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¾ B.Tech, Electronics and Communication Engg..,
Koneru Lakshmaiah College of Engineering.
E-mail: anila_y3ec204@yahoo.co.in
Ph no. 0866-2552502

¾ B.Tech, Electronics and Communication Engg..,
Koneru Lakshmaiah College of Engineering.
E-mail: chandanaanuradha@yahoo.com
Ph no. 0866-2484142

As computerized implements have grown and become increasingly more common in our
environment, there has also been a growing need for cables of various kinds, to tie all
these units together and ensure communication between them. These cables when they
grow into multitude are not only unsightly but also increasingly cumbersome to handle.
So wireless technologies are preferrable over cabled networks.
The term wireless networking refers to technology that enables two or more computers to
communicate using standard network protocols, but without network cabling. Strictly
speaking, any technology that does this could be called wireless networking


1. Blue tooth
2. Infrared
3. Home RF
4. 802.11 wireless lan


Bluetooth wireless technology is a short-range radio technology. Bluetooth wireless

technology makes it possible to transmit signals over short distances between telephones,
computers and other devices and thereby simplify communication and synchronization
between devices.

The Bluetooth technology was named after tenth-century Danish King Harald Blåtand,
whose surname loosely translates to "blue tooth." King Harald was instrumental in
uniting parts of Scandinavia, so some of the people originally involved with the
technology thought that it would be neat to name it after him because Bluetooth
technology is intended to unite devices, companies, and industries.



Spectrum 2.4 GHz ISM band

Connection type Spread spectrum (frequency hopping)

Transmission power 1 mw
Aggregate data rate 1 Mbps using frequency hopping

Range Upto 30 feet

Supported stations Upto 8 devices per piconet

Data security For authentation, a 128-bit key, for

encryption, the key size is configurable
between 8 and 128 bits.
Communication Uses a protocol stack which is segmented
into layers.

. a)A piconet between two devices, b)A piconet between many devices, c)A scatternet, a
combination of piconets with some devices common to the piconets

A collection of slave devices operating together with one common master is called
piconet. All devices of a piconet follow the frequency hopping sequence and timing the
of master.

Here the slaves can only have links to the master but there are no direct links between
slaves. The specification limits the number of slaves in a piconet to seven.
A larger coverage area or a greater number of network members may be realized by
linking piconets into a scatternet, where some devices are members of more than one
piconet. When a device is present in more than one piconet it must time-share spending a
few slots in one piconet and a few slots in the other.


Frequency hopping is literally jumping from frequency to frequency within the ISM
band. After a Bluetooth device sends or receives a packet, it and the Bluetooth device or
devices it is communicating with “hop” to another frequency before the next packet is
sent. This scheme has three advantages:

1) It allows Bluetooth devices to use the entirety of the available ISM band, while
never transmitting from a fixed frequency for more than a very short time This
ensures that Bluetooth conforms to the ISM restrictions on transmission quantity
per frequency. The bluetooth specification specifies a rate of 1600 hops per
second among 79 frequencies.
2) It ensures that any interference will be short-lived. Any packet that doesn't arrive
safely at its destination can be resent at the next frequency.
3) It provides a base level of security because it's very difficult for an eavesdropping
device to predict which frequency the Bluetooth devices will use next.

Of course, the connected devices must agree upon the next frequency to use. The
Bluetooth specification ensures this in two ways. First, it defines a master-slave
relationship between Bluetooth devices. Second, it specifies an algorithm that uses
device-specific information to calculate frequency-hop sequences.

A Bluetooth device operating in master mode can communicate with up to seven slave
devices. To each of its slaves, the master Bluetooth device sends its own unique device
address and the value of its internal clock. This information is used to calculate the
frequency-hop sequence. Because the master device and all its slaves use the same
algorithm with the same initial input, the connected devices always arrive together at the
next frequency.


Bluetooth is both a hardware-based radio system and a software stack that specifies the
linkages between layers. This supports flexibility in implementation across different
devices and platforms.

The Bluetooth Protocol Stack:

The heart of the Bluetooth specification is the Bluetooth protocol stack. By providing
well-defined layers of functionality, the Bluetooth specification ensures
interoperability of Bluetooth devices and encourages adoption of Bluetooth
fig: Bluetooth protocol stack

Radio layer:

At the base of the Bluetooth protocol stack is the radio layer. This is responsible for the
modulation and demodulation of data into RF signals for transmission in the air.
The radio layer describes the physical characteristics a Bluetooth device’s
receiver-transmitter component must have. These include modulation
characteristics, radio frequency tolerance, and sensitivity level. This link
operates in the unlicensed ISM band around 2.4 GHz. The band extends from
2400 MHz to 2483.5 MHz in a vast majority of countries and this whole range is
utilized for optimizing the spectral spreading. The frequency hops are fixed at
(2400+n) MHz, where n =0, 1, 2…., 78. The normal hop rate is 1600 hops
per second. This gives a single hop slot of 625 micro seconds.

Base band layer:

The bluetooth devices use frequency hopping technique for communication. This
baseband layer is used to maintain synchronism between the communicating devices. It
provides two physical links.

1. SCO Link (Synchronous, Connected-Oriented): This link is used for isochronous and
voice communication. A SCO link provides reserved bandwidth for communication
between master and slave, and supports regular, periodic exchange of data with no
retransmission of SCO packets even if the packets are corrupted.

2.ACO Link (Asynchronous, Connection Less): ACO packets are used for data
transmission. An ACL link exists between a master and a slave the moment a connection
is established.

The link controller portion of baseband layer is responsible for carrying out the link
manager’s commands and establishing and maintaining the link stipulated by the link

Link manager protocol (LMP):

LMP is responsible for link set up and control between bluetooth devices. It is also used
for security authentication and encryption, generation, exchanging, and checking link and
encryption keys. LMP messages are filtered out and interpreted by the link manager on
the receiver side, so they are never passed to higher layers. LMP messages have higher
priority than user data.


Logical link control and adaptation protocol layer (L2CAP):

The L2CAP is primarily responsible for:

 Establishing connections across existing ACL links or requesting an ACL link if

one does not already exist

 Multiplexing between different higher layer protocols, such as RFCOMM and

SDP, to allow many different applications to use a single ACL link

 Repackaging the data packets it receives from the higher layers into the form
expected by the lower layers
This layer does not support the SCO links. The L2CAP employs the concept of channels
to keep track of where data packets come from and where they should go. It plays a
central role in the communication between the upper and lower layers of the Bluetooth
protocol stack, the L2CAP layer is a required part of every Bluetooth system.

Service discovery protocol (SDP):

Using SDP, device information, services, and the characteristics of the services can be
queried. Having located available services within the vicinity, the user may select from
any one of them. After that, a connection between two or more bluetooth devices can be

Radio frequency communication (RFCOMM):

Above the L2CAP layer is the RFCOMM layer. The RFCOMM protocol emulates the
serial cable line settings and status of an RS-232 serial port. RFCOMM connects to the
lower layers of the Bluetooth protocol stack through the L2CAP layer.

OBEX (object exchange): This is a transfer protocol that defines data objects and a
communication protocol two devices can use to easily exchange those objects. Bluetooth
adopted OBEX from the IrDA.


The bluetooth protocol uses a combination of circuit and packet switching. The message
is split into parts of a certain size in bytes. These are the packets. Each packet carries the
information that will help it get to its destination -- the sender's IP address, the intended
receiver's IP address, something that tells the network how many packets this e-mail
message has been broken into and the number of this particular packet. Each packet
contains part of the body of the message. A typical packet contains perhaps 1,000 or
1,500 bytes.

In circuit switching only one path is set up for a purpose . The path remains in place until
the purpose is served. The path is torn down once the purpose is completed. So, the path
is free and this path can be used for other purpose. Circuit switching is effective for
voice conversation.


In packet switching, data travel in the form of individually addressed packets over
multiple shared paths on the way to its destination. There is no connection setup or
teardown as in circuit switching. The paths are always available. Packets may travel in
different but at the destination they will be placed in the sequential order as transmitted.
Packet switching is efficient for data transmission ..


TDD was designed to carry digital data traffic, which is typically asymmetrical and
unpredictable. TDD uses a single channel for both sending and receiving information
with the transmission direction alternating between sending and receiving. It uses one
antenna that divides its time between transmitting and receiving signals. Seperation
between transmit and receive is achieved in the time domain. The channel is divided into
time slots, 625 ms in length the time slots are numbered according to the bluetooth clock
of the piconet master. In the time slots master and slave can transmit packets. In the TDD
scheme, master and slave transmit alternatively the master starts its transmission in even
numbered timeslots only and the slave start its transmission in odd numbered slots only.

TDD do not define a particular access technique that would allow multiple users to share
the available bandwidth. So we go for technologies that employ multiple access schemes
like CDMA. Other such schemes are FDMA and TDMA. FDMA (Frequency Division
Multiple Access) cannot be used as it does not satisfy the frequency spreading
characteristics of the ISM spectrum. TDMA (Time Division Multiple Access) requires
strict timing synchronization. CDMA (Code Division Multiple Access) is the clear choice
as it fulfils the spreading requirements and can work with uncoordinated systems.

To access an email over Bluetooth enabled device, which could be a laptop or a Personal
Digital Assistant, what will it do?
Inquiry: The device on reaching a new environment would automatically initiated an
inquiry to find out what access points are within its range. (If not, it'll do so when the
email application asks for a link.) This will result in the following events:

a. All nearby access points respond with their addresses.

b. The device picks one out the responding devices.

Paging: The device will invoke a base band procedure called paging. This results in
synchronization of the device with the access point, in terms of its clock offset and phase
in the frequency hop, among other required initializations.

Link establishment: The LMP will now establish a link with the access point. As the
application in this case is email, an ACL link will be used. Various setup steps will be
carried out as described below.

Service Discovery: The LMP will use the SDP (Service Discovery Protocol) to discover
what services are available from the access point, in particular whether email access or
access to the relevant host is possible from this access point or not.

L2CAP channel: With information obtained from SDP, the device will create an L2CAP
channel to the access point. This may be directly used by the application or another
protocol like RFCOMM may be run over it.

RFCOMM channel: Depending on the need of the email application, an RFCOMM or

other channel will be created over the L2CAP channel. This feature allows existing
applications developed for serial ports to run without modification over Bluetooth

The procedures for security use four values: the device address(which is public), a private
authentication key(128 bits), private encryption key(8-128 bits, configurable) and a
random number. As the keys have to be secret, they cannot be obtained by inquiry. The
security procedure requires a secret PIN to be known to the user (or stored by his
application) for accessing a particular device.

1. Mobile e-commerce: Bluetooth wireless technology would enable us to connect a
laptop to the internet via a cell phone. So by accessing the internet anywhere via our
mobile phone, we can order and pay for goods.

2. Presentation: For small groups, the presentation can be delivered to each

attendee’s laptop by using bluetooth wireless technology. This would permit
meetings to be held in any room without requiring a projection screen.
3. Printing: With bluetooth wireless technology, our digital camera can send a photo
straight to our printer.
4. Synchronizing data: Blue tooth devices can send messages to devices that are
powered of or in sleep mode. So it is a real time saver.


1. The bluetooth device will not interfere or cause harm to public or private
telecommunication network equipment. A cell phone which operates at 3W
power can now be used with a header set which has a bluetooth chip, which
operates with 3Mw only.
2. There is no per-minute usage charge if we communicate through mobile phones
built in blue tooth wireless technology .The reason is that for these conversations
there is no involvement of tele-communication service provider.
3. Bluetooth signals can penetrate through walls and briefcases.
4. It requires low power, low-cost radio interface between mobile phones and their
5. There is no need to set up a bluetooth device. It is always ON.
6. Although the range is 30 feet, this distance can be extended to around 300 feet
using optional amplifiers.


1. The security architecture of the Bluetooth specification only authenticates devices

not users. This means that a trusted device that is stolen or borrowed can be used
as if it were still in the possession of the rightful owner.
2. Data transfer rate is limited to 1Mbps only.
3. There is a chance of interference of data with other signals using this ISM band.

Wireless technology is very important, for the e-trading to take off. This area is perfectly
suited for Bluetooth, and Bluetooth will in all probability be the dominating technique for
wireless communication for handheld terminals. Compliance between wireless devices is
an essential tenet of the Bluetooth technology. In theory, a user with a Bluetooth radio
device manufactured by one company should be able to link to another device
manufactured by another supplier. Without this level of connectivity, it would (of course)
be impossible for a corporate user to buy Bluetooth equipment that would work with
other Bluetooth equipment.

1. Bluetooth Demystified by Nathan Muller
2. http:\www.howstuffworks.com
3. http:\www.bluetooth.com