hn_bpcpYp _phpak _gl gkTphn ;G?.
Epb\UniiZn Xkgkahnglehlal _ngnXp^iZX _gpOneepc
YlTgl^ipS elbpcpS \ehkipcal _gl cVbnhn "E&A l
cZXp^n ik gkTpUlS gnPl` _gn^ehkcbniZ ik gle. 1.
ikUniln ehkTlblVlgpckiipS hn`_ngkh\gZ ^clYk-
hnb] _gl _pehp]iip` l eli\epl^kbRip` cpV^nSehcll 9TL. 2. ?hkTlblVkOl] hn`_ngkh\gZ _gl _pehp]iip`
_phpapc hn_bk _gn^ehkcbniZ ik gle. 2 l gle. 3. _phpan hn_bk

3. 9N;FN3SJGN ;NTJO@? FQ!QOT2


G \ehgpSehcn pe\Hnehcb]nhe] pTgkTphak LaehgniiZX
elh\kOlS (ik_gl`ng, c eb\Ukn _phngl ec]Vl e ^khUlak`l).
Egl phe\hehcll ^kiiZX pT pTpgphkX ^clYkhnb]
_pebn 5 e gkTphZ phabNUknhe] VkPlYkiln, l ^clYkhnbR
VkakiUlcknh gkTph\. Ephng] elYikbk p hn`_ngkh\gn ;G?
_glcp^lh a _p^kUn elYikbk p cabNUnill l`_nbbngk
pXbkP^nil] ik `kael`kbRi\N gkVgnJnii\N `pHipehR.
Egl _phngn ^kiiZX p elYikbn hn`_ngkh\gZ Yningkhpgk
^clYkhnbR pehkikcblcknhe]. Egl incpV`pPipehl ehkghk 9TL. 3. ?hkTlblVkOl] hn`_ngkh\gZ _gl eli\epl^kbRip`
^clYkhnb] Vkhg\^inip lV`ngniln UkehphZ cgkHnil], _phpan hn_bk
l ^clYkhnbR pehkikcblcknhe], kikbpYlUip _ngcp`\ \ehgpSehc `pPnh epehkcb]hR 1,5 ` l Tpbnn. G in_pegn^eh-
eOnikglN. 3pY^k YningkOl] phe\hehc\nh, k pTpgphZ cniipS TblVpehl a in`\ `pPnh gke_pbkYkhRe] TpghpcpS
in ]cb]Nhe] i\bncZ`l, _ngn^kckn`ZS ^khUlap` elYikb gk^lp`p^n`.
ecl^nhnbRehc\nh p i\bncp` hpan YningkOll, l pTeb\Pl- G \ebpcl]X Lae_b\khkOll `pY\h cpVilakhR aglhl-
ckNHlS _ngepikb ek`pehp]hnbRip _glil`knh gnJniln Unealn elh\kOll, apY^k ik_g]Pniln, _p^kckn`pn ik Tbpa,
pT pehkipcan ^clYkhnb] UngnV _gpYgk``ipn pTne_nUniln. VikUlhnbRip _gncZJknh hgnT\n`pn, _gl Lhp` \ehgpS-
ehcp ^pbPip inaphpgpn cgn`] (in TpbRJn ena\i^Z)
4. 9N;FN3SJGN L?QBSJQ?OT=QLGT? FQ!QOT2 cZ^ngPlckhR _p^pTiZn ikYg\Val.
;b] VkHlhZ \ehgpSehck ph Lbnahgp`kYilhiZX _p`nX,
Egl gkVgkTphan LbnahglUneapS _gliOl_lkbRipS cZTgpepc ik_g]Pnil] l ^g\YlX J\`pc _gn^\e`phgniZ
eXn`Z Tbpak kaOnih ^nbkbe] ik le_pbRVpckill epcgn- e_nOlkbRiZn eXn`phnXilUnealn gnJnil]:
`niipS l kah\kbRipehR Lbn`nihipS TkVZ, ik ikblUln –
le_pbRVpckiln p_hp_kg ^b] ec]Vl e ^g\Yl`l
VkHlhiZX gnJnilS l ik YkbRckilUnea\N lVpb]OlN OlIgpcZ`l \ehgpSehck`l;
akikbpc ccp^k/cZcp^k. Cka aka _p^pTipn \ehgpSehcp –
\ehkipcak VkHlhiZX ^lp^pc l le_pbRVpckiln
^pbPip l`nhR `kbZn YkTkglhZ, \ehgpSehcp gkVgkTphkip TbpalgpcpUiZX api^niekhpgpc;
e le_pbRVpckiln` `lagpapihgpbbngk STM32F105RCT6. –
le_pbRVpckiln VkHlhiZX ep_gphlcbnilS c kikbp-
"bpa \_gkcbnil] ;G? ikXp^lhe] ik Tpgh\ c \ebp- YpcZX l OlIgpcZX On_]X;
cl]X _bphipS ap`_pipcal e ^g\Yl`l \ehgpSehck`l, –
le_pbRVpckiln ehkTlblhgpipc c kikbpYpcZX On_]X
ip ^blik _gpcp^pc ph \ehgpSehck ^p ^khUlapc l ^g\YlX ^b] VkHlhZ AE _p ik_g]PnilN;

56
?naOl] 1 «?lbpcZn l LingYnhlUnealn \ehkipcal»


p_OlpikbRipn le_pbRVpckiln p_hpcpbpapiiZX Ep^pTiZS Tbpa \_gkcbnil], pTne_nUlck] p_hl-
`p^\bnS ^b] ec]Vl _p UART lbl CAN e ^g\Yl`l `kbRiZn gnPl`Z gkTphZ ^clYkhnb] l Yningkhpgk,
Ukeh]`l ap`_bnaek. _pVcpb]nh epXgkilhR JhkhiZS egpa eb\PTZ kaa\`\b]-
*hl `ngZ _pVcpb]Nh VkHlhlhR `lagpapihgpbbng hpgpc l ^clYkhnb] ci\hgniinYp eYpgkil].
STM32 ph cZepapcpbRhiZX cZTgpepc `p^\b] VkPlYkil],
gk^lp_ngn^kNHlX \ehgpSehc, ikXp^]HlXe] c in_pegn^eh- /DTLSG TLDSH7;SINOO@? TLJS=OTGSI
cniipS TblVpehl e Tbpap`, li^\ahlciZX _p`nX l
inTpbRJlX eakUapc _p _lhkilN. [1] 2Li^kb :. "lkg^, Cl`phl :. =ka&LSi =kbZn
Tne_lbphiZn bnhkhnbRiZn k__kgkhZ: hnpgl] l
5. )NGH-=QOTQ _gkahlak. =.: CnXipeIngk, 2015. 312 c.
[2] 3\_gl]ipc A.9., ?kXkgpc A.G. CnpgnhlUnealn peipcZ
2kVgkTphkiipn hnXilUneapn gnJniln k_gpTlgpckip gk^lpLbnahgpiipS TpgRTZ: :UnT. _pepTln. =.:
ik ^n`piehgkhpgn "E&A. G\Vpceak] ailYk, 2007. 356 e.
9e_pbRVpckiln YlTgl^ipS elbpcpS \ehkipcal [3] Hybrid Electric Generator for Heavy Lift Drone
_pVcpblbp \cnblUlhR _gp^pbPlhnbRipehR _pbnhk [*bnahgpiiZS gne\ge]. 2nPl` ^peh\_k:
e 20 `li ^p 1…1,5 U, c Vkclel`pehl ph pTn`k http://www.henryquach.org/hybrid.html. kYbkcln
hp_blcipYp Tkak. e Lagkik. ;khk pTgkHnil]: 31.03.2019.

LLHQCSINOTQ (""QGJTIOSLJT FN;HT=O@? LDSLS3SI


:N;SCTONBT=QLGS:S 5DFNIHQOT6 HQJNJQH7O@B NDDNFNJSB
9.=. Ebkhpipc, &.G. "Zapc, -.A. EkJapc1
1
=A9 (59:), =peack
e-mail: platonov@mail.ru

1. 1IQCQOTQ _pcpgphiZX _pcngXipehnS (g\bnS) phabpi]Nh lbl


_pcpgkUlckNh lehnakNH\N lV ep_bk ^clYkhnb] ehg\N,
Cni^niOl] gpehk eapgpehl bnhkhnbRiZX k__kgkhpc Uhp _glcp^lh a cpVilaipcnilN _pcpgphipYp `p`nihk.
(&A) abkeek kclkOlpiiZX \_gkcb]n`ZX gkanh (A:2) G gkTphn _gn^ehkcbnip leebn^pckiln gkVblUiZX
ikbkYknh _pcZJniiZn hgnTpckil] a cgn`nil phVZck e_pepTpc YkVp^lik`lUneapYp \_gkcbnil] (7;:) A:2,
k__kgkhk ik \_gkcb]NHnn cpV^nSehcln, h.n. ^g\Yl`l _gpcn^nip egkciniln lX LIInahlcipehl.
ebpck`l, _pcZJkNhe] hgnTpckil] a LIInahlcipehl Epcpgph lehnakNHnS ehg\l `pPnh TZhR pe\Hneh-
\_gkcbnil] &A. G LhpS elh\kOll le_pbRVpckiln hgk^l- cbni gkViZ`l e_pepTk`l: _pcpgph cenYp ep_bk lbl nYp
OlpiiZX `nhp^pc \_gkcbnil] ik peipcn g\bncZX _pcngX- Ukehl; ccn^niln c _phpa Hlhapc e OnbRN `nXkilUneal
ipehnS gkVblUipYp \^blinil], gke_pbpPniiZX aka _pcngi\hR ehg\N; ^nIpg`kOl] ehg\l Vk eUnh TpapcpYp
c ipepcpS, hka l XcpehpcpS Ukehl &A, VkUkeh\N pakVZ- c^\ck c gkeJlg]NH\Ne] UkehR ep_bk ^p_pbilhnbRipYp
cknhe] in^pehkhpUip LIInahlciZ` l in `pPnh pTne_nUlhR gkeXp^k ^b] phabpinil] ehg\l ph OnihgkbRipS pel.
hgnT\n`pS ^lik`lal lV`ninil] ik_gkcbnil] _pbnhk, 3gp`n LhpYp, ^b] epV^kil] _pcpgphipYp `p`nihk `pPnh
aka _p \Yb\ khkal, hka l _p hkiYkP\. -habpiniln g\bncZX TZhR le_pbRVpcki cZ^\c ehg\l e pYgkilUniiZ` gkeXp^p`
_pcngXipehnS ik ^pehkhpUip TpbRJln \YbZ VikUlhnbRip _ng_ni^la\b]gip TpapcpS _pcngXipehl A:2.
eilPkNh kLgp^lik`lUnealn Xkgkahnglehlal &A Vk eUnh
cpVilaipcnil] ^p_pbilhnbRipYp bpTpcpYp ep_gphlc- 2. TLHQOOSQ BSCQHTFSINOTQ
bnil]. CkaPn kLgp^lik`lUneapn akUnehcp &A \X\^Jknhe]
nHn l lV-Vk _p]cbnil] LIInahk phgZck _phpak l cpVila- 2kVgkTphak _nge_nahlcipS kclkOlpiipS l gkanhipS
ipcnil] VpiZ pTgkhiZX hpapc c hnincpS pTbkehl g\bnS. hnXilal peipcZcknhe] VkUkeh\N ik le_pbRVpckill
G kclkOll _p^pTik] _gpTbn`k UkehlUip gnJknhe] k_glpgipS liIpg`kOll p IlVlUnealX, k c \ebpcl]X
le_pbRVpckiln` \_gkcb]n`pYp cnahpgk h]Yl (:GC) TpbRJlX eapgpehnS, l Xl`lUnealX _gpOneekX, ep_gp-
^clYkhnb]. ?\hR `nhp^k VkabNUknhe] c ebn^\NHn`: cpP^kNHlX _pbnh &A [1]. ;pehpcngik] liIpg`kOl]
c`nehp phabpinil] ikTnYkNHnYp _phpak Vk eUnh p ilX `pPnh TZhR _pb\Unik hpbRap c gnV\bRhkhn _gpcn-

57
GengpeelSeak] ik\Uip-hnXilUneak] apiIngniOl] `pbp^ZX \UniZX l e_nOlkblehpc
«AclkOlpiiZn ^clYkhnbl l elbpcZn \ehkipcal», =peack, 28-30 `k] 2019 Y.

^nil] cenpTn`bNHlX le_ZhkilS. -^ikap e\Hnehc\nh $N3HT&N. 5pg`kbRik] l Tpapck] elbZ


g]^ pgYkilVkOlpiiZX, IlikiepcZX l hnXilUnealX ^b] gkViZX elehn` 7;:
pYgkilUnilS, aphpgZn in _pVcpb]Nh _gpcnehl hkaln 7np`nhgl] lV^nbl] Fy, 5 Fz, 5
le_Zhkil] l _pb\UlhR _pbi\N liIpg`kOlN p _gpleXp-
Epcpgphipn ep_bp. 28,0
^]HlX _gl _pbnhn _gpOneekX. 5kh\giZS Lae_ngl`nih 37,0
5\bncpn phabpiniln
cneR`k ^pgpY l inTnVp_keni c eb\Ukn in^pehkhpUipS
Epcpgphipn ep_bp.
phgkTphal apiehg\aOll. ALgp^lik`lUnealn hg\TZ 50,0 4225
-habpiniln cbncp ik 12,7
^kbnap in cenY^k _pVcpb]Nh _gpcnehl apggnahipn 9V^nbln e lihngOn_hpgk`l.
`p^nblgpckiln l pTne_nUlhR inpTXp^l`Zn aglhngll 1717,0 1780,0
1 lihngOn_hpg c _phpan
_p^pTl] gnkbRiZ` \ebpcl]` Lae_b\khkOll gkVgkTkhZ- 9V^nbln e lihngOn_hpgk`l.
3464,0 200,0
ckn`pYp bnhkhnbRipYp k__kgkhk. 2 lihngOn_hpgk c _phpan
"pbRJliehcp _gpTbn` `pPip _p_ZhkhRe] ei]hR 9V^nbln ep ehg\SipS elehn`pS 7;:.
_\hn` _gpcn^nil] `khn`khlUneapYp `p^nblgpckil]. G^\c p^ipS ehg\l ci\hgR ep_bk. 150 150
? nYp _p`pHRN `pPip _pb\UlhR _pbnVi\N liIpg`kOlN :Ypb c^\ck 90
p _gpOneekX, _gpleXp^]HlX cTblVl _pcngXipehl, 9V^nbln ep ehg\SipS elehn`pS 7;:.
_gpkikblVlgpckhR LIInahZ cVkl`p^nSehcl] Lbn`nihpc GZ^\c p^ipS TpapcpS ehg\l ikg\P\. 0 2762
:Ypb cZ^\ck 90
apiehg\aOll e _phpap`, cZ]clhR _gpTbn`iZn \Ukehal
l cZgkTphkhR gnap`ni^kOll _p lX \ehgkinilN nHn ik in _pVcpb]Nh gke_gpehgkilhR ^kiipn gnJniln ik cen
ehk^ll _gpnahlgpckil], aphpgZn `pY\h _glcnehl a lV`n- cl^Z A:2. 3piehg\aOl] _pcpgphipYp ep_bk ]cb]nhe]
inilN apiehg\ahlck LealVipS `p^nbl, lV`ninilN cenYp ^pcpbRip ebpPiZ` hnXipbpYlUneal` gnJniln`, Uhp
nn pTblak. 5p c Onbp`, `pPnh pakVkhRe] ^nJncbn l pT\ebkcblcknh `keep-YkTkglhiZn pYgkilUnil] _p _gl`n-
TZehgnn, Un` _gpcp^lhR le_Zhkil] ik Yphpcp` «PnbnVn», il`pehl A:2. 3gp`n LhpYp, hkapS _p^Xp^ ]cb]nhe]
k _php` epV^kckhR ipcpn _p gnV\bRhkhk` le_ZhkilS. ^pehkhpUip ^pgpYpehp]Hl` ^b] _gl`ninil] ik p^ip-
Egpcn^niln UlebniipYp `p^nblgpckil] hgnT\nh gkVpcp` lV^nbll.
cZ_pbinil] ineapbRalX Lhk_pc: _p^Yphpcak Ynp`nhgll, Gcn^niln Hlhapc (lihngOn_hpgpc) c lehnakNH\N
_pehgpniln enhpUipS `p^nbl, gkVgkTphak `khn`khl- lV ep_bk ehg\N _glcp^lh a Vk`nhip`\ _pcpgph\ _pebn^-
UneapS `p^nbl l UlebniipS eXn`Z, _gpcn^niln inS. Egl Lhp`, Un` TpbRJn \Ypb phabpinil] ehg\l, hn`
gkeUnhpc l kikblV _pb\UniiZX gnV\bRhkhpc. -JlTak TpbRJn _phngl LIInahlcipS h]Yl ^clYkhnb].
lbl inTgnPipehR, ^p_\Hniik] ik bNTp` lV LhlX Ep LIInahlcipehl `nhp^ \eh\_knh _pcpgphip`\
Lhk_pc, pakVZcknh cbl]iln ik hpUipehR _pb\UniiZX ep_b\, ip \ehgpSehcp `nXkilV`pc VikUlhnbRip hnXip-
gnV\bRhkhpc gkeUnhk. bpYlUinn l bnYUn. G inShgkbRip` _pbpPnill (in ccn^niZ
G _gn^ehkcbniipS gkTphn leebn^pckiln LIInahlc- c _phpa) lVipe Hlhapc phe\hehc\nh, ip _gl ccp^n
ipehl :GC _gpcp^lbpeR ik peipcn gnJnil] elehn`Z c _phpa _pcngXipehR lihngOn_hpgpc _p^cngYknhe]
\gkcinilS 5kcRn – ?hpaek. ;b] `p^nblgpckil] clXgncZX elbRip`\ LgpVlpiip`\ cpV^nSehclN, Uhp ikabk^Zcknh
ehg\ah\g c ^kiipS gkTphn le_pbRVpckbkeR `p^nbR h\gT\- pYgkilUnil] ik _gl`ni]n`Zn `khnglkbZ Hlhapc.
bnihipehl &kiYhgl –
=nihngk «Transition SST» [2]. Egl`niniln c^\ck ^p_pbilhnbRipYp gkeXp^k c ep_bp
lebniiZn leebn^pckil] kLgp^lik`lUnealX Xkgkahn- ^pbPip _glcp^lhR a ^nIpg`kOll ehg\l (YkVp^lik`l-
glehla cZ_pbiniZ ^b] cZephZ  10 a` l eapgpehl UneapS akghliZ hnUnil]) l _pcpgph\ cnahpgk h]Yl.
ikTnYkNHnYp _phpak _gl Ulebn =kXk =  2. *IInahlcipehR `nhp^k Vkclelh ph ik_gkcbnil] l
`keepcpYp gkeXp^k. Egl incpV`pPipehl pTne_nUnil]
3. 9Q;5H7JNJ@ FNL=QJN inpTXp^l`pYp gkeXp^k c_gZeak _pcpgphk ehg\l in _gple-
Xp^lh, epV^kckn`Zn `p`nihZ `kbpVikUlhnbRiZ. -^ikap
G gnV\bRhkhn gkeUnhk TZbl _pb\UniZ VikUnil] Vk eUnh \cnblUniln `keepcpYp gkeXp^k Vk aglhlapS
h]Yl, _p^n`ipS l TpapcpS elbZ, epV^kckn`Zn _pcpgph- ep_bk _gpleXp^lh \cnblUniln h]Yl. G _gpcn^niiZX
iZn `p`nihZ. gkeUnhkX `nhp^ _pakVkb iklX\^Jln gnV\bRhkhZ.
G hkTblOn _glcn^niZ _kgk`nhgZ ipg`kbRipS GZ^\c ikg\P\, _p e\hl, epV^knh gnkahlci\N ehg\N,
l TpapcpS elbZ, XkgkahnglV\NHln LIInahlcipehR aphpgk] cZXp^lh lV `kbpgkV`ngipYp ep_bk _ng_ni^l-
gkTphZ gkee`phgniiZX elehn` YkVp^lik`lUneapYp a\b]gip apg_\e\ A:2. CkapS _p^Xp^ _pVcpb]nh epV^k-
\_gkcbnil] A:2. ckhR Tpapcpn \elbln/`p`nih. GnblUlik elbZ Vkclelh
Egl`niniln _pcpgphipYp ep_bk _pakVkbp iklTpbRJnn ph gkeXp^k LPnahlg\n`pYp gkTpUnYp hnbk. CnXipbpYl-
VikUniln _pcpgphipYp `p`nihk lV cenX leebn^\n`ZX Uneal hkapS _p^Xp^ bnYUn pgYkilVpckhR, _p egkcinilN
e_pepTpc, ip e\Hnehc\nh g]^ pYgkilUnilS, aphpgZn e _pcpgphiZ` ep_bp` l lihngOn_hpgk`l.

58
?naOl] 1 «?lbpcZn l LingYnhlUnealn \ehkipcal»

4. )NGH-=QOTQ /DTLSG TLDSH7;SINOO@? TLJS=OTGSI


G gk`akX ^kiipYp leebn^pckil] TZbk gkVgkTphkik [1] "Zapc &.G., EkJapc -.A., Egkcl^bp =.5. =khn`k-
`nhp^lak `khn`khlUneapYp `p^nblgpckil] YkVp^lik`l- hlUneapn `p^nblgpckiln pThnakil] lV^nbl] gkanh-
UnealX elehn` \_gkcbnil] bnhkhnbRiZ`l k__kgkhk`l. ipS hnXilal _gl hgkie- l ecngXVc\apcZX gnPl`kX
=pPip \hcngP^khR, Uhp _pb\UniiZn gnV\bRhkhZ IlVlUiZ _pbnhk // 9Vcnehl] cZeJlX \UnTiZX Vkcn^nilS.
l in_gphlcpgnUlcZ. =kJlipehgpniln, 2019.  1. C. 48–55.
:ehkipcbnik ehn_niR LIInahlcipehl 7;: gkVblU- [2] Langtry R., Menter F. Correlation-Based Transition
iZX apiIlY\gkOlS. Modeling for Unstructured Parallelized Computa-
GZgkTphkiZ gnap`ni^kOll _p _gl`ninilN ^kiiZX tional Fluid Dynamics Codes // AIAA Journal, 2009.
eXn` ^b] lV^nblS gkanhipS hnXilal. Vol. 47. No. 12. P. 2894–2906.

%5JT FN;ITJT6 (HQGJFT=QLGT? GSBDSOQOJSI


:T3FTCO@? LTHSI@? 5LJNOSISG
=.A. -c^lniap, A.5. GkgNXli1
1
7:E «9A= l`. E.9. "kgkipck», =peack
e-mail: ovdienko@ciam.ru

1. 1IQCQOTQ Egl`nil`pehR LhlX Lbn`nihpc c kclkOll,


_p`l`p hgnTpckilS _p \^nbRipS `keen, pT\ebpcbnik
3bNUncpn _gnl`\Hnehcp YlTgl^iZX LbnahglUnealX cZ_pbiniln` l`l hgnTpckilS _p ik^nPipehl l
elbpcZX \ehkipcpa (7?:) _p egkcinilN e hgk^lOlpi- TnVp_keipehl.
iZ`l elbpcZ`l \ehkipcak`l (?:) – Lhp cpV`pPipehR
HQGJFT=QLGTQ BN!TO@. Egpcn^niiZS kikblV
ph^nblhR lehpUilal LingYll ph lX _phgnTlhnbnS. LbnahglUnealX `kJli _pakVkb, Uhp iklcZeJl`l \^nbR-
3gp`n LhpYp, LbnahglUnealn _glcp^Z l YningkhpgZ iZ`l `pHipehiZ`l l YkTkglhiZ`l Xkgkahnglehlak`l
bnYap `keJhkTlg\n`Z, _phpal LbnahglUneapS LingYll pTbk^kNh cnihlbRiZn LbnahglUnealn `kJliZ (*=)
`pPip phipelhnbRip bnYap _ngngke_gn^nb]hR, eabk^Z- ik cZepapapLgOlhlciZX _pehp]iiZX `kYilhkX (GE=) [2].
ckhR l gkV^nb]hR, Uhp _pVcpb]nh ap`TlilgpckhR gkVblU- 5k hna\HlS `p`nih iklcZeJlS _pakVkhnbR \^nbRipS
iZn lehpUilal LingYll, p_hl`lVlgpckiiZn _p^ p_gn- `pHipehl LbnahglUnealX Yningkhpgpc l LbnahglUnealX
^nbniiZS gnPl` gkTphZ, epV^kckhR gke_gn^nbniiZn ^clYkhnbnS epehkcb]nh 5,5 aGh/aY ^b] _gl \gpcin
?: [1]. G apinUip` eUnhn Lhp _pVcpb]nh epV^kckhR `pHipehl n^lilUipS LbnahglUneapS `kJliZ 250 aGh
_gliOl_lkbRip ipcZn kgXlhnah\gZ bnhkhnbRiZX k__k- (LbnahglUnealS ^clYkhnbR gkVgkTphal ap`_kill
gkhpc, eilPkhR gkeXp^ hp_blck l cgn^iZn cZTgpeZ. Siemens). ;kiiZn _pakVkhnbl `pY\h TZhR \b\UJniZ
5p \akVkiiZn cpV`pPipehl _p]cb]Nhe] hpbRap c eb\Ukn gkVclhl] ebn^\NHlX ik_gkcbnilS:
_gl \ebpcll pTne_nUnil] cZepalX \^nbRiZX `keepcZX –
gkVgkTphak ipcZX `kYilhp`]YalX `khnglkbpc
Xkgkahnglehla peipciZX LbnahglUnealX ap`_pinihpc. ik peipcn k`pgIiZX l _gnOlVlpiiZX ehkbnS, k hkaPn
ikipaglehkbblUnealX ap`_pVlOlpiiZX e_bkcpc, pTbk-
^kNHlX \gpcin` `kYilhipYp ikeZHnil] (_gn^nbRik]
2. %QFLDQGJTIO@Q JQ?OSHS:TT, OQS3?SCTB@Q `kYilhik] li^\aOl]) in ilPn 3 Cb (c ikehp]Hnn cgn`]
CH6 FN;ITJT6 (HQGJFT=QLGT? GSBDSOQOJSI
:T3FTCO@? LTHSI@? 5LJNOSISG `kael`\` 2,3 Cb);

_gl`niniln ipcZX `khnglkbpc c akUnehcn
-eipciZn LbnahglUnealn ap`_pinihZ YlTgl^iZX pT`phpa ehkhpgk, c hp` Ulebn cZepaphn`_ngkh\giZX
elbpcZX \ehkipcpa `pPip gkV^nblhR ik Yg\__Z: ecngX_gpcp^ilapc l \Ybngp^iZX ikiphg\Tpa;

LbnahglUnealn `kJliZ (^clYkhnbl l YningkhpgZ); –
gkVgkTphak ipcZX hl_pc _pehp]iiZX `kYilhpc,

elehn`Z \_gkcbnil] LbnahglUneal`l `kJlik`l pTbk^kNHlX ik_g]PniipehRN `kYilhipYp _pb]
l ehkhlUnealn _gnpTgkVpckhnbl LbnahglUneapS LingYll; cZJn 1,5 Cb l pTbk^kNHlX Jlgpal` hn`_ngkh\giZ`

kaa\`\b]hpgiZn Tkhkgnl; ^lk_kVpip`;

cp^pgp^iZn hp_blciZn Lbn`nihZ (C*) l elehn`Z –
le_pbRVpckiln `kYilhipS elehn`Z Halbacharray
Xgkinil] cp^pgp^k. (`kYilhipS eTpgal kbRTkXk);

59
GengpeelSeak] ik\Uip-hnXilUneak] apiIngniOl] `pbp^ZX \UniZX l e_nOlkblehpc
«AclkOlpiiZn ^clYkhnbl l elbpcZn \ehkipcal», =peack, 28-30 `k] 2019 Y.


gkeJlgniln I\iaOlpikbRiZX cpV`pPipehnS, `niiZS \gpcniR hnXipbpYlS _pVcpb]nh ^pTlhRe]
ik^nPipehl, `nXkilUneapS _gpUipehl l gne\gek gkTphZ \^nbRipS LingYll ]UnSal _pg]^ak 260…270 Gh U/aY [3].
LbnahglUnealX `kJli Vk eUnh _gl`ninil] ipcZX `khn- Egl pTn^linill ]Unna c eTpga\, a cne\ ]Unna
glkbpc, c hp` Ulebn ap`_pVlOlpiiZX, apiehg\aOlS l ^pTkcb]nhe] cne apg_\ek, abn``, elehn`Z apihgpb]
ipcZX hnXilUnealX gnJnilS c elehn`kX pXbkP^nil], Vkg]^k, elehn`Z \_gkcbnil]. Ckal` pTgkVp`, \^nbRik]
_p^Jl_ilapcZX \VbkX l h.^.; LingYl] eTpgpa enYp^i] epehkcb]nh 180…210 Gh U/aY.

cZepak] phakVp\ehpSUlcpehR `pPnh TZhR ^pehlY- -eipciZn _\hl gkVclhl] kaa\`\b]hpgiZX TkhkgnS:
i\hk Vk eUnh ^\Tblgpckil] pT`phpa (^b] 3-X IkViZX –
\epcngJniehcpckiln ^lLbnahglUnealX Xkgkahn-
*=) lbl le_pbRVpckil] 6 l Tpbnn IkV (c hkap` eb\Ukn glehla en_kgkhpgk e p^ipcgn`niiZ` \cnblUniln`
cZXp^ lV ehgp] p^ipS IkVZ eilPknh `pHipehR apLIIlOlnihk ^lII\Vll lpik;
ik 1/6 \ehkipcbniipS `pHipehl). –
epV^kiln \ehpSUlcZX, phipelhnbRip Olabpc (Vkg]^/
EgpYipVlg\nhe], Uhp a 2025 Y. \^nbRik] `pHipehR gkVg]^) `khnglkbpc kip^k l akhp^k;
n^lilUiZX LbnahglUnealX `kJli ^pehlYinh \gpci] –
\epcngJniehcpckiln ehg\ah\gZ `khnglkbk kip^k,
8 aGh/aY l 3E; ik \gpcin 97% (18 aGh/aY _p ^kiiZ` VikUlhnbRip eilPkNHnYp eapgpehR ^ni^glhppTgkVpckil].
NASA l 12 aGh/aY _gl 3E; 98% a 2030 Y. (22 aGh/aY EgpYipVlg\nhe], Uhp a 2025 Y. \^nbRik] n`apehR
_p ^kiiZ` NASA). kaa\`\b]hpgiZX eTpgpa epehkclh in `ninn 280 Gh U/aY
/TLJQB@ 5DFNIHQOT6 (HQGJFT=QLGTBT BN!T- l in `ninn 350 Gh U/aY a 2030 Y.
ONBT T LJNJT=QLGTQ DFQS3FN;SINJQHT (HQGJFT=QLGS2 $SDHTIO@Q (HQBQOJ@. AikblV _pakVkb, Uhp
(OQF:TT. =keepYkTkglhiZn Xkgkahnglehlal elehn` iklTpbRJl`l \^nbRiZ`l Xkgkahnglehlak`l pTbk^kNh
\_gkcbnil] LbnahglUneal`l `kJlik`l c _ngc\N hcng^p_pbl`ngiZn hp_blciZn Lbn`nihZ (CEC*).
pUngn^R Vkcle]h ph Xkgkahnglehla LbnahgpiiZX ap`_p- Cna\HlS \gpcniR lX \^nbRipS `pHipehl epehkcb]nh
inihpc, cXp^]HlX c epehkc LhlX elehn`. 3 hkal` 2 aGh/aY ^b] LingYp\ehkipcpa `pHipehRN _pg]^ak
ap`_pinihk` phipe]he] elbpcZn hgkiVlehpgZ, ^lp^Z 100 aGh [3]. CkapS gnV\bRhkh \^kbpeR ^pehlUR ap`_kill
l api^niekhpgZ. CpSphk, aphpgk] englSip cZ_\eaknh kchp`pTlbR Toyota
-eipcipS _\hR \b\UJnil] lX Xkgkahnglehla – Mirai e CEC* `pHipehRN 113 aGh, pTbk^kNHl`
_pcZJniln UkehphZ. *hph JkY `pPip e^nbkhR, _gl`n- _p^pTipS \^nbRipS `pHipehRN.
ilc ipcZn `khnglkbZ l cin^glc ipcZn egn^ehck 3 _nge_nahlciZ` _\h]` gkVclhl] hp_blciZX
pXbkP^nil]. Cka, \^nbRik] `pHipehR elehn`Z \_gkc- Lbn`nihpc `pPip phinehl ik_gkcbnil]:
bnil] LbnahglUneal` ^clYkhnbn` Siemens `pHipehRN –
gkVgkTphak pTbnYUniiZX `khnglkbpc Tl_pb]giZX
250 aGh l`nnh \^nbRi\N `pHipehR 17 aGh/aY l _bkehli l ehg\ah\giZX Lbn`nihpc `n`Tgkiip-Lbnah-
3E; 98%. GZ_g]`lhnbR, gkVgkTkhZckn`ZS c 9A=n gp^iZX Tbpapc ^b] \cnblUnil] \^nbRipS `pHipehl
epc`nehip e :7AC: `pHipehRN 400 aGh, T\^nh l`nhR elehn`Z;
\^nbRi\N `pHipehR Tpbnn 20 aGh/aY l 3E; 98%. –
gkVgkTphak ipcZX p_hl`lVlgpckiiZX hp_pbpYlS
-eipciZn _\hl gkVclhl] c epV^kill _gnpTgkVpck- akikbpc Tl_pb]giZX _bkehli;
hnbnS TpbRJpS `pHipehl, ebn^\NHln: –
gkVgkTphak _pbl`ngiZX `n`Tgki ipcpYp _papbn-

le_pbRVpckiln ebpPiZX ehg\ah\giZX eXn`, c hp` il] ehpSalX a hpak` \hnUal _gl ^kcbnill cp^pgp^k l
Ulebn `pHiZn elbpcZn abNUl (MOSFET-, JFET-, cpV^\Xk ecZJn 2,5 kh`;
IGBT-hgkiVlehpgZ), e ik^nPiZ`l e_pepTk`l \_gkcbn- –
gkVgkTphak LbnahgpakhkblVkhpgpc e ilVal` ep^ng-
il] l VkHlhZ; Pkiln _bkhliZ, e OnbRN eilPnil] enTnehpl`pehl

gkVgkTphak ipcnSJlX `khnglkbpc l, aka ebn^ehcln, hp_blciZX TkhkgnS;
e gkVclhln _pb\_gpcp^ilapcpS hnXilal, le_pbRVpckiln –
gkVgkTphak hnXipbpYlS _gplVcp^ehck elehn`
_nge_nahlciZX elbpcZX abNUnS ik peipcn kgenil^k Xgkinil] ap`_gl`lgpckiipYp l ePlPniipYp cp^pgp^k
Ykbbl] l akgTl^k agn`il] l ^g.; e cZepapS \^nbRipS `keepS (Tpbnn 7% ^b] ap`_gl`l-

gkVgkTphak l epV^kiln cZepapLIInahlciZX elehn` gpckiipYp l 25% ^b] Pl^apYp) l Vk_kep` _gpUipehl,
pXbkP^nil] (Pl^apehipYp, le_kglhnbRipYp l ap`Tlil- \^pcbnhcpg]NHl` kclkOlpiiZ` hgnTpckil]`.
gpckiipYp), _pVcpb]NHlX _pcZelhR apLIIlOlnih EgpYipVlg\nhe], Uhp a 2025 Y. \^nbRik] `pHipehR
hn_bpph^kUl, k hkaPn \`niRJlhR `kee\ l YkTkglhZ CEC* ^pehlYinh \gpci] 2500 l 3000 Gh/aY a 2030 Y.
pXbkP^kNHlX \ehgpSehc l _gnpTgkVpckhnbnS c Onbp`.
EgpYipVlg\nhe], Uhp a 2030 Y. \^nbRik] `pHipehR 3. )NGH-=QOTQ
elbpcZX _gnpTgkVpckhnbnS `pHipehRN _pg]^ak 1 =Gh
T\^nh epehkcb]hR in `ninn 30…40 aGh/aY. G gkTphn cZ_pbini kikblV hnXipbpYlS, inpTXp-
GG5B5H6JSFO@Q 3NJNFQT. AikblV hna\HnYp ^l`ZX ^b] epV^kil] _nge_nahlciZX LbnahglUnealX
epehp]il] kaa\`\b]hpgiZX TkhkgnS _pakVkb, Uhp epcgn- ap`_pinihpc ^b] YlTgl^iZX elbpcZX \ehkipcpa.

60
?naOl] 1 «?lbpcZn l LingYnhlUnealn \ehkipcal»

G Xp^n kikblVk ^kik pOniak hna\HnYp \gpci] [2] 9e`kYlbpc .2., kSg\bli 9.., Gkclbpc G..
hnXipbpYlS, k hkaPn p_gn^nbniZ iklTpbnn _nge_na- -eipcZ _gpnahlgpckil] cZepappTpgphiZX Lbnahgp-
hlciZn ik_gkcbnil] gkVclhl]. Epb\UniiZn gnV\bRhkhZ `nXkilUnealX _gnpTgkVpckhnbnS LingYll e cZepap-
`pY\h TZhR le_pbRVpckiZ _gl Ipg`lgpckill pTblapc apLgOlhlciZ`l _pehp]iiZ`l `kYilhk`l. =.:
YlTgl^iZX l LbnahglUnealX ?: _nge_nahlciZX &A. 9iipckOlpiipn `kJlipehgpniln, 2016. 223 e.
[3] GkgNXli A.5., kXkgUniap G.?., 7pg^li =.G.
/DTLSG TLDSH7;SINOO@? TLJS=OTGSI ;pgpPik] akghk hnXipbpYlUneapYp gkVclhl]
YlTgl^iZX l LbnahglUnealX elbpcZX \ehkipcpa
[1] pgekSh gkVclhl] kclkOlpiipS ik\al l hnXipbp- bnhkhnbRiZX k__kgkhpc // ?T. hnVlepc 11-S =nP^\-
YlS ^p 2030 Y. l ik ^kbRinSJ\N _nge_nahlc\. =.: ikgp^ipS apiIngniOll «:_gkcbniln gkVclhln`
A79 l`. _gpI. 5.. \apceapYp, 2012. 190 e. ag\_ip`keJhkTiZX elehn`» MLSD’2018.

9N;FN3SJGN JQ?OSHS:TT TOJQOLT"TGN&TT DFS!TIGT SJIQFLJT2


I "SFL5OGN? NITN&TSOOS2 T FNGQJOS-GSLBT=QLGS2 JQ?OTGT
?.G. 3\Jikgniap1, A.-. p`lUnc2, .E. AehkXpc2, 3.A. "pY^kipc2, A.A. Engn_nUali2, 9.9. "nbpc2
1
A- 5E- «*ingYp`kJ» l`. kak^n`lak G.E. 7b\Jap, l`al
2
7:E «5E- CnXip`kJ», =peack
e-mail: kushnarenko@list.ru

1. 1IQCQOTQ _pebn^pckhnbRipehl l pTne_nUlcknhe] _pehp]iipn


pTipcbniln gkTpUnS Pl^apehl Vk eUnh nehnehcniipS
5k _gn^_gl]hl]X kclkOlpiipS l gkanhip-ape`l- lbl lea\eehcniipS Lcka\kOll _gp^\ahpc LgpVll, hp
UneapS phgkebnS _gp`ZJbniipehl e\Hnehc\nh _phgnT- _gpOnee pTgkTphal _gphnaknh ehkTlbRip l ^pehlYkNhe]
ipehR c cZepap_gplVcp^lhnbRipS pTgkTphan phcngehlS hgnT\n`Zn hnXipbpYlUnealn _pakVkhnbl [2].
`kbpYp ^lk`nhgk 0,1…3 `` ik bp_khakX h\gTliZ, ?pYbkeip e_pepTk` LbnahgpLgpVlpiipS pTgkTphal,
Ipge\ipa ak`ngZ eYpgkil] l YkVpYningkhpgpc 2; ik Lbnahgp^Z ikabk^ZckNh \bRhgkVc\apcZn apbnTkil]
e phcngehl]`l, l`nNHl`l gkVblUi\N _gpehgkieh- (:3) l _p^kNh l`_\bReZ gkTpUnYp ik_g]Pnil],
cnii\N pglnihkOlN l hkiYniOlkbRipn le_pbiniln, _gl Lhp` `p`nih _p^kUl l`_\bRek gkTpUnYp ik_g]Pnil]
c hp` Ulebn, Yb\Tpaln (^blik L Tpbnn 10d) lV hg\^ip- epYbke\nhe] \ehgpSehcp` eliXgpilVkOll e _nglp^p`
pTgkTkhZckn`ZX l Pkgp_gpUiZX e_bkcpc [1]. \bRhgkVc\apcZX apbnTkilS l _glXp^lhe] ik IkV\
EpcZJniln hnXilUneapYp \gpci] ipcZX pTgkVOpc `kael`kbRipYp \^kbnil] Lbnahgp^pc Vk _nglp^ \bRhgk-
kclkOlpiip-ape`lUneapS hnXilal hgnT\nh ipcZX _p^Xp- Vc\apcZX apbnTkilS, k ik ehk^ll eTblPnil] Lbnahgp^pc
^pc l hnXilUnealX gnJnilS c hnXipbpYll lX lVYphpc- _gpleXp^lh pUlehak _pcngXipehl ^nhkbl l \^kbniln
bnil]. Cka, gkVgkTphak ipcZX apiehg\aOlS Ipge\ipa, _gp^\ahpc LgpVll lV VpiZ pTgkTphal Vk eUnh akclhk-
le_pbRV\n`ZX ^b] c_gZeak hp_blck, IlbRng «spinnerets» OlpiiZX ]cbnilS l Vc\apak_lbb]gipYp LIInahk [3 – 6].
^b] lVYphpcbnil] hpialX \Ybngp^iZX cpbpapi, gkVblU-
iZX IlbRhgpc hpiapS pUlehal e Pnehal`l hgnTpck- 3. 9Q;5H7JNJ@ TLLHQCSINOT2
il]`l a akUnehc\ _pb\Ukn`ZX phcngehlS _glcp^lh
a gkVclhlN ipcZX hnXipbpYlS l pTpg\^pckil] ^b] G _gpcn^niipS gkTphn TZbk cZ_pbinik _gpJlcak
lVYphpcbnil] Yb\TpalX phcngehlS `kbpYp ^lk`nhgk [2]. **- l **- e :3 lV 205 hkiYniOlkbRiZX phcngehlS,
e^nbkiiZX bkh\iiZ` Lbnahgp^p`-liehg\`nihp` (*9)
2. SI@Q JQ?OSHS:T=QLGTQ FQ!QOT6 ^lk`nhgp` 0,7 `` _gl ikbpPnill :3 ik *9 c Ipg-
e\iakX hpbHlipS 1 `` _gl _p^kUn 2 _pblcp` c Vpi\
-gYkilVkOl] _gpOneek Lcka\kOll _gp^\ahpc Lbnahgp- pTgkTphal. 2kTpUk] Ukehphk :7 18…22 a7O. A`_bl-
LgpVlpiipS pTgkTphal (**-) lV `nPLbnahgp^ipYp h\^k apbnTkilS \bRhgkVc\apcpYp Yningkhpgk (:7)
_gp`nP\hak (=*E) ]cb]nhe] p^il` lV iklTpbnn ckPiZX _gl **- e :3 ^pehlYknh 5…8 `a`.
Lhk_pc _gpnahlgpckil] hnXipbpYlUneapS p_ngkOll. ?Xn`k ikbpPnil] \bRhgkVc\apcpYp (:) _pb]
ebl gkVg]^iZn l`_\bReZ ebn^\Nh c p_gn^nbniipS ik _gpOnee **- _glcn^nik ik gle. 1.

61
GengpeelSeak] ik\Uip-hnXilUneak] apiIngniOl] `pbp^ZX \UniZX l e_nOlkblehpc
«AclkOlpiiZn ^clYkhnbl l elbpcZn \ehkipcal», =peack, 28-30 `k] 2019 Y.

ilgpckil] _gpJlckn`ZX phcngehlS. ?pagkHniln


`kJliipYp cgn`nil pTgkTphal epehkclbp 28…70%
e \Unhp` hgnT\n`pS JngpXpckhpehl pTgkTphkiipS
_pcngXipehl.
;kbRinSJln leebn^pckil] _p gkVgkTphan c \ilIl-
OlgpckiipS hnXipbpYll **- e :3 inpTXp^l`p cnehl
_p ebn^\NHl` ik_gkcbnil]`:

cbl]iln Ukehph \bRhgkVc\apcZX apbnTkilS
ecZJn 30 a7O ik eapgpehR _gpJlcal;

cbl]iln k`_blh\^Z \bRhgkVc\apcZX apbnTkilS
ik eapgpehR _gpJlcal;

cbl]iln apiehg\aOll l `khnglkbk liehg\`nihk
ik eapgpehR _gpJlcal;
9TL. 1. ?Xn`k ikbpPnil] :3 ik *9:
1 –
ckiik e gkTpUnS Pl^apehRN; 2 –
pTgkTkhZckn`k] –
cbl]iln \bRhgkVc\apcZX apbnTkilS ik _gpJlca\.
^nhkbR (Ipge\iak); 3 –
\bRhgkVc\apcpS lVb\UkhnbR; Epb\UniiZn gnV\bRhkhZ _p lihnielIlakOll
4 –
*9; 5 –
_glcp^ _p^kUl gkTpUnYp Xp^k *9; _gpOneek _gpJlcal phcngehlS e ikbpPniln` \bRhgk-
6 –
\Vnb agn_bnil] pTgkTkhZckn`pS ^nhkbl; Vc\apcZX apbnTkilS, `pPip le_pbRVpckhR in hpbRap
7 –
\Vnb agn_bnil] ik_gkcb]NHnS ch\bal c kclkOlpiipS l gkanhip-ape`lUneapS phgkebnS
_gp`ZJbniipehl, ip l _gl lVYphpcbnill YgkP^kieapS
_gp^\aOll JlgpapYp e_nahgk le_pbRVpckil] (_gpJlcak
phcngehlS c Ipge\iakX kchp`pTlbRipS, hn_bpLingYn-
hlUneapS, PnbnVip^pgpPipS _gp`ZJbniipehl l ^g.).

/DTLSG TLDSH7;SINOO@? TLJS=OTGSI


[1] ?k\Jali ".E. l ^g. 5k\apn`aln hnXipbpYll
`kJlipehgplhnbRipYp _gplVcp^ehck. lVlap-
Xl`lUnealn `nhp^Z l hnXipbpYll: \UnTipn
_pepTln. =.: pg\`, 2013. 928 e.
[2] -cUliilapc ;.G., =pgY\ipc .A. *bnahgp-
LgpVlpiik] _gpJlcak Yb\TpalX phcngehlS `kbpYp
^lk`nhgk. =peapcealS EpblhnXilUnealS :i-h.
2lh`, 2018.  10. ?. 26–31.
9TL. 2. EgpOnee pTgkTphal **- e :3 [3] 3kVkiOnc G.. lVlak \bRhgkVc\ak: \UnTipn
5k gle. 2 _gn^ehkcbni _gpOnee _gpJlcal phcngehlS _pepTln. =.: =92A*, 2010. 180 e.
c Ipge\iakX LbnahgpLgpVlnS e ikbpPniln` \bRhgk- [4] Sherevani-Tabar M.T. et al. Numerical study on the
Vc\apcZX apbnTkilS ik bkh\iiZS Lbnahgp^-liehg\`nih. splitting of a vapor bubble in the ultrasonic assisted
EDM process with the curved tool and work piece //
4. )NGH-=QOTQ Ultrasonics. 2013. No. 1. P. 203–210.
[5] =lOanclU =.3. 9eebn^pckiln cbl]il] ilVap-
Egpcn^niik] gkTphk _p _gpJlcan phcngehlS UkehphiZX clTgkOlS l \bRhgkVc\ak ik _gpOnee
c Ipge\iakX _gl **- l **- e \bRhgkVc\ap` _pVcpblbk LbnahgpLgpVlpiipS pTgkTphal: ^leenghkOl] ik
ikShl LIInahlci\N hnXipbpYlN **- e ikbpPniln` epleakiln \UnipS ehn_nil aki^l^khk hnXilUnealX
:3, _gl aphpgpS in_pegn^ehcniipn ikbpPniln ik\a (164). =liea, 1969.
\bRhgkVc\apcZX apbnTkilS ik Lbnahgp^-liehg\`nih l [6] 3kchkgk^Vn -.5., 7kS .. *bnahgpleagpck] pTgk-
_pblc gkTpUnS Pl^apehl c Vpi\ pTgkTphal e_pepT- Tphak `khnglkbpc e ikbpPniln` \bRhgkVc\apcZX
ehc\Nh iklb\UJn`\ \^kbnilN _gp^\ahpc LgpVll apbnTkilS // -TVpgZ _p LbnahgpiipS hnXilan.
lV VpiZ pTgkTphal l _pcZJkNh _gplVcp^lhnbRipehR ?ng. 7: CnXipbpYl], pgYkilVkOl] _gplVcp^ehck l
_gpOneek **- _gl epXgkinill hpUipehl _pVlOlp- pTpg\^pckiln, 1982. ?. 2–20.

62
?naOl] 1 «?lbpcZn l LingYnhlUnealn \ehkipcal»

DFQCQHQOTQ JQDHSIS:S T ONDF6QOOS-CQ"SFBTFSINOOS:S LSLJS6OT6


GSOJNGJO@? 5;HSI LSIFQBQOO@? (OQF:S5LJNOSISG
E.9. Ckbkbknck, A.;. Ppc1
1
=A9 (59:), =peack
e-mail: poly.talalaeva2013@yandex.ru

1. 1IQCQOTQ 3ka ebn^ehcln hkapS elh\kOll, VikUnil] apihkahiZX


hng`lUnealX ep_gphlcbnilS, gkeeUlhkiiZn _p Lhl`
Eplea inpTXp^l`pYp `khnglkbk ^b] gkVgkTkhZ- Vkclel`peh]`, l`nNh ^pehkhpUip JlgpalS ^lk_kVpi
ckn`pS apiehg\aOll – p^ik lV peipciZX Vk^kU c gkTphn gkVTgpek [4 –
7].
apiehg\ahpgk. Egl gkVgkTphan _nge_nahlciZX YkVph\g- ;pehpcngipn p_gn^nbniln hn`_ngkh\giZX _pbnS
TliiZX \ehkipcpa, c cp_gpekX _pcZJnil] _pakVkhnbnS c epn^linil]X apiehg\aOll cpV`pPip _gl le_pbRVp-
LIInahlcipehl ^clYkhnb], hkalX aka \^nbRik] gkTphk ckill gnkbRipYp gnbRnIk `lagpingpcipehl apihkahl-
l LIInahlciZS 3E;, pik VkUkeh\N ehkipclhe] p_gn^n- g\NHlX _pcngXipehnS.
b]NHnS. EpcZJniln \akVkiiZX _pakVkhnbnS VkUkeh\N Ep^Xp^ TZb \e_nJip _gl`nini l k_gpTlgpcki
\cnblUlcknh ^lk_kVpi gkTpUlX hn`_ngkh\g bp_khpa ik apihkahipS _kgn ap`_pVlh-`nhkbb [8]. -eipcZck]eR
h\gTli [1], Uhp _glcp^lh a inpTXp^l`pehl le_pbRVp- ik Xkgkahngn gke_gn^nbnil] ingpcipehnS _pcngXipehl,
ckil] _nge_nahlciZX `khnglkbpc e gkTphpe_pepTipehRN nn hp_pYgkIll l kikblVn apihkahipS _kgZ _pb\Uknhe]
_gl cZepalX hn`_ngkh\gkX, ik_gl`ng angk`lal. 3D-`p^nbR JngpXpckhpehl _pcngXipehl, aphpgk]
3ngk`lUnealn `khnglkbZ l`nNh _gncpeXp^ehcp epc_k^nh e _pcngXipehRN gnkbRipYp pTgkVOk.
_p egkcinilN e Pkgp_gpUiZ`l ehkb]`l c hp`, Uhp ;kbRinSJlS hn_bpcpS l _gpUipehipS gkeUnh
pTbk^kNh cZepapS hcng^pehRN, ilVapS hn_bp_gpcp^- _pVcpb]nh _pb\UlhR VikUniln 3C? ^b] lihngne\NHnS
ipehRN, Xl`lUneapS linghipehRN [2, 3]. hp akeknhe] _kgZ `khnglkbpc.
`keepcZX Xkgkahnglehla, hp _bphipehR angk`lal VikUl- 5k ebn^\NHn` Lhk_n hn_bpcpYp kikblVk apiehg\aOll
hnbRip ilPn, Un` \ ehkbl. 3pLIIlOlnih hng`lUneapYp \ehkikcblcknhe] VikUniln hng`lUneapS _gpcp^l`pehl
blinSipYp gkeJlgnil] angk`lUnealX `khnglkbpc apihkahk. 2nV\bRhkhp` hkapYp gkeUnhk ]cb]nhe] gke_gn-
c ineapbRap gkV `niRJn, Un` \ ehkbl. ?cpSehck ^nbniln hn`_ngkh\gipYp _pb] l ik_gkcbniln cnahpgk
angk`lal Vkcle]h ph _gnpTbk^kNHnS IkVZ – k`pgIipS hn_bpcpYp _phpak c epn^linil]X e \Unhp` gnkbRipS
lbl aglehkbblUneapS, k hka Pn UlehphZ l akUnehck `lagpYnp`nhgll ep_glakekNHlXe] _pcngXipehnS.
leXp^iZX _pgpJapc [4]. ;kiik] `nhp^lak hka Pn _pVcpb]nh _gplVcnehl
ikiln gke_gn^nbnil] hn`_ngkh\giZX _pbnS gkeUnh c pTgkhip` _pg]^an, h.n. Vik] inpTXp^l`ZS
c apiehg\aOll, ik_gkcbniln l cnblUliZ hn_bpcZX hn`_ngkh\giZS _ngn_k^ c epn^linil]X apiehg\aOll
_phpapc c in` _gn^ehkcb]nh ^b] gkVgkTphUlak e\Hneh- cZ^khR gnap`ni^kOll _p abkee\ UlehphZ ep_glakekN-
cniipn \ebpcln \e_nJipS gnkblVkOll gkVgkTkhZ- HlXe] _pcngXipehnS.
ckn`pYp _gpnahk.
3. )NGH-=QOTQ
2. NJQBNJT=QLGN6 BSCQH7
Ckal` pTgkVp`, le_pbRV\] _gn^bkYkn`\N `nhp^la\
?hkTlbRipn I\iaOlpilgpckiln lV^nbl], gkTphkN- ^b] p_gn^nbnil] hn`_ngkh\giZX _pbnS, `pPip
HnYp _gl cZepalX hn`_ngkh\gkX, cpV`pPip _gl pTne_n- e ^pehkhpUip cZepapS ^pehpcngipehRN gkeeUlhkhR
Unill hgnT\n`pYp hn_bpcpYp gnPl`k l ^p_\ehl`ZX hn_bpcpn epehp]iln aka bNTZX apihkahiZX \Vbpc
ik_g]PnilS c VpikX apihkahk ^nhkbnS gkVipgp^iZX hn_bpik_g]PniiZX apiehg\aOlS, hka l ek`lX apieh-
`khnglkbpc, k hka Pn epTbN^niln \ebpcl] Vk_kek g\aOlS c Onbp`, Uhp c ecpN pUngn^R _pVcpblh \Pn
_gpUipehl ^b] akP^pS lV ^nhkbnS c eTpgan. ik ikUkbRip` Lhk_n cZ]clhR peipciZn _gpTbn`Z,
-Tne_nUniln hgnT\n`pYp hn_bpcpYp gnPl`k p_gn- cinehl le_gkcbnil], l, c lhpYn, VikUlhnbRip epagkhlhR
^nb]nhe] VikUnil]`l apihkahipYp hng`lUneapYp ep_gp- egpal le_ZhkilS l phgkTphal lV^nbl].
hlcbnil] (3C?) l `nPapihkahipYp ^kcbnil] `nP^\
le_pbRV\n`Z`l _kgk`l `khnglkbpc. ?\Hnehc\NHln /DTLSG TLDSH7;SINOO@? TLJS=OTGSI
gkeUnhiZn Vkclel`pehl _p p_gn^nbnilN 3C? ^b] gkVip-
gp^iZX `khnglkbpc, aka _gkclbp, pglnihlgpckiZ [1] 5nUknc .5., n^pgpc 2.=., 3phpcealS G.5.,
ik e_nOlIlUnealn \ebpcl] apihkahlgpckil] `nP^\ Epbnc A.?. Cnpgl] kclkOlpiiZX ^clYkhnbnS. =.:
^pehkhpUip pYgkilUniiZ` ag\Yp` `khnglkbpc. 9V^-cp GG9A l`. _gpI. \apceapYp, 2005. 366 e.

63
GengpeelSeak] ik\Uip-hnXilUneak] apiIngniOl] `pbp^ZX \UniZX l e_nOlkblehpc
«AclkOlpiiZn ^clYkhnbl l elbpcZn \ehkipcal», =peack, 28-30 `k] 2019 Y.

[2] khkbli A.?., 2p`kJli A.7. 3ngk`lak-`khnglkb [6] Ep_pc G.=. Cn_bppT`ni c Vpin apihkahk gkVn`iZX
21 cnak // 5k\ak _gplVcp^ehc\, 1999.  9. ?. 4–7. l ingkVn`iZX epn^linilS. =.: *ingYl], 1971. 216 e.
[3] =khgnili ?.G., ?bpe`ki A.9. CnXilUneak] [7] =nei]iali ?.. =nhp^Z gkeUnhk l gnY\blgpckil]
angk`lak: \UnTipn _pepTln. Cp`ea: 9V^-cp CE:, apihkahiZX hng`lUnealX ep_gphlcbnilS // ?T.
2004. 75 e. ik\U. hg\^pc «Cn_bpcpn _gpnahlgpckiln elehn`».
[4] =kbRapc G.A., kcpgealS -.5., &npihRnc G.5. =.: 9V^-cp =A9, 1990. ?. 78–86.
3pihkahiZS hn_bppT`ni c YkVph\gTliiZX ^clYk- [8] Ppc A.;., =nei]iali ?.., "Zapc &.G., "pYkUnc .
hnb]X l LingYp\ehkipcakX. =.: =kJlipehgpniln, Cn_bp`nXkilUnealS kikblV hn_bpik_g]PniiZX
1978. 144 e. apiehg\aOlS c VpikX apihkahk `nhkbbpc e
[5] bZapc .E., 7kili .A., kgncealS ?.5. ap`_pVlOlpiiZ`l `khnglkbk`l // XV =liealS
3pihkahipn hng`lUneapn ep_gphlcbniln. =.: `nP^\ikgp^iZS Ipg\` _p hn_bp`keeppT`ni\.
*ingYl], 1977. 327 e. ?T. hnVlepc ^pabk^pc. =liea: 5A5 "nbkg\el.

/QDNFN&T6 IS;C5?N S;SOTFSINOTQB. SOLJF5GJTIOS OSIN6 BSCQH7


/ $9
A.?. Ekcbpc1
1
23: -3" l`.A.&NbRal, =peack
e-mail: nelvr_pas@mail.ru

1. 1IQCQOTQ
?n_kgkOl] cpV^\Xk hgnT\nhe] ^b] gkV^nbnil]
cpV^\Xk ik inShgkbRiZS YkV – kVph l paleblhnbR, Uhp
inpTXp^l`p ^b] Tpbnn LIInahlcipYp pXbkP^nil]
PkgpcpS hg\TZ peipcipS ak`ngZ eYpgkil] C2; l
_gn^phcgkHnil] L`leell NOx.
Egn^\e`khglcknhe] pXbkP^niln ehnipa inShgkbR-
iZ` YkVp` ^b] phe\hehcl] Ypgnil] ehnipa.
;b] LIInahlcipYp gkV^nbnil] cpV^\Xk ik inShgkbR- 9TL. 1. 2nap`ni^\n`Zn `nehk \ehkipcal
iZS YkV N2 l paleblhnbR _gn^\e`khglcknhe] le_pbR- pVpikhpgpc c C2;
Vpckiln LIInahk OnihgpTnPipS elbZ.
2kinn OnihgpTnPik] elbk, cpVilakNHk] c ap`_gne-
epgkX ilVapYp l cZepapYp ^kcbnil] (35;, 3G;),
in _gl`ni]bkeR ^b] en_kgkOll cpV^\Xk.
Egl \ehkipcal C2; ik bnhkhnbRiZX k__kgkhkX
pVpikhpgZ OnbneppTgkVip gke_pbkYkhR c ehkhpgipS
Ukehl ap`_gneepgpc (ik_gl`ng, c bp_khakX ehkhpgk)
(gle. 1). Egl ikVn`ipS ^lebpakOll 7C; (c 7C:)
pVpikhpgZ `pPip hkaPn gkV`nehlhR c _glhpUipS hg\Tn
_ngn^ cnihlb]hpgp` (35;).
Ahp`ik] `keek alebpgp^k O gkcik 16, `pbna\bZ
alebpgp^k -2 – 32; khp`ik] `keek kVphk N gkcik 14,
`pbna\bZ kVphk N2 – 28. Gl^ip, Uhp pil in elbRip
phblUkNhe] ^g\Y ph ^g\Yk, _pLhp`\ en_kgkOl] c pTZU-
iZX \ebpcl]X _gpehp incpV`pPik. 9TL. 2. EpghkhlciZS pVpikhpg c cZabNUniip` epehp]ill
;b] LIInahlcipYp gkV^nbnil] (en_kgkOll) cpV^\Xk (_gplVcp^lhnbRipehR Yningkhpgk pVpik 200 Y/U)
ik paleblhnbR l inShgkbRiZS YkV _gn^bkYknhe] \cnbl- paleblhnb] ehkinh gkcipS 48, Uhp e\Hnehcniip phblUk-
UlhR khp`i\N `kee\ paleblhnb], h.n. _gncgkhlhR alebp- nhe] ph khp`ipS `keeZ inShgkbRipYp YkVk 28. Ckak]
gp^ -2 c pVpi -3: _gl Lhp` khp`ik] `keek `pbna\bZ gkVilOk khp`iZX `kee pTne_nUlh cpV`pPipehR en_kgkOll.

64
?naOl] 1 «?lbpcZn l LingYnhlUnealn \ehkipcal»

Xpbp^iZ` YkVp`, Uhp epV^knh cpVbn ilX LIInahlci\N


_nbni\, Y^n Ypgniln incpV`pPip c _gliOl_n.
?pphcnhehcniip, ehnial T\^\h ik^nPip VkHlHniZ
ph _gpYpgkil] l ^nIpg`kOll.
;p_pbilhnbRiZS LIInah, ^pehlYkn`ZS Vk eUnh
ipcpccn^nilS, – _gpOnee Ypgnil] c PkgpcpS hg\Tn
T\^nh \eapgni TbkYp^kg] ikblUlN elbRipYp palebl-
hnb], akal` ]cb]nhe] pVpi -3. G gnV\bRhkhn ik cZXp^n
lV PkgpcpS hg\TZ ingkcip`ngipehR hn`_ngkh\gZ
9TL. 3. EpghkhlciZS pVpikhpg cp cabNUniip` epehp]ill T\^nh `lil`kbRipS, Uhp \cnblUlh gne\ge ^clYkhnb].
(gkVg]^ila ecnhlhe] Ypb\TZ` Ocnhp`) 9V-Vk \^kbnil] kVphk lV peipcipS (cZepap-
n`_ngkh\gipS) VpiZ Ypgnil], L`leel] NOx ehkinh
incpV`pPipS.
G akUnehcn gkTpUnYp hnbk c cZepaphn`_ngkh\gipS
Vpin `pPip le_pbRVpckhR cp^]ipS _kg (ip Lhp cpV-
`pPip hpbRap c ikVn`iZX 7C:). pbp^iZS kVph
_gn^bkYknhe] _p^`nJlckhR c ilVaphn`_ngkh\gipS Vpin
(cin VpiZ Ypgnil]) ik cZXp^n lV -3? l UngnV
_ngIpgkOlN bp_khpa ep_bpcpYp k__kgkhk, k hkaPn
UngnV cen pehkbRiZn bp_khal C5; l CG;, \b\UJlc
pXbkP^niln cenYp ^clYkhnb] [1 –
3].
9TL. 4. ?Xn`k peipcipS ak`ngZ eYpgkil] (ehgnbak`l
_pakVkip ^clPniln inShgkbRipYp YkVk l paleblhnb])
/DTLSG TLDSH7;SINOO@? TLJS=OTGSI
Egl inTpbRJpS ^pgkTphan (lV`ninil] apieh-
g\aOll) peipcipS ak`ngZ eYpgkil], l pTn^linill [1] &nIncg A. EgpOneeZ c ak`ngkX eYpgkil]. =.: =lg,
nn e ep_bpcZ` k__kgkhp` CG; c n^liZS apiehg\ahlc- 1986.
iZS `p^\bR, cpV`pPip le_pbRVpckiln LIInahk en_kgk- [2] 7piUkgpc E.?., Aghk`pipc 9.A., kblhpc C.. l ^g.
Oll cpV^\Xk. NX Advanced Simulation. 9iPningiZS kikblV.
=.: ;=3 Egnee, 2012.
2. TCNQB@2 (""QGJ SJ BSCQHT OSIS2 / [3] n^pgpck 5.5., GkbRYng ?.A., ;kilbpc =.5.,
kXkgpck .G. -eipcZ gkTphZ c ANSYS 17.0.
5k gle. 4 _gn^ehkcbnik `p^nbR ipcpS peipcipS 5k\Uip-pTgkVpckhnbRiZS Onihg ap`_RNhngipYp
ak`ngZ eYpgkil]. ?hnial PkgpcpS hg\TZ p`ZckNhe] `p^nblgpckil] CADFEM-?lTehgli, 2016.

65
GengpeelSeak] ik\Uip-hnXilUneak] apiIngniOl] `pbp^ZX \UniZX l e_nOlkblehpc
«AclkOlpiiZn ^clYkhnbl l elbpcZn \ehkipcal», =peack, 28-30 `k] 2019 Y.

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e-mail: fedorov.serg.al@gmail.com

1. *BJ<JHKJ _n clf^l. ,c_n`QTnai`jcQ WlfZel clf^j, _ncfenlggZl


c _n]nFQK clfnWgnSn Slgleifnei Autogrid 5, c Wjc`n]
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HlejIj^iMj[ _enSei]]gnSn ^n]_`l^ci NUMECA Autogrid 5 j cn\leLjf 6 638 835 [Wll^. jc`lggnl
_enan\j`icQ gi ^n]_elccnel Rotor37 \iggZ]j, ]n\l`jenaigjl _enan\j`ncQ _ej jc_n`QTnaigjj ]n\l`j
_el\ncfia`lggZ]j NASA [1]. CicWlf _enan\j`c[ _ej fYePY`lgfgncfj SA j eiTgncfgnR cVl]Z c Mlgfei`QgnR
Wicfnfl aeiFlgj[ 17 188 nP/]jg j ]n\l`[V fYePY`lgf- eiTgncfQK, i fi^Ll «non reflecting 1D» jgfleIlRcna,
gncfj SA, k–, SST. ,cc`l\nai`icQ cVn\j]ncfQ elJlgjR ca[TZaiKFjV enfneZ j cfifneZ.
,TYWi`ncQ a`j[gjl SYcfnfZ `n_ifnWgZV algMna gi
:H9. :n`jWlcfan `n_ifn^ gi cfifnel _leanR cfY_lgj
PZ`n jT]lglgn c 42 \n 38 `n_ifn^, gi cfifnel afnenR
cfY_lgj – c 68 \n 62 `n_ifn^ j gi cfifnel felfQlR
cfY_lgj – c 61 \n 57 `n_ifn^.

4. !G@A(;JHKJ
H elTY`Qfifl, eicVn\ a fnW^l ]i^cj]Y]i jTnEgfen-
_jWlc^nSn :A9 Y]lgQJj`c[ c 24,25 \n 24,23, i ci]
:A9 aZenc c 87,7 \n 87,8%. i^j] nPeiTn], Yal`j-
8KE. 1. iajcj]ncfQ jTnEgfen_jWlc^nSn :A9 Wlgjl :A9 cncfiaj`n 0,1%.
a fnW^l ]i^cj]Y]i :A9 nf Wjc`i [Wll^ a clf^l

&=KEM@ KE=MA,.MBGHH:2 KECM;HK@MB


[1] Advisory group for aerospace research & develop-
ment 7 Rue Ancelle, 92200 Neuilly-Sur-Seine, France.
[2] n`Flagj^na :.H., ]jg /.<., 5jfenVjg H.. lnej[
j eicWlf iajiMjnggZV `n_ifnWgZV ]iJjg. 1986.
[3] ifYejg /.H. :ngc_l^f `l^MjR _n YWlPgnR \jcMj_-
8KE. 2. 5lej\jngi`Qgi[ _enl^Mj[ _lec_l^fjagnSn :H9 `jgl «lnej[ j eicWlf `n_ifnWgZV ]iJjg».

69
HclenccjRc^i[ giYWgn-flVgjWlc^i[ ^ngIlelgMj[ ]n`n\ZV YWlgZV j c_lMji`jcfna
«>ajiMjnggZl \ajSifl`j j cj`naZl Ycfigna^j», 5nc^ai, 28-30 ]i[ 2019 S.

BMA('K/ @MHEC?4@CKBH:2 E=MEM-MB =M<-M?G C?J-4J5:2 =G?G5JC?MB


HG<?MCM?H:2 4EC?M+ECB JAJBM0M CK=G
H./. )lLlggj^na1
1
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e-mail: vlezhennikov@mail.ru

1. *BJ<JHKJ gi algfj`[fne eiT`jWgZl fj_Z <C0 j PZcfen ]lg[fQ


^ngIjSYeiMjK _Yfl] Ti]lgZ Fl`laZV acfian^.
IIl^fjagncfQ _ej]lglgj[ gi\enfnegZV YcfenRcfa ei\jMjnggZl gi\enfnegZl YcfenRcfai, eiTeiPn-
PZ`i nPgieYLlgi a giWi`l 70-V Sn\na _ej]lgjfl`Qgn figgZl a ,>5l, j]lKf n\jg n\gnen\gZR Fl`lanR
^ eiT`jWgZ] fYePn]iJjgi] a elTY`Qfifl jcc`l\naigjR, YWicfn^. <i ncgnaigjj E^c_lej]lgfi`QgZV \iggZV,
_enan\jaJjVc[, S`iagZ] nPeiTn], a ,>5l j lgfel PZ`j jTSnfna`lgZ n\gne[\gZl <C0 c Yal`jWlggZ]
j]. )QKjci NASA. <ijPn`ll _n`gZR _lelWlgQ _enan- ^n`jWlcfan] Fl`lR. i^Ll PZ`j eiTeiPnfigZ <C0
\jaJjVc[ a EfnR nP`icfj jcc`l\naigjR _ejal\lg gnanSn _n^n`lgj[, j]lKFjl \ai Fl`laZV YWicf^i,
a eiPnfl [1]. <i ejc. 1 _n^iTigZ gl^nfneZl fj_Z eic_n`nLlggZV \eYS Ti \eYSn] a\n`Q _en\n`QgnR ncj
jc_n`QTYl]ZV gi\enfnegZV YcfenRcfa [2]. j`j WicfjWgn _lel^eZaiKFjV \eYS \eYSi. :en]l
/\gj]j jT eiggjV _ej]lena jcc`l\naigjR gi\en- EfnSn, acl gnaZl <C0 j]l`j _n \al ]n\jIj^iMjj:
fnegZV YcfenRcfa c _iTi]j, a_nc`l\cfajj cfiaJjV c jcVn\gnR, aZcn^nR ^n`QMlanR _n`ncfQK j
_enfnfj_n] \`[ <C0 Fl`lanSn fj_i, [a`[Kfc[ eiPnfZ c _n`ncfQK, Y]lgQJlggnR gi 5 ]].
[3, 4]. H eiPnfl [3] _ejal\lgZ elTY`QfifZ jc_ZfigjR H 2018 S. PZ`n cnT\ign j jc_Zfign gnanl Fl`lanl
eiT`jWgZV ^ngcfeY^MjR <C0: cn c_`nJgnR _encfia^nR, <C0 \`[ n\gne[\gnSn algfj`[fnei. Ael\cfia`lggnl
c ^n`QMlaZ]j ^igia^i]j j c _iTi]j. Hcl ngj _ejal`j gi ejc. 2 ^n]Pjgjenaiggnl gi\enfnegnl YcfenRcfan
^ TgiWjfl`Qgn]Y cgjLlgjK eicVn\i anT\YVi _n ceia- cncfnjf jT caiegnSn ^ne_Yci, \aYVe[\gnR Fl`lanR
glgjK cn c_`nJgnR _encfia^nR. :ngIjSYeiMj[ _encfia^j, n\gne[\gnR Fl`lanR _encfia^j j fneMlanR
c _iTi]j, eic_n`nLlggZ]j _n YS`Y `n_if^j enfnei, acfia^j. 9aYVe[\gi[ _encfia^i a]lcfl c n\gne[\gnR
\i`i gijPn`QJll Yal`jWlgjl cfl_lgj _naZJlgj[
\ia`lgj[ j :A9 nfgncjfl`Qgn \eYSjV \aYV fnSn Ll
fj_i. n`QJl aclV Yal`jWj`n cfl_lgQ _naZJlgj[
\ia`lgj[ <C0 cn c^nJlggZ]j _iTi]j, n\gi^n :A9
n^iTi`c[ gjT^j].
H eiPnfl [4] jcc`l\nai`jcQ c^nJlggZl j ei\ji`Q-
gZl _enfnW^j. Aej _eiaj`Qgn] gi^`ngl _enfnWl^
Ti_ic YcfnRWjancfj Yal`jWj`c[ gi 20%, _ej ei\ji`Q-
gZV _enfnW^iV – fn`Q^n gi 13%, i _ej gl_eiaj`Qgn]
gi^`ngl _enfnWl^ Ti_ic YcfnRWjancfj Y]lgQJj`c[
gi 11…14%.

2. &MBJ?JHECBMBGHKJ @MHEC?4@'KK 8KE. 1. CiTgnaj\gncfj gi\enfnegZV YcfenRcfa:


JAJB:2 8 B   –_e[]Zl ^igia^j, nejlgfjenaiggZl _n\ YS`n]
Ycfigna^j _enIj`lR `n_ifn^ C:; –cnfnanSn fj_i;
H _iflgfl C 2034175 [5] j eiPnfl [6] n_jcig
 –_en\n`QgZl c^nJlggZl ^igia^j;  –^n`QMlaZl ^igia^j
nclanR ^n]_elccne, cn\leLiFjR eic_n`nLlggYK gi\
`n_if^i]j ^n`QMlaYK _n`ncfQ, cnnPFiKFYKc[ c _en-
fnWgnR WicfQK fYePn^n]_elccnei WlelT Fl`j ]lL\Y
nPeiTYKFj]j elJlf^Y elPei]j, eic_n`nLlggZ]j
a _n_lelWgn] clWlgjj _n\ YS`n] ^ ei\jYcY ^ne_Yci.
Ael\`iSil]nl jTnPelflgjl nPlc_lWjailf eicJjelgjl
\ji_iTngi 90, n\gi^n _ei^fjWlc^j gl _el\ncfia`[lf
c_ncnPna Y`YWJlgj[ i^YcfjWlc^jV Viei^flejcfj^ j
_naZJlgj[ :A9.
H 2014 S. PZ` jTSnfna`lg ^n]_`l^f ^ne_Ycna 8KE. 2. /PFjR aj\ ^ngcfeY^Mjj ^n]PjgjenaiggnSn
cn c]lggZ]j acfia^i]j, _nTan`[KFjR Ycfigia`jaifQ gi\enfnegnSn YcfenRcfai

70
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nPeiTYKf iEen\jgi]jWlc^jR _enIj`Q _enfnWgnR ^n`jWlcfai ^ngIjSYeiMjR _ej gij]lgQJl] ^n`jWlcfal


Wicfj. 7aiegnR ^ne_Yc c Fl`laZ]j _encfia^i]j j TifeiWjail]ZV elcYecna.
fneMlanR acfia^nR nPeiTYKf gi\enfnegYK _n`ncfQ.
9`[ jT]lglgj[ aZcnfZ _n`ncfj jc_n`QTYKfc[ &=KEM@ KE=MA,.MBGHH:2 KECM;HK@MB
c_lMji`QgZl acfia^j.
/\gne[\gi[ _encfia^i aZ_n`glgi a \aYV aiejig- [1] Greitzer E.M., Nikkanen J.P., Haddad D.E. and etc.
fiV c Ml`QK nPlc_lWlgj[ eiT`jWgZV ^ngIjSYeiMjR A fundamental criterion for the application of rotor
eic_n`nLlgj[ Fl`lR _ej E^ngn]jj ]ifleji`QgZV casing treatment // Trans ASME Journal of
elcYecna. ,T]lglgjl eic_n`nLlgj[ Fl`lR nfgncj- Engineering for Power, 1979.
fl`Qgn \eYS \eYSi ncYFlcfa`[lfc[ _nanenfn] n\gn- [2] :i]_cfj <. >Een\jgi]j^i ^n]_elccnena: Ale.
e[\gnR _encfia^j, Ij^cjeYl]nR c _n]nFQK J_ng^j. c igS`. 5.: 5je, 2000. 688 c.
<i \aYVe[\gYK _encfia^Y giglclgn ceiPifZail]nl [3] Moore R.D., Kovich G., Blade R.J. Effect of casing
_n^eZfjl. Aej glnPVn\j]ncfj n\jg jT ll e[\na ]nLgn treatment on overall and blade-element performance
TiS`YJjfQ c _n]nFQK Sle]lfj^i. of a compressor rotor // NASA technical note, 1971.
[4] Fujita H., Takata H. A study of configurations of
3. !G@A(;JHKJ casing treatment for axial flow compressors // Bulletin
of Japan Society Mechanical Engineers, 1984.
0cfigna`lgn, Wfn Sln]lfejWlc^jl _iei]lfeZ <C0 [5] Aiflgf C 2034175, C16F04D 27/02, 1993.
c_ncnPgZ _ejalcfj ^ n\gnael]lggn]Y _naZJlgjK [6] Gelmedov F.Sh., Mileshin V.I., Kozhemyako P.G.,
90 j :A9. 9i`QglRJll cnaleJlgcfanaigjl Sln]lf- Orekhov I.K. Stall margin improvement in three-stage
ejj <C0 ca[Tign, _n Pn`QJlR Wicfj, j]lggn c Efj] low pressure compressor by use of slot type casing
gi_eia`lgjl]. Sn ^ngcfeY^fjagi[ cncfia`[KFi[ _el\- treatments // Proceedings of ASME Turbo 2014,
_n`iSilf _njc^ c_ncnPna jTSnfna`lgj[ gijPn`QJlSn GT2014-26298, 2014.

*AK/HKJ 4;JCG CJ=AMM-5JHG =?K ?GE;JCG2


'JHC?M-JHM0M @M5=?JEEM?G HG EKA: K 5M5JHC:
>.7. 5YeialR^n, 9.H. HnenJgjg1
1
/// «<05:>», 7ig^f-AlflePYeS
e-mail: e-mail: a.muraveiko@numeca.ru

1. *BJ<JHKJ aZcn^j]j fl]_leifYei]j (n^n`n 1000 :), ^nfneZl cnale-


Jlggn gl cnnfalfcfaYKf eli`QgZ] j`j _el\_n`iSil]Z].
9`[ ^neel^fgnR nMlg^j nclaZV Ycj`jR j Ael\`nLlg e[\ ]lfn\na, gi_eia`lggZV gi Y]lgQ-
]nFgncfj a MlgfenPlLgZV ^n]_elccneiV glnPVn\j]n Jlgjl fl]_leifYeZ, _Yfl] YWlfi fl_`nnP]lgi ]lL\Y
]n\l`jenaifQ flWlgjl a _enfnWgnR Wicfj c YWlfn] _nfn^n] j fale\Z]j fl`i]j a eicWlfgnR ]n\l`j.
_ejfei^fnaZV _n`ncflR c `iPjejgfgZ]j Y_`nfgl- /cnPlggncfQK eicc]ifejail]nSn ^n]_elccnei
gj[]j, cnnfalfcfaYKFjV Ti\jc^nan]Y _encfeigcfaY [a`[lfc[ an\[gnl nV`iL\lgjl ^ne_Ycna, Wfn felPYlf
\`[ `KPZV fj_na ^n`lc j _n`ncflR ]lL\Y _n^eZagZ]
\jc^n] j ^ne_Ycn] \`[ Ti^eZfZV ^n`lc.

2. 8J.4A,CGC:
H eiPnfl _enal\lgn ]n\l`jenaigjl MlgfenPlL-
gnSn ^n]_elccnei c _ejfei^fnanR _n`ncfQK Ti ^n`lcn]
c `iPjejgfgZ]j Y_`nfglgj[]j (ejc. 1).
eigjWgZl Yc`naj[ a eicWlfiV – cfig\iefgZl \`[
fYePn]iJjg. H _leanR ]n\l`j acl cflg^j ]n\l`jenai-
`jcQ i\jiPifgZ]j. H Vn\l igi`jTi elTY`Qfifna Ti]lWlgn,
Wfn a _n`ncf[V eli`jTYlfc[ flWlgjl c E^cfel]i`Qgn 8KE. 1. ln]lfejWlc^i[ ]n\l`Q ^n]_elccnei

71
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«>ajiMjnggZl \ajSifl`j j cj`naZl Ycfigna^j», 5nc^ai, 28-30 ]i[ 2019 S.

Tgigj[ \n_n`gjfl`QgZV SeigjWgZV Yc`najR. H eicc]nf- Ti\ig _enIj`l] ^i^ IYg^Mj[ ei\jYci, i \`[ nclanSn
elggnR Ti\iWl \`[ gl^nfneZV aiejigfna _ncfignan^ YWicf^i _n`ncfj ^i^ IYg^Mj[ nclanR ^nne\jgifZ.
Ti\iai`ncQ eic_el\l`lgjl fl]_leifYe _n Ti\glR cflg^l Hl`jWjgZ _nfn^i aT[fZ gi ncgnal eicWlfi c ]n\l`jen-
_ejfei^fnanR _n`ncfj. aigjl] cn_e[LlggnSn fl_`nnP]lg. i\igjl fl]_lei-
<i SeigjMl _ejfei^fnanR _n`ncfj _ejcYfcfaYlf fYeZ cflgn^ ^ne_Yci _n _n`ncfj (_enIj`Q _n ei\ji`Q-
cfn^, ^nfneZR ]n\l`jeYlfc[ SeigjWgZ] Yc`najl] gnR Wicfj 338 : – 346 :, 338 : – _n nclanR Wicfj);
cel\glSn cfifjWlc^nSn \ia`lgj[ (1 if]). 5) _ncfigna^i c ]n\l`jenaigjl] fale\ZV fl`
H jfnSl aZ_n`glgZ c`l\YKFjl eicWlfZ `n_ifn^ C: j \jc^i C:, fl`n \jc^i eiPnWlSn ^n`lci
^n]_elccnei: PZ`n aZ_n`glgn Y_enFlggZ] (ejc. 1), ^nEIIjMjlgf
1) cfig\iefgi[ _ncfigna^i c i\jiPifgZ]j fl_`n_enan\gncfj ]ifleji`i – 6,7 Hf/]. i\igjl
cflg^i]j; fl]_leifYeZ cflgn^ ^ne_Yci _n _n`ncfj (_enIj`Q
2) _ncfigna^i c ]n\l`jenaigjl] fale\ZV fl` _n ei\ji`QgnR Wicfj 338 : – 346 :, 338 : – _n nclanR
`n_ifn^ C: j \jc^i C:, fl`n \jc^i eiPnWlSn ^n`lci Wicfj). fn gijPn`ll ^neel^fgi[ _ncfigna^i c fnW^j
PZ`n aZ_n`glgn Y_enFlggZ] (ejc. 1), ^nEIIjMjlgf Telgj[ eli`QgZV IjTjWlc^jV _enMlccna;
fl_`n_enan\gncfj ]ifleji`i – 6,7 Hf/]; 6) cfig\iefgi[ _ncfigna^i c i\jiPifgZ]j cflg-
3) _ncfigna^i c Ti\igjl] _nfn^i fl_`i _n ^i]j. i\igjl fl]_leifYeZ cflgn^ ^ne_Yci _n _n`ncfj
_naleVgncfj afY`^j j Ti\glR _naleVgncfj \jc^i. (_enIj`Q _n ei\ji`QgnR Wicfj 338 : – 346 :, 338 : –
Anfn^ fl_`i Ti\ig _enIj`l] ^i^ IYg^Mj[ ei\jYci, i _n nclanR Wicfj).
\`[ nclanSn YWicf^i _n`ncfj ^i^ IYg^Mj[ nclanR An`YWlgZ al`jWjgZ nclaZV cj` j ]nFgncflR
^nne\jgifZ. Hl`jWjgZ _nfn^i aT[fZ gi ncgnal eicWlfi \`[ aclV Y^iTiggZV _ncfignan^ (fiP`jMi). 5nFgncfQ
c ]n\l`jenaigjl] cn_e[LlggnSn fl_`nnP]lgi; n_el\l`lgi ^i^ _enjTal\lgjl ]n]lgfi j YS`nanR
4) _ncfigna^i c Ti\igjl] _nfn^i fl_`i _n _naleV- c^nencfj. /cel\glggZl a n^eYLgn] gi_eia`lgjj _n`[
gncfj afY`^j j Ti\glR _naleVgncfj \jc^i. Anfn^ fl_`i fl]_leifYe _el\cfia`lgZ gi ejc. 2.

8KE. 2. /cel\glggZl _n`[ fl]_leifYe (\`[ i\jiPifgnR _ncfigna^j J^i`i Jjel _n \ji_iTngY fl]_leifYe)

8KE. 3. /cel\glggZl _n`[ fl]_leifYe

72
7l^Mj[ 2 «)n_ifnWgZl ]iJjgZ»

G-AK'G. CicWlfgZl _iei]lfeZ \`[ _ncfignan^ Ti]lfgn Vn`n\gll aiejigfi c Y_`nfglgj[]j.


n`QJl TiTne – Pn`QJl eicVn\ – Pn`QJl fl_`i
Fz, < Pwr, Hf
Ygncjfc[. i^j] nPeiTn] lFl eiT _n\faleL\ilfc[
Adiabatic 1623,5 81559,7
^neel^fgncfQ eicWlfgZV caleVaZcn^jV fl]_leifYe
CHT 1265,9 80878,1 a _n`ncf[V _ej jc_n`QTnaigjj i\jiPifgZV cflgn^,
Ht flx 1328,8 81163,2 f.l. fl]_leifYeZ nPYc`na`lgZ gi`jWjl] i\jiPifgZV
Ht flx  T 1125,2 80892,7 cflgn^ j encfn] fl]_leifYeZ ajVelaZV cfeY^fYe
CHT  T 1174,3 80866,4 _ej ]i`n] eicVn\l anT\YVi WlelT Y_`nfglgj[.
Adiabatic  T 1222,2 80990,3
3. !G@A(;JHKJ
)KPnR aiejigf _ncfigna^j c fl_`nnP]lgn] j/j`j
Ti\igjl] fl]_leifYe/_nfn^na Viei^flejTYlfc[ cYFlcf- Aenal\lgZ eicWlfZ ^n]_elccnei c cn_e[LlggZ]
alggn ]lgQJj]j fl]_leifYei]j, _n ceiaglgjK c _ncfi- fl_`nnP]lgn] j c gli\jiPifgZ]j cflg^i]j (Ti\igjl
gna^nR c i\jiPifgZ]j cflg^i]j. 5lgQJjl fl]_lei- fl_`nanSn _nfn^i j fl]_leifYe _n fale\Z]
fYeZ _ejan\[f ^ ]lgQJj] cfifjWlc^j] \ia`lgj[] j, _naleVgncf[]).
^i^ c`l\cfajl, ^ jgZ] TgiWlgj[] nclanR cj`Z. CicWlfgZR giSela anT\YVi \n 1000 : a _n`ncf[V –
5nFgncfQ Tiajcjf nf _ncfigna^j a ]lgQJlR cfl_lgj. c`l\cfajl i\jiPifgZV cflgn^ j ]i`nSn eicVn\i anT\YVi
H _n`ncf[V (gl fn`Q^n a `iPjejgfgZV Y_`nf- WlelT Y_`nfglgj[.
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ajVelaZl cfeY^fYeZ, fl]_leifYei ^nfneZV anTeicfilf afneYK, Tiajc[f nf ^neel^fgncfj ]n\l`jenaigj[
j jT-Ti gi`jWj[ i\jiPifgZV cflgn^: fl_`n gl Yc_lailf fl]_leifYe a _ejfei^fnanR _n`ncfj.
cgncjfQc[ nfPjeil]Z] anT\YVn]. Aej YWlfl fl_`n- 9`[ _n`YWlgj[ gijPn`ll ^neel^fgZV elTY`Qfifna
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9`[ Pn`QJlSn _ngj]igj[ _enMlccna _n`ncfj fl_`nnP]lg c \jc^n] C: j ^ne_Yci]j.
_ncWjfigZ nf\l`Qgn. <i aVn\l Ti\iai`jcQ _n`gnl \ia-
`lgjl j fl]_leifYei, cnnfalfcfaYKFjl aZVn\Y jT C:, &=KEM@ KE=MA,.MBGHH:2 KECM;HK@MB
nclanl gi_eia`lgjl _nfn^i. Hcl fale\Zl _naleVgncfj –
i\jiPifgZl. <i aVn\gn] nclan] YWicf^l cflg^j [1] :i]_cfj <. >Een\jgi]j^i ^n]_elccnena. 5.:
gl aeiFiKfc[. <i aZVn\l Ycfigna`lgn cel\gll cfifj- 5je, 2000.
Wlc^nl \ia`lgjl (1 if]). [2] Japikse D. Nicholas C. Baines Introduction to Turbo-
HZ_n`glg eicWlf, a ^nfnen] `iPjejgfgZl Y_`nf- machinery // Concepts ETI, Inc., 1997.
glgj[ PZ`j jc^`KWlgZ jT ]n\l`j, _ej Efn] acl [3] Hirsch C. Numerical Computation of Internal &
SeigjWgZl Yc`naj[ ncfia`lgZ j\lgfjWgZ]j. 7n_ncfi- External Flows: the Fundamentals of Computational
a`lgjl _n`lR fl]_leifYe \`[ nPnjV aiejigfna Fluid Dynamics, 2nd ed. Butterworth-Heinemann
_el\cfia`lgn gi ejc. 3. Hiejigf PlT Y_`nfglgjR (Elsevier), 2007.

EEAJ<MBGHKJ =M<2M<MB @ 5M<JAK?MBGHK( CJ;JHK/


B EC4=JHK 'JHC?M-JHM0M @M5=?JEEM?G EM E-M?HM+ @G5J?M+
>.7. 5YeialR^n, 9.H. HnenJgjg1
1
/// «<05:>», 7ig^f-AlflePYeS
e-mail: a.muraveiko@numeca.ru

1. *BJ<JHKJ rank2), i fi^Ll ceiaglgjl _n`YWlggZV Viei^flejcfj^


^n]_elccnei j _Y`QciMjR _iei]lfena a fnW^iV.
l`QK \iggnR eiPnfZ [a`[lfc[ _enal\lgjl ]n\l`j-
enaigj[ flWlgj[ a cfY_lgj MlgfenPlLgnSn ^n]_elc- 2. 8J.4A,CGC:
cnei a A/ NUMECA FINE/Turbo c jc_n`QTnaigjl]
eiT`jWgZV _n\Vn\na (a _n`gnR glcfiMjngiegnR H eiPnfl _enal\lgn ]n\l`jenaigjl Mlgfen-
_ncfigna^l – URANS, NLH ]lfn\n] Basic j Multi-rank PlLgnSn ^n]_elccnei c `n_ifnWgZ] \jIIYTnen] ()9)

73
HclenccjRc^i[ giYWgn-flVgjWlc^i[ ^ngIlelgMj[ ]n`n\ZV YWlgZV j c_lMji`jcfna
«>ajiMjnggZl \ajSifl`j j cj`naZl Ycfigna^j», 5nc^ai, 28-30 ]i[ 2019 S.

j cPnegnR ^i]lenR (ejc. 1). eigjWgnl Yc`najl


gi aVn\l – _n`gnl \ia`lgjl, fl]_leifYei j gi_eia-
`lgjl _nfn^i, gi aZVn\l Ycfigia`jai`ncQ cel\gll
\ia`lgjl j`j ]iccnaZR eicVn\.
H cfiMjngiegnR _ncfigna^l _ncWjfigZ c`l\YK-
Fjl aiejigfZ:
–C:)9, alf^i;
–cn cPnegnR ^i]lenR j _n`gZ] eiTanenfn] )9,
alf^i;
–cn cPnegnR ^i]lenR j n\gj] ]lL`n_ifnWgZ]
^igi`n] )9, alf^i.
NLH ]lfn\n] _ncWjfigZ c`l\YKFjl aiejigfZ:
–C:)9, alf^i, 3 Sie]ngj^j; 8KE. 3. :A9 ^n]_elccnei
–C:)9, fnW^i, 10 Sie]ngj^;
–cn cPnegnR ^i]lenR j _n`gZ] eiTanenfn] )9,
alf^i, 3 Sie]ngj^j;
–cn cPnegnR ^i]lenR j _n`gZ] eiTanenfn] )9,
fnW^i, 10 Sie]ngj^;
–cn cPnegnR ^i]lenR j n\gj] ^igi`n] )9, fnW^i,
3 Sie]ngj^j _leanSn eigSi j 1 Sie]ngj^i afnenSn eigSi;
–cn cPnegnR ^i]lenR j n\gj] ^igi`n] )9, alf^i,
5 Sie]ngj^ _leanSn eigSi j 1 Sie]ngj^i afnenSn eigSi.
H URANS _ncfigna^l _ncWjfigi fnW^i, P`jT^i[
^ eiPnWlR.
Hcl _n`YWlggZl elTY`QfifZ nPeiPnfigZ fi^j]
nPeiTn], Wfn jgflSei`QgZl _iei]lfeZ Ti `n_ifnWgZ]
8KE. 4. 7Lifjl a `n_ifnWgnR Wicfj (C:)9), _ejal\lggnl
\jIIYTnen] aT[fZ gi n\gn] j fn] Ll ei\jYcl
^ cLifjK a URANS

8KE. 1. ln]lfejWlc^i[ ]n\l`Q ^n]_elccnei

8KE. 5. :A9 `n_ifnWgnR Wicfj (C:)9)

8KE. 2. 7Lifjl a ^n]_elccnel, _ejal\lggnl ^ cLifjK a URANS 8KE. 6. AY`QciMjj \ia`lgj[ a fnW^l _lel\ )9

74
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(aVn\ a 7:). Hcl jgflSei`QgZl _iei]lfeZ nPlTeiT- gi aVn\l a \jIIYTne, gi aZVn\l jT \jIIYTnei j
]lelgZ _n _iei]lfei] URANS _ncfigna^j. _ej]legn a\n`Q cel\glR `jgjj c_jei`QgnR ^i]leZ.
,gflSei`QgZl _iei]lfeZ, _n`YWlggZ]j NLN ]lfn\n] /f]lWlgn VnenJll cna_i\lgjl ^n`lPigjR a \jIIYTnel
a nPnjV _ncfigna^iV (Basic j Multi-rank rank2) \`[ URANS j Multu-rank rank2 c YWlfn] \n_YFlgjR,
gl Tiajc[f nf jc_n`QTnaiggnSn ^n`jWlcfai Sie]ngj^. _ejg[fZV a NLH. <i ejc. 6 _ejal\lgZ _Y`QciMjj
i^Ll _n^iTign, Wfn jgflSei`QgZl _iei]lfeZ \ia`lgj[ _lel\ )9 a n\gnR jT fnWl^.
^n]_elccnei, _n`YWlggZl a cfiMjngiegnR _ncfigna^l,
gl Tiajc[f nf SeigjWgnSn Yc`naj[ \`[ cn_e[Llgj[ 3. !G@A(;JHKJ
\jIIYTnei j Y`jf^j (Mixing Plane j Frozen Rotor).
AnEfn]Y \i`ll PY\Yf _el\cfia`lgZ fn`Q^n n\gj jT _ie. Aej elJlgjj Ti\iWj c _n`gZ] eiTanenfn] )9
<i ejc. 2 – ejc. 5 _el\cfia`lgZ ncgnagZl jgflSei`QgZl _iei]lfeZ C: j flWlgjl gi eicVn\iV
elTY`QfifZ, ^iciKFjlc[ jgflSei`QgZV _iei]lfena ]lgQJjV, Wl] eiPnWjR, nf`jWiKfc[ nf _ncfignan^
^n]_elccnei. c n\gj] ]lL`n_ifnWgZ] ^igi`n] \jIIYTnei. Ancfigna^i
7fl_lgQ _naZJlgj[ _n`gnSn \ia`lgj[ a enfnel NLH c _n`gZ] eiTanenfn] _ejTgigi gl^neel^fgnR.
cYFlcfalggn eiT`jWilfc[ gi _el\ceZagZV fnW^iV \`[ Aiei]lfeZ `n_ifnWgnR Wicfj, _n`YWlggZl ]Y`Qfj-
aiejigfna c _n`gZ] eiTanenfn] )9 j n\gj] ]lL`n_i- eigSn] j PiTnaZ] ]lfn\n] PlT Y`jf^j _ei^fjWlc^j
fnWgZ] ^igi`n] )9. :A9 algMi _ej Efn] n\jgi^naZR; cna_i\iKf.
c fnW^j Telgj[ jgflSei`QgZV _iei]lfena Efn ca[Tign H Ml`n] 5Y`QfjeigS _n^iTZailf VnenJll cnnfalf-
cn cfl_lgQK _naZJlgj[ _n`gZV fl]_leifYe a ^n`lcl: cfajl elTY`Qfifi] URANS, Pn`QJjgcfan glcnnfalfcfajR
fl]_leifYeZ a c`YWil eicWlfi c n\gj] ]lL`n_ifnWgZ] ]nLlf PZfQ jc_eia`lgn Yal`jWlgjl] Wjc`i Sie]ngj^.
^igi`n] gi aZVn\l jT ^n`lci cYFlcfalggn aZJl
_n ceiaglgjK c eicWlfn] c _n`gZ] eiTanenfn] )9. &=KEM@ KE=MA,.MBGHH:2 KECM;HK@MB
<i ncgnal ceiaglgj[ _n`lR _iei]lfena flWlgj[ c\l`ig
aZan\ n gl^neel^fgncfj _ncfigna^j c _n`gZ] [1] :i]_cfj <. >Een\jgi]j^i ^n]_elccnena. 5.:
eiTanenfn] )9 _ej jc_n`QTnaigjj NLH ]lfn\i. 5je, 2000.
>gi`jT jgflSei`QgZV _iei]lfena `n_ifnWgnR Wicfj [2] Japikse D. Nicholas C. Baines Introduction to Turbo-
(^n`lcn  \jIIYTne) \`[ eiT`jWgZV _ncfignan^ _n^iTi`, machinery // Concepts ETI, Inc., 1997.
Wfn cPnegi[ ^i]lei gl a`j[lf j`j nWlgQ c`iPn a`j[lf [3] Hirsch C. Numerical Computation of Internal &
gi jgflSei`QgZl _iei]lfeZ `n_ifnWgnR Wicfj. External Flows: the Fundamentals of Computational
Cicc]nfelgZ _Y`QciMjj _n`gnSn \ia`lgj[, Fluid Dynamics, 2nd ed. Butterworth-Heinemann
_n`YWlggZl a glcfiMjngiegZV _ncfigna^iV a fnW^iV (Elsevier), 2007.

8GE;JCHM-@E=J?K5JHCGA,HMJ KEEAJ<MBGHKJ
CMHGA,HM0M 45G BJHCKA/CM?G 8
5.5. 5YVi]l\T[gnai, >.>. CnccjVjg1
1
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e-mail: rossikhin@ciam.ru

1. *BJ<JHKJ 2. -
J@C KEEAJ<MBGHK/
7 _n[a`lgjl] _leaZV iajiMjnggZV fYePn]iJjg H ^iWlcfal _el\]lfi jcc`l\naigj[ \`[ \iggnR
n\gj] jT _ejnejflfgZV gi_eia`lgjR a \ajSifl`l- eiPnfZ _nc`YLj` ]n\l`QgZR PjenfifjagZR algfj-
cfenlgjj [a`[lfc[ cgjLlgjl JY]i. `iagYK en`Q `[fne CRTF2a, eiTeiPnfiggZR a ,>5l ei]^iV
a cnael]lggnR i^Ycfj^l `n_ifnWgZV ]iJjg jSeilf laen_lRc^nR _enSei]]Z VITAL (EnVIronmenTALly
JY] nf gln\gnen\gncflR _nfn^i. /cnPnR lSn eiTgnaj\- friendly aeroengine). jc`n `n_ifn^ _leanSn enfnei – 10,
gncfQK [a`[lfc[ fngi`QgZR JY] algfj`[fnei, afnenSn enfnei – 14. 9ji]lfe algfj`[fnei D  0,56 ].
Wjc`lggZR eicWlf ^nfnenSn [a`[lfc[ cYFlcfalggZ] Aiei]lfeZ algfj`[fnei \`[ ncor  1,0: N1  9334 nP/]jg;
Efi_n] eiTeiPnf^j ]lfn\j^j jcc`l\naigj[ JY]i N2  7000 nP/]jg; `nPnai[ _enjTan\jfl`QgncfQ –
\ajSifl`[. 206 ^S/(c]2). 7fl_lgQ \aYV^ngfYegncfj eiagi 10.

75
HclenccjRc^i[ giYWgn-flVgjWlc^i[ ^ngIlelgMj[ ]n`n\ZV YWlgZV j c_lMji`jcfna
«>ajiMjnggZl \ajSifl`j j cj`naZl Ycfigna^j», 5nc^ai, 28-30 ]i[ 2019 S.

3. MECGHMB@G .G<G;K 9`[ eicWlfi SlgleiMjj fngi`QgnSn JY]i fYePn-


]iJjgi]j, i fi^Ll eicWlfi eic_encfeiglgj[ JY]i _n
H ei]^iV \iggnSn jcc`l\naigj[ _`igjenai`ncQ ^igi`i] fYePn]iJjgZ j lSn jT`YWlgj[ a \i`Qgll _n`l
_enalcfj Wjc`lggZR eicWlf flWlgj[ a ]lL`n_ifnWgZV jT n^elcfgncfj fYePn]iJjgZ _ej]lg[`c[ eiTeiPn-
^igi`iV algfj`[fnei a \aYV _ncfigna^iV: cfiMjngiegZR figgZR a ,>5l A: 3DAS. 9iggZR ]lfn\ PiTjeYlfc[
]lfn\ a _ejP`jLlgjj «MixingPlane» j gl`jglRgZR gi _e[]n] Wjc`lggn] elJlgjj glcfiMjngiegZV Yeia-
Sie]ngjWlc^jR ]lfn\. 9`[ aZ_n`glgj[ \iggnR Ti\iWj glgjR R`lei \`[ anT]YFlgjR, eic_encfeig[KFjVc[
c _n]nFQK iafn]ifjWlc^nSn clfnWgnSn Slgleifnei _naleV cfiMjngiegnSn gln\gnen\gnSn a[T^nSn _nfn^i.
NUMECA AUTOGRID PZ`j _ncfenlgn WlfZel P`nWgn-
cfeY^fYejenaiggZl Sl^ciSngi`QgZl clf^j (ejc. 1). 4. !G@A(;JHKJ
CicWlfgZl clf^j nf`jWi`jcQ ]lL\Y cnPnR gi`jWjl]
j`j nfcYfcfajl] c_`jfflei, i fi^Ll eiTelJlgjl]. ClTY`QfifZ jcc`l\naigj[ PZ`j cn_ncfia`lgZ
9`[ _enal\lgj[ eicWlfna jc_n`QTnai`c[ _enSei]]gZR c elTY`Qfifi]j E^c_lej]lgfi gi cflg\l -3> ,>5i [2].
^n]_`l^c NUMECA FINE™/Turbo. CicWlfZ _n`[ An^iTign Y\na`lfanejfl`Qgnl cna_i\lgjl elTY`Qfifna
flWlgj[ a cfiMjngiegnR _ncfigna^l aZ_n`glgZ eicWlfi iEen\jgi]jWlc^jV _iei]lfena c E^c_lej]lgfn].
cn cfig\iefgZ]j SeigjWgZ]j Yc`naj[]j gi aVn\l: ClTY`QfifZ cn_ncfia`lgj[ \jiSei]] gi_eia`lg-
 *  288,15 :, p*  101 325 Ai \`[ c`l\YKFjV elLj]na: gncfj a \i`Qgl] _n`l fi^Ll _n^iTZaiKf nfgncjfl`Qgn
ncor  1,0; 0,9; 0,54. VnenJll cna_i\lgjl ]lL\Y eicWlfn] j E^c_lej]lgfn]
9`[ jcc`l\naigj[ iEen\jgi]jWlc^jV ncnPlggncflR \`[ _leaZV \aYV Sie]ngj^ fngi`QgnSn JY]i \`[ aclV
glcfiMjngiegnSn flWlgj[ a ]lL`n_ifnWgZV ^igi`iV eicc]nfelggZV elLj]na eiPnfZ.
PjenfifjagnSn algfj`[fnei, fi^jV ^i^ eic_encfei- HZ[a`lgi cj`Qgi[ Tiajcj]ncfQ elTY`Qfifna eicWlfi
glgjl a[T^jV c`l\na Ti `n_if^i]j _enal\lgZ eicWlfZ nf aZPeiggZV ]n\l`lR fYePY`lgfgncfj. <ijPn`ll
c _ej]lglgjl] gl`jglRgnSn Sie]ngjWlc^nSn ]lfn\i P`jT^jl ^ E^c_lej]lgfY elTY`QfifZ \ilf ]n\l`Q SST.
[1] \`[ elLj]na «_nci\^i» – ncor  0,54, «giPne
aZcnfZ» – ncor  0,83 j «aT`lf» – ncor  0,93. &=KEM@ KE=MA,.MBGHH:2 KECM;HK@MB
9`[ elLj]i «_nci\^i» – ncor  0,54 eicWlf _enan\j`c[
gi eiT`jWgZV eicWlfgZV clf^iV j c jc_n`QTnaigjl] [1] He L., Ning W. Efficient approach for analysis of
eiTgZV ]n\l`lR fYePY`lgfgncfj: felV \jIIlelgMji`Q- unsteady viscous flows in turbomachines // AIAA
gZV ]n\l`lR fYePY`lgfgncfj – SST, Spalart-Allmaras Journal, 36 (11), 1998.
j k– c _ejcflgnWgZ]j IYg^Mj[]j j n\gnR i`SlPeij- [2] Mileshin V., Popovyan A., Korznev V., Maximov V.,
Wlc^nR ]n\l`j Baldwin-Lomax. Khaletskiy Y. C-3A aero-acoustic test facility of
fnPZ _n`YWjfQ jcfnWgj^j \`[ Ti\iW eicWlfi CIAM & use for VITAL counter rotating fan tests
eic_encfeiglgj[ jT`YWlgj[ jT anT\YVnTiPnegj^i j (CRTF application) //. Central Institute of Aviation
cn_`i PZ`n _enal\lgn eiT`nLlgjl glcfiMjngiegnSn Motors (CIAM), Russia; Proceedings of the EU-
flWlgj[ gi _naleVgncf[V eic_n`nLlggZV aaleV j agjT VITAL. Workshop, 9–10 March 2009, Budapest,
_n flWlgjK nf algfj`[fnei _n i^YcfjWlc^j] ]n\i]. Hungary.

8KE. 1. :nglWgn-eiTgncfgi[ clf^i (fn_n`nSj[ P`n^na)

76
7l^Mj[ 2 «)n_ifnWgZl ]iJjgZ»

8GE;JCH:J KEEAJ<MBGHK/ KHCJ? J?JH'KK HJE4J0M K ?4AJBM0M BKHCMB


E AJ5JHCG5K @MHEC?4@'KK (.JA/G -JE=KAMCHM0M BM.<4HM0M
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e-mail: bakulev_vl@radar-mms.com

ajclgj[ j _ej SnejTngfi`Qgn] _n`lfl. 9iggZR ]lfn\


1. *BJ<JHKJ
[a`[lfc[ Pn`ll fnWgZ], Wl] _n`YE]_jejWlc^jl
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anT\YJgZV cY\na alefn`lfgnSn fj_i (H7 H) ^`iccj- ]lgf. /\gi^n ]n\l`jenaigjl jgfleIlelgMjj _el\[a-
Wlc^nR n\gnajgfnanR cVl]Z ncnPYK en`Q jSeilf `[lf aZcn^jl felPnaigj[ ^ aZWjc`jfl`QgZ] elcYeci].
nMlg^i jgfleIlelgMjj glcYFlSn j eY`lanSn ajgfna j HnT]nLgn _ej]lglgjl ^n]PjgjenaiggnSn _n\Vn\i
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cnT\iail]ZV glcYFj] j eY`laZ]j ajgfi]j, _ejan\jf aZWjc`jfl`QgnR iEen\jgi]j^j \`[ nf\l`QgZV E`l]lgfna
^i^ ^ jT]lglgjK Viei^flejcfj^ ajgfna, fi^ j ^ cYFlcf- eli`QgnR ^ngcfeY^Mjj; ]n\l`jenaigjl jgfleIlelgMjj
alggn]Y Yc`nLglgjK Viei^flei nPfl^igj[ H7 H. _ncel\cfan] aZWjc`jfl`QgnSn E^c_lej]lgfi; _enal-
a`lgjl jgfleIlelgMjj fi^Ll aZeiLilfc[ a _naZJl- \lgjl gifYegZV jc_ZfigjR.
gjj Yenag[ cj`nanSn giSeYLlgj[ ^ngcfeY^Mjj.
<lcfiMjngiegncfQ _enMlcci glSifjagn c^iTZai- 3. 8J.4A,CGC:
lfc[ gi Yc`naj[V E^c_`YifiMjj nPl^fi j ]nLlf
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anTgj^gnalgj[ iEenY_eYSjV \lIne]iMjR. ail]nSn nPl^fi – Plc_j`nfgnSn anT\YJgnSn cY\gi
i^j] nPeiTn], nMlg^i jgfleIlelgMjj glnPVn- alefn`lfgnSn fj_i, _el\giTgiWlggnSn \`[ aZ_n`glgj[
\j]i \`[ n_fj]jTiMjj ajgfnaZV cjcfl] j E`l]lgfna Ti\iW ]ngjfnejgSi j feigc_nefjena^j SeYTna.
^ngcfeY^Mjj IKTl`[Li. 7 jc_n`QTnaigjl] Y_enFlggZV ]lfn\j^, a Wicf-
gncfj ajVelanR flnejj, i fi^Ll cel\cfai]j felV]le-
2. JCM<: M'JH@K KHCJ? J?JH'KK gnSn ]n\l`jenaigj[ elJlgZ c`l\YKFjl Ti\iWj:
–n_el\l`lgjl iEen\jgi]jWlc^jV Viei^flejcfj^
<i _ei^fj^l _ej]lg[lfc[ fej _n\Vn\i ^ nMlg^l glcYFlSn j eY`lanSn ajgfna;
jgfleIlelgMjj glcYFlSn j eY`lanSn ajgfna c E`l]lg- –n_el\l`lgjl cn_enfja`lgj[ E`l]lgfna ^ngcf-
fi]j ^ngcfeY^Mjj IKTl`[Li: E^c_lej]lgf, _ej]lglgjl eY^Mjj IKTl`[Li;
_n`YE]_jejWlc^jV flnejR j cnael]lggZV aZWjc`j- –n_el\l`lgjl cj`nanSn giSeYLlgj[ ^ngcfeY^Mjj
fl`QgZV ]lfn\na. H7 H gi elLj]l ajclgj[ c YWlfn] jgfleIlelgMjj.
^c_lej]lgfi`QgZl jcc`l\naigj[ [a`[Kfc[ CicWlfZ Viei^flejcfj^ ajgfna ]lfn\n] ^nglWgZV
gijPn`ll fnWgZ]j, gn j \nenSncfn[Fj]j, ^en]l fnSn, nPl]na aZ_n`glgZ c jc_n`QTnaigjl] jgfleIlRcna j
ngj nSeigjWlgZ ]ifleji`QgnR PiTnR, jc_n`QTYl]nR c _n]nFQK _lel^eZaiKFjVc[ clfn^ (Overset Mesh).
\`[ jV aZ_n`glgj[.
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Wlc^jl ]lfn\j^j nMlg^j jgfleIlelgMjj, ncgnaiggZl
gi _n`YE]_jejWlc^n] _n\Vn\l, gi_ej]le [1 –5]. fj
flnejj Jjen^n _ej]lg[Kfc[ gi giWi`QgZV Efi_iV
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aZcn^nR c`nLgncfj eli`QgnSn nPl^fi.
7nael]lggZl ]lfn\Z aZWjc`jfl`QgnR iEen\jgi-
]j^j, ncgnaiggZl gi ]lfn\l ^nglWgZV nPl]na, _nTan-
`[Kf aZ_n`gjfQ ]n\l`jenaigjl nPfl^igj[ ^i^ jTn`j-
enaiggZV ajgfna, fi^ j aclR Ycfigna^j gi elLj]iV 8KE. 1. lc_j`nfgnl anT\YJgnl cY\gn alefn`lfgnSn fj_i

77
HclenccjRc^i[ giYWgn-flVgjWlc^i[ ^ngIlelgMj[ ]n`n\ZV YWlgZV j c_lMji`jcfna
«>ajiMjnggZl \ajSifl`j j cj`naZl Ycfigna^j», 5nc^ai, 28-30 ]i[ 2019 S.

ClTY`QfifZ eicWlfna _n^iTi`j VnenJll cna_i\lgjl &=KEM@ KE=MA,.MBGHH:2 KECM;HK@MB


\eYS c \eYSn] j cn TgiWlgj[]j, _n`YWlggZ]j
_n _n`YE]_jejWlc^nR flnejj. [1] l`nMle^nac^jR 7.5., jglac^jR >.7. 5n\l`jen-
CicWlf jgfleIlelgMjj a felV]legnR _ncfigna^l aigjl fYePY`lgfgZV cfeYR j c`l\na gi ncgnal
aZ_n`glg fn`Q^n ]lfn\n] _lel^eZaiKFjVc[ clfn^, ]lfn\i \jc^elfgZV ajVelR. 5.: ,T\. Ije]i
Wfn nPYc`na`lgn Sln]lfejWlc^j]j ncnPlggncf[]j «jTj^n-]ifl]ifjWlc^i[ `jfleifYei», 1995. 368 c.
nPl^fi. ClTY`QfifZ fi^Ll _n^iTi`j aZcn^YK cfl_lgQ [2] Hj`Q\SeYPl ).7. Hlefn`lfZ. CicWlf jgflSei`QgZV
cna_i\lgj[ cn TgiWlgj[]j _n Y_enFlggnR ]lfn\j^l. iEen\jgi]jWlc^jV Viei^flejcfj^ j `lfgn-flVgj-
Wlc^jV \iggZV. 5.: 5iJjgncfenlgjl, 1977. 149 c.
4. !G@A(;JHKJ [3] )lPl\la >.>., legnPena^jg ).7. 9jgi]j^i _n`lfi
Plc_j`nfgZV `lfifl`QgZV i__ieifna. 5.: /PnengSjT,
CiTeiPnfiggZl ]n\l`j _nTan`[Kf c aZcn^nR 1951. 447 c.
cfl_lgQK \ncfnalegncfj n_el\l`jfQ _iei]lfeZ [4] 5iefZgna >.:. ^c_lej]lgfi`Qgi[ iEen\jgi]j^i.
cj`nanSn giSeYLlgj[ Plc_j`nfgnSn anT\YJgnSn cY\gi 5.: /PnengSjT, 1950. 475 c.
alefn`lfgnSn fj_i c YWlfn] jgfleIlelgMjj E`l]lgfna [5] Aenc^Yejg H.9. CicWlf _iei]lfena alefn`lfi gi
lSn ^ngcfeY^Mjj c _nfn^i]j anT\YJgZV ]icc Efi_l _el\aiejfl`QgnSn _enl^fjenaigj[: YWlPgnl
nf glcYFlSn j eY`lanSn ajgfna. _ncnPjl. /elgPYeS: /elgPYeSc^jR Yg-f, 2014. 199 c.

8GE;JCHM-@E=J?K5JHCGA,HMJ KEEAJ<MBGHKJ
G?M<KHG5K;JE@K2 2G?G@CJ?KECK@ 5M<JAK -K?MCGCKBHM0M
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.5. 9eYLjgjg, H.,. 5j`lJjg1
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e-mail: ymdruzhinin@ciam.ru

1. *BJ<JHKJ a ,>5l a ei]^iV laen_lRc^nSn _enl^fi COBRA


(Innovative Counter Rotating Fan System for High Bypass
/\gnR jT _lec_l^fjagZV ^n]_ngnanWgZV cVl] Ratio Aircraft engine) [3]. ,cc`l\Yl]ZR algfj`[fne PZ`
anT\YJgn-eli^fjagZV \ajSifl`lR [a`[lfc[ cVl]i c Pjen- c_enl^fjenaig c _ej]lglgjl] cnael]lggZV 1D, 2D j
fifjagZ] algfj`[fnen] cn caleVaZcn^nR cfl_lgQK 3D ]lfn\na. :/C>-1 [a`[lfc[ ]n\l`QK PjenfifjagnSn
\aYV^ngfYegncfj (16  m  25) [1, 2]. i^nl elJlgjl algfj`[fnei c _ejan\n] nf _`iglfiegnSn \jIIlelg-
_nflgMji`Qgn nPlFilf cYFlcfalggnl _naZJlgjl fn_- Mji`QgnSn el\Y^fnei. 7fl_lgQ \aYV^ngfYegncfj – 20.
`jagnR EIIl^fjagncfj _n ceiaglgjK c cnael]lggZ]j Hlgfj`[fne j]llf c`l\YKFjl Viei^flejcfj^j:
fei\jMjnggZ]j fYePnalgfj`[fnegZ]j \ajSifl`[]j. DaV  0,7 ]; ZR1  8; ZR2  12; m  20; W  211 ^S/(c]2);
NR1  NR2  5800 nP/]jg; *^  1,267; *R1  1,106;
2. -
J@C KEEAJ<MBGHK/ *R2  1,147; *ad  0,93; Utip_R1  Utip_R2  218 ]/c.
7nnfgnJlgjl ^eYf[FjV ]n]lgfna gi R2/R1
5n\l`Q PjenfifjagnSn algfj`[fnei c Y`QfeiPn`QJnR aZPeign eiagZ] 1,42 j aZ\leLjailfc[ _ncfn[ggZ]
cfl_lgQK \aYV^ngfYegncfj :/C>-1 eiTeiPnfigi \`[ aclV fnWl^ gi `jgjj eiPnWjV elLj]na, Wfn cnnf-
alfcfaYlf felPnaigj[], cn cfnengZ el\Y^fnegnSn
_ejan\i. AelnP`i\igjl _n ]nFgncfj gi afnen] enfnel
n_eia\ign anT]nLgncfQK \ncfjWQ aZcn^jR YenalgQ
:A9 nPnjV enfnena _ej felPYl]ZV i^YcfjWlc^jV
Viei^flejcfj^iV.
,fnSnai[ Sln]lfej[ _enIj`lR `n_ifn^ n_el\l`[lfc[
_n elTY`Qfifi] felV]legnSn _enMlcci _enIj`jen-
aigj[ \`[ \ncfjLlgj[ felPYl]ZV iEen\jgi]jWlc^jV
j i^YcfjWlc^jV _iei]lfena. Aej]lglgjl _enIj`lR
8KE. 1. Hlgfj`[fne :/C>-1 gi cflg\l 3-> c nf^neel^fjenaiggnR \jIIYTnegncfQK _nTan`j`n

78
7l^Mj[ 2 «)n_ifnWgZl ]iJjgZ»

\nPjfQc[ aZcn^jV jgflSei`QgZV Viei^flejcfj^:


`nPnai[ _enjTan\jfl`QgncfQ – 221 ^S/(c]2), jTEgfen-
_jWlc^jR :A9 a _enl^fgnR fnW^l – Pn`ll 0,93.

3. 8J.4A,CGC: KEEAJ<MBGHK/
H eiPnfl _el\cfia`lgZ elTY`QfifZ Wjc`lggnSn
]n\l`jenaigj[ flWlgj[ a algfj`[fnel :/C>-1,
ncgnaiggZl gi 3D RANS, URANS j NLH ]lfn\iV \`[
eiT`jWgZV elLj]na eiPnfZ a ceiaglgjj c E^c_lej]lg-
fi`QgZ]j \iggZ]j. 7fiMjngiegZR ]lfn\ RANS PZ` 8KE. 2. 5Sgnalggnl _n`l _n`gnSn \ia`lgj[
jc_n`QTnaig a _enMlccl _enl^fjenaigj[ \`[ PZcfenR
nMlg^j Viei^flejcfj^ gi eiT`jWgZV elLj]iV.
3D URANS ]n\l`jenaigjl _enan\j`ncQ \`[ igi`jTi
glcfiMjngiegnSn c`l\nanSn j Y\iegn-an`gnanSn aTij]n-
\lRcfaj[ \`[ n_el\l`lgj[ glnPVn\j]nSn TgiWlgj[
nclanSn TiTnei ]lL\Y enfnei]j.
Hlgfj`[fne :/C>-1 PZ` jc_Zfig gi cflg\l
3-> ,>5i, _nTan`[KFl] aZ_n`g[fQ Jjen^jR
c_l^fe jT]lelgjR `n^i`QgZV j jgflSei`QgZV Viei^fl-
ejcfj^, a^`KWi[ i^YcfjWlc^jl, Ti^i_nfjenaiggZV
PjenfifjagZV algfj`[fnena a eiT`jWgZV Yc`naj[V.
ClTY`QfifZ, _n`YWlggZl a E^c_lej]lgfiV, \l]ngcf-
ejeYKf aZcn^jR YenalgQ jgflSei`QgZV Viei^flejcfj^
j VnenJll cnS`icnaigjl c eicWlfgZ]j \iggZ]j. *
8KE. 3. ,gflSei`QgZl Viei^flejcfj^j 
giWjfl`Qgi[ WicfQ eicWlfgZV j E^c_lej]lgfi`Q-
gZV jcc`l\naigjR _nca[Flgi a`j[gjK felPnaigjR,
gi`iSil]ZV el\Y^fnegZ] _ejan\n], gi iEen\jgi]j^Y.
7flg\ 3-> _nTan`[lf Ycfigia`jaifQ WicfnfZ
aeiFlgj[ _leanSn j afnenSn enfnei glTiajcj]n j
jT]le[fQ ]n]lgfZ gi ^iL\n] ai`Y \`[ \ncfjLlgj[
felPYl]nSn cnnfgnJlgj[, i fi^Ll jcc`l\naifQ a`j[gjl
glPn`QJjV (3…5%) nf^`nglgjR a Wicfnfl aeiFlgj[
gi iEen\jgi]jWlc^jl Viei^flejcfj^j.
5ifl]ifjWlc^i[ ]n\l`Q algfj`[fnei :/C>-1
eiTeiPnfigi c _n]nFQK _enSei]]gnSn _i^lfi NUMECA
[4]. Cicc]ifejailfc[ glcfn`Q^n aiejigfna _ncfiagn^j
Ti\iWj: cfiMjngiegi[ RANS c _naleVgncfQK c]lJlgj[
gi enfne-enfne jgfleIlRcl, glcfiMjngiegi[ (URANS)
c jgfleIlRcn] c^n`QT[FjV clfn^, i fi^Ll gl`jglRgZR *
8KE. 4. ,gflSei`QgZl Viei^flejcfj^j  ad
Sie]ngjWlc^jR ]lfn\.
7eiaglgjl elTY`Qfifna c \iggZ]j _n algfj`[fneY cfl_lgQK _naZJlgj[ _n`gnSn \ia`lgj[, Wfn c_ncnP-
CRTF1 (_enl^f VITAL) _n^iTi`n, Wfn i\jiPifjWlc^jR cfaYlf _naZJlgjK nfgncjfl`QgnR c^nencfj _nfn^i
:A9 algfj`[fnei _enl^fi COBRA _elancVn\jf CRTF1 a ]lL`n_ifnWgZV ^igi`iV afnenSn enfnei.
gi al`jWjgY 1,4% a eicWlfgnR fnW^l. AnaZJlgjl :A9 <i ejc. 2 _el\cfia`lgn eic_el\l`lgjl _n`gnSn
\ncfjSgYfn Ti cWlf TgiWjfl`QgnSn cgjLlgj[ nfgncj- \ia`lgj[ a cel\gl] clWlgjj nf `n_if^j ^ `n_if^l
fl`QgZV c^nencflR j jgflgcjagncfj Y\iegZV an`g (50% aZcnfZ _enfnWgnR Wicfj).
a elTY`Qfifl _ngjLlgj[ n^eYLgnR c^nencfj gi 66 ]/c <i ejc. 3 j ejc. 4 _el\cfia`lgZ jgflSei`QgZl
j _ej]lglgj[ _enIj`lR c nf^neel^fjenaiggnR \jIIY- Viei^flejcfj^j algfj`[fnei :/C>-1. 9l]ngcfejeYlfc[
TnegncfQK. VnenJll cna_i\lgjl eicWlfgZV j E^c_lej]lgfi`QgZV
>gi`jT _n`YWlggZV elTY`Qfifna _n^iTi`, Wfn nPi \iggZV. ^c_lej]lgfi`Qgnl TgiWlgjl i\jiPifjWlc-
enfnei algfj`[fnei j]lKf aZcn^jR YenalgQ i\jiPifj- ^nSn :A9 _elaZJilf q*ad  0,934 _ej Wicfnfl aeiFlgj[
Wlc^nSn :A9. HfnenR enfne nP`i\ilf Pn`ll aZcn^nR N_e  1,0.

79
HclenccjRc^i[ giYWgn-flVgjWlc^i[ ^ngIlelgMj[ ]n`n\ZV YWlgZV j c_lMji`jcfna
«>ajiMjnggZl \ajSifl`j j cj`naZl Ycfigna^j», 5nc^ai, 28-30 ]i[ 2019 S.

4. !G@A(;JHKJ c eicWlfgZ]j \iggZ]j. HZcn^jR YenalgQ iEen\jgi-


]jWlc^nSn cnaleJlgcfai algfj`[fnei _n\faleL\lg.
HZ_n`glgn eicWlfgnl jcc`l\naigjl ncnPlggncflR
flWlgj[ a Pjenfifjagn] algfj`[fnel cn caleVaZcn^nR &=KEM@ KE=MA,.MBGHH:2 KECM;HK@MB
cfl_lgQK \aYV^ngfYegncfj :/C>-1 a eiT`jWgZV
aiejigfiV _ncfigna^j Ti\iWj. [1] Lengyel T., Schmidt T., Voß C., Nicke E. Design of
HZ_n`glg igi`jT jgflSei`QgZV Viei^flejcfj^ j a Counter Rotating Fan – An Aircraft Engine Techno-
_n`lR flWlgj[, _n`YWlggZV a cfiMjngiegZV j glcfi- logy to Reduce Noise and CO2-Emissions // ISABE
MjngiegZV eicWlfiV. 2009-1267-Paper, 19th ISABE Conference, 2009.
0cfigna`lgn, Wfn nclanl eiccfn[gjl ]lL\Y algMi]j [2] Talbotec J., Vernet M. SNECMA Counter Rotating
\ncfifnWgn al`j^n \`[ nc`iP`lgj[ Y\iegn-an`gnanSn Turbo Fan Aerodynamic Design Logic & Tests
j c`l\nanSn aTij]n\lRcfaj[. Results. ICAS2010 paper, 2010.
,cc`l\naign a`j[gjl ]i`ZV nf^`nglgjR a cnnfgn- [3] Druzhinin I., Mileshin V., Korzhnev V. Numerical and
Jlgjj Wicfnf aeiFlgj[ _leanSn j afnenSn enfnei Experimental Investigation of Aerodynamic Charac-
gi jgflSei`QgZl Viei^flejcfj^j j _n`[ flWlgj[. teristics of Model Ultra High Bypass Ratio Counter
<l nPgieYLlgn cj`QgnSn a`j[gj[ gi :A9 _ej nf^`n- Rotating Fan // Proceedings of Asme Turbo Expo
glgj[V a _el\l`iV ±3%. 2018, Oslo, Norway.
HZ_n`glgi clej[ jc_ZfigjR gi cflg\l 3-> ,>5. [4] Hirsch Ch. Numerical Computation of Internal and
^c_lej]lgfi`QgZl elTY`QfifZ VnenJn cnS`icYKfc[ External Flows. John Wiley & Sons. 1990. Vol. 2.

M5=AJ@E ?GE;JCHM-=?MJ@CK?MBM;H:2 ?G-MC =M ?G.?G-MC@J EKECJ5


M2AG<JHK/ ?G-M;K2 AM=GCM@ B:EM@MCJ5=J?GC4?H:2 0G.MB:2 C4?-KH
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e-mail: dima-97@yandex.ru

1. *BJ<JHKJ ^j]j j flVgn`nSjWlc^j]j Tifeifi]j gifYegZl jc_Z-


figj[ \n`LgZ PZfQ cal\lgZ ^ ]jgj]Y]Y, fi^ ^i^ ngj
/_fj]jTiMj[ cjcfl] nV`iL\lgj[ c Ml`QK gl aclS\i clP[ n_eia\ZaiKf _ej ^ngcfeY^fnec^n-
_n`YWlgj[ eiagn]legnSn eic_el\l`lgj[ fl]_leifYeZ flVgn`nSjWlc^nR \nan\^l [2]. H canK nWlel\Q, elTY`Q-
_n _enIj`K `n_if^j j Y]lgQJlgj[ fle]jWlc^jV fifZ E^c_lej]lgfi _nTan`[Kf _naZcjfQ fnWgncfQ igi`j-
gi_e[LlgjR felPYlf cnaleJlgcfanaigj[ ]lfn\na fl_`n- fjWlc^nSn _enSgnTjenaigj[, f.l. _ejP`jTjfQ eicWlfgYK
anSn _enl^fjenaigj[ `n_ifn^, a fn] Wjc`l Wjc`lggnSn ]n\l`Q ^ Yc`naj[] E^c_`YifiMjj.
]n\l`jenaigj[ j igi`jfjWlc^nSn _enSgnTjenaigj[.
H eiPnfl _el\`iSilfc[ jc_n`QTnaifQ felV]legZR _n\Vn\
2. A(;JB:J 5M5JHC: B:=MAHJHHM+
^ ]n\l`jenaigjK fl_`nanSn cncfn[gj[ `n_ifn^ _ej ?G-MC:
^ngal^fjagn-_`lgnWgn] nV`iL\lgjj. CiTeiPnfiggZR
_enSei]]gZR _en\Y^f alejIjMjenaig gi ncgnal cn_ncfi- H _enMlccl aZ_n`glgj[ \iggnR eiPnfZ _enal\lg
ajfl`QgnSn igi`jTi n_ZfgZV \iggZV _n EIIl^fja- igi`jT elTY`Qfifna E^c_lej]lgfi`QgZV jcc`l\naigjR
gncfj nV`iL\lgj[ eiT`jWgZV cjcfl] jgflgcjIj^iMjj _n EIIl^fjagncfj ^ngal^fjagn-_`lgnWgnR cjcfl]Z
fl_`nnP]lgi j jV cnS`icnaigj[ c eicWlfgZ]j al`jWj- nV`iL\lgj[ eiPnWjV `n_ifn^, i fi^Ll _enal\lgi
gi]j, _n`YWlggZ]j a elTY`Qfifl gifYegZV E^c_lej- \lIl^fiMj[ \iggZV `n_ifn^, a Vn\l ^nfnenR aZ[a`lgZ
]lgfna _ej jc_Zfigjj `n_if^j c eiTajfnR ^ngal^- ]gnLlcfalggZl felFjgZ gi aZVn\gnR ^en]^l [3].
fjagn-_`lgnWgnR cjcfl]nR nV`iL\lgj[ [1]. HZ_n`glgi \neiPnf^i ^ngcfeY^Mjj eiPnWlR `n_if^j
/^ngWifl`Qgnl Ti^`KWlgjl n ^iWlcfal j E^c_`Yi- fYePjgZ aZcn^nSn \ia`lgj[ (ejc. 1,), _ej Efn]
fiMjnggZV Viei^flejcfj^iV `n_if^j ]nLgn c\l`ifQ ^ jc_n`QTnaigjK _el\`iSilfc[ felV]legZR _n\Vn\
gi ncgnaigjj gifYegZV jc_ZfigjR gi eiPnfiKFl] ^ ]n\l`jenaigjK fl_`nanSn cncfn[gj[ `n_if^j,
\ajSifl`l. /\gi^n a ca[Tj c Pn`QJj]j E^ngn]jWlc- c elJlgjl] cn_e[LlggnR Ti\iWj fl_`n_enan\gncfj.

80
7l^Mj[ 2 «)n_ifnWgZl ]iJjgZ»

8KE. 1. 7lWlgjl n_ZfgnR `n_if^j (), EIIl^fjagncfQ nV`iL\lgj[ ^neglanSn ( ) j _lejIlejRgnSn () clWlgjR
eiPnWlR `n_if^j c YWlfn] E^c_lej]lgfi`QgZV \iggZV _n fl_`nan]Y cncfn[gjK
7 Ml`QK n_el\l`lgj[ _en_Yc^gnR c_ncnPgncfj j _naleVgncfj j, a \i`QglRJl], a cncfial cjcfl]Z
^ngfen`[ cfiPj`Qgncfj jTSnfna`lgj[ ]n\jIjMjenaiggnR nV`iL\lgj[ `n_if^j.
eiPnWlR `n_if^j _enal\lgi _en\Ya^i nV`iL\il]ZV ClTY`QfifZ eicWlfna j fl_`naZl ]n\l`j PZ`j
^igi`na j nfalecfjR e[\na _leIneiMjj [4]. <i ncgn- j\lgfjIjMjenaigZ c elTY`Qfifi]j ]lfi``nSeiIjj
aigjj elTY`Qfifna E^c_lej]lgfi`QgZV jcc`l\naigjR `n_ifn^ H9 a E^c_`YifiMjj j \iggZ]j jc_ZfigjR
c_enl^fjenaigi ]ifl]ifjWlc^i[ ]n\l`Q _en\YanWgnSn SiTnSlgleifnei gi _n`gneiT]legn] SiTnan] cflg\l,
cflg\i gi PiTl _i^lfna ANSYS CFX, cnnfalfcfaYKFi[ S\l fl]_leifYei eiPnWjV `n_ifn^ n_el\l`[`icQ fle]n-
\lRcfajfl`QgZ] eiT]lei]. H _enSei]]l CFX-Solver _iei]j, jT]lejfl`[]j ]i^cj]i`QgnR fl]_leifYeZ
Manager aZ_n`glg eicWlf cY]]iegnSn eicVn\i anT\YVi ^ejcfi``jWlc^j]j j fle]n^eic^i]j [2, 5]. An`YWlggZl
_ej nf^eZfZV j Ti^eZfZV nfalecfj[V e[\na _leIneiMjj, a elTY`Qfifl eicWlfi _n`[ EIIl^fjagncfj nV`iL\lgj[
i fi^Ll nf^eZfZV j Ti^eZfZV Fl`[V a aZVn\gnR eiPnWlR `n_if^j cn cel\gj]j TgiWlgj[]j _n _`nFi\j
^en]^l `n_if^j. <i ncgnaigjj SiTn\jgi]jWlc^jV j clWlgj[ gieYLgnSn _enIj`[ _el\cfia`lgZ gi ejc. 1, ,.
Sj\eia`jWlc^jV eicWlfna _enal\lgZ felV]legZl 0cnaleJlgcfanaiggi[ jgLlglegi[ ]lfn\j^i
fl_`naZl eicWlfZ a _i^lfl ANSYS ICEM CFD eicWlfi fl_`nanSn cncfn[gj[ `n_if^j _ej aZcn^jV
c jc_n`QTnaigjl] SeigjWgZV Yc`najR felfQlSn en\i _iei]lfeiV a\Yai _nTan`[lf YWlcfQ cfeYRgZR Viei^fle
j _ncfenlgZ fl_`naZl ]n\l`j `n_ifn^. HZ_n`glg flWlgj[ aP`jTj ]lcfi aZ\Yai j YfnWgjfQ _enSgnTj-
igi`jT EIIl^fjagncfj nV`iL\lgj[ eiPnWlR `n_if^j enaigjl fl_`nanSn cncfn[gj[ \`[ _`nc^nSn clWlgj[
_leanR cfY_lgj fYePjgZ aZcn^nSn \ia`lgj[ (ejc. 1, ,). `n_if^j cnael]lggnSn SiTnfYePjggnSn \ajSifl`[.
Aenal\lgi alejIj^iMj[ fl_`nanSn cncfn[gj[ \iggnR CiTeiPnfiggZl Wjc`lggZl ]n\l`j gi ncgnal
`n_if^j _n clWlgj[] gi ncgnaigjj elTY`Qfifna Ti]lei _n`Ycn_e[LlggnSn j cn_e[LlggnSn _n\Vn\na _nTan-
fl]_leifYe gi ]i^cj]i`QgZV elLj]iV jc_ZfigjR `[Kf _n`YWifQ `n^i`QgZl eic_el\l`lgj[ eicVn\na
SiTnSlgleifnei gi SiTnan] cflg\l. an agYfelgglR cjcfl]l nV`iL\lgj[ `n_if^j, i fi^Ll
0cnaleJlgcfanaiggZR jgLlglegZR ]lfn\ eicWlfi felV]legnl fl_`nanl cncfn[gjl `n_if^j. AnaZJlgjl
_nTan`[lf YfnWgjfQ _enSgnTjenaigjl fl_`nanSn fnWgncfj eicWlfna j YWlf `n^i`QgZV Viei^flejcfj^
cncfn[gj[ eiPnWlR `n_if^j, i fi^Ll _enan\jfQ fl_`nnP]lgi _nTan`[lf _enl^fjenaifQ Pn`ll SjP^YK
_enl^fjenaigjl cjcfl] nV`iL\lgj[ `n_ifn^ SiTnanR cjcfl]Y nV`iL\lgj[, nPlc_lWjaiKFYK eiPnfnc_ncnP-
fYePjgZ cnael]lggnSn SiTnfYePjggnSn \ajSifl`[ [5]. gncfQ fYePjgZ, i TgiWjf, Yal`jWjaifQ elcYec fYePjgZ [5].

3. !G@A(;JHKJ &=KEM@ KE=MA,.MBGHH:2 KECM;HK@MB


Aej ceiaglgjj eicWlfgZV \iggZV PZ`i _n`YWlgi [1] Hj^Y`jg >.H., An_na H. ., enc`iaMla <.). >gi`jT
VnenJi[ cVn\j]ncfQ c \iggZ]j E^c_lej]lgfi, Wfn anT]nLgncfj eicJjelgj[ \ji_iTngi elSY`jenai-
_n^iTZailf aZcn^YK \ncfnalegncfQ ]lfn\i j _nTan- gj[ _en_Yc^gnR c_ncnPgncfQK ^igi`na c`nLgnR
`[lf eicJjejfQ lSn _ej]lglgjl, a Wicfgncfj, gi eicWlf ^ngIjSYeiMjj fl_`ngi_e[LlggZV ^ngcfeY^MjR //
_`lgnWgnR cjcfl]Z nV`iL\lgj[ gi ^ejan`jglRgnR >ajiMjnggi[ _en]ZJ`lggncfQ. 2013.  2. 7. 20–28.

81
HclenccjRc^i[ giYWgn-flVgjWlc^i[ ^ngIlelgMj[ ]n`n\ZV YWlgZV j c_lMji`jcfna
«>ajiMjnggZl \ajSifl`j j cj`naZl Ycfigna^j», 5nc^ai, 28-30 ]i[ 2019 S.

[2] An_na H. ., Hj^Y`jg >.H., enc`iaMla <.). j \e. ,cc`l\naigjl fl_`nnP]lgi a cjcfl]iV nV`iL\lgj[
:i`nej]lfejWlc^jR ]lfn\ fl_`nanSn ^ngfen`[ fl_`ngi_e[LlggZV ^ngcfeY^MjR // l_`nEgleSl-
fl_`ngi_e[LlggZV \lfi`lR 9 j 0 // <iYWgZl fj^i. 2017.  1. 7. 39–44.
feY\Z (Hlcfgj^ 5>,). 2011.  18(90). 7. 50–56. [5] Hj^Y`jg >.H., An_na H. ., lcgnai H.>. 7naleJlgcf-
[3] Hj^Y`jg >.H., enc`iaMla <.)., lcgnai H.>. 9jiS- anaigjl ^ngcfeY^Mjj nV`iL\il]ZV `n_ifn^ aZcn^n-
gncfj^i EIIl^fjagncfj cjcfl]Z nV`iL\lgj[ fl]_leifYegZV SiTnaZV fYePjg c Ml`QK _naZJl-
]i`nSiPiejfgZV fl_`nnP]lggj^na c ^n]_`igie- gj[ gi\lLgncfj j elcYeci eiPnfZ cnael]lggZV
gZ]j ^igi`i]j // ,Talcfj[ HYTna. >ajiMjnggi[ iajiMjnggZV 9 j EgleSlfjWlc^jV 0 // Hlcfgj^
flVgj^i. 2016.  3. 7. 94–99. CZPjgc^nR Snc. iajiMjnggnR flVgn`nSjWlc^nR
[4] Hj^Y`jg >.H., enc`iaMla <.)., l]`[gi[ H.>. i^i\. j]. A.>. 7n`naQlai. 2012.  2(23). 7. 7–11.

8GE;JCHMJ KEEAJ<MBGHKJ =J?BM+ B:EM@MHG=M?HM+ EC4=JHK *


HJAKHJ+HM-0G?5MHK;JE@K5 5JCM<M5
H.,. 5j`lJjg1, H. . 7l]lg^jg2
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1. *BJ<JHKJ –cfl_lgQ _naZJlgj[ _n`gnSn \ia`lgj[ *  2,0;


–i\jiPifjWlc^jR :A9 *ad  0,86.
H gicfn[Fll ael][ ^ _enl^fjeYl]Z] iajiMjnggZ] 5n\l`jenaigjl flWlgj[ a ]lL`n_ifnWgZV algMiV
\ajSifl`[] _el\[a`[Kfc[ acl Pn`ll aZcn^jl felPn- cfY_lgj :-8 _enal\lgn a eicWlfgn] ^n]_`l^cl
aigj[ ^i^ _n E^ngn]jWlc^j], fi^ j _n E^n`nSjWlc^j] Numeca [3]. H _ncfigna^l ncel\glggZV _n ClRgn`Q\cY
_n^iTifl`[]. 9`[ iajiMjnggZV ^n]_elccnena \iggZl YeiaglgjR <iaQl –7fn^ci (RANS) j c _ej]lglgjl]
felPnaigj[ nTgiWiKf glnPVn\j]ncfQ cYFlcfalggnSn gl`jglRgn-Sie]ngjWlc^nSn ]lfn\i (NLH) c fel][
_naZJlgj[ EIIl^fjagncfj SiTn\jgi]jWlc^jV _enMlccna Sie]ngj^i]j _n ]n\l`[] fYePY`lgfgncfj SST j
j nPlc_lWlgjl YcfnRWjanR EIIl^fjagnR eiPnfZ Spalart – Almaras [4]. CicWlfZ _enan\j`jcQ gi elLj]iV
a Jjen^n] \ji_iTngl elLj]na eiPnfZ. n  100% (Uk _e  370 ]/c) j n  95%, eicWlfgi[ clf^i
Aej jTYWlgjj glcfiMjngiegZV EIIl^fna _lec_l^- _ncfenlgi a clfnWgn] Slgleifnel AutoGrid5 j
fjagnR i`QflegifjanR glcfiMjngiegZ] eicWlfi] [a`[- cn\leLjf 3 373 407 YT`na.
lfc[ _ej]lglgjl gl`jglRgn-Sie]ngjWlc^nSn ]lfn\i,
^nfneZR felPYlf ]lgQJjl aZWjc`jfl`QgZl elcYecZ j 3. 8J.4A,CGC: ?GE;JCMB
_ej Efn] nPlc_lWjailf ]lgQJjl ael]lggZl TifeifZ
_ej ]n\l`jenaigjj iEen\jgi]j^j ^n]_elccnena. Aenal\lgZ clejj eicWlfna \`[ \aYV ^ngIjSYeiMjR
cfY_lgj, a _leanR ^ngIjSYeiMjj jcc`l\nai`icQ
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an afnenR ^ngIjSYeiMjj ]n\l`jenai`c[ aVn\gnR
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TaY^nai[ aZcn^ngiSeYLlggi[ cfY_lgQ :-8, cncfn[Fi[ YS`iV Ycfigna^j cfifnena H<>  3, <>  3.
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cfY_lgj – 35 `n_ifn^, gi_eia`[KFjR i__ieif – _ej jc_n`QTnaigjj NLH ]lfn\i nfgncjfl`Qgn RANS,
76 `n_ifn^. YenalgQ * _ejP`jTjfl`Qgn n\jgi^na \`[ _leanR
/cgnagZl Sln]lfejWlc^jl j eiPnWjl _iei]lfeZ: ^ngIjSYeiMjj, i an afnen] c`YWil cgjLilfc[ gi 1%.
–gieYLgZR \ji]lfe ^ne_Yci D1^  307,4 ]]; AejWjgi eicVnL\lgjR ca[Tigi c _naZJlgjl] jgflg-
–\ji]lfe afY`^j C: gi aVn\l Daf.aV  168 ]]; cjagncfj c^iW^i Y_`nfglgj[ a C: j Yal`jWlgjl]
–gieYLgZR \ji]lfe C: cfY_lgj D^  306,5 ]]; nfeZana Y Ti\glR ^en]^j. An nfgnJlgjK ^ E^c_lej-
–\ji]lfe afY`^j C: gi aZVn\l Daf.aZV  261,4 ]]; ]lgfi`QgZ] \iggZ] _enjcVn\jf Y`YWJlgjl cnS`icn-

82
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aigj[ _n eicVn\Y j *, gl\nPne _n :A9 cncfia`[lf &=KEM@ KE=MA,.MBGHH:2 KECM;HK@MB


_ne[\^i 1%
Aej n  95% _ej jc_n`QTnaigjj NLH ]lfn\i giP`K- [1] 5j`lJjg H.,., 7l]lg^jg H. . CicWlfgnl jcc`l\n-
\ilfc[ TiaZJlgjl TgiWlgjR eicVn\i gi 3%, YenalgQ aigjl a`j[gj[ Wjc`i ClRgn`Q\ci gi Viei^flejc-
:A9 gi n\jgi^nan] Yenagl c RANS eicWlfi]j, TgiWl- fj^j _leanR fj_nanR cfY_lgj ^n]_elccnei aZcn-
gj[ * TiaZJlgZ gi 1%. /fgncjfl`Qgn E^c_lej]lgfi ^nSn \ia`lgj[ // Hlcfgj^ 5>,. 2018. . 25.  2.
TiaZJlgZ TgiWlgj[ eicVn\i gi 3% j * _ejP`jTj- [2] Mileshin V., Savin N., Druzhinin I., Kozhemyako P.
fl`Qgn gi 0,8%, _n :A9 Y\na`lfanejfl`Qgnl. H ca[Tj Numerical and experimental studies of Reynolds
c nPgieYLlggZ]j eicVnL\lgj[]j glnPVn\j]Z clejj number and stator clocking effect on performance of
eicWlfna _n aZPneY n_fj]i`QgnSn ^n`jWlcfai Sie]ngj^. a high-loaded twostage compressor with 3.7 total
pressure ratio // Proceedings of the ASME Turbo Expo
4. !G@A(;JHKJ 2D-2016, GT2016-56567.
[3] Hirsch Ch. Numerical Computation of Internal and
Aenal\lgZ clejj eicWlfna \`[ \aYV ^ngIjSYeiMjR External Flows // John Wiley & Sons, 1990. Vol. 2.
cfY_lgj :-8 _ej nPnenfiV n  100 j 95%, _n`YWlgZ [4] Vilmin S., Lorrain E., Hirsch Ch. Unsteady flow
jgflSei`QgZl Viei^flejcfj^j. ,cc`l\naigZ Tiajcj- modeling across the rotor/stator interface using the
]ncfj _iei]lfena cfY_lgj _ej eicWlfiV a _ncfigna^iV nonlinear harmonic method // ASME Paper GT-2006-
RANS j NLH. 90210, 2006.

*J?K K@G'K/ ?GE;JCHM+ 5M<JAK C4?-KH: K KEEAJ<MBGHKJ


BAK/HK/ BJAK;KH: ?G<KGA,HM0M .G.M?G HG 2G?G@CJ? CJ;JHK/
A.H. jPi`nai, 9.H. HnenJgjg1
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1. *BJ<JHKJ elgZ c`l\YKFjl ]n\l`j fYePY`lgfgncfj: k–, 7_i`iefi –


>``]ieici, EARSM, SST c eicJjelggZ] _ejcflgnW-
l`QK eiPnfZ [a`[lfc[ cnT\igjl eicWlfgnR gZ] ]n\l`jenaigjl] gi ^iL\nR jT felV clfn^.
]n\l`j cfY_lgj fYePjgZ, jTYWlgjl a`j[gj[ al`jWjgZ Cicc]nfelgZ eiT`jWgZl al`jWjgZ ei\ji`QgnSn
ei\ji`QgnSn TiTnei eiPnWlR `n_if^j gi jgflSei`QgZl TiTnei eiPnWlR `n_if^j: nfgncjfl`QgZR TiTne al`jWj-
_iei]lfeZ j Viei^fle flWlgj[. H eiPnfl jcc`l\Ylfc[ gnR 0,01; 0,015; 0,024.
clfnWgi[ cVn\j]ncfQ, igi`jTjeYlfc[ a`j[gjl ]n\l`j 9`[ TiTnei 0,024 clfnWgi[ cVn\j]ncfQ jcc`l\nai-
fYePY`lgfgncfj, elTY`QfifZ eicWlfgZV jcc`l\naigjR `icQ \`[ ^iL\nR ]n\l`j fYePY`lgfgncfj _n eic_el\l-
ceiagjaiKfc[ c E^c_lej]lgfi`QgZ]j.

2. 8J.4A,CGC:
H ei]^iV Ti\iWj _ncfenlgi eicWlfgi[ ]n\l`Q
SiTnanR fYePjgZ (ejc. 1) a A: Numeca Fine/Turbo.
CicWlfgi[ clf^i – P`nWgn-cfeY^fYejenaiggi[ 8KE. 1. ln]lfej[ fYePjgZ
Sl^ciSngi`Qgi[, _n`YWlggi[ c _n]nFQK c_lMji`jTj-
G-AK'G. /cgnagZl flVgjWlc^jl \iggZl
enaiggnSn clfnWgnSn Slgleifnei AutoGrid5. 7lfnWgi[
cVn\j]ncfQ jcc`l\nai`icQ gi felV clf^iV eiT`jWgnR eYPi[ 7el\g[[ An\enPgi[

_n\enPgncfj. Aiei]lfeZ clfn^ _el\cfia`lgZ a fiP`jMl. :n`jWlcfan [Wll^, ]`g. 1,1 2,3 6,7
ClJi`icQ cjcfl]i YeiaglgjR RANS. CiPnWll fl`n – :n`-an [Wll^ 7fifne 53 73 81
_n aZcnfl, Jf. Cnfne 73 93 101
fle]jWlc^j cnaleJlggZR SiT. ClJlgjl aZ_n`g[lfc[
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\`[ n\gnSn ]lL`n_ifnWgnSn ^igi`i c Yc`naj[]j _lejn- 6 6 6
CiT]le _ejcflgnWgnR [WlR^j, ] 10 10 10
\jWgncfj gi SeigjMiV. <i enfne-cfifne jgfleIlRciV 
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83
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«>ajiMjnggZl \ajSifl`j j cj`naZl Ycfigna^j», 5nc^ai, 28-30 ]i[ 2019 S.

8KE. 3. Cic_el\l`lgjl YS`i _nfn^i _n aZcnfl ^igi`i


a clWlgjj Ti eiPnWlR `n_if^nR

8KE. 2. Cic_el\l`lgjl Wjc`i 5iVi a nfgncjfl`Qgn]


\ajLlgjj a _ejafY`nWgn] clWlgjj C)
`lgj[] i\jiPifjWlc^nSn :A9 j YS`i aZVn\i _nfn^i
_n aZcnfl ^igi`i a clWlgjj E^c_lej]lgfi`QgZV
Ti]lena. 7lfnWgi[ cVn\j]ncfQ \ncfjSilfc[ gi clf^l
a 2 ]`g. [Wll^.
7eiaglgjl eic_el\l`lgjR _iei]lfena c E^c_lej-
]lgfi`QgZ]j \iggZ]j _n^iTZailf, Wfn acl ]n\l`j
VnenJn cnS`icYKfc[ _n YS`Y _nfn^i \n 60% aZcnfZ
^igi`i (ejc. 3). H eiRngl TiTnei ]i^cj]i`Qgi[ eiTgjMi
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\`[ aclV ]n\l`lR _el\cfia`lgn gi ejc. 2. 9`[ \i`QglR-
JjV jcc`l\naigjR aZPeigi ]n\l`Q SST.
,cc`l\nai`icQ clfnWgi[ cVn\j]ncfQ a ei\ji`Qgn]
TiTnel ( eT  0,024), _ej Efn] nPFll ^n`jWlcfan [Wll^
_n aZcnfl ^igi`i ncfiai`ncQ _ncfn[ggZ]. 7Vn\j]ncfQ
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\ncfjSgYfi _ej 25 [WlR^iV _n aZcnfl. iajcj]ncfQ a clWlgjj Ti eiPnWlR `n_if^nR
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CiTeiPnfigi eicWlfgi[ ]n\l`Q cfY_lgj fYePjgZ.
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gi SiTn\jgi]jWlc^jl _iei]lfeZ. 7eiaglgjl c E^c_lej-
]lgfn] \ilf ^iWlcfalggn _nVnLYK ^iefjgY.
H \i`QglRJl] eicWlfgi[ ]n\l`Q ]nLlf PZfQ
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84
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&=KEM@ KE=MA,.MBGHH:2 KECM;HK@MB [3] n`Flagj^na <.H. lnej[ j eicWlf iajiMjnggZV


`n_ifnWgZV ]iJjg. 5.: 5iJjgncfenlgjl, 1970.
[1] :i]_cfj <. >Een\jgi]j^i ^n]_elccnena. 5.: [4] Japikse D. Nicholas C. Baines Introduction to
5je, 2000. Turbomachinery // Concepts ETI, Inc., 1997.
[2]
jejM^jR .7., )n^iR H.,., 5i^cYfnai 5.:. iTn- [5] Hirsch C. Numerical Computation of Internal &
aZl fYePjgZ \ajSifl`lR `lfifl`QgZV i__ieifna. External Flows: the Fundamentals of Computational
5.: 5iJjgncfenlgjl, 1971. 620 c. Fluid Dynamics. 2nd ed. Butterworth-Heinemann, 2007.

8GE;JCHM-@E=J?K5JHCGA,HMJ KEEAJ<MBGHKJ BAK/HK/


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9`[ ]n\l`jenaigj[ aTij]n\lRcfaj[ enfnei
2. -
J@C KEEAJ<MBGHK/ cn cfifnei]j jc_n`QTnai`ncQ _ejP`jLlgjl «Mixing
plane», c _n]nFQK ^nfnenSn PZ`j _n`YWlgZ cfiMjn-
7fY_lgQ >-1, fj_nai[ _leai[ aZcn^ngiSeYLlggi[ giegZl eic_el\l`lgj[ _iei]lfena _nfn^i j jc_n`Q-
cfY_lgQ :H9 j]llf c`l\YKFjl _iei]lfeZ: Tnai`c[ ]lfn\ NLH, _ej ^nfnen] _n`YWil]Zl _n`[
_ejal\lggZR eicVn\ anT\YVi G  24,4 ^S/c; cfl_lgQ flWlgjR PZ`j glcfiMjngiegZ]j.
_naZJlgj[ _n`gnSn \ia`lgj[ cfY_lgj *  2,28; YSn` Aej _enal\lgjj eicWlfna jc_n`QTnaigi P`nWgn-
aVn\i _nfn^i _lel\ C: 1  89; YSn` aZVn\i _nfn^i Ti cfeY^fYejenaiggi[ clf^i, _ncfenlggi[ c _n]nFQK
<> 4  69; gieYLgZR \ji]lfe aVn\i a C: clfnWgnSn Slgleifnei Numeca Autogrid 5. CicWlfgi[
D1  0,55567 ]; nfgncjfl`QgZR \ji]lfe afY`^j _lel\ nP`icfQ cncfn[`i jT 27 clfnWgZV P`n^na a ]lL`n_i-
C: d1  0,6623; eicWlfgi[ _ejal\lggi[ n^eYLgi[ fnWgZV ^igi`iV (3 380 007 [Wll^) j 5 P`n^i]j a <C0
c^nencfQ C: U  421,23 ]/c; eicWlfgZR ^nEIIjMjlgf (512 000 [Wll^). Hl`jWjgi y 1.
flnelfjWlc^nSn gi_nei Hf  0,507. Ci\ji`QgZR TiTne gi\ C: _ejgj]i`c[ eiagZ]
7fY_lgQ cncfnjf jT felV `n_ifnWgZV algMna: 0,4 ]] j gi glSn _ejVn\j`ncQ 17 [Wll^ eicWlfgnR
H<> (Z  37,h  2,42), C: – P`jc^ (Z  29,h  0,81) clf^j.

85
HclenccjRc^i[ giYWgn-flVgjWlc^i[ ^ngIlelgMj[ ]n`n\ZV YWlgZV j c_lMji`jcfna
«>ajiMjnggZl \ajSifl`j j cj`naZl Ycfigna^j», 5nc^ai, 28-30 ]i[ 2019 S.

4. 8J.4A,CGC: KEEAJ<MBGHK/ 5. !G@A(;JHKJ


CicWlfgZl j E^c_lej]lgfi`QgZl jgflSei`QgZl <i ncgnal ]lfn\i 3D eicWlfna a[T^jV flWlgjR
Viei^fjejcfj^j cfY_lgj >-1 c S`i\^nR _enfnWgnR eiTeiPnfig i`Snejf] j cnT\igi ]ifl]ifjWlc^i[ ]n\l`Q
WicfQK j <C0, _n`YWlggZl _ej nPnenfiV n  100% \`[ Wjc`lggnSn ]n\l`jenaigj[ _encfeigcfalggZV
_el\cfia`lgZ gi ejc. 1. <iP`K\ilfc[ eicc`nlgjl eicWlf- EIIl^fna a fj_nanR _leanR aZcn^ngiSeYLlggnR
gZV j E^c_lel]lgfi`QgZV Viei^flejcfj^ _n eicVn\Y cfY_lgj :H9 >-1 c gi\enfnegZ]j YcfenRcfai]j
gi 0,5 ^S/c, ^en]l fnSn, eicWlfgZl Viei^flejcfj^j `iPjejgfgnSn fj_i.
cfY_lgj c <C0 `lLif lFl _eiall _n eicVn\Y gi 0,3 ^S/c. Aenal\lgZ eicWlfZ 3D a[T^jV fYePY`lgfZV flWlgjR
:A9 a eicWlfl _n`YWilfc[ gjLl Wl] a E^c_lej]lgfl a cfY_lgj >-1 c S`i\^nR _enfnWgnR WicfQK j <C0
gi 2…4%, fi^ Ll ^i^ j Ti_icZ 90 cfY_lgj. CicWlfgZl `iPjejgfgnSn fj_i. An^iTign, Wfn _ej]lglgjl <C0
Viei^flejfcj^j cfY_lgj c <C0 _n`YWlggZl a eiT`jW- _nTan`[lf _n\g[fQ :A9 cfY_lgj gi 1% gi nPnenfiV
gZV _ncfigna^iV (Mixing plane j NLH) _ei^fjWlc^j n  100% a _ncfigna^l NLH.
gl nf`jWiKfc[, a fn ael][ ^i^ cfY_lgQ PlT <C0 Aenal\lgn E^c_lej]lgfi`Qgnl jcc`l\naigjl cfY_lgj
_n^iTZailf WYacfajfl`QgncfQ ^ ]lfn\Y eicWlfi. >-1 c S`i\^nR _enfnWgnR WicfQK j <C0 `iPjejgfgnSn
5i^cj]i`QgZR :A9 cfY_lgj PlT <C0 a _ncfigna^l fj_i gi Jjen^n] c_l^fel elLj]na. An`YWlgn, Wfn <C0
NLH aZJl gi 1%, Wl] a _ncfigna^l Mixing plane. `iPjejgfgnSn fj_i _n`nLjfl`Qgn a`j[lf gi flWlgjl
a cfY_lgj, _ejencf :A9 gi elLj]l n  100%
cncfia`[lf 0,5%, fi^ Ll giP`K\ilfc[ Yal`jWlgjl
Ti_icna 90 gi 5%.
Aej nPnenfiV n  100% c\l`ig ceiagjfl`QgZR
igi`jT E^c_lej]lgfi`QgZV j eicWlfgZV Viei^flejcfj^
cfY_lgj c S`i\^nR _enfnWgnR WicfQK j <C0 `iPjejgf-
gnSn fj_i. /Pi _n\Vn\i eicWlfi (Mixing plane j NLH)
c jc_n`QTnaigjl] ]n\l`j fYePY`lgfgncfj SST gl \iKf
_n`gnSn cna_i\lgj[ c E^c_lej]lgfn]. iei^flejcfj^j,
_n`YWlggZl ]lfn\n] NLH, P`jLl ^ E^c_lej]lgfi`QgZ].
An`YWlgZ cfiMjngiegZl j glcfiMjngiegZl _n`[
flWlgj[ a ]lL`n_ifnWgZV ^igi`iV cfY_lgj >-1
c S`i\^nR _enfnWgnR WicfQK j c <C0 `iPjejgfgnSn fj_i.
An^iTign, Wfn <C0 `iPjejgfgnSn fj_i aTij]n-
\lRcfaYlf c ajVel] _lelfl^igj[ WlelT ei\ji`QgZR
TiTne, ]lg[[ lSn feil^fnejK j TgiWjfl`Qgn cgjLilf
TiSen]nL\lgjl gi _lejIlejj eiPnWlSn ^n`lci.

&=KEM@ KE=MA,.MBGHH:2 KECM;HK@MB


[1] Mileshin V., Brailko I., Startsev A. Application of
casing circumferential grooves to counteract the
influence of tip clearance // Proceedings of ASME
Turbo Expo 2008: Power for Land, Sea and Air
GT2008-51147, 2008.
[2] Hirsch Ch. Numerical Computation of Internal and
External Flows. // John Wiley & Sons, 1990. Vol. 2.
[3] Hirsch Ch. Non-Deterministic Methodologies for
Uncertainty quantification in turbomachinery CFD,
Numeca international, Brussels. Pannel session //
8KE. 1. ,gflSei`QgZl Viei^flejcfj^j cfY_lgj >-1 Proc. of ASME TURBO EXPO, Copenhagen, 2012.

86
7l^Mj[ 2 «)n_ifnWgZl ]iJjgZ»

8G.?G-MC@G CJ2HMAM0KK <MBM<@K EM=AMBM+ AM=GC@K


C4?-KH: B:EM@M0M <GBAJHK/ 0G.MC4?-KHHM0M <BK0GCJA/
H.>. l]`[gi[1
5>, (<,0), 5nc^ai
1

e-mail: chesnovava@mail.ru

1. *BJ<JHKJ gi Y_enFlggZV _n Sln]lfejj j ]ifleji`Y aiejigfiV,


aZ_n`glggZV c _ej]lglgjl] Ygjaleci`QgnSn nPneY-
/\gnR jT S`iagZV flg\lgMjR eiTajfj[ iajiMjnggZV \naigj[ (]n\Y`Qgi[ \nan\^i).
9 [a`[lfc[ \i`QglRJll TgiWjfl`Qgnl _naZJlgjl 7 Ml`QK \nan\^j `n_if^j _n fl_`nan]Y cncfn[gjK
fl]_leifYeZ SiTi _lel\ fYePjgnR \n 2000…2200 :. gi Pn`ll _nT\gjV Efi_iV ll eiTeiPnf^j, ^nS\i j]llfc[
i^nR YenalgQ fl]_leifYe felPYlf cnaleJlgcfanaigj[ `jfQlanR aiejigf PiTnanR `n_if^j, eiTeiPnfigi flVgn-
cjcfl] nV`iL\lgj[ `n_ifn^ aZcn^nfl]_leifYegZV `nSj[ \nan\^j c n_leifjagZ] jT]lglgjl] ^ngcfeY^-
fYePjg aZcn^nSn \ia`lgj[. AnaZJlgjl Yenag[ fl_`n- Mjj ^igi`na nV`iL\lgj[ ]lfn\n] j]_`igfiMjj. 9`[
nP]lgi a cn_`naZV j eiPnWjV `n_ifn^ fi^jV fYePjg n^ngWifl`QgnR \nan\^j `n_if^j SiTnanR fYePjgZ
ca[Tign cn TgiWjfl`QgZ] Yc`nLglgjl] ^ngcfeY^Mjj _n fl_`nan]Y cncfn[gjK j nfeiPnf^j ll _n flVgn`n-
jV agYfelgglR _n`ncfj. 9iggi[ eiPnfi _nca[Flgi SjWgncfj a _enMlccl clejRgnSn _enjTan\cfai jc_n`Q-
eiTeiPnf^l ^ngcfeY^fjagnSn jc_n`glgj[ agYfelgglSn TYlfc[ flVgn`nSj[ \neiPnf^j ^lei]jWlc^jV cfleLglR,
fei^fi cn_`naZV `n_ifn^ fYePjgZ aZcn^nSn \ia`lgj[ Ine]jeYKFjV fei^f nV`iL\lgj[ ]n\jIj^iMjR `n_if^j.
(H9) j \nan\^l jV _n fl_`nan]Y cncfn[gjK.
3. 8G.?G-MC@G 5M<K K@G'KK EM=AMBM+
2. J2HMAM0K/ <MBM<@K M2AG<GJ5:2 AM=GC@K C4?-KH: B:EM@M0M <GBAJHK/
AM=GCM@ =M CJ=AMBM54 EMECM/HK( K
CJ2HMAM0K;HMECK CiTeiPnfiggi[ flVgn`nSj[ i_enPjenaigi _ej cnale-
Jlgcfanaigjj ^ngcfeY^Mjj cn_`nanR `n_if^j H9
9`[ elJlgj[ \iggZV Ti\iW eiTeiPnfigi _nEfi_gi[ \aYV^ngfYegnSn fYePneli^fjagnSn \ajSifl`[ >)-31A.
flVgn`nSj[ \nan\^j _n fl_`nan]Y cncfn[gjK j flVgn- H PiTnan] jc_n`glgjj an agYfelgglR _n`ncfj aVn\gnR
`nSjWgncfj nV`iL\il]ZV `n_ifn^ aZcn^nfl]_lei- ^en]^j `n_if^j Ycfigna`lg \lI`l^fne j aZ_n`glgZ
fYegZV SiTnaZV fYePjg [1]. _n_lelWgZl elPei. H ^igi`l aZVn\gnR ^en]^j eiT]lFlgi
9`[ cnT\igj[ PiTnanSn _leangiWi`QgnSn _enl^fi ancQ]je[\gi[ cjcfl]i JfZeQ^na, eic_n`nLlggi[
`n_if^j gi eigglR cfi\jj ll _enl^fjenaigj[, ^nS\i a JiV]ifgn] _ne[\^l (ejc. 1).
nfcYfcfaYlf aZ_n`glggZR a ]lfi``l aiejigf, aZPne 7 Ml`QK cnaleJlgcfanaigj[ ^ngcfeY^Mjj `n_ifn^
fj_i jgflgcjIj^ifnena fl_`nnP]lgi, jV eic_n`n- _enal\lgZ fl_`naZl j Sj\eia`jWlc^jl jc_Zfigj[
Llgjl j Sln]lfejWlc^jl _iei]lfeZ ncYFlcfa`[lfc[ eiT`jWgZV cjcfl] nV`iL\lgj[, _el\cfia`[KFjV cnPnR
jcVn\[ jT igi`jTi E]_jejWlc^jV j E^c_lej]lgfi`QgZV ^n]PjgjenaiggYK eiTalfa`lggYK cjcfl]Y ^igi`na,
\iggZV c YWlfn] nPnPFlgj[ elTY`Qfifna fl_`nSj\eia- cIne]jenaiggYK «Jjen^nR» ajVelanR ]ifejMlR j
`jWlc^jV jcc`l\naigjR _lec_l^fjagZV cjcfl] fYePY`j- glc^n`Q^j]j e[\i]j _eleZajcfZV gi^`nggZV _lel]Z-
Tifnena _nfn^i a ^igi`iV c`nLgnR ^ngIjSYeiMjj. Wl^. l_`naZl Viei^flejcfj^j \iggZV cjcfl] jgflgcj-
Anc`l\YKFi[ \nan\^i _n fl_`nan]Y cncfn[gjK _lean- Ij^iMjj fl_`nnP]lgi PZ`j _n`YWlgZ _n elTY`Qfifi]
giWi`QgnSn _enl^fi PiTnanR `n_if^j ncYFlcfa`[lfc[ ^i`nej]lfejWlc^jV jc_ZfigjR a Lj\^n]lfi``jWlc^n]
fle]ncfifl, i Sj\eia`jWlc^jl – gi ncgnaigjj jTnfle]j-
Wlc^jV _en\Yan^ [2].
7 YWlfn] _enal\lggZV ]n\l`QgZV jc_ZfigjR j
_n`YWlggZV ^ejfleji`QgZV Tiajcj]ncflR Ycfigna-
`lgn, Wfn a nP`icfj aZVn\gnR ^en]^j `n_if^j Ml`lcn-
nPeiTgn eiT]lcfjfQ «Jjen^YK» ajVelaYK ]ifejMY j
\ai e[\i gi^`nggZV _lel]ZWl^ (ejc. 2). fn _nTan`j`n
_naZcjfQ YenalgQ jgflgcjIj^iMjj fl_`nnP]lgi gi
65…85% _n ceiaglgjK c PiTnaZ] aiejigfn] `n_if^j.
5i^cj]i`QgZR YenalgQ jgflgcjIj^iMjj fl_`nnP]lgi
8KE. 1. :ngcfeY^Mj[ agYfelgglR _n`ncfj giP`K\ilfc[ gi _leaZV YWicf^iV ajVelanR ]ifejMZ j
PiTnanSn aiejigfi cn_`nanR `n_if^j H9 Y]lgQJilfc[ a aZVn\gn] ll clWlgjj.

87
HclenccjRc^i[ giYWgn-flVgjWlc^i[ ^ngIlelgMj[ ]n`n\ZV YWlgZV j c_lMji`jcfna
«>ajiMjnggZl \ajSifl`j j cj`naZl Ycfigna^j», 5nc^ai, 28-30 ]i[ 2019 S.

a 2,25…2,38 eiTi – \`[ nP`icfj felVcl^MjnggnR


ajVelanR ]ifejMZ _n ceiaglgjK cn JfZeQ^naZ]
jc_n`glgjl] agYfelgglR _n`ncfj PiTnanSn aiejigfi,
i _n ceiaglgjK c ]n\jIj^iMjlR PiTnanR `n_if^j
a 2,36 eiT j 1,08…1,33 eiTi cnnfalfcfalggn.

5. !G@A(;JHKJ
AenMlcc eiTeiPnf^j cjcfl]Z nV`iL\lgj[ `n_ifn^
aZcn^nfl]_leifYegZV SiTnaZV fYePjg [a`[lfc[ \`j-
fl`QgZ] j feY\nl]^j], fi^ ^i^ felPYlf jTSnfna`lgj[
8KE. 2. :ngcfeY^Mj[ agYfelgglR _n`ncfj
]n\jIj^iMjj PiTnanR `n_if^j H9
j jc_Zfigj[ Pn`QJnSn ^n`jWlcfai ]n\jIj^iMjR
PiTnanSn aiejigfi. ,TSnfia`jaifQ ]gnSnWjc`lggZl
Aej Efn] gijPn`QJll Sj\eia`jWlc^nl cn_enfja- n_ZfgZl aiejigfZ `n_if^j ]lfn\n] fnWgnSn `jfQ[
`lgjl giP`K\ilfc[ gi _lean] e[\Y _lel]ZWl^, Sj\eia- _n aZ_`ia`[l]Z] ]n\l`[] jcVn\[ jT aZcn^jV
`jWlc^nl cn_enfja`lgjl afnenSn e[\i _lel]ZWl^ cnnf- ]ifleji`QgZV Tifeif glMl`lcnnPeiTgn. CiTeiPnfigi
alfcfaYlf Sj\eia`jWlc^n]Y cn_enfja`lgjK felVe[\gZV ^n]_`l^cgi[ flVgn`nSj[ fl_`naZV jc_ZfigjR j
]n\l`lR c Fl`laZ] ^igi`n] _ncfn[ggnSn clWlgj[ j \nan\^j nV`iL\il]ZV `n_ifn^, ^nfnei[ a _ej]lglgjj
YS`n] gi^`ngi _lel]ZWl^   30[3]. c fl_`nSj\eia`jWlc^j]j Viei^flejcfj^i]j jcc`l\n-
aiggZV Fl`laZV fei^fna nV`iL\lgj[ _nTan`[lf
eicJjejfQ jgIne]iMjnggYK PiTY \`[ eicWlfi j
4. 8G.?G-MC@G EM=AMBM+ AM=GC@K C4?-KH: _enl^fjenaigj[ nV`iL\il]ZV ^ngcfeY^MjR, cn^eifjfQ
B:EM@M0M <GBAJHK/ E =J?E=J@CKBHM+
EKECJ5M+ M2AG<JHK/ cen^j j _enjTan\cfalggZl TifeifZ gi jV cnT\igjl.
CiTeiPnfigZ gnaZl ^ngcfeY^fjagZl cjcfl]Z
<i ncgnaigjj igi`jTi elTY`Qfifna E^c_lej]lgfna nV`iL\lgj[ \`[ cn_`naZV `n_ifn^ SiTnaZV fYePjg,
cn_`naZV `n_ifn^ H9 _el\`nLlgi gnai[ _lec_l^- ^nfneZl _nTan`[Kf _naZcjfQ jgflgcjIj^iMjK fl_`n-
fjagi[ ^ngcfeY^Mj[ cjcfl]Z nV`iL\lgj[ cn_`naZV nP]lgi, Wfn _ejan\jf ^ Yal`jWlgjK fl]_leifYeZ SiTi
`n_ifn^, _el\cfia`[KFi[ cnPnR ^n]PjgiMjK felVcl^- _lel\ fYePjgnR. Ael\`iSil]Zl ]len_ej[fj[ _n cnale-
MjnggnR ajVelanR ]ifejMZ, a ^nfnenR YSn` gi^`ngi JlgcfanaigjK ^ngcfeY^MjR cn_`naZV `n_ifn^ _nTan-
elPle gi c_jg^l (^neZfl) jT]lg[lfc[ gi 270 _ej `[Kf _naZcjfQ elcYec j gi\lLgncfQ iajiMjnggZV
_lelVn\l nf n\gnR cl^Mjj ^ \eYSnR, j \aYV e[\na SiTnfYePjggZV \ajSifl`lR, i fi^Ll SiTnfYePjggZV
gi^`nggZV _eleZajcfZV _lel]ZWl^ (ejc. 3). Ael\`n- Ycfignan^, cnT\iggZV gi PiTl ^ngalefjenaiggZV
Llggi[ cVl]i nV`iL\lgj[ _nTan`j`i TgiWjfl`Qgn \ajSifl`lR >)-31.
_naZcjfQ YenalgQ jgflgcjIj^iMjj fl_`nnP]lgi.
,gflgcjIj^iMj[ fl_`nnP]lgi \`[ `n_if^j c _lec_l^- &=KEM@ KE=MA,.MBGHH:2 KECM;HK@MB
fjagnR ^ngcfeY^MjlR cjcfl]Z nV`iL\lgj[ aZJl
a 2,89 eiTi \`[ nP`icfj gi^`nggZV _lel]ZWl^ j [1] Hj^Y`jg >.H., enc`iaMla <.)., l]`[gi[ H.>.
5lfn\n`nSj[ \nan\^j fl_`ngi_e[LlggZV \lfi`lR
SiTnfYePjggZV \ajSifl`lR // eY\Z 5>,. 2016.
 88. 7. 8–29.
[2] Hj^Y`jg >.H., enc`iaMla <.)., l]`[gi[ H.>.
/Mlg^i EIIl^fjagncfj fei^fi nV`iL\lgj[ cn_`n-
anR `n_if^j SiTnfYePjggZV \ajSifl`lR // l_`n-
EgleSlfj^i. 2018.  2. 7. 13–18.
[3] An_na H. ., Hj^Y`jg >.H., lcgnai H.>. ,cc`l\n-
aigjl Sj\eia`jWlc^nSn cn_enfja`lgj[ Fl`lanSn
^igi`i c _eleZajcfZ]j _lel]ZW^i]j a cjcfl]iV
nV`iL\lgj[ `n_ifn^ aZcn^nfl]_leifYegZV SiTnaZV
8KE. 3. :ngcfeY^Mj[ _lec_l^fjagnR cjcfl]Z nV`iL\lgj[ fYePjg // ,Talcfj[ 7i]iec^nSn giYWgnSn Mlgfei
cn_`nanR `n_if^j H9 Cnc. i^i\l]jj giY^. 2013. . 15.  4(4). 7. 819–824.

88
7l^Mj[ 2 «)n_ifnWgZl ]iJjgZ»

8G.?G-MC@G B:EM@M J@CKBH:2 HG<?MCM?H:2 4EC?M+ECB


AG-K?KHCHM0M CK=G E HJ5JCGAAK;JE@K5K BECGB@G5K
,.. AnPlelR1
1
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e-mail: pobereyirina@gmail.com

1. *BJ<JHKJ
AnaZJlgjl EIIl^fjagncfj eiPnfZ iajiMjnggZV
\ajSifl`lR ]nLgn \ncfjWQ Ti cWlf Yal`jWlgj[
SiTn\jgi]jWlc^nR YcfnRWjancfj ( 90) j Yal`jWlgj[
^nEIIjMjlgfi _n`lTgnSn \lRcfaj[ (:A9) \ajSifl`[.
/\gnR jT _ejWjg, _ejan\[FjV ^ cgjLlgjK :A9
\ajSifl`[, [a`[lfc[ gi`jWjl Sj\eia`jWlc^jV _nfleQ,
anTgj^iKFjV Ti cWlf ei\ji`QgnSn TiTnei ]lL\Y eiPn-
Wj]j `n_if^i]j j ^ne_Ycn] ^n]_elccnei, Wfn al\lf
^ Pn`QJl]Y Y\l`Qgn]Y eicVn\Y fn_`jai. AnEfn]Y
Y]lgQJlgjl ei\ji`QgZV TiTnena a _enfnWgnR Wicfj 8KE. 1. <C0 `iPjejgfgnSn fj_i c gl]lfi``jWlc^j]j acfia^i]j
^n]_elccnena – glnPVn\j]nl felPnaigjl \`[ Y`YW- H _enMlccl eiTeiPnf^j `iPjejgfgnSn <C0 c gl]lfi`-
Jlgj[ SiTn\jgi]jWlc^jV Viei^flejcfj^ \ajSifl`[. `jWlc^j]j acfia^i]j _n`YWlgZ c`l\YKFjl elTY`QfifZ:
CiTeiPnf^i eiT`jWgZV gi\enfnegZV YcfenRcfa –\ncfjSgYfi Pn`ll EIIl^fjagi[ eiPnfi <C0
(<C0) `iPjejgfgnSn fj_i [1, 2] [a`[lfc[ _lec_l^- Ti cWlf nfcYfcfaj[ _lelflWl^ anT\YVi jT nP`icfj
fjagZ] gi_eia`lgjl] \`[ elJlgj[ \iggnR Ti\iWj. aZcn^nSn \ia`lgj[ a nP`icfQ gjT^nSn \ia`lgj[;
/cgnagnR flVgjWlc^nR _enP`l]nR gi\enfnegZV –eiTeiPnfigi j Ti_iflgfnaigi [3] nejSjgi`Qgi[
YcfenRcfa [a`[lfc[ glanT]nLgncfQ _n`gncfQK jc^`K- ^ngcfeY^Mj[ j flVgn`nSj[ cPne^j, nPlc_lWjaiKFi[
WjfQ ei\ji`QgZR TiTne ]lL\Y <C0 j eiPnWlR `n_if^nR aZcn^YK fnWgncfQ jTSnfna`lgj[, el]ngfn_ejSn\gncfQ
^n]_elccnei, fi^ ^i^ a Pn`QJjgcfal c`YWila E`l]lgfZ j gjT^YK cfnj]ncfQ jTSnfna`lgj[;
<C0 jTSnfia`jaiKfc[ jT cfi`QgZV j`j fjfignaZV –jTSnfna`lg e[\ n_ZfgZV nPeiTMna <C0 c `iPj-
c_`iana, Wfn, _ej ^icigjj nP gjV `n_if^j enfnei, ejgfgZ]j Y_`nfglgj[]j c gl]lfi``jWlc^j]j acfia-
]nLlf _ejalcfj ^ ll _n`n]^l. <iglclgjl ceiPifZ- ^i]j (c \aY][ j _[fQK SelPlJ^i]j);
ail]ZV _n^eZfjR gi E`l]lgfZ <C0 fi^Ll [a`[lfc[ –_enal\lgZ jc_Zfigj[ j _n`YWlgZ eicVn\gZl
glgi\lLgZ] c_ncnPn] Y]lgQJlgj[ ei\ji`QgnSn Viei^flejcfj^j eiTgZV nPeiTMna.
TiTnei jT-Ti anT]nLgncfj nPeiTnaigj[ c^n`na an ael][ 9iggi[ ^ngcfeY^Mj[ Ygjaleci`Qgi j ]nLlf PZfQ
E^c_`YifiMjj, ^nfneZl fi^Ll al\Yf ^ YVY\JlgjK jTSnfna`lgi c eiT`jWgZ] ^n`jWlcfan] SelPlJ^na,
SiTn\jgi]jWlc^jV _iei]lfena ^n]_elccnei. c jc_n`QTnaigjl] \ncfY_gZV _n\Vn\[FjV gl]lfi``j-
Wlc^jV ]ifleji`na \`[ jV jTSnfna`lgj[.
2. EM-JHHMECK @MHEC?4@'KK 8 AG-K?KHC-
HM0M CK=G E HJ5JCGAAK;JE@K5K BECGB@G5K 3. !G@A(;JHKJ
Z`n eiTeiPnfign <C0 `iPjejgfgnSn fj_i Aelj]YFlcfan] \iggnSn <C0 [a`[lfc[ anT]nL-
c gl]lfi``jWlc^j]j acfia^i]j (ejc. 1), Ti cWlf ^nfneZV gncfQ ]jgj]jTjenaifQ ei\ji`QgZR TiTne ]lL\Y
_enjcVn\jf ]jgj]jTiMj[ ei\ji`QgnSn TiTnei ]lL\Y `n_if^i]j enfnei j Y_`nfgjfl`QgZ]j E`l]lgfi]j
agYfelgglR _naleVgncfQK Y_`nfgjfl`QgZV E`l]lgfna PlT ejc^i eiTeYJlgj[ `n_ifn^ enfnei j nPeiTnaigj[
j eiPnWlR `n_if^nR enfnei. H \iggnR ^ngcfeY^Mjj c^n`na gi Y_`nfgjfl`QgZV E`l]lgfiV.
E`l]lgfZ <C0, giVn\[Fjlc[ a Tngl ^icigj[ eiPnWlR <ijPn`ll aiLgZ] [a`[lfc[ fn, Wfn fi^nl ^ngcfeY^-
`n_if^j, jTSnfia`jaiKfc[ jT gl]lfi``jWlc^nSn ]ifl- fjagnl elJlgjl _nTan`[lf _naZcjfQ SiTn\jgi]j-
eji`i, fale\ncfQ ^nfnenSn TgiWjfl`Qgn ]lgQJl fale- Wlc^jl Viei^flejcfj^j ^n]_elccnei PlT cgjLlgj[
\ncfj ]lfi``i. `iSn\ie[ Wl]Y, _ej cn_ej^ncgnalgjj gi\lLgncfj lSn eiPnfZ.
EfjV E`l]lgfna gi\enfnegnSn YcfenRcfai c `n_if^nR 5i^cj]i`Qgn _n`nLjfl`QgZR EIIl^f PZ` _n`YWlg
enfnei _nc`l\g[[ gl _naelL\ilfc[, i gl]lfi``jWlc^jl _ej jc_Zfigj[V <C0 c _[fQK SelPlJ^i]j, ^nfneZR
E`l]lgfZ cfjeiKfc[. \i` Yal`jWlgjl Ti_ici 90 gi 5,3%, i _naZJlgjl

89
HclenccjRc^i[ giYWgn-flVgjWlc^i[ ^ngIlelgMj[ ]n`n\ZV YWlgZV j c_lMji`jcfna
«>ajiMjnggZl \ajSifl`j j cj`naZl Ycfigna^j», 5nc^ai, 28-30 ]i[ 2019 S.

:A9 – gi 0,6%, a ceiaglgjj c S`i\^nR _enfnWgnR Proceedings of ASME Turbo Expo Conference, Oslo,
WicfQK, PlT jc_n`QTnaigj[ <C0. Norway, GT2018-76894, 2018.
[2] Mileshin V.I., Petrovitchev A.M., Zhdanov V.V.
&=KEM@ KE=MA,.MBGHH:2 KECM;HK@MB Numerical and Experimental Study of the Effect
of Circumferential Grooves on HPC Last Stage
[1] Mileshin V.I., Petrovitchev A.M., Zhdanov V.V. Performance // Proceedings of 31th International
Numerical and experimental investigation as applied Congress of Aeronautical Sciences, ICAS2018-0624,
to effects of labyrinth-type casing treatments on 09–14 September, Belo Horizonte, Brazil, 2018.
performance of high-loaded compressor first stage // [3] Aiflgf RU  2680663, 5A: F01D 11/12 (2006.01).

KEAJHHMJ 5M<JAK?MBGHKJ M-CJ@GHK/ =J?E=J@CKBHM0M =AGHJ?G EG5MAJCG


CK=G «AJCG(JJ @?:AM» E KHCJ0?K?MBGHHM+ 8& K M=?J<JAJHKJ
2G?G@CJ?KECK@ HJ?GBHM5J?HMECK =MCM@G =J?J< BJHCKA/CM?G5K 8&
>./. )lPl\la1
1
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e-mail: ezhq@list.ru

1. *BJ<JHKJ c algfj`[fnen] \`[ n_el\l`lgj[ Viei^flejcfj^


a Yc`naj[V aZcn^nR cfl_lgj gln\gnen\gncfj _nfn^i.
7 Ml`QK eicWlfgnSn jcc`l\naigj[ a eiPnfl aT[fi
]n\l`Q ci]n`lfi eiTeiPnf^j A>/ «Y_n`la». 2. KEAJHHMJ 5M<JAK?MBGHKJ
Aenigi`jTjenaigi cfeY^fYei flWlgj[ a anT\YVn-
TiPnegj^iV jgflSejenaiggnR C70 j _ncfenlg ^igi` ln]lfejWlc^i[ ]n\l`Q _el\cfia`[lf jT clP[ _`igle
c jgflSejenaiggZ]j a VancfnanR Wicfj 6-K ]nfnSng\n-
`i]j C70 (ejc. 1). H _enMlccl Wjc`lggnSn jcc`l\naigj[
_enjTal\lgZ eicWlfZ nPfl^igj[ )> gi glc^n`Q^jV
elLj]iV _n`lfi j _ej eiT`jWgZV YS`iV ifi^j. An`YWlgZ
j _enigi`jTjenaigZ eicWlfgZl _n`[ _iei]lfena
flWlgj[ a anT\YVnTiPnegj^iV cj`nanR Ycfigna^j.
iP`jWgn j SeiIjWlc^j _el\cfia`lgZ ncgnagZl
elTY`QfifZ jcc`l\naigj[: iEen\jgi]jWlc^jl Viei^fl-
ejcfj^j )> _ej eiPnfl 70, _n`[ _iei]lfena flWlgj[
a H j gi aVn\iV _lel\ algfj`[fnei]j, n^eYLgZl
8KE. 1. Hj\ ]n\l`j )> fj_i ): c C70 eic_el\l`lgj[ ^nEIIjMjlgfi cnVeiglgj[ _n`gnSn
\ia`lgj[, aZWjc`lgZ _iei]lfeZ n^eYLgnR gleiagn-
]legncfj. Aejal\lgZ el^n]lg\iMjj _n \i`QglRJlR
n_fj]jTiMjj eicc]ifejail]nR ]n\l`j.
i^Ll _enal\lg glcfiMjngiegZR eicWlf c \ajLl-
gjl] Y_enFlggnR ]n\l`j algfj`[fnei a n\gn]
jT ^igi`na C70 (ejc. 2). An`YWlgZ eic_el\l`lgj[
_iei]lfena flWlgj[ a ^igi`l H, C:, cn_`i C70 j
jV jT]lglgjl a Tiajcj]ncfj nf YS`i eic_n`nLlgj[
`n_ifn^ algfj`[fnei.

3. !G@A(;JHKJ
ClTY`QfifZ jcc`l\naigj[ _n^iTi`j:
8KE. 2. Hj\ algfj`[fnei c eic_el\l`lgjl] \ia`lgj[ –_ej gjT^jV c^nencf[V \ajLlgj[ )> a H anTgj-
gi `n_if^iV j _naleVgncfj ^igi`i ^ilf YcfnRWjai[ nP`icfQ nfeZai _nfn^i aP`jTj aleVglR

90
7l^Mj[ 2 «)n_ifnWgZl ]iJjgZ»

^en]^j H (\`[ aclV felV ^igi`na), Wfn n^iTZailf P`jLl ^ _`nc^ncfj cj]]lfejj )>. H`j[gjl _nSeigjW-
glSifjagnl a`j[gjl gi _nflej _n`gnSn \ia`lgj[ j gnSn c`n[ aP`jTj aVn\gnR Wicfj C70 gi _iei]lfeZ
_iei]lfeZ gleiagn]legncfj; flWlgj[ a H gi ^elRclec^n] elLj]l _n`lfi [a`[lfc[
–_ej Yal`jWlgjj c^nencfj )> a elLj]l aT`lfi ncnPlggncfQK )> c jgflSejenaiggZ]j a VancfnanR
eiT]leZ j a`j[gjl nfeZagnR nP`icfj gi flWlgjl a H Wicfj ]nfnSng\n`i]j cj`nanR Ycfigna^nR, Wfn felPYlf
Y]lgQJilfc[, _n[a`[lfc[ a`j[gjl _nSeigjWgnSn c`n[, \i`QglRJlR n_fj]jTiMjj )>;
_ejVn\[FlSn c aleVglR _naleVgncfj )>; –gleiagn]legncfQ gi aVn\l a algfj`[fne aZTZ-
– gi ^elRclec^n] elLj]l _n`lfi Pn`QJll a`j[gjl ailf _lejn\jWlc^jl nf^`nglgj[ jgflSei`QgZV _iei-
n^iTZailf eiTajfZR _nSeigjWgZR c`nR, _ejWl] Efn ]lfena flWlgj[ a ^igi`l c WicfnfnR eiagnR Wicfnfl
a`j[gjl Yal`jWjailfc[ \`[ ^igi`i, giVn\[FlSnc[ aeiFlgj[ algfj`[fnei.

M<JAK?MBGHKJ K BJ?K K@G'K/ ?J.4A,CGCMB ?GE;JCG


=G?G5JC?MB CJ;JHK/ HG ECJH<G2 =?K KE=:CGHK/2 @M5=?JEEM?MB 8
>./. )lPl\la1
1
 0A «,>5 j]. A.,. ieignai», 5nc^ai
e-mail: ezhq@list.ru

1. *BJ<JHKJ a fn] Wjc`l a ]lcfiV E^c_lej]lgfi`QgnSn jT]lelgj[


_iei]lfena.
7nT\igjl E`l^fenggnR ]n\l`j jc_Zfifl`QgnSn
cflg\i j ceiaglgjl eicWlfgZV \iggZV c E^c_lej]lgfi`Q-
gZ]j _n]nSilf _n`YWifQ _el\cfia`lgjl n cfeY^fYel
flWlgj[ j anT]nLgZV [a`lgj[V a _enfnWgZV fei^fiV.

2. KEAJHHMJ 5M<JAK?MBGHKJ
An cYFlcfaYKFj] ^ngcfeY^fnec^j] WleflLi] j
Ti]lei] _ncfenlgZ Sln]lfejWlc^jl ]n\l`j cflg\i
\`[ jc_ZfigjR ^n]_elccnena (cflg\ 0:2, ejc. 1).
Aenal\lgZ eicWlfZ \`[ ]n\l`jenaigj[ flWlgj[
gi cflg\l _ej eiT`jWgZV elLj]iV eiPnfZ ^n]_elccnei.
,cc`l\naigi cfeY^fYei flWlgj[ an aVn\gZV _n`ncf[V
(JiVfi, ^n``l^fne, aVn\gZl Tic`ng^j, cfnR^j j _e.), 8KE. 1. Hj\Z Sln]lfejWlc^jV ]n\l`lR cflg\na

8KE. 2. An`YWlggZl eic_el\l`lgj[ ^nEIIjMjlgfi cnVeiglgj[ _n`gnSn \ia`lgj[ gi aVn\l a ^n]_elccne

91
HclenccjRc^i[ giYWgn-flVgjWlc^i[ ^ngIlelgMj[ ]n`n\ZV YWlgZV j c_lMji`jcfna
«>ajiMjnggZl \ajSifl`j j cj`naZl Ycfigna^j», 5nc^ai, 28-30 ]i[ 2019 S.

^ngfYena _enfnWgZV fei^fna c Ml`QK cgjLlgj[ _nfleQ


_n`gnSn \ia`lgj[, _el\nfaeiFlgj[ eiTajfj[ nfeZa-
gZV Tng, Yal`jWlgj[ YcfnRWjancfj flWlgj[.

3. *:BM<:
ClTY`QfifZ jcc`l\naigj[ _n^iTi`j:
–a ]lcfiV jT]lelgj[ _n`YWlgZ eicWlfgZl
al`jWjgZ _iei]lfena flWlgj[ c Ml`QK alejIj^iMjj
]n\l`j _ej jc_Zfigj[V;
–a Tiajcj]ncfj nf ei\jYcna c^eYS`lgj[ ^en]n^
8KE. 3. )jgjj fn^i a eicWlfl ]n\l`j cflg\i 0:2 a ^igi`l _lel\ aVn\n] :H9 anTgj^ilf nP`icfQ nfeZai
_nfn^i, Wfn felPYlf YWlfi _ej _nc`l\YKFjV
An`YWlgZ eic_el\l`lgj[ _iei]lfena flWlgj[ j jT]lglgj[V a Ine]l ^igi`na;
jV gln\gnen\gncflR gi aVn\l a ^n]_elccne (ejc. 2). –c`nLgi[ cfeY^fYei flWlgj[ a JiVfl (ejc. 3)
7nT\iggi[ ]ifl]ifjWlc^i[ ]n\l`Q _ejSn\gi[ \`[ ]nLlf _na`j[fQ gi anTgj^gnalgjl gln\gnen\gncfj
_iei]lfejWlc^nSn jcc`l\naigj[ j n_fj]jTiMjj a ^n``l^fnel a ]lcfiV jT]lelgj[ _iei]lfena SiTi.

G<?MCM?HMJ 4EC?M+ECBM @G@ 0A4KCJA, 45G BJHCKA/CM?G 8


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1
 0A «,>5 j]. A.,. ieignai», 5nc^ai
e-mail: longz@list.ru

1. *BJ<JHKJ 2. *AK/HKJ 8 HG 45 BJHCKA/CM?G


<i\enfnegZl YcfenRcfai (<C0) eiT`jWgZV ^ngcf- ^c_lej]lgfZ aZ_n`glgZ gi cflg\l, a^`KWiKFl]
eY^MjR giJ`j Jjen^nl _ej]lglgjl a ^iWlcfal cel\cfa Pn`QJYK TiS`YJlggYK ^i]leY [3, 4]. 5n\l`Q jcc`l\Y-
_naZJlgj[ SiTn\jgi]jWlc^nR YcfnRWjancfj ^n]_elc- l]nSn algfj`[fnei eic_n`nLlgi agYfej TiS`YJlggnR
cnena. /\gi jT gijPn`ll Yc_lJgZV eiTeiPnfn^ <C0 ^i]leZ. :ngcfeY^Mj[ cflg\i j eic_n`nLlgjl jc_ZfZ-
_el\cfia`[lf cnPnR Fl`laYK _encfia^Y (ejc. 1) gi\ ail]nSn nPl^fi _nTan`[lf n\gnael]lggn n_el\l`[fQ
eiPnWj] ^n`lcn] (C:) [1]. ^c_lej]lgfi`QgZl jcc`l- lSn i^YcfjWlc^jl Viei^flejcfj^j a _lel\glR j Ti\glR
\naigj[ _n^iTi`j gl fn`Q^n aZcn^jl igfjceZagZl _n`YcIleiV. H ^iWlcfal ]n\l`j jc_n`QTnai`c[ Pjenfi-
j igfj_n]_iLgZl ^iWlcfai Fl`laZV _encfian^ [2]. fjagZR Ti^i_nfjenaiggZR algfj`[fne \ji]lfen]
7 fnW^j Telgj[ i^Ycfj^j, fi^jl YcfenRcfai ]nLgn 22 \KR]i, ^ne_Yc ^nfnenSn PZ` nPneY\naig \`[ Ycfi-
eicc]ifejaifQ ^i^ nPl]gZl S`YJjfl`j JY]i eli^fja- gna^j gi\enfnegZV YcfenRcfa (ejc. 2).
gnSn fj_i. AnEfn]Y PZ`i _enal\lgi Pn`QJi[ _nEfi_gi[ <i _lean] Efi_l jc_ZfZai`jcQ aiejigfZ ^ngcf-
eicWlfgn-E^c_lej]lgfi`Qgi[ eiPnfi _n n_el\l`lgjK eY^Mjj n\gne[\gZV <C0 c Wjc`n] Fl`lR a \ji_iTngl
a`j[gj[ ^ngcfeY^fjagZV _iei]lfena <C0 Fl`lanSn 42…115. Z`j jc_ZfigZ fej ^ngIjSYeiMjj Ycfigna^j
fj_i gi i^YcfjWlc^jl Viei^flejcfj^j algfj`[fnei. <C0 a ^ne_Ycl ]n\l`j algfj`[fnei: gi\ _leaZ] C:;
gi\ afneZ] C:; j gi\ nPnj]j C: n\gnael]lggn.
An`nLjfl`Qgnl a`j[gjl <C0 gi Yenagj JY]i ]n\l`j
PjenfifjagnSn algfj`[fnei _en[aj`ncQ _ej lSn Ycfi-
gna^l gi\ afneZ] C: j gi\ nPnj]j C:. 0cfigna^i <C0
gi\ _leaZ] ^n`lcn] PZ`i gl EIIl^fjagnR. <n cna]lcf-
gnl \lRcfajl «<C0 gi\ C:1 j C:2» _ejal`n ^ cgjLlgjK
JY]i a Pn`ll Jjen^n] Wicfnfgn] \ji_iTngl, Wl]
_ej Ycfigna^l <C0 fn`Q^n gi\ afneZ] C:.
8KE. 1. <i\enfnegZl YcfenRcfai c n\gj] () j \aY][ ( ) 9i`QglRJll eiTajfjl ^ngcfeY^Mjj elJlfWifZV
e[\i]j Fl`laZV nfalecfjR <C0 Ti^`KWi`ncQ a Yal`jWlgjj e[\gncfj Fl`laZV

92
7l^Mj[ 2 «)n_ifnWgZl ]iJjgZ»

aiggZl <C0 nPlc_lWjaiKf Yal`jWlgjl Ti_icna YcfnR-


WjanR eiPnfZ algfj`[fnei.

3. !G@A(;JHKJ
H elTY`Qfifl jcc`l\naigj[ _n^iTign a`j[gjl
glc^n`Q^jV ^ngIjSYeiMjR <C0 gi JY] ]n\l`j Pjen-
8KE. 2. Aen\n`QgZR eiTelT ]n\l`j fifjagnSn Ti^i_nfjenaiggnSn algfj`[fnei j ]n\l`j
PjenfifjagnSn algfj`[fnei
n\gne[\gnSn algfj`[fnei _ej aieQjenaigjj a \ncfY_-
nfalecfjR. Z`j jTSnfna`lgZ j jc_ZfigZ fej ^ngIj- gZV _el\l`iV ^ngcfeY^fjagZV _iei]lfena <C0 –
SYeiMjj \aYVe[\gZV <C0, Ycfigia`jail]ZV fn`Q^n gi\ ^nEIIjMjlgfi Ti_n`glgj[ elJlf^j <C0, ^n`jWlcfai
afneZ] enfnen]. 7Y]]iegi[ _n fel] elLj]i] eiPnfZ Fl`lR j aZcnfZ _n`ncfj.
algfj`[fnei, cnnfalfcfaYKFjV aT`lfY, giPneY aZcnfZ
j _nci\^l, al`jWjgi cgjLlgj[ TaY^nanR ]nFgncfj &=KEM@ KE=MA,.MBGHH:2 KECM;HK@MB
]n\l`j algfj`[fnei c \aYVe[\gZ]j <C0 cncfiaj`i
3,2…3,5 \. H ceiaglgjj c gijPn`ll i^YcfjWlc^j EIIl^- [1] Gelmedov F., Lokshtanov E., Olshtein L., Sidorkin M.
fjagnR ^ngIjSYeiMjlR n\gne[\gnSn <C0, jV i^Ycfj- Anti-Stall Tip Treatment Means. European Patent
Wlc^i[ EIIl^fjagncfQ _ej]legn n\jgi^nai. /\gi^n specification No. EP 0688 400 B1. 1997.
\aYVe[\gZl <C0 _nTan`[Kf _n`YWjfQ gi]gnSn Pn`QJjl [2] Greitzer E.M., Nikkanen J.P., Haddad D.E., Mazzawy
TgiWlgj[ Ti_icna SiTn\jgi]jWlc^nR YcfnRWjancfj. R.S., Joslyn H.D A Fundamental Criterion for the
i^Ll _enal\lgn E^c_lej]lgfi`Qgnl jcc`l\naigjl Application of Rotor Casing Treatment // Trans. ASME
a`j[gj[ ^ngcfeY^fjagZV _iei]lfena gi\enfnegnSn J. of Engineering for Power. 1979. Vol. 101. P. 237–243.
YcfenRcfai gi i^YcfjWlc^jl Viei^flejcfj^j ]n\l`j [3] Khaletskiy Yu., Mileshin V., Shipov R. New acoustic
n\gne[\gnSn algfj`[fnei. H elTY`Qfifl _n`YWlgn, facility for testing universal propulsion simulators //
Wfn n\gne[\gZl <C0 _ejan\[f ^ _naZJlgjK Yenag[ Proc. of the 13th International Congress on Sound and
i^YcfjWlc^nR ]nFgncfj ]n\l`j algfj`[fnei, j `jJQ Vibration. Vienna, Austria, July 2–6, 2006.
<C0 c fel][ e[\i]j Fl`laZV nfalecfjR j ]i^cj- [4] :neLgla H.<., Anaie^na H.,., i`lM^jR .9.
]i`QgZ] ^n`jWlcfan] EfjV nfalecfjR a ^iL\n] e[\Y 5lfn\jWlc^jl _enP`l]Z jT]lelgj[ JY]i ]n\l`lR
gl n^iTZaiKf a`j[gj[ gi YenalgQ ]nFgncfj, gn agnc[f algfj`[fnena a TiS`YJlggnR ^i]lel cflg\i -3>
jT]lglgj[ a \jiSei]]Z gi_eia`lggncfj fngi`QgZV ,>5 // ^n`nSjWlc^jl _enP`l]Z iajiMjj / _n\ el\.
cncfia`[KFjV c_l^fei ]n\l`j. Aej Efn] acl jcc`l\n- .9. i`lM^nSn. 5.: neYc _elcc, 2010. 7. 83–100.

?MJ@CK?MBGHKJ B:EM@MCJ5=J?GC4?HM+ M2AG<GJ5M+ AM=GC@K


GBKG'KMHHM0M <BK0GCJA/
7.>. lTPnen\na, 5.H. )iaeYJjg, 7.H. <iT\eiWla1
1
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e-mail: bezborodovser@yandex.ru

1. *BJ<JHKJ 2. EHMBHG/ ;GEC,


AnaZJlgjl eiPnWjV Viei^flejcfj^ _lec_l^fja- Aenl^fjenanWgZl eiPnfZ _n nV`iL\iKFj] `n_if-
gZV \ajSifl`lR _ejan\jf ^ encfY gi_e[Llggncfj ^i] fYePjgZ cncfn[f jT fl_`nIjTjWlc^nR j _enWgncfgnR
Sne[WjV \lfi`lR \ajSifl`[, Yal`jWlgjK fl]_leifYeZ cncfia`[KFlR.
SiTi _lel\ fYePjgnR. 7nnfalfcfalggn, YLlcfnWiKfc[ HZPeiggi[ ]i`neicVn\gi[ cjcfl]i nV`iL\lgj[
felPnaigj[, _el\[a`[l]Zl ^ agnaQ _enl^fjeYl]Z] `n_if^j fYePjgZ _lf`lanR cVl]Z VnenJn Tiel^n]lg-
\lfi`[]. \nai`i clP[ _ej _enl^fjenaigjj j \nan\^l \ajSifl`lR
H ca[Tj c Efj] [a`[lfc[ i^fYi`QgZ] cnT\igjl 4 j 4 _n^n`lgjR j nP`i\ilf e[\n] _elj]YFlcfa [1]:
gnaZV ^ngcfeY^fjagZV elJlgjR _ej _enl^fjenaigjj –aZcn^nR EIIl^fjagncfQK nV`iL\lgj[ _ej ]i`ZV
nV`iL\il]ZV `n_ifn^ fYePjgZ. eicVn\iV nV`iL\iKFlSn anT\YVi;

93
HclenccjRc^i[ giYWgn-flVgjWlc^i[ ^ngIlelgMj[ ]n`n\ZV YWlgZV j c_lMji`jcfna
«>ajiMjnggZl \ajSifl`j j cj`naZl Ycfigna^j», 5nc^ai, 28-30 ]i[ 2019 S.

–ceiagjfl`Qgn gjT^j] Sj\eia`jWlc^j] cn_enfja- an afY`nWgn] clWlgjj, 0,264 l\jgjM a cel\gl] clWlgjj
`lgjl] ^igi`na nV`iL\lgj[; j 0,272 l\jgjM a _lejIlejRgn] clWlgjj.
–gjT^nR gleiagn]legncfQK fl]_leifYe cflgn^ l`j _enWgncfgZV eicWlfna:
a _n_lelWgn] clWlgjj `n_if^j j SjP^ncfQK ll elSY`j- –nPlc_lWlgjl gne]jeYl]ZV Ti_icna _enWgncfj;
enaigj[; –]jgj]jTiMj[ ]iccZ `n_if^j;
–nfcYfcfajl] \n_n`gjfl`QgZV MlgfenPlLgZV –eicWlfgi[ nMlg^i elcYeci `n_if^j.
giSeYTn^ gi _len j Ti]^nanl cnl\jglgjl `n_if^j. <i PiTl jcVn\gnR Sln]lfejj `n_if^j fYePjgZ
H]lcfl c fl], j]llfc[ TgiWjfl`QgZR elTlea \`[ cel\glSn \ia`lgj[ _enal\lgi clej[ eicWlfna gi aT`lfgn]
_naZJlgj[ EIIl^fjagncfj nV`iL\lgj[ `n_ifn^ fi^nR elLj]l c Ml`QK _n\Pnei n_fj]i`QgZV aZgncna Mlgfena
cVl]Z, ^nfneZR PZ` jc_n`QTnaig _ej _enl^fjenaigjj f[Llcfj clWlgjR _lei `n_if^j. An`YWlgZ TgiWlgj[
nV`iL\il]nR `n_if^j 2-R cfY_lgj fYePjgZ. /cnPlg- aZgncna, _ej ^nfneZV an afY`nWgn] clWlgjj \ncfjSi-
gncfQK _enl^fjenaigj[ [aj`ncQ _nEfi_gnl j _nE`l- lfc[ gijPn`QJjR Ti_ic _n ]lcfgnR _enWgncfj.
]lgfgnl cnaleJlgcfanaigjl cjcfl]Z ll nV`iL\lgj[, 9i`ll _enan\j`icQ ]lcfgi[ ^neel^fjena^i Sln]lf-
_n ceiaglgjK c `n_if^nR-_enfnfj_n] fYePjgZ \ajSi- ejj `n_if^j c Ml`QK nPlc_lWlgj[ Ti_icna _n ]lcfgnR
fl`[ 4 _n^n`lgj[. _enWgncfj a ^ejfjWgZV ]lcfiV. Haj\Y glanT]nLgncfj
/cgnagZ] jgcfeY]lgfn] ]n\jIj^iMjj c`YLjf _enal\lgj[ _iei]lfejWlc^nR n_fj]jTiMjj jc_n`QTn-
eicWlfgnl jcc`l\naigjl a cn_e[LlggnR _ncfigna^l ai`icQ eYWgi[ n_fj]jTiMj[ Sln]lfejj a e[\l ^ejfjWgZV
a A: Ansys CFX. CicWlfgi[ ]n\l`Q PZ`i alejIjMj- ]lcf _nc`l ^iL\nR jfleiMjj cfeY^fYegnSn eicWlfi.
enaigi _n elTY`Qfifi] Sne[WjV _en\Yan^ P`n^i `n_ifn^ i^, a Vn\l n_fj]jTiMjj Pig\iLgnR _n`^j
gi _i^lfgnR Ycfigna^l, cn\leLiFlR 5 `n_ifn^. c\l`igZ c`l\YKFjl jT]lglgj[:
<i giWi`QgnR cfi\jj cjcfl]i nV`iL\lgj[ _enl^- –_n[aj`jcQ c^ncZ _n\ Pig\iLgnR _n`^nR, Yal`j-
fjeYl]nR `n_if^j _ei^fjWlc^j _n`gncfQK _nafne[`i WlgZ fn`FjgZ SelPlJ^na \`[ Yal`jWlgj[ jTSjPgnR
cVl]Y _enfnfj_i. An elTY`Qfifi] «Vn`n\gZV» CFD- Llcf^ncfj _n`^j;
_en\Yan^ PZ`n n_fj]jTjenaign eic_el\l`lgjl nV`iL- –Yal`jWlg ei\jYc _lelVn\i nf Pig\iLgnR _n`^j
\iKFlSn anT\YVi _n aZcnfl `n_if^j. ^ _leY a _n\_n`nWgn] clWlgjj, aZ_n`glgn ]lcfgnl
<i c`l\YKFl] Efi_l aZ_n`g[`jcQ clejj «Sne[WjV» Yfn`Flgjl Pig\iLgnR _n`^j Ti cWlf Y]lgQJlgj[
CFD-_en\Yan^. An jV elTY`Qfifi] agnaQ PZ`n n_fj]j- nPl]i «^n`n\Mi»;
Tjenaign eic_el\l`lgjl nV`i\jfl`[ _n ^igi`i] `n_if^j –Y]lgQJlgi ]icci Pig\iLgnR _n`^j Ti cWlf
\`[ nPlc_lWlgj[ glnPVn\j]ZV eicVn\na WlelT aZVn\- Y]lgQJlgj[ _`nFi\j ^ngfi^fgZV _naleVgncflR.
gZl n^gi. Aenal\lgZ eicWlfZ Ti_icna \`jfl`QgnR _enWgncfj
9i`ll _n elTY`Qfifi] cn_e[LlggZV eicWlfna PZ`j eiPnWlR `n_if^j c ]ifleji`n] _n\ _leaZR aZ`lf j
_n`YWlgZ fl]_leifYeZ cflgn^ `n_if^j, Wfn _nc`YLj`n cn JfifgZ] ]ifleji`n] c YWlfn] eiPnfZ gi eiT`jWgZV
nf_eiagnR fnW^nR \`[ _nc`l\glSn Efi_i n_fj]jTiMjj. elLj]iV. /Plc_lWlgZ Ti_icZ _n ]lcfgnR _enWgncfj,
<i_ej]le, PZ`i _n\nPeigi fi^i[ ^ngcfeY^Mj[ E`l]lg- \n`SnalWgncfj, Mj^`jWlc^nR \n`SnalWgncfj (Wjc`Y
fna cjcfl]Z nV`iL\lgj[ aVn\gnR ^en]^j, ^nfnei[ Mj^`na), _n fl]_leifYel _enIj`QgnR Wicfj `n_if^j.
_naZcj`i ]lcfgYK EIIl^fjagncfQ nV`iL\lgj[ c 0,13
\n 0,18, f.l. _ei^fjWlc^j gi 40%. /cfi`QgZl E`l]lgfZ 3. !G@A(;JHKJ
`n_if^j (aZVn\gi[ ^en]^i, _len, Pig\iLgi[ _n`^i)
fi^Ll PZ`j _leleiPnfigZ \`[ _naZJlgj[ EIIl^fja- ClTY`Qfifn] _enal\lggZV eiPnf [a`[lfc[ c_enl^-
gncfj jV nV`iL\lgj[. fjenaiggi[ eiPnWi[ `n_if^i fYePjgZ cel\glSn \ia`lgj[
,fnSn] eiPnfZ cfi`n _naZJlgjl cel\glR EIIl^- iajiMjnggnSn \ajSifl`[. AnaZJlgi cel\g[[ EIIl^-
fjagncfj nV`iL\lgj[ gieYLgnR _naleVgncfj _enIj`[ fjagncfQ nV`iL\lgj[ gieYLgnSn _enIj`[ `n_if^j
`n_if^j _n ceiaglgjK c _enfnfj_n] gi 0,035 PlTeiT- _n ceiaglgjK c _enfnfj_n]. Aenal\lggZl eicWlfZ
]legZV l\jgjM a cel\gl] clWlgjj j gi 0,02 – an afY`nW- _nTan`j`j YcfignajfQ elcYec `n_if^l.
gn] j _lejIlejRgn] clWlgj[V _ej n\jgi^nan] nfgn-
cjfl`Qgn] eicVn\l anT\YVi (0,81% eicVn\i WlelT Sne`n &=KEM@ KE=MA,.MBGHH:2 KECM;HK@MB
_leanSn cn_`nanSn i__ieifi).
9ncfjSgYfi[ al`jWjgi cel\glR EIIl^fjagncfj [1] <iSnSi .A. IIl^fjagZl c_ncnPZ nV`iL\lgj[
nV`iL\lgj[ gieYLgnR _naleVgncfj c_enl^fjenaiggnR `n_ifn^ aZcn^nfl]_leifYegZV SiTnaZV fYePjg:
`n_if^j gi aT`lfgn] elLj]l cncfiaj`i 0,254 l\jgjM 0WlPgnl _ncnPjl. 5.: jT\-an 5>,, 1996. 100 c.

94
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EEAJ<MBGHKJ  J@CKBHMECK BH4C?KECJHM;HM+ EKECJ5: M2AG<JHK/


?G-M;J+ AM=GC@K =J?BM+ EC4=JHK C4?-KH: B:EM@M0M <GBAJHK/
<. . 7i]nVai`na, 7.,. 7lg\Kela, 7.. Ajc^Ygna1
1
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e-mail: stanislavev95@yandex.ru

iTnfYePjggZl \ajSifl`j giJ`j Jjen^nl _ej]l- gnR _l`lgZ, _el_[fcfaYKFlR ^ngfi^fY _lei `n_if^j
glgjl an acl] ]jel: a EgleSlfj^l, a feigc_nefjena^l c Sne[Wj] SiTn];
glIfj j SiTi, gi iajiMjnggn], giTl]gn] j ]nec^n] –aZcn^i[ flVgn`nSjWgncfQ cfleLg[;
feigc_nefl, a cj`Y WlSn aiLglRJlR Ti\iWlR cnael]lg- –_encfnfi Y_eia`lgj[ Sei\jlgfi]j fl]_leifYeZ
gnSn \ajSifl`lcfenlgj[ [a`[lfc[ _naZJlgjl elcYeci, gi _naleVgncfj _lei `n_if^j;
gi\lLgncfj j E^ngn]jWgncfj jT\l`jR. /\gj] jT ncgna- –_encfnfi \nan\^j `n_if^j _n elTY`Qfifi]
gZV c_ncnPna _naZJlgj[ E^ngn]jWgncfj SiTnfYe- E^c_`YifiMjj (Ti cWlf aZ_n`glgj[ \n_n`gjfl`QgZV
PjggZV \ajSifl`lR [a`[lfc[ Yal`jWlgjl fl]_leifYeZ nfalecfjR _leIneiMjj a Tngl _en[a`lgj[ \lIl^fna).
SiTi _lel\ fYePjgnR, Wfn _ejan\jf ^ glnPVn\j]ncfj <l\ncfif^j:
neSigjTiMjj gi\lLgnSn j EIIl^fjagnSn nV`iL\lgj[ –anT]nLgncfQ Ticnelgj[ nfalecfjR _leIneiMjj.
ll E`l]lgfna, a Wicfgncfj, eiPnWjV `n_ifn^ fYePjgZ. –glanT]nLgncfQ nPlc_lWlgj[ \ncfifnWgnR
H ei]^iV _el\cfia`lggnR eiPnfZ _el\`iSilfc[ EIIl^fjagncfj nV`iL\lgj[ _ej cgjLlggZV (]lgll 5%
anT]nLgnl elJlgjl EfnR _enP`l]Z. G:H9 ) eicVn\iV nV`iL\iKFlSn anT\YVi.
<ijPn`ll _n_Y`[egnR cjcfl]nR nV`iL\lgj[ cnael- H Vn\l aZ_n`glgj[ \iggnR eiPnfZ PZ`i c_enl^fj-
]lggZV SiTnaZV fYePjg [a`[lfc[ cjcfl]i nf^eZfnSn enaigi eiPnWi[ `n_if^i _leanR cfY_lgj aZcn^n-
anT\YJgnSn nV`iL\lgj[ [1], _ej ^nfnenR nV`iL\iKFjR fl]_leifYegnR fYePjgZ c agYfejcflgnWgnR cjcfl]nR
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:i^ _eiaj`n, anT\YV \`[ nV`iL\lgj[ TiPjeilfc[ jT ^n]_- Aenal\lg cn_e[LlggZR felV]legZR eicWlf fl_`n-
elccnei, f.l. jTZ]ilfc[ jT fle]n\jgi]jWlc^nSn Mj^`i, anSn cncfn[gj[ `n_if^j gi ]i^cj]i`Qgn] elLj]l
Wfn _ejan\jf ^ cgjLlgjK E^ngn]jWgncfj \ajSifl`[ j eiPnfZ \ajSifl`[ _ej T *7>  1850 :, T *^  966 :.
YVY\JlgjK lSn E^n`nSjWlc^jV Viei^flejcfj^, _nEfn]Y /fgncjfl`QgZR eicVn\ nV`iL\iKFlSn anT\YVi
glnPVn\j]n _enl^fjenaifQ cjcfl]Y nV`iL\lgj[ c ]jgj- cncfiaj` 3,8% G:H9 . /cel\glggi[ _n _naleVgncfj
]i`QgZ] eicVn\n] nV`iL\iKFlSn anT\YVi. _enIj`QgnR Wicfj S`YPjgi nV`iL\lgj[  0,67.
<i clSn\g[JgjR \lgQ \`[ eiPnWjV `n_ifn^ _leaZV 9`[ nPlc_lWlgj[ igi`nSjWgnSn _n^iTifl`[ EIIl^fja-
cfY_lglR fYePjg gijPn`ll eic_encfeiglggnR [a`[lfc[ gncfj c _ej]lglgjl] ^ngal^fjagn-_`lgnWgnR cjcfl]Z
_lf`lai[ ^ngal^fjagn-_`lgnWgi[ cjcfl]i nV`iL\lgj[, nV`iL\lgj[ _nfelPgZR nfgncjfl`QgZR eicVn\ nV`iL-
\`[ ^nfnenR Viei^flegZ c`l\YKFjl ncnPlggncfj: \iKFlSn anT\YVi cncfiaj` 4,9% G:H9 .
–^ngal^fjagnl nV`iL\lgjl c_jg^j j ^neZfi i^j] nPeiTn], a ei]^iV \iggnR eiPnfZ \n^iTign,
ncYFlcfa`[lfc[ a ]gnSnVn\naZV _lf`laZV ^igi`iV, Wfn _ej]lglgjl fi^nR cjcfl]Z nV`iL\lgj[ _nTan`[lf
jT ^nfneZV _enjTan\jfc[ aZ_Yc^ nV`iL\iKFlSn anT\YVi \nPjfQc[ cYFlcfalggnSn (gi 20%) cn^eiFlgj[ eicVn\i
gi _naleVgncfQ `n_if^j c Ml`QK Ine]jenaigj[ TiSei- nV`iL\iKFlSn anT\YVi. Ael\`nLlggi[ cVl]i agYfej-
\jfl`QgnR _`lg^j; cflgnWgnR cjcfl]Z nV`iL\lgj[ _nTan`[lf nf^iTifQc[
–^ngal^fjagnl nV`iL\lgjl c_jg^j gjLl Sne`i nf _ej]lglgj[ nfalecfjR _leIneiMjj gi ^neZfl j
ncYFlcfa`[lfc[ c _ej]lglgjl] elPle–fYePY`jTifnena c_jg^l, cn^eifja _nflej ^jglfjWlc^nR EgleSjj SiTi
j`j JfZeQ^nanR ]ifejMZ. a cfY_lgj.
i^i[ cjcfl]i nV`iL\lgj[ j]llf e[\ \ncfnjgcfa
j gl\ncfif^na. &=KEM@ KE=MA,.MBGHH:2 KECM;HK@MB
9ncfnjgcfai:
–anT]nLgncfQ nPlc_lWlgj[ \ncfifnWgn aZcn^nR [1] ,gnTl]Mla >.>., <jVi]^jg 5.>., 7ig\eiM^jR H.).
(  0,58…0,65) EIIl^fjagncfj nV`iL\lgj[, ncnPlggn, /cgnaZ ^ngcfeYjenaigj[ iajiMjnggZV \ajSifl`lR
_ej Pn`QJjV (\n 6% G:H9 ) eicVn\iV nV`iL\iKFlSn j EgleSlfjWlc^jV Ycfignan^. Ale]Q: 5iJjgn-
anT\YVi, Ti cWlf Ine]jenaigj[ c_`nJgnR TiSei\jfl`Q- cfenlgjl, 2006. 1203 c.

95
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«>ajiMjnggZl \ajSifl`j j cj`naZl Ycfigna^j», 5nc^ai, 28-30 ]i[ 2019 S.

EEAJ<MBGHKJ MEM-JHHMECJ+ CFD ?GE;JCG EC4=JHK


'JHC?M-JHM0M @M5=?JEEM?G
7.H. nS\iglM, H.>. 7l\Ygjg1
1
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e-mail: Bogdanec1996@rambler.ru

1. *BJ<JHKJ
7nael]lggZl ]lfn\Z aZWjc`jfl`QgnR SiTn\jgi-
]j^j _nTan`[Kf _enan\jfQ igi`jT flWlgj[ a ]lL`n_i-
fnWgZV ^igi`iV fYePn]iJjg. <i _enjTan\cfal felPY-
lfc[ c aZcn^nR fnWgncfQK eiccWjfZaifQ jgflSei`QgZl
Viei^flejcfj^j iSelSifi. <n gi^n_`lgjl eiT`jWgZV
nJjPn^ eicWlfna aZWjc`jfl`QgnR SiTn\jgi]j^j
_ejan\jf ^ _ngjLlgjK fnWgncfj eicWlfi. <lnPVn\j]n
TgifQ j jcc`l\naifQ, ^i^ fl j`j jgZl ic_l^fZ eicWlf-
gnR ]n\l`j a`j[Kf gi ^iWlcfan j c^nencfQ elJlgj[.
8KE. 1. 7fl_lgQ cLifj[ nf ^n`jWlcfai E`l]lgfna clf^j:
7 EfnR Ml`QK _enal\lgn jcc`l\naigjl _nal\lgj[ –E^c_lej]lgfi`Qgnl TgiWlgjl
flWlgj[ anT\YVi a cfY_lgj anT\YJgnSn MlgfenPlLgnSn
^n]_elccnei _ej eiT`jWgZV _ncfigna^iV Wjc`lggnR
]n\l`j. HnccnT\igi Sln]lfej[ _enfnWgnR Wicfj Mlgfen-
PlLgnSn ^n]_elccnei ^ie\fi, S`YPjgi n_jcigj[ elTY`Q-
fifna E^c_lej]lgfi [1] ^nfnenSn _nTan`j`i _enalcfj
Pn`ll fFifl`QgZR igi`jT _enal\lggZV eicWlfna.
lgfenPlLgZR ^n]_elccne j]llf \ji]lfe eiPn-
WlSn ^n`lci D2  400 ]], _ej Efn] c`l\YKFjl _iei-
]lfeZ gi gn]jgi`Qgn] elLj]l: Wicfnfi aeiFlgj[
n  18 000 nP/]jg, ]iccnaZR eicVn\ 7,4 ^S/c, cfl_lgQ
cLifj[ 3,05. 7fY_lgQ ^n]_elccnei cncfnjf jT eiPnWlSn
^n`lci (
2  90°, z  20 `n_ifn^) j PlT`n_ifnWgnSn
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c E^c_lej]lgfn], ncgnagZ]j jT ^nfneZV [a`[Kfc[: <l\ncfif^n] ]n\l`j c gij`YWJlR clf^nR [a`[lfc[
glcna_i\lgjl Ine]Z j eiT]lena ajVe[, nPeiTYKFlSnc[ Y`ia`jaigjl glcfiMjngiegZV [a`lgjR, ^nfneZl _ejan\[f
nf _lelflW^j WlelT TiTne gi\ `n_if^nR; Yfnglgjl ^ YVY\JlgjK cVn\j]ncfj j, ^i^ c`l\cfajl, YVY\JlgjK
_nSeigjWgnSn c`n[, _ejan\[Fll ^ Yal`jWlgjK \jIIY- fnWgncfj elJlgj[ (ejc. 2) (ceiaglgjl PZ`n _enal\lgn
Tnegncfj ^igi`na; a eicWlfl giP`K\ilfc[ Pn`ll _ej n\jgi^naZV ael]lggZV JiSiV). 9iggZl _enP`l]Z
jgflgcjagnl _lel]lJjaigjl Tng c`l\i j cfeYj a ]nSYf elJifQc[ c _n]nFQK _ngjLlgj[ ael]lggnSn
\jIIYTnel. ]icJfiPi j _n\^`KWlgj[ elJifl`[ \anRgnR fnWgncfj.
i^Ll jT-Ti \ncfjLlgj[ _iei]lfen] y TgiWlgj[ 1,
2. MKE@ HGKA4;J+ ;KEAJHHM+ 5M<JAK _nSeigjWgZl c`nj eiTelJiKfc[ gi clfnWgn] Yenagl,
i gl Ti cWlf _ej]lglgj[ _ejcflgnWgZV IYg^MjR.
H Vn\l jcc`l\naigj[ gi clfnWgYK glTiajcj]ncfQ fn _ejan\jf ^ _n`gnMlggnR eiPnfl ]n\l`j fYePY-
PZ`n n_el\l`lgn, Wfn cYFlcfaYlf n_fj]Y] eiT]le- `lgfgncfj SST, elTY`QfifZ ^nfnenR cn_ncfiaj]Z
gncflR clf^j, _ej ^nfnen] glf _enP`l] cn cVn\j]ncfQK c eicWlfi]j gi clf^iV c Pn`ll aZcn^j]j TgiWlgj[]j y.
j alegn n_el\l`[lfc[ Viei^fle SiTn\jgi]jWlc^jV CicWlf gi eiT`jWgZV ]n\l`[V fYePY`lgfgncfj
[a`lgjR (ejc. 1). ClJlgjl gi ci]nR SeYPnR jT eicc]if- _n^iTi` (ejc. 3), Wfn cYFlcfaYlf e[\ ]n\l`lR, j]lKFjV
ejail]ZV clfn^, a nf`jWjl nf aclV \eYSjV, n_el\l`[lf ^ejfjWlc^jl gl\ncfif^j _ej eicWlfl ^n]_elccnei:
Pn`ll gjT^jl Yenagj fYePY`lgfgncfj a nP`icf[V _`nVi[ cVn\j]ncfQ (]n\l`j ClRgn`Q\cnaZV gi_e[-
Ti aVn\gnR ^en]^nR j Ti TiTnen] gi\ `n_if^nR, Wfn LlgjR) j aZcn^i[ _nSelJgncfQ elTY`Qfifna (]n\l`Q
_ejan\jf ^ ^ejfjWlc^n]Y Y]lgQJlgjK fnWgncfj Eddy Viscosity Transport Equation). 9n_n`gjfl`Qgn
eicWlfi jgflSei`QgZV Viei^flejcfj^ (c]. ejc. 1). _n\^`KWil]Zl ]n\l`j-_n_eia^j (Curvature Correction,

96
7l^Mj[ 2 «)n_ifnWgZl ]iJjgZ»

8KE. 3. 7fl_lgQ cLifj[ eiPnWlSn ^n`lci ( ) j aclSn ^n]_elccnei ( ) a eiT`jWgZV _ncfigna^iV Wjc`lggnR ]n\l`j

Transition Models j f.\.) gl n^iTZaiKf ^ejfjWlc^nSn ane[KFYK ncnPlggncf[] flWlgj[, i fi^Ll _n\^`KWifQ
a`j[gj[ gi jgflSei`QgZl _n^iTifl`j ^n]_elccnei. elJifl`Q \anRgnR fnWgncfj (Double Precision), ^nfneZR
9`[ YfnWglgj[ Ti\igj[ SeigjWgZV Yc`najR PZ` _nTan`[lf Yal`jWjfQ Wjc`n Tgi^na _nc`l Ti_[fnR.
_enal\lg eicWlf ]n\l`j ^n]_elccnei c aVn\gZ] \n]lgn], ,fleiMjnggZl nJjP^j anTgj^iKf jT-Ti gl\ncfj-
^nfneZR a^`KWi` a clP[ aVn\gnR ^n^. i cWlf EfnSn Llgj[ _n`gnR cVn\j]ncfj eicWlfn], anTgj^iKFlR
aal\lgj[ _n]lg[`ncQ eic_el\l`lgjl c^nencflR j _iei- _n _ejWjgl glcnP`K\lgj[ aclV felPnaigjR. 9`[ Y]lgQ-
]lfena fYePY`lgfgncfj _lel\ aVn\gnR ^en]^nR, Wfn Jlgj[ \iggnSn fj_i nJjPn^ a ^iL\n] eicWlfl _enan-
_ejal`n ^ _naZJlgjK cfl_lgj cLifj[ eiPnWlSn ^n`lci, \j`icQ _enale^i felV _Yg^fna cVn\j]ncfj.
gn ac`l\ Ti Efj] _naZcj`n _nflej _n`gnSn \ia`lgj[ /JjP^j \jc^elfjTiMjj anTgj^iKf jT-Ti fnSn, Wfn
a \jIIYTnel, j nPFi[ cfl_lgQ cLifj[ ncfi`icQ gi fn] elJlgjl _enan\jfc[ gi clf^l, cncfn[FlR jT glPlc^n-
Ll Yenagl. CicWlf c _en\`lgjl] PlT`n_ifnWgnSn glWgn ]i`ZV nPl]na. 9`[ Y]lgQJlgj[ \iggnSn fj_i
\jIIYTnei \n cPnegnR ^i]leZ fn`Q^n YVY\Jj` eicWlf – nJjPn^ j cnVeiglgj[ Y]lelggnSn ^n`jWlcfai [Wll^
elT^n _naZcj`c[ YenalgQ gla[Tn^, jT-Ti Y`ia`jail]nSn clf^j, _enal\lgn jcc`l\naigjl gi Wjc`lggYK cVn\j]ncfQ.
ajVe[ gi aZVn\l jT cPnegnR ^i]leZ. 9`[ Y]lgQJlgj[ nJjPn^ ]n\l`j _enal\lgn ceia-
CicWlf ^n]_elccnei a glcfiMjngiegnR _ncfigna^l glgjl `n^i`QgZV j jgflSei`QgZV al`jWjg a eicWlfl
_el\c^iTZailf Pn`ll P`jT^YK ^ E^c_lej]lgfY cfl_lgQ j a E^c_lej]lgfl \`[ n_el\l`lgj[ ^neel^fgncfj
cLifj[. ,T-Ti glcfiMjngiegnR _ejen\Z flWlgj[ a ]lL- aal\lgj[ flV j`j jgZV eicWlfgZV ]n\l`lR.
`n_ifnWgn] ^igi`l cfiMjngiegZR eicWlf _ejan\jf /PncnP`lggnR SeY__nR nJjPn^ [a`[Kfc[ cjcfl]i-
^ \n_n`gjfl`QgnR _nSelJgncfj jT-Ti ncel\glgj[ fjWlc^jl nJjP^j, ^nfneZl anTgj^iKf jT-Ti gl^neel^f-
flWlgj[ an ael]lgj. AnEfn]Y eicWlf a glcfiMjngiegnR gncfj _ncfigna^j Ti\iWj _n`QTnaifl`l], glfnWgnSn
_ncfigna^l _n]nSilf _n`YWjfQ elJlgjl glcfiMjngiegnSn n_el\l`lgj[ eicWlfgnR ]n\l`j j SeigjWgZV Yc`najR.
flWlgj[ c VnenJlR cVn\j]ncfQK j fnWgncfQK elJlgj[.
&=KEM@ KE=MA,.MBGHH:2 KECM;HK@MB
3. KEAJHH:J MK-@K
[1] Eckardt D. Investigation of the jet-wake flow of
HZ\l`[Kf WlfZel fj_i Wjc`lggZV nJjPn^: a highly-loaded centrifugal compressor impeller.
n^eYS`lgj[, jfleiMjnggZl nJjP^j, nJjP^j elJlgj[ Doctoral Dissertation, Rhein Westfael Technical
j ]n\l`j. 9`[ _n`YWlgj[ Pn`ll fnWgnR alejIj^iMjj School, Aachen, West Germany. 1977. P. 1–227.
PZ`j _el\_ejg[fZ ]len_ej[fj[ _n ]jgj]jTiMjj [2] Bogdanets S., Blinov V., Sedunin V., Komarov O.,
^iL\nR jT gjV. Skorohodov A.Validation of a CFD model of a single
/JjP^j n^eYS`lgj[ anTgj^iKf jT-Ti ^nglWgnR stage centrifugal compressor by local flow parameters
fnWgncfj Wjcl`, c ^nfneZ]j eiPnfilf CFD elJifl`Q. // 5th Inter. Young Scientists Conf. on Information
<ijPn`ll ^ejfjWgn ngj _en[a`[Kfc[ gi clf^l _`nVnSn Technologies, Telecommunications and Control Systems,
^iWlcfai. 9`[ Y]lgQJlgj[ a^`i\i, agncj]nSn \iggZ] ITTCS 2018; Yekaterinburg; RF; 6-8 December 2018.
fj_n] nJjPn^, el^n]lg\Ylfc[ cfenjfQ clf^Y, Y\na`lf- CEUR Workshop Proceedings. Vol. 2298.

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HclenccjRc^i[ giYWgn-flVgjWlc^i[ ^ngIlelgMj[ ]n`n\ZV YWlgZV j c_lMji`jcfna
«>ajiMjnggZl \ajSifl`j j cj`naZl Ycfigna^j», 5nc^ai, 28-30 ]i[ 2019 S.

8G.?G-MC@G @?KCJ?KJB <A/ K<JHCK K@G'KK 40AMBM0M MC?:BG =MCM@G


B 5JAM=GCM;HM5 @GHGAJ MEJBM0M @M5=?JEEM?G K J0M 4EC?GHJHKJ
E =M5M,( CGH0JH'KGA,HM0M HGBGAG
7.>. 7le^na, H.>. 7l\Ygjg, /.H. :n]iena, .5. en\na1
1
 >/0 H/ «0ei`Qc^jR Il\lei`QgZR Ygjalecjflf j]lgj _leanSn AelTj\lgfi Cnccjj .<. `QMjgi»
e-mail: serkov.s.a@mail.ru

1. *BJ<JHKJ ,T igi`jTi eiPnfZ `n_ifnWgZV algMna gi eiT`jW-


gZV elLj]iV Ycfigna`lgn, Wfn Wl] aZJl TgiWlgjl
Cic_encfeiglggnl [a`lgjl, anTgj^iKFll a nclan] \iggnSn nfgnJlgj[, fl] Pn`QJl eiT]le nfeZai _nfn^i
^n]_elccnel c Yal`jWlgjl] cfl_lgj _naZJlgj[ \ia`l- gi c_jg^l `n_if^j j fl] P`jLl fnW^i giWi`i nfeZai
gj[ a `n_ifnWgn] i__ieifl – Efn YS`nanR nfeZa _nfn^i. ^ aVn\gnR ^en]^l, Wfn, cgjLilf Ti_ic SiTn\jgi]j-
/g anTgj^ilf a nP`icfj _lelVn\i ^neglanR _n`^j Wlc^nR YcfnRWjancfj nclanSn ^n]_elccnei.
a _len `n_if^j, _ejan\[ ^ TiSen]nL\lgjK ]lL`n_i-
fnWgnSn ^igi`i j cgjLlgjK Ti_ici SiTn\jgi]jWlc^nR
YcfnRWjancfj ( 90) nclanSn ^n]_elccnei. 9`[ cgjLlgj[
eiT]lei YS`nanSn nfeZai anT]nLgn aZ_n`gjfQ iEen\jgi- S\l c – ^icifl`QgZl gi_e[Llgj[ gi _naleVgncfj
]jWlc^YK n_fj]jTiMjK _lei `n_if^j c _n]nFQK c_jg^j; b – Vne\i `n_if^j; ^ – ^icifl`QgZl gi_e[-
figSlgMji`QgnSn giai`i. 9iggZR c_ncnP _nTan`[lf Llgj[ gi _naleVgncfj ^neZfMi.
_naZcjfQ Ti_ic 90 `n_ifnWgnSn i__ieifi Ti cWlf 9`[ n_el\l`lgj[ eiT]lena nfeZai _nfn^i j _`nFi\j
cgjLlgj[ Sei\jlgfna \ia`lgj[ j Yal`jWlgj[ TgiWlgj[ TiSen]nL\lgj[ ]lL`n_ifnWgnSn ^igi`i _el\`nLlg
^icifl`QgZV gi_e[LlgjR gi _naleVgncfj `n_ifn^ afnenR ^ejflejR, a^`KWiKFjR a clP[ nfgnJlgjl
Y ^neglanR _n`^j. _`nFi\j, ^nfnei[ n_el\l`lgi a nP`icfj cnnfalfcfaY-
H cnael]lggn] _enl^fjenaigjj acl Pn`QJl Y\l`[- KFlR jgflgcjagncfj fYePY`lgfgncfj _nfn^i TI  30%
lfc[ agj]igj[ ]lfn\i] aZWjc`jfl`QgnR SiTnanR \jgi- (2), ^ _`nFi\j F clWlgj[, a ^nfnen] n_el\l`[lfc[
]j^j. ,c_n`QTnaigjl Wjc`lggnSn ]lfn\i \`[ elJlgj[ \iggZR _iei]lfe (3).
Ti\iW SiTnanR \jgi]j^j _nTan`[lf ^n`jWlcfalggn j ,gflgcjagncfQ fYePY`lgfgncfj n_el\l`[lfc[ ^i^
^iWlcfalggn YcfignajfQ ajVelaZl _nfn^j, Wfn a E^c_l-
ej]lgfi`Qgn] jcc`l\naigjj, a \iggn] c`YWil, [a`[lfc[
glanT]nLgZ].
9`[ nPlc_lWlgj[ aZ_n`glgj[ _enl^fjenaigj[ j
]n\legjTiMjR _enfnWgZV WicflR nclanSn ^n]_elccnei S\l ^ – ^jglfjWlc^i[ EgleSj[ _nfn^i; V – c^nencfQ _nfn^i.
gijPn`ll EIIl^fjagn, PZ`j _enal\lgZ jcc`l\naigj[
_n eiTeiPnf^l ^ejflejla \`[ j\lgfjIj^iMjj YS`nanSn 3
nfeZai _nfn^i a `n_ifnWgZV algMiV _ej elJlgjj
Ti\iW Wjc`lggnSn ]n\l`jenaigj[ flWlgj[ a _enfnWgZV :ejflejR _`nFi\j jgflgcjagncfj fYePY`lgfgncfj
Wicf[V nclaZV ^n]_elccnena 9, i fi^Ll _enal\lgn _nfn^i nSeigjWlg 30% jT-Ti fnSn, Wfn `jgjj fn^i,
jcc`l\naigjl c_ncnPi lSn Ycfeiglgj[ _ej _enl^fj- nfeZaiKFjlc[ nf _naleVgncfj `n_if^j gi SeigjMl
enaigjj gnaZV j ]n\legjTiMjj cYFlcfaYKFjV _lelVn\i jT nP`icfj ajVelnPeiTnaigj[ a TngY canPn\-
^ngcfeY^MjR c _n]nFQK figSlgMji`QgnSn giai`i. gnSn YcfnRWjanSn _nfn^i, j]lKf jgflgcjagncfQ fYePY-
`lgfgncfj n^n`n 30%.
2. 8G.?G-MC@G @?KCJ?KJB <A/ K<JHCK K@G'KK /P`icfQ ]lL`n_ifnWgnSn ^igi`i, n_el\l`[KFi[
40AMBM0M MC?:BG =MCM@G cfl_lgQ 90 algMi, \n`Lgi Viei^flejTnaifQc[ aZcn^j]
Yenagl] TiSen]nL\lgj[ ^igi`i ^ejflejl] TIa, giWjgi[
,cc`l\naigjl _enal\lgn gi gi_eia`[KFl] algMl c eiPnWlR fnW^j nfgncjfl`Qgn ncfi`QgZV nP`icflR
_leanR cfY_lgj (<>1) nclanSn ^n]_elccnei [1], \`[ `n_if^j.
^nfnenSn aZ_n`glgi alejIj^iMj[ CFD eicWlfi [2, 3]. :ejflejR WSa _ej]lg[lfc[ \`[ j\lgfjIj^iMjj
9`[ j\lgfjIj^iMjj YS`naZV nfeZana a ]lL`n_ifnW- YS`nanSn nfeZai Y _naleVgncfj `n_if^j, i ^ejflejR
gZV ^igi`iV nclanSn ^n]_elccnei anT]nLgn jc_n`Q- TIa – \`[ n_el\l`lgj[ eiT]lei YS`nanSn nfeZai
TnaifQ nfgnJlgjl ^icifl`QgZV gi_e[LlgjR _naleV- a ]lL`n_ifnWgn] ^igi`l. /\gi^n, gi aZPeiggn] elLj]l
gncfj c_jg^j j ^neZfi (1). eiPnfZ algMi \`[ _ej]lglgj[ n_fj]jTiMjj ngj ]nSYf

98
7l^Mj[ 2 «)n_ifnWgZl ]iJjgZ»

ClLj] eiPnfZ nclanSn ^n]_elccnei, gi ^nfnen]


glnPVn\j]n aZ_n`gjfQ n_fj]jTiMjK `n_ifnWgnSn
algMi, aZPeig jT cnnfalfcfaj[ Yc`najK nSeigjWlgj[
TIa j/j`j WSa. 0cfigna`lgn, Wfn gijPn`ll EIIl^fja-
gZ] _enSjPn] `n_if^j, c fnW^j Telgj[ cgjLlgj[ _`n-
Fi\j ]i^cj]i`QgZV TgiWlgjR jgflgcjagncfj fYePY-
`lgfgncfj _nfn^i TI, [a`[lfc[ _enSjP y  12% (ejc. 2).
,cc`l\Yl]ZR \aYVcfY_lgWifZR gjT^nc^nencfgnR
nclanR ^n]_elccne c gi_eia`[KFj]j `n_if^i]j
c n_fj]i`QgZ] figSlgMji`QgZ] giai`n] eiccWjfig
an acl] \ji_iTngl YcfnRWjanR cVn\j]ncfj CFD eicWlfi.
8KE. 1. 7fl_lgQ eiTajfj[ YS`nanSn nfeZai a ]lL`n_ifnW- ClTY`QfifZ eicWlfi PZ`j cn_ncfia`lgZ c jcVn\gZ]
gn] ^igi`l algMi a Tiajcj]ncfj nf _iei]lfena TIa j WSa nclaZ] ^n]_elccnen]. Aej jc_n`QTnaigjj figSlg-
giVn\jfQc[ gl n\gnael]lggn jT-Ti eiT`jWgnSn Viei^- Mji`QgnSn giai`i Ti_ic 90 Yal`jWj`c[ gi 5%.
flei flWlgj[ a algMiV j eiT`jWgnR Ine]Z _lei `n_if^j.
H _leaYK nWlel\Q, aZ_n`g[fQ nMlg^Y a`j[gj[ YS`nanSn 4. !G@A(;JHKJ
nfeZai gi _nfn^ a ]lL`n_ifnWgn] ^igi`l nclanSn
^n]_elccnei glnPVn\j]n c _n]nFQK ^ejflej[ TIa, CiTeiPnfigZ \ai ^ejflej[ (WSa j TIa) \`[ j\lgfj-
i \n_n`gjfl`QgYK _enale^Y _enan\jfQ c _n]nFQK Ij^iMjj YS`nanSn nfeZai a ]lL`n_ifnWgn] ^igi`l
^ejflej[ WSa. nclanSn ^n]_elccnei gi Efi_l CFD ]n\l`jenaigj[.
<i ncgnal eic_el\l`lgj[ _iei]lfena TIa j WSa AleaZR ^ejflejR j\lgfjIjMjeYlf nfeZa _nfn^i
a algMl _n`YWlgi \jiSei]]i n_el\l`lgj[ elLj]na nf _naleVgncfj `n_if^j j _n^iTZailf cfl_lgQ Y\i`lg-
eiPnfZ algMi a Tiajcj]ncfj nf cfl_lgj eiTajfj[ gncfj elLj]i eiPnfZ algMi nf canlR SeigjMZ 90.
YS`nanSn nfeZai _nfn^i (ejc. 1). HfnenR ^ejflejR _nTan`[lf n_el\l`jfQ eiT]leZ
nP`icfj aclSn ajVelanSn \ajLlgj[ _nfn^i a ]lL`n_i-
3. ?K5JHJHKJ CGH0JH'KGA,HM0M HGBGAG fnWgn] ^igi`l.
H elTY`Qfifl jcc`l\naigj[ aZ\l`lgZ ^ejfjWlc^jl
,TSjP `n_if^j a figSlgMji`Qgn] gi_eia`lgjj TgiWlgj[ \`[ ^ejflejla  1 j  2, ^nfneZl giVn\[fc[
ncYFlcfa`[`c[ c jc_n`QTnaigjl] ^ejanR lTQl 3-Sn a \ji_iTngl 1,6…1,8 j 4…7% cnnfalfcfalggn.
_ne[\^i (4) Aej Efn] _n`YWlgi \jiSei]]i \`[ n_el\l`lgj[ eiPnfn-
c_ncnPgncfj algMi, ^nfnei[ nfeiLilf elLj] lSn eiPnfZ
gi ncgnal TiSen]nL\lgj[ ^igi`i j cfl_lgj YcfnRWj-
ancfj algMi ^ nfeZaY _nfn^i.
S\l Bi – i-i[ aleJjgi ]gnSnYSn`Qgj^i. 9`[ cna]lFlgj[ _`nc^jV _enIj`lR _n aZcnfl
AenSjP _lei `n_if^j y a \iggn] jcc`l\naigjj `n_if^j _el\`nLlgi ^ejai[ lTQl 3-Sn _ne[\^i.
PZ` aZ_n`glg a clel\jgl aZcnfZ ^igi`i gi 6, 12 j 9`[ _enale^j EIIl^fjagncfj _ej]lglgj[
17% aZcnfZ `n_if^j (5) figSlgMji`QgnSn giai`i jc_n`QTnaigZ Ycfigna`lggZl
^ejflejj  1 j  2. /_el\l`lg ]i^cj]i`QgZR _enSjP
_lei `n_if^j, _ej ^nfnen] \ncfjSilfc[ ]i^cj]i`Qgi[
EIIl^fjagncfQ c fnW^j Telgj[ cgjLlgj[ eiT]lena
S\l l – aZcnfi `n_if^j; z – eiccfn[gjl nf jcVn\gnR YS`nanSn nfeZai. H elTY`Qfifl _ej]lglgj[ figSlg-
`n_if^j \n ]i^cj]Y]i _enSjPi _lei. Mji`QgnSn giai`i a gi_eia`[KFl] i__ieifl jcc`l\Yl-

8KE. 2. Cic_el\l`lgjl TI gi aZVn\l jT <>1 _ej eiT`jWgn] _enSjPl cel\glR `jgjj _lei `n_if^j

99
HclenccjRc^i[ giYWgn-flVgjWlc^i[ ^ngIlelgMj[ ]n`n\ZV YWlgZV j c_lMji`jcfna
«>ajiMjnggZl \ajSifl`j j cj`naZl Ycfigna^j», 5nc^ai, 28-30 ]i[ 2019 S.

]nSn nclanSn ^n]_elccnei Yal`jWj`c[ Ti_ic SiTn\jgi- ^iMjj CFD-]n\l`j nclanSn ^n]_elccnei. icfQ 1:
]jWlc^nR YcfnRWjancfj gi 5%. ]n\l`jenaigjl `n^i`QgZV EIIl^fna j _n\Pne
_iei]lfena \`[ cna_i\lgj[ c E^c_lej]lgfi`QgZ]j
&=KEM@ KE=MA,.MBGHH:2 KECM;HK@MB \iggZ]j // :n]_elccnegi[ flVgj^i j _gla]ifj^i,
2018.  4. 7. 4–28.
[1] Hathaway M., Okiishi T. Aerodynamic design and [3] en\na .5., :n]iena /.H., 7l\Ygjg H.>.
performance of a two-stage, axial-flow compressor `jgna H.)., 7le^na 7.>. /cnPlggncfj alejIj-
(baseline) // Asmes. 1983. TCRL-24. ^iMjj CFD-]n\l`j nclanSn ^n]_elccnei. icfQ 2:
[2] en\na .5., :n]iena /.H., 7l\Ygjg H.>. igi`jT jgflSei`QgZV _iei]lfena // :n]_elccne-
`jgna H.)., 7le^na 7.>. /cnPlggncfj alejIj- gi[ flVgj^i j _gla]ifj^i, 2018.  4. 7. 28–29.

100
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Bn`Pl] 3 «3npenhlXng`k] l ^el`bk_ik] UkYpck] _likal`k. /peniln l `kaneZ gUpekil]»

IDF>I<C :FC<I)
=F<>:HDDH-?H3#-;FDDH'H <IA=H:H;C
A 7H=F<-=C7I 8:HA>F)I+ -'=F?H;H:H;H?
:.E. @nbnc`li1,2, :.B.
kel^pc1
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/@ «5:< la. @.5. kekipck», <pg`ck
2
<35 (.5), <pg`ck
e-mail: assharipov@ciam.ru

1. &?F;FDIF hnpenhlXng`ln lggbn_pckil] `linhl`l HbnanihkeiZW


enk`PlT g \Xkghlna O2(a1$g) l apbn`\b ^epghnTKlW
E ^pgbn_inn _ng]hlbnhln Klep`p pRg\O_kbpgS \Ubncp_pep_pc g ^papFSN anhp_pc `ckihpcpT Wlall [2].
^elaniniln ^bkYaZ inekcipcngipUp ekYe]_k, gp_neOk- E gc]Yl g Hhla, PnbSN ikghp]FnT ekRphZ ]cb]nhg]
FnT cZgp`pk`hlciZn XkghlPZ _b] \^ekcbnil] cpg^bk- kikblY lanNFlWg] `linhlXng`lW _kiiZW _b] enk`PlT
aninilna l Upenilna, k hk`On _b] ^bkYapWlalXng`pT lilPllepckil] Pn^l g \Xkghlna O2(a1$g) l apbn`\b
`picnegll [1]. hph lihneng gc]Yki g ^phniPlkbSip ^epghnTKlW \Ubncp_pep_pc (CH4, C2H6, C2H4, C2H2) l
cZgp`pT HineUnhlXng`pT HMMn`hlcipghSN lg^pbSYp- cZ_kXk en`pani_kPlT ^p lW lg^pbSYpckilN ^el gpghkc-
ckil] ilY`phna^nekh\eipT inekcipcngipT ^bkYaZ bnill `linhlXng`lW ap_nbnT.
(cgbn_ghcln nn cZgp`pT WlalXng`pT k`hlcipghl)
^p gekcinilN g _e\Ulal g^pgpRkal cpY_nTghcl] 2. #3H: <IDF>I<I H>;F=.D2+ 8:HFAAH?
ik UpeNX\N gangS [2]. ph] l lYcnghip, Xhp Hbnanihke-
iZn WlalXng`ln enk`Pll g Hbn`hepiip-cpYR\O_niiZal gipcik] enk`Pl], phcnhghcniik] Yk \g`peniln
apbn`\bkal apU\h ^ephn`khS UpekY_p RZghenn, Xna lilPllepckil] Pn^l c gangl CH4-O2 (cpY_\W)
g apbn`\bkal c pgipcipa Hbn`hepiipa gpghp]ill [2], ^el ikblXll gliUbnhipUp `lgbpep_k:
p_ik`p cp aipUlW gb\Xk]W `linhlXng`ln anWkilYaZ,
CH4  O2(a1$g) " CH3  HO2(2A).
p^lgZckNFln cpY_nTghcln ^bkYaZ ekYe]_k ik Wp_
WlalXng`lW ^encekFnilT, ]giZ _kbn`p in _p `piPk, @el Hhpa cnblXlik HineUll k`hlckPll Ea _kiipUp
pgpRniip ^el lg^pbSYpckill gbpOiZW \Ubncp_p- ^epPnggk gpghkcb]nh 1,4…1,6 HE, c Ykclglapghl
ep_iZW hp^blc. ph lg^pbSY\napUp anhp_k. 3k`On c [4] RZb cZ]cbni
E \gbpcl]W ekYe]_k c `lgbpep_n lbl cpY_\Wn _p^pbilhnbSiZT enk`PlpiiZT `kikb
g phipglhnbSip ilY`lal YikXnil]al ^elcn_niipUp
CH4  O2(a1$g) " CH3  HO2(2A),
Hbn`helXng`pUp ^pb] ^eplgWp_lh HMMn`hlcipn cpYR\O-
_niln Hbn`hepiiZW gpghp]ilT apbn`\b]eipUp `lgbpep_k. p_ik`p _kiiZT `kikb ^ephn`knh g g\Fnghcniip RpbSKla
@el Hhpa gXlhknhg], Xhp cpYR\O_niln O2 c ilOinn k`hlckPlpiiZa RkeSnepa, ^pHhpa\, ngbl in ghplh Yk_kXl
gliUbnhipn gpghp]iln a1$g c hbnNFna ekYe]_n lannh _nhkbSip p^lgZckhS `linhl`\ ph_nbSiZW Hbn`hepiiZW
enKkNFnn YikXniln _b] HineUpHMMn`hlcipT lihnigl- gpghp]ilT HO2, _kiiZT `kikb apOip in \XlhZckhS.
Ml`kPll Pn^iZW ^epPnggpc c ekYblXiZW UpeNXlW hp `kgknhg] enk`Pll C2H6 l O2(a1$g), `k` RZbp
gang]W [2]. \ghkipcbnip ekinn g ^papFSN _pghkhpXip hpXiZW
%b] hpUp, XhpRZ p^en_nblhS cbl]iln Hbn`hepiipUp `ckihpcp-WlalXng`lW ekgXnhpc [5], c phblXln ph ^epPnggk
cpYR\O_nil] apbn`\b]eipUp `lgbpep_k ik Upeniln l g \Xkghlna pgipcipUp Hbn`hepiipUp gpghp]il] apbn`\b
lihne^enhlepckhS gpphcnhghc\NFln H`g^nelanihkbSiZn `lgbpep_k X 3g , ^ep_\`hkal enk`Pll ]cb]Nhg] in
ikRbN_nil], inpRWp_lak ekYekRph`k ^p_epRiZW `lin- C2H5 l HO2, k apbn`\bZ Hhlbnik l ^nep`gl_k cp_pep_k:
hlXng`lW ap_nbnT, c`bNXkNFlW enk`Pll g O2(a1$g).
C2H6  O2(a1$g) " C2H4  H2O2,
.ngpainiip ckOipT c HhpT gc]Yl ^en_ghkcb]nhg]
`linhl`k ^bkYaniip-ghla\blepckiipUp p`lgbnil] ^elhpa HineUl] k`hlckPll HhpUp ^epPnggk cngSak akbk
^epghnTKlW \Ubncp_pep_pc [2], ^pg`pbS`\ pil in hpbS`p (Ea  0,607 HE) ^p gekcinilN g gpphcnhghc\NFla
lihnengiZ gkal ^p gnRn `k` cl_ hp^blck, ip hk`On ^epPnggpa g \Xkghlna incpYR\O_niipUp `lgbpep_k
lW `linhl`k p`lgbnil] bnOlh c pgipcn enk`PlpiiZW (Ea 2,03 HE [5]). E [5] RZbp ^p`kYkip, Xhp Wph] `pig-
anWkilYapc cpg^bkaninil] l Upenil] Rpbnn gbpOiZW hkihk _kiipUp ^epPnggk _pghkhpXip cnbl`k, blKS ^el
\Ubncp_pep_iZW hp^blc [3]. _ik`p H`g^nelanihkbSiZn _pghkhpXip cZgp`lW hna^nekh\ekW (^el T  1000 =)
`linhlXng`ln _kiiZn, lanNFlng] c blhnekh\en, pik g\Fnghcniip ^encZKknh `pighkih\ h\Knil]
YkXkgh\N in_pghkhpXiZ _b] ekYekRph`l hk`lW anWkilY- O2(a1$g) ik C2H6.
apc _kOn _b] RkYpcZW \Ubncp_pep_ip-cpY_\KiZW E hp On cena] `linhl`k HbnanihkeiZW enk`PlT
gangnT [2]. @pHhpa\ cngSak k`h\kbSiZal ]cb]Nhg] Hhlbnik l, c pgpRniipghl, kPnhlbnik g apbn`\bkal

103
EgnepgglTg`k] ik\Xip-hnWilXng`k] `piMneniPl] apbp_ZW \XniZW l g^nPlkblghpc
«:clkPlpiiZn _clUkhnbl l glbpcZn \ghkipc`l», <pg`ck, 28-30 ak] 2019 U.

O2(a1$g) ekYekRphkik in ghpbS _nhkbSip. _ila lY pRekYpa, CH2(1A1)  CO2 l CH2CO  O(1D). E `kXnghcn
cpYapOiZW enk`PlpiiZW `kikbpc ]cb]nhg] ^epPngg pPni`l `pighkihZ g`pepghl _kiipUp Re\hhp-^epPnggk
apOip en`pani_pckhS hna^nekh\ei\N YkclglapghS,
C2H4  O2(a1$g) " C2H3  HO2,
^en_bpOnii\N ekinn c [8] _b] enk`Pll C2H2  O2(X 3g ),
p_ik`p pheZc khpak H ph apbn`\bZ C2H4 in ]cb]nhg] ^ephn`kNFnT ^p kikbpUlXipa\ anWkilYa\.
gkaZa HineUnhlXng`l cZUp_iZa ^epPnggpa c glghnan
C2H4  O2(a1$g) (Ea  1,518 HE). ineUnhlXng`l On 3. C<=(6FDIF
Rpbnn cZUp_iZa `kikbpa ]cb]nhg] enk`Pl]
:ikblY lanNFlWg] c blhnekh\en `linhlXng`lW
C2H4  O2(a1$g) " 1,2-_lp`gHhki*,
_kiiZW _b] enk`PlT lilPllepckil] Pn^l g \Xkghlna
_b] `phpepUp HMMn`hlciZT HineUnhlXng`lT RkeSne Ea O2(a1$g) l apbn`\b ^epghnTKlW \Ubncp_pep_pc (CH4,
gpghkcb]nh 0,338 HE [6]. B _e\UpT ghpepiZ HineUnhl- C2H6, C2H4, C2H2) ^pYcpblb cZ]clhS ^epPnggZ, _b] `php-
Xng`lT RkeSne ^epPnggk _lggpPlkPll 1,2-_lp`gHhkik eZW Hbn`hepiipn cpYR\O_niln apbn`\b O2 c g^nPlkbSip
ik _cn apbn`\bZ CH2O pPnilcknhg] c 1,045 HE [7]. peUkilYpckiipa Hbn`helXng`pa ekYe]_n lbl g ^papFSN
@pg`pbS`\ `pblXnghcp HineUll, cZ_nb]napT cp ci\h- enYpikigipUp bkYneipUp lYb\Xnil] pgpRniip HMMn`-
eniiln ghn^nil gcpRp_Z apbn`\bZ 1,2-_lp`gHhkik hlcip c gaZgbn lihniglMl`kPll ^epPnggpc lilPllep-
c Wp_n _kiipUp ^epPnggk, g\Fnghcniip ^encZKknh ckil] Pn^l ^el hna^nekh\ekW, Wkek`hneiZW _b] cpg^bk-
RkeSne _lggpPlkPll 1,2-_lp`gHhkik, apOip ^en_^pbp- aninil]. 3k`, ^el T  1000 = iklRpbSKnn YikXniln
OlhS, Xhp 1,2-_lp`gHhki* inghkRlbni l gekcilhnbSip lanNh `pighkihZ g`pepghl ^epPnggpc g \Xkghlna
bnU`p ^nenWp_lh c ^ep_\`hZ ekg^k_k. %b] pPni`l apbn`\b Hhkik l Hhlbnik, hpU_k `k` `pighkihZ g`pepghl
HMMn`hlcipT `pighkihZ enY\bShle\NFnUp ^epPnggk enk`PlT CH4  O2(a1$g) l C2H2  O2(a1$g) g\Fnghcniip
aninn YikXlaZ ^el HhlW \gbpcl]W.
C2H4  O2(a1$g) " CH2O  CH2O
Bhplh pgpRniip ^p_Xne`i\hS hp, Xhp ^pb\XniiZn
c _kiipT ekRphn lg^pbSYpckbkgS gWnak li_nakik – cZcp_Z phipg]hg] hpbS`p ` ghk_ll lilPllepckil]
liKnbSc\_k. Pn^ipUp ^epPnggk l ik^e]a\N in gpphipg]hg] g pRFnT
.k`pinP, ekggaphela enk`PlN kPnhlbnik g gliU- HMMn`hlcipghSN Hbn`hepiipUp cpYR\O_nil] O2 _b]
bnhiZa `lgbpep_pa. .k pgipcn ap_lMlPlepckiipT lihniglMl`kPll cpg^bkaninil] l Upenil] \Ubncp_p-
ap_nbl clRepiiZW hneapc [2] RZbk ^en_bpOnik ep_p-cpY_\KiZW gangnT.
`pighkihk g`pepghl ^epPnggk (kRphk cZ^pbinik ^el MlikigpcpT ^p__neO`n
(5 (^epn`hZ  17-01-00810 l  17-08-01423).
C2H2  O2(a1$g) " C2H  HO2.
_ik`p ab initio ekgXnhZ ^p`kYZckNh, Xhp Wph] 8IAH< IA8H=.3H?CDD2+ IA>H6DI<H?
_kiik] pPni`k `pighkihZ g`pepghl _pghkhpXip ^ekc_p-
^p_pRik, cnblXlik gpphcnhghc\NFnUp k`hlckPlpiipUp [1] Starikovskiy A., Aleksandrov N. Plasma-assisted
RkeSnek ikghpbS`p cnbl`k (Ea  2,25 HE), Xhp _kiik] ignition and combustion // Prog. Energy Combust.
enk`Pl] lilPllepckil] in apOnh p`kYkhS g\FnghcniipUp Sci., 2013. V. 39. P. 61–110.
cbl]il] ik `linhl`\ Pn^iZW ^epPnggpc ^el p`lgbnill [2] StarikA.M., Loukhovitski B.I., SharipovA.S., Titova N.S.
hk`pUp cZgp`penk`PlpiipUp hp^blck, `k` kPnhlbni. Physics and Chemistry of The Influence of Excited
E hp On cena], gpUbkgip enY\bShkhka ekgXnhpc, Molecules on Combustion Enhancement // Phil. Trans.
HineUnhlXng`l Rpbnn cZUp_iZa ]cb]nhg] ^necpikXkbS- R. Soc. A, 2015. V. 373. P. 20140341.
iZT ^epPngg lYpanelYkPll kPnhlbnik c clilbl_ni [3] Starik A.M., Pelevkin A.V., Titova N.S. Modeling study
C  CH2 g ^pgbn_\NFlal enk`Pl]al p`lgbnil] clil- of the acceleration of ignition in ethane-air and natural
bl_nik apbn`\bpT O2(a1$g), ^ephn`kNFlal g akbZal gas-air mixtures via photochemical excitation of oxygen
RkeSnekal (hp On lannh anghp l gb\Xkn incpYR\O- molecules // Combust. Flame, 2017. V. 176. P. 81–93.
_niipT apbn`\bZ O2(X 3g ) [8]). @el Hhpa p`kYkbpgS, [4] Sharipov A.S., Pelevkin A.V. Reaction kinetics of CO
Xhp cnblXlik RkeSnek _b] ^epPnggk lYpanelYkPll and CH4 molecules with O2 in excited electronic
(Ea  1,865 HE [8]) aniSKn, Xna _b] ^epPnggk pheZck states: quantum chemical study // Nonequilibrium
khpak cp_pep_k ph apbn`\bZ C2H2. 3k`la pRekYpa, processes. Eds. S.M. Frolov and A. I. Lanshin,
apOip cZ_nblhS gbn_\NFlT Re\hhp-^epPngg Moscow: TORUS PRESS. V. 1 (in press).
[5] Sharipov A.S., Starik A.M. Theoretical Study of
C2H2  O2(a1$g) " C  CH2  O2(a1$g) " ^ep_\`hZ,
the Reaction of Ethane with Oxygen Molecules in
`phpeZT blalhle\nhg] laniip RkeSnepa lYpanel- the Ground Triplet and Singlet Delta States // J. Phys.
YkPll kPnhlbnik, k nUp ^ep_\`hkal ]cb]Nhg], UbkciZa Chem. A., 2012. V. 116. P. 8444–8454.

104
Bn`Pl] 3 «3npenhlXng`k] l ^el`bk_ik] UkYpck] _likal`k. /peniln l `kaneZ gUpekil]»

[6] Park K., West A., Raheja E. et al. Singlet and triplet Uncovered // J. Phys. Chem. A., 2007. V. 111. P. 8013–8019.
potential surfaces for the O2  C2H4 reaction // [8] Laskin A., Wang H. On initiation reactions of
J. Chem. Phys., 2010. V. 133. P. 184306. acetylene oxidation in shock tubes A quantum
[7] De Vico L., Liu Y.J., Krogh J.W., Lindh R. Chemilu- mechanical and kinetic modeling study // Chem. Phys.
minescence of 1,2-Dioxetane. Reaction Mechanism Lett., 1999. Vol. 303. P. 43.

8IACDIF 'H:FDI1 ?H;H:H;H-?H3;-DH) A7FAI A IA8H=.3H?CDIF7


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5... =k_pXil`pc, 5.E. :egnihSnc1
1
/@ «5:< la. @.5. kekipck», <pg`ck
e-mail: inkadochnikov@ciam.ru

1. &?F;FDIF ap_nbS =\YinPpck l ap_nbS, RkYle\NFk]g] ik ^eliPl^n


g\aalepckil] g`pepghnT HbnanihkeiZW `kikbpc Wlal-
Ebl]iln inekcipcngipUp cpYR\O_nil] ci\heniilW Xng`lW enk`PlT [5], ^p`kYkcKk] cZgp`\N hpXipghS
ghn^ninT gcpRp_Z khpapc l apbn`\b ik `linhl`\ Upenil] ^el p^lgkill inekcipcngiZW ^epPnggpc Yk Mepihpa
k`hlcip pRg\O_knhg] c blhnekh\en. 3k`, ^p`kYkik cpYapO- \_keipT cpbiZ.
ipghS lihniglMl`kPll Upenil] gangl cp_pep_k l
`lgbpep_k ^el cpYR\O_nill Hbn`hepiiZW l `pbnRk- 3. 0F3-=.>C>2 :C#H>2
hnbSiZW ghn^ninT gcpRp_Z apbn`\b [1]. 3k`On ^p`kYkip
Ykanhipn cbl]iln Yk_neO`l `pbnRkhnbSip-^pgh\^k- B lg^pbSYpckilna \epcincpT l ap_pcZW ap_nbnT
hnbSipT enbk`gkPll ik ekYane _nhpikPlpiipT ]XnT`l [2]. ^epcn_nik gnel] ekgXnhpc Upenil] cp_pep_p-cpY_\KipT
E _kiiZW lggbn_pckil]W _b] p^lgkil] cbl]il] gangl, lilPllepckiipUp \_keipT cpbipT, ^el hna^n-
`pbnRkhnbSipT inekcipcngipghl ik `linhl`\ Upenil] ekh\ekW Yk Mepihpa c _lk^kYpin T  1000…2000 =.
lg^pbSYpckblgS ap_pcZn ap_nbl, \XlhZckNFln gen_iNN @p`kYkip, Xhp Ykgnbniipghl `pbnRkhnbSiZW \epcinT
`pbnRkhnbSi\N HineUlN apbn`\b]eipT ap_Z. .p gpcen- apbn`\b c Ypin Upenil] Yk \_keipT cpbipT RblY`l
aniiZn `pa^SNhneZ _kNh cpYapOipghS lg^pbSYpckhS ` ekg^en_nbnil]a pbSPakik, l hpXipghS ap_pcpT
Rpbnn hpXiZn \epcincZn ap_nbl, c `phpeZW ekggakhel- ap_nbl ^el lg^pbSYpckill ap_nbl _b] Mk`hpepc
cknhg] _likal`k Ykgnbniipghl `kO_pUp ph_nbSipUp inekcipcngipghl, ^en_bpOniipT c [5], ^ek`hlXng`l
`pbnRkhnbSipUp \epci] enkUle\NFlW apbn`\b. in phblXknhg] ph hpXipghl \epcincpUp ^elRblOnil].
%kiik] ekRphk ^pgc]Fnik Xlgbniipa\ lggbn_p- (kgXnhZ ^p`kYkbl, Xhp apbn`\b]eiZT kYph apOip
ckilN `linhl`l Upenil] cp_pep_p-cpY_\KipT gangl gXlhkhS WlalXng`l linehiZa ^p phipKnilN ` RZghep
Yk Mepihpa \_keipT cpbiZ g lg^pbSYpckilna `k` \epc- ^ephn`kNFla Pn^iZa enk`Pl]a Upenil] cp_pep_k,
incZW, hk` l ap_pcZW ap_nbnT. lilPllepckiipUp \_keipT cpbipT, ip _b] ^ekclbSipUp
p^lgkil] ^epPnggk `pbnRkhnbSip-^pgh\^khnbSipT enbk`-
2. 8IACDIF 7H;F=F) gkPll cp_pep_p-cpY_\KipT gangl inpRWp_lap \XlhZckhS
`pbnRkhnbSip-`pbnRkhnbSiZn pRaniZ g apbn`\bkal N2.
epcinck] ap_nbS _b] cp_pep_p-cpY_\KipT gangl :ikblY cbl]il] `pbnRkhnbSipT inekcipcngipghl
^pghepnik ik pgipcn ekYekRphkiipT ekinn \epcincpT ik `linhl`\ Upenil] cp_pep_p-cpY_\KipT gangl
ap_nbl _b] cpY_\KipT ^bkYaZ [3] l ^pYcpb]nh p^lgZ- ^p`kYkb cZgp`\N X\cghclhnbSipghS enY\bShkhpc ekgXn-
ckhS inekcipcngipn `pbnRkhnbSipn cpYR\O_niln _c\W- hpc ` YikXnilN `pighkih g`pepghl `pbnRkhnbSip-
khpaiZW apbn`\b N2, O2, H2 l OH. =linhlXng`k] gWnak ^pgh\^khnbSipT enbk`gkPll kYphk ^el gp\_kenill
_b] p^lgkil] Upenil] cp_pep_k c cpY_\Wn pgipckik g cp_pep_pa. =pighkihZ g`pepghl _kiiZW ^epPnggpc
ik gWnan lY ekRphZ [4] l \XlhZcknh WlalXng`ln i\O_kNhg] c \hpXinill.
enk`Pll g \Xkghlna enkUnihpc c ekYblXiZW Hbn`hepi-
iZW gpghp]il]W. 4. C<=(6FDIF
3k`On ekgXnhZ ^epcp_lblgS g ^elaninilna
ap_pcZW ap_nbnT, c `phpeZW lg^pbSYpckblgS ekYblX- @p`kYkip, Xhp \Xnh Yk_neO`l `pbnRkhnbSip-^pgh\-
iZn anhp_Z p^en_nbnil] Mk`hpepc inekcipcngipghl: ^khnbSipT enbk`gkPll ckOni ^el p^lgkill `linhl`l

105
EgnepgglTg`k] ik\Xip-hnWilXng`k] `piMneniPl] apbp_ZW \XniZW l g^nPlkblghpc
«:clkPlpiiZn _clUkhnbl l glbpcZn \ghkipc`l», <pg`ck, 28-30 ak] 2019 U.

Upenil] cp_pep_p-cpY_\KipT gangl Yk \_keipT cpbipT. on Detonation Cell Size // Combustion Science and
%b] \Xnhk `pbnRkhnbSipT inekcipcngipghl Pnbngp- Technology. 2017. Vol. 198, No. 5. P. 841-853.
pRekYip lg^pbSYpckhS ap_pcpn ^elRblOniln. [3] Kadochnikov I.N., Arsentiev I.V. Kinetics of nonequi-
(kRphk cZ^pbinik ^el MlikigpcpT ^p__neO`n librium processes in air plasma formed behind shock
(5 (UekihZ 18-31-00140 l 17-01-00810). waves: state-to-state consideration // J. Phys. D: Appl.
Phys. 2018. Vol. 51. P. 374001(22 p.)
8IAH< IA8H=.3H?CDD2+ IA>H6DI<H? [4] Starik A.M., Pelevkin A.V., Titova N.S. Modeling
study of the acceleration of ignition in ethane–air and
[1] StarikA.M., Loukhovitski B.I., SharipovA.S., Titova N.S. natural gas–air mixtures via photochemical excitation
Intensification of shock-induced combustion by of oxygen molecules // Combustion and Flame. 2017.
electric-discharge-excited oxygen molecules: numeri- Vol. 176. P. 81–93.
cal study // Combustion Theory and Modelling. 2010. [5] Arsentiev I.V., Loukhovitski B.I., Starik A.M. Applica-
Vol. 14, No. 5. P. 653–679. tion of state-to-state approach in estimation of thermally
[2] Shi L., Shen H., Zhang P., Zhang D., Wen C. nonequilibrium reaction rate constants in mode approxi-
Assessment of Vibrational Non-Equilibrium Effect mation // Chemical Physics. 2012. Vol. 389. P. 73–80.

 ?2#H:F C<>H:C DF:C?DH?FADHA>I 8:I H8IACDII


?HA8=C7FDFDI1 ?H;H:H;C 3C -;C:DH) ?H=DH)
5.E. :egnihSnc, 5... =k_pXil`pc1
1
/@ «5:< la. @.5. kekipck», <pg`ck
e-mail: ivarsentev@ciam.ru

1. &?F;FDIF %b] p^lgkil] `pbnRkhnbSipUp cpYR\O_nil] `pa^p-


inihpc O2, N2, H2 l OH lg^pbSYpckbkgS ap_nbS bp`kbS-
!k ^pgbn_iln _ng]hlbnhl] RZbp ekYekRphkip iZW `pbnRkhnbSiZW hna^nekh\e. %b] p^en_nbnil]
aipOnghcp `linhlXng`lW ap_nbnT, p^lgZckNFlW cbl]il] `pbnRkhnbSipT hna^nekh\eZ `pa^pinihpc
cpg^bkaniniln l Upeniln ekYblXiZW cl_pc hp^blck ik g`pepghl WlalXng`lW enk`PlT, k hk`On lYaninil]
c Klep`pa _lk^kYpin \gbpclT. hl ap_nbl Xkghp `pbnRkhnbSipT HineUll apbn`\b c Wp_n WlalXng`lW
lg^pbSY\Nhg] _b] ap_nblepckil] ^epPnggpc cpg^bk- enk`PlT lg^pbSYpckbkgS ap_nbS, ^en_bpOniik] c [2].
aninil] c inekcipcngiZW \gbpcl]W, ip `pbnRkhnbSipn E ikghp]Fnn cena] _b] ^pb\Xnil] \epcincZW
cpYR\O_niln in cgnU_k \XlhZcknhg] ^el hk`pa ap_nbl- `pighkih g`pepghl _b] in`phpeZW `pi`enhiZW enk`PlT
epckill lbl ekggakhelcknhg] c eka`kW ^epghZW lih\l- lipU_k lg^pbSY\nhg] ^p_Wp_ `ckYl`bkgglXng`lW hekn`-
hlciZW ap_nbnT. hpeiZW ekgXnhpc. epcincZn `pighkihZ g`pepghl Ykhna
nbSN ikghp]FnT ekRphZ RZbp lggbn_pckiln apU\h RZhS \gen_iniZ l lg^pbSYpckiZ c ap_pcpa
ckOipghl \Xnhk Ykan_bniipUp `pbnRkhnbSipUp cpYR\O- ^elRblOnill. = gpOkbnilN, hk`ln hpXiZn ekgXnhZ
_nil] `pa^pinihpc Yk \_keipT cpbipT _b] cpg^bkan- _pgh\^iZ hpbS`p _b] ing`pbS`lW enk`PlT, Xhp _l`h\nh
inil] l Upenil] cp_pep_k c cpY_\Wn l p^en_nbniln inpRWp_lapghS lg^pbSYpckil] aninn hpXiZW inekcip-
cbl]il] cZRpek inekcipcngipT ap_nbl ik ap_nblep- cngiZW ap_nbnT. @p`kYkip, Xhp ^p_Wp_ [2] WpepKp
ckiln Yk_neO`l cpg^bkaninil]. gpUbkg\nhg] g enY\bShkhkal hekn`hpeiZW ekgXnhpc _b]
enk`PlT _lggpPlkPll l pRanik. i hk`On RZb \g^nKip
2. A8H=.3-F72F 7H;F=I lg^pbSYpcki ekinn ^el ap_nblepckill inekcipcngiZW
^epPnggpc c kYphn Yk glbSiZal \_keiZal cpbikal.
5g^pbSY\nak] `linhlXng`k] ap_nbS \XlhZckbk
WlalXng`ln enk`Pll, ^epPnggZ `pbnRkhnbSip-^pgh\^k- 3. 0F3-=.>C>2 7H;F=I:H?CDI1
hnbSiZW l `pbnRkhnbSip-`pbnRkhnbSiZW pRanipc.
%kiiZn pR \Xkghc\NFlW `pa^pinihkW l `pighkihkW :ikblY ^epcp_lbg] _b] cpg^bkaninil] cp_pep_k
g`pepghl WlalXng`lW enk`PlT RZbl cZRekiZ c gpph- Yk \_keipT cpbipT c gang]W H2 / cpY_\W  5/95 l 20/80
cnhghcll g ap_nbSN [1]. :Yph \XlhZckbg] `k` Wlal- ^el ekYblXiZW g`pepgh]W \_keipT cpbiZ, gpphcnhgh-
Xng`l linehiZT ekYRkclhnbS. c\NFlW hna^nekh\en Yk Mepihpa c _lk^kYpin

106
Bn`Pl] 3 «3npenhlXng`k] l ^el`bk_ik] UkYpck] _likal`k. /peniln l `kaneZ gUpekil]»

Bekciniln Mk`hpepc inekcipcngipghl enk`Pll R2


^en_ghkcbnip ik elg. 2. =k` cl_ip, lW YkclglapghS
ph `pbnRkhnbSipT hna^nekh\eZ enkUnihpc gpUbkgip [3]
in pXniS glbSik]. <p_nbS [2] ^en_g`kYZcknh inaipUp
Rpbnn glbSi\N YkclglapghS, k ap_nbS =\YinPpck
glbSip YkilOknh Mk`hpe ^el Tv  T.
(nY\bShkhZ, ^pb\XniiZn g ^papFSN ap_lMlPl-
epckiipT ap_nbl, ^p`kYkiZ ^\i`hleiZal blil]al
ik elg. 1. <p_lMlPlepckiik] ap_nbS ^pYcpb]nh b\XKn
cpg^eplYcnghl H`g^nelanihkbSiZn _kiiZn. pbSKln
YikXnil] Mk`hpepc inekcipcngipghl, lg^pbSY\naZW
c HhpT ap_nbl ^el Tv  T, ^pYcpblbl \g`pelhS enk`Pll
ekYcnhcbnil] Pn^l l ^pb\XlhS Rpbnn `peph`\N Ypi\
0IA. 1. Eena] Yk_neO`l cpg^bkaninil] cp_pep_k Yk_neO`l cpg^bkaninil].
c gangl H2 / cpY_\W  5/95 `kYkbpgS, Xhp Rpbnn hpXiZn ap_nbl inekcipcng-
ipghl apU\h _khS RblY`ln lbl _kOn Rpbnn `peph`ln
YikXnil] _bliZ li_\`Pll, Xna ^el lg^pbSYpckill
hnealXng`l ekcipcngipT ap_nbl (KhelW-^\i`hleik]
blil] ik elg. 1). hp pR]gi]nhg], cp-^necZW, Rpbnn
ilY`pT ^pgh\^khnbSipT hna^nekh\epT gekY\ Yk Mepihpa,
k g _e\UpT ghpepiZ – ^nenpPni`pT `pighkih g`pepghl,
`phpeZn c Hhpa gb\Xkn ekciZ ekcipcngiZa. @el
ekggaphenill _e\UlW ikXkbSiZW \gbpclT l `pHMMl-
Plnihk lYRZh`k hp^blck lg^pbSYpckiln Rpbnn hpXipT
inekcipcngipT ap_nbl apOnh `k` g_cli\hS cena]
Yk_neO`l YkOlUkil] c ghpepi\ Rpbnn cZgp`lW YikXnilT,
`k` apOip RZbp pOl_khS, hk` l, ikpRpeph, gp`ekhlhS
_bli\ YpiZ cpg^bkaninil].
0IA. 2. k`hpe inekcipcngipghl enk`Pll R2
^el T  1200 = (c^bpKik] blil] – ap_nbS [2],
KhelWpck] – [3], ^\i`hleik] – ap_nbS =\YinPpck) 4. C<=(6FDIF
ph 1100 _p 2000 =. Eena] Yk_neO`l cpg^bkaninil] 5Y\Xnip cbl]iln Ykan_bniipT `pbnRkhnbSipT
gekcilckbpgS g H`g^nelanihkbSip ^pb\XniiZal c [4] enbk`gkPll ik ^epPngg cpg^bkaninil] cp_pep_k c cpY-
YikXnil]al, Xhp ^p`kYkip ik elg. 1 (g^bpKiZn blill) _\Wn. @p`kYkip, Xhp cZRpe ap_nbl Mk`hpek inekcipcng-
_b] ^necpUp gb\Xk]. ipghl p`kYZcknh g\Fnghcniipn cbl]iln ik ^en_g`kYk-
%b] gekcinil], ^\i`hleiZal blil]al ik elg. 1 il] cenanil Yk_neO`l cpg^bkaninil]. 5g^pbSYpckiln
^en_ghkcbniZ ekgXnhZ g lg^pbSYpckilna ap_nbl Mk`- ap_nbl [2], c phblXln ph ap_nbl =\YinPpck, ^pYcpb]nh
hpek inekcipcngipghl =\YinPpck, Klep`p lg^pbSY\napT ^pb\XlhS ekY\aipn gpUbkgln g enY\bShkhkal H`g^nel-
lggbn_pckhnb]al. El_ip, Xhp ap_nbS =\YinPpck glbSip anihpc Yk \_keipT cpbipT. hpRZ \b\XKlhS gpc^k-
YkcZKknh cena] Yk_neO`l cpg^bkaninil], l Hhk cnbl- _niln, apOip lg^pbSYpckhS Rpbnn hpXiZn _kiiZn
Xlik X\cghclhnbSik ` lg^pbSY\napT ap_nbl inekcip- `ckYl`bkgglXng`lW hekn`hpeiZW ekgXnhpc _b] iklRpbnn
cngipghl. 3k`On cl_ip, Xhp ap_nbS [2] hpOn in ^pYcp- ckOiZW enk`PlT.
b]nh ^pb\XlhS hpXipn gpc^k_niln g H`g^nelanihkbS- =pbnRkhnbSik] inekcipcngipghS cbl]nh ik Yk_neO`\
iZal _kiiZal l i\O_knhg] c ap_lMl`kPll. cpg^bkaninil] _c\a] ^ephlcp^pbpOiZal anWkilY-
:ikblY ^p`kYkb, Xhp pRaniiZn enk`Pll akal. @pilOniln `pighkih g`pepghl enk`Pll lY-Yk
in_pcpYR\O_nil] `pbnRkhnbSiZW ghn^ninT gcpRp_Z
H  O2  OH  O, (R1)
enkUnihpc \cnblXlcknh Yk_neO`\ cpg^bkaninil], ip
O  H2  OH  H (R2) Rpbnn cZgp`k] ^pgh\^khnbSik] hna^nekh\ek in^pgen_-
ckOiZ g hpX`l Yenil] ekYclhl] ^epPnggk cpg^bkan- ghcniip Yk Mepihpa \_keipT cpbiZ, ^p gekcinilN
inil] l c hp On cena] ^ephn`kNh c glbSip inekcip- gp gb\Xkna `pbnRkhnbSip-ekcipcngipT ap_nbl, \g`p-
cngiZW \gbpcl]W. k`hpeZ inekcipcngipghl _b] HhlW e]nh cpg^bkaniniln.
enk`PlT RZbl cY]hZ lY Rpbnn hpXiZW hekn`hpeiZW (kRphk cZ^pbinik ^el ^p__neO`n (5
ekgXnhpc [3]. (Uekih 18-31-00140).

107
EgnepgglTg`k] ik\Xip-hnWilXng`k] `piMneniPl] apbp_ZW \XniZW l g^nPlkblghpc
«:clkPlpiiZn _clUkhnbl l glbpcZn \ghkipc`l», <pg`ck, 28-30 ak] 2019 U.

8IAH< IA8H=.3H?CDD2+ IA>H6DI<H? in mode approximation // Chemical Physics, 2012.


Vol. 398. P. 73–80.
[1] Starik A.M., Kozlov V.E., Titova N.S. On the influ- [3] Voelkel S., Masselot D., Varghese P.L., Raman V.
ence of singlet oxygen molecules on characteristics Analysis of hydrogen-air detonation waves with vibra-
of HCCI combustion: a numerical study // tional nonequilibrium // AIP Conference Proceedings.
Combustion Theory and Modelling, 2013. Vol. 17. AIP Publishing, 2016. Vol. 1786. P. 070015.
P. 579–609. [4] Belles F.E., Lauver M.R. Effects of concentration and
[2] Arsentiev I.V., Loukhovitski B.I., Starik A.M. Appli- of vibrational relaxation on the induction period of the
cation of state-to-state approach in estimation of H2–O2 reaction // Symposium (International) on
thermally nonequilibrium reaction rate constants Combustion, 1965. Vol. 10. P. 285–293.

H;F=I:H?CDIF :CA8C;C >H8=I?DH) 8=FD<I ? DI3<H8F:F8C;DH) FD>:H-


#FDH) H:A-D<F C?ICIHDDH'H ;?I'C>F=1 7F>H;H7 H#F7C I;<HA>I
B.E. <liUkbnc1
1
: « %=-:clk_clUkhnbS», @neaS
e-mail: mingalev-sv@avid.ru

1. &?F;FDIF \On blUkanihZ ekg^k_kNhg] ik `k^bl, XSl _lkanheZ


gXlhkNhg] ^p_Xli]NFlalg] ekg^en_nbnilN (pYlik –
5ggbn_\nhg] ekg^Zb `nepglik cZgp`pg`pepghiZa (kaabnek (EnTR\bbk). hanhla, Xhp hnXniln ik ^necpa
^php`pa cpY_\Wk c ^ephpXipT Xkghl PnihepRnOipT ilY`p- Hhk^n gXlhknhg] _c\WaneiZa. E _kbSinTKna ^eplg-
^nen^k_ipT Mpeg\i`l g ^bni`ppRekY\NFnT ^pcneW- Wp_lh chpelXiZT ekg^k_ `k^nbS c pRbkghl cZgp`p-
ipghSN c pgnglaanhelXipT ^pghkipc`n anhp_pa pRnapc h\eR\bnihipUp hnXnil]. UekilXniln HhpUp ^p_Wp_k
Ol_`pghl g ^papFSN inpgen_iniiZW ^p (nTipbS_g\ gpghplh c hpa, Xhp _b] lg^pbSYpckil] HhpT ap_nbl
\ekcinilT. @kekanheZ hnXnil] RZbl cZRekiZ RblY- inpRWp_lap Yk_kiln \Ubk ekg^Zbk l ^nen^k_k g`pepghnT
`lal ` hna, `phpeZn enkblY\Nhg] ^el ^pbnhn gkapbnhk ik UekilPn ekY_nbk anO_\ ^bni`pT `nepglik l cpY_\Wpa.
ik `enTgneg`pa enOlan. 5_n] ikghp]FnUp lggbn_pckil] gpghp]bk c hpa,
@epRbnak ^pb\Xnil] Wkek`hnelghl` PnihepRnOiZW XhpRZ gap_nblepckhS g ^papFSN anhp_k pRnak
ilY`p^nen^k_iZW Mpeg\ip` cpYil`bk lY-Yk lW cin_enil] Ol_`pghl hpbS`p ^necZT Hhk^ ekg^k_k hp^blcipT ^bni`l
c `kXnghcn pgipcipUp g^pgpRk ekg^Zblckil] hp^blck lY ap_nbl LISA, pghkck]gS c eka`kW lg^pbSY\napUp
c `kanekW gUpekil] c ipcZW kclkPlpiiZW _clUkhnb]W. c ap_nbl LISA ^elRblOnil] _c\WaneipUp hnXnil]
E enY\bShkhn H`g^nelanihkbSiZn l XlgbniiZn ^p_Wp_Z, g inRpbSKla lYaninilna HhpT k^^ep`glakPll.
ekYekRphkiiZn ekinn _b] cZgp`p^nen^k_iZW Mpeg\ip`, hp lYaniniln gpghplh c hpa, Xhp ekggakhelcknhg]
ghp]cKlW, c Xkghipghl, c `kanen gUpekil] _clUkhnb] in ^bpg`pn hnXniln, k pgnglaanhelXipn, c eka`kW
@B-90: [1], p`kYZckNhg] in^elanilaZ. `phpepUp ap_nble\nhg] lYaniniln henW `pa^pinihpc
lgbniipn ap_nblepckiln anhp_pa pRnapc g`pepghl, ip pil gXlhkNhg] inYkclg]Flal ph kYla\-
Ol_`pghl ekg^k_k Yk`e\XniipT ^bni`l c cpY_\Wn hkbSipUp \Ubk.
henR\nh lg^pbSYpckil] YikXlhnbSiZW cZXlgblhnbSiZW 3k`pT ^p_Wp_ g p_ipT ghpepiZ ^pYcpb]nh `ekhip
eng\egpc. @p HhpT ^elXlin c RpbSKlighcn liOnine- \aniSKlhS inpRWp_laZn _b] ^epcn_nil] ekgXnhk ekg^Zbk
iZW ekgXnhpc _kiiZT Hhk^ c ^epPnggn ^p_Uphpc`l g ^papFSN ap_nbl pRnak Ol_`pghl cZXlgblhnbSiZn
hp^blcp-cpY_\KipT gangl ik^e]a\N in ap_nble\nhg]. eng\egZ, k g _e\UpT ghpepiZ – in henR\nh Yk_kil] \Ubk
Eanghp HhpUp ikXkbSiZn YikXnil] _lkanhepc `k^nbS ekg^Zbk l ^nen^k_k g`pepghnT ik UekilPn ekY_nbk
Yk_kNhg] ik pgipckill H`g^nelanihkbSiZW _kiiZW, anO_\ ^bni`pT `nepglik l cpY_\Wpa. %kiiZn p cZh]-
blRp lg^pbSY\nhg] ^elRblOniip-kikblhlXng`k] ap_nbS i\hZW gU\gh`kW `nepglik (blUkanihkW) c _kbSinTKna
LISA (Linearized Instability Sheet Atomization) [2], apU\h RZhS lg^pbSYpckiZ _b] ^pb\Xnil] ekYanepc `k^nbS
`phpek] ekYRlcknh Hhph ^epPngg ik _ck Hhk^k: gikXkbk c eka`kW hnW Mpea\b, `phpeZn YkbpOniZ c ap_nbS
^bni`k ekg^k_knhg] c enY\bShkhn ekYclhl] in\ghpTXl- LISA. .kT_niiZn hk`la pRekYpa Wkek`hnelghl`l
cpghl =nbSclik –J/nbSaUpbSPk ik blUkanihZ (_bliiZn g^en] `k^nbS Ykhna RZbl lg^pbSYpckiZ ^el ekgXnhn
Plbli_elXng`ln Yka`i\hZn pRnaZ Ol_`pghl), k Ykhna Upenil] c `nepglipcpT `kanen gUpekil].

108
Bn`Pl] 3 «3npenhlXng`k] l ^el`bk_ik] UkYpck] _likal`k. /peniln l `kaneZ gUpekil]»

2. HA>CDH?<C 3C;C6I
%b] hpUp, XhpRZ enKkhS Yk_kX\ c pgnglaanhelXipT
^pghkipc`n, c Unpanhell lggbn_\napT hp^blcipT Mpe-
g\i`l RZbk phgnXnik nn XkghS, gp_neOkFk] hp^blciZn
`kikbZ l YkclWelhnbl. E enY\bShkhn RZbk ^pb\Xnik
pgnglaanhelXik] Unpanhel], ^p`kYkiik] ik elg. 1.
.k cWp_kW c ekgXnhi\N pRbkghS 1 l 2 Yk_kNhg]
g`pepghl c cl_n lW YkclglapghnT ph ek_lkbSipT `ppe-
_likhZ. hl Ykclglapghl RZbl ^pb\XniZ lY ^pbipUp
henWaneipUp ekgXnhk `kaneZ gUpekil] c enY\bShkhn
pgen_inil] ikT_niiZW lY inUp g`pepghnT ^p kYla\h\.
3enWaneiZT ekgXnh cZ^pbi]bg] ik Ue\RpT gnh`n 0IA. 1. /npanhel] ekgXnhipT pRbkghl
g ak`glakbSiZa ekYanepa ]XnT`l ekgXnhipT gnh`l
100 a`a l _c\`ekhipT k_k^hkPlnT gnh`l ik UekilPn
ekY_nbk.

3. 0F3-=.>C>2
E enY\bShkhn ekgXnhk RZbl ^pb\XniZ c ekYiZW
gnXnil]W Mpeg\i`l ekg^en_nbnil] blUkanihpc ^p ekY-
aneka, ekg^en_nbnil] lW akggpcZW ekgWp_pc ^p ek_lkbS-
ipT `ppe_likhn, k hk`On Ykclglapghl g`pepghnT blUk-
anihpc ph lW _lkanhek.
BbkRk] YkclglapghS enY\bShkhk ph ekYanek ]XnT`l
0IA. 2. 3na^nekh\eipn ^pbn _b] z  3 aa
ekgXnhipT gnh`l RZbk ^pb\Xnik _b] ekYanepc Hbnanihk
0,78125 l 1,5625 a`a c gb\Xkn g`pepghnT `k^nbS l lW
ekYanepc. (kg^pbpOniln ^php`pc `k^nbS gbkRp Ykclglh
ph ekgXnhipT gnh`l _kOn _b] Ue\RZW gnhp` g ekYanepa
Hbnanihk 6,5 a`a. @el Hhpa gnhpXipT gWp_lapghl
^p ekgWp_ka Ol_`pghl in \_kbpgS _pRlhSg] _kOn ik
gkapT anb`pT gnh`n g ekYanepa Hbnanihk 0,78125 a`a.
Bnh`k g ekYanepa Hbnanihk 0,78125 a`a gpghp]bk
lY 200 abi. ]Xnn`. (kgXnh 10 ag HcpbNPll glghnaZ
ik HhpT gnh`n ^phenRpckb lg^pbSYpckil] c hnXniln
^pb\Up_k 30 _cnik_Pkhl]_neiZW \Ybpc `bkghnek.
@pb\XniiZn c ekgXnhn Wkek`hnelghl`l `k^nbS
c gnXnil]W g pgncpT `ppe_likhpT z  3; 4,5 l 6 aa RZbl 0IA. 3. 3na^nekh\eipn ^pbn _b] z  4,5 aa
lg^pbSYpckiZ c `kXnghcn ikXkbSipUp ekg^en_nbnil]
`k^nbS ^el ekgXnhn Upenil] c `kanen gUpekil].
E enY\bShkhn ekgXnhk RZbl ^pb\XniZ \gen_iniiZn
^p cenanil ^pb] hna^nekh\e (elg. 2 – elg. 4). =kO_ZT
lY elg\i`pc gpphcnhghc\nh ekgXnh\, cZ^pbiniipa\
_b] ikXkbSipUp ekg^en_nbnil] `k^nbS, Yk_kiipUp
c ekYiZW gnXnil]W Mpeg\i`l.
5Y ^en_ghkcbniiZW elg\i`pc apOip g_nbkhS
cZcp_ p hpa, Xhp cZRpe gnXnil], c `phpepa Yk_kNhg]
lghpXil`l XkghlP, p`kYZcknh inRpbSKpn cbl]iln
ik ekg^en_nbniln hna^nekh\eZ cp Mepihpcpa \ghepT-
ghcn. @el Hhpa ^pbn hna^nekh\e c OkepcpT he\Rn
in Ykclglh ph hpUp, U_n Yk_kNhg] lghpXil`l `k^nbS. 0IA. 4. 3na^nekh\eipn ^pbn _b] z  6 aa

109
EgnepgglTg`k] ik\Xip-hnWilXng`k] `piMneniPl] apbp_ZW \XniZW l g^nPlkblghpc
«:clkPlpiiZn _clUkhnbl l glbpcZn \ghkipc`l», <pg`ck, 28-30 ak] 2019 U.

4. C<=(6FDIF cnhghc\nh enOla\ ^neMpelepckiipT Ol_`pT ^bni`l ik


UekilPn nUp ^nenWp_k c enOla ekg^k_k ik gnUanihZ
@pb\Xnip, Xhp ngbl ekggakhelckhS kigkaRbS blUk- ^bni`l c gpphcnhghcll g `bkgglMl`kPlnT lY [3].
anihpc, hp iklRpbnn lW cnep]hiZT ekYane ^pgbn ekg^k_k
^bni`l ekcni 11 a`a g ekYRepgpa YikXnilT _p 30 a`a. 8IAH< IA8H=.3H?CDD2+ IA>H6DI<H?
5Y HhlW _kiiZW, lg^pbSY\] Mpea\b\ lY [2] _b] ikWpO-
_nil] _lkanhek `k^nbS ^p _lkanhe\ blUkanihpc, [1] 5ipYnaPnc :.:., =pi]nc .:., <n_cn_nc E.E.,
apOip ^pb\XlhS pPni`\ iklRpbnn cnep]hipUp ekYanek .nek_S`p :.E. :clkPlpiiZT _clUkhnbS @B-90:.
`k^nbS hp^blck c 20…25 a`a. <.: lRek-=, 2007. 319 g.
.k pgipckill enY\bShkhpc ekgXnhpc ^p_hcneO_nik [2] Senecal P.K., Schmidt D.P., Nouar I. and etc.
WpepKk] g^pgpRipghS ekg^en_nbnil] EnTR\bbk Modeling high-speed viscous liquid sheet atomization
k^^ep`glalepckhS ekg^en_nbniln gU\gh`pc `nepglik // International Journal of Multiphase Flow, 1999.
^p ekYaneka. Vol. 25. P. 1073–1097.
3k`On ikT_nip, Xhp ekYclhln in\ghpTXlcpghl [3] Sivakumar D., Kulkarni V. Regimes of spray forma-
=nbSclik –J/nbSaUpbSPk ^elcp_lh ` ekg^k_\ hp^blc- tion in gas-centered swirl coaxial atomizers // Experi-
ipT ^bni`l ^p gPnikelN, `phpeZT `kXnghcniip gpph- ments in Fluids, 2011. Vol. 51.  3. P. 587–596.

&3CI7H;F)A>?IF -;C:DH) ?H=D2 A =H<C=.DH) DFH;DH:H;DHA>.(


? 'H:(6I+ 'C3H?2+ A7FA1+
./. B\hZeli, @.. /npeUlncg`lT, E.:. ncli1
1
.55 anWkil`l </ lanil <.E. papipgpck, <pg`ck
e-mail: sutyrin@imec.msu.ru

1. &?F;FDIF _nMpeakPl] l inp_ipep_ipn \g`peniln ^\YZe], Unin-


ekPl] ekYipakgKhkRipT YkclWeniipghl, h\eR\bnihipn
EYklap_nTghcln \_keiZW cpbi g ekYblXiZal ^nenanKlckiln UkYpc l Mp`\glepc`k g`kX`pc \^bphin-
inp_ipep_ipgh]al lannh anghp cp aipUlW pRbkgh]W, il]. @pgbn_ilT HMMn`h ^en_ghkcb]nh pgpRZT lihneng
c`bNXk] glghnaZ cZgp`pg`pepghipUp gUpekil]. =pihep- c eka`kW Yk_kXl lilPllepckil] Upenil], l ^pHhpa\
ble\naZn ^elbpOnil] hk`lW hnXnilT apU\h ^pcZKkhS Mp`\glepc`k cpbiZ hk`On k`hlcip lggbn_\nhg]
HMMn`hlcipghS ganKlckil] `pa^pinih l \b\XKkhS c ^pgbn_inn cena]. Egn pgipciZn ^kekanheZ Yk_kXl –
Wkek`hnelghl`l Upenil], hpU_k `k` in`pihepble\naZn lihniglcipghS cpbiZ, ^bphipghS UkYk c ^\YZen l
cYklap_nTghcl] apU\h RZhS cen_pipgiZal Yk gXnh nUp Mpeak – lUekNh ckOi\N epbS ^el p^en_nbnill
gpY_kil] inOnbkhnbSiZW hn^bpcZW l anWkilXng`lW enOlak ^enbpabnil] cpbiZ l lihniglcipghl Mp`\gl-
ikUe\Yp`. =bNXncZn HMMn`hZ hk`lW hnXnilT Xkghp epc`l [5]. =k` ^ekclbp, _b] cZh]i\hZW ^\YZenT enkbl-
lY\XkNhg] c eka`kW Yk_kXl p cYklap_nTghcll \_keipT Y\nhg] ci\heniilT enOla Mp`\glepc`l (Type-II, [6]),
cpbiZ g enkUle\NFla UkYpcZa ^\YZena, c glb\ ^elcp_]FlT ` Rpbnn cZgp`la ^l`pcZa YikXnil]a
^elg\hghcl] c inT Klep`pUp ikRpek \_keip-cpbipcZW _kcbnil], Xna cinKiln enOlaZ (Type-I) l, Xhp in aninn
`piMlU\ekPlT, Ul_ep_likalXng`lW in\ghpTXlcpghnT ckOip, pRbkghS iklRpbnn cZgp`pUp _kcbnil] l hna^n-
l ekYblXiZW Mepihpc WlalXng`lW enk`PlT. ekh\eZ ^el Hhpa ekg^pbkUknhg] ci\hel ^\YZe].
.kXlik] g ^necZW H`g^nelanihpc [1], _kiik] Yk_kXk gipcZck]gS ik HhlW _kiiZW, apOip ^en_^pbp-
k`hlcip lggbn_\nhg] c ikghp]Fnn cena]. .k pgipcn OlhS, Xhp lilPllepckiln Upenil] l _nhpikPll gangl
^epcn_niipUp in_kcip XlgbniipUp ap_nblepckil] apOnh ^eplgWp_lhS `k` alila\a c henW enOlakW:
cZ]cbnip, Xhp enOla cpg^bkaninil] – _nMbkUekPl] 1) ^e]apn cpg^bkaniniln gangl _pghkhpXip glbSipT
lbl _nhpikPl] – Ykclglh ph lgWp_ipUp _kcbnil] gangl ^k_kNFnT cpbipT;
[2] l lihniglcipghl ^k_kNFnT \_keipT cpbiZ [3], 2) cpg^bkaniniln cRblYl hepTipT hpX`l \_keip-
k ekg^epghekiniln Mepihk ^bkanil Ykan_b]nh ^nenan- cpbipcpT `piMlU\ekPll, Mpeale\NFnTg] c ^\YZen
Klckiln UkYpc [4]. ^el ^enbpabnill Rpbnn gbkRpT ^k_kNFnT cpbiZ;
5YcnghiZ `bNXncZn ]cbnil], gp^\hghc\NFln 3) cpg^bkaniniln gangl c hpX`n Mp`\glepc`l
cYklap_nTghclN \_keipT cpbiZ g UkYpcZa ^\YZena: ^p^nenXiZW g`kX`pc \^bphinil] ci\hel ^\YZe].

110
Bn`Pl] 3 «3npenhlXng`k] l ^el`bk_ik] UkYpck] _likal`k. /peniln l `kaneZ gUpekil]»

E ikghp]FnT ekRphn Xlgbniip ap_nble\nhg] cYklap- `lgbpep_k l kYphk c gpphipKnill 1 ` 4, k ^\YZeS Yk^pb-
_nTghcln \_keipT cpbiZ g enkUle\NFla Hbbl^gpl- ini ghnWlpanhelXng`pT ^ep^kip-`lgbpep_ipT gangSN
_kbSiZa ^\YZena UkYk c _c\aneipT ^pghkipc`n. g _pRkcbnilna kYphk l `gnipik (1, 5, 5 l 15 XkghnT
`e\OkNFlT ^\YZeS cpY_\W ap_nble\nhg] gangSN gpphcnhghcniip), hk` Xhp phipKniln ^bphipghnT gpghkc-
b]nh 3,1. (kggapheniZ ekYblXiZn Xlgbk <kWk ^k_kNFnT
cpbiZ l phipKnil] ^pb\pgnT ^\YZe].
%b] XlgbniipUp ap_nblepckil] ^elani]Nhg]
\ekcinil] Tbnek _b] gangl gpcneKniiZW UkYpc
c ekcipcngipa p_iphna^nekh\eipa l p_ipg`pepghipa
^elRblOnill, k hk`On p_ipghk_lTik] `linhl`k
Upenil] ^ep^kik [7].
(kgXnhZ ^epcp_]hg] `pinXip-pRnaiZa anhp_pa
hl^k /p_\ipck ik ^p_epRipT p_ipep_ipT gnh`n g `ck_-
ekhiZal ]XnT`kal g ^papFSN MPI-ekg^kekbbnbl-
ckil].

0IA. 1. «=picneUnihiZT» enOla ^enbpabnil] cpbiZ:


akggpck] _pb] `gnipik l lYpblill _kcbnil]; 2. C3H;IDC7I<C >F6FDI1 I :FI72
bis – lg`elcbniiZT ^k_kNFlT g`kXp`; ?HA8=C7FDFDI1
rs l ts – phekOniiZT l hekigblepckiiZT g`kX`l;
@elcn_niZ in`phpeZn gb\Xkl cpg^bkaninil]
ib l sb – lgWp_ik] l \_keip-gOkhk] Xkghl Plbli_ek;
tp – hepTik] hpX`k UpeNXnT gangl Yk gXnh cYklap_nTghcl] cpbiZ
g UkYpcZa ^\YZena.
E gpphcnhghcll g «`picneUnihiZa» enOlapa
^enbpabnil] cpbiZ (elg. 1) apOip cZ_nblhS hel
`bNXncZW ghk_ll hnXnil]: ^epil`ipcniln \_keipT
cpbiZ ci\heS ^\YZe], Mpealepckiln henW\_keipT
`piMlU\ekPll tp g pRbkghSN ^pcZKniipT hna^nek-
h\eZ Yk inT, l _kbSinTKk] Mp`\glepc`k ^p^nenXiZW
g`kX`pc ik ^bpg`pghl glaanhell. @el _pghkhpXip
RpbSKlW XlgbkW <kWk ^k_kNFnT cpbiZ lilPll-
epckiln Upenil] gangl ^eplgWp_lh in^pgen_ghcniip
^el ^epil`ipcnill \_keipT cpbiZ c ^\YZeS (elg. 2).
%b] Rpbnn gbkRZW g`kX`pc cpg^bkaniniln apOnh
^eplgWp_lhS cRblYl henW\_keipT `piMlU\ekPll (elg. 3),
0IA. 2. @e]apn lilPllepckiln _nhpikPll ^el ^epil`ip-
cnill ^k_kNFnT cpbiZ c ^\YZeS, Xlgbp <kWk M  3,2. k _b] nFn Rpbnn gbkRZW – c pRbkghl Mp`\glepc`l
cnhpa ^p`kYkip ^pbn hna^nekh\eZ (^elcn_niZ hpbS`p ^p^nenXiZW g`kX`pc (elg. 4).
YikXnil] cZKn 1000 =, gpphcnhghc\NFln pRbkghl E ^pgbn_ina ^elanen _b] _pghlOnil] _pghkhpXipT
k`hlcipUp Upenil] lbl Yk`piXniipT enk`Pll) _b] cpg^bkaninil] lihniglcipghl Mp`\glepc`l g`kX`pc

0IA. 3. 5ilPllepckiln _nhpikPll c pRbkghl 0IA. 4. Epg^bkaniniln cRblYl hpX`l Mp`\glepc`l


Yk henW\_keipT `piMlU\ekPlnT ^el ^enbpabnill ^p^nenXiZW g`kX`pc (Xlgbp <kWk M  2,2; phipKniln
Rpbnn gbkRpT ^k_kNFnT cpbiZ (Xlgbp <kWk M  2,5) ^pb\pgnT gnXnil] UkYpcpUp Plbli_ek ekcip 1,4)

111
EgnepgglTg`k] ik\Xip-hnWilXng`k] `piMneniPl] apbp_ZW \XniZW l g^nPlkblghpc
«:clkPlpiiZn _clUkhnbl l glbpcZn \ghkipc`l», <pg`ck, 28-30 ak] 2019 U.

ci\hel ^\YZe] inpRWp_lap g\Fnghcniipn cZh]Ulckiln 8IAH< IA8H=.3H?CDD2+ IA>H6DI<H?


MpeaZ ^\YZe] c_pbS ik^ekcbnil] ekg^epghekinil]
^k_kNFnT cpbiZ. [1] Haehn N., Ranjan D., Weber C. et al. Reacting shock
@epcn_nip ^kekanhelXng`pn lggbn_pckiln Yk_kXl, bubble interaction // Combustion and Flame. 2012.
p^en_nbnik YkclglapghS enOlak l bp`kblYkPll cpg^bk- 159 (3). P. 1339–1350.
aninil] ph Xlgbk <kWk ^k_kNFnT cpbiZ l MpeaZ [2] Diegelmann F., Tritschler V., Hickel S., Adams N.
UkYpcpUp ^\YZe]. On the pressure dependence of ignition and mixing in
@p`kYkip, Xhp ^palap lgWp_ipUp _kcbnil] gangl two-dimensional reactive shock-bubble interaction //
l lihniglcipghl ^k_kNFnT cpbiZ, Mpeak ^\YZe] Combustion and Flame. 2016. 163. P. 414–426.
lUeknh hk`On ckOi\N epbS, cp aipUlW gb\Xk]W pRng^n- [3] Diegelmann F., Hickel S., Adams N. Shock Mach
Xlck] lilPllepckiln Upenil] ^\YZe] Rpbnn gbkRpT number influence on reaction wave types and mixing
cpbipT, lbl ikpRpeph, phg\hghcln cpg^bkaninil] in reactive shock–bubble interaction // Combustion
^p gekcinilN gp gMnelXng`lal ^\YZe]al. and Flame. 2016. 174. P. 85–99.
[4] Diegelmann F., Hickel S., Adams N. Three-dimen-
3. C<=(6FDIF sional reacting shock–bubble interaction // Combus-
tion and Flame. 2017. 181. P. 300–314.
.k pgipcn XlgbniipUp ap_nblepckil] Yk_kXl [5] Georgievskiy P., Levin V., Sutyrin O. Interaction of
p cYklap_nTghcll \_keipT cpbiZ c cpY_\Wn g UpeNXla a shock with elliptical gas bubble // Shock Waves.
UkYpcZa ^\YZena p^lgkiZ ekYblXiZn enOlaZ 2015. 25 (4). P. 357–369.
cpg^bkaninil] gangl l ^p`kYkik lW g\Fnghcniik] [6] Ray J., Samtaney R., Zabusky N. Shock interactions
YkclglapghS `k` ph lihniglcipghl ^k_kNFnT cpbiZ, with heavy gaseous elliptic cylinders: two leeward-
hk` l ph MpeaZ ^\YZe]. side shock competition modes and a heuristic model
(kRphk cZ^pbinik c .55 anWkil`l </ lanil for interfacial circulation deposition at early times //
<.E. papipgpck g lg^pbSYpckilna eng\egpc g\^ne- Phys. Fluids. (2000) 12 (3). P. 707–716.
`pa^SNhneipUp `pa^bn`gk </ ^el XkghlXipT Mliki- [7] Westbrook C., Dryer F. Chemical kinetic modeling
gpcpT ^p__neO`n Bpcnhk ^p Uekihka ^enYl_nihk ( of hydrocarbon combustion // Progress in Energy and
(<=-3012.2019.1). Combustion Science. 1984. 10 (1). P. 1–57.

AA=F;H?CDIF ?=I1DI1 8H':CDI6DH'H A=H1 8F:F7FDDH) >H=ID2


DC >F6FDIF ? ?H3;-+H3C#H:DI<F A 8H7H.( RANS/ILES-7F>H;C
(.
. :N^pc, .:. ni_neg`lT, B.E. /bn`li, %.:. NRlapc, %.. <kaZKnc, ..:. @pbSi]`pc1
1
/@ «5:< la. @.5. kekipck», <pg`ck
e-mail: leoben@ciam.ru

1. &?F;FDIF elXiZT ikRnUkNFlT ^php` gpY_kckbg] lalhkhpepa,


\ `phpepUp p_li lY \Ubpc ^bkghliZ RZb g`pKni
E _kiipT ekRphn g ^papFSN `paRlilepckiipUp ^p_ \Ubpa 30 ` ^bpg`pghl glaanhell E! (elg. 1).
RANS/ILES-anhp_k cZgp`pUp ekYenKnil] [1] RZbp
lggbn_pckip hnXniln c ap_nbl gcneWYc\`pcpUp cpY_\Wp-
YkRpeil`k (E!) gcneWYc\`pcpUp _nbpcpUp ^kggkOleg`pUp
gkapbnhk (elg. 1) g glaanhelXiZa l inglaanhelXiZa
^pUekilXiZal gbp]al ik cWp_n. .nglaanhelXipghS
^pb] hnXnil] ik cWp_n cZYckik ekg^pbpOnilna E!
c anghn gpn_linil] `eZbk l MNYnb]Ok, ^el `phpepa
c XkghS E! ^pgh\^knh ^php` g MNYnb]Ok g hpbghZa
^pUekilXiZa gbpna, k XkghS g `eZbk – g hpi`la.
E ekRphn in ap_nblepckbg] ^bkine, _b] gpY_kil]
^pUekilXipUp gbp] ik cWp_n lg^pbSYpckblgS lalhkhpeZ
^bkinek c cl_n gpUi\hpT ^bpg`pT ^bkghliZ. .nglaanh- 0IA. 1. RFlT cl_ E! g inglaanhelXiZa lalhkhpepa

112
Bn`Pl] 3 «3npenhlXng`k] l ^el`bk_ik] UkYpck] _likal`k. /peniln l `kaneZ gUpekil]»

(kgXnhZ ^epcp_lblgS ik aipUpRbpXiZW ghe\`h\elep-


ckiiZW gnh`kW, gp_neOkFlW ^elaneip 12,5 abi. ]Xnn`.
lgbp <kWk ikRnUkNFnUp ^php`k gpghkclbp 1,9; Xlgbp
(nTipbS_gk ^p cZgphn cWp_k – 1,12
106.

2. 0F3-=.>C>2
@el kikblYn enY\bShkhpc ^pb\XniZ Wkek`hnelghl`l
^pUekilXipUp gbp] ik cWp_n c E!, ^kekanheZ inp_ip-
ep_ipghl l h\eR\bnihiZn Wkek`hnelghl`l hnXnil]
ik cZWp_n. .nglaanhelXiZT ^epMlbS ^pUekilXipUp 0IA. 2. %epggnbSiZn Wkek`hnelghl`l E!
gbp] ik cWp_n cZYckb \W\_Kniln Wkek`hnelghl` E!. g ekYblXiZal lalhkhpekal
3k`, c «\UbpcpT hpX`n» _epggnbSiZW Wkek`hnelghl`
(elg. 2) `pHMMlPlnih gpWekinil] ^pbipUp _kcbnil] #
\aniSKlbg] ik 6,7%, k `pHMMlPlnih ekgWp_k  –
ik 5,5%. lil] _epggnbSipT Wkek`hnelghl`l E!
g inglaanhelXiZa lalhkhpepa in hpbS`p g_cli\bkgS
«cbncp-cilY», ip lannh _e\U\N Mpea\. <k`gla\a #
ikRbN_knhg] ^el _e\Upa enOlan ekRphZ _clUkhnb]
g RpbSKla _epggnblepckilna. @el ^pcZKnill _epggn-
blepckil] Wkek`hnelghl`l E! \W\_KkNhg] glbSinn.
`e\Oik] l ek_lkbSik] inekcipaneipghS c «\Ubp-
cpT hpX`n» _epggnbSiZW Wkek`hnelghl` cpYepgbl
ik 7,8 l 66% gpphcnhghcniip _p YikXnilT $#0  4,4%
0IA. 3. @pbn `pHMMlPlnihk # c cZWp_ipa gnXnill E!
l $#R  3,3%. .k elg. 3 l elg. 4 ^p`kYkiZ ^pb] #
g glaanhelXiZa lalhkhpepa
c cZWp_ipa gnXnill c «\UbpcZW hpX`kW» _epggnbSiZW
Wkek`hnelghl` _b] pRplW ckelkihpc lalhkhpek. El_ip,
Xhp hnXniln g\Fnghcniip lYanilbpgS, ^pbipn _kcbniln
^pilYlbpgS cp cgna gnXnill, `epan inRpbSKpUp \Xkgh`k
gp g`pKniipT ghpepiZ ^bkghliZ.

3. C<=(6FDIF
E ekRphn ^epkikblYlepckip cbl]iln lihnUekPll
^bkinek l cpY_\WpYkRpeil`k glbpcpT \ghkipc`l gcneW-
Yc\`pcpUp _nbpcpUp ^kggkOleg`pUp gkapbnhk ik ap_nbl
E! g glaanhelXiZa l inglaanhelXiZa lalhkhpepa
^bkinek. @pb\XniZ ekg^en_nbniln ^kekanhepc hnXnil] 0IA. 4. @pbn `pHMMlPlnihk # c cZWp_ipa gnXnill E!
c ^pUekilXipa gbpn ik cWp_n c E!, _epggnbSiZn Wkek`- g inglaanhelXiZa lalhkhpepa
hnelghl`l E! l ^kekanheZ inp_ipep_ipghl ^php`k
ik cZWp_n. .np_ipep_iZT ^php` ik cWp_n ^elcp_lh 8IAH< IA8H=.3H?CDD2+ IA>H6DI<H?
` gilOnilN Wkek`hnelghl` E! c «\UbpcpT hpX`n»
_epggnbSipT Wkek`hnelghl`l: # l  \aniSKlblgS [1] NRlapc %.:. (kYekRph`k l ^elaniniln anhp_k
ik 6,7 l 5,5%, k $#0 l $#R \cnblXlblgS ik 7,8 l 66%. cZgp`pUp ekYenKnil] _b] ekgXnhk ghe\TiZW
(kRphk cZ^pbinik ^el ^p__neO`n Uekihk (5 hnXnilT anhp_ `e\^iZW clWenT // 3E3. 2012. 3. 50.
 18-08-00271.  3. B. 450–466.

113
EgnepgglTg`k] ik\Xip-hnWilXng`k] `piMneniPl] apbp_ZW \XniZW l g^nPlkblghpc
«:clkPlpiiZn _clUkhnbl l glbpcZn \ghkipc`l», <pg`ck, 28-30 ak] 2019 U.

H:F=<C 8=HA<H'H 8=C7FDI ;=1 I37F:FDI1 A?H)A>? ACI


.E. /\eniPpc1, :.E. enali1, (... =pbph\K`li1,2
1
5E3 (:., <pg`ck
2
</3 la. ... k\akik, <pg`ck
e-mail: kolotushkin.roman@gmail.com

1. &?F;FDIF _ngPniPll (55) _b] lggbn_pckil] p^hlXng`lW l hneap-


_likalXng`lW gcpTghc gkOncZW XkghlP, pRekY\NFlWg]
%kiiZn p hn^bpMlYlXng`lW gcpTghckW gkOncZW c ekYblXiZW \gbpcl]W [1].
XkghlP inpRWp_laZ _b] ekgXnhk hn^bppRanik c ^epPng-
gkW Upenil], _b] p^en_nbnil] cnblXliZ ^pUbpFnil] 2. C>F7C>I6FA<C1 7H;F=.
gpbinXipUp lYb\Xnil] YkUe]YiniiZal cpY_\Wpa g gkOn-
cZal kHepYpb]al ^pcneWipgh]al bn_il`pc, k hk`On E ikghp]FnT ekRphn ^epcn_nip lYaneniln phipKn-
_b] ekYclhl] anhp_pc _lkUipghl`l gkOl l hnW\Ubnep_k. il] cnblXli M\i`Pll `pHMMlPlnihk ^enbpabnil] E(m)
gpRpn YikXniln lannh g^n`hekbSik] YkclglapghS ik _c\W Ml`glepckiiZW _blikW cpbi 532 l 1064 ia
`pHMMlPlnihk ^pUbpFnil] c cl_lapa l RblOina 5= g ^papFSN kikblYk ka^blh\_Z glUikbpc 55, li_\Pl-
_lk^kYpin, gcn_nil] p `phpepT cngSak ^ephlcpenXlcZ. epckiiZW _c\a] bkYneiZal la^\bSgkal. hipKniln
%b] lggbn_pckil] g^n`hekbSipT Ykclglapghl `pHMMl- E(m)1064 / E(m)532 ^ep^pePlpikbSip phipKnilN ^bph-
Plnihk ^pUbpFnil] gkOl c _kiipT ekRphn lg^pbS- ipghnT HineUll Ypi_le\NFnUp bkYneipUp lYb\Xnil]
YpckbkgS Upenb`k ^bpg`pUp ^bkanil hl^k «Upenb`k Rlaser ik gpphcnhghc\NFlW _blikW cpbi ^el ekcnighcn
<k`=niik». ik ^en_ghkcb]nh gpRpT Upenb`\ ^en_ckel- ka^blh\_ glUikbpc 55, k hk`On ^el l_nihlXipa
hnbSipUp ganKnil] g \ghpTXlcZa bkalikeiZa ^bpg`la ^epghekighcniipa l cenaniipa ^epMlb]W HineUll
^bkanina, `phpek] ^pYcpb]nh bnU`p lYani]hS gpphip- bkYneipUp lYb\Xnil] ik pRplW _blikW cpbi [2]:
Kniln UpeNXnUp l p`lgblhnb], ani]hS cl_ hp^blck.
Egbn_ghcln gbkRpUp lYaninil] hna^nekh\eZ ^p pgl E(m)1064 / E(m)532  2Rlaser(532) / Rlaser(1064). (1)
^bkanil Upenb`k <k`=niik ]cb]nhg] \_pRiZa lighe\-
anihpa _b] lggbn_pckil] `linhl`l Upenil] l gkOn- 3. C<=(6FDIF
pRekYpckil]. =ckYl-p_ipaneik] ghe\`h\ek ^bkanil
(elg. 1) hk`On ^pYcpb]nh HMMn`hlcip lg^pbSYpckhS E ekRphn \ghkipcbnip, Xhp cnblXlik phipKnil]
p^hlXng`ln anhp_Z _lkUipghl`l gkOncZW XkghlP, l, E(m)1064 / E(m)532 c Ykclglapghl ph cZgphZ ik_ genYpa
c Xkghipghl, anhp_ bkYneip-li_\PlepckiipT li`ki- Upenb`l blinTip cpYekghknh ph 0,88 _p 1,0 ^el
\cnblXnill cZgphZ g 10 _p 20 aa (elg. 2). 5Ycnghip,
Xhp ekYane XkghlP gkOl \cnblXlcknhg] g cZgphpT
^bkanil. B lYaninilna ekYanek, ghe\`h\ek XkghlP
gkOl hk`On apOnh lYani]hg]. 3k`la pRekYpa, lYan-
inil] p^hlXng`lW gcpTghc, pRike\OniiZn c _kiipa
lggbn_pckill, apU\h RZhS gc]YkiZ g lYaninilna
ghe\`h\eZ gkOl c Ykclglapghl ph cZgphZ ^bkanil.

0IA. 1. BkOncpn ^bka]


8IAH< IA8H=.3H?CDD2+ IA>H6DI<H?
[1] Gurentsov E. A review on determining the refractive
index function, thermal accommodation coefficient
and evaporation temperature of light absorbing
nanoparticles suspended in gas the phase using the
laser-induced incandescence // Nanotechnology
Reviews. 2018. 7. P. 583.
[2] Therssen E, Bouvier Y, Schoemaecker-Moreau C. et
al. Determination of the ratio of soot refractive index
function E(m) at the two wavelengths 532 and 1064
0IA. 2. 5Yaniniln cnblXliZ phipKnil] M\i`Pll nm by laser induced incandescence // Appl. Phys. B.
`pHMMlPlnihk ^enbpabnil] ph cZgphZ ^bkanil 2007. 89. P. 41727.

114
Bn`Pl] 3 «3npenhlXng`k] l ^el`bk_ik] UkYpck] _likal`k. /peniln l `kaneZ gUpekil]»

C3H;IDC7I6FA<C1 H8>I7I3CI1 H:72 =H8C><I 'C3H?H) >-:#ID2


7F>H;H7 6IA=FDDH'H 7H;F=I:H?CDI1
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e-mail: kuragorony@gmail.com

1. &?F;FDIF @php`, ikRnUkNFlT ik cWp_i\N `epa`\ bp^kh`l,


ekYcnhcb]nhg] ik _cn Xkghl: XkghS _clOnhg] c_pbS g^li`l,
<nhp_kal akhnakhlXng`pUp ap_nblepckil] lggbn- _e\Uk] – c_pbS `peZhPk. h HhpT hpX`l ik bp^kh`n
_\nhg] pRhn`kiln enKnh`l ^epMlbnT UkYpcpT h\eRliZ, pRekY\nhg] bkalikeiZT ^pUekilXiZT gbpT, ghe\T`l
p^en_nb]Nhg] pRbkghl pheZck ^pUekilXipUp gbp] UkYk c `phpepa ^kekbbnbSiZ pRhn`knapT ^pcneWipghl.
ik ^pcneWipghl ^epMlb], ^epcp_lhg] ap_lMl`kPl] E in`phpepT hpX`n bkalikeiZT ^pUekilXiZT gbpT
MpeaZ ^epMlb] g PnbSN \aniSKnil] pRbkghl pheZck, hne]nh \ghpTXlcpghS l ^nenWp_lh c h\eR\bnihiZT (elg. 1).
\aniSKnil] ^phneS l lihniglcipghl clWenpRekYpckil]. @pUekigbpT apOnh pheZckhSg] ph ^pcneWipghl
Rn`h lggbn_pckil] – enKnh`k ^epMlbnT bp^k- pRhn`knapUp hnbk, Xhp ^elcp_lh ` \cnblXnilN ^phneS.
hpXipT akKliZ UkYpcpT h\eRliZ c ^php`n c]Y`pT heZc cpYil`knh ik \Xkgh`kW ^epMlb] gp YikXlhnbSipT
gOlaknapT Ol_`pghl. _lMM\YpeipghSN l RpbSKpT hpbFlipT ^pUekigbp].
B\Fnghcniipn cbl]iln c]Y`pghl c ^pUekilXipa %b] gilOnil] cnep]hipghl ^p]cbnil] pheZck ^pUeki-
gbpn ^elcp_lh ` hpa\, Xhp anO_\ gbp]al UkYk, _clO\Fl- gbp] cniPZ ^epn`hle\Nh g \aneniipT _lMM\YpeipghSN
alg] c ina, cpYil`kNh glbZ henil], `phpeZn \aniS- l hpi`lal ^pUekigbp]al. aniSKlhS ^pUekigbpT
KkNh g`pepghS ^php`k. ineUl], YkhekXlcknak] ik ^enp- apOip Yk gXnh \cnblXnil] anghipT g`pepghl.
_pbniln glb c]Y`pUp henil], ikYZcknhg] ^phne]al HineUll !k cZWp_iZal `epa`kal bp^khp` `pinXipT
ik heniln. @phnel henil] ikRbN_kNhg] cp cgnW ^pUek- hpbFliZ pRekY\nhg] ekYenOniln (_piiZT HMMn`h).
ilXiZW gbp]W. E anObp^khpXipa `kikbn ^phnel, gc]Yki- E Hh\ Ypi\ ghn`kNh ^pUekilXiZn gbpl l ^p_gkgZckNhg]
iZn g henilna c ^pUekilXipa gbpn, ikRbN_kNhg] XkghlX`l lY ]_ek ^php`k. !k enKnh`pT pRekY\nhg]
ik ^pcneWipghl bp^kh`l l ik `piPncZW (ch\bpXipT l clWenck] ghe\`h\ek, hk` ikYZcknaZT «Yk`epapXiZT
^nelMnelTipT) ^pcneWipgh]W anObp^khpXipUp `kikbk. gbn_». i ]cb]nhg] ^elXlipT g\FnghcniipT inekcip-
aneipghl ^php`k Yk enKnh`pT, Xhp phelPkhnbSip g`kYZ-
cknhg] ik ekRphn ^pgbn_\NFlW E (elg. 2). BekY\
Yk `epa`pT g`pepghl ik pgl gbn_k g\Fnghcniip aniSKn,
Xna c ]_en ^php`k. @el \_kbnill ph enKnh`l g`pepghl
c ]_en l gbn_n ^pghn^niip cZekcilckNhg] cgbn_ghcln
h\eR\bnihipUp ganKnil]. @php` ghkipclhg] p_ipep_-
iZa ^p g`pepghl, ik^ekcbnilN l _kcbnilN; cZekcil-
ckiln ^php`k ^eplgWp_lh ik ^eph]Onill, ^elaneip
ekcipa 1–1,5 KkUka enKnh`l.
0IA. 1. @nenWp_ bkalikeipUp hnXnil] c h\eR\bnihipn

2. C>F7C>I6FA<C1 7H;F=.
@phnel HineUll, gc]YkiiZn g cbl]ilna Yk`epapX-
iZW gbn_pc, c pgipcipa Ykclg]h ph gpphipKnil]
hpbFliZ cZWp_ipT `epa`l l KkUk enKnh`l:

U_n r2 – ek_l\g cZWp_ipT `epa`l bp^kh`l; t2 – KkU


enKnh`l ik cZWp_n; 2 – \Upb cZWp_k ^php`k.

3. C<=(6FDIF
nbS lggbn_pckil] gpghplh c \b\XKnill `kXnghck
pRn`hk ^\hna lYaninil] Unpanhell, ik^ekcbniipUp
0IA. 2. !k`epapXiZT gbn_ l nUp ghe\`h\ek ik \aniSKniln YpiZ pheZck, Xhp ^elcn_nh ` \aniS-

115
EgnepgglTg`k] ik\Xip-hnWilXng`k] `piMneniPl] apbp_ZW \XniZW l g^nPlkblghpc
«:clkPlpiiZn _clUkhnbl l glbpcZn \ghkipc`l», <pg`ck, 28-30 ak] 2019 U.

KnilN ^phneS l, gbn_pckhnbSip, ^pcZKnilN `pHMMl- [2] ka-!nbl`pclX /.<. (kgXnh pheZck ^pUekilXipUp
Plnihk HMMn`hlcipghl \ghepTghck. gbp] // 5Yc.:. BBB(. 3., 1954. 85 g.
[3] (Okcli .:., ali ..., =kekgnc E... p^khpX-
8IAH< IA8H=.3H?CDD2+ IA>H6DI<H? iZn akKliZ _clUkhnbnT bnhkhnbSiZW. 3npel] l
ekgXnh: \XnRipn ^pgpRln. <.: lY_-cp <:5-@(5.3,
[1] /p_\ipc B.=., !kRep_li :.E., @ep`p^pc /.@. 2008. 700 g.
(kYipghik] gWnak _b] _c\aneiZW inghkPlpikeiZW [4] nbp\gpc :..., <\gkh`li ..., (k_S`p E.<., =\YS-
Yk_kX UkYpcpT _likal`l l ekgXnh pRhn`kil] alXnc E.B. @epn`hiZT hneapUkYp_likalXng`lT
g phpKn_KnT \_keipT cpbipT // E< l <, 1961. ekgXnh pgipciZW ^kekanhepc kclkPlpiiZW bp^k-
3. 1.  6. B. 102051050. hpXiZW akKli // B/:. Bkakek, 2006. 316 g.

<A8F:I7FD>C=.DHF IAA=F;H?CDIF ?3CI7H;F)A>?I1 D-#->CDH=C


A <IA=H:H;H7 3C -;C:D27I ?H=DC7I 7F>H;H7 0 C
..B. Zghepc1,2, :.E. anbS]ipc2, :.E. enali2, @.5. Pni`p1,2
1
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e-mail: nyppysnake@gmail.com

1. &?F;FDIF Upeniln c enk`hlciZW _clUkhnb]W [16, 18] l lYanenil]


c ^en_ckelhnbSip ganKkiiZW ^bkanikW [19 –J21].
E ^pgbn_iln Up_Z gOlUkiln i-R\hkipbk cZYckbp E enY\bShkhn RZb ^en_bpOni PnbZT e]_ `linhlXng`lW
YikXlhnbSiZT lihneng lY-Yk nUp lg`bNXlhnbSiZW gcpTghc ap_nbnT [4, 5, 17, 18, 20, 22] _b] p^lgkil] Wlall
[1], ^phniPlkbSip `k` cpYpRipcb]napUp H`pbpUlXng`l- Upenil] i-R\hkipbk. _ik`p RpbSKlighcp p^\Rbl`p-
XlghpUp hp^blck [2]. Ep aipUlW ghekikW Rlpanhkipb l ckiiZW H`g^nelanihkbSiZW _kiiZW p `pighkihkW
RlpHhkipb \On Klep`p lg^pbSY\Nhg] c `kXnghcn _pRkcp` g`pepghl enk`PlT anO_\ i-R\hkipbpa l `lgbpep_pa
` RniYli\. 3n^neS l i-R\hkipb ekggakhelcknhg] ik _kii\N ^p^k_kNh c pRbkghS ilY`lW hna^nekh\e (300…500 =).
epbS, ^pg`pbS`\ pRbk_knh in`phpeZal ^enla\Fnghckal : YikXlh, inpRWp_laZ _p^pbilhnbSiZn lggbn_pckil]
^p gekcinilN g Rpbnn bnU`lal g^lehkal, ik^elane, ^el hna^nekh\ekW, RblY`lW ` enkbSiZa \gbpcl]a
Hhkipbpa: Upenil] l cpg^bkaninil] i-R\hkipbk, XhpRZ \b\XKlhS
–JRpbnn HineUnhlXng`l cZUp_iZT: c hp cena] `k` ^pilakiln p ^ephn`kNFlW c Hhpa ^epPnggn `linhl-
Hhkipb lannh ^elRblYlhnbSip _cn henhl HineUnhl- Xng`lW Yk`pipaneipgh]W. @pHhpa\ pgipcipT PnbSN
Xng`pT Pniipghl RniYlik (21,2 ^ephlc 32,5 <%O/b), _kiipUp lggbn_pckil] RZbp H`g^nelanihkbSipn lY\Xn-
i-R\hkipb lannh  90% (29,2 <%O/b); iln cYklap_nTghcl] i-R\hkipbk g `lgbpep_pa
–Janinn bnh\XlT: i-R\hkipb c KnghS ekY aninn ^el hna^nekh\ekW cZKn 1000 =.
bnh\X, Xna Hhkipb, cZRepgZ `phpepUp c enY\bShkhn
lg^kenil] cZYZckNh gapU; 2. C>F7C>I6FA<C1 7H;F=.
–Janinn n_`lT: i-R\hkipb in hk` kUengglcni, ^pHhpa\
_pghkcb]nh aipUp aniSKn ^epRbna g `peepYlnT kbNal- E enY\bShkhn H`g^nelanihkbSipUp l XlgbniipUp
ilncZW l ^pblaneiZW `pa^pinihpc c hp^blciZW l lggbn_pckilT ^pb\XniZ ipcZn Ha^lelXng`ln _kiiZn
_pYle\NFlW glghnakW. p i-R\hkipbn, \b\XKniZ g\Fnghc\NFln `linhlXng`ln
.-R\hkipb apOnh RZhS lg^pbSYpcki c `kXnghcn gWnaZ Upenil] i-R\hkipbk ^el cZgp`lW hna^nekh\ekW
^pbipT YkaniZ RniYlik, canghp E85 (85% Hhkipbk  l cZ_cli\hZ ^en_^pbpOnil] p enKnill g\Fnghc\-
15% RniYlik) l E100 (100% Hhkipbk), lg^pbSY\naZW NFlW ^epRbna c lggbn_pckill gbpOiZW g^lehpc,
c ekYlbll hpbS`p ^pgbn YikXlhnbSiZW ap_lMl`kPlT. Xhp g\aale\nh ^pb\XniiZn enY\bShkhZ l ^en_bkUknh
!k ^pgbn_iln 10–15 bnh g ^papFSN `k` H`g^nel- _kbSinTKln KkUl c gpY_kill ik_nOipUp anWkilYak
anihkbSiZW, hk` l hnpenhlXng`lW ^p_Wp_pc, hFkhnbSip p`lgbnil] i-R\hkipbk.
lY\Xnik Wlal] Upenil] i-R\hkipbk: cenanik Yk_neOn` =linhlXng`lT kikblY ^pb\XniiZW _kiiZW ^epcp-
cpg^bkaninil] [3], g`pepghl bkalikeiZW ^bkani [4 – 11], _lbg] ^\hna XlgbniipUp ap_nblepckil] g lg^pbSYp-
^epMlbl XkghlP, lYaneniiZW c ^lepblYn [12 –J15], ckilna ^k`nhk Chemkin.

116
Bn`Pl] 3 «3npenhlXng`k] l ^el`bk_ik] UkYpck] _likal`k. /peniln l `kaneZ gUpekil]»

3. C<=(6FDIF [9] Stranic I., Chase D.P., Harmon J.T. et al. Shock tube
measurements of ignition delay times for the butanol
@en_ghkcbniZ ipcZn _kiiZn p cenaniiZW ^epMlb]W isomers // Combust. Flame. 2012. 159(2). P. 516–527.
`piPnihekPll khpakeipUp `lgbpep_k, ^pb\XniiZW [10]Noorani K.E., Akih-Kumgeh B., Bergthorson J.M.
^el cZgp`phna^nekh\eipa p`lgbnill i-R\hkipbk Comparative high temperature shock tube ignition of
Yk phekOniiZal \_keiZal cpbikal c _lk^kYpin hna^n- C1–C4 primary alcohols // Energy Fuels. 2010.
ekh\e 1600…2600 = ^el _kcbnil]W 2…3 kha. 5Y\Xnik 24(11). P. 5834–5843.
`linhl`k enk`Pll n-C4H9OH g N2O Yk \_keiZal [11]Karwat D., Wagnon S., Teini P., Wooldridge M. On
cpbikal. =pblXnghcniiZn lYanenil] ^epMlbnT `piPnih- the chemical kinetics of n-butanol: Ignition and
ekPll khpapc O ^epcp_lblgS anhp_pa khpaip-enYpikig- speciation studies // J. Phys. Chem. A. 2011. 115(19).
ipT kRgpeRPlpiipT g^n`hepg`p^ll (:(:B) g lg^pbS- P. 4909–4921.
Ypckilna enYpikigipT blill -khpak ik 130,5 ia [12]Gu X., Huang Z., Li Q., Tang C. Measurements of
c ck`\\aipa  _lk^kYpin. %b] `kblRepc`l lihni- laminar burning velocities and Markstein lengths
glcipghl ^pUbpFnil] khpapc `lgbpep_k c Ykclglapghl of n-butanol–air premixed mixtures at elevated
ph nUp `piPnihekPll RZbk ^epcn_nik g^nPlkbSik] temperatures and pressures // Energy Fuels. 2009.
gnel] H`g^nelanihpc c gang]W, gp_neOkFlW ekYblXipn 23(10). P. 4900–4907.
`pblXnghcp N2O c Ar, ^el   2100  50 =, `pU_k [13]Veloo P.S., Egolfopoulos F.N. Flame propagation of
apbn`\bk N2O ^pbipghSN _lggpPllepckbk. @epcn_nip butanol isomers/air mixtures // Proc. Combust. Inst.
H`g^nelanihkbSipn l Xlgbniipn lggbn_pckiln ^p]cbn- 2011. 33(1). P. 987–993.
il] l ^phenRbnil] khpapc `lgbpep_k ^el ^ephn- [14]Gu X.L., Li Q.Q., Huang Z.H. Laminar burning
`kill enk`Pll i-R\hkipbk g `lgbpep_pa c gang]W characteristics of diluted n-butanol/air mixtures //
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_lk^kYpin hna^nekh\e l _kcbnilT. [15]Gu X., Huang Z., Wu S., Li Q. Laminar burning velo-
(kRphk ^p__neOkik Uekihkal (5 17-08-01303, cities and flame instabilities of butanol isomers–air
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[16]Harper M.R., Van Geem K.M., Pyl S.P. et al.
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117
EgnepgglTg`k] ik\Xip-hnWilXng`k] `piMneniPl] apbp_ZW \XniZW l g^nPlkblghpc
«:clkPlpiiZn _clUkhnbl l glbpcZn \ghkipc`l», <pg`ck, 28-30 ak] 2019 U.

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:.@. =pighkihlipc1
1
5ighlh\h Ul_ep_likal`l lanil <.:. kcenihSnck B (:., .pcpglRleg`
e-mail: avtomorfizm@gmail.com

1. &?F;FDIF
!k_kXk p ekg^epghekinill cpbi p`pbp ^nelp_l-
Xng`lW ghe\`h\e lannh ckOipn YikXniln c ekYblXiZW
ik\XiZW l ^el`bk_iZW _lgPl^blikW: Hbn`hep_likal`n,
anWkil`n _nMpeale\napUp hcne_pUp hnbk, k`\ghl`n,
hnpell cpbi ik cp_n. gpRZT lihneng ^en_ghkcb]Nh
cpbiZ, bp`kblYpckiiZn c p`enghipghl lY\XknaZW
0IA. 1. BWnak pRbkghl `pbnRkilT
ghe\`h\e, ^pg`pbS`\ pil p^lgZckNh lW cpbipcp_iZn
l kipakbSiZn gcpTghck. =epan HhpUp, _kiik] Yk_kXk \_pcbnhcpe]NFlW \gbpclN `ckYl^nelp_lXipghl
in^pgen_ghcniip gc]Ykik g p^lgkilna enYpikigiZW (hnpenak bp`n):
]cbnilT c lY\XknaZW glghnakW.
E ekRphn ekggakhelckNhg] k`\ghlXng`ln enYpikig-
iZn ]cbnil] c ^php`n UkYk p`pbp ^nelp_lXng`pT @el ^papFl ^enpRekYpckil] @eki_hb] –J/bk\Hehk
enKnh`l, gpghp]FnT lY ^e]ap\UpbSiZW `kikbpc (elg. 1). l ccn_nil] RnYekYaneiZW ^nenaniiZW \ekciniln (1)
@el pRhn`kill enKnh`l ^php`pa UkYk Yk enKnh`pT ^enpRekY\nhg] ` \ekcinilN /nbSaUpbSPk
Uninele\nhg] clWencpT gbn_, `phpeZT ]cb]nhg] lghpX-
il`pa k`\ghlXng`lW `pbnRkilT. gbl Xkghphk lghpXil`k
gpc^k_knh g gpRghcniipT XkghphpT glghnaZ, cpYil`knh U_n k  k(, ) – RnYekYaneik] Xkghphk.
k`\ghlXng`lT enYpikig, `phpeZT apOnh ^elcnghl !k_kXk enKkbkgS anhp_pa XkghlXiZW pRbkghnT
` cpYil`ipcnilN inblinTiZW ]cbnilT, ^el Hhpa anO_\ ik pgipcn ^p_Wp_k, ^en_bpOniipUp c [2].
lghpXil`pa `pbnRkilT l enYpikigiZa `pih\epa Mpeal-
e\nhg] anWkilYa pRekhipT gc]Yl, cgbn_ghcln XnUp 3. C<=(6FDIF
enOla k`\ghlXng`pUp enYpikigk ^p__neOlcknhg] _kOn
^el g\Fnghcniipa lYaninill ^kekanhepc ^php`k [1, 2]. @el ^papFl Xlgbniip-kikblhlXng`lW anhp_pc [3]
RZbl ^pb\XniZ Ykclglapghl cpbipcp_iZW Xkghph
2. C>F7C>I6FA<C1 7H;F=. enKnh`l ph ^kekanhepc g_clUk MkYZ  l , k hk`On
ph UnpanhelXng`lW ^kekanhepc enKnh`l (elg. 2).
%clOniln UkYk gXlhknhg] \ghkipclcKlag]. ^lgkiZ \gbpcl] g\Fnghcpckil] cpbi, ekg^epghek-
5Ycnghip, Xhp enKniln blinkelYpckiiZW \ekcinilT i]NFlWg] c_pbS enKnh`l. @p`kYkip g\Fnghcpckiln
_clOnil] UkYk ^en_ghkcb]nhg] c cl_n g\aaZ clWencpT lihneckbpc Xkghph, ^el `phpeZW incpYapOip ekg^epgh-
l k`\ghlXng`pT ap_. @pg`pbS`\ cbl]iln k`\ghlXng`lW ekiniln \ghkipclcKlWg] k`\ghlXng`lW `pbnRkilT
cpbi ik lghpXil` Yc\`k (clWencpT gbn_ Yk `epa`pT gWp_k) c_pbS enKnh`l.
inpRWp_lap \XlhZckhS c enOlan cZgp`lW ka^blh\_, B \cnblXnilna _bliZ `kikbk enKnh`l YikXnil]
_b] p^lgkil] lggbn_\napUp ]cbnil] ^elani]Nh \ekc- cpbipcp_iZW Xkghph ^pilOkNhg], ^el Hhpa Xlgbp
inil] _b] `pbnRkilT ghkPlpikeipUp ^php`k UkYk: cpbipcp_iZW ap_ ekghnh (elg. 3).

U_n M  U/c – Xlgbp <kWk pgipcipUp ^php`k; c – g`pepghS


Yc\`k;  – `e\Upck] Xkghphk k`\ghlXng`lW `pbnRkilT;
u – ^phniPlkb k`\ghlXng`pUp cpYa\Fnil] g`pepghl.
BpUbkgip MlYlXng`pa\ gp_neOkilN Yk_kXl ^phni-
Plkb u \_pcbnhcpe]nh \gbpcl]a lYb\Xnil] l bp`kbSipT
`pinXipghl HineUll. =epan hpUp, ccl_\ lickelkih- 0IA. 2. %lg^neglpiiZn `elcZn enKnh`l ilYKlW
ipghl pRbkghl `pbnRkilT phipglhnbSip hekigb]PlT glaanhelXipT l kihlglaanhelXipT cpbipcp_iZW
c_pbS pgnT Ox l Oy enKniln lFnhg] c `bkggn M\i`PlT, ap_ `pbnRkilT (a  b  1/4; L  1)

118
Bn`Pl] 3 «3npenhlXng`k] l ^el`bk_ik] UkYpck] _likal`k. /peniln l `kaneZ gUpekil]»

5ggbn_pckik anWkil`k `pbnRkilT, ^pghepni cl_


gpRghcniiZW M\i`PlT. @p`kYkip, Xhp RnYekYaneik]
MkYpck] g`pepghS ekg^epghekinil] `pbnRkilT cM  1.

8IAH< IA8H=.3H?CDD2+ IA>H6DI<H?


[1] B\Wlili B.E., ke_kWkipc B.@. pbpcZ hpik
^bkghliZ c `kikbn // @<3, 1998.  2. B. 78–90.
[2] B\Wlili B.E. Epbipcp_ipn l kipakbSipn gcpTghck
0IA. 3. (kg^en_nbniln _kcbnil] c PnihekbSipa gnXnill
^nelp_lXng`pT ipOncpT enKnh`l // @<3, 1998.
`kikbpc enKnh`l g ^kekanhekal a  b  1/4, L  1  6. C. 46–56.
_b] ^necZW glaanhelXipT () l kihlglaanhelXipT () [3] <lhhek (., l B. :ikblhlXng`ln anhp_Z hnpell
ap_ ^el g_clUkW MkY    /2,   0 cpbipcp_pc. <.: <le, 1974.

H;F=I:H?CDIF C?>H<H=F#CDI) ? <C7F:F A'H:CDI1 


B.:. n^ekgpc, <.E. %epRZK1
1
/@ «5:< la. @.5. kekipck», <pg`ck
e-mail: cheprasov@ciam.ru

1. &?F;FDIF hp^blck, glghnak pWbkO_nil] l ^neMpekPl] OkepcpT


he\RZ. .kblXln _lMM\Ypek ik cZWp_n lY ganglhnb]
%b] gilOnil] \epci] Halggll NOx c `kanekW Mpeale\nh hnXniln RnY Rp`pcZW Ypi pRekhiZW hp`pc.
gUpekil] /3 l ^neg^n`hlciZW `kanekW gUpekil] /3% hp ^elcp_lh ` g\Fnghcniipa\ \cnblXnilN ekYanepc
lg^pbSY\Nhg] pRn_iniiZn, ^en_ckelhnbSip ^nenan- YpiZ enPle`\b]Pll, Xhp, c gcpN pXnen_S, cn_nh ` YikXl-
KkiiZn l lg^keniiZn hp^blcpcpY_\KiZn gangl. hnbSipa\ ekgKlenilN UekilP Rn_ipUp geZck ^bkanil.
@nenWp_ ` gOlUkilN Rn_iZW, ^en_ckelhnbSip ^nenan- .k Plbli_elXng`pT Xkghl OkepcpT he\RZ _b]
KkiiZW gangnT ^elcp_lh ` ^pcZKnilN cnep]hipghl ^p_kcbnil] kchp`pbnRkilT ^elg\hghc\nh ^neMpekPl],
cpYil`ipcnil] in\ghpTXlcpUp Upenil] l kchp`pbnRkilT. XnenY `phpe\N lY glghnaZ pWbkO_nil] ^nen^\g`knhg]
hp ]cbniln hk`On cpYil`knh c `kanekW gUpekil] ^e]ap- XkghS cpY_\Wk. =kanek gUpekil] lannh `paRlilepckii\N
hpXiZW _clUkhnbnT, MpegkOiZW `kanekW l ikYZcknhg] glghna\ pWbkO_nil]: cpYbn ganglhnb] enkblYpckik
clRekPlpiiZa Upenilna, hneapk`\ghlXng`lal `pbnRk- Xlghp `picn`hlcik] glghnak pWbkO_nil], k _kbnn
il]al l _e. [1]. ^p hnXnilN ^ep_\`hpc gUpekil] lg^pbSY\nhg] \_keip-
E _kiipT ekRphn ^en_ghkcbniZ enY\bShkhZ ap_nbl- ghe\Tik] glghnak pWbkO_nil].
epckil] kchp`pbnRkilT l in\ghpTXlcZW enOlapc %lkanhe Plbli_elXng`pT Xkghl OkepcpT he\RZ
Upenil], cpYil`kNFlW c akbpHalgglpiipT `kanen 200 aa. .k ghkRlblYkhpen ekg^pbpOnip 12 ^lbpipc
gUpekil]. E Wp_n ekgXnhipUp lggbn_pckil] kikblYle\- _b] lihniglMl`kPll Upenil]. .k hpePn ghkRlbl-
Nhg] pgpRniipghl hnXnil] l anWkilYa kchp`pbnRkilT. Ykhpek ^elg\hghc\Nh 24 phcneghl] _lkanhepa 1,5 aa
@epcne]nhg] k_n`ckhipghS ^elani]napT anhp_l`l
ap_nblepckil] h\eR\bnihipUp Upenil].

2. 8IACDIF <C7F:2 A'H:CDI1


E 5:< RZbk ekYekRphkik l ^epKbk lg^Zhkil]
<=B, ^en_ikYikXniik] _b] /3 ik ^elep_ipa UkYn
[2]. (kggapheniik] <=B (elg. 1) phblXknhg] pelUl-
ikbSipT UkYp_likalXng`pT gWnapT hnXnil] l `pighe\`-
hlciZa pRbl`pa. gipciZal Hbnanihkal `kaneZ
gUpekil] ]cb]Nhg]: Okepck] he\Rk, Upenb`k, Mpeg\i`l
^p_kXl pgipcipUp hp^blck, phcneghl] ^p_kXl ^lbphipUp 0IA. 1. =pighe\`hlciZT pRbl` <=B

119
EgnepgglTg`k] ik\Xip-hnWilXng`k] `piMneniPl] apbp_ZW \XniZW l g^nPlkblghpc
«:clkPlpiiZn _clUkhnbl l glbpcZn \ghkipc`l», <pg`ck, 28-30 ak] 2019 U.

_b] ^p_kXl ^lbphipUp hp^blck g PnbSN ^pcZKnil] !kclglapghS hn^bpna`pghl p ph hna^nekh\eZ T Yk_k-
\ghpTXlcpghl Upenil]. ckbkgS g ^papFSN ^pblipak chpepT ghn^nil.
Blghnak p^en_nb]NFlW \ekcinilT lihnUelepck-
bkgS ^p in]cipT gWnan g lg^pbSYpckilna gWna chpepUp
3. F>H;I<C 7H;F=I:H?CDI1 I :FI7D2F
8C:C7F>:2 ^pe]_`k k^^ep`glakPll ^p ^epghekighc\ l cenanil.
(kgXnhik] gnh`k gp_neOkbk 3,6 abi. ]Xnn`. EZXlgbnil]
(kgXnh cZ^pbi]bg] c \^epFniipT ^pghkipc`n – ^epcp_lblgS g lg^pbSYpckilna ^epUekaaZ Fluent.
RnY p^lgkil] hnXnil] c pRbkghl ganglhnb] l glghnaZ
pWbkO_nil]. @neMpekPl] ghnip` OkepcpT he\RZ hk`On 4. C<=(6FDIF
phg\hghcpckbk. .k cWp_n `kaneZ Yk_kckbg] ^php`
p_ipep_ipT gangl anhkik l cpY_\Wk. EZXlgbnil] E Wp_n ekgXnhipUp lggbn_pckil] ^pb\Xnip, Xhp
^epcp_lblgS _b] gbn_\NFlW ^kekanhepc: p  20 kha., c `kanen gUpekil] ^el cgnW ekggapheniiZW enOlakW
T  840 =,   1,25…3,5. =epan hpUp, RZbp ekggaph- cpYil`kNh ^p^neXnip-p`e\OiZn kchp`pbnRkil]
enip ing`pbS`p enOlapc: g ^lbphiZa hp^blcpa l RnY c _lk^kYpin Xkghph 3…4 `/P. @el Hhpa \cnblXniln
inUp. @el Hhpa YikXniln PFR – _pb] ^lbphipUp hp^blck _pbl ^lbphipUp hp^blck (PFR) ^elcp_lh ` gilOnilN
phipglhnbSip pgipcipUp ekgWp_k hp^blck, ckeSlepckbpgS ka^blh\_Z HhlW `pbnRkilT. E pRbkghl enOlaiZW
c ^en_nbkW 10…40%. EZWp_ `kaneZ gUpekil] ^nen`eZ- ^kekanhepc   3…3,5 RnY ^p_kXl ^lbphipUp hp^blck
ckbg] Ykgbpi`pT, ^elXna ^bpFk_S _epggnbSipT Ykgbpi`l ^eplgWp_lh geZc ^bkanil.
^p_RlekbkgS hk`, XhpRZ ^pb\XlhS Yk_kiiZT ekgWp_ XnenY
`kane\ gUpekil] G 4 `U/g, `phpeZT gpphcnhghcpckb 8IAH< IA8H=.3H?CDD2+ IA>H6DI<H?
\gbpcl]a lg^ZhkilT.
<p_nblepckiln RZbp pgipckip ik enKnill \ekc- [1] (k\KniRkW .E. ElRekPlpiipn Upeniln. /pg. 5Y_.
inilT UkYpcpT _likal`l g WlalXng`lal enk`Pl]al lY.-<kh. lh., 1961. 500 g.
_b] c]Y`pUp, hn^bp^epcp_ipUp UkYk, Yk^lgkiiZW c `ckYl- [2] Bcne_bpc .%., En_nK`li /. =., %\RpclP`lT :...
gOlaknapT Mpean. 3\eR\bnihiZT ^nenipg ap_nblep- l _e. hpXiniln pRbl`k H`g^nelanihkbSipUp pRekYPk,
ckbg] anhp_pa `e\^iZW clWenT (LES) gpcanghip gpY_kiln _napighekPlpiipT l \Xkghln c gpY_kill
g _likalXng`pT ^p_gnhpXipT ap_nbSN h\eR\bnihipghl. p^Zhip-^epaZKbniipT akbp HalgglpiipT `kaneZ
%b] p^lgkil] Upenil] anhkik g cpY_\Wpa lg^pbSYp- gUpekil] _b] /3 25@/: @p_hcneO_niln gpphcnh-
ckbkgS p_ipghk_lTik] enk`Pl]. <p_nblepckiln cYklap- ghcl] akbpHalgglpiipT `kaneZ gUpekil] henRp-
_nTghcl] h\eR\bnihipghl l Upenil] RZbp pgipckip ckil]a 3! l \hpXiniln `pighe\`hlcipUp pRbl`k.
ik `ckYl-bkalikeipa ^p_Wp_n. pbnn ^p_epRipn 5:<, 2011.
p^lgkiln akhnakhlXng`pT ap_nbl apOip ikThl c [3]. [3] n^ekgpc B.:. <p_nblepckiln kchp`pbnRkilT
=pHMMlPlnihZ apbn`\b]eipUp ^nenipgk ^en_^pbkUk- c \ghkipc`kW g Upenilna // 5Yc. (:. <kh. <p_.,
blgS ^pghp]iiZal l p_lik`pcZal _b] cgnW `pa^pinih. 2018. 3. 30.  4. B. 66–72.

0CA6F> :CA8:HA>:CDFDI1 >HDC=.DH'H -7C ? >:C<>F ?H3;-+H3C#H:DI<C


E.B. :Rekapc1,2, =.B. @S]i`pc1
1
/@ «5:< la. @.5. kekipck», <pg`ck
2
<5, <pg`ck
e-mail: maabramov@ciam.ru

1. &?F;FDIF cZRpe ^kekanhepc ^kinbnT !@=, ekg^pbpOniiZW c hek`hn


cpY_\WpYkRpeil`k, ^en_ghkcb]nh lY gnR] ckOi\N Yk_kX\,
@epRbnak ekg^epghekinil] K\ak pghknhg] p_ipT hk` `k` ph HhpUp Ykclglh HMMn`hlcipghS ^p_kcbnil]
lY pgipciZW c Yk_kXn gilOnil] K\ak _clUkhnb]. K\ak, lY_kcknapUp bp^khpXiZal akKlikal.
E gpcenaniiZW _clUkhnb]W lg^pbSY\Nhg] Yc\`p^pUbp- (kYekRphkik akhnakhlXng`k] ap_nbS, enkblYpckiik]
FkNFln ^p`eZhl], ^en_ghkcb]NFln lY gnR] ^pcneW- ik pgipcn blinkelYkPll cpYa\FnilT c \ekcinil]W
ipghl g ^pbpgh]al g^nPlkbSipUp cl_k, ikYZckNFlng] Tbnek. ik lg^pbSY\nhg] _b] ekgXnhk ^pb] Yc\`pcZW
Yc\`p^pUbpFkNFln `pighe\`Pll (!@=). ^hlakbSiZT cpYa\FnilT c ghkPlpikeipa ^php`n c Plbli_elXng`pT

120
Bn`Pl] 3 «3npenhlXng`k] l ^el`bk_ik] UkYpck] _likal`k. /peniln l `kaneZ gUpekil]»

he\Rn gp Yc\`p^pUbpFkNFnT pRblPpc`pT. 5g^pbSYp- _lapn `pblXnghcp ^kekanhepc l \ekcinilT. Ep ci\h-


ckiln akhnakhlXng`pT ap_nbl ^pYcpb]nh ekggXlhZckhS eniilW \YbkW \XlhZckblgS hpbS`p \ekcinil] Tbnek,
^pbn ka^blh\_Z `pbnRkilT c Plbli_elXng`pa `kikbn ik UekilXiZW \YbkW ` \ekcinil]a Tbnek _pRkcb]blgS
^ephpXipT Xkghl l p^en_nb]hS HMMn`hlcipghS ^pUbp- UekilXiZn \gbpcl]. E lhpUn RZbk ^pb\Xnik glghnak
Fnil] k`\ghlXng`pT HineUll. \ekcinilT:

2. C>F7C>I6FA<C1 7H;F=.
U_n E – enKknaZn \ekcinil]; U – ^kekanheZ, p^lgZ-
3nXniln ekggakhelckbpgS c ^elRblOnill blkinkel- ckNFln Yk_kX\. 3k`la pRekYpa, ikWpO_niln enKnil]
YpckiiZW \ekcinilT Tbnek c Plbli_elXng`pT glghnan Yk_kXl gcp_lhg] ` alilalYkPll inc]Yp` glghnaZ \ekc-
`ppe_likh. E Plbli_elXng`pa `e\Upcpa `kikbn ekggakh- inilT. E gb\Xkn, ngbl glghnak gpcanghik, enKniln
elcknhg] p_ipep_ipn gen_inn hnXniln g p`e\OiZal g\Fnghc\nh, l ikWp_]hg] ^kekanheZ, \_pcbnhcpe]NFln
ap_kal cpYa\FnilT, ^pHhpa\ ekggakhelcknhg] Yk_kXn. gbl Yk_kXk ^nenp^en_nbnik, hp ikT_\hg] ^kek-
_c\aneik] ekgXnhik] pRbkghS c anel_lpikbSipa anheZ, alilalYle\NFln pRF\N inc]Y`\ ^p anhp_\
gnXnill lgWp_ipT henWaneipT Unpanhell. iklaniSKlW `ck_ekhpc.
(nKniln p^lgZckbpgS g lg^pbSYpckilna Ukeapil-
Xng`lW Xkghphip-kYla\hkbSiZW gpghkcb]NFlW, g Yk_ki- 4. C<=(6FDIF
ipT XkghphpT  l p`e\OiZa cpbipcZa Xlgbpa k.
@kekanheZ, p^lgZckNFln ^pbn hnXnil], ^en_ghkc- E _kiipT ekRphn ^en_ghkcbni ekgXnh ekg^epghek-
b]blgS c cl_n g\aaZ gen_inUp ^p cenanil l Ukeapil- inil] Yc\`pcZW cpbi c pgnglaanhelXipa Plbli_el-
Xng`lW ^p cenanil l c p`e\Oipa ik^ekcbnill _pRkcp`, Xng`pa `kikbn g \Xnhpa cpY_nTghcl] !@=.
ik^elane, _b] _kcbnil]:
8IAH< IA8H=.3H?CDD2+ IA>H6DI<H?
Ebl]iln !@= \XlhZckbpgS g ^papFSN la^n_kig- [1] %e\Olili .<, <lbnKli E.5, (pgglWli :.:.
ipUp UekilXipUp \gbpcl] ik ghni`n ^ephpXipT Xkghl, ^Zh lg^pbSYpckil] UkeapilXng`lW anhp_pc _b]
c Xkghipghl, \gbpcl] in^ephn`kil]. ekgXnhk ekg^epghekinil] hpikbSipUp K\ak XnenY
cpY_\WpYkRpeil` l gp^bp 3(%%. EZXlgblhnbSiZT
3. F>H; :CA6F>C H`g^nelanih c kHepk`\ghl`n // 7-k] EgnepgglTg`k]
`piMneniPl], 2018. BcnhbpUpeg`, =kbliliUek_. pRb.
%b] ekgXnhk ^epghekighcp ci\hel gnXnil] RZbp [2] Boyd S., Vandenberghe L. Convex Optimization.
Yk^pbinip gnh`pT. E `kO_pa \Ybn gp_neOkbpgS inpRWp- Cambridge University Press. 2004.

 :CA6F>F C<-A>I6FA<I+ A?H)A>? 8CDF=I 3?-<H8H'=HC(F)


<HDA>:-<II
:.:. =ekT`p, =.B. @S]i`pc1
1
/@ «5:< la. @.5. kekipck», <pg`ck
e-mail: AAKrayko@ciam.ru

1. &?F;FDIF k`\ghlXng`pUp ^pb] \ enkbSiZW `pighe\`PlT. %b] cZRpek


p^hlakbSipUp «UekilXipUp \gbpcl]» l ^p_Rpek hnWil-
(kRphk ik^ekcbnik ik enKniln ^epRbnaZ K\ap- Xng`lW Wkek`hnelghl` ^p`eZhl] ^p_ Hhp la^n_kigipn
Ub\Knil] c UekO_kig`pT kclkPll. _li lY g^pgpRpc UekilXipn \gbpcln henR\nhg] enKniln _c\W gpcangh-
Ub\Knil] K\ak – ^elaniniln Yc\`p^pUbpFkNFlW iZW Yk_kX: ^p_Rpe ^kekanhepc !@= ^p_ Yk_kiiZT
^neMpelepckiiZW ^p`eZhlT. %b] HMMn`hlcipUp cZRpek la^n_kig l ekgXnh ^pb] hnXnil] c enkbSiZW `pighe\`-
Wkek`hnelghl` HhlW ^p`eZhlT inpRWp_lap `peen`hip Pl]W g Yk_kiiZa la^n_kigiZa UekilXiZa \gbpclna
ekggXlhZckhS la^n_kig ]Xnn` Yc\`p^pUbpFkNFnT ik ghni`kW.
`pighe\`Pll (!@=). .kT_niiZT la^n_kig apOnh .lOn p^lgki anhp_, `phpeZT gbn_\nh ekggakhelckhS
Yk_kckhSg] c `kXnghcn UekilXiZW \gbpclT _b] ekgXnhk `k` gpghkci\N XkghS ^epPn_\eZ ^plg`k p^hlakbSipUp

121
EgnepgglTg`k] ik\Xip-hnWilXng`k] `piMneniPl] apbp_ZW \XniZW l g^nPlkblghpc
«:clkPlpiiZn _clUkhnbl l glbpcZn \ghkipc`l», <pg`ck, 28-30 ak] 2019 U.

«la^n_kigipUp UekilXipUp \gbpcl]». @en_bpOnik `ckYl- Fc (x) l Fs (x) – ka^blh\_Z UkeapilXng`lW `pbnRkilT
p_ipaneik] (1D) ap_nbS blinTipUp cYklap_nTghcl] gpphcnhghc\NFnUp ^kekanhek g XkghphpT  l cpbipcZa
^bpg`pT k`\ghlXng`pT cpbiZ ^eplYcpbSipUp ik^ekc- Xlgbpa ky .
bnil] g p_ipep_ipT ^kinbSN !@= g ^pUekilXiZa
gbpna (@B), `phpek] ^pYcpb]nh aipUp`ekhip gp`ekhlhS 4. 0F3-=.>C>2
he\_pna`pghS l cena] enKnil] Yk_kXl, ^p gekcinilN
g ^e]aZa XlgbniiZa ekgXnhpa. %b] pPni`l hpXipghl ^p_Wp_k ^epcn_nip gekciniln
ekggXlhkiiZW _c\a] g^pgpRkal (1D anhp_pa l ^e]aZa
2. HA>CDH?<C 3C;C6I XlgbniiZa 2D ap_nblepckilna) `pHMMlPlnihpc phek-
Onil] ph Ubk_`pT ghni`l _b] Klep`pUp _lk^kYpik
(kggakhelcknhg] ^bpg`k] gphpck] ^kinbS Rng`pinX- \Ubpc ^k_nil] ^bpg`pT cpbiZ . (nY\bShkhZ gekcinil]
ipT ^eph]Oniipghl, pRhn`knak] ^pb\RnYUekilXiZa, ^elcn_niZ ik elg. 1 _b] XkghphZ cpbiZ f  2  1/5,
p_ipep_iZa c_pbS ^kinbl ^php`pa UkYk, c `phpepa ik^e]Onil] henil] ik ghni`n w  0,000305, la^n_kig
ekg^epgheki]nhg] ^elWp_]Fk] lYcin k`\ghlXng`k] ik ghni`n Zw  (1; 0).
cpbik, Wkek`hnelY\NFk]g] UkeapilXng`pT ^epghekigh- @elane lg^pbSYpckil] ap_nbl _napighele\nhg]
cniip-cenaniipT YkclglapghSN cpYa\FnilT ^kekanh- gekcinilna enY\bShkhpc, ^pb\XniiZW c gnell ^e]aZW
epc ^php`k l ^eplYcpbSipT pelnihkPlnT nn ^bpg`pUp
c p_ipep_ipa ^php`n Mepihk phipglhnbSip ^pcneW-
ipghl !@=. .npRWp_lap ekggXlhkhS `pa^bn`gi\N
cnblXli\ `pHMMlPlnihk phekOnil] lbl la^n_kigk
k`\ghlXng`pT pRblPpc`l.

3. 8IACDIF 8H;+H;H? :FFDI1


@e]apT inghkPlpikeiZT ekgXnh la^n_kigk ^kinbl
!@= ]cb]nhg] cngSak YkhekhiZa ^p he\_pna`pghl l
eng\egka. %b] ^epcn_nil] pRKleipUp ^kekanhelXng-
`pUp kikblYk Wkek`hnelghl` ^kinbnT !@= ^pghkcbniik] 0IA. 1. =pHMMlPlnihZ phekOnil] ph Ubk_`pT ghni`l
Yk_kXk ekY_nbnik ik _cn ^p_Yk_kXl:
–J^epghekighcniiZT ekgXnh inghkPlpikeipUp hnXnil]
p`pbp ^kinbl !@= ^el ipeakbSipa ^k_nill cpbi,
c `phpepa cZXlgb]Nhg] «^elghnipXiZn» la^n_kigiZn
Wkek`hnelghl`l ^kinbl;
–J1D ekgXnh ^k_nil] ^bpg`pT k`\ghlXng`pT cpbiZ
^p_ ^eplYcpbSiZal \Ubkal ik p_ipep_i\N ^kinbS
!@= g @B, c `phpepa ^kekanheZ !@= ap_nble\Nhg]
UekilXiZa \gbpclna, p^lgZckNFla bp`kbSiZn la^n-
_kigiZn Wkek`hnelghl`l, ekggXlhkiiZn c ^necpT Yk_kXn. 0IA. 2. =pHMMlPlnihZ phekOnil] ph ^kinbl !@=
1D ekgXnh ^pYcpb]nh c XkghphipT pRbkghl c blinT-
ipa ^elRblOnill ikWp_lhS enKniln ^bpg`pT Yk_kXl
p UkeapilXng`lW ^p cenanil l c_pbS ^kinbl cpYa\Fn-
il]W, ^p `phpepa\ cZXlgb]nhg] `pHMMlPlnih phekOnil]
K  p / ( a ua p ), U_n p – `pa^bn`gipn _kcbniln
c ^k_kNFnT « » l phekOniipT «» cpbikW; a , ua –
gen_iln ^bphipghS l g`pepghS gen_Z; la^n_kig
Z  (1  K) / (1 K) _b] cpbi Yk_kiipT XkghphZ l ik^ekc-
bnil]. %kiiZT ^p_Wp_ p^leknhg] ik ^en_^pbpOniln,
Xhp UkYp_likalXng`ln ^kekanheZ, \_pcbnhcpe]NFln
glghnan \ekcinilT .kcSn –JBhp`gk, lF\hg] c cl_n:

U_n pgS x ik^ekcbnik ^p ipeakbl ` ^pcneWipghl !@=;


Fa (x) – gen_inn ghkPlpikeipn YikXniln ^kekanhek; 0IA. 3. <p_\bS `pHMMlPlnihk phekOnil] ph ^kinbl !@=

122
Bn`Pl] 3 «3npenhlXng`k] l ^el`bk_ik] UkYpck] _likal`k. /peniln l `kaneZ gUpekil]»

inghkPlpikeiZW 2D ekgXnhpc, c`bNXkNFlW ^kinbS @epcn_niiZn 1D ekgXnhZ _b] ekYblXiZW YikXnilT


g RpbSKla `pblXnghcpa ]Xnn` !@=, g enY\bShkhkal, la^n_kigk ik ghni`n ^p`kYkbl, Xhp c in`phpeZW gb\Xk]W
^pb\XniiZal ipcZa ^p_Wp_pa, U_n _pghkhpXip p_ipUp \ cpbi, RnU\FlW ^p ^php`\ ^pXhl ^kekbbnbSip ^pcneW-
2D ekgXnhk g p_ipT ]XnT`pT !@= l ing`pbS`lW ipghl !@=, ap_\bS `pHMMlPlnihk phekOnil] apOnh
^epghZW 1D ekgXnhpc c XkghphipT pRbkghl. .k elg. 2 g\Fnghcniip ^encZKkhS 1 (elg. 3).
^elcn_nik YkclglapghS `pHMMlPlnihk phekOnil]
ph \Ubk ^k_nil] ik Xkghphn f  1/10, RblY`pT ` enYpikig- 5. C<=(6FDIF
ipT Xkghphn ^kinbl. @kinbS pRhn`knhg] ^php`pa
g Xlgbpa <kWk M  0,5, w  0,00035, Zw  (1,118; 0). (kY_nbniln Yk_kXl ik _ck ph_nbSiZW Hhk^k g\Fngh-
hblXl] c ^pb\XniiZW YikXnil]W gplYanelaZ cniip \^epFknh ^epPn_\e\ ekgXnhk l kikblYk Wkek`hn-
g ^pUenKipghSN gXnhk, gc]YkiipT g apFipghSN elghl` !@= cp cgna cpYapOipa aipUppRekYll ^kek-
_c\aneipT gnh`l. E _kiipa ^elanen ^elaniniln ^en_- anhepc. @elaniniln gpY_kiipUp anhp_k ^pYcpb]nh
bkUknapUp ^p_Wp_k gp`ekhlbp cZXlgblhnbSi\N he\_p- aipUp`ekhip gp`ekhlhS cZXlgblhnbSi\N he\_pna`pghS.
na`pghS Rpbnn Xna c 25 ekY, ^p gekcinilN g ^e]aZa (kRphk cZ^pbinik ^el ^p__neO`n Uekihpc (5
XlgbniiZa ekgXnhpa ^pb] hnXnil].  1831-20059,  1701-00126.

DC=I3 ?=I1DI1 AID>F>I6FA<I+ A>:-) DC HADH?F 'C3H?H'H :C3:1;C


DC H>:2?DHF >-:#-=FD>DHF >F6FDIF ? 7H;F=.DH7 ;I-3H:F
A 8H7H.( RANS/ILES 7F>H;C
.:. ni_neg`lT, %.:. NRlapc, :.. <k`kepc, :.:. 3nenWpck1
1
/@ «5:< la. @.5. kekipck», <pg`ck
e-mail: alexa.terekhova@yandex.ru

1. HA>CDH?<C 3C;C6I I ':CDI6D2F -A=H?I1 c Xkghipghl, ik cZWp_n lY inUp. .k cWp_n c `kikb Yk_k-
ckblgS ^pbiZn ^kekanheZ: _kcbniln p0in  101 330 @k
%b] ekgXnhpc h\eR\bnihiZW hnXnilT c _pYc\`pcpa l hna^nekh\ek T0in  228,2 =, Xlgbp <kWk ik cWp_n
_lMM\Ypen lg^pbSYpcki RANS/ILES anhp_ cZgp`pUp M  0,41. lgbp (nTipbS_gk ekggXlhZckbpgS ^p cZgphn
ekYenKnil] [1]. (kgXnhZ ^epcp_lblgS _b] ^e]ap\UpbS- cWp_ipUp gnXnil] Hin l gpghkcb]bp 6,4105. .k cZWp_n
ipUp _lMM\Ypek g phipKnilna ^bpFk_l cWp_k c _lMM\- lY ekgXnhipT pRbkghl Yk_kckbpgS ghkhlXng`pn _kcbniln
Ype ` ^bpFk_l cZWp_k 12. %lMM\Ypeik] XkghS pRek- pout  96 425 @k.
Ypckik ^e]apblinTipT ik`bpiipT ilOinT ghni`pT,
`phpek] gp^e]UkbkgS g ^e]apblinTiZal \Xkgh`kal 2. 0F3-=.>C>2
g ^papFSN _\U p`e\OipghnT. Upb ik`bpik ghni`l 15.
EZgphk cWp_k c _lMM\Ype Hin  75 aa, Klelik _lMM\- %b] \^ekcbnil] hnXnilna lg^pbSYpckblgS Uninek-
Ypek 1,33Hin , cZgphk cZWp_ipUp gnXnil] – 2Hin (elg. 1). hpeZ glihnhlXng`lW ghe\T Hbn`hepekYe]_ipUp hl^k.
(kgXnhZ cZ^pbi]blgS ik ghe\`h\elepckiipT gnh`n, 5W ekRphk gcp_lhg] ` aUipcniipa\ cZRepg\ Upe]XnUp
`phpek] gp_neOkbk 16,8106 ]Xnn`. = _lMM\YpeipT cpY_\Wk g RpbSKpT g`pepghSN Yk gXnh `ekh`pcenaniipUp
Xkghl `kikbk RZbl ^elghZ`pckiZ ^e]ap\UpbSiZn ekYe]_k, ^el Hhpa hna^nekh\ek c ^pbpghl Uninekhpek
Xkghl _blipT 3…5 cZgph gpphcnhghc\NFnUp gnXnil]. enY`p ^pcZKknhg]. 5ihneckbZ anO_\ la^\bSgkal
hp ^pYcpblbp lg^pbSYpckhS ^elRblOniiZn UekilXiZn g\Fnghcniip RpbSKn, Xna ^ep_pbOlhnbSipghS la^\bSgpc
\gbpcl] ik cWp_n l cZWp_n lY ekgXnhipT pRbkghl l (elg. 2,). .k elg. 2, cl_ip, Xhp c `kikbn lannhg]
\aniSKlhS lW cbl]iln ik hnXniln c gkapa _lMM\Ypen, RpbSKk] pheZcik] Ypik. .k Xkghl UekilPZ, gpphcnhgh-
c\NFnT Fnb]a _b] cZWp_k ghe\T, `pa^pinihk g`pepghl
l ^pbiZn ^kekanheZ ^php`k ani]blgS g hnXnilna
cenanil c gpphcnhghcll g ekgXnhpa, ^epcn_niiZa
g ^papFSN URANS _b] p^en_nbnil] ^kekanhepc
hnXnil] ik cZWp_n lY Uninekhpek g hn^bpcZ_nbnilna
[2]. @elaniniln UekilXipUp \gbpcl] ik Xkghl ghni`l
0IA. 1. RFlT cl_ ekgXnhipT pRbkghl `kikbk, gpphcnhghc\NFnT Fnb]a _b] cZWp_k ghe\T,

123
EgnepgglTg`k] ik\Xip-hnWilXng`k] `piMneniPl] apbp_ZW \XniZW l g^nPlkblghpc
«:clkPlpiiZn _clUkhnbl l glbpcZn \ghkipc`l», <pg`ck, 28-30 ak] 2019 U.

g`pepghiZW glihnhlXng`lW ghe\T ekg^pbkUkblgS


ik ilOinT ik`bpiipT ghni`n _lMM\Ypek. Bhe\l cZ_\-
ckblgS ^p ipeakbl ` ghni`n. Ebl]iln glihnhlXng`lW
ghe\T ^p`kYkip ik elg. 2,. El_ip, Xhp glihnhlXng`ln
ghe\l ^pYcpb]Nh ^pbipghSN \RekhS pheZc ik ilOinT
ghni`n _lMM\Ypek.

3. C<=(6FDIF
.kblXln cZgp`pg`pepghiZW glihnhlXng`lW ghe\T
g\Fnghcniip \aniSKknh pheZci\N Ypi\ ik ilOinT
ghni`n _lMM\Ypek. =pHMMlPlnih cpgghkipcbnil]
^pbipUp _kcbnil] \cnblXlcknhg] ik 1%. hipglhnbSip
^en_Z_\FnUp ckelkihk ^phnel \aniSKkNhg] ik 25%.
(kRphk cZ^pbinik ^el ^p__neO`n Uekihk (5
 18-08-00271.

8IAH< IA8H=.3H?CDD2+ IA>H6DI<H?


[1] NRlapc %.:. (kYekRph`k l ^elaniniln anhp_k
cZgp`pUp ekYenKnil] _b] ekgXnhk ghe\TiZW
hnXnilT anhp_pa ap_nblepckil] `e\^iZW clWenT
// 3E3, 2012. 3. 50.  3. B. 450–466.
0IA. 2. !kclglapghS ph cenanil ^pbipUp _kcbnil] [2] nbpck E./., Bhn^kipc E.:. 5ggbn_pckiln UkYp-
c Uninekhpen glihnhlXng`lW ghe\T () l ^pb] pgen_iniipT _likalXng`lW Yk`pipaneipghnT pRekYpckil] l
^ep_pbSipT g`pepghl l ^epn`PlT blilT hp`k c gnXnill ekg^epghekinil] gcneW`elhlXng`lW glihnhlXng`lW
_lMM\Ypek Z/Hin  0 RnY ghe\T () l gp ghe\]al () ghe\T // XX <nO_\ikep_ik] K`pbk-gnalike
^pYcpb]nh lYRnOkhS YkhekhipUp ekgXnhk hnXnil] c Unin- «<p_nbl l anhp_Z kHep_likal`l». =eZa,
ekhpen glihnhlXng`lW ghe\T. nbl _b] cZWp_k cZgp`p- c^khpel], 4–11 lNi] 2018.

C:C7F>:I6FA<IF IAA=F;H?CDI1 AID>F>I6FA<I+ A>:-) ? 8=HA<H7


7H;F=.DH7 <CDC=F A F=.( -7FD.FDI1 >F8=H?2+ 8H>H<H?
E./. nbpck1,2, E.:. Bhn^kipc2, :.. le`pc1
1
</3 la. ... k\akik, <pg`ck
2
/@ «5:< la. @.5. kekipck», <pg`ck
e-mail: vgbelova@ciam.ru

1. &?F;FDIF
E ^pgbn_inn cena] ^elaniniln glihnhlXng`lW
ghe\T (B-ghe\T) c `kXnghcn k`hlcipUp gen_ghck \^ekc-
bnil] hnXnilna ^en_ghkcb]nh gpRpT RpbSKpT lihneng
`k` cp cinKinT, hk` l cp ci\heniinT kHep_likal`n
gpcenaniiZW kclkPlpiiZW _clUkhnbnT. @enla\Fnghcp
^elaninil] B-ghe\T Yk`bNXknhg] c hpa, Xhp pil lanNh
i\bncpT ekgWp_ UkYk ^p cenanil, _b] lW ekRphZ inpR-
Wp_lak hpbS`p HineUl] _b] cpYR\O_nil] `pbnRkilT.
ghepTghcpa _b] gpY_kil] B-ghe\T ]cb]nhg] Uninekhpe
glihnhlXng`lW ghe\T (/BB) [1], ^en_ghkcb]NFlT gpRpT 0IA. 1. @eliPl^ ekRphZ /BB

124
Bn`Pl] 3 «3npenhlXng`k] l ^el`bk_ik] UkYpck] _likal`k. /peniln l `kaneZ gUpekil]»

Yka`i\h\N ^pbpghS g phcneghlna, XnenY `phpepn ^pgbn- Zbk ^pb\Xnik YkclglapghS phipKnil] Xlgbk
_pckhnbSip Xnen_\Nhg] MkYZ c_\ck l phgpgk UkYk Bhkihpik St c inghkPlpikeipT (URANS) l ghkPlpikeipT
Yk gXnh `pbnRkil] lg^pbilhnbSipUp \ghepTghck (elg. 1). ^pghkipc`n (RANS) ^p _blin c PnihekbSipa gnXnill
E ekRphkW [2, 3] ^p`kYkip ^pbpOlhnbSipn cbl]iln ^el ekYiZW g`pepgh]W B-ghe\l l ekg^en_nbniln
Rbp`pc /BB ik UkYp_likalXng`ln l hn^bpMlYlXng`ln ^ep_pbSipT g`pepghl c PnihekbSipa gnXnill c apanih
^kekanheZ hnXnil] c ^bpg`pa _lMM\Ypeipa `kikbn cenanil 26 ag (elg. 2). .k cgnW enOlakW ekRphZ Rbp`k
g pheZciZa hnXnilna. /BB pgen_iniipn YikXniln hn^bpcpUp ^php`k c ghni`\
nbS _kiipT ekRphZ – lggbn_pckiln cbl]il] /BB ik ^bkghlin Yk ^nelp_ aniSKn, Xna RnY ekRphZ /BB.
ik hnXniln c ^bpg`pa ap_nbSipa `kikbn l pPni`k lYanin- _ik`p Wkek`hne ekg^en_nbnil] hn^bpcpUp ^php`k
il] hn^bpcpUp ^php`k c ghni`\ ik ^bkghlin. E `kXnghcn c ghni`\ ik ^bkghlin ani]nhg] ^p _blin: ik ikXkbSipa
lggbn_\napUp gen_ghck \^ekcbnil] hnXnilna cZReki \Xkgh`n ^bkghliZ _p x  0,07 a ^el epghn ka^blh\_Z
Rbp` /BB gp c_\cpa C-ghe\l ^p ipeakbl ` ^pcneW- g`pepghl ikRbN_knhg] gilOniln cpY_nTghcl], k ik \Xkgh`n
ipghl, ekg^pbpOniiZT c ^p^nenXipa gnXnill `kikbk. gcZKn x  0,07 a – \cnblXniln cbl]il] /BB ik hn^bpcpT
^php` c ghni`\. hp gc]Ykip g hna, Xhp ^el ^pcZKnill
2. HA>CDH?<C 3C;C6I I ?2?H;2 la^\bSgk g`pepghl B-ghe\l l inlYaniipT g`pepghl
ikRnUkNFnUp ^php`k B-ghe\] gipglhg] ^php`pa RZghenn
(kgXnh ^epcp_lbg] c @= ESI-ACE g p^lgkilna l, ^p^k_k] ik ^bkghli\, lihniglcinn nn pWbkO_knh.
UkYp_likalXng`lW ^epPnggpc c ^pbpghl Rbp`pc /BB Bp`ekFniln hn^bpcpT ikUe\Y`l ^p pgen_iniipa\
c henWaneipT ^pghkipc`n. (nKkbkgS gp^e]Oniik] PnihekbSipa\ gnXnilN ^el cpY_nTghcll /BB gpghkclbp
Yk_kXk – ekgXnh ^pb] hnXnil] g lg^pbSYpckilna RANS 15, 18 l 17,4% ^el lYaninill g`pepghl B-ghe\l ph 143,
l URANS-anhp_pc c gpXnhkill g SST-ap_nbSN h\eR\- 116 l 79 a/g. 3k`la pRekYpa, p^hlakbSiZa enOlapa
bnihipghl l ekgXnh hn^bpcpUp gpghp]il] hcne_pUp hnbk ekRphZ Rbp`k /BB c _kiipa lggbn_pckill ]cb]nhg]
g ^nen_kXnT hn^bk ph ^php`k c ghni`\. .k UekilPn henhlT enOla v3  79 a/g ^el Xkghphn 1 `/P, h.`. ^el
hcne_pUp hnbk l UkYk ^eplgWp_lbk gKlc`k enKnil] inRpbSKpT g`pepghl B-ghe\l ikRbN_knhg] YikXlhnbS-
^p hna^nekh\en l hn^bpcZa ^php`ka. @el ekgXnhn ipn pgbkRbniln hn^bpcpUp ^php`k c ghni`\ ik ^bkghlin.
lg^pbSYpckbkgS ap_nbS enkbSipUp cpY_\Wk g ^nenaniipT
hn^bpna`pghSN l hna^nekh\epT ikRnUkNFnUp ^php`k 3. C<=(6FDIF
1000 = ^el g`pepghl 99 a/g ik cWp_n c `kikb. B cinKinT
ghpepiZ ghkbSipT ghni`l hpbFlipT 3 aa Yk_kckbkgS B ^papFSN ^kekanhelXng`lW ekgXnhiZW lggbn_p-
hna^nekh\ek 500 =. %b] p^en_nbnil] inpRWp_laZW ckilT ^pb\XniZ Yk`pipaneipghl pRekYpckil] l ekg^ep-
^kekanhepc Rbp`k /BB RZbl ^epcn_niZ ^kekanhel- ghekinil] B-ghe\T c ^bpg`pa ap_nbSipa `kikbn. 3k`On
Xng`ln lggbn_pckil] ik henW enOlakW, c `phpeZW ^p_pReki p^hlakbSiZT enOla ekRphZ Rbp`k /BB
ani]bkgS ka^blh\_k `pbnRkil] g`pepghl B-ghe\l g hpX`l Yenil] gilOnil] hn^bpcpT ikUe\Y`l ik ^bkghli\.
v1,2,3  143, 116 l 79 a/g ^el Ml`glepckiipT Xkghphn (kRphk cZ^pbinik ^el ^p__neO`n Uekihk (5
`pbnRkil] 1 `/P.  18-08-00271.

8IAH< IA8H=.3H?CDD2+ IA>H6DI<H?


[1] nbpck E./., <k`kepc :.., <kgbpc E.@., Bhn^k-
ipc E.:. @epn`hlepckiln Rbp`pc Uninekhpepc glihn-
hlXng`lW ghe\T l H`g^nelanihkbSiZn lggbn_pck-
il] inghkPlpikeipUp lghnXnil] ghe\T g ^papFSN
PIV-anhp_k // 5iOnineiZT O\eikb: .k\`k l liip-
ckPll, 2018.  3.
[2] nbpck E./., Bhn^kipc E.:. <ipUp^kekanhelXng-
`ln ekgXnhiZn lggbn_pckil] Uninekhpek glihnhl-
Xng`lW ghe\T _b] k`hlcipUp \^ekcbnil] hnXnilna
c ^nenWp_iZW `kikbkW // 5iOnineiZT O\eikb:
.k\`k l liipckPll, 2018.  4.
[3] Belova V.G, Stepanov V.A., Chirkov A.Yu. The effect
0IA. 2. !kclglapghS phipKnil] Xlgnb Bhkihpik URANS
` RANS ^p _blin `kikbk ^el ekYipT g`pepghl B-ghe\l, of synthetic jets on heat fluxes in a transition channel
cZ_\cknapT Rbp`pa /BB, l ekg^en_nbniln ^ep_pbSipT with a characteristic separated flow // Journal of
g`pepghl c PnihekbSipa gnXnill c apanih cenanil 26 ag Physics: Conference Series.

125
EgnepgglTg`k] ik\Xip-hnWilXng`k] `piMneniPl] apbp_ZW \XniZW l g^nPlkblghpc
«:clkPlpiiZn _clUkhnbl l glbpcZn \ghkipc`l», <pg`ck, 28-30 ak] 2019 U.

&=I1DIF :C;I-AC <:I?I3D2 H>?H;C DC 8H>F:I ;C?=FDI1


? <:I?H=IDF)DH7 <CDC=F
Bkbke BkRne =kehkg, E.5. @kiXni`p, .. :bn`gki_epc1
1
=.53-=:5 la. 3\^pbnck, =kYkiS
e-mail: salar.saber@mail.ru

1. &?F;FDIF ^pcpephk !, phipglhnbSiZT ek_l\g Yk`e\Ubnil] R0 / D0


(elg. 1), phipKniln ghpepi (cZh]i\hpghS) ^p^nenXipUp
=kikbZ g `elcpblinTiZal \Xkgh`kal Klep`p gnXnil] b0 / D0, phipKniln ^bpFk_nT cWp_k l cZWp_k
ekg^epghekiniZ c kclkPlpiipT hnWil`n [1]. gipcik] F1 / F3 l h.^.) [2]. E ekggakhelcknapa gb\Xkn Re  105,
XkghS ^phneS _kcbnil] c lYpUi\hZW he\RkW cZYckik F1 / F3  1, R0 / D0  1.
clWenpRekYpckilna \ ci\heniinT l ike\OipT ghnip`, =pHMMlPlnih anghipUp gp^ephlcbnil] phcp_pc
Xhp gpcanghip gp chpelXiZal ^php`kal p^en_nb]nh, cZXlgb]nhg] ^p Mpea\bn EnTgRkWk [2]:
c pgipcipa, Wkek`hne ekg^en_nbnil] g`pepghnT Yk ^pcp-
ephpa. =pHMMlPlnih gp^ephlcbnil] lYpUi\hZW he\R
l ghe\`h\ek ^php`k c ilW lYani]Nhg] ^p_ cbl]ilna
Mk`hpepc, p^en_nb]NFlW ghn^niS h\eR\bnihipghl =pHMMlPlnih gp^ephlcbnil]  phcp_k Ykclglh ph
^php`k l Mpea\ ^epMlb] g`pepghl ik cWp_n. = Hhla phipglhnbSipUp ek_l\gk R0 / D0 l ph \Ubk ! [3], ^elXna
Mk`hpeka phipg]hg]: Xlgbp (nTipbS_gk Re  w0 DU / v; YikXniln  cpYekghknh g \cnblXnilna \Ubk ! (elg. 2).
phipglhnbSik] KnepWpckhpghS ghnip`$  $ / DU;
\gbpcl] cWp_k – phipglhnbSik] _blik ^e]apUp
cWp_ipUp \Xkgh`k L0 / DU; phipglhnbSipn ekgghp]iln 2. &2#H: 7H;F=I >-:#-=FD>DHA>I
;=1 6IA=FDDH'H 7H;F=I:H?CDI1 >F6FDI1
ph ^en_Knghc\NFnT MkgpiipT Xkghl l _e., k hk`On ? <:I?H=IDF)D2+ <CDC=C+
_e\Uln UnpanhelXng`ln ^kekanheZ he\RZ (\Upb
cnblXniln ^bkcipghl ^pcpephk (\cnblXniln
YikXnil] R0 /D0) YikXlhnbSip \aniSKknh lihniglcipghS
clWenpRekYpckil], k gbn_pckhnbSip, l gp^ephlcbniln
phcp_k ^p gekcinilN g `pbnipa. hp \aniSKniln hna
RpbSKn, Xna RpbSKn phipglhnbSiZT ek_l\g `elclYiZ
R0 / D0, l ^el _pghkhpXip RpbSKpa nUp YikXnill pheZc
^php`k l gc]Ykiipn g ila clWenpRekYpckiln \gheki]-
nhg] ^pbipghSN. =pHMMlPlnih gp^ephlcbnil] phcp_k
phc Ykclglh ph phipKnil] R0 / D0, \Ubk !, k hk`On
ph MpeaZ ^p^nenXipUp gnXnil] he\RZ. %b] phcp_pc
0IA. 1. @bkciZT ^pcpeph he\RZ (phcp_) `e\UbpUp gnXnil] g \Ubpa !  90 l R0 / D0  1
`ck_ekhipUp gnXnil] ^el h\eR\bnihipa hnXnill apOip ^elani]hS gbn_\-
NF\N H`g^nelanihkbSi\N Mpea\b\ ^el Re  105 [3]:
 !  90

 !  70 3

 !  100

5YcnghiZn H`g^nelanihkbSiZn _kiiZn _b] `elcp-


blinTiZW `kikbpc [2, 3] ^pYcpblbl cZRekhS ap_nbS
h\eR\bnihipghl _b] XlgbniipUp ap_nblepckil] hnXnil]
c `elcpblinTiZW `kikbkW l HMMn`hlciZW HOn`hpekW
0IA. 2. /ekMl` lYaninil] `pHMMlPlnihk gp^ephlcbnil] g `elcpblinTiZal \Xkgh`kal `kaneZ ganKnil]. Zbl
phcp_k c Ykclglapghl ph R0 /D0, 2D ekgXnh ^p ^epUekaan
^epkikblYlepckiZ ap_nbl h\eR\bnihipghl k– RNG l
Fluent ^el Re  105:
ap_nbS c]Y`pghl k– RNG; k– SST. =k` cl_ip ik elg. 2, b\XKnn gpUbkgpckiln
ap_nbS c]Y`pghl k– SST; g H`g^nelanihkbSiZal _kiiZal ikRbN_knhg] _b]
H`g^nelanih ap_nbl h\eR\bnihipghl k– RNG.

126
Bn`Pl] 3 «3npenhlXng`k] l ^el`bk_ik] UkYpck] _likal`k. /peniln l `kaneZ gUpekil]»

3. C<=(6FDIF 8IAH< IA8H=.3H?CDD2+ IA>H6DI<H?


1. =pHMMlPlnih gp^ephlcbnil]  phcp_k Ykclglh [1] k`\bnc E.:., /pb\Rnc. E. :., =eZbpc . :. l _e.
ph phipKnil] R0 / D0 l \Ubk ^pcpephk !: Xna RpbSKn 3npel], ekgXnh l ^epn`hlepckiln kclkPlpiiZW
R0 / D0 , hna aniSKn ^phnel _kcbnil]. _clUkhnbnT l HineUnhlXng`lW \ghkipcp` / @p_ en_.
2. =pHMMlPlnih gp^ephlcbnil] phc phcp_k E.:. Bpg\ipck l E.:. n^`lik. <.: <:5, 2003. 668 g.
in ani]nhg] ^el phipKnill R0 / D0  2. [2] 5_nbSXl` 5.. B^ekcpXil` ^p Ul_ekcblXng`la
3. %b] ekgXnhk hnXnil] c `elcpblinTiZW `kikbkW gp^ephlcbnil]a. <.: <kKlipghepniln, 1992. 672 c.
apOnh RZhS lg^pbSYpckik ap_nbS h\eR\bnihipghl [3] .n`ekgpc .. /l_ekcbl`k l nn ^elaniniln ik bnhk-
k– RNG. hnbSiZW k^^kekhkW. <.: <kKlipghepniln, 1967. 368 c.

7FFDIF 8H8F:F6D2+ A>:-) A 'C3H?27 8H>H<H7


B\bklaki :bl 5ggk, ./. <liUkYpc, .. :bn`gki_epc, .U\ni 3WH %kh1
1
=.53-=:5 la. 3\^pbnck, =kYkiS
e-mail: Armin.wrya@mail.ru

1. &?F;FDIF pRani, c enY\bShkhn `phpepUp cnblXlik ^p_anKlckil]


` ghe\n ikRnUkNFnUp ^php`k ^ep^pePlpikbSik ^bpFk_l
@epPnggka ganKnil] ghe\T g ^php`pa c Upen- H`ekik, nUp g`pepghl l ^bphipghl:
bpXiZW \ghepTghckW ^pgc]Fnip YikXlhnbSipn Xlgbp
lggbn_pckilT. E OkepcpT he\Rn ^eplgWp_lh k`hlcipn
cYklap_nTghcln ^php`k g ^p^nenXiZal ghe\]al, ^el U_n FH – ^bpFk_S H`ekik, pRekY\napUp ^p^nenXiZal
`phpepa chpelXiZT cpY_\W ^nenanKlcknhg] g ^php`pa. ghe\]al; Ui , WUi – ^bphipghS l g`pepghS ikRnUkNFnUp
^php`k.
<pOip ^en_^pbpOlhS, Xhp `pblXnghcp chpelXipUp
2. 8:F;F=FDIF <H
IIFD>C A>:-)DH'H cpY_\Wk, ganKkcKnUpg] g ^php`pa:
A7FFDI1 I >F78F:C>-:DC1
DF:C?DH7F:DHA>.
.k elg. 1 ^p`kYkik gWnak _kiipUp cYklap_nTghcl]. %b] ^pb\Xnil] ekgXnhiZW YkclglapghnT ccn_na
!_ngS glghnak ^p^nenXiZW ghe\T gpY_knh p^en_nbniipn ^pi]hln `pHMMlPlnihk ganKnil] m, `phpeZT ekcni
Ykhniniln ^epWp_ipUp gnXnil] OkepcpT he\RZ. phipKnilN ekgWp_pc HOn`hlepckiipUp lY ghe\T cpY_\Wk
_ipcenaniip cngS chpelXiZT cpY_\W \Xkghc\nh ` ikRnUkNFna\ ^php`\:
c ^epPnggn cYklap_nTghcl] g ikRnUkNFla ^php`pa.
Bhe\l cpY_\Wk, ^pgh\^kNFln XnenY pgipciZn phcneghl] 3
_lkanhepa 12…16 aa, pRbk_kNh _pghkhpXip ^epRlc-
ipT g^pgpRipghSN l pRekY\Nh Rpbnn gbpOi\N `kehli\ 5Y ^elcn_niipT gWnaZ gbn_\nh, Xhp ^bpFk_S
cYklap_nTghcl]. H`ekik, pRekY\napUp ghe\]al p_ipUp ^p]gk phcneghlT,
@en_^pbpOla, Xhp `pblXnghcp ganKlckNFlWg] p^en_nb]nhg] \ekcinilna:
ghe\T cpY_\Wk g ^php`pa ^ep^pePlpikbSip ekYaneka
kHep_likalXng`pUp H`ekik, pRekYpckiipUp ghe\]al.
@el cYklap_nTghcll ghe\l l ^php`k ^eplgWp_lh akggp-
U_n hi – Ub\Rlik ^epil`ipcnil] ghe\l c ikRnUkNFlT
^php`; d0 – _lkanhe phcneghlT; n0 – `pblXnghcp phcne-
ghlT c p_ipa ^p]gn phcneghlT;  – \Upb ekgKlenil]
ghe\T ^el lW lghnXnill lY phcneghlT (  10…12).
/b\Rlik ^epil`ipcnil] ghe\T c ikRnUkNFlT ^php`
c i-pa gnXnill p^en_nb]nhg] lY \ekcinil] hekn`hpell
ghe\l, `phpek] _b] \gbpclT OkepcpT he\RZ p^en_n-
0IA. 1. BWnak Mpealepckil] hnXnil] c OkepcpT he\Rn b]nhg] Ha^lelXng`pT YkclglapghSN, ^elcn_niipT c [1]

127
EgnepgglTg`k] ik\Xip-hnWilXng`k] `piMneniPl] apbp_ZW \XniZW l g^nPlkblghpc
«:clkPlpiiZn _clUkhnbl l glbpcZn \ghkipc`l», <pg`ck, 28-30 ak] 2019 U.

%b] he\RXkhpT `kaneZ gUpekil]

!_ngSq  0W 02 / U W U2 ; GU – ekgWp_ UkYk ^php`k;


G0 – ekgWp_ cpY_\Wk ghe\l.
5Y HhpT Mpea\bZ apOip ^pb\XlhS YikXniln U_nq  0W 02 / UW U2 – gpphipKniln g`pepghiZW ik^pepc
_kbSipRpTipghl hi  y. ghe\l l ^php`k.
(kgWp_ ganKlckNFnUpg] chpelXipUp cpY_\Wk, .npRWp_lap phanhlhS, Xhp _kiipn \ekciniln g^ek-
lghn`kNFnUp lY pgipciZW phcneghlT c i-pa gnXnill, cn_blcp _b] YikXnilT h0  Rhe. hp \gbpcln pRZXip
p^en_nb]nhg] ^pgbn ^p_ghkipc`l (1) c (2): enkblY\nhg] c pgipciZW `kanekW gUpekil] g ph`eZhZa
MepihpcZa \ghepTghcpa.
B ^papFSN ^pb\XniipT Ykclglapghl apOip ikThl
Yk`pipaneipghl lYaninil] `pHMMlPlnihk ganKnil]
U_n A1 – `pHMMlPlnih ^ep^pePlpikbSipghl; i – hn`\Fnn m l c _kbSinTKna p^en_nblhS inekcipaneipghS hna^n-
YikXniln \Ubk Yk`e\h`l ikRnUkNFnUp ^php`k; hi (x) – ekh\eiZW ^pbnT ik cZWp_n lY `kaneZ gUpekil] [1, 2].
Ub\Rlik ^epil`ipcnil] ^p^nenXipT ghe\l c i-a gnXnill. .k elg. 2 c `kXnghcn ^elanek ^elcn_niZ gWnak
`kaneZ gUpekil] l _likal`k lYaninil] `pHMMlPlnihk
ganKnil]. El_ip, Xhp enkbSik] `kehlik ganKnil]
^p _blin OkepcpT he\RZ phblXknhg] ph ekinn ^eli]hpUp
Yk`pik ekg^en_nbnil] chpelXipUp cpY_\Wk, ^ep^pePlp-
ikbSipUp ^bpFk_]a phcneghlT F. <pOip ^en_^pbp-
OlhS, Xhp ekYilPk anO_\ ilal ik cZWp_n lY OkepcpT
he\RZ ^ep^pePlpikbSik \epciN inekcipaneipghl
hna^nekh\eiZW ^pbnT, h.n.  1 m. B HhpT PnbSN
^epcn_niZ ekgXnhZ inekcipaneipghl , enY\bShkhZ
0IA. 2. Ebl]iln _lkanhek phcneghlT c ganglhnbn `phpepUp ^en_ghkcbniZ ik elg. 3.
ik _likal`\ ganKnil] chpelXipUp cpY_\Wk g UkYpcZa @p_hcneO_nilna g`kYkiipUp ]cb]nhg] gekciniln
^php`pa (:-31) (_lkanhe phcneghlT d  17 aa; _kiiZW H`g^nelanihkbSipUp lggbn_pckil] hna^nek-
g`pepghS c phcneghl]W W  92,8 a/g) h\eiZW ^pbnT, ^epcn_niipUp c ekRphn [3], g ikKlal
ekgXnhiZal _kiiZal. El_ip lW `kXnghcniipn gWp_ghcp,
Xhp gcl_nhnbSghc\nh p ^ekcpaneipghl ^pb\XniiZW
YkclglapghnT.

3. C<=(6FDIF
5Y ^elcn_niiZW ekgXnhiZW enY\bShkhpc cl_ip, Xhp
^en_bpOniik] ap_nbS ekgXnhk ganKnil] ^pYcpb]nh
c Pnbpa p^en_nblhS cbl]iln `pighe\`hlciZW pgpRni-
ipghnT OkepcpT he\RZ ik ^epPngg ganKnil] chpelX-
ipUp cpY_\Wk g UkYpcZa ^php`pa. B _e\UpT ghpepiZ,
cl_ip, Xhp ^kekanhe m gc]Yki g inekcipaneipghSN ,
h.n. \b\XKniln ganKnil] gilOknh inekcipaneipghS
hna^nekh\eiZW ^pbnT.

8IAH< IA8H=.3H?CDD2+ IA>H6DI<H?


[1] nMnce :. @epPnggZ c `kanekW gUpekil] /3%.
<: <le, 1986. 566 g.
[2] <liUkYpc ./. =kaneZ gUpekil] UkYph\eRliiZW
_clUkhnbnT. =kYkiS: 5Y_-cp =/3, 2004. 220 g.
0IA. 3. 5Yaniniln ekgXnhipT l H`g^nelanihkbSipT
inekcipaneipghl ^pb] hna^nekh\eZ ph YU ^el ekYiZW [3] kig`lT :.<, \`kXnc B.E, <khcnnc B./. (kRpXlT
_blikW ganglhnb] l `kane gUpekil] ekYblXipT ^epPngg `kane gUpekil] akbpekYaneiZW /3%.
`pighe\`Pll:  –J_kiiZn ekRphZ [3];  –JekgXnh ^p hnpell Bkakek: B. (:., 2009. 335 g.

128
Bn`Pl] 3 «3npenhlXng`k] l ^el`bk_ik] UkYpck] _likal`k. /peniln l `kaneZ gUpekil]»

DH'H:FI7DC1 I;FD>II<CI1 8H=-6FDI1 C;F<?C>DH) 7H;F=I 


;=1 ;IC'DHA>I<I 8H >F:7H'C3H;IDC7I6FA<I7 8C:C7F>:C7
:Wan_ leK Bkbla :Wan_, .<. gl^pc1
1
=.53-=:5 la. 3\^pbnck, =kYkiS
e-mail: hersh_ise19@mail.ru

1. &?F;FDIF C#=IC 1. gipciZn lgWp_iZn ^kekanheZ TJ-100

@el `pihepbn l _lkUipghl`n gpghp]il] UkYp-  enOla, % R, `. TcZW, = C\_, `U/`.


X
h\eRliiZW _clUkhnbnT Klep`pn ^elaniniln ikKbl 50 100 773,15 280
^kekanhelXng`ln anhp_Z _lkUipghlepckil]. @p_ Hhla 55 140 773,15 248
ikYckilna ^p_ekY\anckNh _lkUipghlXng`ln anhp_Z, 60 180 778,15 220
pgipckiiZn ik g^nPlkbSipT pRekRph`n l kikblYn 65 230 803,15 195
YikXnilT hneapUkYp_likalXng`lW l liZW ^kekanhepc, 70 290 823,15 171
lYane]naZW ik ekRphkNFna _clUkhnbn [2]. 75 370 853,15 155
@p_ hneapUkYp_likalXng`lal ^kekanhekal 80 450 888,15 140
^pilakNhg] ^kekanheZ, p^lgZckNFln hneap_lik- 85 550 923,15 131
al`\ ^epPnggpc c ^ephpXipT Xkghl _clUkhnb]. = ila 90 670 963,15 126
phipg]hg]: hna^nekh\ek, _kcbniln, ekgWp_ cpY_\Wk, 95 880 1013,15 125
UkYk, hp^blck, g`pepghS hnXnil], Xkghphk cekFnil] 100 1100 1073,15 127
ephpepc, h]Uk l h.^.
= in hneapUkYp_likalXng`la ^kekanheka phipg]h C#=IC 2. (nY\bShkhZ ekgXnhk ^p ap_nbl TJ-100
_kcbniln l hna^nekh\e\ akgbk, _kcbniln hp^blck, _p l_nihlMl`kPll
\epcil clRekPlT l h._.
 enOla, % R, `. TcZW, = C\_, `U/`.
X
.lOn ekggapheniZ ekRphZ, gc]YkiiZn g enkbl-
YkPlnT ^kekanhelXng`lW anhp_pc `pihepb] l _lkUipg- 50 66,6184 803,115 338,717
hl`l ^p hneapUkYp_likalXng`la ^kekanheka ik \ghk- 55 190,661 806,021 202,764
ipclcKlWg] enOlakW ekRphZ UkYph\eRliiZW _clUk- 60 278,919 850,223 178,049
hnbnT [3]. 65 327,495 868,204 168,784
70 427,875 913,145 157,338
75 509,726 938,688 149,529
2. &2#H: 7F>H;C I;FD>II<CII
80 594,118 945,235 140,456
E ikghp]Fnn cena] lYcnghni PnbZT e]_ anhp_pc 85 627,753 930,415 134,623
l_nihlMl`kPll, phblXkNFlWg] ^p lg^pbSY\napa\ 90 681,031 898,695 124,909
`elhnelN k_n`ckhipghl l p^lekNFlWg] ik ekYblXi\N 95 811,058 985,891 127,886
k^elpei\N liMpeakPlN. 100 888,568 1048,39 131,215
.k^elane, c ekRphn [1] cZ_nbnip XnhZen hl^k
pPnip`: C#=IC 3. @kekanheZ TJ-100 ^pgbn ^epcn_nil]
1) pPni`l ^p anhp_\ iklaniSKlW `ck_ekhpc, aipUpenOlaipT l_nihlMl`kPll
`phpeZn in henR\Nh il`k`pT k^elpeipT liMpeakPll  enOla, % R, `. TcZW, = C\_, `U/`.
X
pR pRn`hn l pKlR`kW lYanenilT; 50 100 774,785 281,698
2) pPni`l ^p pRpRFniipa\ anhp_\ iklaniSKlW 55 141 773,54 249,136
`ck_ekhpc, lg^pbSY\NFln `pckelkPlpii\N akhelP\
60 180 779,934 220,339
pKlRp`;
65 231 804,133 194,053
3) pPni`l ak`glakbSipUp ^ekc_p^p_pRl], _b] cZXlg-
70 291 822,851 172,766
bnil] `phpeZW inpRWp_lap Yikiln ekg^en_nbnil]
75 370 851,798 153,967
cnep]hipghl pKlRp`;
80 450 886,621 141,947
4) RkTngpcg`ln pPni`l, p^lekNFlng] _p^pbil-
85 551 921,143 132,839
hnbSip ik Yikiln k^elpeiZW ^bphipghnT cnep]hipghnT
inlYcnghiZW ^kekanhepc ap_nbl. 90 671 961,546 126,33
E _kiipT ekRphn lg^pbSY\nhg] anhp_ UenRincZW 95 880 1013,751 124,928
pPnip` (el_O-pPnip`). 100 1100 1073,14 126,25

129
EgnepgglTg`k] ik\Xip-hnWilXng`k] `piMneniPl] apbp_ZW \XniZW l g^nPlkblghpc
«:clkPlpiiZn _clUkhnbl l glbpcZn \ghkipc`l», <pg`ck, 28-30 ak] 2019 U.

3. C<=(6FDIF
E ^epPnggn cZ^pbinil] ^en_ghkcbniipT ik\XipT
ekRphZ ekYekRphkiZ:
–Janhp_ ^kekanhelXng`pT l_nihlMl`kPll akhnak-
hlXng`pT ap_nbl /3% ik \ghkipclcKlWg] enOlakW
ekRphZ _b] p^en_nbnil] Wkek`hnelghl` `pa^enggpepc
(cnihlb]hpepc) l h\eRli ^el lW ekRphn c glghnan /3%;
–Janhp_l`l (pRekhiZn Yk_kXl hneapUkYp_likal-
Xng`pUp kikblYk) _b] pPni`l `pHMMlPlnihk cpgghkipc-
bnil] ^pbipUp _kcbnil] l `pHMMlPlnihk ^pbiphZ gUp-
0IA. 1. 5Yaniniln ^kekanhepc R, TcZW l C\_ ekil] c `kanen gUpekil] ^el nn ekRphn c glghnan /3%.
c Ykclglapghl ph enOlak ekRphZ:
 
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[1] WpcenRpc <.<., YepWl :.., %eZUli :.B.
E `kXnghcn pRn`hk lggbn_pckil] cZReki _clUkhnbS @elaniniln l_nihlMlPlepckiipT akhnakhlXng`pT
TJ-100 (nWl]) – p_ipckbSiZT UkYph\eRliiZT cpY_\Kip- ap_nbl UkYph\eRliipUp _clUkhnb] _b] kikblYk
enk`hlciZT _clUkhnbS g p_ipgh\^niXkhZa `pa^eng- enY\bShkhpc lg^ZhkilT // :clkPlpiiZn _clUkhnbl
gpepa, `pbSPncpT `kanepT gUpekil], p_ipgh\^niXkhpT l glbpcZn \ghkipc`l. 3 (B @(BB, 2010.
pgncpT h\eRlipT l cZWbp^iZa (enk`hlciZa) gp^bpa. B. 153–159.
%kiiZn lY hnWilXng`pT _p`\anihkPll 3J-100 ^elcn- [2]. =nRk 5.E. %lkUipghl`k kclkPlpiiZW UkYph\eRli-
_niZ c hkRb. 1, enY\bShkhZ ekgXnhk ^p ap_nbl 3J-100 iZW _clUkhnbnT. <.: 3ekig^peh, 1980. 248 g.
_p l_nihlMl`kPll – c hkRb. 2. [3] =pMaki E.<. <nhp_ ^kekanhelXng`pT l_nihlMl-
E enY\bShkhn aipUpenOlaipT l_nihlMl`kPll `kPll akhnakhlXng`lW ap_nbnT /3% ik \ghkipclc-
akhnakhlXng`pT ap_nbl 3J-100 ^pb\XniZ gbn_\NFln KlWg] enOlakW ekRphZ // Enghi. Mlag`. Upg.
^kekanheZ (hkRb. 3). kclkP. hnWi. \i-hk, 2009. 3. 13,  1(34). B. 57–65.

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e-mail: nguyenthedat1609@gmail.com

1. &?F;FDIF hp^blck l hna gkaZa cbl]nh ik ^pbiph\ gUpekil] l


HalgglN cen_iZW cnFnghc lY `kaneZ gUpekil].
E RpbSKlighcn `kane gUpekil] gpcenaniiZW UkYp- E ikghp]Fnn cena] RpbSKpn `pblXnghcp ekRph
h\eRliiZW _clUkhnbnT (/3%) ikYnaipUp l kclkPlpiipUp [1 –J4] ^pgc]Fnip ekggaphenilN ^epPnggpc ganKnil]
ikYikXnil] ik cWp_n c Okepc\N he\R\, `piPnihelXip ghe\T c Yk`e\XniiZW ^php`kW. E RpbSKlighcn lY ilW
g hp^blcipT Mpeg\i`pT, \ghkikcblckNh bp^khpXiZT (nMnce :., =pghneli E.:., /\^hk :., :Wan_pc (.. l _e.)
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ipUp ^php`k, cgbn_ghcln XnUp c Pnihen Yk`e\XniipT `pHMMlPlnihk ganKnil], ^en_ghkcb]NFnUp gpRpT phip-
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hp`pc. @p anen \cnblXnil] \Ubk \ghkipc`l bp^khp` Yk`e\XniipT ghe\l:
cpYekghknh Ypik pRekhiZW hp`pc (! 3) l \b\XKknhg]
ghkRlblYkPl] ^bkanil, p_ik`p ^el Hhpa cpYekghknh
Ul_ekcblXng`pn gp^ephlcbniln. =epan hpUp, bp^khpXiZT U_n m – `pHMMlPlnih ganKnil]; GH – ekgWp_ HOn`hl-
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130
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elTipT pRbkghl. @p anen \_kbnil] ph \ghS] YkclWelhnb]
cnblXlik cpYekghknh, Xhp gcl_nhnbSghc\nh pR \cnbl-
Xnill `pblXnghck HOn`hlepckiipUp ghe\nT cpY_\Wk.
@el \cnblXnill Yk`e\h`l ghe\l `pHMMlPlnih ganKnil]
cpYekghknh, Xhp Upcpelh pR lihniglMl`kPll ^epPnggk
ganKnil] g \cnblXnilna `e\h`l. %b] p^en_nbnil] 0IA. 1. BWnak YkclWelhnb] g k`glkbSiZa bp^khpXiZa
k^^kekhpa, nUp cinKilT cl_ l \UbZ \ghkipc`l bp^khp`
`pHMMlPlnihk ganKnil] RZbl YkaneniZ hna^nekh\eZ
c ^php`n Yk YkclWelhnbna (elg. 1).
@p enY\bShkhka hna^nekh\eiZW lYanenilT `pHM-
MlPlnih m ekggXlhZckbg] ^p Mpea\bn:

U_n T Y*, T 0*, T v* – gpphcnhghcniip YikXnil] hna^nekh\e


^nen_ YkclWelhnbna, c ghe\n l p`e\OkNFna cpY_\Wn.
@epcn_niZ XlgbniZn ekgXnhZ _b] H`g^nelani-
hkbSiZW YkclWelhnbnT g lg^pbSYpckilna ekYblXiZW
ap_nbnT cY]`pghl. .klb\XKlT enY\bShkhZ gen_l RANS
0IA. 2. Bp^pghkcbniln XlgbniiZW ekgXnhpc
(Reynolds-averaged Navie – Stokes) ap_nbnT ^ep_napigh-
g H`g^nelanihkbSiZal _kiiZal:
elepckbk ap_nbS c]Y`pghl k– RNG. @el inghkPlp-  –JH`g^nelanih kchpepc; –J1D ekgXnh.
ikeiZW ekgXnhkW iklb\XKnn gp^pghkcbniln g H`g^n- lgbniiZn 3D ekgXnhZ g ekYiZal ap_nb]al c]Y`pghl:
elanihpa ikRbN_kbpgS ^el lg^pbSYpckill ap_nbl –JDES; –JLES;
c]Y`pghl DES (Detached Eddy Simulation). (nY\bShkhZ –JSAS; –JRANS
gp^pghkcbnilT XlgbniiZW ekgXnhpc g H`g^nelanihkbS-
iZal _kiiZal ^elcn_niZ ik elg. 2. 8IAH< IA8H=.3H?CDD2+ IA>H6DI<H?
Bhe\`h\ek ^php`k, ^pb\Xknak] XlgbniiZa anhp_pa
g ^papFSN ap_nbl DES, RZbk `kXnghcniip gp^pghk- [1] <liUkYpc ./., :bn`gki_epc .., =pghneli :.E.,
clak g H`g^nelanihkbSiZal clY\kblYkPl]al, ^pb\- 3p`apcPnc .E. @epPnggZ Upenil] l kchpakhlYl-
XniiZal g ^papFSN ^kepcpUp c^eZg`k c ^php` l epckiipn ^epn`hlepckiln `kane gUpekil] /3% l
hn^bpcZW `kehlip` g hn^bpclYpek. /3: \XnRipn ^pgpRln. =kYkiS: 5Y_-cp =.53-
=:5, 2015. 160 g.
3. C<=(6FDIF [2] =\hkhnbk_Yn B.B., EpbX`pc .@., 3nenWpc E.5.
:Hep_likal`k l hn^bpakggppRani c pUekilXniiZW
@epcn_niZ H`g^nelanihkbSiZn lggbn_pckil] clWencZW ^php`kW. .pcpglRleg`: 5Y_-cp 5ighl-
ganKnil] ^php`k Yk bp^khpXiZa YkclWelhnbna l h\hk hn^bpMlYl`l B :. BBB(, 1987. 282 g.
gp^pghkcbniZ g XlgbniiZal ekgXnhkal g lg^pbSYpck- [3] /\^hk :., lbbl %., BkTen_ .. !k`e\XniiZn ^php`l.
ilna ekYblXiZW ap_nbnT c]Y`pghl. .klb\XKln enY\bS- <.: <le, 1987. 590 g.
hkhZ ^el Xlgbniipa ap_nblepckill RZbl ^pb\XniZ [4] :Wanbpck (.., kbkU\bk 3.., (kKl_pc .=.,
^el lg^pbSYpckill ap_nbl c]Y`pghl DES c inghkPlp- Bk`knc :.. :Hep_likal`k Yk`e\XniipT ghe\l.
ikeipT ^pghkipc`n ekgXnhk. <.: 5Y_. ineUl], 1977. 240 g.

131
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«9`ihMimffWk [`iUhck_i i bi_m`Wk Ybchfm`]i», 7mb]`h, 28-30 ^hZ 2019 U.

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e-mail: haris@ciam.ru

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fhefWS bceY]cYe AF `WV`h_i \mcm] ibb_k[m`hfiQ iS fiZ (` Thbcfmbci, b`keSV`Y]m`m^ Tib_k 7hSh fh `Sm[k),
«bceY]cYefmQ» YbcmQTi`mbci. F ehNmchS @cmUm fh\eh`- h ch]Lk ]mfbchfc, Sheh]ckeiVYJGiS UmeJTYJ b^kbP i
_kfiZ ekh_PfhZ ]ifkci]h Vh^kfZkcbZ m[fmQ ekh]MikQ \em[Y]cW bUmehfiZ, i bkTkfik bchMimfhefmUm \m_mLk-
b fk]mcmemQ «@fkeUikQ h]ci`hMii» i \mb_k[YJGi^ fiZ \kekbLhcmQ AF, bcemicbZ bchMimfhefmk ekDkfik.
^Ufm`kffW^ i_i \emcZLkffW^ \m `ek^kfi ck\_m`W- >emUeh^^h ehbTkch bchMimfhefmUm ckTkfiZ fhSm[ic
[k_kfik^. F ch]m^ \eiN_iLkfii Yb_m`ik bceY]cYefmQ ehb\ek[k_kfiZ \heh^kcem` \m `bk^Y ]hfh_Y. 4i\iTfWk
YbcmQTi`mbci \ei`m[ic ] mUehfiTkfiZ^ fh @fkeUiJ ]hfh_W i^k_i bYLhJGiQbZ-ehbDieZJGiQbZ `Sm[fmQ
h]ci`hMii. F fhbcmZGkk `ek^Z `WZbfkfik m[fm^kefmQ YThbcm] (`mV[YSmVhNmefi]) bm b`keSV`Y]m`W^ Tib_m^
bceY]cYefmQ YbcmQTi`mbci AF ` _JNmQ b^kbi \ei 7hSh ` ^ifi^h_Pfm^ bkTkfii (Mmin  1). F fk]mcmem^
iV`kbcfmQ ]ifkci]k kk UmekfiZ `mV^mLfm ` \emMkbbk bkTkfii ehbDieZJGkUmbZ YThbc]h `mV[YSmVhNmefi]h
Tib_kffmUm ekDkfiZ beh`fick_Pfm \embcmQ fkbchMim- b Tib_m^ 7hSh 71 bch`icbZ \kekbLhchZ AF b Vh[hffW^
fhefmQ Vh[hTi m fkeh`fm`kbfm^ m[fm^kefm^ ckTkfii bchMimfhefW^ VfhTkfik^ Tib_h 7hSh 72  1 Vh fkQ.
i[kh_PfmUm UhVh. b_i ch]mk ekDkfik `WSm[ic fh bchMim- >eh`kk AF ehbDiekfik \kekSm[ic ` fkNm_PDmQ
fhefYJ bceY]cYeY, cm AF ` ehbb^hcei`hk^mQ UmeJTkQ Mi_if[eiTkb]iQ YThbcm], h Vhck^ ` «bm\_m h`h_Z»
b^kbi bceY]cYefm YbcmQTi`h. b_i Lk `WSm[h fk \emib- bm bchMimfhefW^ Tib_m^ 7hSh Mmin  1 ` kUm ^ifi-
Sm[ic, cm ` ch]mQ b^kbi AF bceY]cYefm fkYbcmQTi`h. ^h_Pfm^ bkTkfii.
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_Zkc \emUeh^^h Tib_kffmUm ekDkfiZ Yeh`fkfiQ m[fm- [1] kefWQ .... *kYbchfm`i`DikbZ [`iLkfiZ UhVh
^kefmUm fkbchMimfhefmUm ckTkfiZ fh mcekV]k ]hfh_h ` ]hfh_hS. $bcmQTi`mbcP Vh^W]hJGkUm b]hT]h //
b \m[`iLfmQ _k`mQ UehfiMkQ – \kekbLhcmQ AF i .hVm`hZ [ifh^i]h. -VNehffmk. F 2-S c. / (k[.-bmbch`.
fk\m[`iLfmQ \eh`mQ – bkTkfik^    ` b`keSV`Y]m`m^ 9.*. 5ehQ]m. 7.: iV^hc_ic. 2005. 4. 1. ;. 590–609.
bm\_k. -b\m_PVYk^hZ ehVfmbcfhZ bSk^h Z`_ZkcbZ ^m[i- [2] hNiM]iQ 9.. cehLkfik ^h_WS `mV^YGkfiQ mc
HiMiem`hffmQ bSk^mQ ;.5. .m[Yfm`h \m`WDkffmUm \m`keSfmbci b]hT]h i YbcmQTi`mbcP b]hT]h ` ]hfh_k
\meZ[]h h\\em]bi^hMii \m `ek^kfi i \embcehfbc`Y. \kek^kffmUm bkTkfiZ \ei 01  02. 5mem_k`:
(hbTkc `k[kcbZ fh \m[`iLfmQ, eh`fm^kefmQ fh ]hL[m^ *--7hD, 1963.
`ek^kffm^ b_mk ehVfmbcfmQ bkc]k. A`iLYGhZbZ AF [3] .eifP F.4., 5ehQ]m 9.*., 4i__Zk`h *.-. -bb_k[m-
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`bk \heh^kceW Vh `m_fmQ fh ]hL[m^ fm`m^ b_mk Mi_if[eiTkb]m^ ]hfh_k // >77, 1975. 4. 39.
m\ek[k_ZJcbZ cek^Z Vh]mfh^i bmSehfkfiZ fh ehVeW`k, FW\. 3. ;. 473–484.
Yeh`fkfik^ d1 / dt  D i Yb_m`ik^ bm`^kbcfmbci [_Z [4] .eifP F.4., 5ehQ]m 9.*., 4i__Zk`h *.-. N YbcmQ-
;-Sheh]ckeibci]i, \eiSm[ZGkQ fh AF b\eh`h. 4h] ]h] Ti`mbci ckTkfiZ i[kh_PfmUm UhVh ` ]hfh_k b Vh^W-
ckTkfik b_k`h mc AF fk`mV^YGkffmk bchMimfhefmk, ]hJGi^ b]hT]m^ Y\_mcfkfiZ \ei m[fm`ek^kffm^
cm `bk kUm \heh^kceW – iV`kbcfWk HYf]Mii 1. mcehLkfii mc bkTkfiZ `WSm[h h]YbciTkb]iS i @fcem-
>em`k[kffWk ehbTkcW, \em[k^mfbceiem`h` ehNmcm- \iQfWS `m_f // >77, 1975. 4. 40. FW\. 3. ;. 469–478.
b\mbmNfmbcP i @HHk]ci`fmbcP ehV`icmUm \m[Sm[h i [5] 5ehQ]m 9.*.,
iemfmbm` F.9. -bb_k[m`hfik YbcmQ-
bmV[hffWS \emUeh^^, `WZ`i_i \ei^keW YbcmQTi`WS Ti`mbci ckTkfiZ i[kh_PfmUm UhVh ` ]hfh_k b Vh^W-
ckTkfiQ b \kekbLhcW^i AF ` «[`iUhck_k\m[mNfWS» ]hJGi^ b]hT]m^ Y\_mcfkfiZ \ei m]m_mV`Y]m`mQ
]hfh_hS m\ibhffmUm `WDk ci\h. b]membci \mcm]h // >77, 1976. 4. 40. F. 4. ;. 579–586.
[6] .eifP F.4., 5ehQ]m 9.*., 4i__Zk`h *.-.,
iem-
fmbm` F.9. 9fh_iV YbcmQTi`mbci m[fm^kefmUm
3. #JAF,=NKON
ckTkfiZ ` ]hfh_k \ei \emiV`m_Pfm^ iV^kfkfii
FW\m_fkffmk ibb_k[m`hfik ifckekbfm ` \ei]_h[- \heh^kcem` bchMimfhefmUm \mcm]h ^kL[Y bkTkfik^
fm^ mcfmDkfii. fm `WZ`i_m \ei^keW m[fm^kefWS Vh^W]hJGkUm b]hT]h i `WSm[m^ iV ]hfh_h // >77,
bchMimfhefWS ckTkfiQ b \kekbLhcmQ AF ` ci\iTfWS 1977. 4. 41. FW\. 4. ;. 637–645.
[_Z \eZ^mcmTfWS [`iUhck_kQ ]hfh_hS \kek^kffmQ [7] .eifP F.4., 5ehQ]m 9.*., 4i__Zk`h *.-.,
iem-
\_mGh[i. fmbm` F.9. -bb_k[m`hfik YbcmQTi`mbci ckTkfiZ
(hNmch `W\m_fkfh \ei \m[[keL]k (- (17-01- i[kh_PfmUm UhVh ` ]hfh_hS b Vh^W]hJGi^ b]hT]m^
00126 i 18-31-20059). Y\_mcfkfiZ // 4eY[W -97, 1982.  1020. ;. 6–21.

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b]membcP ck\_m`W[k_kfiZ, \m]hVhck_P h[ihNhcW, \meZ[m] \mb]m_P]Y \m_fmbcPJ ib]_JTkfm Tib_kffmk «ehV^hVW-
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Thbcmcfm^Y ekLi^Y, fiV]mThbcmcfm^Y i \kekSm[fm^Y _kffmUm fh eib. 2, ehbTkc b ;5 \ei bSm[fmQ h^\_icY[k
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ehV_iTfW^ bmmcfmDkfik^ ^kL[Y \keim[m^ \Y_PbhMiQ fWS \Y_PbhMiQ. AhffWQ @HHk]c ^mLkc NWcP b`ZVhf
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(hbTkc ` ;5 fhSm[icbZ ` SmemDk^ bmmc`kcbc`ii fh ekVY_Pchc.

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4. #JAF,=NKON .>OHQA OH>QF87QDJKK;6 OHEQ=KOAQD


ib_kffmk ibb_k[m`hfik Sheh]ckeibci] \Y_Pbi- [1] Erpenbeck J. Stability of steady-state equilibrium
eYJGkQ [kcmfhMimffmQ `m_fW [hLk ` m[fm^kefm^ detonations // Physics of Fluids. 1962. Vol. 5. P. 604.
b_YThk cekNYkc VfhTick_PfWS `WTib_ick_PfWS Vhcehc, [2] Fickett W., Wood W. Flow calculations for pulsating
\mb]m_P]Y fkmNSm[i^m ehVekDhcP YV]ik VmfW \emck]h- one dimensional detonations // Physics of Fluids.
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[_ick_PfWS `ek^kfhS, ]mU[h \emibSm[ic `WSm[ fh bh^m- [3] Korobeinikov V., Levin V., Markov V., Chernyi G.
\m[[keLi`hJGiQbZ ekLi^. (hVehNmchf `WTib_ick_PfWQ Propagation of blast waves in combustible gas // Acta
h_Umeic^ [_Z \m[mNfmUm ^m[k_iem`hfiZ ` bibck^k Astronautica. 1972. Vol. 17. P. 529.
]mme[ifhc, b`ZVhffmQ b _i[ieYJGi^ b]hT]m^, [_Z b_YThZ [4] Leung C., Radulescu M., Sharpe G. Characteristics
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i fiV]mThbcmcfmUm ekLi^m` \Y_PbhMiQ, `mV^mLfWk [_Z ^m[k_iem`hfik \Y_PbieYJGkQ [kcmfhMimffmQ
ehbb^hcei`hk^mQ ^m[k_i ]ifkci]i Si^iTkb]iS ekh]MiQ. `m_fW ` bibck^k ]mme[ifhc, b`ZVhffmQ b _i[ieYJ-
(hNmch `W\m_fkfh ` eh^]hS UmbY[hebc`kffmUm Gi^ b]hT]m^ // Yef. `WTib_ick_PfmQ ^hck^hci]i
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>ei^keW ekDkfiZ \_mb]iS ]mfcYem` \ke`mUm ci\h ` mN_hbci m\ek[k_kffmbci ib]m^mUm ]mfcYeh, i ` \ek[k_k
(b `m_fmQ ehVekLkfiZ), fhQ[kffWk b \ei^kfkfik^ \ei bcek^_kfii kk DieifW ] fY_J `WemL[hkcbZ
mNGkUm ^kcm[h ^fmLick_kQ hUehfLh, \ei`k[kfW ` [1]. ` chfUkfMih_PfWQ ehVeW`.
4h^ Lk bm[keLicbZ Y]hVhfik fh `mV^mLfmbcP fh_iTiZ >m^i^m Vh[hffmUm fhNkUhJGkUm \mcm]h, \ei \emHi-
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136
;k]MiZ 3 «4kmekciTkb]hZ i \ei]_h[fhZ UhVm`hZ [ifh^i]h. .mekfik i ]h^keW bUmehfiZ»

ib]m^mUm ]mfcYeh [3]. (hV^ke cmeMh i_i Yb_m`ik 3. #JAF,=NKON


kUm mcbYcbc`iZ Vh`ibZc mc Y]hVhffmQ `k_iTifW [mffmUm
[h`_kfiZ. F \ek[bch`_kffmQ ehNmck `W\m_fkfm \emHi_iem-
F ehNmck [1] b \m^mGPJ \eik^h, \ek[_mLkffmUm `hfik m[fmUm iV `heihfch ehbb^mcekffWS ` [1] ]mfHi-
.... kefW^ [4], \m]hVhfm, Tcm \ei \kekTib_kffWS UYehMiQ b \ei^kfkfik^ \eZ^mUm ^kcm[h UkfkciTkb]mQ
Yb_m`iZS m\ci^h_Pfmk ekDkfik ` `i[k U_h[]mUm ]mfcYeh m\ci^iVhMii, h ch]Lk `\ke`Wk \ei`k[kfW \ei^keW
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bm[keLhcP, \m ^kfPDkQ ^kek, m[fY `fYcekffJJ cmT]Y Y\_mcfkfiZ. FW\m_fkfm beh`fkfik Sheh]ckeibci]
iV_m^h. fh] \eiehGkfiZ YU_h fh]_mfh ` cmT]k iV_m^h \mbcemkffWS ]mfcYem` b bm\emci`_kfik^ hfh_mUiTfWS
m\ci^h_PfmUm ]mfcYeh m\ek[k_ZkcbZ `k_iTifmQ ]m@H- U_h[]iS ]mfHiUYehMiQ.
HiMikfch mcehLkfiZ `mV^YGkfiQ mc mN_hbci ekV]mUm
iV^kfkfiZ \heh^kcem` i ^mLkc NWcP ]h] mceiMhck_PfW^, .>OHQA OH>QF87QDJKK;6 OHEQ=KOAQD
mNck]hk^W^ b mNehVm`hfik^ `m_fW ehVekLkfiZ, ch] i
\m_mLick_PfW^, mNck]hk^W^ bm b]hT]m^ Y\_mcfkfiZ. [1] 5ehQ]m 9.*., 4i__Zk`h *.-. 5mfcYe ^ifi^h_PfmUm
4h]Lk ` ehNmck [1] fh mbfm`k mNGkUm ^kcm[h bm\emci`_kfiZ ` fkm[fmem[fm^ b`keSV`Y]m`m^
^fmLick_kQ hUehfLh ehVehNmchf h_Umeic^ i \mbc- \mcm]k // >77, 1973. 4. 37. FW\. 3. ;. 469–487.
emkfW \ei^keW m\ci^h_PfWS ]mfHiUYehMiQ \ke`mUm [2] 5ehQ]m 9.9., >PZf]m` 5.;., 4i__Zk`h *.-.
ci\h, m[fh]m `m\emb \emHi_iem`hfiZ ]mfHiUYehMiQ, >emHi_iem`hfik [`YbcmemffiS fkbi^^kceiTfWS
mNck]hk^WS b mNehVm`hfik^ b]hT]m` Y\_mcfkfiZ, \_mb]iS bm\k_ ^h]bi^h_PfmQ cZUi // -V`kbciZ (9*.
mbch`h_bZ [m fhbcmZGkUm `ek^kfi mc]eWcW^ iV-Vh 7kShfi]h Li[]mbci i UhVh, 2016.  1.;. 115–120.
TekV^kefmQ b_mLfmbci ekDkfiZ bmmc`kcbc`YJGkQ [3] 5ehQ]m 9.*. FheihMimffWk Vh[hTi b`keSV`Y]m`WS
`heihMimffmQ Vh[hTi. ckTkfiQ UhVh b \emiV`m_PfW^i cke^m[ifh^iTkb-
-b\m_PVm`hfik \eZ^WS ^kcm[m` m\ci^iVhMii ]i^i b`mQbc`h^i. 7.: F 9* ;;;(, 1963.
\mV`m_i_m `\ke`Wk \mbcemicP \ei^keW m\ci^h_PfWS [4] kefWQ .... 4kTkfiZ UhVh b Nm_PDmQ b`keSV`Y]m`mQ
]mfcYem` `cmemUm ci\h. b]membcPJ. 7.: iV^hcUiV, 1959. 220 b.

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2. JCJ@NEC; @Q?NFOCQDJKO9
(hbb^hcei`h_mbP [`h ekLi^h ibckTkfiZ:
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i bceYk, h ch]Lk ehb\ek[k_kfik [h`_kfiZ fh @]ehfieY-
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\mcm]h i cYeNY_kfcfWS \Y_PbhMiQ b]membci, bchciTkb- // 4F4, 2012. 4. 50.  3. ;. 450–466.
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i b`keSV`Y]m`mQ bceYi i ehb\ek[k_kfik \heh^kcem` // 7hckeih_W XV 7kL[Yfhem[fmQ D]m_W-bk^ifheh
cYeNY_kfcfmbci `fiV \m \mcm]Y mc ]em^]i bm\_h; «7m[k_i i ^kcm[W h@em[ifh^i]i», 2015.

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` Mk_m^. YTkN. \mbmNik. 7.: 7hDifmbcemkfik, 2005. 335 b.
;chNi_iVhMiZ \_h^kfi fh UmeZGiS \m\kekTfWS [5] 9-31. 4YeNmekh]ci`fWQ [`YS]mfcYefWQ [`iUh-
b`keSV`Y]m`WS bceYZS fh Hmebiem`hffWS ekLi^hS ck_P b mNGkQ HmebhLfmQ ]h^kemQ [_. ekbYeb]:
mNkb\kTi`hkc \m_fmcY `WUmehfiZ i ]m@HHiMikfc >9 A5 «$7>». URL:http://www.umpo.ru
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`WS YbcemQbc`. 7.: 7ie, 1986. 566 b.

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YbcmQTi`YJ AF fh `bk^ \emcZLkfii m[fmUm ]m_kNhfiZ.
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]m_kNhfiQ b]membci [`iLkfiZ fk fhN_J[hkcbZ. F.-. ;m_mfifh, .;. .Yek`iTh. 7., 2010. ;. 456–460.
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ekVY_PchcW fhYTfm-ckSfiTkb]mQ [kZck_Pfmbci ^kS. i ckS. HiV., 1963.  6. ;. 59–65.

*QH>FJ@NK9N@QHE8 >CQ>JKQ-DQ7?1KQ/ H@NHO D HCN?N HECO@NCKQ4Q


.* CJ7C9?J
F.9. FifmUeh[m`, A.F. 5m^ehcm`1
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`m^ ehVeZ[k. cm mbmNkffm `hLfm ` b_YThk meUhfiVhMii
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` ehVeZ[. FWbm]hZ @fkeUkciTkb]hZ @HHk]ci`fmbcP ^i]em- fW^ Mi_if[eiTkb]i^ `iNehcmem^ (eib. 1).
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\ei bmV[hfii ch]iS bibck^ VhLiUhfiZ ` ]h^kehS @_k]cem[m` i iV^kfkfik^ ehbSm[h cm\_i`h i b]membcZS
bUmehfiZ i bibck^hS Y\eh`_kfiZ ekh]ci`fW^ \m_kcm^.
cm \eki^YGkbc`m \m[]ek\_ZkcbZ i `Wbm]i^ 5>A
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[_Z @cmQ ckSfm_mUii, mTkfP fiV]i.
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bcei^kefmUm ehVeZ[h (eib. 2 i eib. 3).
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@]b\kei^kfch.

.>OHQA OH>QF87QDJKK;6 OHEQ=KOAQD


[1] Aleksandrov A.F., Bychkov V.L., Chernikov V.A. et al.
Discharge behind a step as a means of supersonic
3OH. 2. bMi__mUeh^^h ck^\kehcYeW NkV cm\_i`h propane-air mixture flow ignition and combustion
(bifZZ _ifiZ) i b cm\_i`m^ (]ehbfhZ _ifiZ) maintenance // 44th AIAA Aerospace Sciences
Meeting. 2006. Reno, USA. AIAA Paper 1462-2006.
[2] Alexandrov A., Timofeev I., Esakov I. The Effects of
Plasma Formations on Ignition and Combustion //
3OH. 3. mcm \_h^kfi Aerospace Sciences Meet. 2004. AIAA Paper 2004-1356.
\mcm]h 7 ` \ek[k_hS 0,5…1,8. 4h]Lk `hePiem`h_bZ [3] Esakov I., Grachev K. Khodataev et al. Propane-air
ehbSm[ cm\_i`h ` [ih\hVmfk ]m@HHiMikfch iVNWc]h mixture combustion efficiency in a deeply under-
`mV[YSh 0,5…2. critical MW discharge area in Cold High-Speed
Airflow // Presented at Aerospace Sciences Conf.
3. #JAF,=NKON 2006. Reno, USA. AIAA Paper 1212-2006.
[4] Esakov I., Grachev L., Khodataev K., Van Wie D.M.,
F Yb_m`iZS i^\Y_PbfWS \Yb]m` b \ei^kfkfik^ Vinogradov V. Propane-Air Mixture Combustion
ThbcmcfWS iV^kekfiQ \m_YTkfW ehb\ek[k_kfiZ ck^\k- Assisted by MW Discharge in a Speedy Airflow //
ehcYeW, bchciTkb]mUm i \m_fmUm [h`_kfiZ UmeJTkQ Journal of IEEE Transactions on PLASMA
\em\hfm-`mV[YDfmQ b^kbi ` `WSm[fm^ bkTkfii ehNmTkQ SCIENCE. 2006. Vol. 34. No. 6. P. 2497–2506.

"Q?NCKO7J+O9 EN>FQ7JOEKQ4Q ACJKJ QCHJ$KQ/ AJ@NC; H4QCJKO9


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1. *DN?NKON A_Z PDE @ci Hme^Y_W fk`kefW iV-Vh fkbchMimfhe-


fmbci ckTkfiZ. F mcfmDkfii PDE b]hVhffmk `WDk
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b Umekfik^ ` [`iLYGiSbZ i fk\m[`iLfWS [kcmfhMimf- fh\eZ^YJ [_Z mMkf]i cZUm`WS Sheh]ckeibci] PDE.
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b \eZ^mcmTfW^i F(A (>F(A) b ^k[_kffW^ Umekfik^
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152
;k]MiZ 3 «4kmekciTkb]hZ i \ei]_h[fhZ UhVm`hZ [ifh^i]h. .mekfik i ]h^keW bUmehfiZ»

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\em[Y]cm` bUmehfiZ ` ]h^kek bchfkc ^kfPDk [h`_kfiZ
UmeJTkQ b^kbi \kek[ `bk^i ]h^keh^i.
>ei Vh[hffWS f, 70 i q° mcfmDkfik b]membckQ
Ve / V0 \m_YThkcbZ ]h] HYf]MiZ `ek^kfi. Um ifckUei-
em`hfik \m \keim[Y [hkc bek[fik VfhTkfiZ Ve / V0 i
cZUm`Wk Sheh]ckeibci]i b YTkcm^ fkbchMimfhefmbci
i fkiV@fcem\iTfmbci ckTkfiZ \em[Y]cm` bUmehfiZ
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ehbbTichffWk \m i[kh_Pfm^Y 5>A (PDEth) i 5h] `i[fm iV eib. 1, ` ci\iTfWS bicYhMiZS F(A
\m fkbchMimfhefmQ ^m[k_i
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b\mbmNfmbci UmeJTkQ b^kbi (cp – ck\_mk^]mbcP \ei
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(hbb^mcei^ fkbchMimfhefWQ ekLi^ ehNmcW PDE. Tibk_ 7hSh \m_kch, fh ]mcmeWS F(A b Umekfik^ \ei
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\mbcY\hkc i[kh_Pfm \kek^kDhffhZ UmeJThZ b^kbP. cm fk \m cZUm`W^ Sheh]ckeibci]h^, h \m \embcmck
AkcmfhMimffhZ `m_fh ^Ufm`kffm NkV [m\m_fick_PfWS ]mfbceY]Mii (]h] \ei ^h_WS 70 \m beh`fkfiJ b 4(A)
@fkeUmVhcehc ifiMiieYkcbZ Y m[fmUm iV ]mfMm` ]h^keW. i_i \m ^kfPDkQ ck\_mfh\eZLkffmbci ceh]ch [`iUhck_Z.
>eh`WQ ]mfkM ]h^keW (  L) – bkTkfik `fkVh\fm bYLh- (hNmch `W\m_fkfh \ei \m[[keL]k (- (\emk]c
JGkQbZ Thbci bm\_h b Vh[hffW^ mcfmDkfik^ f \_mGh[i 18-31-20059).
kUm ]eiciTkb]mUm bkTkfiZ ] \_mGh[i \m\kekTfmUm
bkTkfiZ ]h^keW. >ei Vh[hffm^ f  1 i `bkU[h \ek[\m- .>OHQA OH>QF87QDJKK;6 OHEQ=KOAQD
_hUhk^m^ b`keS]eiciTkb]m^ \kek\h[k Tib_m 7hSh
\em[Y]cm` bUmehfiZ 71  1 \ei x / L  1 \mbcmZffm i [1] Wintenberger E., Shepherd J. Thermodynamic Cycle
iV`kbcfm. FfkVh\fmk bYLkfik Y[mNfm \m ]mfbceY]- Analysis for Propagating Detonations // J. of Propul-
ci`fW^ bmmNehLkfiZ^. *h bchMimfhefm^ ekLi^k sion and Power. 2006. Vol. 22. No. 3. P. 694–697.
ch]ik bm\_h _YTDk bm\k_ b \_h`fW^ `Sm[m^ [3, 4]. [2] k_P[m`iT .. 5 `m\embY mN @fkeUkciTkb]m^ ib\m_P-
>keim[ ehNmcW ]hL[mQ ]h^keW `]_JThkc: Vm`hfii [kcmfhMimffmUm UmekfiZ // Yefh_ ckSfi-
1) mc]eWcik ]_h\hfh, Vh\m_fkfik ]h^keW UmeJTkQ Tkb]mQ HiVi]i, 1940. 4. 10. FW\. 17. ;. 1453–1461.
b^kbPJ, Vh]eWcik ]_h\hfh i ifiMiiem`hfik AF; [3] Wintenberger E., Shepherd J. Introduction to «To the
2) \eiSm[ AF fh \eh`WQ ]mfkM ]h^keW – bkTkfik Question of Energy Use of Detonation Combustion»
`fkVh\fmUm bYLkfiZ i[kh_Pfm ekUY_ieYk^mUm bm\_h; by Ya. B. Zel'dovich // J. of Propulsion and Power.
3) mc \eh`mUm ThbciTfm Vh]eWcmUm bkTkfiZ ]h^keW 2006. Vol. 22. No. 3. P. 586–587.
(`fkVh\fmUm bYLkfiZ bm\_h) AF mcehLhkcbZ ]h] Y[hefhZ [4] Heiser W., Pratt D. Thermodynamic Cycle Analysis
`m_fh, i[YGhZ ] Vh]eWcm^Y `Sm[fm^Y bkTkfiJ ]h^keW. of Pulse Detonation Engines // J. of Propulsion and
Ah_kk fkbchMimfhefWk Y[hefWk `m_fW, [`iUhZbP Power. 2002. Vol. 18. No. 1. P. 68–76.

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1. *DN?NKON 4h]i^ mNehVm^, [_Z m\ek[k_kfiZ `ek^kfi \ekNW-


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epm^nimin] bp_khan nY I:D _gm^bkUkmhe] apiehg[aQn] *.1. nbn`pipck. miniUgk^: DkMnipehgpminm
_gmKpg`\, nYUphkcbnckm`k] `mhp^p` kchp`khnXmeapT (miniUg. ph^mbminm), 1976. 272 e.
ikMncan gpcniUk e ne_pbSYpckinm` c akXmehcm [2] Imh[Wpc >.1. @p_gphncbminm [ehkbpehn ^mhkbmT
_gpMncpXipT kgk`n^ipT inhn [3]. 2Y^mbnm, _pb[Xmi- *5;. D.: DkMnipehgpminm, 1993. 240 e.
ipm _[hm` _gp_nhan _gmKpg`\ _p hmWipbpUnn RTM, [3] Mattheij P., Gliesche K., Feltin D. Tailored Fiber
_pb[Xkmh _pcmgWipehi\T ebpT Rpbmm nYipepehpTanT Placement – Mechanical Properties and Applications
_p egkciminN e pR\XipT hmWipbpUnmT. // Journal of Reinforced Plastics and Composites.
1k peipcm kikbnYk e[Lmehc[NLnW Bae_mgn`mi- 1998. Vol. 17. No. 9. P. 774–786.
hkbSi\W n kikbnhnXmeanW _p^Wp^pc [4] c gkRphm [4] Luong M.P. Infrared thermography of fatigue in
_gm^bpOmik `mhp^nak apecmiipT Bae_mgn`mihkbSipT metals // Thermosense XIV. Vol. 1682. P. 222–233.

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8WN. 1. [RXkhpm BcpbScmihipm YkQm_bminm ^c[W apbme ^nKKmgmiQnkb\.

162
@maQn] 4 «IgpXipehS, ik^mOipehS, ipc\m apiehg[aQnpii\m `khmgnkb\ n hmWipbpUnn»

/FWNVI WNFVK;<VJPQQC@ WNLVBQWIVJ [7] Ip_pc G.G., @pgpani .;., 2ckiinapc G.G. ,kYgk-
Rphak apimXipUp Bbm`mihk UnRapUp ehmgOi]
[1] :kbnini ;.G., 5m`ne .D. Dp^mbngpckinm imbnimT- e gkY^mbSi\` Wgkiminm` ikap_bmii\W n ^p_pbin-
i\W apbmRkinT Qnbni^gnXmeanW Y[RXkh\W _mgm^kX hmbSi\W _pcpgphpc ^b] `p^mbngpckin] RpbSMnW
kcnkQnpii\W _gncp^pc // Gmehina @*>#, 2015. _mgm`mLminT Bbm`mihpc apiehg[aQnT bmhkhmbSi\W
5. 14.  3. . 1. @. 193–202. k__kgkhpc // 5g[^\ D>2, 2017.  92.
[2] Jungho P., Jong moon H., Hyunseok O. et al. Experi- [8] Ip_pc G.G., @pgpani .;., 2ckiinapc G.G. :pimX-
mental approach for estimating mesh stiffness in faulty i\T Bbm`mih UnRapUp ehmgOi] e gkY^mbSi\` Wgkim-
states of rotating gear // Annual conference of the prog- inm` ikap_bmii\W n ^p_pbinhmbSi\W _pcpgphpc
nostics and health management society, 2015. P. 1–7. ^b] Yk^kX imbnimTipT ^nik`nan apiehg[aQnT
[3] Géradin M., Cardona A. Flexible multibody dynamics: bmhkhmbSi\W k__kgkhpc // 5g[^\ D>2, 2018.  99.
a finite element approach. Chichester, England; New [9] Ip_pc G.G., @pgpani .;. /_gm^mbminm Omehapeh-
York, USA : John Wiley, 2001. 327 p. ipT K[iaQnn BcpbScmihpT _g]`pY[RpT Y[RXkhpT
[4] Cardona A. Three-dimensional gears modelling in _mgm^kXn ^b] `p^mbngpckin] ^cnOmin] Y[RXkh\W
multibody systems analysis // Int. J. for numerical `mWkinY`pc // VII DmO^[ikgp^ik] niipckQnpiip-
methods in engineering. 1997. Vol. 40. P. 357–381. pgnmihngpckiik] apiKmgmiQn] `pbp^\W [Xmi\W n
[5] Ip_pc G.G. Dkhm`khnXmeak] `p^mbS ^nik`nan eh[^mihpc. 5g[^\ apiKmgmiQnn, 2015. @. 117–120.
_g]`pY[RpT BcpbScmihipT Y[RXkhpT _mgm^kXn // [10]Ip_pc G.G. /_gm^mbminm ipg`kbSipUp apihkahipUp
X DmO^[ikgp^ik] niipckQnpiip-pgnmihngp- e`mLmin] _g]`pY[RpT BcpbScmihipT _mgm^kXn _gn
ckiik] apiKmgmiQn] `pbp^\W [Xmi\W n eh[^mihpc. `p^mbngpckinn ^cnOmin] Y[RXkh\W `mWkinY`pc //
5g[^\ apiKmgmiQnn, 2018. @. 354–356. VIII DmO^[ikgp^ik] niipckQnpiip-pgnmihn-
[6] nbni I.>. Gmahpg\ n hmiYpg\ chpgpUp gkiUk c hgmW- gpckiik] apiKmgmiQn] `pbp^\W [Xmi\W n
`mgip` _gpehgkiehcm. @IR.: 1mehpg, 2001. 276 e. eh[^mihpc. 5g[^\ apiKmgmiQnn, 2016. @. 85–88.

8P<HP5VLIP DVETKW QPIVFKTQW= :NLPKVNLQV4 FVJHT)EPTDVNLW


J ETLPKW N :BTLVD QTNLP3WVQPHQV6V DQV6VIVDFVQTQLQV6V
QPFH=)TQQV-ET!VHDWHVJPQQV6V NVNLV=QW=
.G. :pOkgnipc1
1
*#I « 2>D n`. I.2. kgkipck», Dpeack
e-mail: egor@ciam.ru

1. 1JTETQWT im `pU[h R\hS nihmUgngpcki\ c 3-D apimXip-Bbm`mihi[N


gkeXmhi[N `p^mbS.
pbSMniehcp gkYg[MminT ^mhkbmT kUgmUkhpc kcnk- ;b] pQmian ep_gphncbmin] [ehkbpehn ^mhkbn
Qnpii\W hgkie`neenT ec]Yki\ e YkgpO^minm` n gkYcn- c pRbkeh]W apiQmihgkhpgpc ik_g]OminT gkYgkRphkik
hnm` hgmLni `ipUpQnabpcpT [ehkbpehn c `mehkW `mhp^nak gkeXmhk _pcgmO^km`pehn n apBKKnQnmihpc
apiQmihgkQnn ik_g]OminT. 1;@ ^mhkbmT hgkie`neenn Yk_kek e [Xmhp` _pbipUp _gpKnb] ikUg[Omin] kcnk-
]cb]mhe], aka _gkcnbp, imehkQnpikgi\` n `ipUpap`_p- QnpiipUp _gncp^k c akO^p` Bbm`mihm apimXip-
imihi\`, Xhp Ykhg[^i]mh _gn`miminm e[Lmehc[NLnW Bbm`mihipT `p^mbn ^mhkbn.
`mhp^na gkeXmhk apBKKnQnmihpc Yk_kepc _p ep_gphnc-
bminN [ehkbpehn. 2. &PLTDPLWBTNIP= DVETK;
@[Lmehc[NLnm c ikehp]LnT `p`mih `mhp^nan
_gpXipehipUp gkeXmhk ckbpc _gn epc`mehip` ^mTehcnn ,kee`phgn` ckb ime[LmUp cnihk UbkcipUp gm^[a-
nYUnRk n ag[Xmin] [1] n`mNh g]^ ^p_[LminT. Igm^_p- hpgk cmghpbmhk, ^b] aphpgpUp peipci\` _pcgmO^k-
bkUkmhe], Xhp aka `kaen`kbSi\m ik_g]Omin] ph nYUnRk NLn` Kkahpgp` ]cb]Nhe] ik_g]Omin], cpYinakNLnm
n ag[Xmin], hka n `kaen`kbSi\m _mgm`mii\m n ph _pehp]iipT n _mgm`miipT epehkcb]NLnW ag[h]LmUp
_pehp]ii\m ik_g]Omin] _gn im_gp_pgQnpikbSip` n nYUnRkNLmUp `p`mihpc n gkeh]UnckNLmT enb\
ikUg[Ominn ^mTehc[Nh c p^ipT hpXam. ;kii\m `mhp^nan (MnYU a, Mag m, Mag a, Tm, Ta). Gmghpbmh\ Bae_b[khng[-
peipcki\ ik _gm^ehkcbminn ckbk c cn^m Rkban n Nhe] _p ebpOip`[ _pbmhip`[ _gpKnbN, ik akO^p`

163
GemgpeenTeak] ik[Xip-hmWinXmeak] apiKmgmiQn] `pbp^\W [Xmi\W n e_mQnkbnehpc
«>cnkQnpii\m ^cnUkhmbn n enbpc\m [ehkipcan», Dpeack, 28-30 `k] 2019 U.

gmOn`m aphpgpUp ikUg[OkNLnm Kkahpg\ _gnin`kNh


ecpm YikXminm. G gk`akW p^ipUp Qnabk ikUg[Omin]
_gpneWp^nh nY`miminm ik_gkcbminT Ubkci\W ik_g]-
OminT c [YbkW `p^mbn, Xhp WkgkahmgnY[mh cn^ ikUg[Om-
in] aka `ipUpap`_pimihi\T, imehkQnpikgi\T n
im_gp_pgQnpikbSi\T.
/RpYikXn` ni^maep` i ip`mg Bbm`mihk apimXip-
Bbm`mihipT gkeXmhipT `p^mbn, k ni^maep` j – ip`mg
gmOn`k _pbmhipUp _gpKnb] cmghpbmhk.
acnckbmihi\m _mgm`mii\m ik_g]Omin] #eqv (i,j)
8WN. 1. ,ke_gm^mbminm Bacnckbmihi\W _mgm`mii\W
p_gm^mbmi\ e [Xmhp` Un_phmY\ *mgRmgk [1] _p Kpg`[bm: ik_g]OminT

U^m #a(i,j) – _mgm`mii\m ik_g]Omin] _p DnYme[; #m(i,j) –


_pehp]ii\m ik_g]Omin] _p DnYme[; #E – _gm^mb
_gpXipehn `khmgnkbk.
G akXmehcm _gn`mgk ik gne. 1 _pakYkip gke_gm-
^mbminm Bacnckbmihi\W _mgm`mii\W ik_g]OminT
c apiQmihgkhpgm ik_g]OminT ckbk ime[LmUp cnihk
UbkcipUp gm^[ahpgk cmghpbmhk.
@[``kgik] _pcgmO^km`pehS c Bbm`mihm i Yk cmeS 8WN. 2. ,ke_gm^mbminm ikap_bmiipT c hmXminm cemUp
_pbmhi\T _gpKnbS cmghpbmhk c hmXminm ikYikXmiipUp _pbmhipUp _gpKnb] _pcgmO^km`pehn Yk ikYikXmii\T gme[ge
gme[gek Nas p_gm^mb]mhe] e [Xmhp` Un_phmY\ bnimTipUp ,ke_gm^mbminm ikap_bmiipT c hmXminm cemUp _pbmh-
e[``ngpckin] _pcgmO^km`pehn _p Kpg`[bm: ipUp _gpKnb] _pcgmO^km`pehn c apiQmihgkhpgm ik_g]-
OminT ckbk Yk ikYikXmii\T gme[ge _gm^ehkcbmip
ik gne. 2.
5ka aka cmbnXnik `kaen`kbSipT _pcgmO^km`pehn
U^m m – apbnXmehcp gmOn`pc _pbmhk; nj  tj Nas – max  1, apiehg[aQn] ]cb]mhe] imgkRphpe_pepRipT n
ikgkRphak ^mhkbn c QnabkW ik gmOn`m j; tj – hgmR[mh _mgm_gpmahngpckin] nbn nY`mimin] [ebpcnT
phipenhmbSik] ikgkRphak ^mhkbn Yk ikYikXmii\T Bae_b[khkQnn.
gme[ge Nas ik gmOn`m j; [Nij] – ^p_[eakm`k] ikgkRphak #gkcimin] (1) –(4) _pYcpb]Nh im hpbSap gkeeXn-
ik gmOn`m j Bbm`mihk i. hkhS _pcgmO^km`pehS ^mhkbn Yk ikYikXmii\T gme[ge
;p_[eakm`k] ikgkRphak ik gmOn`m j Bbm`mihk i Nas e [Xmhp` `nin`kbSipUp apBKKnQnmihk Yk_kek n(min)
1 ,
gkeeXnh\ckmhe] ebm^[NLn` pRgkYp`: ip n p_gm^mbnhS apBKKnQnmih Yk_kek _p ep_gphncbminN
3 [ehkbpehn n1, nbn cmbnXni[, ik aphpg[N `pU[h R\hS
[`ipOmi\ Bacnckbmihi\m _mgm`mii\m ik_g]Omin]
(min)
U^m n1 – `nin`kbSip ^p_[eakm`\T c epphcmhehcnn _gn [ebpcnn, Xhp `kaen`kbSik] _pcgmO^km`pehS
e ^mTehc[NLmT ipg`khncipT ^pa[`mihkQnmT apBKKn- c Bbm`mihm ^mhkbn epehkcnh max  1. ;b] BhpUp impRWp-
Qnmih Yk_kek; #eqv
(i,j)
– Bacnckbmihi\m _mgm`mii\m ik_g]- ^n`p c Kpg`[b[ (3) c`mehp `nin`kbSip ^p_[ehn`pUp
Omin] ik gmOn`m j c Bbm`mihm i; [FC] – `khgnQk apBKKnQnmihk Yk_kek n(min)
1 _p^ehkcnhS KkahnXmeanT
gkY`mgk 2k, WkgkahmgnY[NLk] agnc[N [ehkbpehn apBKKnQnmih Yk_kek n1, aphpg\T p_gm^mb]mhe]
`khmgnkbk; k – apbnXmehcp hpXma ik agncpT [ehkbpehn; nY gmMmin] ebm^[NLmUp imbnimTipUp [gkcimin]:
FNS – K[iaQn] k__gpaen`kQnn agncpT [ehkbpehn.
DkhgnQk agncpT [ehkbpehn `khmgnkbk n`mmh cn^:

3. 8P<HP5VLIP DTLPDVETKW FPHPDTLHVJ


FVJHT)EPTDVNLW
U^m Nk – Xnebp Qnabpc ^p gkYg[Mmin] ehki^kghipUp
pRgkYQk _gn en``mhgnXi\W ik_g]Omin]W #k(1); ;b] pRme_mXmin] cpY`pOipehn c\_pbimin] emgnn
K – apBKKnQnmih einOmin] _gm^mbk c\ipebncpehn niOmimgi\W gkeXmhpc _gn `nin`kbSi\W cgm`mii\W
^mhkbn _p phipMminN a _gm^mb[ c\ipebncpehn YkhgkhkW, k hkaOm ^b] _gpcm^min] ^kbSimTMnW gkRph
ehki^kghipUp pRgkYQk [2]. _p epY^kinN kbUpgnh`pc gkeXmhk ikap_bmiipT _pcgmO-

164
@maQn] 4 «IgpXipehS, ik^mOipehS, ipc\m apiehg[aQnpii\m `khmgnkb\ n hmWipbpUnn»

^km`pehn n RmYp_keipUp gme[gek ^mhkbmT kcnkQnpii\W e [Xmhp` imehkQnpikgipUp `ipUpap`_pimihipUp ik_g]-


_gncp^pc ik peipcm KnYnXmeapT `p^mbn gkeXmhk ep_gp- Omiip-^mKpg`ngpckiipUp epehp]in].
hncbmin] [ehkbpehn ^b] Yk^kiipT apiehg[aQnn `pOmh ,kYgkRphkiik] `p^mbS `pOmh R\hS ne_pbSYpckik
R\hS gkYgkRphkik gm^[Qngpckiik] `mhk`p^mbS: ^b] _pehkipcan n gmMmin] Yk^kXn p_hn`kbSipUp
_gpmahngpckin] _p agnhmgnN `kaen`nYkQnn apBKKn-
Qnmihk Yk_kek n ^b] epY^kin] kbUpgnh`pc gkeXmhk
U^m a1…a5 – apBKKnQnmih\, _pb[Xmii\m _gn _p`pLn ikap_bmiipT _pcgmO^km`pehn n RmYp_keipUp gme[gek
`mhp^pc gmUgmeenpiipUp kikbnYk. ^mhkbmT kcnkQnpii\W _gncp^pc.
Ign gmMminn hmehpc\W Yk^kX [ehkipcbmip,
Xhp ^b] gm^[QngpckiipT `mhk`p^mbn apBKKnQnmih /FWNVI WNFVK;<VJPQQC@ WNLVBQWIVJ
^mhmg`nikQnn R-ack^gkh `pOmh epehkcb]hS Rpbmm 0,98.
[1] ngUmg 2.>., pgg .., 2penbmcnX *.. ,keXmh
4. *PIK,BTQWT ik _gpXipehS ^mhkbmT `kMni / @_gkcpXina.
D.: DkMnipehgpminm, 1979. 702 e.
,kYgkRphkik apimXip-Bbm`mihik] `p^mbS, _pYcpb]- [2] */@5 25.504-82. Dmhp^\ gkeXmhk Wkgkahmgnehna
NLk] gkeeXnh\ckhS apBKKnQnmih Yk_kek c ^mhkbn ep_gphncbmin] [ehkbpehn. 1983. 55 e.

VDFV<WLC N PK,DWQWTJV4 DPLHW3T4 W :6KTHVEQCD JVKVIQVD


@.1. *kb\Mmc1,2, >.2. *p`Yni2, ,.. *kbb]`pck2,3, .. D[eni3
1
2iehnh[h KnYnan hcmg^pUp hmbk ,>1, mgipUpbpcak
2
#Kn`eanT *pe[^kgehcmii\T >cnkQnpii\T 5mWinXmeanT #incmgenhmh, #Kk
3
#Kn`eanT niehnh[h Wn`nn ,>1, #Kk
e-mail: galyshew@gmail.com

1. 1JTETQWT RkgSmgipUp _pag\hn] [1]. Ign ne_pbSYpckinn paen^-


i\W _pag\hnT ik cpbpaikW, kg`ng[NLnW ap`_pYnh,
:p`_pYnhi\T `khmgnkb ik peipcm kbN`ninmcpT apimXik] _gpXipehS, aka _gkcnbp, cpYgkehkmh, _gp_nhak
`khgnQ\, kg`ngpckiipT [Ubmgp^i\`n cpbpaik`n, _gpneWp^nh _gn `miSMnW ^kcbmin]W. ;g[Un` e_pepRp`
_gm^ehkcb]mh nihmgme ^b] neebm^pckhmbmT cp cem` `ngm. gmMmin] [akYkii\W _gpRbm` ]cb]mhe] ne_pbSYpckinm
bkUp^kg] epXmhkinN ecpTehc pRpnW ap`_pimihpc (_bke- `mimm Wn`nXmean kahncipUp c\epap`p^[bSipUp [Ubm-
hnXipehn kbN`nin] n _gpXipehn [Ubmgp^i\W cpbpapi gp^ipUp cpbpaik.
_gn bmUapehn pRpnW) ap`_pYnh Cf /Al `pOmh ehkhS p^in`
nY b[XMnW apiehg[aQnpii\W `khmgnkbpc ^b] ape`nXme- 2. 8T<:K;LPLC
apT, kcnkQnpiipT n ^g[UnW phgkebmT _gp`\Mbmiipehn.
,ke_gpehgkimii\` `mhp^p` _gpnYcp^ehck hkanW Igm^ehkcbmi kikbnY Yk^kX, RmY gmMmin] aphpg\W
ap`_pYnhpc ]cb]mhe] On^apKkYik] _gp_nhak. @ hmWipbp- imcpY`pOik hmWipbpUn] [UbmkbN`ninmcpUp ap`_pYnhk.
UnXmeapT hpXan Ygmin] [e_mMik] gmkbnYkQn] On^ap- Igncm^mi\ _pebm^inm gmY[bShkh\ c Bhp` ik_gkcbminn:
KkYipT _gp_nhan hgmR[mh gmMmin] g]^k _gpRbm`, 1. 1k peipcm gkRph [2 –4] _gm^bpOmik hmg`p^nik-
egm^n aphpg\W cYkn`p^mTehcnm gke_bkcbmiipUp `mhkbbk `nXmeak] `p^mbS _gpQmeek _gp_nhan [Ubmcpbpaik
e `khmgnkbp` cpbpaik, gkcip`mgipehS gke_gm^mbmin] On^an` kbN`ninm`. Ipb[Xmik Ykcnen`pehS _pgne-
cpbpaik c `khgnQm n ^g[Unm. @bm^[mh ph`mhnhS, Xhp hpehn ap`_pYnhk ph ^kcbmin] _gp_nhan (gne. 1).
^c[`] peipci\`n _gpRbm`k`n hkapT hmWipbpUnn ]cb]- /Re[O^kmhe] cpY`pOipehS _gn`mimin] hkapT `p^mbn
mhe] phe[hehcnm e`kXnckin] [Ubmcpbpaik gke_bkcp` ^b] p_gm^mbmin] ^kcbmin] ninQnkQnn _gp_nhan.
kbN`nin] n Wn`nXmeapm cYkn`p^mTehcnm gke_bkck 2. IpakYkip cbn]inm RkgSmgipUp YpbS-UmbS _pag\-
e _pcmgWipehSN cpbpaik, _gncp^]Lmm a pRgkYpckinN hn] ik Wkgkahmg gkYg[Mmin] n _gpXipehS ap`_pYnhk.
«enbSipT» UgkinQ\ `khgnQk/cpbpaip, [W[^MkNLmT @gm^i]] _gpXipehS ap`_pYnhk e [Ubmcpbpaip` RmY
`mWkinXmeanm ecpTehck ap`_pYnhk. _pag\hn] epehkcnbk 204  15 DIk, e YpbS-UmbS _pag\-
/^in` nY e_pepRpc gmMmin] pRmnW _gpRbm` ]cb]- hnm` 667  23 DIk. :p`_pYnh e im_pag\h\`n cpbpa-
mhe] Kpg`ngpckinm ik _pcmgWipehn [Ubmgp^ipUp cpbpaik ik`n n`mmh Wg[_anT Wkgkahmg gkYg[Mmin], _pcmgWipehS

165
GemgpeenTeak] ik[Xip-hmWinXmeak] apiKmgmiQn] `pbp^\W [Xmi\W n e_mQnkbnehpc
«>cnkQnpii\m ^cnUkhmbn n enbpc\m [ehkipcan», Dpeack, 28-30 `k] 2019 U.

gkYg[Mmin] _bpeak] (gne. 2). /RgkYQ\ e _pag\h\`n


cpbpaik`n gkYg[MkNhe] im Wg[_ap, _pcmgWipehS gkYg[-
Mmin] Rpbmm gkYcnhk (gne. 3). 1k pRe[O^minm c\ipe]he]
cpY`pOi\m _gnXni\ cbn]in] RkgSmgipUp YpbS-UmbS
_pag\hn] ik `mWkinXmeanm ecpTehck [UbmkbN`nin].
3. IpakYkik cpY`pOipehS _pb[Xmin] ap`_pYnhipT
_gpcpbpan e `khgnQmT nY kbN`ninmcpUp e_bkck n
im_gmg\cipUp c\epap`p^[bSipUp [Ubmcpbpaik e _gpX-
ipehSN _gn nYUnRm papbp 1500 DIk [5]. /Re[O^kmhe]
akXmehcmiik] cYkn`pec]YS `mO^[ _gpXipehSN [Ubm-
kbN`ninmcpUp ap`_pYnhk, gmbSmKp` _pcmgWipehn gkYg[-
Mmin] (gne. 4) n ^mUgk^kQnmT _pcmgWipehn [Ubmcpbpaik.
8WN. 1. ae_mgn`mihkbSik] n gkeXmhik] Ykcnen`pehn
^pbn _pg ph _gnbpOmiipUp ^kcbmin] 3. *PIK,BTQWT
IpakYkik cpY`pOipehS _gn`mimin] hmg`p^nik`n-
XmeapUp _p^Wp^k ^b] p_gm^mbmin] ^kcbmin] ninQnkQnn
_gp_nhan cpbpaik `mhkbbnXmean` gke_bkcp`. ,keWpO-
^minm `mO^[ gkeXmhi\`n n Bae_mgn`mihkbSi\`n
YikXmin]`n ^kcbmin] ninQnkQnn _gp_nhan im _gmc\-
Mkmh 0,1 DIk. ;kcbminm ninQnkQnn _gp_nhan
[Ubmgp^ipUp cpbpaik gke_bkcp` kbN`nin] – 7,2 DIk.
IpakYkik _mge_mahncipehS _gn`mimin] YpbS-UmbS
_pag\hn] c akXmehcm RkgSmgipUp. Gbn]inm _pag\hn]
ik _pcmgWipehn [Ubmgp^ipUp cpbpaik c [UbmkbN`ninmcp`
8WN. 2. IpcmgWipehn gkYg[Mmin] pRgkYQpc ap`_pYnhm `pOmh R\hS pR]eimip Kpg`ngpckinm`
[UbmkbN`ninmc\W ap`_pYnhpc e cpbpaip` RmY _pag\hn] «ebkRpT» UgkinQ\ `mO^[ `khgnQmT n cpbpaip`.
IpakYkik cYkn`pec]YS `mO^[ _gpXipehSN [Ubm-
kbN`ninmcpUp ap`_pYnhk, Wkgkahmgp` _pcmgWipehn
gkYg[Mmin] n ^mUgk^kQnmT _pcmgWipehn [Ubmcpbpaik.
;mUgk^kQn] cpbpaik ec]Ykik e pRgkYpckinm` apiQmih-
gkhpgpc ik_g]Omin] ik mUp _pcmgWipehn, Xhp, cmgp]himm
cemUp, pRbmUXkmh gke_gpehgkiminm hgmLni\ c `khmgnkbm.

/FWNVI WNFVK;<VJPQQC@ WNLVBQWIVJ


[1] Hu H., Pang B., Zhu Y., Fu Y. Preparation of titanium
dioxide immobilized on carbon fibers annealed in
8WN. 3. IpcmgWipehn gkYg[Mmin] pRgkYQpc [UbmkbN`ninm- steam ambient and their photocatalytic properties //
c\W ap`_pYnhpc e cpbpaip` e TiO2-_pag\hnm` Textile Research Journal. 2016. 87(18). P. 2233–2241.
[2] Mortensen A., Cornie J. On the Infiltration of MMC //
Metallurgical and Mater. Trans. 1987. V. 18. P. 1160–1163.
[3] Michaud V., Compton L., Mortensen A. Capillarity in
Isothermal Infiltration of Alumina Fiber Preforms with
Aluminum // Metallurgical and Materials Transactions
A. 1994. Vol. 25A. P. 2145–2152.
[4] Brooks R., Corey A. Hydraulic Properties of Porous
Media // Hydrology papers Colorado State University.
1964. No. 3. P. 1–27.
[5] *kb\Mmc @.1., *p`Yni >.2., *kbb]`pck ,.. n ^g.
/ _gpXipehn [UbmkbN`ninmcpT ap`_pYnhipT
8WN. 4. IpcmgWipehS gkYg[Mmin] ap`_pYnhipT _gpcpbpan // :p`_pYnh\ n ikipehg[ah[g\, 2018.
[UbmkbN`ninmcpT _gpcpbpan 5. 10.  3(39). @. 129–133.

166
@maQn] 4 «IgpXipehS, ik^mOipehS, ipc\m apiehg[aQnpii\m `khmgnkb\ n hmWipbpUnn»

&PKV3WIKVJP= :NLPKVNL; NFKPJP  -517 FHW FKVNIVD QPFH=)TQQVD


NVNLV=QWW. #5<VH IHWLTHWTJ IJWJPKTQLQC@ QPFH=)TQW4
@.>. nRkmc, .,. *pb[RpceanT1
1
*#I « 2>D n`. I.2. kgkipck», Dpeack
e-mail: sashibaev@ciam.ru

1. 1JTETQWT –@^pR\gmck – #Bac  0,5(#i  #1);


–Inekgmiap –mRm^mck – #Bac  #i  (1  )#1;
>ah[kbSipT _gpRbm`pT pQmian [ehkbpehi\W –agnhmgnT [3] – #Bac  "#i  3(1  ")#0,
Wkgkahmgnehna `khmgnkbpc ]cb]mhe] [ehkipcbminm U^m   #c.eO / #c.g.
agnhmgnmc Bacnckbmihipehn ik_g]Omii\W epehp]inT. G ^kiipT gkRphm neebm^[mhe] _gmn`[Lmehcp p^inW
;b] [ehkipcbmin] BhnW agnhmgnmc pakY\ckmhe] agnhmgnmc ik^ ^g[Un`n ^b] pQmian QnabnXmeapT
impRWp^n`\` _gpcm^minm [ehkbpehi\W ne_\hkinT _gn ^pbUpcmXipehn _gn @1@ ik _gn`mgm ehkbn I-517.
ehki^kghip` p^ippeip` n ebpOi\W ik_g]Omii\W
epehp]in]W (@1@). 3. #5HP<3C W DTLVEWIP WNFCLPQW4
G ikehp]LmT gkRphm neebm^pcki\ Ykapip`mgipehn
QnabnXmeapT ^pbUpcmXipehn imgOkcmNLmT ehkbn 1k gne. 1 _pakYki\ pRgkYQ\ ^b] ne_\hkinT.
I-517(151212DG>) _gn _bpeap` ik_g]Omiip` Dmhp^nak ne_\hkinT ik `kbpQnabpc[N [ehkbpehS
epehp]inn (gkeh]Ominm  ag[Xminm). (D #) epphcmhehcpckbk hgmRpckin]` [1].
2e_\hkin] ik D # _gpcp^nbneS _gn apihgpbm
2. #5<VH IHWLTHWTJ IJWJPKTQLQC@ pemcpT ikUg[Yan n ag[h]LmUp `p`mihk _gn t  20°C.
QPFH=)TQW4 @pphipMmin] Ubkci\W ik_g]OminT #3 / #1 epehkcnbn:
–0 (p^ippeipm gkeh]Ominm);
Ign gkeXmhkW 1;@ ^mhkbmT ne_pbSY[Nh agnhmgnn –0,84 (^b] pRgkYQpc e #xx  100 DIk  const;
Bacnckbmihipehn ik_g]Omii\W epehp]inT. xy  var (0…max));
:gnhmgn]`n, iknRpbmm _pbip [Xnh\ckNLn`n –0,38 ((#xx)!  ( xy)! – Xkehph\ gkeh]Omin] n
_gpXipehi\m Wkgkahmgnehnan `khmgnkbpc, ]cb]mhe] ag[Xmin] gkci\ n eniKkYi\).
4-W _kgk`mhgnXmeanT agnhmgnT ngUmgk [1, 2]: kehphk ne_\hkinT f  0,5…2,0 *Q. :pihgpbng[m-
`\m _kgk`mhg\ Qnabk – `nin`kbSi\m n `kaen`kbSi\m
#Bac  "0#i  "1#1  "2#2  "3#3,
[enbn] gkeh]Omin] n ag[Xmin] c Qnabm – Fmin, Fmax,
^kbSimTMn` gkYcnhnm` aphpgpUp ]cb]mhe] 5-n _kgk`mh- Mmin, Mmax n KkYpc\T [Upb F-M .
gnXmeanT agnhmgnT, _gm^bpOmii\T c gkRphm [3]: 1k_g]Omin] #xx, xy, #1, #3 gkeeXnh\ckbneS
nY ebm^[NLnW epphipMminT [1, 2]:
#Bac  "1#1  "2#2  "3#3  "0#i  "5#0,
U^m #1, #2, #3 – Ubkci\m ipg`kbSi\m ik_g]Omin]
(#1  #2  #3); #i – nihmiencipehS Ubkci\W ik_g]OminT;
#0 – MkgpcpT hmiYpg; "i – apiehkih\ `khmgnkbk.
G _gkahnam, aka _gkcnbp, _gn`mi]Nhe] agnhmgnn,
]cb]NLnme] Xkehi\`n eb[Xk]`n c\Mm[_p`]i[h\W. G gmY[bShkhm ne_\hkinT p_gm^mb]bpeS Xnebp
:gnhmgnn: Qnabpc ^p gkYg[Mmin] Nf . :gnhmgnT gkYg[Mmin] –
–DnYmek – #Bac  #i; _p]cbminm hgmLni\.
–:[bpik – #Bac  2 max  #1  #3;
–;Opiepik – #Bac  #1;
4. QPKW< HT<:K;LPLVJ WNFCLPQW4
QP VNQVJT IHWLTHWTJ IJWJPKTQLQC@
QPFH=)TQW4
Gn^ pRgkYQpc _pebm ne_\hkinT _gm^ehkcbmi
ik gne. 2.
,mY[bShkh\ ne_\hkinT pRgkYQpc ik D # _gncm^mi\
ik gne. 3. ae_mgn`mihkbSi\m hpXan epphcmhehc[Nh
8WN. 1. nbni^gnXmeanT hpiapehmii\T pRgkYmQ Bacnckbmihi\` ik_g]Omin]`, _pb[Xmii\` _p gkYbnX-
(lpRL  137 ``; DgkR  28 ``; dgkR  26 ``;   1 ``) i\` agnhmgn]`. ;b] _pb[Xmin] agnc\W D # pRgkRphak

167
GemgpeenTeak] ik[Xip-hmWinXmeak] apiKmgmiQn] `pbp^\W [Xmi\W n e_mQnkbnehpc
«>cnkQnpii\m ^cnUkhmbn n enbpc\m [ehkipcan», Dpeack, 28-30 `k] 2019 U.

5. *PIK,BTQWT
Igpcm^mi pRYpg agnhmgnmc Bacnckbmihi\W
ik_g]OminT.
Igm^ehkcbmi\ ^kii\m _p gmY[bShkhk` ne_\hkinT
hg[RXkh\W pRgkYQpc nY e_bkck I-517 ik `kbp-
Qnabpc[N [ehkbpehS _gn hgmW cn^kW ik_g]OmiipUp
epehp]in] – gkeh]Ominn, ap`RnikQnn gkeh]Omin]
e ag[Xminm` n _pXhn Xnehp` ag[Xminn. 5m`_mgkh[gk
ne_\hkinT 20°@.
Ip gmY[bShkhk` ne_\hkinT [ehkipcbmip, Xhp
agnhmgnn :[bpik, DnYmek, Inekgmiap-mRm^mck
im `pU[h R\hS ne_pbSYpcki\ ^b] k^mackhipT pQmian
Bacnckbmihi\W ik_g]OminT _gn p_gm^mbminn Wkgkahm-
gnehna D # _gn _bpeap` ik_g]Omiip` epehp]inn
e_bkck I-517. G hp Om cgm`] agnhmgnn @^pR\gmck,
8WN. 2. Gn^ pRgkYQpc _pebm ne_\hkin]: ;Opiepik n [3] _pYcpb]Nh ^khS ^pehpcmgi[N pQmia[
 –p^ippeipm gkeh]Ominm (#3 / #1  0); Wkgkahmgnehnak` `kbpQnabpcpT [ehkbpehn ^kiipUp
 –gkeh]Ominm  ag[Xminm (#3 / #1  0,38);  –_phmg] e_bkck.
[ehpTXncpehn _gn gkeh]Ominn e ag[Xminm`
Bae_mgn`mihkbSi\W ^kii\W pe[Lmehcb]bkeS _p ehm_mi- /FWNVI WNFVK;<VJPQQC@ WNLVBQWIVJ
ipT n Bae_pimiQnkbSipT `p^mb]`:
Nf  A(#)n; (2) [1] ngUmg 2.>., pgg .., 2penbmcnX *.. ,keXmh
ik _gpXipehS ^mhkbmT `kMni: e_gkcpXina. D.:
Nf  Bexp(#). (3) DkMnipehgpminm, 1979. 702 e.
G akXmehcm agnhmgn] pQmian k^mackhipehn `p^mbmT [2] :kRbpc .1., *pb[RpceanT .,. kgp_gpXipehS inam-
(2) n (3) ne_pbSYpckbe] apBKKnQnmih ^mhmg`nikQnn R2. bmc\W e_bkcpc. D.: DkMnipehgpminm, 1998. 464 e.
G gmY[bShkhm pRgkRphan ^kii\W R\bp [ehkipcbmip, [3] *pb[RpceanT .,., Ip^]Xmc >.1. /Qmiak ^bnhmbS-
Xhp agnc\m D #, _pb[Xmii\m _p [gkciminN (3), n`mNh ipT _gpXipehn _gn ebpOip` ik_g]Omiip`
Rpbmm c\epapm YikXminm R2. epehp]inn inambmc\W e_bkcpc e _pbnagnehkbbn-
2Y gne. 3 cn^ip, Xhp g]^ agnhmgnmc (:[bpik, DnYmek, XmeapT n `pipagnehkbbnXmeapT ehg[ah[gk`n. D.:
Inekgmiap –mRm^mck) im _pYcpb]mh _pehgpnhS IgpRbm`\ _gpXipehn, 1991.  6. @. 17–22.
D #-agnc\m e c\epapT ehkhnehnXmeapT ^pehpcmg- [4] */@5 25.502. ,keXmh\ n ne_\hkinT ik _gpXipehS
ipehSN, c hp cgm`] aka ^g[Unm (@^pR\gmck, ;Opiepik, c `kMnipehgpminn. Dmhp^\ `mWkinXmeanW ne_\-
[3]) _pYcpb]Nh _pehgpnhS ^pehkhpXip ik^mOi[N hkinT `mhkbbpc. Dmhp^\ ne_\hkinT ik [ehkbpehS.
[ehkbpehi[N agnc[N. D.: 2Y^-cp ehki^kghpc, 1986. 34 e.

8WN. 3. ,mY[bShkh\ ne_\hkinT hpiapehmii\W hg[RXkh\W pRgkYQpc nY e_bkck I-517 _gn _bpeap` ik_g]Omiip` epehp]inn

168
@maQn] 4 «IgpXipehS, ik^mOipehS, ipc\m apiehg[aQnpii\m `khmgnkb\ n hmWipbpUnn»

NFVK;<VJPQWT IKPNLTHQC@ DVETKT4 EK= HP<HP5VLIW


IVDFV<W3WVQQC@ DPLTHWPKVJ (Ni-Al, Ti-Al)
>.D. :kYikXmmck, @. . mbm_pck1
1
GpehpXip-:kYkWehkieanT Upe[^kgehcmii\T [incmgenhmh n`min @. >`kiOpbpck, U. #ehS-:k`mipUpgea
e-mail: chi-ka-chy@mail.ru

1. 1JTETQWT XnehpUp hnhkik G5 1-0 n kbN`nin] >5 hpbLnipT 0,5 n


1 `` epphcmhehcmiip. Ikamh nY Xmgm^[NLnWe] 11 hnhk-
;kiik] gkRphk _pec]Lmik _pb[XminN pRgkYQpc ipc\W n 12 kbN`ninmc\W _bkehni eckgnckbn cYg\cp`
ap`_pYnQnpii\W `khmgnkbpc enehm` Ni-Al, Al-Ti p^in` Ykg]^p` cYg\cXkhpUp cmLmehck k``pinhk 6 G
e _p`pLSN `mWkipWn`nXmeanW _gpQmeepc. e _pebm^[NLn` _pBhk_i\` phOnUp`. Ipebm phOnUk
/eipcipT _gpRbm`pT neebm^pckin] c\eh[_kmh pRikg[Omi\ KkY\ Ti2Al n Ti3Al e / : gmMmhak`n, h.m.
epcmgMmiehcpckinm hmWipbpUnT _pb[Xmin] ap`_pYn- Bhph `khmgnkb e`pOmh gkRphkhS c Mngpap` ^nk_kYpim
Qnpii\W `khmgnkbpc, ne_pbSY[m`\W c bmhkhmbSi\W hm`_mgkh[g. TiAl2 – pRbk^kmh WpgpMn`n ecpTehck`n
k__kgkhkW. Ni-Al e_bkc\ ikMbn Mngpapm _gn`miminm _gn inYanW hm`_mgkh[gkW, TiAl3 – WpgpMnm ecpTehck
c kcnkQnpiip-ape`nXmeapT _gp`\Mbmiipehn, gpRphp- _gn c\epanW hm`_mgkh[gkW.
hmWinam RbkUp^kg] epXmhkinN hkanW ecpTehc, aka 5kapm epe[Lmehcpckinm `pOip pR]einhS ik peipcm
BKKmah _k`]hn Kpg`\, inYak] _bphipehS n c\epak] ne_pbSYpckin] abkehmgi\W `p^mbmT [2, 3], _pYcpb]NLnW
apggpYnpiik] ehpTapehS. Ni3Al nYcmehmi aka e[_mg- p_nekhS _mgmWp^ p^ipT ehg[ah[g\ c ^g[U[N c [ebpcn]W
e_bkc, [ aphpgpUp apBKKnQnmih [_gpXimin] gkehmh _bkehnXmeapT ^nehpgenn. ImgmWp^ `pOmh pe[Lmehcb]hSe]
e gpehp` hm`_mgkh[g\ c phbnXnm ph ^g[UnW e_bkcpc. [1] aka nY neWp^i\W KkY Al * : n Ti O : c khp`ip [_pg]-
DipUpebpTi\m ap`_pYnh\ Al-Ti ne_pbSY[Nh ^b] ^pXmii\m Al3Ti / :, Al3Ti *I#. 5ka Om nY neWp^i\W
epY^kin] Rgpin ek`pbmhpc n ^g[UnW bmhkhmbSi\W KkY Al * : n Ni O : c khp`ip [_pg]^pXmii\m Ni3Al
k__kgkhpc. Gem Bhn e_bkc\ _pakY\ckNh emR] aka / :, Ni3Al *I#.
phbnXi\m apiehg[aQnpii\m `khmgnkb\. Igm^bpOmik hgmW`mgik] abkehmgik] `p^mbS _mgmWp^k
BhnW KkY aka iknRpbmm ikUb]^ipm _gm^ehkcbminm
2. &PLTDPLWBTNIP= DVETK; `mWkinY`k _bkehnXmeapT ^nehpgenn.
1k gne. 1 _gncm^mi\ abkehmgi\m `p^mbn gkYbnXi\W
IpgpMapc\m ap`_pYnh\ Ni-Al _pb[Xmi\ Bbmahgp- agnehkbbnXmeanW gmMmhpa: * : kbN`nin], epehp]Lk]
neagpc\` e_makinm` _pgpMapc inamb] (99,85% Ni, nY pahkB^gk n 8 hmhgkB^gpc (gne. 1,), / : hnhkik,
10 `a`) n kbN`nin] PA-4 (98% Al, 60 `a`) ik [ehk- epehp]Lk] nY 6 hmhgkB^gpc (gne. 1,), *I# hnhkik,
ipcam LABOX-1575 ep eapgpehSN ikUgmck 100°@/`ni, epehp]Lk] nY _kg hmhgkB^gpc n _kg pahkB^gpc (gne. 1,),
^kcbminm` e_makin] 40 DIk n hm`_mgkh[gpT e_makin] * : Al3Ti (gne. 1,) n *I# Al3Ti (gne. 1, ). 5kak] Om
600°@ e c\^mgOapT 5 `ni. Igm^ckgnhmbSik] kahnckQn] eWm`k ^b] KkY\ Ni3Al. Ign`mg e`mLmin] khp`pc _gn
gmkaQnpii\W e`memT _gpcp^nbkeS c kh`peKmgm kgUpik _gmcgkLminn * :-gmMmhan c / :-gmMmha[ _p^
c >*/-2 e cp^]i\` pWbkO^minm` _bkimhkgipT Mkgp- ^mTehcnm` cimMinW ikUg[Ypa _pakYki ik gne. 2 [2].
cpT `mbSinQ\ e ^c[`] Kbkapik`n c hmXminm 180 e. *g[__\ nY hgmW hmhgkB^gpc `pU[h _gmcgkLkhSe]
2Y nhpUpc KkYpcpUp kikbnYk cn^ip, Xhp `mhp^ Bbmahgp- c pahkB^g\ n pRgkhip.
neagpcpUp e_makin] _pgpMapc _pYcpb]mh _pb[XkhS :bkehmgipm `p^mbngpckinm _pYcpb]mh pQminhS
KkY[ Ni3Al, n`mNL[N [inakbSi\m KnYnXmeanm ecpTehck. BimgUnn pRgkYpckin] gkYbnXi\W nihmg`mhkbbn^pc
/RgkYQ\ ap`_pYnhk Ti-Al _pb[Xmi\ eckgapT e Wn`nXmeapT Kpg`[bpT Al3Ti, Al2Ti n Ni3Al _[hm`
cYg\cp` `ipUpebpTipUp _kamhk _bkehni hmWinXmean egkcimin] khp`i\W e`mLminT n _pcpgphpc, cpYinakN-

8WN. 1. :bkehmgi\m `p^mbn:


 – * : kbN`nin];  – / : hnhkik n inamb];  – *I# hnhkik n inamb];  –* : Al3Ti n Ni3Al;
–*I# Al3Ti n Ni3Al (Ombh\` Qcmhp` _pakYki\ khp`\ Ti n Ni, agkei\` – Al)

169
GemgpeenTeak] ik[Xip-hmWinXmeak] apiKmgmiQn] `pbp^\W [Xmi\W n e_mQnkbnehpc
«>cnkQnpii\m ^cnUkhmbn n enbpc\m [ehkipcan», Dpeack, 28-30 `k] 2019 U.

hm`_mgkh[gkW, Ti3Al – WpgpMnm ecpTehck _gn c\epanW


hm`_mgkh[gkW.
;cnO[LmT enbpT Kpg`ngpckin] KkY Al3Ti, Al2Ti n
Ni3Al `pOmh R\hS _bkehnXmeak] ^nehpgen] Yk eXmh
agncnYi\ agnehkbbnXmeapT gmMmhan, pRme_mXnckNLk]
R\ehgp _gphmakNLnm e`mLmin] n _mgmipe khp`pc
kbN`nin] n hnhkik, n inamb] n kbN`nin], _gncp^]Lnm
a Kpg`ngpckinN nihmg`mhkbbnXmeanW epm^niminT
8WN. 2. Dp^mbS _gmcgkLmin] abkehmgpc * :-gmMmhan Yk apgphapm cgm`] _mgmabNXmin] Wn`nXmeanW ec]YmT.
c abkehmg\ / :-gmMmhan _gn _bkehnXmeapT ^mKpg`kQnn

LnW _gn neagncbminn agnehkbbnXmeapT gmMmhan ^b] /FWNVI WNFVK;<VJPQQC@ WNLVBQWIVJ


gkYbnXi\W ehg[ah[gi\W _gmpRgkYpckinT (/ :-* :,
* :-*I#, / :-*I#). [1] :pginbpc 2.2., mbp[epc /.:., :kX[g .G. 1nambn^
hnhkik n ^g[Unm e_bkc\ e BKKmahp` «_k`]hn». D.:
3. *PIK,BTQWT 1k[ak, 1977. 180 e.
[2] :cmUbne .2., 1peapc .D., GpbpXkmc D.1., ;Ome >.G.
Ipb[Xmii\m gmY[bShkh\ `pU[h R\hS ne_pbSYpcki\ Dkghmienhi\m _gmcgkLmin] c inambn^m hnhkik
^b] gkYgkRphan hmWipbpUnn epY^kin] e[_mge_bkck XmgmY _gp`mO[hpXi[N KkY[ e * :-gmMmhapT //
Ni3Al e _p`pLSN e_makin] _pgpMapc Ni n Al _p^ nYnX. `mYp`mWkinak, 2016. 5. 19,  2. @. 100–107.
^kcbminm` _gn imc\epanW hm`_mgkh[gkW. [3] Wu Z.L., Pope D.P. Ll2 Al3Ti-based alloys with Al2Ti
1kT^mi e_pepR _pb[Xmin] `khmgnkbpc, gkRphk- precipitates – I. Structure and stability of the
NLnW c MngpanW ^nk_kYpikW hm`_mgkh[g: Ti2Al – precipitates // Acta Metallurgica et Materialia. 1994.
pRbk^kmh WpgpMn`n ecpTehck`n _gn inYanW Vol. 42. P. 509–518.

(THDV3WIKWBTNIP= EVK6VJTBQVNL; KWLV6V QWITKTJV6V NFKPJP


J :NKVJW=@ EJ:@BPNLVLQV6V QP6H:)TQW=
G.G. >cg[QanT1, >.G. nini2, 1.*. \Xapc1
1
*#I « 2>D n`. I.2. kgkipck», Dpeack
2
D>2 (12#), Dpeack
e-mail: lutavr@yandex.ru

1. 1JTETQWT _p^cmgUkNhe] gkRpXnm n ep_bpc\m bp_khan h[gRni,


^nean, apg_[ek, Bbm`mih\ ak`mg eUpgkin], ep_bk,
nabnXmeapm ikUg[Ominm ^mhkbmT kcnkQnpii\W apO[Wn Kpge[ipa n ^g[Unm ^mhkbn. DkbpQnabpcpm
*5; c Bae_b[khkQnn ec]Ykip e _pchpg]NLn`ne] hmg`p[ehkbpehipm ikUg[Ominm BhnW ^mhkbmT ^cnUkhmb]
c akO^p` _pbmhm Yk_[eap`, c\Wp^p` ik `kaen`kbSi\m gmkbnY[mhe] c [ebpcn]W `pLi\W imehkQnpikgi\W
YikXmin] ikUg[Ypa n hm`_mgkh[g, _pbmhp` ik agmTemge- hm_bpc\W _phpapc, c\epanW `kaen`kbSi\W hm`_mgkh[g,
ap` gmOn`m, [`miSMminm` h]Un _gn _pek^am n c\abN- apU^k `khmgnkb ^mhkbn ne_\h\ckmh Yikap_mgm`mii\m
Xminn ^cnUkhmb] [1]. :kO^\T c\Wp^ ik cYbmhi\T gmOn` QnabnXmeanm [_g[Up_bkehnXmeanm ^mKpg`kQnn.
_gncp^nh a e[Lmehcmiip`[ [cmbnXminN imgkcip`mg- hph eb[XkT hmg`pQnabnXmeapUp ikUg[Omin] c_mgc\m
ipehn hm`_mgkh[gipUp _pb] ^mhkbmT ^cnUkhmb]. ;mhkbn R\b gkee`phgmi :pKKni\`.
apiehg[aQnn ^cnUkhmb] _p^cmgUkNhe] ebpOip`[ ikUg[- /epRmiipehSN ikUg[Omin] ^mhkbmT *5; ]cb]mhe]
OminN, cabNXkNLm`[ cmeS ap`_bmae ^mTehc[NLnW hp, Xhp nihmiencipm `kbpQnabpcpm n ehkhnXmeapm
ikUg[Ypa, hkanW aka ehkhnXmeanm, ^nik`nXmeanm, Qnabn- ikUg[Ominm _gpneWp^nh e p^ipcgm`mii\` ^mTehcnm`
Xmeanm, hm`_mgkh[gi\m n nW epXmhkinT. /eipcipT cnRgkQnpii\W ik_g]OminT, c\Y\ckNLnW `ipUpQna-
_gnXnipT gkYg[Mmin] ^mhkbmT ^cnUkhmb] ]cb]mhe] bpc[N [ehkbpehS `khmgnkbk ^mhkbmT. ImgcpikXkbSi\m
[ehkbpehS, c\Yckiik] _pcgmO^km`pehSN `khmgnkbk. hgmLni\ ph hmg`nXmeapT [ehkbpehn `pU[h R\hS im p_kei\
1knRpbmm nihmiencip`[ QnabnXmeap`[ ikUg[OminN, _gn phe[hehcnn cnRgkQnT, _peapbSa[ e nW pRgkYpck-
ep_gpcpO^km`p`[ ^mTehcnm` c\epanW hm`_mgkh[g, inm` [gpcmiS hmg`pik_g]OminT _k^kmh. /^ikap pRgkYp-

170
@maQn] 4 «IgpXipehS, ik^mOipehS, ipc\m apiehg[aQnpii\m `khmgnkb\ n hmWipbpUnn»

ckcMnme] hgmLni\ ehkipc]he] BKKmahnci\`n apiQmih- _p cgm`min ik `kaen`kbSipT hm`_mgkh[gm Qnabk,


gkhpgk`n ^b] cnRgpik_g]OminT. G Bhp` _gp]cb]mhe] nY`mi]hS ken``mhgnN hmg`pQnabk. @nehm`k cnRgpcpY-
phgnQkhmbSik] gpbS epc`mehipUp ^mTehcn] QnabnXmeanW R[O^min], cWp^]Lk] c epehkc [ehkipcan I926, epY^kmh
ikUg[Ypa inYapT n c\epapT Xkehph\. imRpbSM[N ^p_pbinhmbSi[N c\epapXkehphi[N ikUg[Ya[,
G ikehp]Lmm cgm`] nYcmehi\ Bae_mgn`mihkbSi\m n`nhng[NL[N Bae_b[khkQnpii\m [gpcin cnRgkQnn,
neebm^pckin] _gn hmg`pQnabngpckinn n cnRgkQn]W ik pRgkYmQ c hmXminm hmg`pQnabk.
c pRgkYQkW n ikh[gi\W ^mhkb]W, p^ikap _gpRbm`k
c Qmbp` im gmMmik, hka aka imh ^pehkhpXi\W ^kii\W, 3. *PIK,BTQWT
_pYcpb]NLnW epY^khS `mhp^\ gkeXmhk ik p^ipcgm-
`miipm ^mTehcnm _mgmXnebmii\W ikUg[Ypa. /^ik nY ,mY[bShkh\ ne_\hkinT _pakY\ckNh, Xhp ikbpOminm
_gnXni phe[hehcn] pRLm_gnYikii\W _p^Wp^pc a pQmiam ^p_pbinhmbSi\W c\epapXkehphi\W ikUg[Ypa _gncp^nh
_gpXipehn ^mhkbmT ^cnUkhmb] e [Xmhp` ^c[WXkehphipUp a einOminN hmg`pQnabnXmeapT ^pbUpcmXipehn e_bkck.
Wkgkahmgk ikUg[Omin] ec]Ykik ep ebpOipeh]`n
_gn _gpcm^minn hkanW ne_\hkinT. /FWNVI WNFVK;<VJPQQC@ WNLVBQWIVJ

2. 8T<:K;LPLC [1] :[YimQpc 1.;. IgpRbm`\ hmg`pQnabnXmeapT _gpX-


ipehn ^mhkbmT *5; // IgpRbm`\ _gpXipehn, 1978.
G 2>Dm gkYgkRphkik n nYUphpcbmik ne_\hkhmbS-  6. @. 3–7.
ik] [ehkipcak I926, _pYcpb]NLk] _gpcp^nhS neebm^p- [2] nini >.G., \Xapc 1.*. 5mg`pQnabnXmeak] _gpX-
ckinm hmg`pQnabnXmeapT ^pbUpcmXipehn `khmgnkbk ipehS Okgp_gpXipUp e_bkck n animhnak ikap_bm-
c [ebpcn]W ^c[WXkehphipUp ikUg[Omin] [2]. #ehkipcak in] _pcgmO^minT _gn ikbpOminn cnRgkQnpii\W
pRme_mXnckmh Yk^kii\T gmOn` hmg`p`mWkinXmeapUp ikUg[Ypa // kcp^eak] bkRpgkhpgn]. ;nkUipehnak
ikUg[Omin] pRgkYQk, _pYcpb]mh ccp^nhS c\^mgOa[ `khmgnkbpc, 2017. 5. 83.  2. @. 53–55.

8P<HP5VLIP DTLVEP FHV6QV<WHVJPQW= LTFKVJV6V NVNLV=QW= W


EVK6VJTBQVNLW NLPK;QC@ W 6W5HWEQC@ FVE$WFQWIVJ VFVH
PJWP3WVQQC@ 6P<VL:H5WQQC@ EJW6PLTKT4
1.2. Imhgpc, .. kcgmihSmc1
1
*#I « 2>D n`. I.2. kgkipck», Dpeack
e-mail: yllavrentev@ciam.ru

1. 1JTETQWT 2. /HPJQWLTK;QCT WNFCLPQW= NLPK;QC@ W


6W5HWEQC@ FVE$WFQWIVJ
Ip^Mn_inan Ubkci\W ckbpc kcnkQnpii\W *5;
gkRphkNh c [ebpcn]W c\epanW Xkehph cgkLmin] n 2eebm^pckin] UnRgn^i\W _p^Mn_inapc ik _p^Mn_-
hm`_mgkh[g. Ip pQmiak` e_mQnkbnehpc _p^Mn_inapc\W inapc\W ehmi^kW 514-15 ikXkbneS c 2>Dm mLm
Kng` SKF [1], Koyo [2] c _mge_mahnci\W kcnkQnpii\W c apiQm 80-W Up^pc. @ 2010 _p 2018 UU. R\bn _gpcm^mi\
^cnUkhmb]W _p^Mn_inan R[^[h gkRphkhS _gn _kgk`mhgkW ap`_bmaei\m egkcinhmbSi\m ne_\hkin] ehkbSi\W n
R\ehgpWp^ipehn dmn  3…4106 ``pR/`ni (_kgk`mhg UnRgn^i\W gk^nkbSip-[_pgi\W Mkgnap_p^Mn_inapc
R\ehgpWp^ipehn gkcmi _gpnYcm^minN egm^imUp gkYi\W hn_pgkY`mgpc, c hp` Xnebm gphpgi\W _p^Mn_-
^nk`mhgk _p^Mn_inak ik Xkehph[ cgkLmin]). inapc e ci[hgmiin`n ^nk`mhgk`n 130 n 150 ``.
G`mehm e Bhn` _pehp]iip _pc\MkNhe] hgmRpckin] 2e_\hkin] _p^Mn_inapc c ci[hgmiin` ^nk`mh-
a ik^mOipehn ^cnUkhmb], c hp` Xnebm a _p^Mn_inak`, gp` 130 `` _gpcm^mi\ c ^nk_kYpim Xkehph cgkLmin]
_pBhp`[ gkYgkRkh\ckm`\m hmWipbpUnn ^pbOi\ R\hS n  6000…21 200 pR/`ni (^p dmn  3,14106 ``pR/`ni).
ik_gkcbmi\ ik pRme_mXminm gkRphpe_pepRipehn _p^Mn_- /emck] ikUg[Yak ik _p^Mn_ina – 1000…3000 aUe
inapc c [ebpcn]W c\epanW Xkehph cgkLmin]. /^in` _gn _pehp]iipT gk^nkbSipT ikUg[Yam 400 aUe. ,keWp^
nY _mge_mahnci\W _p^Wp^pc ]cb]mhe] _gn`miminm `kebk V XmgmY _p^Mn_ina – 4…10,2 b/`ni.
UnRgn^i\W _p^Mn_inapc akXmin], n`mNLnW ehkbSi\m 2e_\hkin] _p^Mn_inapc e ci[hgmiin` ^nk`mh-
apbSQk n amgk`nXmeanm hmbk akXmin]. gp` 150 `` _gpcm^mi\ c ^nk_kYpim Xkehph cgkLmin]

171
GemgpeenTeak] ik[Xip-hmWinXmeak] apiKmgmiQn] `pbp^\W [Xmi\W n e_mQnkbnehpc
«>cnkQnpii\m ^cnUkhmbn n enbpc\m [ehkipcan», Dpeack, 28-30 `k] 2019 U.

n  2500…19 000 pR/`ni (^p dmn  3,56106 ``pR/`ni).


/emck] ikUg[Yak ik _p^Mn_ina – 1000…3500 aUe
_gn gk^nkbSipT ikUg[Yam 300…550 aUe. ,keWp^ `kebk
V XmgmY _p^Mn_ina – 5…10 b/`ni.
5m`_mgkh[gk `kebk ik cWp^m c _p^Mn_ina epehkc-
b]bk 100@. Ignin`kbpeS, Xhp ik [ehkipcncMm`e]
hm_bpcp` gmOn`m cem hm_bp, c\^mb]NLmme] c _p^Mn_-
inam, phcp^nhe] ph imUp `kebp`. :pbnXmehcp hm_bph\
(aGh), phcp^n`pm `kebp`, p_gm^mb]bpeS _p [gkciminN:

8WN. 1. 5m_bpc\^mbminm c ehkbSi\W _p^Mn_inakW


(d  130 n 150 ``)
U^m Cp – hm_bpm`apehS `kebk, ;O/(aU@); – _bphipehS
`kebk, U/e`3; V – gkeWp^ `kebk, b/`ni; TcW, Tc\W – hm`_m-
gkh[g\ `kebk ik cWp^m n c\Wp^m nY _p^Mn_inak, @.
ae_mgn`mihkbSi\m YikXmin] hm_bpc\^mbmin]
c ehkbSi\W n UnRgn^i\W _p^Mn_inakW e ci[hgmiin`
^nk`mhgp` 130 n 150 `` _gm^ehkcbmi\ ik gne. 1 n gne. 2.
2Y UgkKnapc cn^ip, Xhp UnRgn^i\m _p^Mn_inan
ne_\h\ckbneS c Rpbmm Mngpap` ^nk_kYpim _kgk`mhgpc
R\ehgpWp^ipehn (^p dmn  3,56106 ``pR/`ni).

3. 8P<HP5VLIP DFWHWBTNIV4 <PJWNWDVNLW


LTFKVJCETKTQW= EK= NLPK;QC@ W 8WN. 2. 5m_bpc\^mbminm c UnRgn^i\W _p^Mn_inakW
6W5HWEQC@ FVE$WFQWIVJ (d  130 n 150 ``)
Igpcm^mii\T gkimm kikbnY hmpgmhnXmeanW n Bae_m-
gn`mihkbSi\W neebm^pckinT Mkgnap_p^Mn_inapc [3]
_pakYkb, Xhp, c peipcip`, hm_bpc\^mbminm Q Ykcnenh
ph ebm^[NLnW Kkahpgpc: ci[hgmiimUp ^nk`mhgk _p^-
Mn_inak d, Xkehph\ cgkLmin] ci[hgmiimUp apbSQk n,
pemcpT ikUg[Yan Fa, _gpakXan `kebk XmgmY _p^Mn_ina
V n ph c]Yapehn `kebk .
k^kXk neebm^pckin] ecp^nbkeS a _pb[XminN B`_n-
gnXmeanW Ykcnen`pehmT (kikbpUnXip _p^Wp^[ c [4]), 8WN. 3. @gkciminm gkeXmhi\W YikXminT hm_bpc\^mbmin]
ec]Y\ckNLnW hm_bpc\^mbminm hgmin] Q n hm`_mgkh[g\ c ehkbSi\W _p^Mn_inakW e Bae_mgn`mihkbSi\`n ^kii\`n
apbmQ _p^Mn_inak TIR n TOR e cmbnXnik`n [akYki-
i\W Kkahpgpc:

U^m TOR – hm`_mgkh[gk ikg[OipUp apbSQk; TIR –


hm`_mgkh[gk ci[hgmiimUp apbSQk; TcW – hm`_mgkh[gk
`kebk ik cWp^m c _p^Mn_ina; xi, yi n zi – B`_ngnXmean
p_gm^mb]m`\m apBKKnQnmih\ (i  0…5).
>ikbnY gmY[bShkhpc ne_\hkinT _pYcpbnb p_gm^m-
bnhS apBKKnQnmih\ c Kpg`[bkW (2) –(4) ^b] ehkbSi\W
8WN. 4. ,keXmhi\m hm`_mgkh[g\ apbmQ ehkbSipUp n UnRgn^-
n UnRgn^i\W _p^Mn_inapc. 1k gne. 3 _gm^ehkcbmip
ipUp _p^Mn_inapc (d  130 ``) _gn Fa  3 a1 n gkeWp^m
egkciminm gkeXmhi\W YikXminT hm_bpc\^mbmin] ehkbS- `kebk V  10 b/`ni (TIR – hm`_mgkh[gk ci[hgmiimUp
ipUp _p^Mn_inak e Bae_mgn`mihkbSi\`n ^kii\`n apbSQk; TOR – hm`_mgkh[gk ikg[OipUp apbSQk;
*#I « 2>D n`. I.2. kgkipck» (e`. gne. 1). Steel – ehkbSipT _p^Mn_ina; Hybrid – UnRgn^i\T)

172
@maQn] 4 «IgpXipehS, ik^mOipehS, ipc\m apiehg[aQnpii\m `khmgnkb\ n hmWipbpUnn»

;b] _gpcmgan apggmahipehn _pb[XmiipT B`_ngn- ik UnRgn^i\T _p^Mn_ina. Ipebm p_gm^mbmin] Bacnck-
XmeapT Ykcnen`pehn _gpcm^mip egkciminm [5] gkeXmhi\W bmihipT ikUg[Yan gkeXmh ^pbUpcmXipehn UnRgn^ipUp
YikXminT e Bae_mgn`mihkbSi\`n ^kii\`n ehkbSi\W _p^Mn_inak `pOmh _gpnYcp^nhSe] _p apihkahi\`
_p^Mn_inapc, _gm^ehkcbmii\`n c bnhmgkh[gm, aphpgpm ik_g]Omin]` nbn _p `mhp^nam, _gm^ehkcbmiipT
_pakYkbp [^pcbmhcpgnhmbSi[N eWp^n`pehS gmY[bShkhpc c ehki^kghm DIN281 [6].
gkeXmhpc e Bae_mgn`mihkbSi\`n ^kii\`n.
/FWNVI WNFVK;<VJPQQC@ WNLVBQWIVJ
4. BTL LTFKVJV6V NVNLV=QW= FVE$WFQWIP
FHW HPNBTLT T6V EVK6VJTBQVNLW [1] Gregory A. Zimmerman. The Sky is the Limit // SKF,
Evolution, 2016.
,kYgkRphkii\m Kpg`[b\ p_gm^mbmin] hm_bpc\^m- [2] Yoshikiyo Yukawa. Trends and Future Prospects for
bmin] `pU[h R\hS ne_pbSYpcki\ ^b] gkeXmhk _phgmR- Rolling Bearing Technologies // Koyo Engineering
ipUp gkeWp^k pWbkO^kNLmUp _p^Mn_ina `kebk. ,kYgk- Journal English Edition, 2001. No. 159E.
Rphkii\m Kpg`[b\ ^b] gkeXmhk hm`_mgkh[g ci[hgmi- [3] Imhgpc 1.2., kcgmihSmc .. @gkciminm gkYbnXi\W
imUp n ikg[OipUp apbmQ _p^Mn_inak `pU[h R\hS `mhp^na gkeXmhk hm_bpc\^mbmin] c gk^nkbSip-
ne_pbSYpcki\ _gn gkeXmhm ^mTehcnhmbSi\W gkRpXnW [_pgi\W Mkgnap_p^Mn_inakW // Gmehina
gk^nkbSi\W YkYpgpc n [Ubpc apihkahk c gk^nkbSip- @k`kgeapUp [incmgenhmhk. >Bgpape`nXmeak]
[_pgi\W _p^Mn_inakW. 1k gne. 4 _gm^ehkcbmi UgkKna hmWinak, hmWipbpUnn n `kMnipehgpminm, 2018.
Ykcnen`pehn hm`_mgkh[g apbmQ ph Xkehph\ cgkLmin] 5. 17.  2. @. 154–163. DOI: 10.18287/2541-7533-
^b] _p^Mn_inak e ci[hgmiin` ^nk`mhgp` d  130 ``, 2018-17-2-154-163
ik aphpg\T ^mTehc[mh pemck] enbk Fa  3 a1 _gn [4] Flouros M. Correlations for heat generation and outer
gkeWp^m `kebk V  10 b/`ni. ring temperature of high speed and highly loaded ball
2Y gne. 4 cn^ip, Xhp hm`_mgkh[gk apbmQ UnRgn^- bearings in an aero-engine // Aerospace Science and
ipUp _p^Mn_inak ik c\epanW XkehphkW cgkLmin] Technology. 2006. Vol. 10. P. 611–617.
imeapbSap c\Mm hm`_mgkh[g\ apbmQ ehkbSipUp _p^Mn_- [5] Petrov N., Lavrentyev Yu. Empirical correlation of
inak. /^ikap Yk eXmh `miSMmUp apBKKnQnmihk hm_bp- heat generation in ball bearings depending on the
cpUp gkeMngmin] ^nk`mhgkbSi\T YkYpg c UnRgn^ip` operational conditions in the supports of aero-engine
_p^Mn_inam R[^mh epWgki]hSe] c Rpbmm Mngpap` rotor. 2019, IOP Conf. Ser.: Mater. Sci. Eng. 489 012029.
^nk_kYpim Xkehph cgkLmin], Xm` c ehkbSip` _p^Mn_- [6] DIN ISO 281 Beiblatt 5. Wälzlager – Dynamichse
inam. #Xmh ^mTehcnhmbSi\W hm`_mgkh[g apbmQ _pYcp- Tragzahlen und nominelle Lebensdauer – Beibleatt 5:
b]mh apggmahip gkeeXnh\ckhS Bacnckbmihi[N ikUg[Ya[ Tragzahlen für Hybrid-Wälzlager, 2011.

8P<HP5VLIP HP5VBT6V IVKTNP 3TQLHV5T)QV6V IVDFHTNNVHP


W< IVDFV<W3WVQQC@ DPLTHWPKVJ EK= JTHLVKTLQC@ EJW6PLTKT4
D.>. DmYmiQmc, 5.;. :kgn`Rkmc, >. . Opc1
1
*#I « 2>D n`. I.2. kgkipck», Dpeack
e-mail: mma@ciam.ru

1. 1JTETQWT ik peipcm hmg`pehpTapUp hmg`pgmkahncipUp ec]Y[NLmUp


n [Ubmgp^i\W ik_pbinhmbmT e c\epan`n gkRpXn`n
Ign`miminm ap`_pYnQnpii\W `khmgnkbpc (:D) hm`_mgkh[gk`n c\gkehmh Bapip`n] `khmgnkbSi\W
e_pepRehc[mh _pc\MminN Wkgkahmgnehna ^cnUkhmb]. egm^ehc, k hkaOm einY]he] Ykhgkh\ ik nYUphpcbminm
5ka c gphpgip` [Ybm c _mge_mahncm ^b] cmghpbmhipUp n Bae_b[khkQnN.
*5; _gn`miminm pRbmUXmiipUp gkRpXmUp apbmek Qmihgp-
RmOipUp ap`_gmeepgk (,: :) nY c\epaphm`_mgkh[gipUp 2. VQNLH:I3W= 8 W< &
_pbn`mgipUp ap`_pYnQnpiipUp `khmgnkbk _pYcpbnh
[cmbnXnhS gme[ge ckbk n ^cnUkhmb] c Qmbp` nY-Yk :piehg[ahnci\T pRbna ,: : nY :D (gne. 1,)
einOmin] ikUg[Yan nbn einYnhS nW epRehcmii\T cme. gkYgkRphki ik peipcm _khmihk 2>Dk [1] n n`mmh epehkc-
Ign phgkRphkiipT hmWipbpUnn nYUphpcbmin] ,: : i[N apiehg[aQnN nY 20 emahpgpc n 5 enbpc\W apbmQ.

173
GemgpeenTeak] ik[Xip-hmWinXmeak] apiKmgmiQn] `pbp^\W [Xmi\W n e_mQnkbnehpc
«>cnkQnpii\m ^cnUkhmbn n enbpc\m [ehkipcan», Dpeack, 28-30 `k] 2019 U.

enbpc\W apbmQ n _bpeanW pRgkYQpc e [abk^apT,


n^mihnXipT c bp_khpXipT n ^neapcpT Xkehn.
;b] ep_pehkcbmin] gkeXmhi\W neebm^pckinT
e Bae_mgn`mihkbSi\`n ^kii\`n _gpcm^mi\ gkYUpii\m
ne_\hkin] _gm_kgngpckiipUp ,: : nY :D hmiYp-
^khXnak`n c gkYbnXi\W [Ybpc\W hpXakW. G gmY[bShkhm
_pb[Xmi\ agnc\m ^mKpg`kQnT ph ikUg[Yan, aphpg\m
R\bn egkcimi\ e gkeXmhi\`n neebm^pckin]`n.

3. *PIK,BTQWT
G gmY[bShkhm kikbnYk gmY[bShkhpc _gpcm^mii\W
ne_\hkinT [ehkipcbmip, Xhp ^mKpg`kQn] enbpc\W
Bbm`mihpc apiehg[aQnn ,: : _gn gkRpXmT `kaen-
8WN. 1. :piehg[ahnci\T pRbna ,: : nY :D: `kbSipT Xkehphm cgkLmin] 52 000 pR/`ni im _gmc\enh
 –epRgkii\T ,: :;  –emahpgk;  –enbpc\m apbSQk [gpcmiS _gm^mbSi\W gkYg[MkNLnW ^mKpg`kQnT.
:piehg[aQn] emahpgk, nYUphpcbmiik] e _p`pLSN kchp`k- G Wp^m ne_\hkinT ik ehmi^m c\]cbmi\ RpbSMnm
hnXmeapT ikMncan gpcniUk [Ubmgp^ipUp OU[hk n hmg`p- cnRgkQnn n _mgm`mLmin] ^p 160 `a` c p_pgm, Xhp im
ehpTapUp hmg`pgmkahncipUp ec]Y[NLmUp, cabNXkmh _pYcpbnbp c\Thn ik Xkehph[ ^p 52 000 pR/`ni.
c emR] hmbp ^neapcpT n bp_khpXipT Xkehn (gne. 1,). Dkeek gkRpXmUp apbmek QmihgpRmOipUp ap`_gme-
@nbpc\m apbSQk, nYUphpcbmii\m nY hmg`pehpTapUp epgk nY [Ubm_bkehnapc G:#-385, n G:#-38 1
hmg`pgmkahncipUp ec]Y[NLmUp n c\epap`p^[bSipT epehkcb]mh 520 U, Xhp c 3 gkYk `miSMm hnhkipcpUp
hakin, gke_pbkUkNhe] c hmbm ^neapcpT Xkehn emU`mihk _gphphn_k nY e_bkck /54-1.
n [^mgOnckNh nW c _pbm QmihgpRmOi\W enb (gne. 1,).
;b] gkYgkRphan apiehg[aQnn ,: : nY :D e [Xmhp` /FWNVI WNFVK;<VJPQQC@ WNLVBQWIVJ
[Ubpc kg`ngpckin] c ^neapcpT n bp_khpXipT Xkehn
c\_pbimi _gpXipehipT kikbnY e _gn`miminm` ap`_bmaek [1] Ikhmih 2239100. ,peen], 2>D. ,kRpXmm apbmep
apimXip-Bbm`mihi\W _gnabk^i\W _gpUgk`` hn_k ANSYS. QmihgpRmOipUp ap`_gmeepgk n e_pepR mUp
2e_pbSY[m`\m c gkeXmhkW ecpTehck `khmgnkbk apieh- nYUphpcbmin]. :kgn`Rkmc 5.;., 1napbkmc ;.2.,
g[aQnn _pb[Xmi\ Bae_mgn`mihkbSi\`n neebm^pckin]`n Imhgpc .>., >KkikeSmc ;.G. /_[Rb. 27.10.2004.

8P<JWLWT DTLVEVJ INFTHWDTQLPK;QC@ WNNKTEVJPQW4


DT@PQWBTNIW@ @PHPILTHWNLWI :6KTFKPNLWIVJ EK= HP5VBW@ KVFPLVI
FTHNFTILWJQC@ JTQLWK=LVHVJ
;.@. IkbSXnapc, 5.;. :kgn`Rkmc1
1
*#I « 2>D n`. I.2. kgkipck», Dpeack
e-mail: palchikov@rtc.ciam.ru

1. 1JTETQWT ehpn`pehSN nY^mbn]. ,mMminm BhnW kah[kbSi\W Yk^kX


^cnUkhmbmehgpnhmbSi\m Kng`\ `ngk cn^]h c _gn`m-
IgpRbm`\ _pc\Mmin] BKKmahncipehn UkYph[g- iminn _pbn`mgi\W ap`_pYnQnpii\W `khmgnkbpc (I:D)
Rnii\W ^cnUkhmbmT (*5;) _gncp^]h a gkYgkRpham n _gn epY^kinn MngpapWpg^i\W Rme_pbpXi\W gkRpXnW
ne_pbSYpckinN h[gRpgmkahnci\W ^c[Wapih[gi\W ^cnUk- bp_khpa (,), RgpimYkLnhi\W apg_[epc n ^g[UnW
hmbmT (5,;;) RpbSMpT ehm_min ^c[Wapih[gipehn, ^mhkbmT cmihnb]hpgpc _mge_mahnci\W 5,;;.
phbnXkNLnWe] RpbSMn`n UkRkgnhk`n ek`\W nW ag[_- /epR\T nihmgme _gm^ehkcb]mh _gn`miminm _pbn-
i\W [Ybpc – cmihnb]hpgpc. /h`mXmiik] hmi^miQn] `mgipUp ap`_pYnQnpiipUp `khmgnkbk – [Ubm_bkehnak
gkYcnhn] 5,;; RpbSMpT ehm_min ^c[Wapih[gipehn ^b] gkRpXnW bp_khpa cmihnb]hpgk. /^ikap epY^kinm ,
ikg]^[ e gmMminm` hgk^nQnpii\W Yk^kX _p^in`kmh nY I:D ]cb]mhe] ebpOipT hmWinXmeapT Yk^kXmT, Xhp,
^p_pbinhmbSi\m _gpRbm`\, ec]Ykii\m e `keepT n c _mgc[N pXmgm^S, ec]Ykip e pepRmiipeh]`n I:D.

174
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2. INFTHWDTQLPK;QCT WNNKTEVJPQW= Ghpgk] XkehS Bae_mgn`mihkbSi\W neebm^pckinT


I:D ^b] , _pec]Lmik p_gm^mbminN cbn]in]
I:D – kinYphgp_i\T `khmgnkb, n`mNLnT, c phbnXnm [^kgi\W _pcgmO^minT ik Wkgkahmgnehna[ _gpXipehn
ph `mhkbbpc, UpgkY^p RpbSMmm Xnebp _kgk`mhgpc, I:D _gn eOkhnn. Ip`n`p ehki^kghi\W ne_\hkinT
impRWp^n`\W ^b] _gpmahngpckin] ,, ^b] pQmian _bpeanW pRgkYQpc ik eOkhnm _pebm [^kgk [1], ap`_bmae
mm 1;@. :gp`m hpUp, ap`_bmae Bae_mgn`mihkbSi\W ^kii\W neebm^pckinT R\b gkeMngmi: p_gm^mbmi
neebm^pckinT I:D ^b] pRme_mXmin] _gpXipehipT Wkgkahmg cbn]in] [^kgi\W _pcgmO^minT ik Wkgkahm-
ik^mOipehn , im pUgkinXnckmhe] p_gm^mbminm` gnehna[ QnabnXmeapT _gpXipehn (gne. 1).
_mgmXi] ecpTehc [_g[Upehn n _gpXipehn c gkYbnXi\W kabNXnhmbSik] XkehS neebm^pckinT _pec]Lmik
ik_gkcbmin]W. 2eWp^] nY kikbnYk p_\hk ap`_kinn Bae_mgn`mihkbSipT pQmiam _gpXipehn Wcpehpcnak ,
General Electric, _pb[XmiipUp _gn epY^kinn gkRpXnW nY I:D e _gn`miminm` :I, aphpg\T _gm^ehkcb]mh
bp_khpa cmihnb]hpgk nY I:D ^b] ^cnUkhmb] GE90 [1], epRpT «^c[WYk`apc\T» pRgkYmQ. 1k ^kiip` Bhk_m gkRph
ikg]^[ e ^kii\`n ecpTehck`n ckOimTMmT Wkgkahmgne- _gpcm^mi\ ne_\hkin] «^c[WYk`apc\W» pRgkYQpc,
hnapT I:D ^b] , ]cb]mhe] nihmUgkbSik] Wkgkahm- nYUphpcbmii\W nY ^c[W gkYbnXi\W I:D (gkYbnXi\m
gnehnak, cabNXkNLk] pehkhpXi[N _gpXipehS _gn eOkhnn `kgan ec]Y[NLmUp n eWm`\ kg`ngpckin]). ikXmin]
_pebm [^kgk [2] n _gpXipehS _gn eOkhnn pRgkYQpc ime[LmT e_pepRipehn pakYkbneS RbnYan, p^ikap [gpcin
e phcmgehnm`. 2i\`n ebpck`n, gkRphpe_pepRipehS ikUg[Ypa _gn ikXkbSip` _pcgmO^minn n `mWkinY`\
I:D e ikbnXnm` _pcgmO^minT ]cb]mhe] peipci\` ^kbSimTMmUp mUp gpehk pakYkbneS gkYbnXi\. 5kan`
[ebpcnm` Up^ipehn ^b] , cmihnb]hpgk. pRgkYp`, _pb[Xmii\m c gmY[bShkhm Bae_mgn`mihkbSi\W
1m`kbpckOi\` Bhk_p` Bae_mgn`mihkbSi\W neebm- neebm^pckinT gkYbnXn] `mWkinY`pc gkYg[Mmin]
^pckinT I:D ]cb]mhe] n p_gm^mbminm cbn]in] abn`khn- «^c[WYk`apc\W» pRgkYQpc nY gkYbnXi\W I:D ^mbkNh
XmeanW Kkahpgpc, hkanW aka cbkOipehS n _pc\Mmii\m ^kii\T `mhp^ ne_\hkinT mLm p^in` niehg[`mihp`
hm`_mgkh[g\. /^ikap n ik Bhp` _mgmXmiS Bae_mgn`mi- ^b] c\Rpgk I:D, k hkaOm eWm`\ kg`ngpckin] ^b] ,.
hkbSi\W neebm^pckinT im YkakiXnckmhe]. /h^mbSipUp
cin`kin] Ykeb[OnckNh neebm^pckin] apiehg[aQnpiipT 3. *PIK,BTQWT
_gpXipehn Wcpehpcnak , e _gn`miminm` apiehg[ahncip-
_p^pRi\W Bbm`mihpc (:I). G gk`akW ^kiipT gkRph\ _gpcm^mi ^pehkhpXip
G gk`akW ^kiipT gkRph\ _gpcm^mi ap`_bmae ne_\- MngpanT ap`_bmae Bae_mgn`mihkbSi\W neebm^pckinT
hkinT I:D – aki^n^khpc ik gpbS `khmgnkbk ^b] , Xmh\gmW gkYbnXi\W I:D, _gm^_pbkUkm`\W c akXmehcm
cmihnb]hpgk, gkYgkRkh\ckm`pT c 2>Dm. Imgc\T Bhk_ `khmgnkbk , cmihnb]hpgk, epY^kckm`pT c 2>Dm.
Bae_mgn`mihkbSi\W neebm^pckinT YkabNXkbe] c p_gm- 2eWp^] nY _pb[Xmii\W gmY[bShkhpc, ik gpbS `khmgnkbk
^mbminn Wkgkahmgnehna _gpXipehn n [_g[Upehn I:D. , c\Rgki I:D ik peipcm [Ubmgp^ipT hakin #5/-1000
IpakYki\ im^pehkhan imaphpg\W ehki^kghi\W `mhp^pc n ec]Y[NLmUp 5-26. 5kaOm ik peipcm ap`_bmaek
ne_\hkinT, hkanW aka ne_\hkin] ik e^cnU (ASTM gkee`phgmii\W `mhp^pc ne_\hkinT n _pb[Xmii\W
D5379 [4]) c Xkehn imgkcip`mgipehn gke_gm^mbmin] Bae_mgn`mihkbSi\W ^kii\W _gm^bpOmi _p^Wp^
^mKpg`kQnT c gkRpXmT Ypim pRgkYQk _gn`minhmbSip a ikYikXminN Yk_kepc _gpXipehn ^b] , nY I:D.
a I:D e «bp_khpXipT» eWm`pT kg`ngpckin]. IpakYki\
e_pepR\ nW [ehgkimin] _[hm` _gn`mimin] epcgm`mi- /FWNVI WNFVK;<VJPQQC@ WNLVBQWIVJ
i\W enehm` nY`mgmin] (Digital Image correlation [5]).
Ign`minhmbSip a ne_\hkin]` ik `mOebpmcpT e^cnU [1] :kgn`Rkmc 5.;., [__pc >.>., >KkikeSmc ;.G.,
_gm^bpOmik `mhp^nak Xmh\gmWhpXmXipUp imen``mhgnX- IkbSXnapc ;.@. / Kpg`ngpckinn hmWinXmeanW hgmRp-
ipUp nYUnRk. ckinT a _pbn`mgip`[ `khmgnkb[ _mge_mahncipT
gkRpXmT bp_khan cmihnb]hpgk 5,;; // ;cnUkhmbS,
2015 1 (97+244).
[2] ASTM D7137/D7137M-12. Standard Test Method
for Compressive Residual Strength Properties of
Damaged Polymer Matrix Composite Plates. 2012.
[3] ASTM D5379. Standard Test Method for Shear
Properties of Composite Materials by the V-Notched
Beam Method. 2005.
[4] Sutton M.A. Image Correlation for Shape, Motion and
Deformation Measurements. Basic Concepts, Theory
8WN. 1. S–N agnc\m pRgkYQpc I:D e n RmY _pcgmO^minT and Applications / Springer, 2009. 348 p.

175
GemgpeenTeak] ik[Xip-hmWinXmeak] apiKmgmiQn] `pbp^\W [Xmi\W n e_mQnkbnehpc
«>cnkQnpii\m ^cnUkhmbn n enbpc\m [ehkipcan», Dpeack, 28-30 `k] 2019 U.

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e-mail: niyaz.musin@yandex.ru

1. 1JTETQWT BbmahgnXmeapUp _pb] c Bbmahgpbnhip` kip^ip` _[Y\gm.


#cmbnXminm m`apehn api^miekhpgpc c 4 gkYk – e 100
/^in` nY ik_gkcbminT gkYcnhn] _pgMimc\W ^p 400 `a _gncmbp a [cmbnXminN hpbLni\ _pag\hn]
^cnUkhmbmT ci[hgmiimUp eUpgkin] ]cb]mhe] _pc\Mminm c 4,8 gkYk – e 40 ^p 191 `a` (^b] e_bkck >:12;).
[^mbSi\W _pakYkhmbmT, c hp` Xnebm Yk eXmh einOmin] 2eebm^pckin] cbn]in] neWp^ipT ehg[ah[g\ `khm-
`kee\. G gmY[bShkhm _gpneWp^nh _pehm_mii\T _mgmWp^ gnkbk ik ecpTehck Kpg`ng[m`\W _pag\hnT _pakYkbn,
a bmUan` e_bkck`, c Xkehipehn, a kbN`ninmc\`. Xhp [`miSMminm gkY`mgpc Ymgmi _gncp^nh a [cmbn-
kapip`mgip, Xhp Bhp hgmR[mh epcmgMmiehcpckin] e[Lmeh- XminN hpbLni\ _pag\hn]. @pY^kinm ik _pcmgWipehn
c[NLnW n gkYgkRphan ipc\W hmWipbpUnT, _pc\MkNLnW ^mhkbn [bShgk`mbapYmginehpT ehg[ah[g\ _pYcpbnbp
Bae_b[khkQnpii\m ecpTehck kbN`nin] n mUp e_bkcpc. [cmbnXnhS hpbLni[ _pag\hn] _gn`mgip c 2 gkYk phip-
1k akKm^gm «;cnUkhmbn ci[hgmiimUp eUpgkin]» #*>5# enhmbSip ag[_ipYmginehpT ehg[ah[g\ (e 41 ^p 88 `a`).
cm^[he] neebm^pckin] _pc\Mmin] ik^mOipehn ^mhkbmT G Wp^m neebm^pckinT hkaOm R\bn [ehkipcbmi\
;G@ Yk eXmh _gn`mimin] `mhp^pc `nagp^[UpcpUp Ykapip`mgipehn cbn]in] epehkck Bbmahgpbnhk ik ecpTehck
paen^ngpckin] (D;/) n neagpcpUp [_gpXimin] (2#). _pag\hnT. G Xkehipehn, [cmbnXminm apiQmihgkQnn m^apUp
Dnagp^[Upcpm paen^ngpckinm n neagpcpm [_gpX- akbn] e 1 ^p 4 U/b _gncp^nh a [cmbnXminN eapgpehn
iminm – Bbma