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Life and Works of Dr. Jose Rizal


LESSON 1: What is a Hero?

Rizal Law (R. A. 1425)


Taking up Rizal course for credits, like reading Shakespeare to get by in English
courses, can be tiresome for the youth. If reading and discussing the text about Rizal cannot be
fun, then it will just be like a cold stone without elaboration.
To discuss about a hero is taking him as a person with flesh and blood not as a
deity or a supernatural being that is an object of reverence without understanding. To appreciate
a hero like Rizal, we must be able to learn more about him – not his acts but the thoughts
behind his acts, his reasons, his experiences and his works that are relevant to our time and
place. We should study Rizal as a person – his intelligence, courage, compassion nationalism
and also his weakness like being a womanizer, violent, and short-tempered that complete him
as a human being. When we realize that he is like us, then, we can truly appreciate his being
human and his great and exemplary deeds are word emulating.

Objectives :

At the end of the lesson, the students will be able to:

1.Value the true meaning of heroism and the criteria set by the National Heroes
Committee (NHC)

2. Examine the policy on the selection and proclamation of national heroes;

3. Understand the Rizal law and its implication to the current educational system;

4. Realize that Rizal was an ordinary human being, and not a God or God-like.

Definition of a hero:

According to the dictionary:

- a hero is a man admired for his achievements and noble qualities and regarded as an
ideal or model
- the central figure in an event, period or movement, honored for outstanding qualities
- he/she is someone who shows great courage in an important event

- a hero is a man admired for his achievements and noble qualities and regarded as an
ideal or model
- the central figure in an event, period or movement, honored for outstanding qualities
- he/she is someone who shows great courage in an important event

According to Dr. Esteban de Ocampo, a known Filipino historian, as stated in his book about
Rizal that:
“ a hero means a prominent or central personage taking an admirable part in any
remarkable action or event; a person of distinguished valor or enterprise in danger, or fortitude
in suffering; and a man honored after death by public worship because of exceptional service to

Who will set the criteria for the recognition of the national hero?

No law, executive order or proclamation has been enacted or issued officially

proclaiming any Filipino historical figure as a national hero. However, because of their
significant roles in the process of nation building and contributions to history, there were laws
enacted and proclamations issued honoring these heroes.
But according to historians, heroes, should not be legislated. Their appreciation should
be better left to academics. Acclamation for heroes, they felt, would be recognition enough.

Executive Order No.75 “National Heroes Committee”

Issued by President Fidel V. Ramon on March 28, 1993

creating the National Heroes Committee under the Office of the President.
The principal duty of the Committee is to study, evaluate and recommend Filipino
national personages/heroes in due recognition of their sterling character and remarkable
achievements for the country.

The Technical Committee of the National Heroes Committee had a meeting on June 3, 1993 in
Manila and adopted the following criteria:

1. Heroes are those who have a concept of nation and thereafter aspire and
struggle for the nation’s freedom.
2. Heroes are those who define and contribute to a system or life of freedom and order for
a nation.
3. Heroes are those who contribute to the quality of life and destiny of a nation.

In another round-table discussion held on November 15, 1995, the NHC Technical
Committee further adopted the criteria submitted by Dr. Alfredo Lagmay, as follows:

1. A hero is part of the people's expression, but that process of a people's

internalization of a hero's life and works takes time, with the youth forming part of
that internalization.
2. A hero thinks of the future, especially the future generations.

3. The choice of hero involves not only the recounting of an episode or events in
history, but of the entire process that made this particular person a hero

On November 15, 1995 , the Technical Committee after deliberation and careful study based on
Dr. Onofre D. Corpuz’ and Dr. Alfredo Lagmay’s criteria selected the following nine Filipino
historical figures to be recommended as National Heroes:

a. Jose Rizal f. Marcelo H. del Pilar

b. Andres Bonifacio g. Sultan Dipatuan Kudarat
c. Emilio Aguinaldo h. Juan Luna
d. Apolinario Mabini i. Gabriela Silang
e. Melchora Aquino

What makes a person a hero then?

A person to be considered a hero must have his works relevant to our time and place.
To be able to appreciate that person a hero, we must learn more about him – not merely his
acts, his reasons, the situations he found himself in, and his motivations.

To study Rizal, do not treat him like god, as he becomes unattainable and his accomplishments
inhuman, but study Rizal deeper. You see him as he truly was- compassionate, nationalistic,
intelligent, courageous, short-tempered, womanizer, gambler, violent and sometimes rash.
When we realize that he is like us, that his deeds are not impossible to imitate, we will
realize his humanity and that we will be truly inspired by his heroism.

Laws Honoring/ Commemorating Filipino Historical Figures- for Dr.Rizal

A. Decree of December 20, 1898 , issued by General Emilio Aguinaldo, declared

December 30 of every year a day of national mourning in honor of Dr. Jose Rizal
and other victims of the Philippine Revolution.
B. Act No. 137, which organized the politico-military district of Morong into the
Province of Rizal, was the first official step taken by the Taft Commission to
honor our greatest hero and martyr.

What is the Rizal Law or R.A.1425?

An Act to include in the Curricula of All Public and Private Schools, Colleges and
Universities courses on the Life Works and Writings of JOSE RIZAL, particularly his novels


Courses on the life, works and writings of Jose Rizal, particularly his novels Noli Me
Tangere and El Filibusterismo, shall be included in the curricula of all schools, colleges and
universities, public or private; Provided, That in the collegiate courses, the original or
unexpurgated editions of the Noli Me Tangere and El Filibusterismo or their English translations
shall be used as basic texts.


It shall be obligatory on all schools, colleges and universities to keep in their libraries an
adequate number of copies of the original and expurgated editions of the Noli Me Tangere and
El Filibusterismo, as well as Rizal’s other works and biography. The said unexpurgated editions
of the Noli Me Tangere and El Filibusterismo or their translations in English as well as other
writings of Rizal shall be included in the list of approved books for required reading in all public
or private schools, colleges and universities.


The Board of National education shall cause the translation of the Noli Me Tangere and
El Filibusterismo, as well as other writings of Jose Rizal into English, Tagalog and the principal
Philippine dialects; cause them to be printed in cheap, popular editions; and cause them to be
distributed, free of charge, to persons desiring to read them, through the Purok organizations
and the Barrio Councils throughout the country.

Patriotic Objectives of the Rizal Law

1. To recognize the relevance of Rizal’s ideals, thoughts, teachings, and life values to
present conditions in the community and the country and apply them in the solution of
day-to-day situations and problems of contemporary life;
2. To develop an understanding and appreciation of the qualities, behavior, and character
of Rizal as well as his thoughts and ideas, and thus foster the development of moral
character, personal discipline, citizenship and vocational efficiency.
3. To comply with the patriotic objectives of the Rizal Law given by the late Senator Jose P.

Senator Jose P. Laurel said…

Rizal was the founder of the Filipino nationality . He was the architect of the Filipino
nation…I dare say that
we cannot know him without knowing and imbibing the great principles and ideals for which he
stood and died. Rizal believed that as we should that we teach the young men and the young
women, the boys and girls in all schools
that virtue is the only foundation of national greatness. By approving this measure… It is hoped
that the future generations and the generations after us by reading the life, teachings, courage,
and determination in order that we may continue forward our never ending pilgrimage to a full,
greater and more abundant life.

Rizal, as an example of SACRIFICE
• He preferred to work through peaceful means of reforms to seek equality for his people
under Spanish laws(He could have enjoyed the fruits of his family’s abundance and
rubbed elbows with the Spanish officials and the “illustrados”.
• He spent his life abroad in hunger and poverty
• He missed the company of his parents, brothers and sisters who have been persecuted
by the Spanish government
• When he returned home, he no longer held his life in his hands

Rizal, His Ideas: A Reply to the Challenges of the Millenium

• His social and civic virtues - embodied in his noblest aspirations for his country and his
• by consciously and clear-headedly accepting the ultimate sacrifice of DEATH.
• His field of action that lays in the strife of politics and power, but were not in his
• He shouldered his political burden solely in the cause of duty
• A circumstance rendering him one of the figures rare in human affairs
• A revolutionary without hatred
• A leader without worldly ambition

• He exemplified the virtues of honesty, personal integrity, civic responsibility, social

values of peace, justice, family, solidarity civic responsibility, patriotism and national
dignity for his people, survive and endure in this new millennium
• In this millennium..the very values and virtues(human honor and dignity, freedom and
independence, desire for mutual respect, and material well being) embodied in the spirit
of RIZALISM will form the core of humanity’s aspirations despite adjustments that must
be accommodated by the new reality of evolved technology and scientific advances far
superior than the knowledge of the previous millenium

Rizal, a Modern-Day Hero as compared to a Victorian hero

Victorian hero – one who is usually a dashing oriental knight in shining armor, prudent,
dashing, cool under pressure

A Modern-day Hero…
-Rizal conquered his inferiorities
- He responded to the challenge of conquering himself
- He was able to accept great responsibility- he gave his
own life for his country
- From a weak and frail child, Jose Rizal rose to become
one of the tallest men in history.


The hero is an expression of people’s acceptance of his/her contribution to the

development of the nation. It is not just a popular belief but the consistent recognition and

acknowledgment not only of his contemporaries but also the next generation. Dr. Rizal is truly a
hero exceptional in his ideas, works and decisions.

VII. References:

Agoncillo, T. A.(1956). The revolt of the masses: The study of Bonifacio and Katipunan.
Quezon City:UP Press.

Pasigui, R.E and Cabalu, D.H. (2006). Jose Rizal: The man the hero (An anthology of
legacies and controversies). Quezon City:C.&E Publishing, Inc.

Capino, D. et al. (2005). Rizal’s life, works and writings: Their impact on our national
Quezon City: Bookman, Inc.

AMA Computer University

Life and Works of Dr. Jose Rizal




➢ Rizal as a political philosopher

➢ Reform and the Revolution


Examine the historical background of the rise of nationalism and in the context of Rizal’s


• Spain during the first three quarters of the 19th century was a country of instability and

• Conquered by Napoleon Bonaparte, he made his brother Joseph as king.

• Guerilla warfare against the French ensued

• In 1812 a constitution was made by the Liberal Cortes

• Ferdinand VII was restored to power by 1814, he returned to absolute government

• Civil wars broke out between the Liberals and Carlists (supporters of Don Carlos)

• Maria Cristina as regent of her infant daughter Isabella (successor to the throne under
the terms of Pragmatic Sanction)

• 1868 a revolution against Isabella took place and she was forced to abdicate

Alfonso XII of Spain became king, which finally brought Spain into a period of stability
and reform

❖ Philippines in the 19th Century: Economic Development

• Manila-Acapulco Galleon Trade

• Reforms made by Gov. Gen. Jose Basco y Vargas

• 1830 – growth of export economy from the British and American merchants

• Philippines exported agricultural products resulting to the growth and profit of Filipino
hacienderos and inquilinos of the friar haciendas

• Economic Development as a whole is a non-Spanish initiative

Opening of the Suez Canal in 1869

❖ The Philippine Society

❖ The Native Population

PRINCIPALIA they are the rich landowners; local gov’t officials

ILLUSTRADO educated middle-class

Common People they are the majority of

or Masses the class; workers

❖ Political Development

• Spain has no consistent policy for the overseas colonies

• Philippines was used as a dumping ground to reward Spanish officials

• Rampant corruption in the Government

• Governor-general was the chief executive with the widest of powers

❖ Cultural Development

• 1860 spread of education –rise of Ilustrados

• 1859- Ateneo Municipal run by the Jesuits

• 1865- Escuela Normal de Maestros

• Humanistic Education in literature, science and philosophy

• Experience of Filipino students in Spain

❖ Religious Development

• Religious Orders played a dominant part in Philippine life

• Government relied heavily on the friars to maintain Spanish power

• Secularization issue between the regular and secular clergy (Filipino parish priests vs.
Dominicans, Augustinians, Recollects and etc.)

• Cavite Mutiny that led to the execution of GOMBURZA (Jose Burgos, Mariano Gomez
and Jacinto Zamora) in Bagumbayan

Rizal as an “illustrado”

• He criticized the Spanish government officials for failing to provide adequate services.

“Illustrado” philosophy
FOCUS: To promote self-government

Rizal – waged a relentless campaign to ameliorate the lot of his people through his
political writings and ideas

Rizal’s political views:

• To seek self-reliant, self-respecting government, and a “people’s government, made for

the people, by the people and answerable to the people.”

• Advanced practical solutions to domestic as well as international problems

• Reforms must come from above to be more effective

Basic Political Reforms

1. The restoration of Filipino representation to the Spanish Cortes and freedom of the press

2. Reorganization of the administrative machinery

3. Adoption of a comprehensive examination and the publication of its results and allowing
Filipinos to have the same opportunity with the Spaniards to hold government office

4. Justice is the foundation of society and the government

Rizal’s Concept of Government and Politics

“In order to govern peoples he does not know or understand, he ought to possess the
talent of a genius and extraordinary knowledge.”

Rizal’s Definition of Basic Political Terms

1. Political Culture – is a set of ideas, values and attitudes about government and the
political process held by a community or nation “without education and liberty… no
reform is possible”

2. Political Socialization – the process by which people, at various stages in their lives,
acquire views and orientations about politics.

Rizal… emphasized the importance of being a Filipino. His goal was to promote the
political aspirations of the Filipino people for life, democracy and happiness.

3. Political Ideology – comprehensive and logically ordered set of beliefs about the nature
of people and about the institutions and role of the government.

Rizal… to overcome strife and achieve triumph at the end

4. Nationalism – the idea of oneness by a group of people who possess common traditions,
a shared history, a set of goals, and a belief in the specific future.

Rizal… “He is the father of his country”

5. Representative Government - the notion that the people have an inherent right to sit in a
chamber that determines their future

Rizal… Filipino representation in the Spanish Cortes was essential to the governing

6. Democracy – a government in which all power is shared by citizens.

Rizal…best government was a mixture of representative democracy and responsible

model of democracy

- Filipinos to actively participate in local government

- National government officials to make decisions and bring results to the local level

Rizal Would Criticize Today's Society

• Unstable economic and political situation of the country

- confusions brought about by the allegations of electoral fraud and cheating

- filibustering (long speeches consuming and wasting precious time)

- How priests spend the money of the church today

- More vigilant on the maladministration of justice for the people

- Criticize the prevailing graft and corruption in the bureau
- Criticize the “gambling lords”, those receiving “jueteng payola”


His moral, political, spiritual and economic legacies would still apply to this day.

The Revolution


RIZAL – a reformist
BONIFACIO – a revolutionary

The LIGA – a crusade for national unity and prosperity

The Katipunan
- pursued liberty, equality, and brotherhood
- it assumed after the LIGA
- a secret society intended to march for freedom

Its membership was meant to be an act of self-surrender for the sake of the greater good
of the country.

Kartilla – embodied the articles of faith of the Katipunan.

- a testament drafted by Emilio Jacinto that emphasized on: purposeful life, equality,
charity, good character, integrity, honor, trustworthiness, concern for and defense
of the oppressed, respect for women, golden rule, love of country and

The patriotic ideals of the LIGA and the nationalistic courage of the KATIPUNAN were
the essential ingredients that ignited the flame of the first nationalist revolution in
Asia against a colonial rule.

❖ Conclusion

The development of Rizal’s ideas and of nationalism is composed of different factors.

…The reformist spirit of RIZAL and the revolutionary fervor of BONIFACIO
became the initial nourishment of the soul of the nation.
Both the events in Spain and her policies in the Philippines paved the way for
nationalism to develop. Spain can no longer prolong her administration since
reforms were far from her agenda.

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Life and Works of Dr. Jose Rizal



❖ The evolution of Nationalism in the Filipino consciousness


• To assess the roots of nationalism to the Filipino consciousness

• To examine the background of Rizal in lieu of his nationalist ideas

❖ What is nationalism?

• The term "nationalism" is generally used to describe two phenomena:

(1) the attitude that the members of a nation have when they care about their national
identity and

(2) the actions that the members of a nation take when seeking to achieve (or sustain)

• It is traditional, therefore, to distinguish nations from states — whereas a nation often

consists of an ethnic or cultural community, a state is a political entity with a high degree
of sovereignty. While many states are nations in some sense, there are many nations
which are not fully sovereign states. - Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy

❖ Origins of Nationalism

• Higher education in the colony (Philippines) was not totally far from Spain
• There was “lack of academic freedom” in the Philippines because the Spaniards wanted
to suppress it –Liberal ideas that prevailed in Spain stays in Spain
• In 1863 Spanish became the official medium of instruction in schools
• Most Filipinos study abroad for a better education
• In Europe like in Germany and France, liberal ideas were apparent - their writing of
history and its philosophy influenced Rizal about the idea of an identity – he annotated
Morga’s Succesos delas Islas Felipinas
• The Propaganda Movement served as a catalyst for the creation of national
consciousness , a sense of one Filipino people not just merely Tagalogs, Visayans, and

Ilokanos but a people united under a Spanish colonial rule but one people with a
common destiny of its own.
• The ideas of Fr. Jose Burgos became the precursor of the nationalist ideas of Rizal
• Burgos and all the priests executed or exiled in 1872, studied in the University of Santo
Tomas run by the Dominican Order

❖ The Cavite Mutiny and GOMBURZA

• January 20, 1872 members of the artillery posted at the Cavite arsenal rose in arms led
by the native Sgt. La Madrid
• Governor-general Rafael Izquierdo ordered the Permanent War Councils in Manila and
Cavite to investigate, try the mutineers, and punish the guilty as the law demanded
• After the fight has ended, the names of Filipino priests were brought up and some
wealthy liberals who will be exiled later on.
• They are: Frs. Burgos and Zamora (assigned to the Manila Cathedral), Guevarra (pastor
of Quiapo), Sevilla, Mariano Gomez, and Feliciano Gomez (nephew of Mariano), and the
lawyers Joaquin Pardo de Tavera (professor of law at the University of Santo Tomas)
and Antonio Ma. Regidor
• Francisco Zaldua became the witness of the government against the Filipino priests; he
was the first to be executed.
• The three priests were found guilty and they were executed in Bagumbayan in front of
the populace.

“Had it not been for the events of 1872, Rizal would have been a Jesuit!”

**Rizal dedicated his El Filibusterismo and the justification of his career to the martyrdom of the
three priests.

❖ Rizal’s Background

• Both his parent’s side had been people of substance and influence, well above the
average of their times.
• Doña Teodora’s family was the more distinguished
– Her father was a deputy for the Philippines in the Cortes, he was also her teacher
– Her brother was educated in Europe and spoke German, English, Spanish and
French; he was also a knight in the Order of Isabel the Catholic
– Her maternal grandfather, Manuel de Quintos, had been a well-known lawyer in
– Both Don Lorenzo and his father Don Cipriano had been mayors of Biñang

➢ Rizal’s family on the father’s side, Don Francisco, the Mercados, had been originally
merchants who shifted to agriculture

- Juan Mercado, Francisco’s father, had been thrice mayor of Binang
- Rizal’s father moved to Kalamba to cultivate lands leased from the
Dominicans, who became one of the town’s wealthiest men
– Jose himself had an aya, a nanny or personal servant; when he was old enough
his father engaged a private tutor for him who taught him reading, writing, and
the rudiments of Latin
– Later he would study in private schools, go to the university, finish his courses

• Rizal is recognized as the most prestigious and dedicated 19th century nationalist.

- He was responsible in awakening Asia to the concept of nationalism (Austin Coates)

- His poems, letters, and many articles showed his love of country , patriotism love of
parents, his happiness, his sorrows

The State of the Philippines: The Background on Rizal’s Nationalism

“To better understand and appreciate the role of Jose Rizal in the making of a Filipino nation
one has to know the developments in the century when he lived, the period when he worked.

The 19th century was a period of CHALLENGES and RESPONSES. It was a period of major
changes which affected men and society.

The important changes of the century:

1. The Struggle for Nationalism People had a strong identification with the values, the
heroes and the trials of a country.
2. The Fight for Democracy Representative government.

3. Modernization of living through industrial revolution

- transportation
- creation of machines
- increased population
- stimulation of nationalism
- growth of liberalism
- migration
- establishment of factories
- growth of liberalism
-birth of laissez-faire

4. March of Imperialism

- activity of a nation extending its control and authority beyond its territorial boundaries
through the acquisition of territories

5. Growing Confidence in progress which inspired optimism

- adoption of the laissez-faire policy

- government to own and manage means of production
- Advocation of the abolition of private property as espoused by Karl Marx
- Implementation by the Church, through Pope Leo XIII of “Reruym Novarum”
a. Respect for human rights
b. Promotion of social consideration of the duty of public authority to prevent and
punish injury
c. Special consideration of the poor and the helpless in questions of protecting the
rights of the individuals
d. The right of the State to regulate the use of private property and protect it
e. Preservation of life as the duty of each and all members of society
f. The duty of the State to provide favorable working conditions
g. The right of workers to form unions

Rizal’s Concept of Nationalism

1. National sentiment – the feeling of affinity and oneness towards the nation
2. Conformity, like-mindedness, consciousness and common action (Hans Kohn)
3. A collective action for reform or revolution
4. Desire of the members of a nation to govern themselves

Nationalism according to Rizal was


- From the friars and Spanish government control

- Freedom of speech, education, economic rights, open competition in the market and
freedom of the press
- The strongest aspect of Rizal’s nationalism is his concept of local history

• Five Determining Factors in the Early Development of Rizal’s Nationalism

1. He emphasized the importance of the Tagalog language and its impact upon the
2. He was openly critical of the friars.
3. He defended Filipino civil rights.
4. He discovered the power of the pen.

5. He conceived a form of gradual nationalism.

Nationalist ideas of Jose Rizal

1. Faith in god
2. Love of Country
3. Preservation of Asian heritage
4. Adoption of native language
5. Dignity of an individual
6. Equality of the races
7. Inviolability of human rights
8. Rights of women
9. Education of the masses
10. Republican form of government
11. Rule of Law
12. Enlightened citizenship for good government
13. World unity and brotherhood of nations
Four Reasons for Modern nationalism

1. The city of Manila and its relationship to the Spanish government and the church, helped
to foment revolution.
2. The relationship between the friars and Spanish government was tenuous and often
fragile one.
3. The Chinese mestizo, who came is as a merchant
4. “Backwater nationalism” the extensive development of local government


Since Rizal did not directly experience any hardships like the masses or the
underprivileged due to his background, Rizal’s nationalism was essentially rationalist,
anti-racist, anti-clerical-political rather than social or economic.

The basis of most revolutions are the ideas set by the privileged, intellectual
class not the masses. It is the educated class who will supply the intellectual basis, the
moral justification, the technical skills needed to established a new order.

AMA Computer University

Life and Works of Dr. Jose Rizal


LESSON 4: Biography of Dr. Jose Rizal: Early Life


*Examine the childhood life of Dr. Jose Rizal until his studies in Ateneo and UST
*Analyze the early experiences of Dr. Rizal that gave way for the realization of injustice and
discrimination under the Spanish rule in the Philippines.

Rizal-Mercado Family

• The Rizal family is considered as one of the biggest family during their time
Domingo Lam-co, the family's paternal ascendant was Chinese who came to the Philippines
from Amoy, China in the closing years of the 17th century and married a half-Chinese by the
name of Ines de la Rosa.

Jose Protacio Realonda Alonzo Mercado Rizal

• Known to a “child of a good family”
• Jose was born on June 19, 1861
• Calamba, Laguna(between 11 and 12 at night)
• He was the seventh of eleventh children, the younger of two boys and with nine sisters
all in all

Rizal-Mercado Family


- Father of Jose Rizal who was the youngest of 13 off springs of Juan and Cirila
Mercado. Born in Biñan, Laguna on April 18, 1818; studied in San Jose College, Manila;
and died in Manila.
Francisco Mercado Y Chinco
- A prosperous landowner
- Sugar and rice planter
- Well educated having studied Latin and Philosophy
- Trader
• TEODORA ALONSO (1827-1913)

- The second child of Lorenzo Alonso and Brijida de Quintos. Studied at the
Colegio de Santa Rosa.

Teodora Alonso
- a business-minded woman, courteous, religious, hard-working and
- One of the most highly educated women in the Phil. that time
- A gifted woman with insights in literature, art, music and other forms
of Filipino culture
- A fine mathematician, gourmet cook, interior decorator, collector of
fine books
- Was of Ilocano-Tagalog- Chinese-Spanish descent
Jose Florentino
• Uncle of Rizal
• Elected to the Spanish Cortes
• Distinguished government servant
• inspiration of Rizal to be a government servant too

The Name: Jose Protacio Realonda Alonso Rizal Mercado

Jose – was named after

• St. Joseph
• From uncle, lolo and other siblings

Protacio – St. Protacio a martyr.

- Filipino priest baptized him; secular Archbishop confirmed

Rizal – a shortened form of the Spanish word “second crop”, seemed suited to a family of
farmers who were making a second start in a new home

Mercado was attached to Rizal to avoid confusion

Realonda – was adopted by Francisco’s mother in law that gave Teodora a middle name

Saturnina (1850-1913), eldest of the Rizal children, became the wife of Manuel T. Hidalgo of
Tanauan, Batangas.
Paciano, the second child in the family and Rizal's only brother.
Narcisa (1852-1939), third Rizal, was married to Antonio Lopez, a teacher of Morong, Rizal.
Olympia (1855-1887), fourth Rizal child, was married to Silvestre Ubaldo. She died of childbirth
in 1887.
Lucia (1857-1919), fifth Rizal child, was the wife of Mariano Herbosa.
Maria (1859-1945), the sixth Rizal child, became the wife of Daniel Faustino Cruz of Biñan,

Trinidad (1868-1951), the tenth Rizal child.
Soledad (1870-1929), the youngest Rizal child became the wife of Pantaleon Quintero.

Rizal’s Childhood
• Top flight student
• “UTE” by his siblings
• “Pepe” or “Pepito” to the town people of Calamba
• Was struck by tragedy with the death of his favorite sister Concha
• 1868 (7 yrs. Old), he wrote a comedy for the local fiesta
• A voracious reader, was able to read at age of 3
• Was influenced greatly by his mother in his education and development of interest in
poetry, music and European literature
• Readings in Tagalog poetry and assignments in Phil. History inculcated sense of Filipino

Early Religious Writings

• Ode to Jesus (1875) (To the child Jesus)
- a poem of eight verse only
• “A La Virgen Maria” (To the Virgin Mary)
- a sonnet
• Alianza intima la religion y la education”

The Parable of the Moth

• Was an inspiration to Rizal
• He said, it was not possible to conquer insurmountable odds and be a martyr in reality
but never an illusion

Early Religious Formation

• Very religious coming from a family of Catholics
• Learned common Catholic prayers at an early age
• Her mother taught him to be God-fearing
• Devotee of the Sacred Heart of Jesus and the Blessed Mother

Early Education in Biñan

• Instruction during this time was quite rigid and strict
• Knowledge was forced to its students through memory method aided with a whip
• Jose did not like his experience in Biñan under his teacher Maestro Justiniano Aquino
Cruz who never forget to whip him or punished him with blows in an open palm even
when he was good in class
• He was advanced beyond his teachers
• Primarily educated himself in the family library and through conversation with family and

Ateneo de Municipal

- where the future Filipino nationalist began his early education
- a secondary school that offered rigorous courses almost equivalent to college
- was run by the Jesuits that made the school the finest school in the Philippines
• Subjects include: Christian doctrine, Sacred History Latin, Spanish , Greek, French,
English, Algebra, Trigonometry, Geometry, Universal History, Spanish History, Latin
Literature, Rhetoric and Poetics, Social Ethics, Psychology, Logic and Other Branches of

- In Ateneo, Rizal began his education that would solidify his political thoughts
- Won a special prize in poetry“A La Juventud Filipina”
- he cultivated the intellectual direction which led to hisnationalistic writings
- While in Ateneo, he developed into a first-rate student
- was remembered as original thinker, a creative scholar, and a natural leader
- his noticeable change in his education was his mastery of Spanish
- Father Francisco de Paula Sanchez recognized Rizal’s talent as a poet
- Fr. Jose Vilaclara instructed Rizal in the sciences and philosophy
- “Por la Educacion Recibe Lustre la Patria” (Through Education the Fatherland
Receives Glory) suggests his desire to be a nationalist

• He proved to be an outstanding student, capturing many honours in literary and artistic

competitions. In fact, his report cards were usually marked with sobresaliente (excellent)
• On the spiritual side, he was a pious child, fervently praying and he was a Prefect of the
Sodality of Our Lady with Fr. Pablo Pastells, S.J. as the Director.
• His course in Ateneo was completed with highest honors but his credentials were issued
two years later because he was not of legal age; he was deemedas an “agricultural
expert and surveyor”
• He received his bachelor’s degree in Arts with highest honors in Ateneo on March 14,
• The following year, he took his philosophy course at the University of Santo Tomas and
agriculture in the Ateneo.

Lack of Intellectual Growth - was the early problems with Rizal’s education
University of Santo Tomas
- A Dominican school, where Rizal continued his vision of Philippine Nationalism
- his academic lessons in UST were so influential upon his intellectual development
- UST prompted Rizal to consider a European education
- UST intensified Rizal’s interest in literature, science and Philosophy
- it also helped him developed patriotic sentiment
- his political thoughts were influenced by the philosophers
- he was infatuated with the idea that knowledge and education were the keys to the
- he was inspired to continue his education in Madrid

As a Thomasian
- He took medicine because of his ailing mother along with arts and letters
• Rizal left on May 3, 1882 boarding on a Spanish ship that took him first to Singapore
then France and a train going to Spain

• In September he left for the Spanish capital to enroll in Universidad Central de Madrid.

In Universidad Central de Madrid

- Continued his courses in philosophy and letters and medicine
- had lessons in painting and drawing and languages under special teachers
- 1884, he received the degree of licentiate in medicine and the following year (24th
birthday) his degree in philosophy and letters with the highest honors

- In 1885 went to Paris and continued his medical studies under an eye specialist
- Next year, Rizal went to Germany to study ophthalmology and was registered at Dr.
Wecker’s clinic
- he wanted to study law but his brother discouraged him
- was never really a “doctor”

AMA Computer University

Life and Works of Dr. Jose Rizal


LESSON 5: Biography of Dr. Jose Rizal: Life in Europe


• Examine the personal experiences of Rizal in Europe in lieu of the development of his

Rizal in Europe

• It was in May 5, 1882 when Rizal embarked on a journey to Spain

• When he reached Barcelona, Spain, he came in contact with some Filipinos who were
plotting a revolution which did not appealed to him for he favored education rather than
• He received his first letter from Paciano informing him how his father learned their plans.
• "When the telegram was received in Calamba telling us of your departure, our parents
were distracted, but especially our old father, who became silent, staying in his room,
and wept, and refused to be consoled by his family, the priest, or anybody else…
Seeing this and fearing that his silence might develop into an illness, I told him the whole
story, but to him alone, asking him to keep the secret, which he promised to do; then he
seemed to become a little content and returned to his usual activities. . . .
This is why I believe you should go on to Madrid, the center of all the provinces. . . . it is
better for you to be there with your countrymen, who will be able to advise you while you
are not yet in the current of
things. . . ."

• In June 1882 he wrote an article entitled “El amor patrio” (love of country/patriotism) for
the Diariong Tagalog (a short-lived Manila newspaper) published by Basilio Teodoro

• When he arrived in Madrid, he became a member of Circulo Hispano-Filipino founded by

Juan Atayde (a Spaniard from Manila)

• The club published a review where Rizal and the other expatriates like Lopez Jaena
contributed some articles

• He left Barcelona for Madrid where he enrolled at the Universidad Central for a course
leading to a licentiate in medicine and also took up the course in philosophy and letters.

• Not contented with his courses, he also enrolled in painting and sculpture at the
Academia de San Fernando, plus more lessons in French, English and German at the
Madrid Ateneo, and still more lessons in fencing at the schools of Sanz and Carbonell.

• In January 1883, he informs his family that “I am now studying Italian and have made a
bet that I shall be able to speak it in two months.”

• In year or two, Rizal’s money dwindled for his father was having a hard time sending him
money directly for fear of being questioned by the Dominican Order for which his family
was a tenant of a land owned by the religious order.

• "There came a time when he reduced his daily expenses for food to thirty-five centavos.
On June 24, 1884, the day on which he won a prize in a competition in Greek, he did not
eat at all, because he lacked money. He used second-hand clothes which he bought
from a pawnshop." The next day he wrote in his diary: "I am hungry and I have nothing
to eat and no money."
• His way of relieving himself of homesickness was in devoting his time to study. In
Medicine he received "fair" in two subjects, "good" in four, and "excellent" in two. In his
course in Philosophy and Letters he received "good" in one (History of Spain), "very
good" in one, "excellent" in four, "excellent with prize" in one (Greek and Latin
Literature), and "excellent with free scholarship" in two (Spanish Literature and the
Arabic language).

• He received his licentiate in 1885 but had no money to pay for his Doctor’s degree. He
waited three more years before his brother could send him enough, and at 24 years old
he became Dr. Rizal

• While studying, he also encountered books which lefta deep imprint on his ideals -
Harriet Beecher Stowe’s Uncle Tom’s Cabin and Eugene Sue’s The Wandering Jew that
motivated him to write his own book

• He received his licentiate in 1885 but had no money to pay for his Doctor’s degree. He
waited three more years before his brother could send him enough, and at 24 years old
he became Dr. Rizal
• In June 1885, he went to Paris to study under the famous Dr. Louis de Wecker where he
had mastered the technique of eye operation.

• In the middle of the year, he went to Germany and attended lectures at the University of
Heidelberg. He lived with Pastor Dr. Karl Ullmer, a Lutheran minister, with whom he took
delightful walks nearly every afternoon, learning much about German religious ideas.

• After 3 months of finishing his short course, he transferred to the University of Leipzig to
study psychology and history. Here he met a historian friend Prof. Friedrich Ratzel, one
of the historians who helped change the methods of historical research.
• He continued to write Noli Me Tangere with great inspiration which was finished in Berlin
on Feb. 22, 1887

"I did not believe that Noli Me Tangere would ever be published. I was in Berlin,
heartbroken, weakened, and discouraged from hunger and deprivation. I was on the point of
throwing my work into the fire as a thing accursed and fit only to die; . . . ."

• His friend Maximo Viola, a rich young Filipino sent him a telegram saying he was on his
way to Berlin that will give hope to Jose.

• "It revived me," said Rizal. "It gave me new hope. I went to the station to receive him and
spoke to him about my work. He said he might be able to help me. I reflected and then
decided to shorten the book, and eliminated whole chapters. . . . but these will have a
place in the continuation. . . . I plan to publish seven volumes about Philippine

• It was Maximo Viola who financed the publication of Noli Me Tangere

• Bound copies were sent to Barcelona and Madrid
• Dr. Viola will also bring Jose in a hiking trip to Germany, Switzerland, and Austria
where they will also visit Dr. Adolph Meyer and Ferdinand Blumentritt
• After a visit to Vienna, Rome, and a few other cities of Italy, Dr. Rizal took a ship from
Marseilles and started home on July 5, 1887, at last ready to operate upon the cataracts
in his mother's eyes.

Rizal’s life in Europe focuses on the ff.points:

1. That the other Filipino youth in Spain became lax in their studies, that made him
2. That he focused so hard on his studies – taking up as many possible subjects as he can get
3. That he loved learning so much especially on the languages that interests him
Rizal’s life in Europe focuses on the ff.points:
4. He found the liberal ideas in Europe that inspired him to write the Noli Me Tangere
5. He also experienced hardships particularly on the finances but he did not lose hope instead
he focused on his tasks and studies

A. On Aden – the Desert – Suez – Canal

Town is composed of hillocks and rocks, all bare and arid, without even a plant lonely
houses, quiet and deserted street.

Shops have skin of lion, tiger, panther, and leopard, ostrich eggs and feathers. Children
fan travelrs for a living.

Suez Canal

• Opened in the middle of the desert of sand and stone – 85 kilometers long and 80 varas
• Long but not straight.
• People are poor
• Rizal tasted apricots, cherries and green almonds

B. On Port Said – Napoli – Marseille Sightseeing – Barcelona

Port Said (partakes much of Africa and Europe)

• Commercial, gay and quite beautiful, but dirty and corrupt
• Population is heterogeneous ; European, Turks, Greeks, Egyptians, Negroes
Napoli (Naples)
• Gigantic city which lay asleep beside Versuvius, a volcano that seems to be guarding
the beautiful city
• Elegant edifices: Royal Palace, Castle of Santelmo, numerous hotels, Tower of
Massaniello, lugubrious State prison

• First European city he passed
• Most elegant city seen by Rizal
• Statues, fountains, monuments, arches, tall houses, show-windows glittering for lavish
use of gift and crystal
• Impression was very unpleasant
• Poor and vulgar
• Streets were dirty, houses of poor architecture
• Hotel service and accommodation were poor
• But, women seemed to be more beautiful than the women of Marseille

C .Paris

• Lavish, historical, grand

• Buildings are tall, place of great men
• Hotels are are grand

D. Tokyo

• Very big, they said bigger than Paris

• That time, Manila was more beautiful
• Japanese houses are low-odd-looking like cages of rabbits, very clean, with paper walls,
white mats on the floor
• Japanese people make no noise, loud voices are not heard, they sit quietly in their
• Women are short, stout, fair and their cheeks are red
• Some men were dressed in European style and resemble greatly thjose from Biñan

E. The Ship :City of Rome”

• 2nd largest ship in the world (largestbeing the Great Eastern)

• Size is 200 varas long and 1b varas wide, three chimneys, 12k hp, 63 broilers,
consumes three tons of coal daily
• Aboard from New Yoirk to Liverpool, London

F. Madrid

• Sky is limpid blue even in cool winter

• Air is perfumed especially in Valencia and Antalucia
• Women are beautiful, passionate, naïve, natural, born to love, living for love , and dying
for having loved
• One of the gayest cities in the world which combines the spirits of Europe and the East
• The best in Madrid was middle class: amiable, distinguished, educated, frank, dignified,
chivalrous, hospitable, little aristocratic
• True Madrilenian was appearing (as observed by Rizal)
• Climate was horrible
• Houses poorly constructed
• Life was spent in cafes and restaurants where one talks about politics and bullfights,
argues, debates, shouts, smiles, fights without being sure of the motives or causes of
the difference of opinions

A. Rizal in Spain : the Beginning of Noli

• Wrote “El amor Patria” (love of country) or “patriotism” short after his arrival in Spain
• Appeared in Manila newspaper Diariong Tagalog and alerted Spanish officials to rizal’s
nationalistic tendencies

Rizal in Spain

• Poem was popular among reformists in Manila and asked to send more copies
• November 3, 1882, he matriculated at Central University of Madrid
• Pursued two courses – one in medicine, and the other in philosophy and letters
Jose to Parents and Brothers

• Related his second day in school with all seriousness, among his professors of medicine
is Marquis of Busto in obstetrical clinic
• Planned to take law course which lasts for 7 years or philosophy and letters (literature)
for 3 years

Still in Spain
• Studied painting and sculpture at the Academy of San Carlos and drawing at Academia
de Bellas Artes de San Fernando, Madrid
• Found time tostudy French, German, and English
• His varied education helped him assimilate all these influences into his nationalistic
thoughts and writings
• During his first year, he became member of a student organization: Circulo Hispanio-
Filipino with regular meetings to discuss political issues
• Circulo published a magazine that began arguing for a new brand of Philippine
nationalism with the support of Mr. Juan Atayde, a Spaniard born at Maila and a military
Still in Spain
• This period, Rizal began his revolutionary novel “Noli Me Tangere”
• 1884, Juan Luna and Felix Resurrection Hidalgo won first and second prize, respectively
in the Fine Arts competition for artists who celebrated different figures on Spanish
national expression

June 25, 1884
• Rizal had a toast for triumph that made history when he made his speech that stated that
the hold of Spain had over the Philippines was rapidly ending
• One of his earliest pronouncements of Philippine nationalism

B. Rizal on Masonry
• Masonry preaches and practices the sacred principles of liberty, equality and fraternity
among all men
• Dedicated organization that pointed the abuses of the Spaniards
• Helped Rizal’s political reputation
• Caused Rizal’s mother sick because of fear that Rizal was not welcome to come home
Rizal’s decision
• To continue his education

• Planned to go to Germany but the family’s economic condition and his own uncertainty
about expenses prompted some indecision

C. Rizal in Paris and Germany: Advanced Medical Studies

• Paciano convinced Jose to move on to study surgery in Germany

• The enhancement of his medical knowledge started in Paris in the late July 1885
• Arrived at Juan Luna’s studio on Boulevard Arago near the Palace d’Italie
In Paris
• His novel :Noli” was half-finished
• October 1885 – January 1886 Rizal studied in Paris and took advantage of the Parisian
• Perfected his medical knowledge and learned various techniques in eye operation as he
studied at the clinic of Dr. Louis de Wecker
• He wanted to perfect German method of Diagnosis
• Went to Germany(Heidelberg)
• Had language problem but studied with the famed German Doctor Otto Becker
• Rizal was trained in Vienna as an ophthalmologist and held a professorship at
In Germany
• Became one of Becker’s best students because of his experience at Wecker’s clinic
• Met Ferdinand Blumentritt and became his best friend and teacher
• They plotted together for the independent future of the Philippines
• They agreed on a common Philippine problem, the role of the friars

Ferdinand Blumentritt
• Became an advocate of Philippine independence and one of the strongest voices in
praise of Filipino culture

D. Return to Manila
• After studying in Europe and completing his novel, Noli Me Tangere, Rizal prepared to
return to the Philippines
• Crucial turning point in Rizal’s political life
• Finally published the Noli that continued the elements of political thought
• Noli was the center of controversy
• Was warned by Blumentritt about the church but Rizal wanted to go home
• August 1887 – his arrival in the Philippines
• Reunited with his family in Calamba, established his eye clinic there but was impossible
to work because of the clergy
• Rizal was summoned to Gov. Gen. Emilio Terrero y Perinat’s office three weeks after his
arrival for a brief discussion
• Wrote Blumentritt that everyone wanted him to leave the Philippines
• Friars were unhappy about his book, Noli
• February 1888, he finally left Manila on a ship to Hongkong
• Noli took its toll on Rizal
• Had to travel abroad to guarante his intellectual and personal freedom
• Was triggered to look beyond and find the sense of the Philippines he was searching for
• Settled in London, some time in Hongkong and in Japan
• Gov. Gen. Terrero had him watched and the Spaniards closely monitored all of Rizal’s
• From Japan, he went to San Francisco USA to witness the elements of democracy

• In his US travel, he witnessed the barbaric treatment of Americans to other people. He
said, “They do not have the true civil liberty”

E. In London
• Hoped to continue his mastery of English and to research the origins and content of
anotonio de Morgas Sucesos de las Islas Filipinas. This provided a unique vie of the
Philippines and had a high level of civilization
• He expanded, clarified and translated the work of Morga to demonstrate in great detail
the civilized nature of Filipinos
• While doing the work, he started working on his second novel, El Filibusterismo.
F. Rizal in Biarritz
• Rizal had time to think of the Philippine’s future
• He did rethink his political ideas
• Decided to return to the Philippines
• May 1891, he completed his sdecond novel and prepared for its completion
G. Road back to the Philippines
• October 1891 left Ghent and started his long journey to the Philippines
• Believed his books provided the message for Philippine future
• Hoped to witness the march of the people toward Philippine independence
• Hoped to reunite the revoilutionists
• Homesickness for his family
• Worried about the pressures received by his family from the friars
• Was advised not to go home by Blumentritt but remarked he was not afraid to die.

AMA Computer University

Life and Works of Dr. Jose Rizal


LESSON 6: Biography of Dr. Jose Rizal: Later life

• Assess the ideological development of Dr. Rizal and his impact on the Philippines
• Analyze the different contributions of Dr. Rizal to the Philippines

At Home Again
• When he was in Europe, he received the sad news of an epidemic cholera affecting
Manila- killing thousands of victims by the said scourge
• He also learned about the land conflict of his father with the Dominican friars that nearly
ruined the family
• Rizal finally went home after his five year stint in Europe-Aug. 3, 1887
• He operated his mother’s cataracts-the 1st time the operation was performed in the
• People flocked to Calamba and suddenly Rizal became a famous doctor
• Rizal was advised by his friends not to go back to the country due to the impact created
by his book NOLI that made him more popular even to the authorities

• The government appointed a committee from UST to review the NOLI and it was found

“impious, heretical, or scandalous,” and that it is “against doctrine, against the church,
against the religious orders, and against the institutions, civil, military, social and political, which
the Government of Spain has implanted in these islands”…

• A government decree followed, banning the book in the country and any Filipino found
with a copy of the NOLI will be punished
• This made the book more popular than before
• Rizal was invited in Malacañang by Gov. Gen. Emilio Terrero to explain his novel
• He told the Gov. General to read the novel first before passing judgment
• He was given an escort named Lieutenant José Taviel de Andrade who will be his friend
until his death
• The Gov. General started an investigation regarding the land issue in Calamba and Rizal
asked his people to tell the truth regarding the issue;
• He prepared the report and submitted it to Gov. Gen. Terrero
• Sadly, the Gov. General did not do anything about it and instead it was used as a trap
against Rizal and his family
• Jose will be disillusioned by the experience which will change his belief in Spain and its

• Rizal for the second time left the country for England where he was able to stay for a few
days in Japan and U.S.

In England

• He reached London on May 24, 1888 and he started working on his next project at the
British Museum Library
• He was busy annotating Morga’s Succesos de las Islas Felipinas (Events in the
Philippines-1609) for the next ten months
• At the same time, Filipinos in Barcelona and Madrid wanted Rizal to head their next
project of creating a new magazine La Solidaridad
• Rizal will decline the offer and Graciano Lopez Jaena will be chosen to head the project
– Marcelo H. del Pilar and Mariano Ponce were the associate editors; Rizal was elected
as honorary president
• Rizal will contribute articles in the La Solidaridad- namely, The Philippines A Century
Hence, A Letter to the Young Women of Malolos

In France

• He moved to Paris working on his sequel El Filibusterismo at the French National Library
• When Ponce wrote to Rizal of being inspired to write a book about the Filipinos, Our
whole aspiration," he declares, "is to educate our nation; education, and more
• He also organized a society known as Indios Bravos making the Indios native and
Spaniard alike proud of themselves
• "Rizal (seated) shared a deep friendship with painter Juan Luna and often agreed to
pose for Luna's paintings as in 'The Death of Cleopatra.'"
• News about his family reached him – his family was being persecuted by the authorities
• His brother-in-law Mariano Herbosa died of cholera and he was not given proper burial
by the parish priest
• He continued to write in La Solidaridad using Laong-Laan and Dimas Alang as
• Afterwards he moved to Brussels then Madrid
• In August 1890 he reached Madrid where he learned that his family was ejected from
• A year later he decided to go to Hong Kong to be with his family and he plans to
establish a Filipino place in Borneo where they can enjoy their lives free from Spanish
control but his sister was against it

In the Philippines

• After hearing Governor General Despujol’s pardon to some Filipino expatriates, he

decided to go back to the Philippines
• On June 21, 1892, Rizal sailed for Manila, accompanied by his sister Lucia
• When they arrived in Manila, authorities who searched their luggage claims that his
sister carries with her a seditious writings under her pillowcase. The package included
copies of a tract called "The Poor Friars", a caustic attack on the Dominicans.

• Rizal also creates La Liga Filipina- July 3, 1892 with some distinguished leaders as

Its constitution named five purposes:

1. To unite the whole Archipelago into one compact, vigorous, and homogenous body.
2. Mutual protection in every grievance and need.
3. Defense against violence and injustice.
4. Encouragement of instruction, industrial, and agricultural enterprises.
5. The study of reforms, putting them into practice.

• Rizal was sent to Dapitan as an exile in July 1892

• He continued to his practice as a doctor and tried his best to uplift the life in Dapitan
• He created a small informal school for boys and a hospital for the people in Dapitan
• He met Ms. Josephine Bracken who accompanied her adoptive father Taufer, a blind
• In May 1896, Andres Bonifacio sent Dr. Pio Valenzuela for an advise about the
• On August 1, 1896, Rizal bade farewell to the Dapitan students and neighbors who
adored him, and sailed for Manila with his wife and sister
• While Rizal was going to Cuba, a cable was sent for him to go back in Manila under the
order of Gov. Gen. Ramon Blanco
• A revolution broke under the leadership of Andes Bonifacio- August 23, 1896
• He was sent to Fort Santiago prison and a trial awaited him
• Gov. Gen. Polavieja replaced Blanco and he further accused Rizal of his writings against
• Lieutenant Luis Taviel de Andrade became the legal adviser of Rizal
• The Council of War then retired and immediately condemned the prisoner to death "for
the crime of having founded illicit associations and for having incited and promoted

• The Governor General thereupon decreed that Rizal should be shot at seven o'clock on
the morning of December 30th on Bagumbayan Field "with the formalities the law
• He left his poem “Mi Ultimo Adios” in this lamp

The life of Rizal shows how he fought for the Filipino people through peaceful means. He
consistently worked for the betterment of his race through education, history, literature, and the
projects he created when he was in exile. He was admired by all especially the members of the
Katipunan. Sadly, this is also the reason for his execution. But it proves how courageous Rizal
is in facing his enemies, accepting his fate without regret.

AMA Computer University

Life and Works of Dr. Jose Rizal



I. Title : Noli Me Tangere

II. Introduction :

Jose Rizal’s fame started in 1897 when his book Noli Me Tangere was published.
The novel outlined a new form of Philippine nationalism and influenced a new generation of

III. Objectives:
At the end of the lesson, the students should be able to:

1. review the political ideals/ideologies of Jose Rizal in his novel Noli Me Tangere; and
2. relate to the contemporary society the political ideologies of Jose Rizal encompassed in
the said novels.

IV. Past Lesson

• Jose Rizal: His Later Life

V. Content

Noli Me Tangere: A Glance

⚫ The title of Rizal’s book Noli Me Tangere means ‘Touch Me Not’ is a Latin version of
words spoken by Jesus to Mary Magdalene after his resurrection from John 20:13-17
⚫ It was first written in Spain and was published in 1887 in Berlin, Germany
⚫ The English translation was originally titled The Social Cancer

Below is a letter of the author found in the introductory part of the Noli..

To My Fatherland:
Recorded in the history of human sufferings is a cancer of so malignant a
character that the least touch irritates it and awakens in it the sharpest pains. Thus, how
many times, when in the midst of modern civilizations I have wished to call thee before
me, now to accompany me in memories, now to compare thee with other countries, hath
thy dear image presented itself showing a social cancer like to that other!
Desiring thy welfare, which is our own, and seeking the best treatment, I will do with thee
what the ancients did with their sick, exposing them on the steps of the temple so that
every one who came to invoke the Divinity might offer them a remedy.
And to this end, I will strive to reproduce thy condition faithfully, without
discriminations; I will raise a part of the veil that covers the evil, sacrificing to truth
everything, even vanity itself, since, as thy son, I am conscious that I also suffer from thy
defects and weaknesses.

The Main Characters

Crisóstomo Ibarra – known in his full name as Juan Crisóstomo Ibarra y Magsalin, a native
who studied in Europe for 7 years. Son of the deceased Don Rafael Ibarra, richest person in
San Diego; Crisostomo changed his surname from Eibarramendia to Ibarra, from his ancestor's

María Clara – María Clara de los Santos, Ibarra's childhood sweetheart; the daughter of Pía
Alba and Kapitan Tiago- but biologically she was the daughter of Father Damaso

Kapitan Tiago – also known in his full name as Don Santiago de los Santos, he lives in
Binondo; very skilled in business

Father Dámaso – a Franciscan friar and is quite abusive, he is also the former parish priest of
the town of San Diego

Elías – Ibarra's mysterious friend, a master boater, also a fugitive. He was referred to at one
point as "the pilot." He believes that justice can be obtained through a revolution.

Linares – A distant nephew of Don Tiburcio de Espadaña, the would-be fiance of Maria Clara

Captain-General (no specific name) – The most powerful official in the Philippines, a hater of
secular priests and corrupt officials, and a friend of Ibarra.

Sisa – the mother of Basilio and Crispín, who went insane after losing her sons
Basilio – the elder son of Sisa.
Crispín – the younger son of Sisa who died from the punishment of the soldiers from the false
accusation of stealing an amount of money

Padre Sibyla – Hernando de la Sibyla, a

Filipino friar. He is described as short and has fair skin.

Padre Salví – also known in his full name as Bernardo Salví, a secret admirer of María Clara
and the parish priest of San Diego

Pilosopo Tasyo – also known as Don Anastasio, portrayed in the novel as pessimistic, cynic,
and mad by his neighbors due to his ideas

The Alférez – chief of the Guardia Civil ; mortal enemy of the priests for power in San Diego

Don Tiburcio – Spanish husband of Donya Victorina who is limp and submissive to his wife; he
also pretends to be a doctor

Pedro – abusive husband of Sisa who loves cockfighting

Doña Victorina – Victorina de los Reyes de De Espadaña, a woman who passes herself off as
a Peninsular

Doña Consolación – wife of the alférez, another woman who passes herself as a Peninsular;
best remembered for her abusive treatment of Sisa

Synopsis of the novel:

⚫ The novel starts at a dinner hosted by Kapitan Tiago where the characters were
introduced along with their ideas. We see the power struggle among the friars present.
⚫ Among the characters we meet are a Teniente Guevara, Padre Sibyla (Dominican) and
Padre Damaso (Franciscan).

⚫ Padre Damaso spent 20 years as parish priest in San Diego. The angry conversation
between Padre Damaso and the soldier reveals that a good man, whose son was in
Europe, died. His body was exhumed by the San Diego parish priest and was ordered
buried elsewhere.

⚫ Then comes Crisostomo Ibarra the heir of a wealthy clan from San Diego. He returns to
the Philippines after studying for seven years abroad. It will be revealed later on that the
dinner was meant for him in his return to the country. His father Don Rafael was a close
friend of Kapitan Tiago.
⚫ He heard news about the death of his father, Don Rafael Ibarra, who died a year ago.
Where Don Rafael was sent to prison in connection with the death of a tax collector who
was abusing a child.
⚫ Since Don Rafael stopped receiving holy communion for a long time, he was refused a
Catholic burial by Padre Damaso, the parish priest of their town

⚫ Although Ibarra learned about the injustices suffered by his father, he decided to focus
on how he can help his fellowmen.
⚫ Ibarra sees the lack of progress in his town and decides to build a school to teach and
prepare his townspeople. Tandang Tacio (the old philosopher) notes that there have
been many attempts to build a school in the past, but all these had failed.
⚫ Padre Salvi opposes the plan because he is secretly worried that the school project will
threaten the power he wields over their town
⚫ Ibarra almost gets killed while he is laying the cornerstone of the school, but Elias saved
him. Elias is the mysterious fellow who also saved Ibarra previously.

⚫ With so many powerful enemies, Ibarra eventually gets implicated in a staged revolution,
and is hunted down by the guardia civil.
⚫ Maria Clara, Ibarra's sweetheart, unwittingly adds to Ibarra's misery when she switches
Ibarra's letter with another letter for fear that will reveal the true identity of her father (Fr.
⚫ Afterwards, Ibarra and Elías board a boat and flee the place. Elías instructs Ibarra to lie
down and the former covers the latter with grass to conceal the latter's presence. As luck
would have it, they are spotted by their enemies. Elías thinks he could outsmart them
and jumps into the water
⚫ The guards rain shots on the person in the water, all the while not knowing that they are
aiming at the wrong man.

⚫ María Clara, thinking that Ibarra has been killed in the shooting incident, is greatly
overcome with grief. Robbed of hope and severely disillusioned, she asks Father
Dámaso to confine her into a nunnery.

⚫ Father Dámaso reluctantly agrees when María Clara threatens to take her own life.
demanding, "the nunnery or death!"
⚫ Unbeknownst to her, Ibarra is still alive and able to escape. It was Elías who has taken
the shots.
⚫ It is Christmas Eve when Elías wakes up in the forest, gravely wounded and barely alive.
It is in this forest that Elías finds Basilio and his lifeless mother, Sisa.

Points to ponder:

1. Crisostomo Ibarra and Elias can actually be compared in terms of their experiences.
Although the former is an immensely wealthy mestizo and the latter, an impoverished
fellow, both have been victimized by the colonial system; yet they have contrasting ideas
in addressing the social evils that surround them. In one pivotal scene the two debate
passionately about their respective views, as though the author were debating himself.

2. It was through Ibarra that Rizal the social reformer makes it clear that he believed greatly
in the transformative power of secular education.

Rizal greatly advocates the idea that education will set the Filipinos free!

3. Tasio, the town sage, is elated by Ibarra’s plan for a school but immediately cautions the
young man, “The first advice I will give you is to never come to me for advice again.”

4. The Noli is clearly anticlerical in its depiction of the friars and of the Catholic church.
Padre Damaso and Padre Salvi, personify clerical abuses—we see not only power
struggle between them but also how they try to stop new ideas for progress in order to
make the people dependent on the church. Rizal’s portraits, however, are not one-
dimensional; rather, they reveal the all-too-human faults of each priest

5. The novel describes the life in the town of San Diego and its social and political

6. The author also mocks the mindless religiosity exhibited by Kapitan Tiago and some
other characters, especially the equally wealthy spinster, Doña Patrocinio, whom Tiago
considers his rival and vice versa. Each strives to make as splashy material offerings as
possible to the church, thinking thereby to ensure their spiritual future. Indulgences were
seen as a ticket to heaven amidst the evil deeds done by the person.

7. Rizal depicts a gap that exists between the Spanish civil administration and clerical rule.

8. Sisa goes mad due to her harsh treatment by the Guardia Civil, the death of one son,
and the disappearance of another. Critics have said that she is symbolic of the
oppressed mother country

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I. Title : El Filibusterismo

II. Introduction :

Before Rizal left for Europe, he had to edit and publish El Filibusterismo, the last
chapters of which were finished in Biarritz.
In his next novel, El Filibusterismo, published in 1891, Rizal continued to argue
for reform. Rizal argues that the young are aware of the need to take political action and pursue
social justice. Rizal said, the young people create a sense of reform.

El Filibusterismo is a book about revolution. The failure and death of Simoun, the
main character, of the novel points out the danger of takingan alternative based on hate and

III. Objectives:
At the end of the lesson, the students shold be able to:

1. review the political ideologies of Jose Rizal in his novel El Filibuysterismo; and
2. relate to the contemporary society the political ideologies of Jose Rizal encompassed in
the said novels.

IV. Past Lesson

• Analysis of Noli Me Tangere

V. Content

El Filibusterismo

Jose Rizal defined the word to his friend Blumentritt …
"The word filibustero is little known in the Philippines. The masses do not know it
yet. I heard it for the first time in 1872 when the tragic executions (of the GOMBURZA) took
place. I still remember the panic that this word created. Our father forbade us to utter it, as well
as the words Cavite, Jose Burgos (one of the executed priests), etc.
The Manila newspapers and the Spaniards apply this word to one whom they want to
make a revolutionary suspect. The Filipinos belonging to the educated class fear the reach of
the word. It does not have the meaning of freebooters; it rather means a dangerous patriot who
will soon be hanged or well, a presumptuous man."

At the end of the 19th century the word filibustero in the Philippines means “subversive”
Rizal began writing the book in October 1887 while he was in Calamba and he completed it
in Biarritz in 1891. Finally, he published it in Ghent, Belgium partially funded by his friend
Valentin Ventura

Main Characters of the El Fili

• Simoun – he is Ibarra, disguised as a wealthy jeweler, concealing himself behind dark

glasses and a goatee; bent on starting a revolution
• Basilio – surviving son of Sisa, now an aspiring doctor who was helped by Cap. Tiago
• Kabesang Tales - Telesforo Juan de Dios, who suffered from the injustices of the friar; a
former cabeza de barangay (barangay head) who resurfaced as the feared Luzón bandit
• Isagani - poet and Basilio's best friend; portrayed as emotional and reactive; Paulita
Gómez' boyfriend before being dumped for fellow student Juanito Peláez
• Doña Victorina a despicable native who tries to present herself as a European, she is
the wife of the quack doctor Tiburcio de Espadaña
• Father Florentino - a native secular priest who is Isagani's godfather; he was engaged to
be married, but chose the priesthood instead, he decides to be assigned to a remote
place, living in solitude near the sea.
• Juli - Juliana de Dios, the youngest daughter of Kabesang Tales and the girlfriend of
• Father Camorra- known as the friar-gunner who rapes Juli and drives her to suicide
• Paulita Gómez - The girlfriend of Isagani and the niece of Doña Victorina. In the end,
she and Juanito Peláez are wed, and she dumps Isagani, believing that she will have no
future if she marries him.
• Ben Zayb - Abraham Ibañez is his real name. He is a journalist who thinks he is the
"only" one thinking in the Philippines.
• Quiroga - a Chinese businessman who dreamt of being a consul of a "Consulate of
China" in the Philippines. He hid Simoun's weapons inside his house.
• Tandang Selo - father of Kabesang Tales. He raised the sick and young Basilio after his
mother Sisa had died.
• Father Fernandez - the priest-friend of Isagani. He promised to Isagani that he and the
other priests will give in to the students' demands.
• Padre Sibyla- Hernando de la Sibyla, a Filipino friar and now vice-rector of the University
of Santo Tomas

• Placido Penitente - a student of the University of Santo Tomas who is always miserable,
and therefore controls his temper.
• Captain-General (no specific name)- the powerful highest official in the Philippines


• The FILI takes up where the NOLI left off. It is Ibarra who has survived.
• After amassing a great wealth abroad, he returns to the Philippines as Simoun the
jeweler, with the purpose of subversion to the regime.
• He is said to be influential since he is a friend and adviser of the Governor-General
• He uses his power and wealth to encourage corruption in the government and provoke
economic distress to incite the people to a revolution.
• To his dismay, the biggest obstacle to his plan are the young native intellectuals, who
are dedicated to a program of reforms leading to the assimilation of the Filipinos into the
Spanish nation; particularly, the establishment of an academy of the Spanishlanguage
under lay control.
• Simoun has another purpose, to take Maria Clara away from the nunnery, and to avenge
the ruin of his life. (both plans fail)
• In the first plan he wants to seize Manila with the help of disaffected Filipino regiments
and a band of outlaws
• On the eve of the uprising, he was told that Maria Clara died; in grief, he abandons his
allies and is almost killed by them.
• In the second scheme, during the nuptial feast of Paulita Gomez where all the important
people are present, he plans to send as his wedding gift an elaborate lamp which is
really a bomb that once lit will explode.
• When Isagani learned this, he rushes to the house, seize the lamp and jumps with it in
the river.
• Simoun, now a grievously wounded fugitive from justice, takes refuge in the solitary
mountain retreat of Father Florentino, a virtuous Filipino priest.
• He dies before the authorities can arrest him.
• Fr. Florentino takes the Simoun’s treasure chest and hurls it into the sea, “where it will
not do evil, thwart justice or incite greed.”


1. The story of Cabesang Tales (What is a man to do when he is denied justice, his own
hands or wait for Spainto give him his rights?)

• Tales, a poor farmer, clears a piece of land under difficult conditions. This will cost his
wife and his oldest daughter their lives.
• After the first harvest, the religious order lays claim to the land. Tales does not want to
get himself into conflict with the powerful friars and agrees to pay a yearly rent.
• The friars double the rent after two good harvests. Again Tales gives in. He is diligent
and because of this, to a certain extent, he is able to lead a tolerably good life.
• He is well-liked and respected in the village. He became the head of the village and tax
collector, he was given the title Cabesa (from the Spanish word "cabeza", meaning
director or head of the family)

• Soon he realizes that many farmers are too poor to pay their taxes so that he has to add
his own money in order to make up for the total tax quota.
• The friars, however, increase the rent tenfold and answer the protest of the farmer,
Tales, with the threat that if he cannot pay, his land will be confiscated

• Tales goes to court, spends all his savings paying for the lawyers and the legal
expenses and as expected, loses the lawsuit.
• The next day, the administrator of the order takes a new tenant farmer to Tales' land.
• But the following night the friar, the new tenant farmer and his wife are murdered. Tales
leaves a message written with his blood behind. He has gone to join the rebels up in the
mountains; there was no longer any other choice for him.

The story has a profound symbolism of Rizal. The question of "evolution or revolution"
and the problem of whether to wait for justice by the hands of the Spaniards or to take the
law in one's own hands are interspersed in the book.

2. Rizal did not just focus on the evils of the friars but also of the entire regime including
its native defenders and supporters.
3. The passive belief of Basilio (debate between Basilio and Simoun)

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LESSON 9: The Philippines A Century Hence


• To analyze the message of the essay “The Philippines a Century Hence”

• To evaluate the main ideas of the essay
• To appreciate the foresight of Dr. Rizal regarding the plight of the Philippines

Background of the Essay

• Originally entitled “Filipinas dentro de cien años” which appeared in four parts in La
Solidaridad, September 1889 to January 1890

The Philippines a Century Hence

• The starting point of Dr. Rizal’s essay was about the situation of the Philippines during
his time.
• The said situation called for a fundamental change in the relationship between the
colony and the mother country, between the dominant and the subject people
• That change was inevitable. It could not be stopped and it was useless to try and stop it.
However, change can still be directed and he gave two alternative directions in which the
change could take place, and it was still possible to choose between them.
• To choose rightly it was obviously necessary to understand the situation that called for
change; and to understand that it was necessary to understand the causes that
produced it.
• It is in history that Rizal begins his premise.
• Spanish rule in the Philippines was imposed through conquest
• But before the country was conquered, the Filipinos have their own culture. They
developed their own forms of economic and social organization.
• They were governed by their own rulers under their own laws. They worshipped their
own gods, spoke and wrote their own languages.

• They had the beginnings of a native literature and a native art. It was all admittedly
primitive but it was all in the process of normal development
• The Spanish conquest forced the Filipinos to abandon their own culture and embraced
the Spanish culture which they never completely understood nor assimilated
• The result of which is that the Filipinos lost their nerve. They lost confidence in their past,
faith in their present and hope in their future.
• The Filipinos remained in the state of subjection for three centuries.
• During those three centuries the Spanish colonial government not only deprived them of
their own culture but imposed upon them heavy burdens and exactions of every sort. But
the Filipinos offered no resistance. They remained passive and apathetic. Why?
• What happened to rouse the Filipinos from the sleep of centuries?
• He attributes the change not to an economic or political or social cause but to a
psychological one.
• The Spaniards added insult to injury
• During the earlier phase of Spanish rule, the colonial government demanded much from
the Filipinos but it did not despise them.
• They treated the Filipinos as subject, but not an inferior people. They exploited them but
they also recognized their essential humanity and equality with them.
• But in the latter phase of the colonial period, a different attitude began to prevail among
the Spaniards
• They began to treat the Filipinos with contempt as essentially inferior beings, “mere
muscle, brutes and beasts of burden,” and they are incapable of being anything else.
• By adopting this attitude the Spaniards wounded the Filipinos in the most sensitive part
of his spiritual being: his amor propio or his self-esteem, his sense of personal dignity.
• Thus, Filipino reaction to Spanish contempt was instantaneous and passionate. Not only
local but ‘national’.
• It was national: not on a particular group or Filipino but to Filipinos, as a nation. This
brought about nationalism!
• Conscious now of their common misery Filipinos began to agitate for reforms on a
national scale.
• For him the movement started from a group of young Filipinos who were educated.
• How will Spain propose to stop progress in the Philippines? He could think of four ways:
– The educational system designed to impart ignorance rather than knowledge
– The effect of which was bound to be the exact opposite of what was intended
– Limit the population of the Philippines to make it extinct: an impossible task!
– The fourth method is setting the Filipinos against each other and thus will prevent
them from combining against a common enemy or working for a common
• If Spain persisted in her intransigent policy, the inevitable will happen.
• The Philippines would be compelled to seek by force of arms its complete
• The Filipinos still recognized moderate reformers as their leaders, but if they lost hope of
obtaining justice through peaceful means they will transfer their ideals to violent means.

• Would the Filipinos be deterred from attempting a war of liberation by the near-certainty
of failure?
• Yes they will fail, but not always. Geography and demography are in their favor, and they
will be more determined to be free.
• Once free the Filipinos had a fair chance of keeping their freedom.
• True, every European power was on a lookout for colonies: but this will be in favor of the
• He cited the Germans, English, France, Holland, China and Japan as possible
• Perhaps the American Republic, but it will be contrary to her traditions.
• How will Spain preserved the bond between her and the Philippines? Not as a master-
subject relationship but a more fundamental change is needed.
• It must become a partnership, and even more than that.
• Reforms should be taken not only by Spain but also of the Filipinos themselves.

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LESSON 10: The Indolence of the Filipino


1. To analyze the message of the essay “The Indolence of the Filipino”

2. To evaluate the main ideas of the essay


• Originally entitled “La Indolencia de los Filipinos”

• The essay appeared in La Solidaridad in five installments, from July 15 to September
15, 1890

What is indolence?

• Indolence means an inclination of a person to be lazy or idle; a sloth

• It also means inactivity resulting from a dislike of work
• The Spanish colonizers gave the Indios the title indolent, and so Rizal created an essay
that will answer the said accusation.
• He made use of logic and irrefutable examples in presenting his defence of the Filipino

Introduction-Part I

• Rizal started his essay by defining the very idea of indolence.

• He stated that he will try to assess the said accusation of the Spaniards by examining
the conditions of the Filipinos
• He even admits that the predisposition exists but he gave reasons for such; using history
and experience of the Filipinos of colonial rule as an example.
• He uses the hot climate of the Philippines as a reason for such an indolence but he even
went further by stating that it was actually the Spaniards who are the lazy ones.

• They make use of the climate as a reason for them not really working as hard as the
natives and they use the natives to do their work for them. Enjoying their position and
manipulation of the situation.


“The Filipinos have not always been what they are, witnesses whereto are all the historians
of the first years after the discovery of the Islands.”

• That the country was abundant before the Spanish occupation of the island.
• It was Christianity that made them indolent.
• The friars abused their power and manipulated the plight of the natives. This resulted to
the lack of motivation of the natives to uplift their situation.


1. Internal wars against the Muslims and other foreigners

2. Depopulation of the country for failure of the Spaniards to protect the natives
3. Forced labor (polo y servicio) hindered the native from cultivating his own land.

According to Morga, the natives:

“have forgotten much about farming, raising poultry, stock and cotton, and
weaving cloth, as they used to do in their paganism and FOR A LONG TIME AFTER THE

Part V

How did indolence emanated from the people?

1. Defects of training (education-insinuation of inferiority)
2. Lack of national sentiment- the native as an individual

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LESSON 11: Letter: To the Young Women of Malolos


• Discuss the significance of the letter to the Young Women of Malolos

• Analyze the message of Dr. Rizal to the Young Women of Malolos

Background of the letter:

• Dr. Rizal wrote this famous letter in Tagalog, while he was residing in London, upon the
request of M. H. del Pilar.
• The background of this letter is that:
-On December 12, 1888, a group of twenty young women of Malolos petitioned
Governor-General Weyler asking to open a “night school”, to study the Spanish
language under Teodoro Sandiko.

-Fr. Felipe Garcia, the Spanish parish priest, was against the proposal.
-Therefore, the petition was turned down by the Governor-General
-In defiance of the friar’s wrath, the young women bravely continued their agitation for
the school – a thing unheard of in the Philippines in those times.
- On February 22, 1889, Rizal sent this letter to Del Pilar for transmittal to Malolos
- They finally succeeded in obtaining government approval to their project on the
condition that Señora Guadalupe Reyes should be their teacher.

• The incident caused a great stir in the Philippines and in far-away Spain. Del Pilar,
writing in Barcelona on February 17, 1889, requested Rizal to send a letter in Tagalog to
the brave women of Malolos.

The Letter:

• Rizal wrote that he was wrong in thinking that the usual Filipina are those:
“…girls with agreeable manners, beautiful ways, and modest demeanor, but there was in
all an admixture of servitude and deference to the words or whims of their so-called
"spiritual fathers", due to excessive kindness, modesty, or perhaps ignorance. They
seemed faced plants sown and reared in darkness, having flowers without perfume and
fruits without sap.

• He believes that the common Filipina are those who just follow what the faith dictates
them to do.
• He was surprised to hear about the Young Women of Malolos, who were brave in
asserting their rights not just because they were women.

“No longer does the Filipina stand with her head bowed nor does she spend her
time on her knees, because she is quickened by hope in the future; no longer will the mother
contribute to keeping her daughter in darkness and bring her up in contempt and moral

• That the real faith is totally different from those taught and practiced by priests
• No longer should women focus on prayers and novenas but more on spotless conduct,
firm intentions and upright judgment.
• That obedience doesn’t necessarily be blind to the point of submission esp. to the whims
of the friars.

Rizal wrote:

“Youth is a flower-bed that is to bear rich fruit and must accumulate wealth for its

• That means women should not just be contented with what is dictated for her to do.

Women who are mothers

“are responsible for the present servitude of our compatriots, owing to the
unlimited trustfulness of their loving hearts, to their ardent desire to elevate their sons.”

• That the friars are doing things contrary to what Jesus taught us.
• That they are using the unyielding trust of the Filipina to the faith by manipulating them
and using them to their own advantage.
• The friars insults the Filipina as complacent and ignorant and that she is weak in
character – very much against the real Filipina!
• He cited the women of Sparta as an example of bravery, faithfulness to the state and
power over men.
“Man, the Spartan women said, was not born to life for himself alone but for his native

• He enumerated some of his ideas which he asks the women to reflect on:

First. That the tyranny of some is possible only through cowardice and negligence on
the part of others.

Second. What makes one contemptible is lack of dignity and abject fear of him who holds
one in contempt.

Third. Ignorance is servitude, because as a man thinks, so he is; a man who does not
think for himself and allowed himself to be guided by the thought of another is like the beast
led by a halter.

Fourth. He who loves his independence must first aid his fellowman, because he who
refuses protection to others will find himself without it…
Fifth. If the Filipina will not change her mode of being, let her rear no more children, let
her merely give birth to them. She must cease to be the mistress of the home, otherwise
she will unconsciously betray husband, child, native land, and all.

Sixth. All men are born equal, naked, without bonds. God did not create man to be a
slave; nor did he endow him with intelligence to have him hoodwinked, or adorn him with
reason to have him deceived by others.

Seventh. Consider well what kind of religion they are teaching you. See whether it is the
will of God or according to the teachings of Christ that the poor be succored and those who
suffer alleviated.