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Tughlaq Dynasty





1st semester


BY:Md.Shaique Page 1
Tughlaq Dynasty


To complete this project was not easy, but due to kind help from few persons at last I was
able to complete my project work easily without any difficulty. To many debt incurred in
meeting the challenges of producing this project

First of all, I am thankful to my subject teacher Dr.PRIYADARSHINI, under whom able

guidance I was able to complete this project. Who despite having the very tight and busy
schedule helped me to complete this project and devoted his energies to this project.

I am thankful to my librarians, who provided me the books and materials required for the
completion of this project.

Finally, I am thankful to all those individuals and institutions that directly and indirectly
provided me the materials which helped me to complete this project

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Tughlaq Dynasty

1. INTRODUCTION……………………………………...................4

2. AIMS AND OBJECTIVE………………………………………5-9


a) Ghiyasuddin Tughlaq ……………………………………………………………………….
b) Mohammad bin Tughlaq…………………………………………………………………..
c) Firoz Shah Tughlaq (1351 – 1388)…………………………………………………….


3. CHAPTERISATION………………………………………………………………10-17

4. CONCLUSION…………………………………………………………………..18

5. Bibliography…………………………………………………………………19

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Tughlaq Dynasty


The Tughlaqs were basically of Turkish origin and the family was essentially Muslim.
Around the year 1321, Ghazi Tughlaq ascended the throne and was given the title
Ghiyath al-Din Tughlaq. The Tughlaq dynasty was able to withhold its rule due to their
strong allies like the Turks, Afghans and the Muslim warriors of south Asia. In the
following lines, you shall find information about the history of Tughlaq dynasty and the
major rulers of this dynasty. So read about the Tughluq Empire. 

The son and successor of the Turk Ghiyas-ud-din (reigned 1321-1325), the founder of the
Tughluq dynasty that replaced Khilji1 rule in Delhi, Muhammad bin Tughluq displayed
an extraordinary capacity for classical learning and military leadership. He was formally
crowned in 1325, when his father met an accidental death in which Muhammad was

The most serious of these rebellions were in the Deccan (1326, 1347), Måbar (tip of the
Indian peninsula, 1334), Bengal (1338), Gujarat (1345), and Sind (1350). These
rebellions led to Delhi's loss of control over the south and the Deccan, Bengal, Gujarat,
and Sind. The rebellions in Gujarat and Sind exhausted Muhammad, for it was in the
course of his expedition in Sind that he died near Thatta in 1351.

Among Muhammad's ambitious military projects was his plan to invade Khurasan 2 in
Persia in 1329; a large army was raised and paid for, all of which was a wasted effort
because the Sultan realized its impracticality. During 1337-1338 he attacked the kingdom
of Nagarkot in the Punjab and secured a limited success.

Muhammad's administrative innovations also smacked of the spectacular. In 1327 he

ordered that the imperial capital be shifted from Delhi in the north to Daulatabad in the
Deccan, a distance of over 750 miles. After moving by force a part of the Delhi
population, Muhammad realized that his move was ill-advised, and the capital was
moved back to Delhi.

In 1328-1329 Muhammad ordered an enhancement of agricultural taxes in the Doab (area

watered by the Ganges and the Jamuna rivers), and the impost was collected with such
severity that it bred rebellions and led to devastation of large tracts. In 1330-1332
Muhammad conceived the idea of introducing a token copper currency without taking the
necessary precautions against private minting of copper coins. The result was the
the second ruler of the Turko-Afghan
Afghanistan, Turkmenistan, eastern Iran, northwestern Pakistan,Uzbekistan and Tajikistan.

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flooding of the market with spurious coins which were then withdrawn in exchange for
gold and silver coins.

In his religious views Muhammad was a liberal, though he requested recognition from the
Caliph in Egypt in 1340. He loved holding discussions with philosophers and men of
learning and was undoubtedly an extraordinary man who combined within himself
numerous contradiction

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a) Ghiyasuddin Tughlaq (1320-1325 AD)

Ghiyasud-din Tughlaq was the founder of the Tughlaq dynasty. From an ordinary person,
he rose to the position of provincial governor of Dinapur under Mubarak Khalji. He
repelled the Mongol invaders several times. He killed Khurso Khan, the usurper, and
became the Sultan, He was a wise and generous ruler.

Reintroduced the food laws of Ala-ud-Din .Supressed the rebellions in the distant
provinces with strong hand and resorted the peace and order. Organised better postal
system. Encouraged agriculture

In 1323, he defeated the ruler of Warrangal and annexed his territory. A war of
succession was going on in Bengal. Ghiyas-ud-din took an advantage of such a situtation
and invaded Bengal. He suppressed the rebels and in this way Bengal also became a part
of his empire.

b) Mohammad bin Tughlaq (1325-1351 AD)

Mohammad bin Tughlaq is best remembered as a ruler who undertake a number of bold
experiments, and showed a keen interest in agriculture. He was deeply read in religion
and philosophy and had a critical and open mind. He had deep interest in philosophy,
astronomy, logic and mathematics. he conversed not only with the muslim mystics, but
also with the Hindu yogis and Jain saints such as Junaprabha Suri.

Muhammad bin tughlaq's Reforms:- He tried to introduce many administrative

reforms. But most of these fails due to his impatience and lack of judgement.

Taxation in the Doab: The Sultan made an ill-advised financial experiment in the Doab
between the Ganges and Jamuna. He not only increased the rate of taxation but also
revived and created some additional Abwabs or cessess. Although the share of the state
remained half as in the time of Alauddin, it was fixed arbitrarily and not on the basis of
actual produce.

Transfer of Capital(1327): It appears that the Sultan wanted to make Deogir second
capital so that he might be able to control south India better. Deogir was named
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Daulatabad. However, after a couple of years, Muhammad Tughlaq decided to abandon

Daulatabad largely because he soon found that just as he could not control south India
from Delhi, he could not control North from Daulatabad.

Introduction of Token Currency(1330): Muhammad Tughlaq decided to introduce

bronze coins, which were to have the same value as the silver coins. Muhammad Tughlaq
might have been successful if he could prevent people from forging the new coins. He
was not able to to do so and soon the new coins began to be greatly devalued in markets.

Khurasan Expedition: The Sultan had a vision of universal conquest. He decided to

conquest Khurasan and Iraq and mobilized a huge army for the purpose. But his
expedition proved a failure.

Quarachi Expedition: This expedition was launched to counter Chinese incursions. It

also appears that the expedition was directed against some refractory tribes in Kumaon-
Garhwal region with the object of bringing them under Delhi Sultanate. The first attack
was a success but when the rainy season set in, the invaders suffered terribly.

c) Firoz Shah Tughlaq (1351-1388 AD)

The nobles and theologians at the court selected Muhammad's cousin Firoz Shah and the
next Sultan. He gave a number of important concessions to the theologians. He tried to
ban practices with the orthodox theologians considered un-Islamic. Thus, he prohibited
the practice of Muslim women going out to worship at the graves of saints. He perecuted
a number of Muslim sects which were considered heretical by the theologians.

Firoz extended the principal of heredity to the army. Soldiers were allowed to rest in
peace and to send in their place their sons. The soldiers were not paid in cash but by
assignments on land revenue of villages. This novel technique of payment led to many
abuses. He tried to win over the theologians proclaiming that he was a true Muslim king
and the state under him was truly Islamic.

He establish Diwan-i-Khairat(department for poor and needy. peopleand Diwan-i-

Bundagan(department of slaves). Make  Iqtadari system3 hereditary. Construction of
canals for irrigation from Yamuna to the city of Hissar From the Sutlej to the Ghaggar
From the Ghaggar to Firuzabad From Mandvi and Sirmour Hills to Hansi in Haryana.
Establishment of four new towns, Firuzabad, Fatebabad, Jaunpur and Hissar. Imposition
of Jaziya on the Brahmans for the first time. Establishment in Delhi a hospital described
variously as Darul-Shifa, Bimaristan4 or Shifa Khana

Iqtadari System was a combined mechanism of expropriating tax and distribution of
these revenues to the ruling class.
Bimaristan is a Persian word ( bīmārestān) meaning hospitat

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Ghiyas-ud-din set about the important task of putting the administration back on track.
The post Ala-ud-din Sultans had drained the State's finances and the state treasury was
near empty. Ghiyas-ud-din implemented a series of measures to control expenditure, for
instance he made his court one of the most austere of the Sultanate period. He appointed
new governors for the province, and cut taxes to only one tenth of the gross produce. He
encouraged the development of agriculture and provided many facilities like canals for
irrigation and forts to protect the peasants from invaders. Ghiyas-ud-din ensured that
there was an effective taxation system, one that would ensure the survival of his
government. People were taxed in such a way that they would not be so rich that they
might become ambitious nor so poor that they would be discontented and revolt. Ghiyas-
ud-din was a firm king, and continued the concept of military strength as a source of
power. He was thus able to re-assert the Sultanate's authority

Mohammed bin Tughlaq had the idea of introducing token currency for the first time in
India. He planned an expedition for the conquest of Khurasan5 and Iraq. But the scheme
was abandoned as conditions in Iraq improved. The plan for the conquest of Karajal
(Kumaon hills) also met with unsuccessful ending. During his last days, the whole of
India became independent and three major independent states - The Empire of
Vijaynagar, The Bahmani6 kingdom and Sultanate of Madura were founded. Dewan-i-
Kohi a new department for agriculture was setup. He knew Arabic and Persian languages.
He was an expert in philosophy, astronomy, logic, mathematics and was also a good
calligrapher. He built the fortress of Adilabad and the city of Jahanpanah. The famous
traveller, Ibn Batuta came to Delhi during 1334. He acted as the Quazi7 of the capital for
8 years. He has recorded the contemporary Indian scene in his 'Safarnamah'. (Called

Feroz Shah Tughlaq was the successor and he ascended the throne after Mohammed Bin
Tughlaq. Feroz Shah was a caring ruler. Feroz Shah made sure that people in his
kingdom were happy and heard their problems patiently. However, he did not have
strong military and could not sustain any sort of external attacks or aggression. Feroz
Shah breathed his last in the year 1388 and after that the Tughlaq dynasty faded away in
no time. The Tughlaqs also wished to rule the whole of India. Ghyasuddin’s (1320 AD –
1325 AD) campaign to Warrangal8, Odissi and Bengal were directed towards this end.
He built the city Tughlaqabad near Delhi. By 1324 AD, the territories of the Delhi
sultanate reached upto Madurai. However, his economic policy was not consistent with
his political ambitions. As the Iqta holders were permitted their earlier perquisites, power
 Afghanistan, Turkmenistan, eastern Iran, northwestern Pakistan,Uzbekistan and Tajikistan.
was a Muslim state of the Deccan in southern India
 a judge ruling in accordance with Islamic religious law (sharia) 
 also known as Orugallu, and Ekasila 

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gradually slipped back into the hands of nobles.

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Architecture during Tughlaq dynasty flourished in India when Ghazi Tughlaq came to
power in 1321 in Delhi defeating the Khalji rulers. The period of Tughlaq dynasty in
history has been marked as the time of elation and rediscovery for Islamic architectures.
Master builders were hired for a new Sultan to construct a new empire full of creativity in
IndoI-slamic style. The Indo-Islamic style dominated the pattern of architecture during
Tughlaq dynasty. The Indo-Islamic style of architecture was the amalgamation of Islamic
architecture as well as Hindu style of architecture. This amalgamation happened during
the invasion period of the Muslim rulers; they used to build their mosques with the ruined
materials of the Hindu or Jain temples and few temples itself were modified into
mosques. The fusion created the new Indo-Islamic style of architecture in India that
gradually developed into a great architectural significance during the Tughlaq dynasty.

. Architecture during Tughlaq dynasty was flourished in the hands of three rulers. They
were the founder of the dynasty, Ghiyas-ud-din Tughlaq who ruled from 1320 to 1325,
his son, Mohammed Shah Tughlaq, ruled from 1325 to 1351, and the most creative of all
in his building projects, Firoz Shah Tughlaq who ruled Delhi from 1351 to 1388. Feroz
Shah Tughlaq was a great patron of Islamic architecture. He built the fifth city of Delhi,
named as Ferozshah Kotla. Apart from Ferozshah Kotla, several building arts like
Tughlaqabad the third city of Delhi, the Tomb of Ghiyas-ud-Din and Khirki Masjid9
represents the major development of architectures during the Tughlaq dynasty. Each ruler
added architectural creativity to his own capital city whilst making architecture during the
Tughlaq dynasty to stand apart. The influence of the three above mentioned rulers in the
Islamic architecture is therefore noteworthy. Ghiyas-ud-Din Tughlaq`s Tughlaqabad
depicts the saga of the glorious days of architectural developments of the Tughlaq
dynasty. The great palace was made of golden bricks. The architecture of the
Tughlaqabad city was based on Roman fashion and was divided into two parts, one part
consisted of the fortress corresponding to the castle of the Occident and the other part
was the city, which extended out for the residential and military requirements of the
times. The walls were made up of sun-dried bricks. The huge outer walls had sloping,
extended to the large area of the southern Delhi ridge. Semi-circular bastions with eyelets
were present at regular intervals to look down at the enemies. Among the major
architectures during the Tughlaq dynasty, the tomb of Ghiyas-ud-Din is almost perfectly
preserved. Originally the tomb was constructed in an artificial lake, which was connected

The word 'Khirki' prefixed to masjid is an Urdu word that means "window" and hence is also
called "The Masjid of Windows. mosque built by Khan-i-Jahan Maqbul Tilangan

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with the citadel by an eminent path. However, at present the arched causeway has been
replaced. The Ghiyas-ud-Din`s tomb is in the form of a self-contained fortress in
miniature with the sloping walls of circular bastions with eyelets for archery; on the other
hand it may also have been intended as a fortified central tower.

The architectural characters of the Firozian period were different from its predecessors
and had the reflection of the conditions that prevailed at the seat of the government at this
particular stage. He covered his creations with plastic ornamentation in a rich and varied
order. The appearance of the building art represented the suppression of the indigenous
impulse. Feroz Shah Tughlaq was a great patron of architecture and during his reign
architectural developments of the Tughlaq dynasty reached the zenith. . His major
creations were, Ferozshah Kotla, the fifth city of Delhi, three other fortress cities named
as Jaunpur, Fathabad, and Hissar, Khirki Masjid and the Begum-puri mosque at
Jahanpanah, Kali Masjid, another mosque in the Dargah of Shah Alam at Timurpuri and
the Kalan Masjid at Shahjahanabad. From the architectural point of view, Khirki Masjid
is immense and is a great example of Islamic architecture while showcasing the immense
architectural development during Tughlaq dynasty. It is closed on top which makes it
unique and different from others. It is a small quadrangle-shaped mosque and is covered
entirely by a roof, which is an unusual thing for building of mosques. The presence of
several domes on the roof along with the wonderful latticework or jali on the windows
represents the typical Islamic style of architecture. The colossal structures of the Tughlaq
dynasty, the sheer finesse of the lattice work, the grandeur of the colorful marbles and
stones which were abundantly used in the architectures not only reflect the architectural
developments during Tughlaq dynasty, but also whispers the saga of the glorious Islamic
architecture in India

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Ghiyath al-Din Tughluq was the founder of the Tughlaq dynasty in India. His real name
was Ghazi Malik and he ruled from 1320 - 1325. He was the one who founded the city of
Tughlaqabad outside Delhi. During the region of Alla-ud-din Khiliji 10, he had been the
governor of the North-West Frontier Province. He usurped the throne from the last Khiliji
ruler, Khusro Khan and started his own dynasty of the Tughlaqs. After becoming the
Sultan, first of all he restored peace and order and tried to win over the Turkish nobles.
He re-organized the administration by appointing efficient and honest men. Land
revenue, which had been raised to half of the total producing during Alla-ud-din’s reign,
was now reduced to one-tenth of the produce. To set the state in order, the Sultan sent
many expeditions against those who were asserting their independence. He himself went
to Bengal and brought the situation under control . His successful defense against the
Mongols made him an able ruler and the founder of a dynasty in India. He conquered
many areas including eastern portion of Bengal, a huge territory. 

Ali Gurshap Khan better known by his titular name as Sultan Ala-ud-din Khilji

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 History of tughlaq dynasty.

Ghiyasuddin Tughlaq (1320 – 25) :
Ghiyasuddin Tughlaq or Ghazi Malik was the founder of the Tughlaq Dynasty. This
dynasty is also known as the dynasty of the Qaraunah Turks as the father of Ghiasuddin
Tughlaq was a Qaraunah Turk.

He was the first Sultan of Delhj who took up the title of Ghazi or slayer of the infidels.

He liberalized Alauddin’s administrative policies and took keen interest in the

construction of canals and formulated a famine policy. The judicial and police
arrangements were made efficient. The Chehra and Dagh system introduced by the
Alauddin was continued. Efficient postal services were restored.

Built the fortified city of Tughlaqabad and made it his capital.

He dispatched his son, Jauna Khan to re-establish the authority in Warangal (Kakatiyas)
and Madurai (Pandyas). Had troublesome relationship with the sufi saint, Shaikh
Nizamuddin Aulia. Died in 1325, after a fall from a high-raised pavilion. Ibn Batuta, the
Moroccon traveller, who was in Delhi at that time, opined that his death was due to
sabotage arranged by his son, Jauna Khan.

Muhammad Bin Tughlaq (1325 – 1351) :

Real name was Jauna Khan. Regarded as the most controversial figure in
Indian history, because of his five ambitious projects .

Increase in the land revenue in the Doab11, between Ganga and Yamuna in north India.
The measure proved to be ill – timed, as Doab was passing through famine which was
followed by plague.

He was committed to maintaining the Sultanate’s expansion into the newly – conquered
provinces of peninsular India. To have better administration of these southern parts of the

Empire, Muhammad moved the capital from Delhi to Devagiri in the Deccan, renaming
that city Devagiri as Daulatabad

is a term used in India and Pakistan for a "tongue" or tract of land lying between two confluent

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Instead of moving just his government offices there, he forcibly moved the entire
population of Delhi to the new capital. The plan failed due to inadequate water supply
arrangements in Devagiri; the capital had to be shifted back again to Delhi after two

A vast amount of the population died during the moves due to the inadequate travel
arrangements. It was said that Delhi was a ghost town for years after the move back.

He also had the idea of introducing token currency for the first time in India, modelled
after the Chinese example, using copper coins, backed by silver and gold kept in the
treasury. However, very few people exchanged their gold/silver coins for the new copper
ones and the tokens were easy to forge, which led to heavy losses. Later, the Sultan
repealed his verdict and all the copper coins were redeemed in silver or gold from the
treasury, making it empty.

Muhammad Tughlaq planned an expedition for the conquest of Khurasan and Iraq. But
the scheme was abandoned as conditions in Iraq improved (paid the extra army for one
full year).

The plan for the conquest of Karajal (Kumaon hills) also met with a disastrous end.

During his last days, the whole of S.India became independent and three major
independent states – The Empire of Vijaynagar 12, The Bahmani13 kingdom and Sultanate
of Madura were founded.

A new department for agriculture Dewan – i – Kohi was setup.

He knew Arabic and Persian languages. He was also an expert in philosophy, astronomy,
logic and mathematics. He was also a good calligrapher

He built the fortress of Adilabad and the city of Jahanpanah

s in Bellary District, northern Karnataka. It is the name of the now-ruined capital city "which was
regarded as the second Rome
was a Muslim state of the Deccan in southern India and one of the great medieval Indian

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 Firoz Shah Tughlaq (1351 – 1388) :

He was Muhammad’s cousin. He was chosen the Sultan by the nobles. He tried to
appease everybody. He cancelled the loans of peasants which had been advanced by his
predecessor. He did not give any harsh punishment and banned the inhuman practices
like cutting hands, nose, etc. Agriculture was developed by the reclamation of wastelands
and by providing irrigation facilities. He constructed four canals for irrigation. He made
iqtadary system hereditary. The principle of heredity was recognised not only in civil
offices, but also in army. Soldiers were given land assignments instead of cash payment.

Imposed some new taxes :

Kharaj : a land tax equal to 1/10 of the produce of the land (by Hindus only).

Jaziya : a tax by non – muslims (even by brahmins).

Zakat : Tax on property (@ 2.5%) (by Muslims only).

Khams : 1 / 5th of booty captured in war

Took steps to translate Hindu religious texts & Sanskrit books on music into Persian.

Built new towns : Hissar, Firozpur, Fatehabad, Firozabad (the present day Firoz Shah
Kotla in Delhi) and Jaunpur. Set up hospitals, dug a number of canals, dams, mosques.
Repaired Qutab Minar when it was struck by lightening. Built his capital Firozabad and
to beautify it, brought 2 Ashoka Pillars, one from Topara in Ambala & the other from

Wrote a book ‘Fatuhat Firozshahi’. Gained notoriety for temple breaking and Mathura
was destroyed during his period.

Barani, the historian was in his court. He wrote two well known works of history: Tarikh
– i – Firozshahi and Fatwa – i – Jahandari and Khwaja Abdul Malik Isami wrote Futuh –
us – Sulatin. He formed Diwan – i – Khairat14 and built Dar – ul – Shafa or a charitable
hospital at Delhi. Also introduced 2 new coins – Adha (50% jital) and bikh (25% jital).

Firoz Tughlaq was succeeded by his grandson who took up the title of Ghiyasuddin
Tughlaq Shah II. He was a pleasure – loving king who tried to strengthen his position by
merely disposing of all possible rivals. Ghiyasuddin was replaced by Abu Bakr Shah in
1389Abu Bakr was replaced by Nasiruddin Muhammad in 1390, who ruled till 1394. His
son Alauddin Sikandar Shah ascended the throne briefly in 1394. But he fell sick almost
immediately after his accession and died in 1394 only .The vacant throne now fell to
Nasiruddin Mahmud Tughlaq. In his reign, Timur invaded India.
department for poor and needy people

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There were several reasons which led to the downfall of the Tughlaq Empire. The
Tughlaqs established most extensive empire among the Delhi Sultanate. Ghiyas- ud- din
took advantage of the conquest of the south and annexed larger part of it. Muhammad
Bin Tughlaqcontributed most towards extension of the Empire both as a prince and a
Sultan. But the process of disintegration began during his reign. The annexation of the
south, the failures of Muhammad Tughlaq, the weakness of Firoz Shah Tughlaq, the
incompetence of his successors, the incompetence and demoralization of the nobility and
the invasion of Timur were the chief factor for downfall.

Ghiyas- ud- din Tughlaq adopted the policy of annexing the conquered territories of the
south which was led to perfection by Muhammad Tughlaq. But this measure was against
the permanent interest of the Empire. Due to the lack of proper means of transport it was
difficult for the rulers of the north to keep the south under his control for long. Thus the
south became independent during the later period of Muhammad Tughlaq. The conquest
of the south brought no advantages to the Tughlaqs. On the contrary, it adversely affected
the resources and the strength of the Empire.

Muhammad Tughlaq failed both in his internal and foreign policy. While Bengal and the
south regained independence and the hold of the Delhi Sultanate became weak
over Gujarat and Sindh, no significant territory could be added to the Empire
permanently. All the schemes of Muhammad Tughlaq failed miserably and brought
economic ruin to the Empire. Besides, his policies and severe measures resulted in
widespread revolts at several places which taxed further the energy and resources of the

Nobles and provincial governors of latter Tughlaqs took advantage of the incompetence
of the rulers. Those who were ambitious and competent established independent
kingdoms out of the ruins of the Empire and those who were incompetent were struck to
the court engaging themselves in corruption and luxuries. None of them were capable and
whosoever was competent was disloyal to the Sultan and therefore worked against sultan.

The final blow to the power and prestige of the Tughlaq Empire was given by Timur. He
destroyed the Delhi Sultanate and the dynasty of the Tughlaqs. Though Tughlaq dynasty
had lost its prestige prior to the invasion of Timur but after his invasion it was thoroughly
destroyed forever.

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The Tughlaq dynasty in India started in 1321 in Delhi when Ghazi Malik assumed the
throne under the title of Ghiya-su-Din Tughluq. The Tughluqs were a Muslim family
of Turkic origin. Their rule relied on their alliances with Turkic, Afghan, and other
Muslim warriors from outside South Asia.

The empire grew under  Muhammad bin Tughluq, but the latter became notorious for ill-
advised policy experiments such as shifting the capital from Delhi to Daulatabad and
introducing copper coins without effective regulation against forgery. Tughluqi has as a
result become synonym for brilliant if stubborn eccentricity in the Urdu language.After
Muhammad bin Tughluq(1324-51 AD) it was  Firoz Shah Tughlaq. The Tughlaq dynasty
would not survive much after Firoz Shah's death. The Malwa, Gujarat and Sharqi
(Jaunpur) Kingdoms broke away from the Sultanate. Timur, a Turk, invaded India in
1398 during the reign of Muhammad Shah Tughlaq , the last ruler of Tughlaq dynasty.
His army mercilessely sacked and plundered Dellhi. Tughlaq dynasty had lost its prestige
prior to the invasion of Timur but after his invasion it was thoroughly destroyed forever.

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  By: R. C. Majumdar, H. C. Raychaudhuri & Kalkinkar Datta

2. History of medieval India: from 1000 A.D. to 1707 A.D.
 By: Radhey Shyam Chaurasia

3. Medieval Indian history

By. Krishnaji Nageshrao Chitnis


1.e-Text of http://en.wikipedia.org/

2. e-Text of http://www.facts-about-india.com/

4. e-Text of http://www.indiasite.com/

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